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Sample records for radiata pine response

  1. Physiological response to drought in radiata pine: phytohormone implication at leaf level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego, N; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Cantero, E; Lacuesta, M; Moncaleán, P

    2012-04-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don is one of the most abundant species in the north of Spain. Knowledge of drought response mechanisms is essential to guarantee plantation survival under reduced water supply as predicted in the future. Tolerance mechanisms are being studied in breeding programs, because information on such mechanisms can be used for genotype selection. In this paper, we analyze the changes of leaf water potential, hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)), stomatal conductance and phytohormones under drought in P. radiata breeds (O1, O2, O3, O4, O5 and O6) from different climatology areas, hypothesizing that they could show variable drought tolerance. As a primary signal, drought decreased cytokinin (zeatin and zeatin riboside-Z + ZR) levels in needles parallel to K(leaf) and gas exchange. When Z + ZR decreased by 65%, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation started as a second signal and increments were higher for IAA than for ABA. When plants decreased by 80%, Z + ZR and K(leaf) doubled their ABA and IAA levels, the photosystem II yield decreased and the electrolyte leakage increased. At the end of the drought period, less tolerant breeds increased IAA over 10-fold compared with controls. External damage also induced jasmonic acid accumulation in all breeds except in O5 (P. radiata var. radiata × var. cedrosensis), which accumulated salicylic acid as a defense mechanism. After rewatering, only the most tolerant plants recovered their K(leaf,) perhaps due to an IAA decrease and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid maintenance. From all phytohormones, IAA was the most representative 'water deficit signal' in P. radiata.

  2. Defect core detection in radiata pine logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.

    1993-01-01

    Internal defect cores in Pinus radiata logs arise primarily from the practice in New Zealand of pruning trees to increase the amount of clear wood. Realising the benefits of this practice when milling the logs is hampered by the lack of a practical method for detecting the defect cores. This report attempts to establish industry requirements for detections and examine techniques which may be suitable. Some trials of a novel technique are described. (author) 19 refs.; 11 figs

  3. Progress towards initiation of somatic embryogenesis from differentiated tissues of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) using cotyledonary embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens Iver; Hargreaves, Cathy L.; Reeves, Catherine B.

    2014-01-01

    of dissected embryos and a modified Litvay medium, Glitz, was best. This combination gave the highest rate of initiation, and it was possible to initiate somatic embryogenesis (SE) from differentiated cells in the epicotyledonary region of postcotyledonary zygotic embryos from the two tested families...... with an average initiation rate of approximately 24% and 7% from stage five and six embryos, respectively. This is different from established initiation protocols of embryogenic cultures in radiata pine, which has traditionally been based on embryo rescue and continued proliferation of immature zygotic embryos....... A further implication of initiation of SE from excised post-cotyledonary embryos was that the period of initiation of embryogenic cultures was extended from 4 to 12 wk....

  4. Immunolocalization of IAA and ABA in roots and needles of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) during drought and rewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego, N; Rodríguez, J L; Dodd, I C; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Moncaleán, P; Lacuesta, M

    2013-05-01

    Anatomical, physiological and phytohormonal changes involved in drought tolerance were examined in different Pinus radiata D. Don breeds subjected to soil drying and rewatering. Breeds with the smallest stomatal chamber size had the lowest transpiration rate and the highest intrinsic water-use efficiency. Xylem cell size was positively correlated with leaf hydraulic conductance and needle indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations, whereas transpiration rate was negatively correlated with needle abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Since these two phytohormones seem important in regulating the P. radiata drought response, they were simultaneously immunolocalized in roots and needles of the most tolerant breed (P. radiata var. radiata × var. cedrosensis) during two sequential drought cycles and after rewatering. During drought, IAA was unequally distributed into the pointed area of the needle cross-section and mainly located in mesophyll and vascular tissue cells of needles, possibly inducing needle epinasty, whereas ABA was principally located in guard cells, presumably to elicit stomata closure. In the roots, at the end of the first drought cycle, while strong IAA accumulation was observed in the cortex, ABA levels decreased probably due to translocation to the leaves. Rewatering modified the distribution of both IAA and ABA in the needles, causing an accumulation principally in vascular tissue, with residual concentrations in mesophyll, likely favouring the acclimatization of the plants for further drought cycles. Contrarily, in the roots IAA and ABA were located in the exodermis, a natural barrier that regulates the phytohormone translocation to other plant tissues and hormone losses to the soil solution after rewatering. These results confirm that immunolocalization is an efficient tool to understand the translocation of IAA and ABA in plants subjected to different water stress situations, and clarify their role in regulating physiological responses such as stomata

  5. Equilibrium moisture content of radiata pine at elevated temperature and pressure reveals measurement challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    moisture contents were attributed to condensation of liquid water on the specimen with subsequent evaporation at a rate that was too slow for the moisture content to reach equilibrium before it was measured. Reliable EMC data at elevated temperatures require (1) tight process control of experimental......Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim...... of this study was to identify the likely source of the disagreement using radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood which was conditioned to a moisture content of around 3 % and then exposed for 1 h at 150 °C and relative humidities of either 50, 70 or 90 %. Mean values of EMC, obtained through in situ...

  6. Leaf area index, biomass carbon and growth rate of radiata pine genetic types and relationships with LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter N. Beets; Stephen Reutebuch; Mark O. Kimberley; Graeme R. Oliver; Stephen H. Pearce; Robert J. McGaughey

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between discrete-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and radiata pine leaf area index (LAI), stem volume, above ground carbon, and carbon sequestration were developed using 10 plots with directly measured biomass and leaf area data, and 36 plots with modelled carbon data. The plots included a range of genetic types established on north- and...

  7. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O.; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A.; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha −1 , equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha −1 of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving

  8. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jianming, E-mail: jianming.xue@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 29237, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kimberley, Mark O., E-mail: mark.kimberley@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Ross, Craig, E-mail: rossc@landcareresearch.co.nz [Landcare, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Gielen, Gerty, E-mail: gerty.gielen@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: louis.tremblay@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Champeau, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.champeau@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); Horswell, Jacqui, E-mail: jacqui.horswell@esr.cri.nz [ESR, P O Box 50-348, Porirua (New Zealand); Wang, Hailong, E-mail: hailong@zafu.edu.cn [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin' an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311300 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup −1}, equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha{sup −1} of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the

  9. Improvement of non-key traits in radiata pine breeding programme when long-term economic importance is uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Dungey, Heidi; Yanchuk, Alvin; Apiolaza, Luis A

    2017-01-01

    Diameter at breast height (DBH), wood density (DEN) and predicted modulus of elasticity (PME) are considered as 'key traits' (KT) in the improvement in radiata pine breeding programmes in New Zealand. Any other traits which are also of interest to radiata pine breeders and forest growers are called 'non-key traits' (NKTs). External resin bleeding (ERB), internal checking (IC), number of heartwood rings (NHR) are three such non-key traits which affect wood quality of radiata pine timber. Economic importance of the KTs and NKTs is hard to define in radiata pine breeding programmes due to long rotation period. Desired-gain index (DGIs) and robust selection were proposed to incorporate NKTs into radiata pine breeding programme in order to deal with the uncertainty of economic importance. Four desired-gain indices A-D were proposed in this study. The desired-gain index A (DGI-A) emphasized growth and led to small decrease in ERB and small increase in IC and NHR. The expected genetic gains of all traits in the desired-gain index B (DGI-B) were in the favourable directions (positive genetic gains in the key traits and negative genetic gains in the non-key traits). The desired-gain index C (DGI-C) placed emphasis on wood density, leading to favourable genetic gain in the NKTs but reduced genetic gains for DBH and PME. The desired-gain index D (DGI-D) exerted a bit more emphasis on the non-key traits, leading large favourable reduction in the non-key traits and lower increase in the key traits compared with the other DGIs. When selecting both the key traits and the non-key traits, the average EBVs of six traits were all in the same directions as the expected genetic gains except for DBH in the DGI-D. When the key traits were measured and selected, internal checking always had a negative (favourable) genetic gain but ERB and NHR had unfavourable genetic gain in the most of time. After removing some individuals with high sensitivity to the change of economic weights, robust

  10. Improvement of non-key traits in radiata pine breeding programme when long-term economic importance is uncertain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    Full Text Available Diameter at breast height (DBH, wood density (DEN and predicted modulus of elasticity (PME are considered as 'key traits' (KT in the improvement in radiata pine breeding programmes in New Zealand. Any other traits which are also of interest to radiata pine breeders and forest growers are called 'non-key traits' (NKTs. External resin bleeding (ERB, internal checking (IC, number of heartwood rings (NHR are three such non-key traits which affect wood quality of radiata pine timber. Economic importance of the KTs and NKTs is hard to define in radiata pine breeding programmes due to long rotation period. Desired-gain index (DGIs and robust selection were proposed to incorporate NKTs into radiata pine breeding programme in order to deal with the uncertainty of economic importance. Four desired-gain indices A-D were proposed in this study. The desired-gain index A (DGI-A emphasized growth and led to small decrease in ERB and small increase in IC and NHR. The expected genetic gains of all traits in the desired-gain index B (DGI-B were in the favourable directions (positive genetic gains in the key traits and negative genetic gains in the non-key traits. The desired-gain index C (DGI-C placed emphasis on wood density, leading to favourable genetic gain in the NKTs but reduced genetic gains for DBH and PME. The desired-gain index D (DGI-D exerted a bit more emphasis on the non-key traits, leading large favourable reduction in the non-key traits and lower increase in the key traits compared with the other DGIs. When selecting both the key traits and the non-key traits, the average EBVs of six traits were all in the same directions as the expected genetic gains except for DBH in the DGI-D. When the key traits were measured and selected, internal checking always had a negative (favourable genetic gain but ERB and NHR had unfavourable genetic gain in the most of time. After removing some individuals with high sensitivity to the change of economic weights

  11. Pretreatment of radiata pine using two white rot fungal strains Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkavand, Ehsan; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel J.; Young, Brent R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fungal pretreatment by two New Zealand native white rot fungi was proposed. • Trametes versicolor was more efficient in selective degradation of pine wood chips. • Both fungal strains significantly decreased crystallinity index of biomass only after week 7 of degradation. • Structural analysis showed that Trametes versicolor and Stereum hirsutum increased porous surface area of woody biomass. - Abstract: Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor, were studied over a period of 3–7 weeks for pretreatment of radiata pine wood chips. Chemical analysis of pretreated biomass showed that the two studied strains were able to selectively degrade lignin. Selective lignin degradation was greater in week 3 of the pretreatment by Trametes versicolor compared to the other strain. Lengthening pretreatment time increased both lignin and cellulose losses which caused a reduction in selective lignin degradation for both strains. X-ray diffractometry showed that after seven weeks of pretreatment, the crystallinity of the woody biomass was decreased significantly. It decreased from 46% for untreated wood chips to 37% and 44% for Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor treated biomass, respectively. The pretreatment with these two white rot fungi showed that 3-week pretreatment provided a cellulose rich biomass with the minimum cellulose loss compared to the other time of pretreatment.

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF A SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT USING BIFENTHRIN TO PROTECT RADIATA PINE FRAMING FROM DAMAGE BY SUBTERRANEAN AND DRYWOOD TERMITES IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Paimin Sukartana; Jim W. Creffield; Agus Ismanto; Neo E. Lelana; Rusti Rushelia

    2010-01-01

    Various experimental testing procedures were undertaken in Indonesia to determine the effectiveness of a patented superficial (envelope) treatment using bifenthrin to protect radiata pine framing material from damage by two species of subterranean termites (Macrotermes gilvus and Coptotermes curvignathus) and one species of drywood termite (Cryptotermes cynocephalus). Lengths of framing material (Pinus radiata sapwood) were commercially treated to the targeted retention of 0.02% m/m of bifent...

  13. Characterization of moisture in acetylated and propionylated radiata pine using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LFNMR) relaxometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Greeley; Thybring, Emil Engelund; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2018-01-01

    . A possible explanation is the counteracting effects of decreased hydrophilicity and reduced moisture content (MC) of these water populations at higher levels of acetylation. The evaluation of propionylation on WCW T2 data was complicated by peak splitting in the relaxation spectrum. Constant T2 values......Moisture in radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) earlywood (EW), which was acetylated or propionylated to various degrees, was measured by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LFNMR) relaxometry. Spin-spin relaxation times (T2) were determined for fully saturated samples at 22 and -18°C. T2 values...... for EW lumen water increased with increasing acetylation weight percentage gain (WPG), perhaps caused by the less hydrophilic acetylated wood (AcW) surface. Cell wall water (WCW) and the water in pits and small voids also showed increasing T2 values as a function of WPG but with a weaker tendency...

  14. Metabolites and hormones are involved in the intraspecific variability of drought hardening in radiata pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego, N; Saiz-Fernández, I; Rodríguez, J L; Pérez-Alfocea, P; Sampedro, M C; Barrio, R J; Lacuesta, M; Moncaleán, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies of metabolic and physiological bases of plant tolerance and hardening against drought are essential to improve genetic breeding programs, especially in productive species such as Pinus radiata. The exposure to different drought cycles is a highly effective tool that improves plant conditioning, but limited information is available about the mechanisms that modulate this process. To clarify this issue, six P. radiata breeds with well-known differences in drought tolerance were analyzed after two consecutive drought cycles. Survival rate, concentration of several metabolites such as free soluble amino acids and polyamines, and main plant hormones varied between them after drought hardening, while relative growth ratio and water potential at both predawn and dawn did not. Hardening induced a strong increase in total soluble amino acids in all breeds, accumulating mainly those implicated in the glutamate metabolism (GM), especially L-proline, in the most tolerant breeds. Other amino acids from GM such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-arginine (Arg) were also strongly increased. GABA pathway could improve the response against drought, whereas Arg acts as precursor for the synthesis of spermidine. This polyamine showed a positive relationship with the survival capacity, probably due to its role as antioxidant under stress conditions. Finally, drought hardening also induced changes in phytohormone content, showing each breed a different profile. Although all of them accumulated indole-3-acetic acid and jasmonic acid and reduced zeatin content in needles, significant differences were observed regarding abscisic acid, salicylic acid and mainly zeatin riboside. These results confirm that hardening is not only species-dependent but also an intraspecific processes controlled through metabolite changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of disconnected diallel mating designs II: results from a third generation progeny test of the New Zealand radiata pine improvement programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.N. King; M.J. Carson; G.R. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters from a second generation (F2) disconnected diallel progeny test of the New Zealand radiata pine improvement programme are presented. Heritability estimates of growth and yield traits of 0.2 are similar to progeny test results of the previous generation (F1) generation tests. A trend of declining dominance...

  16. Solute accumulation and elastic modulus changes in six radiata pine breeds exposed to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego, N; Sampedro, M C; Barrio, R J; Saiz-Fernández, I; Moncaleán, P; Lacuesta, M

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the main abiotic factors that determine forest species growth, survival and productivity. For this reason, knowledge of plant drought response and the identification of physiological traits involved in stress tolerance will be of interest to breeding programs. In this work, several Pinus radiata D. Don breeds from different geographical origins were evaluated along a water stress period (4 weeks) and subsequent rewatering (1 week), showing different responses among them. Leaf water potential (Ψ(leaf)) and osmotic potential decreases were accompanied by a variation in the total relative water content (RWC, %). The most tolerant breeds presented the lowest leaf water potential and RWC at turgor loss point, and showed the lowest elastic modulus (ε) values. A high ε value was a characteristic of a less-drought-tolerant plant and was related to membrane alterations (high electrolyte leakage percentages) that could favor cell water loss. Of the group of solutes that contributed to osmotic adjustment, soluble carbohydrates were the most abundant, although stressed plants also increased their content of free amino acids [mainly proline (Pro) and glutamic acid (Glu), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)] and free polyamines. In addition, the most sensitive breeds had a higher GABA/Glu ratio. After rewatering, Pro and GABA were higher in rehydrated plants than in controls.

  17. Formation of post-fire water-repellent layers in Monterrey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Garcia-Chevesich; R. Pizarro; C. L. Stropki; P. Ramirez de Arellano; P. F. Ffolliott; L. F. DeBano; Dan Neary; D. C. Slack

    2010-01-01

    A wildfire burned about 15,000 ha of Monterrey Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations near Yungay, Chile, in January of 2007. Post-fire water repellency (hydrophobicity) was measured using the water-drop-penetration-time (WDPT) method at depths of 0, 5, and 10 mm from the soil surface. These measurements were collected on burned sites of both young (4-years old) and...

  18. Metabolome Integrated Analysis of High-Temperature Response in Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Escandón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The integrative omics approach is crucial to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying high-temperature response in non-model species. Based on future scenarios of heat increase, Pinus radiata plants were exposed to a temperature of 40°C for a period of 5 days, including recovered plants (30 days after last exposure to 40°C in the analysis. The analysis of the metabolome using complementary mass spectrometry techniques (GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS allowed the reliable quantification of 2,287 metabolites. The analysis of identified metabolites and highlighter metabolic pathways across heat time exposure reveal the dynamism of the metabolome in relation to high-temperature response in P. radiata, identifying the existence of a turning point (on day 3 at which P. radiata plants changed from an initial stress response program (shorter-term response to an acclimation one (longer-term response. Furthermore, the integration of metabolome and physiological measurements, which cover from the photosynthetic state to hormonal profile, suggests a complex metabolic pathway interaction network related to heat-stress response. Cytokinins (CKs, fatty acid metabolism and flavonoid and terpenoid biosynthesis were revealed as the most important pathways involved in heat-stress response in P. radiata, with zeatin riboside (ZR and isopentenyl adenosine (iPA as the key hormones coordinating these multiple and complex interactions. On the other hand, the integrative approach allowed elucidation of crucial metabolic mechanisms involved in heat response in P. radiata, as well as the identification of thermotolerance metabolic biomarkers (L-phenylalanine, hexadecanoic acid, and dihydromyricetin, crucial metabolites which can reschedule the metabolic strategy to adapt to high temperature.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF A SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT USING BIFENTHRIN TO PROTECT RADIATA PINE FRAMING FROM DAMAGE BY SUBTERRANEAN AND DRYWOOD TERMITES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paimin Sukartana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Various experimental testing procedures were undertaken in Indonesia to determine the effectiveness of a patented superficial (envelope treatment using bifenthrin to protect radiata pine framing material from damage by two species of subterranean termites (Macrotermes gilvus and Coptotermes curvignathus and one species of drywood termite (Cryptotermes cynocephalus. Lengths of framing material (Pinus radiata sapwood were commercially treated to the targeted retention of 0.02% m/m of bifenthrin in the outer 2 mm depth penetration zone of the material. The treated and untreated materials were subsequently cut into test specimens and exposed to M. gilvus in the field and a semi-laboratory trial, to C. curvignathus in the laboratory and a semi-laboratory trial and to C. cynocephalus in a laboratory trial. No supplementary treatment was performed on the exposed cut ends of the treated test specimens. The results from the trials clearly demonstrated that the superficial treatment of bifenthrin seemed effective in protecting test specimens of radiata pine framing material from significant damage by Indonesia’s most notorious termite species that often causes serious economic loss to the timbers. Termites were unable to damage any of the bifenthrin-treated surfaces of test specimens. Any obser ved damage by termites, albeit minor, was in all cases confined to the exposed cut ends of test specimens. In contrast, attack by termites on the untreated control test specimens caused damage of the samples ranging from light to heavy.

  20. Metabolism of 14C-aspartate during shoot bud formation in cultured cotyledon explants of radiata pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konschuh, M.N.; Thorpe, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Aspartate metabolism was investigated in excised cotyledons of radiata pine (Pinus radiate D. Don). These cotyledons were cultured under shoot-forming (plus N 6 -benzyladenine, SF), non-shoot-forming (minus N 6 -benzyladenine, NSF) and unresponsive (plus N 6 -benzyladenine, OLD) conditions, then incubated with [ 14 C]-aspartate for 3-h pulse treatments followed by 3-h chase treatments with cold aspartate. The majority of label was recovered in the CO 2 , amino acid, organic acid and pellet fractions. Uptake was greatest in all tissue types early in culture. Most (over 80%) of the [ 14 C 9-aspartate taken up by the tissues was converted to CO 2 at day 0 in SF and NSF tissues. CO 2 accounted for less than 50% of the total radioactivity in other tissues. Greater incorporation into fractions was observed in SF tissues during promeristemoid formation, while in NSF tissues the greatest incorporation was observed during a period of rapid elongation. Generally, less incorporation was observed in OLD cotyledons than in SF and NSF cotyledons. Analysis of the amino acid fraction showed that labelled aspartate was converted to other amino acids, mainly glutamate, glutamine, asparagine and 4-aminobutyric acid. (au)

  1. Influence of reaction conditions and the char separation system on the production of bio-oil from radiata pine sawdust by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Joo Sik [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-Dong, Dondaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    Radiata pine sawdust was pyrolyzed in a bubbling fluidized bed equipped with a char separation system. The influence of the reaction conditions on the production of bio-oil was investigated through the establishment of mass balance, and the examination of the products' chemical and physical characteristics. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was between 673 and 723 K, and the yield was above 50 wt.% of the product. An optimal feed size also existed. In a particle with a size that was less than 0.3 mm, the bio-oil yield decreased due to overheating, which led to gas formation. A higher flow rate and feeding rate were found to be more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not significantly affect it. The main compounds of bio-oil were phenolics, including cresol, guaiacol, eugenol, benzendiol and their derivatives, ketones, and aldehydes. In addition, high-quality bio-oils, which contained less than 0.005 wt.% of solid, no ash and low concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth metals, were produced due to the char removal system. (author)

  2. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesch, W

    1997-12-15

    Full Text Available . radiata plantation in the Biesievlei catchment, annual stream flow increased by between 10 and 71% (19-99 mm). These increases persisted for three and two years after the thinning, respectively. A final thinning in the same catchment removed only 22...

  3. Phosphorus Response and Amino Acid Composition of Different Green Gram (Vigna radiata L. Genotypes from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kywe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean or green gram (Vigna radiata L. is an important component of rice-based cropping systems in Myanmar, where grain yields of around 800 kg ha^(-1 are much below its yield potential of 3000 kg ha^(-1. The reasons for this shortfall are as under-investigated as is the genotype-specific response of this crop to phosphorus (P application, which is critically low in many Myanmar soils, and the genetic variation in grain quality. For green gram quality, the concentration of lysine, an essential amino acid is particularly important given its scarcity in many cereal-based diets of Southeast Asia. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the effects of P application on the root and shoot growth, yield and its components for a range of green gram varieties, and to analyse the protein concentration and amino acid composition in green gram seed of different origins. To this end from 2001 to 2003, field experiments were conducted under rain-fed conditions in Yezin and Nyaung Oo. Fifteen landraces and five introduced green gram cultivars were grown at two levels of P (0 and 15 kg ha^(-1. There were large genotypic differences in P effects and a significant interaction between green gram genotypes and P for shoot and root growth. An unexpected benefit of P application was a reduction of pest and plant virus infestation in the field. Significant genotypic differences in the amino acid profile of seeds were also observed. The results indicate the potential for breeding efforts to increase seed yield and protein quality in green gram.

  4. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, S. E.; Magni, C. R.; Martinez, V. A.; Ivkovic, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don. Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering. Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles), root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed. Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local land race of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity. Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio. (Author) 46 refs.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ECKLONIA RADIATA (LAMINARIALES) TO A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT IN OCEAN TEMPERATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Wernberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment and nutr......We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment...... and nutrients decreased with increasing ocean temperature. Concurrently, a number of gradual changes in the metabolic balance of E. radiata took place along the latitudinal gradient. Warm-acclimatized kelps had 50% lower photosynthetic rates and 90% lower respiration rates at the optimum temperature than did...... cool-acclimatized kelps. A reduction in temperature sensitivity was also observed as a reduction in Q10-values from cool- to warm-acclimatized kelps for gross photosynthesis (Q10: 3.35 to 1.45) and respiration (Q10: 3.82 to 1.65). Respiration rates were more sensitive to increasing experimental...

  6. Salt and drought stress and ABA responses related to bZIP genes from V. radiata and V. angularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanfen; Zhu, Jifeng; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Shumin; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-20

    Mung bean and adzuki bean are warm-season legumes widely cultivated in China. However, bean production in major producing regions is limited by biotic and abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes play key roles in responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, only several bZIP genes involved in drought and salt stress in legumes, especially Vigna radiata and Vigna angularis, have been identified. In this study, we identified 54 and 50 bZIP proteins from whole-genome sequences of V. radiata and V. angularis, respectively. First, we comprehensively surveyed the characteristics of all bZIP genes, including their gene structure, chromosome distribution and motif composition. Phylogenetic trees showed that VrbZIP and VabZIP proteins were divided into ten clades comprising nine known and one unknown subgroup. The results of the nucleotide substitution rate of the orthologous gene pairs showed that bZIP proteins have undergone strong purifying selection: V. radiata and V. angularis diverged 1.25 million years ago (mya) to 9.20 mya (average of 4.95 mya). We also found that many cis-acting regulatory elements (CAREs) involved in abiotic stress and plant hormone responses were detected in the putative promoter regions of the bZIP genes. Finally, using the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method, we performed expression profiling of the bZIP genes in response to drought, salt and abscisic acid (ABA). We identified several bZIP genes that may be involved in drought and salt responses. Generally, our results provided useful and rich resources of VrbZIP and VabZIP genes for the functional characterization and understanding of bZIP transcription factors (TFs) in warm-season legumes. In addition, our results revealed important and interesting data - a subset of VrbZIP and VabZIP gene expression profiles in response to drought, salt and ABA stress. These results provide gene expression evidence for the selection of

  7. Lack of genetic variation in tree ring delta13C suggests a uniform, stomatally-driven response to drought stress across Pinus radiata genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Douglas M; Ades, Peter K; Tausz, Michael; Arndt, Stefan K; Adams, Mark A

    2009-02-01

    We assessed the variation in delta(13)C signatures of Pinus radiata D. Don stemwood taken from three genetic trials in southern Australia. We sought to determine the potential of using delta(13)C signatures as selection criteria for drought tolerance. Increment cores were taken from P. radiata and were used to determine the basal area increment and the delta(13)C signature of extracted cellulose. Both growth increment and cellulose delta(13)C were affected by water availability. Growth increment and delta(13)C were negatively correlated suggesting that growth was water-limited. While there was significant genetic variation in growth, there was no significant genetic variation in cellulose delta(13)C of tree rings. This suggests that different genotypes of P. radiata display significant differences in growth and yet respond similarly to drought stress. The delta(13)C response to drought stress was more due to changes in stomatal conductance than to the variation in photosynthetic capacity, and this may explain the lack of genetic variation in delta(13)C. The lack of genetic variation in cellulose delta(13)C of tree rings precludes its use as a selection criterion for drought tolerance among P. radiata genotypes.

  8. Dose-dependent pheromone responses of mountain pine beetle in stands of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; B. Staffan Lindgren; John H. Borden

    2005-01-01

    We conducted seven behavioral choice tests with Lindgren multiple-funnel traps in stands of mature lodgepole pine in British Columbia, from 1988 to 1994, to determine the dosedependent responses of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, to its pheromones. Amultifunctional dose-dependent response was exhibited by D. ...

  9. Interdependence of plant water status with photosynthetic performance and root defense responses in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek under progressive drought stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Debashree; Guha, Anirban; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2013-10-05

    The present study investigates the interdependence of plant water status with foliar and root responses in Vigna radiata L.Wilczek under progressive drought. Vegetatively-mature V. radiata plants were subjected to water withdrawal for 3 and 6days (D3 and D6, respectively) and then re-watered subsequently for 6days (6R) for stress-recovery. Changes in plant water status were expressed in terms of leaf and root moisture contents (LMC and RMC, respectively) and leaf relative water content (LRWC). Progressive drought caused apparent decrease in LRWC, LMC and RMC depicting significant level of dehydration of leaf and root tissues. Stomatal limitation alone could not account for the observed decrease in net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn) due to comparatively less decrease in sub-stomatal CO2 (Ci) concentrations with respect to other gas exchange parameters indicating possible involvement of non-stomatal limitations. Analysis of polyphasic chl a fluorescence kinetics during progressive drought showed decreased energy connectivity among PSII units as defined by a positive L-band with highest amplitude during D6. Efficiency of electron flux from OEC towards PSII acceptor side was not significantly affected during drought conditions as evidenced by the absence of a positive K-band. Increasing root-level water-limitation enforced a gradual oxidative stress through H2O2 accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation in V. radiata roots exhibiting drastic enhancement of proline content and a significant but gradual increase in ascorbic acid content as well as guaiacol peroxidase activity under progressive drought. Expression analysis of Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) through real time PCR and enzyme activity studies showed a strong positive correlation between VrP5CS gene expression, enzyme activity and proline accumulation in the roots of V. radiata under progressive drought and recovery. Drought-induced changes in root moisture content (RMC) showed positive linear

  10. Fertilizer responses of longleaf pine trees within a loblolly pine plantation: separating direct effects from competition effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter H Anderson; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is mixed on how well longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) responds to increased soil nitrogen via fertilization. We examined growth and physiological responses of volunteer longleaf pine trees within an intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) fertilization experiment. Fertilizer was applied annually following thinning at age 8 years (late 1992) at rates...

  11. Modelling the soil carbon cycle of pine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, K.

    1994-01-01

    Soil carbon cycling rates and carbon budgets were calculated for stands of four pine species. Pinus sylvestris (at Jaedraaas, Sweden), P. densiflora (Hiroshima, Japan), P. elliottii (Florida, USA) and P. radiata (Canberra, Australia), using a simulation model driven by daily observations of mean air temperature and precipitation. Inputs to soil carbon through litterfall differ considerably among the four pine forests, but the accumulation of the A 0 layer and humus in mineral soil is less variable. Decomposition of the A 0 layer and humus is fastest for P. densiflora and slowest for P. sylvestris stands with P. radiata and P. elliottii intermediate. The decomposition rate is lower for the P. elliottii stand than for P. densiflora in spite of its higher temperatures and slightly higher precipitation. Seasonal changes in simulated soil carbon are observed only for the A 0 layer at the P. densiflora site. Simulated soil respiration rates vary seasonally in three stands (P. sylvestris, P. densiflora and P. radiata). In simulations for pine trees planted on bare soil, all soil organic matter fractions except the humus in mineral soil recover to half their asymptotic values within 30 to 40 years of planting for P. sylvestris and P. densiflora, compared with 10 to 20 years for P. radiata and P. elliottii. The simulated recovery of soil carbon following clear-cutting is fastest for the P. elliottii stand and slowest for P. sylvestris. Management of P. elliottii and P. radiata stands on 40-years rotations is sustainable because carbon removed through harvest is restored in the interval between successive clear-cuts. However p. densiflora and P. sylvestris stands may be unable to maintain soil carbon under such a short rotation. High growth rates of P. elliottii and p. radiata stands in spite of relatively poor soil conditions and slow carbon cycling may be related to the physiological responses of species to environmental conditions. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Response of Korean pine's functional traits to geography and climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Dong

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis functional trait responses to geographic and climatic factors in the eastern region of Northeast China (41°-48°N and the linear relationships among Korean pine functional traits, to explore this species' adaptability and ecological regulation strategies under different environmental conditions. Korean pine samples were collected from eight sites located at different latitudes, and the following factors were determined for each site: geographic factors-latitude, longitude, and altitude; temperature factors-mean annual temperature (MAT, growth season mean temperature (GST, and mean temperature of the coldest month (MTCM; and moisture factors-annual precipitation (AP, growth season precipitation (GSP, and potential evapotranspiration (PET. The Korean pine functional traits examined were specific leaf area (SLA, leaf thickness (LT, leaf dry matter content (LDMC, specific root length (SRL, leaf nitrogen content (LNC, leaf phosphorus content (LPC, root nitrogen content (RNC, and root phosphorus content (RPC. The results showed that Korean pine functional traits were significantly correlated to latitude, altitude, GST, MTCM, AP, GSP, and PET. Among the Korean pine functional traits, SLA showed significant linear relationships with LT, LDMC, LNC, LPC, and RPC, and LT showed significant linear relationships with LDMC, SRL, LNC, LPC, RNC, and RPC; the linear relationships between LNC, LPC, RNC, and RPC were also significant. In conclusion, Korean pine functional trait responses to latitude resulted in its adaptation to geographic and climatic factors. The main limiting factors were precipitation and evapotranspiration, followed by altitude, latitude, GST, and MTCM. The impacts of longitude and MAT were not obvious. Changes in precipitation and temperature were most responsible for the close correlation among Korean pine functional traits, reflecting its adaption to habitat

  13. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  14. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  15. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  16. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  17. Biocontrol of Fusarium circinatum Infection of Young Pinus radiata Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iturritxa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is a major disease of Pinus radiata currently controlled to some extent in nurseries by good hygiene and application of synthetic fungicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative strategies to control fungal infections in nurseries and young pine plantations. The antagonistic effects of biocontrol bacteria and essential oils against F. circinatum in vitro and in young P. radiata trees were assessed. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia billingiae, and Bacillus simplex reduced the growth of the fungus in vitro by 17%–29%, and decreased the density of the mycelial mat. In young P. radiata trees, the length of F. circinatum lesions was reduced by 22%–25% by the same bacterial strains. Direct application of cinnamon and/or clove essential oils to wounds in stems of two-year-old P. radiata trees also limited the damage caused by F. circinatum. Lesion length was reduced by 51% following treatment with cinnamon oil (10% v/v, and by 45% following treatment with clove oil (15% v/v or a combination of both oils. However, the oils were toxic to younger trees. The biocontrol bacteria and essential oils show promise as prophylactic treatments to reduce the devastating effects of F. circinatum on P. radiata.

  18. Climate as possible reproductive barrier in Pinus radiata (D. Don interspecific hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannél Ham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, interspecific hybridisation with Pinus radiata D. Don had limited success. The effect of environmental conditions and position of pollination bags in the tree were investigated as possible hybridisation barriers. The study was conducted in a P. radiata seed orchard in the Southern Cape (South Africa. Field data were compared to the climatic conditions at natural and commercial provenances of seven Mesoamerican Pinus species identified as possible hybrid partners. In vitro pollen studies were used to confirm whether interspecific crosses with P. radiata might be feasible within predefined climatic parameters. The temperature ranges for both top and northern side of P. radiata pine trees in the seed orchard was similar to the natural distribution of P. radiata, P. elliottii Engelm. and P. taeda L. in the USA. Results suggested that pollen of P. elliottii and P. taeda might be more suited to result in the successful pollination of P. radiata than the other Mesoamerican pine species tested in this study.  Furthermore, the combination of minimum temperature and precipitation also showed a closer correlation to successful hybridisation with P. radiata for both P. elliotii and P. taeda. However, pollen tube elongation studies did not support these results, suggesting that mean temperature might not be the only determining factor of hybridisation success. Three circadian temperature models that mimic natural conditions were developed for Karatara and Sabie (Tweefontein, Witklip and Spitskop.  These models will be tested in future in vitro studies to further evaluate temperature fluctuations between day and night regimes as a possible reproductive barrier limiting hybridisation success between P. radiata and other Mesoamerican pine species.

  19. Growth Response of Silver Fir and Bosnian Pine from Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Elvin Toromani; Faruk Bojaxhi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: This paper explore the growth-climate relationships in total ring width chronologies of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ). The objective of this study is to quantify the climate influence on radial growth of both species. The relationships between climate and ring widths were analyzed using extreme growing years (called pointer years), simple correlations and response functions analysis (bootstrapped coefficients). The objectives...

  20. Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  1. Growth Response of Silver Fir and Bosnian Pine from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Toromani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper explore the growth-climate relationships in total ring width chronologies of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. and Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ. The objective of this study is to quantify the climate influence on radial growth of both species. The relationships between climate and ring widths were analyzed using extreme growing years (called pointer years, simple correlations and response functions analysis (bootstrapped coefficients. The objectives of this study were: (1 to define the pattern of climatic response of each species, (2 to highlight the influence of local ecological conditions on tree's growth, and (3 to compare the response of silver fir and Bosnian pine to climate. Responses of total ring width to climate were estimated by establishing the mean relationship between growth and climate through simple correlations analysis and bootstrapped response functions. The response to climatic variability was also assessed by analyzing pointer years which correspond to abrupt changes in growth pattern and revealing the tree-growth response to extreme climatic events. For the period 1908-2008 the mean sensitivity (MS of total ring width chronology for Bosnian pine (0.209 was higher than silver fir (0.169 suggesting that Bosnian pine is more sensitive to climate (pointer years were more frequent in ring width chronology of Bosnian pine than in silver fir ring width chronology. The high values of first-order autocorrelations for Bosnian pine (0.674 indicated a strong dependence of current growth on the previous year’s growth. Pointer years analysis underlined the high sensitivity to spring temperatures and precipitation for both species. Radial growth for both species depends strongly on spring climate variables (temperatures and precipitation which play a significant role particularly for earlywood production. Material and Methods: We selected 12 silver fir trees and 15 Bosnian pine trees and took two 5

  2. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  3. Long-term Root Growth Response to Thinning, Fertilization, and Water Deficit in Plantation Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword-Sayer; Z. Tang

    2004-01-01

    High water deficits limit the new root growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), potentially reducing soil resource availability and stand growth. We evaluated new root growth and stand production in response to thinning and fertilization in loblolly pine over a 6-year period that consisted of 3 years of low water deficit followed by 3 years of high...

  4. Response to social challenge in young bonnet (Macaca radiata) and pigtail (Macaca nemestrina) macaques is related to early maternal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ann; Richardson, Rebecca; Worlein, Julie; De Waal, Frans; Laudenslager, Mark

    2004-04-01

    Previous experience affects how young primates respond to challenging social situations. The present retrospective study looked at one aspect of early experience, the quality of the mother-infant relationship, to determine its relationship to young bonnet and pigtail macaques' responses to two social challenges: temporary maternal separation at 5-6 months and permanent transfer to an unfamiliar peer group at 16-17 months. Relationship quality was measured quantitatively on 30 macaque mother-infant pairs with the Relationship Quality Index (RQI), the ratio of relative affiliation to relative agonism as previously applied to capuchin monkeys. Infants with high RQI values had amicable mother-infant relationships and infants with low RQI values had agonistic mother-infant relationships. Young monkeys with amicable and agonistic relationships showed consistent differences in behavior before, during, and after each social challenge, supporting the hypothesis that juveniles from amicable mother-infant relationships based on the RQI coped more effectively with social challenges than did juveniles from agonistic mother-infant relationships. Results suggest 1) characteristic amicability or agonism in early mother-offspring macaque relationships has the potential to influence offspring behavior in tense social contexts and 2) the RQI is useful as one of a coordinated suite of methods for studying the development of social skills. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from six developing xylem libraries in Pinus radiata D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Shannon K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wood is a major renewable natural resource for the timber, fibre and bioenergy industry. Pinus radiata D. Don is the most important commercial plantation tree species in Australia and several other countries; however, genomic resources for this species are very limited in public databases. Our primary objective was to sequence a large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from genes involved in wood formation in radiata pine. Results Six developing xylem cDNA libraries were constructed from earlywood and latewood tissues sampled at juvenile (7 yrs, transition (11 yrs and mature (30 yrs ages, respectively. These xylem tissues represent six typical development stages in a rotation period of radiata pine. A total of 6,389 high quality ESTs were collected from 5,952 cDNA clones. Assembly of 5,952 ESTs from 5' end sequences generated 3,304 unigenes including 952 contigs and 2,352 singletons. About 97.0% of the 5,952 ESTs and 96.1% of the unigenes have matches in the UniProt and TIGR databases. Of the 3,174 unigenes with matches, 42.9% were not assigned GO (Gene Ontology terms and their functions are unknown or unclassified. More than half (52.1% of the 5,952 ESTs have matches in the Pfam database and represent 772 known protein families. About 18.0% of the 5,952 ESTs matched cell wall related genes in the MAIZEWALL database, representing all 18 categories, 91 of all 174 families and possibly 557 genes. Fifteen cell wall-related genes are ranked in the 30 most abundant genes, including CesA, tubulin, AGP, SAMS, actin, laccase, CCoAMT, MetE, phytocyanin, pectate lyase, cellulase, SuSy, expansin, chitinase and UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. Based on the PlantTFDB database 41 of the 64 transcription factor families in the poplar genome were identified as being involved in radiata pine wood formation. Comparative analysis of GO term abundance revealed a distinct transcriptome in juvenile earlywood formation compared to other stages of

  6. Expression Profiling in Pinus pinaster in Response to Infection with the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests are essential resources on a global scale, not only for the ecological benefits, but also for economical and landscape purposes. However, in recent years, a large number of forest species have suffered a serious decline, with maritime pine being one of the most affected. In Portugal, the maritime pine forest has been devastated by the pine wood nematode (PWN, the causal agent of pine wilt disease. In this study, RNA-Seq data was used to characterize the maritime pine response to infection with PWN, by determining the differentially expressed genes and identifying the regulatory networks and pathways associated. The analyses showed clear differences between an early response that occurs immediately after inoculation and a late response that is observed seven days after inoculation. Moreover, differentially expressed genes related to secondary metabolism, oxidative stress and defense against pathogen infection were identified over different time points. These results provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways involved in the response of Pinus pinaster against PWN infection, which will be a useful resource in follow-up studies and for future breeding programs to select plants with lower susceptibility to this disease.

  7. Response of advance lodgepole pine regeneration to overstory removal in eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanya E. Lewis Murphy; David L. Adams; Dennis E. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-two stands of advance lodgepole pine released with overstory removal were sampled to determine height growth response. Tree and site characteristics correlated with release response were identified, and a mathematical model was developed to predict height growth in years 6 through 10 after release as a function of residual overstory basal area, height at release...

  8. Limited response of ponderosa pine bole defenses to wounding and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Monica L; Hofstetter, Richard W; Kolb, Thomas E; Wagner, Michael R

    2011-04-01

    Tree defense against bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their associated fungi generally comprises some combination of constitutive (primary) and induced (secondary) defenses. In pines, the primary constitutive defense against bark beetles consists of preformed resin stored in resin ducts. Induced defenses at the wound site (point of beetle entry) in pines may consist of an increase in resin flow and necrotic lesion formation. The quantity and quality of both induced and constitutive defenses can vary by species and season. The inducible defense response in ponderosa pine is not well understood. Our study examined the inducible defense response in ponderosa pine using traumatic mechanical wounding, and wounding with and without fungal inoculations with two different bark beetle-associated fungi (Ophiostoma minus and Grosmannia clavigera). Resin flow did not significantly increase in response to any treatment. In addition, necrotic lesion formation on the bole after fungal inoculation was minimal. Stand thinning, which has been shown to increase water availability, had no, or inconsistent, effects on inducible tree defense. Our results suggest that ponderosa pine bole defense against bark beetles and their associated fungi is primarily constitutive and not induced.

  9. Reptile and amphibian responses to restoration of fire-maintained pine woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W Perry; D. Craig Rudolph; Ronald E. Thill

    2009-01-01

    Fire-maintained woodlands and savannas are important ecosystems for vertebrates in many regions of the world. These ecosystems are being restored by forest managers, but little information exists on herpetofaunal responses to this restoration in areas dominated by shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata). We compared habitat characteristics and...

  10. Understory vegetation response to mechanical mastication and other fuels treatments in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey M. Kane; J. Morgan Varner; Eric E. Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What influence does mechanical mastication and other fuel treatments have on: (1) canopy and forest floor response variables that influence understory plant development; (2) initial understory vegetation cover, diversity, and composition; and (3) shrub and non-native species density in a secondgrowth ponderosa pine forest....

  11. Responses of Ips pini (Say), Pityogenes knechteli Swaine and Associated Beetles (Coleoptera) to Host Monoterpenes in Stands of Lodgepole Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden

    2003-01-01

    We conducted seven experiments in stands of mature lodgepole pine in southern British Columbia to elucidate the role of host volatiles in the semiochemical ecology of the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), with particular reference to the behavioral responses of predators and competing species of bark beetles. Our results demonstrated that the...

  12. Responses of soil and water chemistry to mountain pine beetle induced tree mortality in Grand County, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Clow; Charles C. Rhoades; Jennifer Briggs; Megan Caldwell; William M. Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Pine forest in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming, USA, are experiencing the most severe mountain pine beetle epidemic in recorded history, and possible degradation of drinking-water quality is a major concern. The objective of this study was to investigate possible changes in soil and water chemistry in Grand County, Colorado in response to the epidemic,...

  13. Visual Grading and Structural Properties Assessment of Large Cross-Section Pinus radiata D. Don Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hermoso Prieto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of large cross-section timber for structural purposes has increased in Spain, and knowledge of its properties is strategically necessary. The Spanish visual strength-grading standard UNE 56544 (2011 efficiency applied to large cross-section structural timber was analyzed using a sample of 363 specimens of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don. from the Basque Country and Catalonia, Spain. Different sizes were tested (80 × 120 × 2400 mm3, 150 × 250 × 5600 mm3, 150 × 250 × 4300 mm3, and 200 × 250 × 5000 mm3. Bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and density were obtained, and characteristic values were determined in order to assign strength class according to European standard EN 338 (2010. Knots and twists were the most relevant singularities for visual strength grading. It was concluded that large cross-section Spanish radiata pine timber was suitable for structures, and it was assigned to the C20 strength class.

  14. Tree response and mountain pine beetle attack preference, reproduction, and emergence timing in mixed whitebark and lodgepole pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Celia Boone; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2015-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is an important disturbance agent in Pinus ecosystems of western North America, historically causing significant tree mortality. Most recorded outbreaks have occurred in mid elevation lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). In warm years, tree mortality also occurs at higher elevations in mixed species stands.

  15. Pine growth and plant community response to chemical vs. mechanical site preparation for establishing loblolly and slash pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Zhijuan Qiu

    1995-01-01

    Chemical and mechanical site preparation methods were studied for establishing loblolly (Pinus taeda L) and slash (P. elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) pine following both integrated fuelwood-pulpwood harvesting and conventional whole-tree harvesting of pines and hardwoods in southem Alabama's Middle Coastal...

  16. Above-ground biomass equations for Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Canga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to develop a model for above-ground biomass estimation for Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias.Area of study: Asturias (NE of Spain.Material and methods: Different models were fitted for the different above-ground components and weighted regression was used to correct heteroscedasticity. Finally, all the models were refitted simultaneously by use of Nonlinear Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (NSUR to ensure the additivity of biomass equations.Research highlights: A system of four biomass equations (wood, bark, crown and total biomass was develop, such that the sum of the estimations of the three biomass components is equal to the estimate of total biomass. Total and stem biomass equations explained more than 92% of observed variability, while crown and bark biomass equations explained 77% and 89% respectively.Keywords: radiata pine; plantations; biomass.

  17. Dehydrins in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and their expression related to drought stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Conde, Tania; Yakovlev, Igor; Majada, J.P. (Juan); Johnsen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) is an important commercial species throughout its Atlantic distribution. With the anticipated increase in desiccation of its habitat as a result of climate change, the selection of genotypes with increased survival and growth capability under these conditions for breeding programs is of great interest for this species. We aimed to study the response to a realistic drought stress under controlled conditions, looked for a method to measure dehydration resistance, ...

  18. Differential response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of red and far-red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Abdur; Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Strand, Åsa; García-Gil, M R

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the response to increasing intensity of red (R) and far-R (FR) light and to a decrease in R:FR ratio in Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) seedling. The results showed that FR high-irradiance response for hypocotyl elongation may be present in Scots pine and that this response is enhanced by increasing light intensity. However, both hypocotyl inhibition and pigment accumulation were more strongly affected by the R light compared with FR light. This is in contrast to previous reports in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In the angiosperm, A. thaliana R light shows an overall milder effect on inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and on pigment biosynthesis compared with FR suggesting conifers and angiosperms respond very differently to the different light regimes. Scots pine shade avoidance syndrome with longer hypocotyls, shorter cotyledons and lower chlorophyll content in response to shade conditions resembles the response observed in A. thaliana. However, anthocyanin accumulation increased with shade in Scots pine, which again differs from what is known in angiosperms. Overall, the response of seedling development and physiology to R and FR light in Scots pine indicates that the regulatory mechanism for light response may differ between gymnosperms and angiosperms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Monitoring responses of Mason Pine to acid rain in China based on remote sensing vegetation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jiaxin; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Ying; Hou, Chunliang

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, acid rain has remained in the public spotlight in both Europe and the United States and recently has emerged as an important problem in other regions such as Southeast Asia. To reveal responses of Masson Pine to acid rain during a long time series in central China, we used the interpolation dataset of acid rain and the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to derive the monthly pH and NDVI trajectories based on acidity gradients from 1992 to 2006. Then we analyzed inter-annual and seasonal variation of vegetation growth by improved sinusoidal fitting and regression analysis. In the environment of strong acidity and moderate acidity, the growth of Masson Pine was inhibited during the study period, while the slight acidity promoted growth of Masson Pine to some extent. For the multi-year monthly changing trend of NDVI, late spring to mid autumn, the NDVI showed a decreasing trend, especially in June, while from late autumn to the following spring, the NDVI showed a rising tendency, specifically in December and March

  20. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a “matrix” species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous “non-matrix” species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 1–2 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 ×3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  1. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  2. Antioxidant potential of six pine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Anilda; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Roussis, Vassilios

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of extracts obtained from six Pinus species (P. pinea, P. brutia, P. radiata, P. halepensis, P. attenuata, P. nigra) growing in natural forests in Southern Greece. Specimens of fresh, dry needles and pine bark were extracted and fractionated with a variety of organic solvents and the efficient concentration and their radical scavenging activity was evaluated by the Co(II)/EDTA induced luminol plateau chemiluminescence assay. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Identification of water-deficit responsive genes in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Christian; Plomion, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    Root adaptation to soil environmental factors is very important to maritime pine, the main conifer species used for reforestation in France. The range of climates in the sites where this species is established varies from flooded in winter to drought-prone in summer. No studies have yet focused on the morphological, physiological or molecular variability of the root system to adapt its growth to such an environment. We developed a strategy to isolate drought-responsive genes in the root tissue in order to identify the molecular mechanisms that trees have evolved to cope with drought (the main problem affecting wood productivity), and to exploit this information to improve drought stress tolerance. In order to provide easy access to the root system, seedlings were raised in hydroponic solution. Polyethylene glycol was used as an osmoticum to induce water deficit. Using the cDNA-AFLP technique, we screened more than 2500 transcript derived fragments, of which 33 (1.2%) showed clear variation in presence/absence between non stressed and stressed medium. The relative abundance of these transcripts was then analysed by reverse northern. Only two out of these 33 genes showed significant opposite behaviour between both techniques. The identification and characterization of water-deficit responsive genes in roots provide the emergence of physiological understanding of the patterns of gene expression and regulation involved in the drought stress response of maritime pine.

  4. Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badere, R.S.; Koche, D.K.; Choudhary, A.D.; Pawar, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as β-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

  5. Bark polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata as functional building-blocks for polylactic acid (PLA-based green composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA was melt-blended with Pinus radiata unmodified and modified (hydroxypropyled bark polyflavonoids in order to use such polyphenolic building-blocks as functional additives for envisaged applications. Rheological, morphological, molecular, thermal, and flexural properties were studied. Polyflavonoids improved blend processability in terms of short-time mixing. Furthermore, hydroxypropylated polyflavonoids improve miscibility in binary and ternary blends. Blend-composition affects crystallization-, melting-, and glass transition-temperature of PLA, as well as thermal resistance, and flexural properties of the blends. Polyflavonoids induced PLA-crystallization, and polymer-chain decomposition. Modified and unmodified bark polyflavonoids from radiata pine can be used successfully in PLA-based green composites beyond the food-packaging applications. The high compatibility between PLA and hydroxypropyled polyflavonoids highlights the potential of such phenolic derivatives for PLA-based material design.

  6. Physiological and morphological responses of pine and willow saplings to post-fire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions, E. L.; Letts, M. G.; Harvey, T.; Rood, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    With global warming, forest fires may be increasing in frequency, and post-fire salvage logging may become more common. The ecophysiological impacts of this practice on tree saplings remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the physiological and morphological impacts of increased light intensity, due to post-fire salvage logging, on the conifer Pinus contorta (pine) and deciduous broadleaf Salix lucida (willow) tree and shrub species in the Crowsnest Pass region of southern Alberta. Photosynthetic gas-exchange and plant morphological measurements were taken throughout the summer of 2013 on approximately ten year-old saplings of both species. Neither species exhibited photoinhibition, but different strategies were observed to acclimate to increased light availability. Willow saplings were able to slightly elevate their light-saturated rate of net photosynthesis (Amax) when exposed to higher photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), thus increasing their growth rate. Willow also exhibited increased leaf inclination angles and leaf mass per unit area (LMA), to decrease light interception in the salvage-logged plot. By contrast, pine, which exhibited lower Amax and transpiration (E), but higher water-use efficiency (WUE = Amax/E) than willow, increased the rate at which electrons were moved through and away from the photosynthetic apparatus in order to avoid photoinhibition. Acclimation indices were higher in willow saplings, consistent with the hypothesis that species with short-lived foliage exhibit greater acclimation. LMA was higher in pine saplings growing in the logged plot, but whole-plant and branch-level morphological acclimation was limited and more consistent with a response to decreased competition in the logged plot, which had much lower stand density.

  7. Bioactive phenolic acids from Scorzonera radiata Fisch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tsevegsuren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of the crude extract obtained from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Scorzonera radiata yielded five new dihydrostilbenes [4], two new flavonoids, one new quinic acid derivative, as well as twenty known compounds including eight quinic acid derivatives, four flavonoids, two coumarins, five simple benzoic acids, and one monoterpene glycoside. We present here results on isolation and structural identification some active phenolic compounds from the Scorzonera radiata - eight quinic acid derivatives (quinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (cis. Quinic acid derivatives exhibited antioxidative activity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.177 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 78-84

  8. Impacts of the Replacement of Native Woodland with Exotic Pine Plantations on Leaf-Litter Invertebrate Assemblages: A Test of a Novel Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, B.R.; Baker, A.C.; Robson, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    We present an empirical comparison of invertebrate community structure between areas of undisturbed native eucalypt woodland and areas that have been cleared and replaced with plantations of exotic radiata pine (Pinus radiata). Implementation of a novel conceptual framework revealed that both insect (in autumn) and arachnid (in winter) assemblages demonstrated inhibition in response to the pine plantations. Species richness declines occurred in several taxonomic Orders (e.g., Hymenoptera, Blattodea, Acari) without compensated increases in other Orders in plantations. This was, however, a seasonal response, with shifts between inhibition and equivalency observed in both insects and arachnids across autumn and winter sampling periods. Equivalency responses were characterized by relatively similar levels of species richness in plantation and native habitats for several Orders (e.g., Coleoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Araneae). We propose testable hypotheses for the observed seasonal shifts between inhibition and equivalency that focus on diminished resource availability and the damp, moist conditions found in the plantations. Given the compelling evidence for seasonal shifts between categories, we recommend that seasonal patterns should be considered a critical component of further assemblage-level investigations of this novel framework for invasion ecology.

  9. Reptile assemblage response to restoration of fire-suppressed longleaf pine sandhills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, David A; Smith, Lora L; Conner, L M; Litt, Andrea R; Provencher, Louis; Hiers, J Kevin; Pokswinski, Scott; Guyer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the effects of ecological restoration on wildlife assemblages requires study on broad temporal and spatial scales. Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forests are imperiled due to fire suppression and subsequent invasion by hardwood trees. We employed a landscape-scale, randomized-block design to identify how reptile assemblages initially responded to restoration treatments including removal of hardwood trees via mechanical methods (felling and girdling), application of herbicides, or prescribed burning alone. Then, we examined reptile assemblages after all sites experienced more than a decade of prescribed burning at two- to thee-year return intervals. Data were collected concurrently at reference sites chosen to represent target conditions for restoration. Reptile assemblages changed most rapidly in response to prescribed burning, but reptile assemblages at all sites, including reference sites, were generally indistinguishable by the end of the study. Thus, we suggest that prescribed burning in longleaf pine forests over long time periods is an effective strategy for restoring reptile assemblages to the reference condition. Application of herbicides or mechanical removal of hardwood trees provided no apparent benefit to reptiles beyond what was achieved by prescribed fire alone.

  10. Development-specific responses to drought stress in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexou, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is a pioneer species, highly competitive due to exceptional resistance to drought. To investigate the stress resistance in the first and second year of development, a steady-state drought experiment was implemented. Photosynthesis (A(net)), stomatal conductance and transpiration (E) were measured on three different sampling dates together with phloem soluble sugars, amino acids and non-structural proteins. Needle ascorbic acid (AsA) and reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the seedlings' drought stress condition in the final sampling. Drought impaired A(net) and E by 35 and 31%, respectively, and increased AsA levels up to 10-fold, without significant impact on the phloem metabolites. Phloem sugars related to temperature fluctuations rather than soil moisture and did not relate closely to A(net) levels. Sugars and proteins decreased between the second and third sampling date by 56 and 61%, respectively, and the ratio of sugars to amino acids decreased between the first and third sampling by 81%, while A(net) and water-use efficiency (A(net)/E) decreased only in the older seedlings. Although gas exchange was higher in the older seedlings, ascorbic acid and phloem metabolites were higher in the younger seedlings. It was concluded that the drought stress responses depended significantly on developmental stage, and research on the physiology of Aleppo pine regeneration should focus more on temperature conditions and the duration of drought than its severity.

  11. Plasticity in dendroclimatic response across the distribution range of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Luis

    Full Text Available We investigated the variability of the climate-growth relationship of Aleppo pine across its distribution range in the Mediterranean Basin. We constructed a network of tree-ring index chronologies from 63 sites across the region. Correlation function analysis identified the relationships of tree-ring index to climate factors for each site. We also estimated the dominant climatic gradients of the region using principal component analysis of monthly, seasonal, and annual mean temperature and total precipitation from 1,068 climatic gridpoints. Variation in ring width index was primarily related to precipitation and secondarily to temperature. However, we found that the dendroclimatic relationship depended on the position of the site along the climatic gradient. In the southern part of the distribution range, where temperature was generally higher and precipitation lower than the regional average, reduced growth was also associated with warm and dry conditions. In the northern part, where the average temperature was lower and the precipitation more abundant than the regional average, reduced growth was associated with cool conditions. Thus, our study highlights the substantial plasticity of Aleppo pine in response to different climatic conditions. These results do not resolve the source of response variability as being due to either genetic variation in provenance, to phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of factors. However, as current growth responses to inter-annual climate variability vary spatially across existing climate gradients, future climate-growth relationships will also likely be determined by differential adaptation and/or acclimation responses to spatial climatic variation. The contribution of local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity across populations to the persistence of species under global warming could be decisive for prediction of climate change impacts across populations. In this sense, a more complex forest dynamics

  12. The NAC transcription factor family in maritime pine (Pinus Pinaster): molecular regulation of two genes involved in stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Ma Belén; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2015-10-24

    NAC transcription factors comprise a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Despite the growing number of studies on NAC transcription factors in various species, little information is available about this family in conifers. The goal of this study was to identify the NAC transcription family in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), to characterize ATAF-like genes in response to various stresses and to study their molecular regulation. We have isolated two maritime pine NAC genes and using a transient expression assay in N. benthamiana leaves estudied the promoter jasmonate response. In this study, we identified 37 NAC genes from maritime pine and classified them into six main subfamilies. The largest group includes 12 sequences corresponding to stress-related genes. Two of these NAC genes, PpNAC2 and PpNAC3, were isolated and their expression profiles were examined at various developmental stages and in response to various types of stress. The expression of both genes was strongly induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), mechanical wounding, and high salinity. The promoter regions of these genes were shown to contain cis-elements involved in the stress response and plant hormonal regulation, including E-boxes, which are commonly found in the promoters of genes that respond to jasmonate, and binding sites for bHLH proteins. Using a transient expression assay in N. benthamiana leaves, we found that the promoter of PpNAC3 was rapidly induced upon MeJA treatment, while this response disappeared in plants in which the transcription factor NbbHLH2 was silenced. Our results suggest that PpNAC2 and PpNAC3 encode stress-responsive NAC transcription factors involved in the jasmonate response in pine. Furthermore, these data also suggest that the jasmonate signaling pathway is conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms. These findings may be useful for engineering stress tolerance in pine via biotechnological approaches.

  13. Root growth and hydraulic conductivity of southern pine seedlings in response to soil temperature and water availability after planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; John C. Brissette; James P. Barnett

    2005-01-01

    Comparison of the root system growth and water transport of southern pine species after planting in different root-zone environments is needed to guide decisions regarding when, and what species to plant. Evaluation of how seed source affects root system responses to soil conditions will allow seed sources to be matched to planting conditions. The root growth and...

  14. Determination of loblolly pine response to cultural treatments based on soil class, base productivity, and competition level

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Garrett; Michael Kane; Daniel Markewitz; Dehai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to better understand what factors drive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) growth response to intensive culture in the University of Georgia Plantation Management Research Cooperative’s Culture x Density study in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain. Twenty study sites were established ranging from southern Alabama to South Carolina in...

  15. Response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Aurela, Mika; Mammarella, Ivan; Thum, Tea; Tsuruta, Aki; Yang, Huiyi; Aalto, Tuula

    2017-09-01

    The influence of drought on plant functioning has received considerable attention in recent years, however our understanding of the response of carbon and water coupling to drought in terrestrial ecosystems still needs to be improved. A severe soil moisture drought occurred in southern Finland in the late summer of 2006. In this study, we investigated the response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) on the daily time scale mainly using eddy covariance flux data from the Hyytiälä (southern Finland) flux site. In addition, simulation results from the JSBACH land surface model were evaluated against the observed results. Based on observed data, the ecosystem level water use efficiency (EWUE; the ratio of gross primary production, GPP, to evapotranspiration, ET) showed a decrease during the severe soil moisture drought, while the inherent water use efficiency (IWUE; a quantity defined as EWUE multiplied with mean daytime vapour pressure deficit, VPD) increased and the underlying water use efficiency (uWUE, a metric based on IWUE and a simple stomatal model, is the ratio of GPP multiplied with a square root of VPD to ET) was unchanged during the drought. The decrease in EWUE was due to the stronger decline in GPP than in ET. The increase in IWUE was because of the decreased stomatal conductance under increased VPD. The unchanged uWUE indicates that the trade-off between carbon assimilation and transpiration of the boreal Scots pine forest was not disturbed by this drought event at the site. The JSBACH simulation showed declines of both GPP and ET under the severe soil moisture drought, but to a smaller extent compared to the observed GPP and ET. Simulated GPP and ET led to a smaller decrease in EWUE but a larger increase in IWUE because of the severe soil moisture drought in comparison to observations. As in the observations, the simulated uWUE showed no changes in the drought event. The model deficiencies exist

  16. Comparative nutritional analysis between Vigna radiata and Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) and Vigna mungo (mash bean) of the family Fabaceae are among staple food in Pakistan. The experiments were conducted on these beans to determine the proximate composition such as moisture, ash, fibre, fat and protein content. The protein isolates from V. radiata and V. mungo was ...

  17. Rapid Induction of Multiple Terpenoid Groups by Ponderosa Pine in Response to Bark Beetle-Associated Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefover-Ring, Ken; Trowbridge, Amy; Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a major and widely distributed component of conifer biomes in western North America and provides substantial ecological and economic benefits. This tree is exposed to several tree-killing bark beetle-microbial complexes, including the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the phytopathogenic fungus Grosmannia clavigera that it vectors, which are among the most important. Induced responses play a crucial role in conifer defenses, yet these have not been reported in ponderosa pine. We compared concentrations of terpenes and a phenylpropanoid, two phytochemical classes with strong effects against bark beetles and their symbionts, in constitutive phloem tissue and in tissue following mechanical wounding or simulated D. ponderosae attack (mechanical wounding plus inoculation with G. clavigera). We also tested whether potential induced responses were localized or systemic. Ponderosa pines showed pronounced induced defenses to inoculation, increasing their total phloem concentrations of monoterpenes 22.3-fold, sesquiterpenes 56.7-fold, and diterpenes 34.8-fold within 17 days. In contrast, responses to mechanical wounding alone were only 5.2, 11.3, and 7.7-fold, respectively. Likewise, the phenylpropanoid estragole (4-allyanisole) rose to 19.1-fold constitutive levels after simulated attack but only 4.4-fold after mechanical wounding. Overall, we found no evidence of systemic induction after 17 days, which spans most of this herbivore's narrow peak attack period, as significant quantitative and compositional changes within and between terpenoid groups were localized to the wound site. Implications to the less frequent exploitation of ponderosa than lodgepole pine by D. ponderosae, and potential advantages of rapid localized over long-term systemic responses in this system, are discussed.

  18. Experimental determination of the effect of temperature and humidity on the development of colour in Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. McCurdy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were undertaken to determine the effects of drying conditions (temperature and humidity on the development of kiln brown stain in radiata pine during drying. Eight schedules were tested with temperatures ranging from 50°C to 120°C and relative humidity from 14% to 67%. The variables measured were moisture content, color expressed using the CIELab color space, and nitrogen content. The experiments have shown that the kiln brown stain is influenced by drying temperature and drying time. The recommendation is therefore that low-temperature and low-humidity schedules be developed for controlling color development.

  19. Ecological Responses to Five Years of Experimental Nitrogen Application in an Upland Jack-pine Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaschenko, N.; Berryman, S.; Straker, J.; Berg, K.; McDonough, A.; Watmough, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    A five-year experimental study was conducted to evaluate the response of an upland jack-pine (Pinus banksiana) forest to elevated levels of nitrogen (N) deposition in Northern Alberta. N deposition in the region is expected to increase with industrial expansion of oil sands activity, and there is regional interest to set N critical loads for sensitive ecosystems. In this study, N was applied as NH4NO3 above a jack-pine canopy via helicopter, annually for five years (2010-2015) at dosages equivalent to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Approximately 35% of the applied N was retained in the canopy while 65% reached understory vegetation dominated by lichens and mosses. We measured a significant increase in tissue N concentrations of common ground lichens (Cladonia mitis and C. stellaris) and ground moss (Pleurozium schreberi) as well as epiphytic lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha). On an annual basis, the applied N was primarily captured in the lichen and moss understory, dominated by C. mitis. In the highest treatments, N concentrations in C. mitis were 1.5-2.5 times greater than pre-treatment values. Peak N concentrations in the ground moss Pleurozium schreberi (1.4%) indicate that a threshold of N saturation was reached by year 3. We observed no changes in community composition of vascular and non-vascular plants, or changes in vascular plant tissue N. Chlorophyll levels in C. mitis increased with N treatment, but there was no indication of toxicity or changes to decomposition and growth. After five years of N application, only Peltigera polydactylon, a ground cyanolichen, appeared to be negatively impacted where the thalli showed necrosis at deposition loads >10kg N ha-1 yr-1. No changes to biomass or N ecosystem processes were observed. Based on these observations, we provide evidence that the first adverse ecological effects of N deposition in jack-pine stands occurred at deposition rates of 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1.

  20. Changing climate response in near-treeline bristlecone pine with elevation and aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, Matthew W; Hughes, Malcolm K; Larson, Evan R; Bunn, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    In the White Mountains of California, eight bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) tree-ring width chronologies were developed from trees at upper treeline and just below upper treeline along North- and South-facing elevational transects from treeline to ∼90 m below. There is evidence for a climate-response threshold between approximately 60–80 vertical m below treeline, above which trees have shown a positive growth-response to temperature and below which they do not. Chronologies from 80 m or more below treeline show a change in climate response and do not correlate strongly with temperature-sensitive chronologies developed from trees growing at upper treeline. Rather, they more closely resemble lower elevation precipitation-sensitive chronologies. At the highest sites, trees on South-facing slopes grow faster than trees on North-facing slopes. High growth rates in the treeline South-facing trees have declined since the mid-1990s. This suggests the possibility that the climate-response of the highest South-facing trees may have changed and that temperature may no longer be the main limiting factor for growth on the South aspect. These results indicate that increasing warmth may lead to a divergence between tree growth and temperature at previously temperature-limited sites. (letter)

  1. Emissions of BVOC from lodgepole pine in response to mountain pine beetle attack in high and low mortality forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Duhl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this screening study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions from intact branches of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta trees were measured from trees at two forested sites that have been impacted differently by the mountain pine beetle (MPB, with one having higher mortality and the other with lower mortality. Differences in the amounts and chemical diversity of BVOC between the two sites and from apparently healthy trees versus trees in different stages of MPB attack are presented, as well as (for one site observed seasonal variability in emissions. A brief comparison is made of geological and climatic characteristics as well as prior disturbances (both natural and man-made at each site. Trees sampled at the site experiencing high MPB-related tree mortality had lower chemodiversity in terms of monoterpene (MT emission profiles, while profiles were more diverse at the lower-mortality site. Also at the higher-mortality site, MPB-infested trees in various stages of decline had lower emissions of sesquiterpenes (SQTs compared to healthy trees, while at the site with lower mortality, MPB-survivors had significantly higher SQT emissions during part of the growing season when compared to both uninfested and newly infested trees. SQT profiles differed between the two sites and, like monoterpene and oxygenated VOC profiles, varied through the season. For the low-mortality site in which repeated measurements were made over the course of the early summer–late fall, higher chemical diversity was observed in early- compared to late-season measurements for all compound classes investigated (MT, oxygenated VOC, and SQT, with the amount of change appearing to correlate to the MPB status of the trees studied. Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO had a distinct seasonal signal but were not much different between healthy or infested trees, except in trees with dead needles, from which emissions of this compound were negligible, and in late

  2. Specific gravity responses of slash and loblolly pine following mid-rotation fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark III; Laurence R. Schimleck; Eric J. Jokela; Richard F. Daniels

    2009-01-01

    Wood quality attributes were examined in six stands of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in the lower Coastal Plain of Georgia and Florida. Several plots comprised each stand, and each plot was divided so that it received three fertilizer treatments: a control treatment with herbaceous weed control at planting...

  3. Longleaf pine site response to repeated fertilization and forest floor removal by raking and prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Ludovici; Robert Eaton; Stanley Zarnoch

    2018-01-01

    Removal of forest floor litter by pine needle raking and prescribed burning is a common practice in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands on Coastal Plain sites in the Southeastern United States. Repeated removal of litter by raking and the loss of surface organic matter from controlled burns can affect the...

  4. Complex response of white pines to past environmental variability increases understanding of future vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Iglesias

    Full Text Available Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation to past climate variability and suggest that white pines, a taxon of special concern in the region, have been surprisingly resilient to high summer temperature and fire activity in the past. Moreover, the fossil record suggests that winter conditions and biotic interactions have been critical limiting variables for high-elevation conifers in the past and will likely be so in the future. This long-term perspective offers insights on species responses to a broader range of climate and associated ecosystem changes than can be observed at present and should be part of resource management and conservation planning for the future.

  5. Growth and photosynthetic responses of two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in a polluted industrial region in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.S.; Kayama, M.; Jin, H.O.; Lee, C.H.; Izuta, T.; Koike, T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pollutants on two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in an industrial region in Korea, using a physiological approach. The concentrations of fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) in the atmosphere, in precipitation and soil water at the damaged site were all significantly higher than at a control site. Moreover, the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in pine needles were significantly higher, and essential elements and chlorophyll in needles were significantly lower at the damaged site than at the control site. The photosynthetic capacities, shoot length and survival statistics of needles of the two pines were all significantly reduced at the damaged site compared to the control site, especially P. rigida. Based on our comparison of photosynthetic responses and the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in needles of the two pine species, P. koraiensis is more resistant to excess Mn in its needles than P. rigida. - Pinus koraiensis seems to be more pollution tolerant than Pinus rigida

  6. Latent infection by Fusarium circinatum influences susceptibility of monterey pine seedlings to pitch canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra L. Swett; Thomas R. Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a serious disease affecting Pinus radiata D. Don (Monterey pine) in nurseries, landscapes, and native forests. A typical symptom of pitch canker is canopy dieback resulting from girdling lesions on terminal branches (Gordon et al. 2001). More extensive dieback can result from...

  7. Lactarius deliciosus and Pinus radiata in New Zealand: towards the development of innovative gourmet mushroom orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Cummings, Nicholas; Butler, Ruth Catherine; Willows, Anna; Hesom-Williams, Nina; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    The cultivation of Lactarius deliciosus (saffron milk cap) in New Zealand began in 2002 when fruiting bodies were produced in an Otago plantation of Pinus radiata seedlings artificially mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. In 2007, 42 P. radiata seedlings mycorrhized by L. deliciosus under controlled conditions were planted in a grass field at Plant and Food Research (Lincoln, Canterbury). The effects of pine bark mulch application and initial degree of mycorrhization of seedlings were examined to determine their influence on tree growth, development of mycorrhizae (i.e. their multiplication on the root system and their degree of branching) and fruiting body production. Mulch application increased tree growth significantly over 4 years. High initial mycorrhization slightly stimulated tree growth over 2 years. The initial degree of mycorrhization was positively, but not strongly, related to the persistence and development of L. deliciosus mycorrhizae and rhizomorphs based on root sample analyses 2 years after planting. However, mulching strongly reduced the proportion of highly branched L. deliciosus mycorrhizae compared with poorly ramified ones. A positive correlation was observed between the fruiting of L. deliciosus and the development of mycorrhizae. Mulching delayed the onset of fruiting body production. In 2010, fruiting bodies were produced only from non-mulched trees with eight of these (38 %) producing a total of 12 fruiting bodies. In 2011, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 9 mulched trees (45 %) produced 143 and 47 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 190 fruiting bodies. By 2012, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 13 mulched trees (65 %) produced 333 and 236 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 569 fruiting bodies (c. 30 kg). This study presents new information on factors influencing the onset of fruiting and the development of yields in a plantation of P. radiata mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. Projected yields as high as c. 300 kg/ha from the

  8. Linear trend and climate response of five-needle pines in the western United States related to treeline proximity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipfmueller, K.F. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geography; Salzer, M.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated sixty-six 5-needle pine growth chronologies from 1896 to their end years in order to identify potential patterns related to linear trends in ring width. Individual chronology responses to climate were also evaluated by comparing the chronologies with seasonal temperature and precipitation data from 1896 to the present date. Chronologies exhibiting similar patterns of climate response were grouped in order to examine the role of treeline proximity on climate-growth relationships. Ring width measurements for pine sites located in the western United States were obtained from the International Tree Ring Data Bank. Growth indices were compared among all sites in order to assess the relative strength of common signals with increasing distance. Pearson correlations were used to calculate linear trends for each chronology. A cluster analysis of climate response patterns indicated that most chronologies positively associated with temperatures were located near upper treeline and contained significant positive linear trends. The study suggested that 5-needle pine treeline chronologies may be used as predictors in temperature reconstructions. However, care must be taken to determine that collection sites have not been impacted by disturbances such as fire or insect outbreaks. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. 76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... species on lands of all ownerships in the Black Hills is ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae). Since 1997 the... rated as having high wildfire hazard. Since 1980, due to several factors including drought the Forest...

  10. 77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    .... The predominant tree species on lands of all ownerships in the Black Hills is ponderosa pine (Pinus... drought the Forest has seen a dramatic increase in acreage burned by wildfires. In that period over 250...

  11. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomics responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Sardans, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Hódar, J. A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada Spain; Garcia-Porta, J. [Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Spain; Guenther, A. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine CA USA; Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Oravec, M. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Urban, O. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Peñuelas, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Leiss, K.

    2016-05-16

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.

  12. Burn Severity Dominates Understory Plant Community Response to Fire in Xeric Jack Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire is the most common disturbance in northern boreal forests, and large fires are often associated with highly variable burn severities across the burnt area. We studied the understory plant community response to a range of burn severities and pre-fire stand age four growing seasons after the 2011 Richardson Fire in xeric jack pine forests of northern Alberta, Canada. Burn severity had the greatest impact on post-fire plant communities, while pre-fire stand age did not have a significant impact. Total plant species richness and cover decreased with disturbance severity, such that the greatest richness was in low severity burns (average 28 species per 1-m2 quadrat and plant cover was lowest in the high severity burns (average 16%. However, the response of individual plant groups differed. Lichens and bryophytes were most common in low severity burns and were effectively eliminated from the regenerating plant community at higher burn severities. In contrast, graminoid cover and richness were positively related to burn severity, while forbs did not respond significantly to burn severity, but were impacted by changes in soil chemistry with increased cover at pH >4.9. Our results indicate the importance of non-vascular plants to the overall plant community in this harsh environment and that the plant community is environmentally limited rather than recruitment or competition limited, as is often the case in more mesic forest types. If fire frequency and severity increase as predicted, we may see a shift in plant communities from stress-tolerant species, such as lichens and ericaceous shrubs, to more colonizing species, such as certain graminoids.

  13. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  14. New insights into the parametrization of temperature and light responses of mono - and sesquiterpene emissions from Aleppo pine and rosemary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, M.; Bourgeois, I.; Al Halabi, R.; Song, W.; Williams, J.

    2017-03-01

    Phytogenic emission of large volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as monoterpenes (MTs) and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) are key precursors to the formation and growth of atmospheric particles. However, controlled environment studies to elucidate emission responses to temperature and light are still sparse. In this study, the volatile contents and emission responses of Aleppo pine and Rosemary have been investigated. These two common Mediterranean species store semivolatiles inside (resin ducts) and outside (trichomes) their foliage tissues respectively. Both species emitted mainly MTs with basal emission rates of around 5 (Rosemary) and 10 (pine) μg g-1 h-1 and SQTs about one order of magnitude lower. In Aleppo pine, two volatile sources could be clearly distinguished: 1) de-novo synthesized emission of (E)-β-ocimene and linalool, which accounted for about 70% of the total VOC release, were not found in foliar VOC extracts and expressed light dependency (LD) and temperature responses typical for enzyme driven emissions; and 2) storage-derived emissions of various MTs and SQTs whose emissions increased exponentially with temperature, showed no light dependency and were all present in leaf extracts. In Rosemary, all emitted MTs and SQTs including many oxygenated compounds, showed responses typical for stored volatiles and were all found in leaf extracts. The emissions of individual volatiles or volatile classes could be well described with the commonly applied empirical algorithms developed for LD or non LD emissions. However, the shapes of the temperature responses, and hence the deduced coefficient values, were significantly different between oxygenated and non-oxygenated compounds. They also differed between the storage-derived emissions of the two plant species, for individual VOCs or VOC classes. We address the possible reasons for this variation in temperature responses and argue that they are mostly due to molecular interactions along the species specific leaf

  15. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. Strains to Control Fusarium circinatum in Pinus radiata Seedlings Evaluación de Cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. para Controlar Fusarium circinatum en Plántulas de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Moraga-Suazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell causes pine pitch canker, an important disease for conifers worldwide. F. circinatum was first detected in Chile in 2001 and to date is present in nurseries and clonal hedges from Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins Region to Los Rios Region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains to control F. circinatum in Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings in the absence of other effective control methods. Eighty-one Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains were evaluated through in vitro assays to determine their ability to act as antagonists of F. circinatum and 21 strains were tested for their ability to reduce post-emergence mortality and increase P. radiata survival under greenhouse conditions. During in vitro experiments, 15 strains of Trichoderma inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen by more than 60% and one strain of Clonostachys showed parasitism of F. circinatum hyphae. Greenhouse experiments showed no control of the disease when the antagonists were added to substrate after the pathogen. However, when the antagonists were added before the pathogen, four strains (Clonostachys UDC-32 and UDC-222 and Trichoderma UDC-23 and UDC-408 reduced post-emergence mortality between 80 and 100%. Among these strains, only Clonostachys UDC-222 significantly increased the survival of P. radiata seedlings. These results showed that Clonostachys UDC-222 has the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against F. circinatum in the production of P. radiata plants.Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell es el hongo que causa el cancro resinoso del pino, una enfermedad de importancia mundial en coníferas. En Chile, F. cicirnatum fue detectado por primera vez el año 2001 y a la fecha se encuentra presente en algunos viveros y huertos clonales desde la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins hasta la Región de Los R

  16. Leaf Physiological and Morphological Responses to Shade in Grass-Stage Seedlings and Young Trees of Longleaf Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Samuelson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Longleaf pine has been classified as very shade intolerant but leaf physiological plasticity to light is not well understood, especially given longleaf pine’s persistent seedling grass stage. We examined leaf morphological and physiological responses to light in one-year-old grass-stage seedlings and young trees ranging in height from 4.6 m to 6.3 m to test the hypothesis that young longleaf pine would demonstrate leaf phenotypic plasticity to light environment. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under ambient levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR or a 50% reduction in ambient PAR and whole branches of trees were shaded to provide a 50% reduction in ambient PAR. In seedlings, shading reduced leaf mass per unit area (LMA, the light compensation point, and leaf dark respiration (RD, and increased the ratio of light-saturated photosynthesis to RD and chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll expressed per unit leaf dry weight. In trees, shading reduced LMA, increased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll on a leaf dry weight basis, and increased allocation of total foliar nitrogen to chlorophyll nitrogen. Changes in leaf morphological and physiological traits indicate a degree of shade tolerance that may have implications for even and uneven-aged management of longleaf pine.

  17. Forecasting distributional responses of limber pine to climate change at management-relevant scales in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Monahan

    Full Text Available Resource managers at parks and other protected areas are increasingly expected to factor climate change explicitly into their decision making frameworks. However, most protected areas are small relative to the geographic ranges of species being managed, so forecasts need to consider local adaptation and community dynamics that are correlated with climate and affect distributions inside protected area boundaries. Additionally, niche theory suggests that species' physiological capacities to respond to climate change may be underestimated when forecasts fail to consider the full breadth of climates occupied by the species rangewide. Here, using correlative species distribution models that contrast estimates of climatic sensitivity inferred from the two spatial extents, we quantify the response of limber pine (Pinus flexilis to climate change in Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA. Models are trained locally within the park where limber pine is the community dominant tree species, a distinct structural-compositional vegetation class of interest to managers, and also rangewide, as suggested by niche theory. Model forecasts through 2100 under two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 W/m(2 show that the distribution of limber pine in the park is expected to move upslope in elevation, but changes in total and core patch area remain highly uncertain. Most of this uncertainty is biological, as magnitudes of projected change are considerably more variable between the two spatial extents used in model training than they are between RCPs, and novel future climates only affect local model predictions associated with RCP 8.5 after 2091. Combined, these results illustrate the importance of accounting for unknowns in species' climatic sensitivities when forecasting distributional scenarios that are used to inform management decisions. We discuss how our results for limber pine may be interpreted in the context of climate change

  18. No impact of transgenic nptII-leafy Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae) on Pseudocoremia suavis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) or its endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, E P J; Barraclough, E I; Kean, A M; Walter, C; Malone, L A

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the biosafety to insects of transgenic Pinus radiata D. Don containing the antibiotic resistance marker gene nptII and the reproductive control gene leafy, bioassays were conducted with an endemic lepidopteran pest of New Zealand plantation pine forests and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid. Larvae of the common forest looper, Pseudocoremia suavis (Butler), were fed from hatching on P. radiata needles from either one of two nptII-leafy transgenic clones, or an isogenic unmodified control line. For both unparasitized P. suavis and those parasitized by Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael), consuming transgenic versus control pine had no impact on larval growth rate or mass at any age, larval duration, survival, pupation or successful emergence as an adult. Total larval duration was 1 d (3%) longer in larvae fed nptII-2 than nptII-1, but this difference was considered trivial and neither differed from the control. In unparasitized P. suavis larvae, pine type consumed did not affect rate of pupation or adult emergence, pupal mass, or pupal duration. Pine type had no effect on the duration or survival of M. pulchricornis larval or pupal stages, mass of cocoons, stage at which they died, adult emergence, or fecundity. Parasitism by M. pulchricornis reduced P. suavis larval growth rate, increased the duration of the third larval stadium, and resulted in the death of all host larvae before pupation. The lack of impact of an exclusive diet of nptII-leafy transgenic pines on the life history of P. suavis and M. pulchricornis suggests that transgenic plantation pines expressing nptII are unlikely to affect insect populations in the field.

  19. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  20. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C; Shinneman, Douglas J; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2018-03-14

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  1. Productivity and cost of harvesting a stemwood biomass product from integrated cut-to-length harvest operations in Australian Pinus radiata plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D.; Strandgard, M.

    2014-01-01

    Significant quantities of woody biomass from the tops of trees and larger woody ‘waste’ pieces that fall outside existing sawlog and pulpwood specifications are left on site post final harvest in Australian radiata Pinus radiata (D. Don) (radiata pine) plantations. Woody biomass is a potential product for pulp making or energy generation. Commercial use of woody biomass from radiata pine plantations would add extra value to the Australian plantation estate through improved resource utilisation, and potentially reduced post-harvesting silvicultural costs. This study investigated the productivity and cost impact of the harvest and extraction to roadside of woody biomass in an integrated harvest operation in a typical Australian two machine (harvester/processor and forwarder), cut-to-length, clearfall operation in a mature, thinned radiata pine plantation. The harvest operation yielded 23 GMt/ha (5% of the total yield) of woody biomass (known as ‘fibreplus’), 443 GMt/ha of sawlogs and 28 GMt/ha of pulpwood. The mean quantity of biomass left on site was 128 GMt/ha, mainly consisting of branches and needles, sufficient to minimise nutrient loss and protect the soil from erosion. Woodchips derived from the fibreplus product were suitable for kraft pulp making, (when blended in small amounts with clean de-barked roundwood woodchips), and for energy generation. The method trialed with the fibreplus product being produced did not impact harvesting and processing productivity and costs, but extraction was 14% less productive. Through analysis of the productivities of each phase and development of a cost model the harvest and extraction of the fibreplus product was estimated to increase total unit costs by ∼4.9%. - Highlights: • Study of the productivity and cost impact of producing a woody biomass product. • We compared two scenarios – harvesting with and without the biomass product. • An additional 23 GMt/ha (5% of the total yield) of woody biomass

  2. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  3. Response of planted ponderosa pine seedlings to weed control by herbicide in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh

    1999-01-01

    The effects of competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of ponderosa pine seedlings with and without herbicide Pronone were characterized in this 1987-1990 study. Study areas were established in 36 plantations across western Montana on Champion International Corporation's timberland (currently owned by Plum Creek Timber Company). The study sites were divided...

  4. Plasticity in dendroclimatic response across the distribution range of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamopoulos, Stergios; Milios, Elias; Doganos, Dimitris; Bistinas, Ioannis; Aytug, B; Guven, K C; Boydak, Melih; Büntgen, Ulf; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Aldea, Jorge; Rigling, Andreas; Fischer, Erich M; Camarero, J Julio; Hayes, Michael J; Fatton, Vincent; Egli, Simon; Cams, Serdar; Çatal, Yilmaz Yılmaz; Cermak, J; De Luis, Martín Martin; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Novak, Klemen; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Raventós, José; Saz, Miguel Angel; Smith, Kevin T; Gričar, Jožica; Čufar, Katarina; Raventós, José; Fady, Bruno; Semerci, Hacer; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Fisher, James T; Neumann, Robert W; Mexal, John G; Fournier, T P; Battipaglia, G; Brossier, B; Carcaillet, C; Galván, J Diego; Camarero, J Julio; Ginzler, C; Büntgen, Ulf; Griggs, Carol; Pearson, Charlotte; Manning, Sturt W; Lorentzen, Brita; Guller, Bilgin; Isik, Kani; Cetinay, Senay; Körner, Christian; Sarris, Dimitrios; Christodoulakis, Dimitrios; Linares, Juan Carlos; Senhadji, Karim; Herrero, Asier; Hódar, José A; Liphschitz, Nili; Mendel, Zvi; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Camarero, J Julio; Hevia, Andrea; Madrigal-González, Jaime; Linares, Juan Carlos; Ballesteros-Canovas, Juan A; Sánchez-Miranda, Angela; Alfaro-Sánchez, Raquel; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Galván, J Diego; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Génova, Mar; Rigling, Andreas; Sarris, Dimitrios; Christodoulakis, Dimitrios; Körner, Christian; Siegwolf, Rolf; Körner, Christian; Touchan, Ramzi; Anchukaitis, K J; Shishov, V V; Sivrikaya, F; Attieh, J; Ketmen, M; Stephan, J; Mitsopoulos, I; Christou, Andreas K; Meko, David M; Garfin, Gregg M; Meko, David M; Funkhouser, Gary; Erkan, Nesat; Hughes, Malcolm K; Wallin, Brian S; Вендин, А В; Демкин, В И; Добронравова, М В

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the variability of the climate-growth relationship of Aleppo pine across its distribution range in the Mediterranean Basin. We constructed a network of tree-ring index chronologies from 63 sites across the region. Correlation function analysis identified the relationships of

  5. Response of dwarf mistletoe-infested ponderosa pine to thinning: 2. Dwarf mistletoe propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Roth; James W. Barrett

    1985-01-01

    Propagation of dwarf mistletoe in ponderosa pine saplings is little influenced by thinning overly dense stands to 250 trees per acre. Numerous plants that appear soon after thinning develop from formerly latent plants in the suppressed under-story. Subsequently, dwarf mistletoe propagates nearly as fast as tree crowns enlarge but the rate differs widely among trees....

  6. Ponderosa pine growth response to soil strength in the volcanic ash soils of central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. Parker; D.A. Maguire; D.D. Marshall; P. Cochran

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical harvesting and associated logging activities have the capacity to compact soil across large portions of harvest units. Two thinning treatments (felled only versus felled and skidded) in 70- to 80-year-old ponderosa pine stands were replicated at three sites with volcanic soils in central Oregon. Growth in diameter, height, and volume of residual trees were...

  7. Modeling survival, yield, volume partitioning and their response to thinning for longleaf pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Daniel J. Leduc; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper Jr; Lisa J Samuelson

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is an important tree species of the southeast U.S. Currently there is no comprehensive stand-level growth and yield model for the species. The model system described here estimates site index (SI) if dominant height (Hdom) and stand age are known (inversely, the model can project H

  8. Litter Decomposition and Soil Respiration Responses to Fuel-Reduction Treatments in Piedmond Loblolly Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Peter H. Anderson; Thomas A. Waldrop; Darren J. Lione; Victor B. Shelburne

    2004-01-01

    As part of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study, we measured the short-term effects of different fuel-management practices on leaf litter decomposition and soil respiration in loblolly pine stands on the upper Piedmont of South Carolina. These stands had been subjected to a factorial arrangement of experimental fuel-management treatments that included prescribed...

  9. Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.

    2011-12-01

    A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the

  10. Evolution of Pine Island Glacier subglacial conditions in response to 18 years of ice flow acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbourne, A.; Bougamont, M. H.; Christoffersen, P.; Cornford, S. L.; Nias, I.; Vaughan, D.; Smith, A.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctica's main contribution to sea-level rise originates from the Amundsen Coast, when warm ocean water intrudes onto the continental shelf. As a result, strong melting beneath the ice shelves induces thinning near the grounding line of glaciers, which is ensued by large ice flow speed up diffusing rapidly inland. In particular, ice loss from Pine Island Glacier (PIG) accounts for 20% of the total ice loss in West Antarctica, amounting to 0.12 mm yr-1 of global sea-level rise. Forecasting the future flow of Amundsen Coast glaciers is however hindered by large uncertainties regarding how the thinning initiated at the grounding line is transmitted upstream, and how the grounded flow will ultimately respond. This work aims at elucidating the role of subglacial processes beneath PIG tributaries in modulating the ice flow response to frontal perturbations. We used the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM 2.0) to perform numerical inversions of PIG surface velocity as observed in 1996 and 2014. Over that time period, ice flow acceleration has been widespread over PIG's basin, and the inversions provide insights into the related evolution of the basal thermal and stress conditions. We assume the latter to be directly related to changes in the properties of a soft sediment (till) layer known to exist beneath PIG. We find that the overall bed strength has weakened by 18% in the region of enhanced flow, and that the annual melt production for PIG catchment increased by 25% between 1996 and 2014. Specifically, regions of high melt production are located in the southern tributaries, where the overall stronger bed allows for more frictional melting. However, we find no significant and widespread change in the basal strength of that region, and we infer that the water produced is transported away in a concentrated hydrological system, without much interaction with the till layer. In contrast, we find that relatively less basal melting occurs elsewhere in the catchment, where the

  11. Responses of two genetically superior loblolly pine clonal ideotypes to a severe ice storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren S. Pile; Christopher A. Maier; G. Geoff Wang; Dapao Yu; Tim M. Shearman

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, such as major ice storms, can have severe impacts on southern forests. We investigated the damage inflicted by a severe ice storm that occurred in February 2014 on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) ideotypes in Cross, South Carolina located in the southeastern coastal plain. The ‘‘narrow crown”...

  12. Physiological responses of ponderosa pine in western Montana to thinning, prescribed fire and burning season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Anna; Peters, Gregory D; McIntyre, Lorna R; Harrington, Michael G

    2005-03-01

    Low-elevation ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws.) forests of the northern Rocky Mountains historically experienced frequent low-intensity fires that maintained open uneven-aged stands. A century of fire exclusion has contributed to denser ponderosa pine forests with greater competition for resources, higher tree stress and greater risk of insect attack and stand-destroying fire. Active management intended to restore a semblance of the more sustainable historic stand structure and composition includes selective thinning and prescribed fire. However, little is known about the relative effects of these management practices on the physiological performance of ponderosa pine. We measured soil water and nitrogen availability, physiological performance and wood radial increment of second growth ponderosa pine trees at the Lick Creek Experimental Site in the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, 8 and 9 years after the application of four treatments: thinning only; thinning followed by prescribed fire in the spring; thinning followed by prescribed fire in the fall; and untreated controls. Volumetric soil water content and resin capsule ammonium did not differ among treatments. Resin capsule nitrate in the control treatment was similar to that in all other treatments, although burned treatments had lower nitrate relative to the thinned-only treatment. Trees of similar size and canopy condition in the three thinned treatments (with and without fire) displayed higher leaf-area-based photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and mid-morning leaf water potential in June and July, and higher wood radial increment relative to trees in control units. Specific leaf area, mass-based leaf nitrogen content and carbon isotope discrimination did not vary among treatments. Our results suggest that, despite minimal differences in soil resource availability, trees in managed units where basal area was reduced had improved gas exchange and growth compared with trees in

  13. Selection and evaluation of Rhizobial strains of Vigna radiata L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Selection and evaluation of Rhizobial strains of Vigna radiata L. beneficial to ... This study aimed to select suitable strains that can be used as inoculants to enhance legume production and simultaneously reduce the use of ... contributor to natural or biological N2 fixation and allows legumes to grow in the ...

  14. Long-term trends of changes in pine and oak foliar nitrogen metabolism in response to chronic nitrogen amendments at Harvard Forest, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Swathi A. Turlapati; Stephanie Long; William H. McDowell; Subhash C. Minocha

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the long-term (1995-2008) trends in foliar and sapwood metabolism, soil solution chemistry and tree mortality rates in response to chronic nitrogen (N) additions to pine and hardwood stands at the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Common stress-related metabolites like polyamines (PAs), free amino acids (AAs) and inorganic elements...

  15. Growth and physiology of loblolly pine in response to long-term resource management: defining growth potential in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; John Butnor; Chris Maier; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt Johnsen; Michael Kane

    2008-01-01

    Leaf physiology and stem growth were assessed in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in response to 10 to 11 years of treatment with weed control (W), weed control plus irrigation (WI), weed control plus irrigation and fertigation (WIF), or weed control plus irrigation, fertigation, and pest control (WIFP) to determine whether increased resource...

  16. Characterization of seasonal reproductive and stress steroid hormones in wild Radiated Tortoises, Astrochelys radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currylow, Andrea F T; Rafeliarisoa, Tsilavo H; Louis, Edward E; Stanford, Craig B; Randrianjafizanaka, Soary T; Chinn, Sarah M; Crocker, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    The critically endangered Radiated Tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) is endemic to the southern coastlines of Madagascar. Once common, wild populations of this tortoise have undergone dramatic declines in recent years. Although there have been studies documenting reproductive activities, reproductive physiological parameters are unknown yet may be crucial in the recovery of the species. Over four research seasons in remote field locations native to A. radiata, we surveyed for, radio-tracked, and sampled wild, free ranging tortoises. We sampled and measured stress and reproductive parameters (corticosterone [CORT], testosterone [T], estradiol-17β [E2], and progesterone [P]) in 311 plasma samples from 203 wild A. radiata, capturing their active period. Generally, hormone concentrations were associated with body condition, temperature, and humidity. There was wide variation in CORT that varied monthly and by group. Juvenile tortoises maintained more than twice the mean basal CORT concentrations than either adult sex, with the most dramatic distinctions in the middle of the wet season. For adult sex hormones, the last months of the dry season and into the wet season when ground humidities are low and just begin to rise prior to temperature declines, male T concentrations gradually increased to a peak before returning to near undetectable values into the dry season. We had limited data for T concentrations in females, but found average T concentrations were much lower than in males and positively correlated with larger female home range sizes. For female hormone cycles, E2 also peaked in the early 1/3 of the wet season along with male T, and was followed by an uptick in P which correlates to the putative ovulatory cycle. Females tracked over four years showed variation in patterns of P, indicating that number and frequency of clutches vary. Our results suggest that 1) there is high species plasticity in response to stress; 2) A. radiata reproductive cycling is somewhat

  17. Molecular response to water stress in two contrasting Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Barbero, María Del Carmen; Cervera, María Teresa; Collada, Carmen; Soto, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Adaptation to water stress has determined the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. Water stress is forecasted to increase drastically in the next decades in certain regions, such as in the Mediterranean basin. Consequently, a proper knowledge of the response and adaptations to drought stress is essential for the correct management of plant genetic resources. However, most of the advances in the understanding of the molecular response to water stress have been attained in angiosperms, and are not always applicable to gymnosperms. In this work we analyse the transcriptional response of two emblematic Mediterranean pines, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea, which show noticeable differences in their performance under water stress. Using microarray analysis, up to 113 genes have been detected as significantly induced by drought in both species. Reliability of expression patterns has been confirmed by RT-PCR. While induced genes with similar profiles in both species can be considered as general candidate genes for the study of drought response in conifers, genes with diverging expression patterns can underpin the differences displayed by these species under water stress. Most promising candidate genes for drought stress response include genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycosyltransferases or galactosidases, sugar transporters, dehydrins and transcription factors. Additionally, differences in the molecular response to drought and polyethylene-glycol-induced water stress are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of drought on plant functioning has received considerable attention in recent years, however our understanding of the response of carbon and water coupling to drought in terrestrial ecosystems still needs to be improved. A severe soil moisture drought occurred in southern Finland in the late summer of 2006. In this study, we investigated the response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris on the daily time scale mainly using eddy covariance flux data from the Hyytiälä (southern Finland flux site. In addition, simulation results from the JSBACH land surface model were evaluated against the observed results. Based on observed data, the ecosystem level water use efficiency (EWUE; the ratio of gross primary production, GPP, to evapotranspiration, ET showed a decrease during the severe soil moisture drought, while the inherent water use efficiency (IWUE; a quantity defined as EWUE multiplied with mean daytime vapour pressure deficit, VPD increased and the underlying water use efficiency (uWUE, a metric based on IWUE and a simple stomatal model, is the ratio of GPP multiplied with a square root of VPD to ET was unchanged during the drought. The decrease in EWUE was due to the stronger decline in GPP than in ET. The increase in IWUE was because of the decreased stomatal conductance under increased VPD. The unchanged uWUE indicates that the trade-off between carbon assimilation and transpiration of the boreal Scots pine forest was not disturbed by this drought event at the site. The JSBACH simulation showed declines of both GPP and ET under the severe soil moisture drought, but to a smaller extent compared to the observed GPP and ET. Simulated GPP and ET led to a smaller decrease in EWUE but a larger increase in IWUE because of the severe soil moisture drought in comparison to observations. As in the observations, the simulated uWUE showed no changes in the drought event. The

  19. Inconsistent Growth Response to Fertilization and Thinning of Lodgepole Pine in the Rocky Mountain Foothills Is Linked to Site Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization of conifers often results in highly variable growth responses across sites which are difficult to predict. The goal of this study was to predict the growth response of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia crop trees to thinning and fertilization using basic site and foliar characteristics. Fifteen harvest-origin stands along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains of Alberta were subjected to six treatments including two levels of thinning (thinning to 2500 stems per hectare and a control and three types of fertilization (nitrogen-only fertilization, complete fertilization including nitrogen with added P, K, S, Mg, and B, and no fertilization. After three growing seasons, the growth response and foliar status of the crop trees were examined and this response was related to site and foliar characteristics. There was a small and highly variable additive response to fertilization and thinning; diameter growth of crop trees increased relative to the controls an average of 0.3 cm with thinning, 0.3 cm with either N-only or complete fertilization and 0.6 cm when thinned and fertilized. The increase in diameter growth with thinning and nitrogen-only fertilization was positively related to site index but not to any other site factors or pretreatment foliar variables such as nutrient concentrations, ratios, or thresholds.

  20. Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Goeminne, Geert; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the lignin-related gene cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in the Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system impacted both the metabolite profile and the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines. UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolite profiling identified elevated levels of p-coumaroyl hexose, caffeic acid hexoside and ferulic acid hexoside in CCR-RNAi lines, indicating a redirection of metabolite flow within phenylpropanoid metabolism. Dilignols derived from coniferyl alcohol such as G(8-5)G, G(8-O-4)G and isodihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (IDDDC) were substantially depleted, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in coniferyl alcohol biosynthesis. Severe CCR suppression almost halved lignin content in TEs based on a depletion of both H-type and G-type lignin, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in the biosynthesis of both lignin types. 2D-NMR studies revealed minor changes in the H:G-ratio and consequently a largely unchanged interunit linkage distribution in the lignin polymer. However, unusual cell wall components including ferulate and unsaturated fatty acids were identified in TEs by thioacidolysis, pyrolysis-GC/MS and/or 2D-NMR in CCR-RNAi lines, providing new insights into the consequences of CCR suppression in pine. Interestingly, CCR suppression substantially promoted pyrolytic breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides, a phenotype most likely caused by the incorporation of acidic compounds into the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines.

  1. Silvicultural manipulation and site effect on above and belowground biomass equations for young Pinus radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubilar, Rafael A.; Allen, H. Lee; Alvarez, Jose S.; Albaugh, Timothy J.; Fox, Thomas R.; Stape, Jose L.

    2010-01-01

    There is little understanding of how silvicultural treatments, during the early stages of tree development, affect allometric relationships. We developed and compared stem, branch, foliage, coarse and fine root biomass, and leaf area estimation equations, for four-year-old genetically improved radiata pine trees grown on three contrasting soil-site conditions. At each site, selected trees were destructively sampled from a control (shovel planted, no weed control, fertilized with 2 g of boron), a shovel planted + weed control (2 first years) + complete fertilization (nitrogen + phosphorus + boron 2 first years + potassium 2nd year), and a soil tillage (subsoil at 60 cm) + weed control (first 2 years) + complete fertilization treatment. Tissues were separated into foliage, branch, stem, fine and coarse roots (>2 mm). Regression equations for each tree biomass tissue versus leaf area were fit for each site and compared among treatments and sites with the same genetic material. Our results indicated that individual tree biomasses for young plantations are affected by silvicultural treatment and site growing conditions. Higher variability in estimates was found for foliage and branches due to the ephemeral nature of these components. Stem biomass equations vary less, but differences in biomass equations were found among sites and treatments. Coarse root biomass estimates were variable but less than expected, considering the gradient among sites. Similar to stem biomass, a simple positive general linear relationship between root collar diameter, or diameter at breast height with coarse roots biomass was developed across sites and treatments.

  2. Golgi enrichment and proteomic analysis of developing Pinus radiata xylem by free-flow electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet T Parsons

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the contribution of Golgi proteins to cell wall and wood formation in any woody plant species is limited. Currently, little Golgi proteomics data exists for wood-forming tissues. In this study, we attempted to address this issue by generating and analyzing Golgi-enriched membrane preparations from developing xylem of compression wood from the conifer Pinus radiata. Developing xylem samples from 3-year-old pine trees were harvested for this purpose at a time of active growth and subjected to a combination of density centrifugation followed by free flow electrophoresis, a surface charge separation technique used in the enrichment of Golgi membranes. This combination of techniques was successful in achieving an approximately 200-fold increase in the activity of the Golgi marker galactan synthase and represents a significant improvement for proteomic analyses of the Golgi from conifers. A total of thirty known Golgi proteins were identified by mass spectrometry including glycosyltransferases from gene families involved in glucomannan and glucuronoxylan biosynthesis. The free flow electrophoresis fractions of enriched Golgi were highly abundant in structural proteins (actin and tubulin indicating a role for the cytoskeleton during compression wood formation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data associated with this study have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000557.

  3. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker-Blom, P.; Kellomaki, S.; Smolander, H.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  4. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  5. Response of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) to Mechanical Release, Competition, and Drought in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne T. Swank

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of low-quality, natural mixed pine hardwood ecosystems, containing a mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) dominated understory, to more productive eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.)/mixed-hardwood systems is a common prescription on relatively xeric southern Appalachian forest sites. We examined the effects of...

  6. Seasonal influences on the rooting response of Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rooting ability of the vegetative cutting depends upon the various factors: age, size, and diameter of cutting, season, rooting substrate and concentration of the applied growth hormone. For assessing the seasonal variation in rooting ability of shoot, cuttings were taken from 4 year old hedges. Shoot cuttings were collected after every two months of hedging spring (March, summer (June, autumn (September and winter (December and treated with 4000 ppm Indole Butyric Acid (IBA, mixed with talc powder and planted in vermiculite filled beds. Suitable control was also maintained, wherein only talc powder was applied to the basal portion of cuttings. Periodical observations were taken on cuttings, with regard to root initiation. The cuttings were uprooted after 12 weeks of planting and observations were recorded. Highly significant differences were observed between root length, shoot length, number of roots per cutting and rooting percentage. This has led to the evaluation of a standard technique for application of mass clonal propagation of Chir pine during summer season (June, which would result into a good success in rooting percentage. This technique could also be helpful in the establishment of germplasm banks of desired genotypes and Clonal Seed Orchards (CSOs. Further, this will also help in overcoming the problem of stock and scion incompatibility, which is commonly faced, when Clonal Seed Orchards are established through grafted material. 

  7. Naturally Occurring Compound Can Protect Pines from the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Strom; R.A. Goyer; J.L. Hayes

    1995-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, is the most destructive insect pest of southern pine forests. This tiny insect, smaller than a grain of rice, is responsible for killing pine timber worth millions of dollars on a periodic basis in Louisiana.

  8. Modeling lodgepole pine radial growth relative to climate and genetics using universal growth-trend response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Sierra C; LeMay, Valerie M; Aitken, Sally N

    2011-04-01

    Forests strongly affect Earth's carbon cycles, making our ability to forecast forest-productivity changes associated with rising temperatures and changes in precipitation increasingly critical. In this study, we model the influence of climate on annual radial growth using lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees grown for 34 years in a large provenance experiment in western Canada. We use a random-coefficient modeling approach to build universal growth-trend response functions that simultaneously incorporate the impacts of different provenance and site climates on radial growth trends under present and future annual (growth-year), summer, and winter climate regimes. This approach provides new depth to traditional quantitative genetics population response functions by illustrating potential changes in population dominance over time, as well as indicating the age and size at which annual growth begins declining for any population growing in any location under any present or future climate scenario within reason, given the ages and climatic conditions sampled. Our models indicate that lodgepole pine radial-growth levels maximize between 3.9 degrees and 5.1 degrees C mean growth-year temperature. This translates to productivity declining by the mid-21st century in southern and central British Columbia (BC), while increasing beyond the 2080s in northern BC and Yukon, as temperatures rise. Relative to summer climate indices, productivity is predicted to decline continuously through the 2080s in all locations, while relative to winter climate variables, the opposite trend occurs, with the growth increases caused by warmer winters potentially offsetting the summer losses. Trees from warmer provenances, i.e., from the center of the species range, perform best in nearly all of our present and future climate-scenario models. We recommend that similar models be used to analyze population growth trends relative to annual and intra-annual climate in other large-scale provenance

  9. Historical land-use influences the long-term stream turbidity response to a wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Evan T; Dyer, Fiona; Wright, Daniel W; Levings, Chris

    2014-02-01

    Wildfires commonly result in an increase in stream turbidity. However, the influence of pre-fire land-use practices on post-fire stream turbidity is not well understood. The Lower Cotter Catchment (LCC) in south-eastern Australia is part of the main water supply catchment for Canberra with land in the catchment historically managed for a mix of conservation (native eucalypt forest) and pine (Pinus radiata) plantation. In January 2003, wildfires burned almost all of the native and pine forests in the LCC. A study was established in 2005 to determine stream post-fire turbidity recovery within the native and pine forest areas of the catchment. Turbidity data loggers were deployed in two creeks within burned native forest and burned pine forest areas to determine turbidity response to fire in these areas. As a part of the study, we also determined changes in bare soil in the native and pine forest areas since the fire. The results suggest that the time, it takes turbidity levels to decrease following wildfire, is dependent upon the preceding land-use. In the LCC, turbidity levels decreased more rapidly in areas previously with native vegetation compared to areas which were previously used for pine forestry. This is likely because of a higher percentage of bare soil areas for a longer period of time in the ex-pine forest estate and instream stores of fine sediment from catchment erosion during post-fire storm events. The results of our study show that the previous land-use may exert considerable control over on-going turbidity levels following a wildfire.

  10. Growth response and nutrient uptake of blue pine (Pinus wallichiana seedlings inoculated with rhizosphere microorganisms under temperate nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ahangar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants (Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens,Laccaria laccata inoculated either individually or in combinationsignificantly improved the growth and biomass of blue pine seedlings. The ECM fungus Laccaria laccata, when inoculated individually, showed significantly higher plant growth, followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. The combined inoculation of rhizosphere microorganisms showed synergistic growth promoting action and proved superior in enhancing the growth of blue pine than individual inoculation. Co-inoculation of L. laccata with P. fluorescens resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal root colonization. Uptake of nutrients (N, P, K was significantly improved by microbial inoculants, tested individually or in combination. Combined inoculation of L. laccata with T. harzianum and P. fluorescens significantly increased in N, P and K contents in blue pine seedlings as compared to control. Acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere of blue pine seedlings was also enhanced by these microorganisms. L. laccata exhibited higher acid phosphatase activity followed by P. fluorescens.

  11. Feeding response of Ips paraconfusus to phloem and phloem metabolites of Heterobasidion annosum-inoculated ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNee, William R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Storer, Andrew J; Wood, David L; Gordon, Thomas R

    2003-05-01

    In studies of feeding by the bark beetle, Ips paraconfusus, two pine stilbenes (pinosylvin and pinosylvin methyl ether), ferulic acid glucoside, and enantiomers of the four most common sugars present in ponderosa pine phloem (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and raffinose) did not stimulate or reduce male feeding when assayed on wet alpha-cellulose with or without stimulatory phloem extractives present. When allowed to feed on wet alpha-cellulose containing sequential extracts (hexane, methanol, and water) of ponderosa pine phloem, methanol and water extractives stimulated feeding, but hexane extractives did not. Males confined in wet alpha-cellulose containing aqueous or organic extracts of culture broths derived from phloem tissue and containing the root pathogen. Heterobasidion annosum, ingested less substrate than beetles confined to control preparations. In an assay using logs from uninoculated ponderosa pines, the mean lengths of phloem in the digestive tracts increased as time spent feeding increased. Males confined to the phloem of basal logs cut from ponderosa pines artificially inoculated with H. annosum ingested significantly less phloem than beetles in logs cut from trees that were (combined) mock-inoculated or uninoculated and did not contain the pathogen. However, individual pathogen-containing treatments were not significantly different from uninoculated controls. It was concluded that altered feeding rates are not a major factor which may explain why diseased ponderosa pines are colonized by I. paraconfusus.

  12. A climate response function explaining most of the variation in the forest floor needle mass and the needle decomposition in pine forests across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurz-Besson, C.; Coûteaux, M.M.; Berg, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    The forest floor needle mass and the decomposition rates of pine needle litter in a European climate transect were studied in order to estimate the impact of climate change on forest soil carbon sequestration. Eight pine forests preserved from fire were selected along a climatic latitudinal...... gradient from 40° to 60° N, from Spain and Portugal to Sweden. The forest floor (Oi and Oe layers) was sorted into five categories of increasing decomposition level according to morphological criteria. The needle mass loss in each category was determined using a linear mass density method. The needle...... and a recalcitrant one. NF was correlated with actual evapotranspiration (AET) whereas the decomposition parameters (decomposition rate of the decomposable fraction, first year mass loss, forest floor needle mass, age of the most-decomposed category) were related to a combined response function to climate (CRF...

  13. Defense Response in Slash Pine: Chitosan Treatment Alters the Abundance of Specific mRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; John M. Davis

    1997-01-01

    We used differential display to identify chitosan responsive cDNAs in slashpine cell cultures. Two clones that showed increased mRNA abundance had sequence similarity to genes with roles in major plant defense responses, clone 18 to cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, and clone 30 to chitinase.

  14. Sub-Compartment Variation in Tree Height, Stem Diameter and Stocking in a Pinus radiata D. Don Plantation Examined Using Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Saremi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Better information regarding the spatial variability of height, Diameter at Breast Height (DBH and stocking could improve inventory estimates at the operational Planning Unit since these parameters are used extensively in allometric equations, including stem volume, biomass and carbon calculations. In this study, the influence of stand stocking on height and DBH of two even aged radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don stands were investigated using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data at a study site in New South Wales, Australia. Both stands were characterized by irregular stocking due to patchy establishment and self-thinning in the absence of any silvicultural thinning events. For the purpose of this study, a total of 34 plots from a 34 year old site and 43 plots from a nine year old site were established, from which a total of 447 trees were sampled. Within these plots, DBH and height measurements were measured and their relationships with stocking were evaluated. LiDAR was used for height estimation as well as stem counts in fixed plots (stocking. The results showed a significant relationship between stem DBH and stocking. At both locations, trees with larger diameters were found on lower stocking sites. Height values were also significantly correlated with stocking, with taller trees associated with high stocking. These results were further verified of additional tree samples, with independent field surveys for DBH and LiDAR-derived metrics for height analysis. This study confirmed the relationship between P. radiata tree heights and stem diameter with stocking and demonstrated the capacity of LiDAR to capture sub-compartment variation in these tree-level attributes.

  15. Saproxylic community, guild and species responses to varying pheromone components of a pine bark beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebeste, Iñaki; Lencina, José L; Pajares, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Some bark beetle species (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) produce aggregation pheromones that allow coordinated attack on their conifer hosts. As a new saproxylic habitat is founded, an assemblage of associated beetles kairomonally respond to bark beetle infochemicals. Ips sexdentatus is one of the major damaging insects of Pinus spp. in Southern Europe. Its response to varying ipsenol (Ie) percentages in relation to ipsdienol (Id) was studied in northwestern Spain, along with the entire saproxylic beetle assemblage captured at multiple-funnel traps. Response profile modeling was undertaken for I. sexdentatus sexes and sex-ratios, associated species and for selected trophic groups using a reference Gaussian model. In addition, the effects on the saproxylic assemblages were analyzed. I. sexdentatus response curve peaked at 22.7% Ie content, while remaining taxa that could be modeled, peaked above ca. 40% Ie. Predator guilds showed a linear relationship with Ie proportion, while competitors showed a delayed response peak. Consequently, species assemblages differed markedly between varying pheromone component mixtures. Given that the evaluated pheromonal proportions mimicked that of logs being colonized by I. sexdentatus, results suggested that the registered differential responses at different levels might provide I. sexdentatus with a temporal window that maximizes conspecific attraction while reducing interference with competitor and predatory guilds. Described responses might help improve the monitoring of the population status of target bark beetles and their associates, but also point toward the by-catch of many natural enemies, as well as rare saproxylic beetle species, interfering with the aims of sustainable forest management.

  16. Flight Dynamics and Abundance of Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae in Different Sawmills from Northern Spain: Differences between Local Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae and Southern France Incoming P. pinaster Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2009, the windstorm “Klaus” struck the southern part of France, affecting 37.9 million m3 of maritime pine Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pinales: Pinaceae. This breeding plant material favored the outbreak of Ips sexdentatus (Börner (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae. As much of this timber is imported to the Basque Country (northern Spain, a potential risk to conifer stands is generated, due to the emergence of the incoming beetles. Thus, flight dynamics and beetle abundance were compared in different sawmills, according to the timber species (either local P. radiata D. Don or imported P. pinaster. A maximum flight peak of I. sexdentatus was observed in mid-June in P. pinaster importing sawmills, whereas a second lighter peak occurred in September. In contrast, only a maximum peak in mid-June was observed in P. radiata inhabiting beetles, being significantly smaller than in local P. pinaster trading sawmills. In addition, significant differences were found between imported P. pinaster and P. radiata regarding the number of insects beneath the bark. The development of IPM strategies for controlling I. sexdentatus populations is recommended, due to the insect abundance found in P. pinaster imported timber.

  17. Juvenile Southern Pine Response to Fertilization Is Influenced by Soil Drainage and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Albaugh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined three hypotheses in a nutrient dose and application frequency study installed in juvenile (aged 2–6 years old Pinus stands at 22 sites in the southeastern United States. At each site, eight or nine treatments were installed where nitrogen was applied at different rates (0, 67, 134, 268 kg ha−1 and frequencies (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 years in two or four replications. Phosphorus was applied at 0.1 times the nitrogen rate and other elements were added as needed based on foliar nutrient analysis to insure that nutrient imbalances were not induced with treatment. Eight years after treatment initiation, the site responses were grouped based on texture and drainage characteristics: soil group 1 consisted of poorly drained soils with a clayey subsoil, group 2 consisted of poorly to excessively drained spodic soils or soils without a clay subsoil, and group 3 consisted of well-drained soils with a clayey subsoil. We accepted the first hypothesis that site would be a significant factor explaining growth responses. Soil group was also a significant factor explaining growth response. We accepted our second hypothesis that the volume growth-cumulative dose response function was not linear. Volume growth reached an asymptote in soil groups 1 and 3 between cumulative nitrogen doses of 300–400 kg ha−1. Volume growth responses continued to increase up to 800 kg ha−1 of cumulatively applied nitrogen for soil group 2. We accepted our third hypothesis that application rate and frequency did not influence the growth response when the cumulative nitrogen dose was equivalent. There was no difference in the growth response for comparisons where a cumulative nitrogen dose of 568 kg ha−1 was applied as 134 kg ha−1 every two years or as 269 kg ha−1 every four years, or where 269 kg ha−1 of nitrogen was applied as four applications of 67 kg ha−1 every two years or as two applications of 134 kg ha−1 every four years. Clearly, the sites examined

  18. Caulogenic induction in cotyledons of stone pine (Pinus pinea): relationship between organogenic response and benzyladenine trends in selected families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Candela; Rodríguez, Ana; Centeno, María Luz; Ordás, Ricardo J; Fernández, Belén

    2009-07-15

    Adventitious bud formation in stone pine cotyledons cultured in the presence of benzyladenine (BA) has been proposed as a model for the study of in vitro shoot organogenesis in conifers. This is because of its advantageous characteristics including the requirement of only one plant growth regulator (BA), the synchronous fashion of its induction, and the homogeneity and low degree of differentiation of cotyledons. Although optimal culture conditions have been developed and are currently in use, we still lack data for BA dynamics in cotyledons cultured under these conditions, and the morphological description of the early induction stages has not, until now, been approached from a histological perspective. Consequently, this is the focus of the present report. Additionally, we examined uptake and metabolism of BA in cotyledons from two selected families, previously characterized by, and selected for, the difference in the magnitude of their organogenic response. Media transfer experiments established that cotyledons should be in contact with 44.4 microM BA for at least 6h to obtain any caulogenic response (minimum shoot-induction period). Histological observations, carried out here for the first time in this species, determined that meristemoid structures had already begun to appear in explants within 12 h of culture. Moreover, results from the BA uptake and metabolism experiments indicated that the point at which explants reached the maximum concentration of active forms of BA (276.60 microM at 6 h) and the onset of the determination phase of shoot organogenesis were directly related. A direct relationship was also observed between the intensity of the caulogenic response in cotyledons from families 36 and 61 and the endogenous concentration of BA and its riboside at the start of the induction phase. Hence, family 36, characterized by its higher bud production, reached concentrations of 251.56 microM, while family 61, selected for its low bud-producing trait, only

  19. Electrophysiological and olfactometer responses of two histerid predators to three pine bark beetle pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    William P. Shepherd; Brian T. Sullivan; Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig

    2005-01-01

    We measured electrophysiological responses in the antennae of two predaceous hister beetles, Platysoma parallelum and Plegaderus transversus, exposes to racemic mixtures of primary aggregation pheromones of scolytid bark beetle prey, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and frontalin. No significant differences were found for either histerid...

  20. The physiological basis for regeneration response to variable retention harvest treatments in three pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Powers; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Brian J. Palik; Christopher R. Webster

    2011-01-01

    Variable retention harvesting (VRH) is promoted for enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem processes in managed forests, but regeneration responses to the complex stand structures that result from VRH are poorly understood. We analyzed foliar stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O...

  1. Trait-specific responses of Scots pine to irrigation on a short vs long time scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feichtinger, L.M.; Eilmann, Britta; Buchmann, Nina; Rigling, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In xeric environments, an increase in drought is related to reduced forest productivity and to enhanced mortality. However, predictions of future forest development remain difficult as the mechanisms underlying the responses of mature trees to long-term variations in water availability are not

  2. Short-term carbon partitioning fertilizer responses vary among two full-sib loblolly pine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy P. Stovall; John R. Seiler; Thomas R. Fox

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fertilizer application on the partitioning of gross primary productivity (GPP) between contrasting full-sib clones of Pinus taeda (L.). Our objective was to determine if fertilizer growth responses resulted from similar short-term changes to partitioning. A modeling approach incorporating respiratory carbon (C) fluxes,...

  3. Phytoplankton biomass and pigment responses to Fe amendments in the Pine Island and Amundsen polynyas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.M.; Alderkamp, A.C.; Thuróczy, C.E.; van Dijken, G.L.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Arrigo, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient addition experiments were performed during the austral summer in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean) to investigate the availability of organically bound iron (Fe) to the phytoplankton communities, as well as assess their response to Fe amendment. Changes in autotrophic biomass, pigment

  4. Soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed burning in young Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Altun, Lokman

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important tool in the management of forest ecosystems. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in Turkey, few studies have addressed the influence of such disturbances on soil properties and root biomass dynamics. In this study, soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-year-old corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands in Kastamonu, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2003. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (0-2 mm diameter) and small root (2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using sequential coring method. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.65 to 2.19 g Cm(-2) d(-1) among all sites. Soil respiration rates were significantly higher in burned sites than in controls. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine root biomass was significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 4940 kg ha(-1) for burned and 5450 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Soil pH was significantly higher in burned sites than in control sites in 15-35 cm soil depth. Soil organic matter content did not differ significantly between control and burned sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of forest stands in the study area.

  5. Response of pine hypocotyl sections to growth regulators and related substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zakrzewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth response of Pinus silvestris hypocotyl sections to some synthetic growth regulators and related substances was studied. Elongation of hypocotyl sections was stimulated by naphtaleneacetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, in-dole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, indoleaoetic amide, indoleacetic nitrile and coumarin. Indole-3-acetic acid and naphtaleneacetic acid extended period of growth up to 16 and 24 hours, respectively. Growth was inhibited by kinetin, trans-cinnamic acid and 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid. No effect of gibberellic acid, tryptophan and biotin was observed.

  6. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Emmingham, W.H.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90 Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90 Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90 Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  7. Dose-Dependent and Species-Specific Responses of Pine Bark Beetles (Coeoptera: Scolytidae) to Monoterpenes in Association with Phermones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden

    2000-01-01

    Monoterpenes affected the attraction of three sympatric species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to pheromone-baited multiple-funnel traps in stands of lodgepole pine. Catches of Ips pini(Say) in traps baited with its pheromone, ipsdienol, were directly related to the release rates of 3-carene, ß-pphellandrene, and ß-pinene. Catches of

  8. Walking response of the Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus, to novel plant odors host in a laboratory olfactometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. J. Walter; R. C. Venette; S. A. Kells; S. J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    When an herbivorous insect enters a new geographic area, it will select host plants based on short and long distance cues. A conifer-feeding bark beetle that has been recently introduced to North America, the Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), has a potentially wide host range, especially among members of the Pinaceae....

  9. Response of loblolly pine to complete woody and herbaceous control: projected yields and economic outcomes - the COMProject

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; R.L. Busby; B.R. Zutter; S.M. Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold

    1995-01-01

    Abstract.Age-8 and -9 data from the 13 study plantations of the Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) were used to project yields and derive economic outcomes for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). COMP treatments were chop-burn, complete woody plant control, complete herbaceous plant control for 4 years, and complete woody...

  10. Future Forests Webinar Series, Webinar Proceedings and Summary: Ongoing Research and Management Responses to the Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Matonis; R. Hubbard; K. Gebert; B. Hahn; C. Regan

    2014-01-01

    The Future Forest Webinar Series facilitated dialogue between scientists and managers about the challenges and opportunities created by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic. The series consisted of six webinar facilitated by the USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, the Northern and Rocky Mountain Regions, and the Colorado Forest Restoration Institute. The series...

  11. Survival and sprouting responses of Chihuahua Pine after the Rodeo-Chediski Fire on the Mogollon Rim, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth H. Baumgartner; Peter Z. Fule

    2007-01-01

    Chihuahua pines (Pinus leiophylla Schiede and Deppe var. chihuahuana Engelmann) were surveyed on 11 study plots on the Mogollon Rim in east central Arizona to compare characteristics of trees that sprouted from the base or root collar after the Rodeo-Chediski fire with those of trees that did not sprout. The differences in trees...

  12. Intra-annual variation in responses by flying southern pine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to pheromone component endo-brevicomin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Cavell Brownie; JoAnne P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endobrevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component...

  13. Competitive responses of seedlings and understory plants in longleaf pine woodlands: separating canopy influences above and below ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Pecot; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik; Barry Moser; J. Kevin Hiers

    2007-01-01

    A trenching study was used to investigate above- and below-ground competition in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) woodland. Trenched and nontrenched plots were replicated in the woodland matrix, at gap edges, and in gap centers representing a range of overstory stocking. One-half of each plot received a herbicide treatment to remove the...

  14. Longleaf Pine Root System Development and Seedling Quality in Response to Copper Root Pruning and Cavity Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; James D. Haywood

    2011-01-01

    Cultural practices that modify root system structure in the plug of container-grown seedlings have the potential to improve root system function after planting. Our objective was to assess how copper root pruning affects the quality and root system development of longleaf pine seedlings grown in three cavity sizes in a greenhouse. Copper root pruning increased seedling...

  15. Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) impact on southern pine seedlings and response to a field test of cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2009-01-01

    The stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was found to cause a reduction in root volume (cm3) of loblolly pine at population densities equivalent of 125 nematodes/100 cm3 (6 in3) soil and greater. The results of a host range test conducted in containers under controlled conditions determined that buckwheat cultivar (Fagopryum esculentum...

  16. Understory vegetation response after 30 years of interval prescribed burning in two ponderosa pine sites in northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine A. Scudieri; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Sally M. Haase; Andrea E. Thode; Stephen S. Sackett

    2010-01-01

    Southwestern USA ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson var. scopulorum Engelm.) forests evolved with frequent surface fires and have changed dramatically over the last century. Overstory tree density has sharply increased while abundance of understory vegetation has declined primarily due to the near cessation of fires. We...

  17. Testing for linkage disequilibrium in the New Zealand radiata pine breeding population

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kumar; Craig Echt; P.L. Wilcox; T.E. Richardson

    2004-01-01

    Linkage analysis is commonly uscd to find marker-trait associations within the full-sib families of forest tree and other species. Study of marker-trait associations at the population level is termed linkage-disequilibrium (LD) mapping. A female-tester design comprising 200 full-sib families generated by crossing 40 pollen parents with five female parents was used to...

  18. Effect of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on radiata pine char structure and apparent gasification reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; R. Gupta; B. Moghtaderi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The knowledge of biomass char gasification kinetics has considerable importance in the design of advanced biomass gasifiers, some of which operate at high pressure. The char gasification kinetics themselves are influenced by char structure. In this study, the effects of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on the char structure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, digital cinematography, and surface area analysis. Char samples were prepared at pressures between 1 and 20 bar, temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000{degree}C, and heating rates between 20 and 500{degree}C/s. Our results indicate that pyrolysis conditions have a notable impact on the biomass char morphology. Pyrolysis pressure, in particular, was found to influence the size and the shape of char particles while high heating rates led to plastic deformation of particles (i.e. melting) resulting in smooth surfaces and large cavities. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Tensile behaviour of radiata pine with different moisture contents at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    that moisture and temperature can play a significant role in reducing stress during drying, regardless of the drying time. Properties of wood, such as tensile elastic information at elevated temperatures, are important for mechanical design, distortion modelling and understanding the fundamental behaviour...

  20. Proteomic analysis of Pinus radiata needles: 2-DE map and protein identification by LC/MS/MS and substitution-tolerant database searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valledor, Luis; Castillejo, Maria A; Lenz, Christof; Rodríguez, Roberto; Cañal, Maria J; Jorrín, Jesús

    2008-07-01

    Pinus radiata is one of the most economically important forest tree species, with a worldwide production of around 370 million m (3) of wood per year. Current selection of elite trees to be used in conservation and breeding programes requires the physiological and molecular characterization of available populations. To identify key proteins related to tree growth, productivity and responses to environmental factors, a proteomic approach is being utilized. In this paper, we present the first report of the 2-DE protein reference map of physiologically mature P. radiata needles, as a basis for subsequent differential expression proteomic studies related to growth, development, biomass production and responses to stresses. After TCA/acetone protein extraction of needle tissue, 549 +/- 21 well-resolved spots were detected in Coommassie-stained gels within the 5-8 pH and 10-100 kDa M(r) ranges. The analytical and biological variance determined for 450 spots were of 31 and 42%, respectively. After LC/MS/MS analysis of in-gel tryptic digested spots, proteins were identified by using the novel Paragon algorithm that tolerates amino acid substitution in the first-pass search. It allowed the confident identification of 115 out of the 150 protein spots subjected to MS, quite unusual high percentage for a poor sequence database, as is the case of P. radiata. Proteins were classified into 12 or 18 groups based on their corresponding cell component or biological process/pathway categories, respectively. Carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthetic enzymes predominate in the 2-DE protein profile of P. radiata needles.

  1. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  2. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  3. Chloroplastic responses of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings to ozone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul D; Palmer, Brent; Houpis, James L J; Smith, Mary K; Pushnik, James C

    2003-06-01

    Integrity of chloroplast membranes is essential to photosynthesis. Loss of thylakoid membrane integrity has been proposed as a consequence of ozone (O(3)) exposure and therefore may be a mechanistic basis for decreased photosynthetic rates commonly associated with ozone exposure. To investigate this hypothesis, Pinus ponderosa seedlings were exposed to ambient air or ozone concentrations maintained at 0.15 or 0.30 microliter l(-1) for 10 h day(-1) for 51 days during their second growing season. Over the course of the study, foliage samples were periodically collected for thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll and protein analyses. Additionally, gas-exchange measurements were made in conjunction with foliage sampling to verify that observed chloroplastic responses were associated with ozone-induced changes in photosynthesis. Needles exposed to elevated ozone exhibited decreases in chlorophyll a and b content. The decreases were dependent on the duration and intensity of ozone exposure. When based on equal amounts of chlorophyll, ozone-exposed sample tissue exhibited an increase in total protein. When based on equal amounts of protein, ozone-exposed samples exhibited an increase in 37 kDa proteins, possibly consisting of breakdown products, and a possible decrease in 68 kDa proteins, Rubisco small subunit. There was also a change in the ratio of Photosystem I protein complexes CPI and CPII that may have contributed to decreased photosynthesis. Net photosynthetic rates were decreased in the high ozone treatment suggesting that observed structural and biochemical changes in the chloroplast were associated with alterations of the photosynthetic process.

  4. Toxicological features of maleilated polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) as potential functional additives for biomaterials design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Danny E; Medina, Paulina A; Zúñiga, Valentina I

    2017-11-01

    Polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) are an abundant natural oligomers highly desirable as renewable chemicals. However, structural modification of polyflavonoids is a viable strategy in order to use such polyphenols as macrobuilding-blocks for biomaterial design. Polyflavonoids were esterified with three five-member cyclic anhydrides (maleic, itaconic, and citraconic) at 20 °C during 24 h in order to diversify physicochemical-, and biological-properties for agricultural, and food-packaging applications. In addition, the influence of the chemical modification, as well as the chemical structure of the grafting on toxicological features was evaluated. Structural features of derivatives were analyzed by spectroscopy (FT-IR and 1 H-NMR), and the degree of substitution was calculated. Toxicological profile was assessed by using three target species in a wide range of concentration (0.01-100 mgL - 1 ). Effect of polyflavonoids on the growth rate (Selenastrum capricornutum), mortality (Daphnia magna), and germination and radicle length (Lactuca sativa) was determined. Chemical modification affects the toxicological profile on the derivatives in a high extent. Results described remarkable differences in function of the target specie. The bioassays indicate differences of the polyflavonoids toxicological profile associated to the chemical structure of the grafting. Results allowed conclude that polyflavonoids from pine bark show slight toxic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ionizing radiation induced changes in phenotype, photosynthetic pigments and free polyamine levels in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Mandar; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2013-01-01

    Effects of gamma rays on the free polyamine (PA) levels were studied in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Seeds exposed to different doses of gamma rays were checked for damage on phenotype, germination frequency and alteration in photosynthetic pigments. Free polyamine levels were estimated from seeds irradiated in dry and water imbibed conditions. Polyamine levels of seedlings grown from irradiated seeds, and irradiated seedlings from unexposed seeds were also measured. Damage caused by gamma irradiation resulted in decrease in final germination percentage and seedling height. Photosynthetic pigments decreased in a dose dependent manner as marker of stress. Polyamines decreased in irradiated dry seeds and in seedlings grown from irradiated seeds. Radiation stress induced increase in free polyamines was seen in irradiated imbibed seeds and irradiated seedlings. Response of polyamines towards gamma rays is dependent on the stage of the life cycle of the plant. - Highlights: ► Gamma irradiation of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds and seedlings. ► Decrease in germination frequency. ► Increase in seedling injury with increased dosage of gamma rays. ► Decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments. ► Change in free polyamine levels

  6. Initial Response of Pine Seedlings and Weeds to Dried Sewage Sludge in Rehabilitation of an Eroded Forest Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Berry

    1977-01-01

    Dried sewage sludge was applied at rates of 0, 17, 34, and 69 metric tons/ha on a badly eroded forest site in the Piedmont region of northeast Georgia. Production of weed bio mass varied directly with amount of sludge applied. Heigh growth for both shortleafand loblolly pine seedlings appeared to be greater on plots receiving 17 metric tons of sludge/ha, bu differences...

  7. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. War

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L. and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these

  8. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  9. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate 137 Cs and 90 Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm 3 sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of 137 CS and 90 Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the 137 Cs and I.5% of the 90 Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the 137 Cs and 4.5% of the 90 Sr. Accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store 137 Cs and 90 Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils

  10. The Growth of Bosnian Pine (Pinus hedreichii Christ. at Tree-Line Locations from Kosovo and its Response to Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Bojaxhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Pinus heldreichii Christ. is a sub-endemic species occurring at tree-line locations in Kosovo and covering an area of 2500 ha. In high elevation sites radial growth is mainly controlled by low temperatures. The main purpose of this study was the analysis of radial growth of P. heldreichii and its response to local climate conditions. Materials and Methods: Research sites comprise of three high elevation stands of P. heldreichii with specific site conditions. Core samples were collected from 98 healthy dominant and co-dominant trees at breast height using increment borer. They were prepared and cross-dated using standard dendrochronological methods, while tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using the TSAP software. The ARSTAN program was used to standardize the tree-ring widths and to calculate dendrochronological statistical parameters. The growth-climate relationship was investigated using bootstrapped correlation function analysing the residual chronologies of each sampled site as a dependent variable and the climatic data from May of the (n-1 year up to the October of the n year for the common period 1951-2013 as an independent variable. Results: The length of Bosnian pine chronologies ranged from 175 to 541 years. All chronologies had high values of first-order autocorrelation indicating that radial growth of P. heldreichii is affected by the climate conditions of the previous growing year. Koritnik chronology had the highest values of the mean sensitivity due to the influence of drought stress. This conclusion is also supported by the result of growth-climate relationship where radial growth is negatively correlated with June temperatures and positively associated with July and August precipitation. We found that radial growth of young trees from Koritnik site is limited by the combined effect of temperatures and summer drought stress. In high elevation sites, temperature is expected to control the

  11. Long-term trends of changes in pine and oak foliar nitrogen metabolism in response to chronic nitrogen amendments at Harvard Forest, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Rakesh; Turlapati, Swathi A; Long, Stephanie; McDowell, William H; Minocha, Subhash C

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the long-term (1995-2008) trends in foliar and sapwood metabolism, soil solution chemistry and tree mortality rates in response to chronic nitrogen (N) additions to pine and hardwood stands at the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Common stress-related metabolites like polyamines (PAs), free amino acids (AAs) and inorganic elements were analyzed for control, low N (LN, 50 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1)) and high N (HN, 150 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1)) treatments. In the pine stands, partitioning of excess N into foliar PAs and AAs increased with both N treatments until 2002. By 2005, several of these effects on N metabolites disappeared for HN, and by 2008 they were mostly observed for LN plot. A significant decline in foliar Ca and P was observed mostly with HN for a few years until 2005. However, sapwood data actually showed an increase in Ca, Mg and Mn and no change in PAs in the HN plot for 2008, while AAs data revealed trends that were generally similar to foliage for 2008. Concomitant with these changes, mortality data revealed a large number of dead trees in HN pine plots by 2002; the mortality rate started to decline by 2005. Oak trees in the hardwood plot did not exhibit any major changes in PAs, AAs, nutrients and mortality rate with LN treatment, indicating that oak trees were able to tolerate the yearly doses of 50 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) year(-1). However, HN trees suffered from physiological and nutritional stress along with increased mortality in 2008. In this case also, foliar data were supported by the sapwood data. Overall, both low and high N applications resulted in greater physiological stress to the pine trees than the oaks. In general, the time course of changes in metabolic data are in agreement with the published reports on changes in soil chemistry and microbial community structure, rates of soil carbon sequestration and production of woody biomass for this chronic N study. This correspondence of selected metabolites

  12. Response of Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L. Physiology and Productivity to Sustained, Moderate Drought on the Western Edge of the Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Maggard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the approximately 11 million ha of loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern USA could be threatened by decreased water availability in a future climate. To determine the effects of sustained drought on leaf gas exchange, whole-tree water use, and individual tree growth, we examined the response of loblolly pine trees to 100% throughfall exclusion cumulatively spanning the sixth and seventh growing seasons of a plantation in southeastern Oklahoma. Throughfall exclusion reduced volumetric soil water content for 0–12 cm soil depth from 10.8% to 4.8% and for 12–45 cm soil depth from 24.2% to 15.6%. Compared to ambient throughfall trees, leaf water potential of the throughfall exclusion trees became more negative, −0.9 MPa vs. −1.3 MPa for predawn measurements and −1.5 MPa vs. −1.9 MPa for midday measurements. Throughfall exclusion did not significantly reduce leaf gas exchange or tree water use. However, throughfall exclusion significantly reduced leaf biomass by 21% and stem volume growth by 23%. These results indicate that sustained drought may cause downward shifts in leaf quantity to conserve water rather than reducing leaf-level water use.

  13. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Hanula, James L

    2009-08-01

    Large-scale experimental manipulations of dead wood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large number of snags were added, or (4) no coarse woody debris was added or removed. The target taxa were ground-dwelling arthropods, sampled by pitfall traps, and saproxylic beetles (i.e., dependent on dead wood), sampled by flight intercept traps and emergence traps. There were no differences in total ground-dwelling arthropod abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. Only the results for ground beetles (Carabidae), which were more species rich and diverse in log input plots, supported our prediction that ground-dwelling arthropods would benefit from additions of dead wood. There were also no differences in saproxylic beetle abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. The findings from this study are encouraging in that arthropods seem less sensitive than expected to manipulations of dead wood in managed pine forests of the southeastern United States. Based on our results, we cannot recommend inputting large amounts of dead wood for conservation purposes, given the expense of such measures. However, the persistence of saproxylic beetles requires that an adequate amount of dead wood is available in the landscape, and we recommend that dead wood be retained whenever possible in managed pine forests.

  14. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks

    1999-01-01

    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  15. Effects of pruning in Monterey pine plantations affected by Fusarium circinatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezos, D.; Lomba, J. M.; Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Fernandez, M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell (1998) is the causal agent of Pitch Canker Disease (PCD) in Pinus species, producing damage to the main trunk and lateral branches as well as causing branch dieback. The disease has been detected recently in northern Spain in Pinus spp. seedlings at nurseries and in Pinus radiata D. Don adult trees in plantations. Fusarium circinatum seems to require a wound to enter the tree, not only that as caused by insects but also that resulting from damage by humans, i.e. mechanical wounds. However, the effects of pruning on the infection process have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to know how the presence of mechanical damage caused by pruning affects PCD occurrence and severity in P. radiata plantations. Fifty P. radiata plots (pruned and unpruned) distributed throughout 16 sites affected by F. circinatum in the Cantabria region (northern Spain) were studied. Symptoms of PCD presence, such as dieback, oozing cankers and trunk deformation were evaluated in 25 trees per plot and related to pruning effect. A significant relationship between pruning and the number of cankers per tree was observed, concluding that wounds caused by pruning increase the chance of pathogen infection. Other trunk symptoms, such as the presence of resin outside the cankers, were also higher in pruned plots. These results should be taken into account for future management of Monterey Pine plantations. (Author) 36 refs.

  16. Reduction in flatulence factors in mung beans (Vigna radiata) using low-dose gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaiah, J.P.; Pednekar, M.D.; Thomas, P.

    1999-01-01

    Mungbeans (Vigna radiata), control and gamma-irradiated at insect disinfestation dose levels (0.25 and 0.75 kGy) were germinated (0-6 Bays) and the qualitative and quantitative changes in soluble carbohydrates were studied in detail. The key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides inmungbeans were degraded in the irradiated samples at the onset of the germination (0-2 days) compared to the control where it occurred much later (>4days). However, the reducing sugars, mainly glucose, fructose and galactose, which are metabolised easily, were enhanced in the irradiated samples. At low dose (0.25 kGy), irradiation had no effect on germination and sprout length, indicating that irradiated beans are suitable for use as sprouted beans. These observations clearly indicate that gamma-irradiation at insect disinfestation dose levels improved the digestibility and nutritional quality of mung beans by reducing the content of oligosaccharides responsible for intestinal gas production. (C) 1999 Society of Chemical Industry

  17. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, I.A.; Ghulam, Sarwar; Yousaf, Ali; Saleem, M.

    1988-01-01

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M 2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M 3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  18. Vigna radiata as a New Source for Biotransformation of Hydroquinone to Arbutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tofighi, Mohsen Amini, Mahzad Shirzadi, Hamideh Mirhabibi, Negar Ghazi Saeedi, Narguess Yassa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The suspension culture of Vigna radiata was selected for biotransformation of hydroquinone to its β-D-glucoside form (arbutin as an important therapeutic and cosmetic compound. Methods: The biotransformation efficiency of a Vigna radiata cell culture in addition to different concentrations of hydroquinone (6-20 mg/100 ml was investigated after 24 hours in comparison to an Echinacea purpurea cell culture and attempts were made to increase the efficacy of the process by adding elicitors. Results: Arbutin was accumulated in cells and found in the media only in insignificant amounts. The arbutin content of the biomass extracts of V. radiata and E. purpurea was different, ranging from 0.78 to 1.89% and 2.00 to 3.55% of dry weight, respectively. V. radiata demonstrated a bioconversion efficiency of 55.82% after adding 8 mg/100 ml precursor, which was comparable with result of 69.53% for E. purpurea cells after adding 10 mg/100 ml hydroquinone (P>0.05. In both cultures, adding hydroquinone in two portions with a 24-hour interval increased the biotransformation efficiency. Different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (25, 50, and 100 µM and chitosan (50 and 100 µg/ml as elicitors increased the bio-efficiency percentage of the V. radiata culture in comparison with the flask containing only hydroquinone. Conclusion: This is the first report of the biotransformation possibility of V. radiata cultures. It was observed the bioconversion capacity increased by adding hydroquinone in two portions, which was comparable to adding an elicitor.

  19. Ponderosa pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  20. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  1. Optimization of polyphenols extraction using response surface methodology and application of near infrared spectroscopy to phenolic content analysis of pine bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkyi, Nana Sarfo Agyemang

    2010-04-01

    The utilization of pine bark for processing water resistant phenol-formaldehyde adhesive for plywood production encounters difficulties due to the very high reactivity of the formaldehyde condensable phenolics and other un-intended compounds (sugars) extracted into solution, as well as time consuming and costly chemical analysis. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapidly and accurately determining the polyphenolic contents in Pinus caribaea bark extracts was assessed by means of multivariate calibration techniques. To optimize the polyphenol content, four different solvents (aqueous acetone, aqueous ethanol, aqueous NaOH and water) were used in the extractions. Batch experiments were performed at different solvent concentrations, time, temperature and liquid-solid ratio. Mathematical polynomial models were proposed to identify the effects of individual interactions of these variables on the extraction of polyphenols and optimum content using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were used to extract polyphenols which were used in the formulation of resol resins for plywood manufacture. The first derivative spectra with PLS regression were found to provide the best prediction of the tannin content and stiasny number of pine bark with a SECV = 0.14 and 1.26 and r"2 = 0.97 and 0.95 respectively. The predicted values were thus highly correlated with costly measured values of tannin content and Stiasny number. The highest extraction model efficiency (78.98%) was observed for aqueous extraction when only tannin content was maximized in the numerical optimization process. This corresponded to optimum extraction conditions of 69°C extraction temperature, 126 min extraction time and 23:1 liquid-solid ratio. The RSM model that gave a high tannin content (18.85%) with a corresponding good quality resin (shear strength = 2.4 MPa, 10% delamination) was found for aqueous ethanol extraction when the objective function was

  2. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas J. Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource...

  3. Morphology, gas exchange, and chlorophyll content of longleaf pine seedlings in response to rooting volume, copper root pruning, and nitrogen supply in a container nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Amy Ross-Davis; D. Andrew Scott

    2013-01-01

    Few pine species develop a seedling grass stage; this growth phase, characterized by strong, carrot-like taproots and a stem-less nature, poses unique challenges during nursery production. Fertilization levels beyond optimum could result in excessive diameter growth that reduces seedling quality as measured by the root bound index (RBI). We grew longleaf pine (Pinus...

  4. Recruitment patterns and growth of high-elevation pines in response to climatic variability (1883–2013), in the western Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint

    2015-01-01

    Over the period 1883–2013, recruitment of subalpine limber pine (Pinus flexilis E. James) and Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey) above the upper tree line, below the lower tree line, and across middle-elevation forest borders occurred at localized sites across four mountain ranges in the western Great...

  5. Primer Registro de Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en Colombia Record of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everth Emilio Ebratt Ravelo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia radiata es un ectoparasitoide idiobionte de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae; la especie fue descrita a partir de material recogido en la India. Ha sido introducida en muchas regiones intencional o accidentalmente para el control biológico de D. citri, incluyendo algunos países asiáticos. Se sabe de su presencia en el sur de África y las Américas. En Suramérica, se reportó en Brasil, Argentina y ahora en Colombia.Tamarixia radiata is an ectoparasitoid idiobionte of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae; the species was described from material collected in India. It has been introduced in many regions intentionally or accidentally, to biological control of D. citri, including some Asian countries. It is know about its presence in southern Africa and the Americas. In South America, it is present in Brazil, Argentina and now in Colombia.

  6. Short-Term Belowground Responses to Thinning and Burning Treatments in Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Forests of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Overby

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-mediated decomposition and nutrient mineralization are major drivers of forest productivity. As landscape-scale fuel reduction treatments are being implemented throughout the fire-prone western United States of America, it is important to evaluate operationally how these wildfire mitigation treatments alter belowground processes. We quantified these important belowground components before and after management-applied fuel treatments of thinning alone, thinning combined with prescribed fire, and prescribed fire in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa stands at the Southwest Plateau, Fire and Fire Surrogate site, Arizona. Fuel treatments did not alter pH, total carbon and nitrogen (N concentrations, or base cations of the forest floor (O horizon or mineral soil (0–5 cm during this 2-year study. In situ rates of net N mineralization and nitrification in the surface mineral soil (0–15 cm increased 6 months after thinning with prescribed fire treatments; thinning only resulted in net N immobilization. The rates returned to pre-treatment levels after one year. Based on phospholipid fatty acid composition, microbial communities in treated areas were similar to untreated areas (control in the surface organic horizon and mineral soil (0–5 cm after treatments. Soil potential enzyme activities were not significantly altered by any of the three fuel treatments. Our results suggest that a variety of one-time alternative fuel treatments can reduce fire hazard without degrading soil fertility.

  7. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Harminder Pal, E-mail: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 {mu}W cm{sup -2}; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at {>=}2 h), and radicle and plumule growths ({>=}1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  8. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-01-01

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 μW cm -2 ; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at ≥2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (≥1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H 2 O 2 accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  9. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-05-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future.

  10. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Renninger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource uptake and efficiency. Therefore, we compared resource use in terms of transpiration rates and leaf nitrogen content and resource-use efficiency including water-use efficiency (WUE via gas exchange and leaf carbon isotopes and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE between oaks (Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. velutina and pines (Pinus rigida, P. echinata. We also determined environmental drivers (vapor pressure deficit (VPD, soil moisture, solar radiation of canopy stomatal conductance (GS estimated via sap flow and stomatal sensitivity to light and soil moisture. Net assimilation rates were similar between genera, but oak leaves used about 10% more water and pine foliage contained about 20% more N per unit leaf area. Therefore, oaks exhibited greater PNUE while pines had higher WUE based on gas exchange, although WUE from carbon isotopes was not significantly different. For the environmental drivers of GS, oaks had about 10% lower stomatal sensitivity to VPD normalized by reference stomatal conductance compared with pines. Pines exhibited a significant positive relationship between shallow soil moisture and GS, but only GS in Q. velutina was positively related to soil moisture. In contrast, stomatal sensitivity to VPD was significantly related to solar radiation in all oak species but only pines at one site. Therefore, oaks rely more heavily on groundwater resources but have lower WUE, while pines have larger leaf areas and nitrogen acquisition but lower PNUE demonstrating a trade-off between using water and nitrogen efficiently in a resource-limited ecosystem.

  11. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2015-01-01

    Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource uptake and efficiency. Therefore, we compared resource use in terms of transpiration rates and leaf nitrogen content and resource-use efficiency including water-use efficiency (WUE) via gas exchange and leaf carbon isotopes and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) between oaks (Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. velutina) and pines (Pinus rigida, P. echinata). We also determined environmental drivers [vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil moisture, solar radiation] of canopy stomatal conductance (GS) estimated via sap flow and stomatal sensitivity to light and soil moisture. Net assimilation rates were similar between genera, but oak leaves used about 10% more water and pine foliage contained about 20% more N per unit leaf area. Therefore, oaks exhibited greater PNUE while pines had higher WUE based on gas exchange, although WUE from carbon isotopes was not significantly different. For the environmental drivers of GS, oaks had about 10% lower stomatal sensitivity to VPD normalized by reference stomatal conductance compared with pines. Pines exhibited a significant positive relationship between shallow soil moisture and GS, but only GS in Q. velutina was positively related to soil moisture. In contrast, stomatal sensitivity to VPD was significantly related to solar radiation in all oak species but only pines at one site. Therefore, oaks rely more heavily on groundwater resources but have lower WUE, while pines have larger leaf areas and nitrogen acquisition but lower PNUE demonstrating a trade-off between using water and nitrogen efficiently in a resource-limited ecosystem.

  12. Polyamine levels during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Dale R. Smith; Cathie Reeves; Kevin D. Steele; Subhash C. Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the cellular content of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared at different stages of development in zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata D. Don. During embryo development, both the zygotic and the somatic embryos showed a steady increase in spermidine content, with either a small decrease or no...

  13. Population structure and historical demography of the thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata, Rajidae) in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevolot, M.; Wolfs, P.H.J.; Palsson, J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Population genetic structure of the thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata) was surveyed in >300 individuals sampled from Newfoundland, Iceland, Norway, the Kattegat and the central North Sea. A 290-bp fragment of the mt cytochrome-b gene was first screened by SSCP. Sequences of SSCP haplotypes revealed

  14. Population structure and historical demography of the thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata, Rajidae) in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevolot, Malia; Wolfs, Peter H. J.; Palsson, Jonbjorn; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Palson, J.

    Population genetic structure of the thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata) was surveyed in > 300 individuals sampled from Newfoundland, Iceland, Norway, the Kattegat and the central North Sea. A 290-bp fragment of the mt cytochrome-b gene was first screened by SSCP. Sequences of SSCP haplotypes revealed

  15. IDENTIFICACION DEL CILINDRO NUDOSO EN IMÁGENES TC DE TROZAS PODADAS DE PINUS RADIATA UTILIZANDO REDES NEURONALES ARTIFICIALES

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Espinoza,Gerson; Ortiz Irribarren,Oscar

    2010-01-01

    La factibilidad de identificar el cilindro nudoso en imágenes de tomografía computarizada de rayos X (TC) de trozas podadas de pino radiata (Pinus radiata D. Don), fue evaluada utilizando un método de clasificación supervisada basado en Redes Neuronales Artificiales (RNA). El proceso de clasificación consideró también la identificación de la zona libre de defectos y nudos. Treinta trozas podadas de pino radiata fueron escaneadas en un escáner médico multi-slice de rayos X, donde las imágenes ...

  16. Numerical experiments to explain multiscale hydrological responses to mountain pine beetle tree mortality in a headwater watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Colin A.; Bearup, Lindsay A.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Clow, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of mountain pine beetle (MPB)-induced tree mortality on a headwater hydrologic system were investigated using an integrated physical modeling framework with a high-resolution computational grid. Simulations of MPB-affected and unaffected conditions, each with identical atmospheric forcing for a normal water year, were compared at multiple scales to evaluate the effects of scale on MPB-affected hydrologic systems. Individual locations within the larger model were shown to maintain hillslope-scale processes affecting snowpack dynamics, total evapotranspiration, and soil moisture that are comparable to several field-based studies and previous modeling work. Hillslope-scale analyses also highlight the influence of compensating changes in evapotranspiration and snow processes. Reduced transpiration in the Grey Phase of MPB-induced tree mortality was offset by increased late-summer evaporation, while overall snowpack dynamics were more dependent on elevation effects than MPB-induced tree mortality. At the watershed scale, unaffected areas obscured the magnitude of MPB effects. Annual water yield from the watershed increased during Grey Phase simulations by 11 percent; a difference that would be difficult to diagnose with long-term gage observations that are complicated by inter-annual climate variability. The effects on hydrology observed and simulated at the hillslope scale can be further damped at the watershed scale, which spans more life zones and a broader range of landscape properties. These scaling effects may change under extreme conditions, e.g., increased total MPB-affected area or a water year with above average snowpack.

  17. Discovering and verifying DNA polymorphisms in a mung bean [V. radiata (L. R. Wilczek] collection by EcoTILLING and sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Rob E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigna radiata, which is classified in the family Fabaceae, is an important economic crop and a dietary staple in many developing countries. The species radiata can be further subdivided into varieties of which the variety sublobata is currently acknowledged as the putative progenitor of radiata. EcoTILLING was employed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and small insertions/deletions (INDELS in a collection of Vigna radiata accessions. Findings A total of 157 DNA polymorphisms in the collection were produced from ten primer sets when using V. radiata var. sublobata as the reference. The majority of polymorphisms detected were found in putative introns. The banding patterns varied from simple to complex as the number of DNA polymorphisms between two pooled samples increased. Numerous SNPs and INDELS ranging from 4–24 and 1–6, respectively, were detected in all fragments when pooling V. radiata var. sublobata with V. radiata var. radiata. On the other hand, when accessions of V. radiata var. radiata were mixed together and digested with CEL I relatively few SNPs and no INDELS were detected. Conclusion EcoTILLING was utilized to identify polymorphisms in a collection of mung bean, which previously showed limited molecular genetic diversity and limited morphological diversity in the flowers and pod descriptors. Overall, EcoTILLING proved to be a powerful genetic analysis tool providing the rapid identification of naturally occurring variation.

  18. Terrestrial lichen response to partial cutting in lodgepole pine forests on caribou winter range in west-central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela J. Waterhouse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In west-central British Columbia, terrestrial lichens located in older, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are important winter forage for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Clearcut harvesting effectively removes winter forage habitat for decades, so management approaches based on partial cutting were designed to maintain continuous lichen-bearing habitat for caribou. This study tested a group selection system, based on removal of 33% of the forest every 80 years in small openings (15 m diameter, and two irregular shelterwood treatments (whole-tree and stem-only harvesting methods where 50% of the stand area is cut every 70 years in 20 to 30 m diameter openings. The abundance of common terrestrial lichens among the partial cutting and no-harvest treatments was compared across five replicate blocks, pre-harvest (1995 and post-harvest (1998, 2000 and 2004. The initial loss of preferred forage lichens (Cladonia, Cladina, Cetraria and Stereocaulon was similar among harvesting treatments, but there was greater reduction in these lichens in the openings than in the residual forest. After eight years, forage lichens in the group selection treatment recovered to pre-harvest amounts, while lichen in the shelterwood treatments steadily increased from 49 to 57% in 1998 to about 70% of pre-harvest amounts in 2004. Although not part of the randomized block design, there was substantially less lichen in three adjacent clearcut blocks than in the partial cuts. Regression analysis pre- and post-harvest indicated that increased cover of trees, shrubs, herbs, woody debris and logging slash corresponded with decreased forage lichen abundance. In the short-term, forestry activities that minimize inputs of woody debris, control herb and shrub development, and moderate the changes in light and temperatures associated with canopy removal will lessen the impact on lichen. Implementation of stand level prescriptions is only one aspect of caribou habitat

  19. Impact of needle age on the response of respiration in Scots pine to long-term elevation of carbon dioxide concentration and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha, T.; Ryyppo, A.; Kellomaki, S.; Wang, K-Y.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of needle age, elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on needle respiration in Scots pine was studied during a four-year period. Results showed that respiration rates and specific leaf area decreased in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration relative to ambient conditions, but increased in elevated temperature and when elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and elevated temperature were combined. Starch and soluble sugar concentrations for a given needle age increased in elevated carbon dioxide, but decreased slightly under combined elevated temperature and elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Respiration rate and specific leaf area were highest in current year needles in all treatment modes. All treatment modes enhanced the difference in respiration between current year and older needles relative to ambient conditions. Carbohydrate concentration or specific leaf area remained unchanged in response to any treatment. Under ambient conditions the temperature coefficient of respiration increased slightly in elevated carbon dioxide regardless of age, however, there was significant decline at elevated temperature as well as when both carbon dioxide concentration and temperature were elevated, indicating acclimation of respiration to temperature. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  1. An economic assessment of mountain pine beetle timber salvage in the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen L. Abt; Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle has killed lodgepole pine and other species of pines in the western United States in an ongoing epidemic. The most heavily affected states are in the interior West: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, with smaller losses elsewhere. Timber salvage is one response to the epidemic, which could generate revenues for affected landowners and...

  2. Longleaf and loblolly pine seedlings respond differently to soil compaction, water content, and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger

    2014-01-01

    Aims Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is being restored across the U.S. South for a multitude of ecological and economic reasons, but our understanding of longleaf pine’s response to soil physical conditions is poor. On the contrary, our understanding of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) root and...

  3. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  4. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  5. Resilience of Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems and fire severity in semiarid areas: Responses of Aleppo pine forests in the short, mid and long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-De Vega, S; De Las Heras, J; Moya, D

    2016-12-15

    In recent decades, the fire regime of the Mediterranean Basin has been disturbed by various factors: climate change; forest management policies; land cover; changed landscape. Size and severity have notably increased, which in turn have increased large fires events with >500ha burned (high severity). In spite of Mediterranean ecosystems' high resilience to fire, these changes have implied more vulnerability and reduced natural recovery with irreparable long-term negative effects. Knowledge of the response of ecosystems to increasing severity, mainly in semiarid areas, is still lacking, which is needed to rehabilitate and restore burned areas. Our approach assessed the resilience concept by focusing on the recovery of ecosystem functions and services, measured as changes in the composition and diversity of plant community vegetation and structure. This will be validated in the long term as a model of ecosystem response. Also, depending on the pre-fire characteristics of vegetation, fire severity and the post-fire management, this approach will lead to tools that can be applied to implement post-fire restoration efforts in order to help decision making in planning activities. Regarding Mediterranean ecosystems' ability to recover after wildfires, this study concludes that pre-fire communities are resilient in these fire-prone areas, but the window for natural recovery in semiarid areas of Aleppo pine forest in SE Iberian Peninsula varied from 3 to 15 post-fire years. Fire severity was also key for effects on the ecosystem: the vegetation types of areas burned with low and medium severity recovered naturally, while those areas with a high-severity burn induced shrublands. We concluded that very strong regeneration activity exists in the short term, and that the negative effects of medium- and high-severity fire are evidenced in the mid and long term, which affect natural recovery. Adaptive forest management to rehabilitate and restore burned Mediterranean ecosystems

  6. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  7. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  8. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  9. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  10. Relationship between fiber porosity and cellulose digestibility in steam-exploded Pinus radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.Y.; Deverell, K.F.; Mackie, K.L.; Clark, T.A.; Donaldson, L.A.

    1988-04-05

    The use of lignocellulosic materials in bioconversion processes may be improved if the critical factors limiting conversion are better understood. Steam explosion after sulfur dioxide impregnation of wood chips is an effective method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in the softwood Pinus radiata. Digestibility of pretreated fiber was progressively increased by altering the conditions of steam explosion. With increasing digestibility, there was an observed increase in fiber porosity as measured by the solute exclusion technique. Accessible pore volume and accessible surface area to a 5-nm dextran probe positively correlated with both 2- and 24-h digestion yields from pretreated fiber. The increase in accessibility was probably the result of hemicellulose extraction and lignin redistribution. A subsequent loss in accessibility, brought about by structural collapse or further lignin redistribution, resulted in a corresponding loss in digestibility. It appears that steam explosion increases cellulose digestibility in P. radiata by increasing fiber porosity.

  11. Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama, 1907 and Tamarixia radiata (Waterson, 1922 in citrus crops of Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebratt Ravelo Everth Emilio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The presence of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae and Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae was recorded in citrus crops of Cundinamarca, Colombia. This work is to know the geographic distribution of D. citri and an initial record of the parasitoid T. radiata in citrus producing areas of this department.

  12. Application of gamma radiation to the nodes detection in Pinus Radiata (D.Don) wood pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.R.; Dinator, Maria I; Karsulovic C, Jose T.; Leon G, Adolfo

    1996-01-01

    Attenuation of 59.5 KeV photons provided by an Am-241 source, has been used to detect knots in lumber pieces from Pinus Radiata (D.Don). It is shown that the linear attenuation coefficient is a sensitive parameter to detect singularities in the structure of this material. The scanning of the piece provides profiles which define the position and extension of the singularity. (author)

  13. Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariuxi Lorena Gómez-Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae. Tamarixia radiata is the main agent for the biological control of Diaphorina citri in Brazil with a parasitism rate ranging from 20 to 80%. This study investigated the influence of temperature on the development, fecundity and longevity of adults of T. radiata and the effect of relative humidity (RH on their parasitism capacity and survival rate in the pre-imaginal period. The effect of temperature was assessed in the range between 15 and 35 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 14-h photophase. The RH effect was evaluated in the range from 30 to 90 ± 10%, temperature at 25 ± 1ºC, and photophase of 14-h. At 25ºC, circa 166.7 nymphs were parasitized, the highest parasitism capacity observed compared to other treatments. The longest longevity of females was observed at 25ºC, although the rate did not differ in the 20-30ºC temperature range. The threshold temperature (TT was 7.2ºC, and 188.7 degrees-day were required for the development (egg-to-adult period. The parasitism rate and longevity were higher at 50 and 70% of RH. This shows that temperature and RH may affect the parasitism capacity of T. radiata on nymphs of D. citri, which can explain the great parasitism variation for D. citri observed in citrus groves in São Paulo State, Brazil.

  14. Ethanol production from Lycoris radiata Herbert (Amarylllidaceae) residues as a new resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuangping; Ding, Zhongyang; Zhang, Liang; Gu, Zhenghua; Wang, Xiaolan; Sun, Xiaojun; Shi, Guiyang

    2012-01-01

    The large quantities of Lycoris radiata Herbert (Amarylllidaceae) residues, left after the extraction of alkaloids from the bulbs, could threaten the environment if not properly disposed. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of bioconversion of L. radiata Herbert residues to ethanol through batch fermentation. In L. radiata Herbert residues, the average contents (g kg −1 ) of non-structural carbohydrates, crude fiber, crude protein, ash, and lignin are 485.1, 177.3, 124.7, 108.9, and 91.0, respectively. Five commercial enzymes (β-glucanase, pectinase, xylanase, phytase and cellulase) were employed in pretreatment process and ethanol bioconversion was evaluated with three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, osmotolerant S. cerevisiae and genetically engineered S. cerevisiae constructed to use cellobiose). The results showed that pretreament by β-glucanase successfully facilitated the penetration of α-amylase into ground material. After residues pretreatment by 10 g kg −1 of β-glucanase for 14 h at 50 °C, the viscosity decreased from 1135 to 59 Pa·s which was equivalent to that obtained by the combined whole five enzymes. Further experiments proved that osmotolerant S. cerevisiae was desirable for ethanol production from Lycoris radiate Herbert residues. The results are helpful to develop non-grain bioethanol production. -- Highlights: ► The residuals from Lycoris radiata Herbert bulbs were able to generate 55% ethanol concentrations by yeast fermentation. ► Treatment with xylanase significantly reduced the viscosity more than 10-fold and improved fermentable sugars by ∼35%. ► An osmotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that showed improved fermentation rates was identified.

  15. Clinicoradiological study on 59 patients with pure motor hemiparesis due to corona radiata infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Tetsuro; Kawabe, Kiyokazu; Ito, Hirono; Ikeda, Ken

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the clinicoradiological findings of patients with small infarction at the level of the corona radiata, such patients were divided into three groups: Group A (facio-lingual weakness), Group B (arm-dominant weakness) and Group C (leg-dominant weakness). The anteroposterior position and maximum diameter of the radiata infarcts were assessed by axial T2-weighted imaging. In total, 59 consecutive patients (42 men and 17 women) were selected. The frequency of radiata infarct is 9.4% among cerebral infarct patients. The male/female ratio was 1.3. The mean age (SD) was 68.9 (9.5) years. The number of patients was 23 in Group A, 19 in Group B and 17 in Group C. Group B patients needed aid in their daily life, when compared to Group A and Group C. The cerebrovascular risk profiles demonstrated hypertension in 43 patients (72.9%), diabetes mellitus in 15 (25.4%), current smoking in 22 (37.3%), dyslipidemia in 16 (27.1%) and arterial fibrillation in 11 (18.6%). The clinical subtypes revealed 48 patients with lacunar infarct and 11 with cardiogenic emboli. The somatotopical distribution of motor fibers of Groups A to C was arranged in antero-posterior order. There were 24 patients with right lesions and 35 with left lesions. The size of the left infarcts was significantly smaller than that of the right infarcts. The clinical outcome of patients with arm-dominant weakness was relatively poor as compared to that of patients with dysarthria or leg-dominant weakness. The neuroradiological data suggest that left radiata infarct is smaller and more frequent than right infarct. (author)

  16. Clinicoradiological study on 59 patients with pure motor hemiparesis due to corona radiata infarcts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Tetsuro; Kawabe, Kiyokazu; Ito, Hirono; Ikeda, Ken [Toho Univ., Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the clinicoradiological findings of patients with small infarction at the level of the corona radiata, such patients were divided into three groups: Group A (facio-lingual weakness), Group B (arm-dominant weakness) and Group C (leg-dominant weakness). The anteroposterior position and maximum diameter of the radiata infarcts were assessed by axial T2-weighted imaging. In total, 59 consecutive patients (42 men and 17 women) were selected. The frequency of radiata infarct is 9.4% among cerebral infarct patients. The male/female ratio was 1.3. The mean age (SD) was 68.9 (9.5) years. The number of patients was 23 in Group A, 19 in Group B and 17 in Group C. Group B patients needed aid in their daily life, when compared to Group A and Group C. The cerebrovascular risk profiles demonstrated hypertension in 43 patients (72.9%), diabetes mellitus in 15 (25.4%), current smoking in 22 (37.3%), dyslipidemia in 16 (27.1%) and arterial fibrillation in 11 (18.6%). The clinical subtypes revealed 48 patients with lacunar infarct and 11 with cardiogenic emboli. The somatotopical distribution of motor fibers of Groups A to C was arranged in antero-posterior order. There were 24 patients with right lesions and 35 with left lesions. The size of the left infarcts was significantly smaller than that of the right infarcts. The clinical outcome of patients with arm-dominant weakness was relatively poor as compared to that of patients with dysarthria or leg-dominant weakness. The neuroradiological data suggest that left radiata infarct is smaller and more frequent than right infarct. (author)

  17. Amphibian and reptile response to prescribed burning and thinning in pine-hardwood forests: pre-treatment results

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Sutton; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of pretreatment data is essential to determine long-term effects of forest management on amphibians and reptiles. We present pre-treatment amphibian and reptile capture data from April 2005 to May 2006 for a long-term study on herpetofaunal response to prescribed burning and tree thinning in the William B. Bankhead National Forest, AL, United States....

  18. Amphibian and reptile responses to thinning and prescribed burning in mixed pine-hardwood forests of northwestern Alabama, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Sutton; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the response of amphibians and reptiles to two levels of prescribed burning and three levels of thinning using a field experiment consisting of a before–after, control-impact, and factorial complete block design over a four year period in the William B. Bankhead National Forest located in northwestern Alabama. We captured 2643 individuals representing 47...

  19. The Populus superoxide dismutase gene family and its responses to drought stress in transgenic poplar overexpressing a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Molina-Rueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutamine synthetase (GS plays a central role in plant nitrogen assimilation, a process intimately linked to soil water availability. We previously showed that hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X alba, INRA 717-1B4 expressing ectopically a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene (GS1a display enhanced tolerance to drought. Preliminary transcriptome profiling revealed that during drought, members of the superoxide dismutase (SOD family were reciprocally regulated in GS poplar when compared with the wild-type control, in all tissues examined. SOD was the only gene family found to exhibit such patterns. RESULTS: In silico analysis of the Populus genome identified 12 SOD genes and two genes encoding copper chaperones for SOD (CCSs. The poplar SODs form three phylogenetic clusters in accordance with their distinct metal co-factor requirements and gene structure. Nearly all poplar SODs and CCSs are present in duplicate derived from whole genome duplication, in sharp contrast to their predominantly single-copy Arabidopsis orthologs. Drought stress triggered plant-wide down-regulation of the plastidic copper SODs (CSDs, with concomitant up-regulation of plastidic iron SODs (FSDs in GS poplar relative to the wild type; this was confirmed at the activity level. We also found evidence for coordinated down-regulation of other copper proteins, including plastidic CCSs and polyphenol oxidases, in GS poplar under drought conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Both gene duplication and expression divergence have contributed to the expansion and transcriptional diversity of the Populus SOD/CCS families. Coordinated down-regulation of major copper proteins in drought-tolerant GS poplars supports the copper cofactor economy model where copper supply is preferentially allocated for plastocyanins to sustain photosynthesis during drought. Our results also extend previous findings on the compensatory regulation between chloroplastic CSDs and FSDs, and suggest that this

  20. Enhancing Growth of Vigna radiata in the Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biopolymer and Metarhizium anisopliae Spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharide producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2945 (PANCL belonging to gamma-proteobacterium and entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae MCC 1129 (MAMCC belonging to Ascomycota were studied for their morphological features biochemical characteristics and plant growth promotion ability. Optimum growth of PANCL was recorded after 24 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. Gram-negative PANCL appeared as white in color, one mm size, circular, opaque, and nonconsistent elevated colonies with entire margin. It has utilized dextrose, fructose, maltose, and sorbitol as carbon source and produced acid in the medium. PANCL was sensitive to Polymyxin B (300 µgm/disc followed by Neomycin (30 µgm/disc, Gentamycin (10 µgm/disc, and Chloramphenicol (30 µgm/disc. PANCL has secreted extracellular lipase, amylase, protease, and exopolysaccharides (EPS. Another fungal strain MAMCC sporulated after 168 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. MAMCC has septate-white mycelium and bears dirty green colored spores. Growth of MAMCC was enhanced in the presence of Neem and Karela-Amla oil (0.1 mL each. Extracellular polysaccharide produced by PANCL and spores of MAMCC promoted growth of dicotyledon Vigna radiata (Mung individually as well as in consortium. Considerable increase in dry weight of Vigna radiata was recorded. Thus, reported PANCL and MAMCC strains have promoted growth Vigna radiata and may be a solution for sustainable agriculture.

  1. Proanthocyanidin-rich Pinus radiata bark extract inhibits mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Song, Chang Ho; Mun, Sung Phil

    2018-02-01

    Mast cells play a critical role in the effector phase of immediate hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. Pinus radiata bark extract exerts multiple biological effects and exhibits immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. However, its role in mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of proanthocyanidin-rich water extract (PAWE) isolated from P. radiata bark on compound 48/80-induced or antidinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions in vivo. In addition, we evaluated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of PAWE on mast cell activation, with a specific focus on histamine release, using rat peritoneal mast cells. PAWE attenuated compound 48/80-induced or anti-DNP IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-like reactions in mice, and it inhibited histamine release triggered by compound 48/80, ionophore A23187, or anti-DNP IgE in rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. Moreover, PAWE suppressed compound 48/80-elicited calcium uptake in a concentration-dependent manner and promoted a transient increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate levels. Together, these results suggest that proanthocyanidin-rich P. radiata bark extract effectively inhibits anaphylaxis-like reactions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomic responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rivas-Ubach, A.; Sardans, J.; Hódar, J. A.; Garcia-Porta, J.; Guenther, A.; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Penuelas, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2016), s. 484-494 ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246 Grant - others:Akademie věd České Republiky(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : folivory * metabolomics * phenolics * plant-insect * stoichiometry * systemic responses Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.106, year: 2016

  3. The Growth of Bosnian Pine (Pinus hedreichii Christ.) at Tree-Line Locations from Kosovo and its Response to Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Bojaxhi, Faruk; Toromani, Elvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Pinus heldreichii Christ. is a sub-endemic species occurring at tree-line locations in Kosovo and covering an area of 2500 ha. In high elevation sites radial growth is mainly controlled by low temperatures. The main purpose of this study was the analysis of radial growth of P. heldreichii and its response to local climate conditions. Materials and Methods: Research sites comprise of three high elevation stands of P. heldreichii with specific site conditions. Core sa...

  4. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  5. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  6. Seasonal changes in stable carbon isotope ratios within annual growth rings of Pinus radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walcroft, A.; Silvester, W.; Whitehead, D.; Kelliher, F.

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope composition of photosynthetically assimilated carbon (δ 13 C) is determined by the ratio of the leaf internal CO 2 concentration (c i ) to that of the ambient air (c a ), and so reflects the contribution of both stomatal conductance (g s ) and the rate of photosynthesis (A). Assimilated carbon which is subsequently laid down as wood in annual growth rings may therefore represent a time integrated record of physiological responses by the whole tree to seasonal changes in the environmental variables regulating growth. We analysed the stable carbon isotope composition of Pinus radiata wood collected from two plantation forest sites in New Zealand which differ markedly in temperature, rainfall and soil characteristics. For both sites, discs were cut from the stem of several trees near ground level and whole wood samples were taken from within individual annual growth rings over a number of years. At one site, diameter bands were installed over the 1994 - 1996 growing seasons in order to date precisely the formation of wood during that time. Trees at each site consistently showed a seasonal pattern in the stable isotope composition of wood within individual growth rings. The amplitude of seasonal δ 13 C variation at the wet and dry sites were 1-2 per thousand and 4 per thousand respectively. Mean δ 13 C values from the wet site were 3 per thousand more 13 C depleted than those from the dry site implying lower water-use efficiency (carbon assimilation per unit transpiration). A process-based, model of stomatal conductance and CO 2 assimilation was combined with a soil-water balance model to estimate the average daily leaf-level intercellular CO 2 concentration (c i ). Over two growing seasons at each site there was generally good agreement between mean canopy-level c i derived from the tree-ring δ 13 C data and modelled leaf-level c i levels. Further, the ratio of annual CO 2 assimilation to transpiration estimated by the model for each site

  7. Eleventh-year response of loblolly pine and competing vegetation to woody and herbaceous plant control on a Georgia flatwoods site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Zutter; James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Through 11 growing seasons, growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) increased after control of herbaceous, woody, or both herbaceous and woody vegetation (total control) for the first 3 years after planting on a bedded site in the Georgia coastal flatwoods. Gains in stand volume index from controlling either herbaceous or woody vegetation alone were approximately two-...

  8. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  9. Responses of cavity-nesting birds to stand-replacement fire and salvage logging in ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests of southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria A. Saab; Jonathan G. Dudley

    1998-01-01

    From 1994 to 1996, researchers monitored 695 nests of nine cavity-nesting bird species and measured vegetation at nest sites and at 90 randomly located sites in burned ponderosa pine forests of southwestern Idaho. Site treatments included two types of salvage logging, and unlogged controls. All bird species selected nest sites with higher tree densities, larger...

  10. Contrasting responses to drought of forest floor CO2 efflux in a loblolly pine plantation and a nearby Oak-Hickory forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Palmroth; Chris A. Maier; Heather R. McCarthy; A. C. Oishi; H. S. Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Gabrial G. Katul; Ram Oren

    2005-01-01

    Forest floor C02 efflux (Fff) depends on vegetation type, climate, and soil physical properties. We assessed the effects of biological factors on Fff by comparing a maturing pine plantation (PP) and a nearby mature Oak-Hickory-type hardwood forest (HW). Fff was measured...

  11. Response of ponderosa pine stands to pre-commercial thinning on Nez Perce and Spokane Tribal forests in the Inland Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Ferguson; John C. Byrne; William R. Wykoff; Brian Kummet; Ted Hensold

    2011-01-01

    Stands of dense, natural ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa) regeneration were operationally, precommercially thinned at seven sites - four on Nez Perce Tribal lands in northern Idaho and three on Spokane Tribal lands in eastern Washington. Five spacing treatments were studied - control (no thinning), 5x5 ft, 7x7 ft, 10x10 ft, and 14x14 ft. Sample trees...

  12. Branch growth and gas exchange in 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; John Butnor; Lance W. Kress; Peter H. Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Summary We used whole-tree, open-top chambers to expose 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees, growing in soil with high or low nutrient availability, to either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 µmol mol-1 ) carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) for 28 months. Branch growth...

  13. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  14. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of annual rings of pinus radiata provide an integrative record of canopy gas exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, M.M.; Farquhar, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Seasonal variation in δ 13 C and δ 18 O of cellulose from annual rings of Pinus radiata growing at each of three sites in New Zealand was measured. The three sites differed in annual water balance, temperature, and vapour pressure deficit, and these differences were reflected in cellulose δ 13 C and δ 18 O. Specific events such as drought or heavy rain were recorded as peaks and troughs in enrichment. A canopy-level combined photosynthesis and conductance model was linked to a model of soil water content and δ 18 O of xylem water to allow daily prediction of δ 13 C and δ 18 O of cellulose. A photosynthesis-weighted average of δ 13 C and δ 18 O was calculated for each sampling period. Each sample represented between 3 and 30 days, depending on stem growth rate. The timing and amplitude of changes in δ 13 C were predicted accurately by the model, while general seasonal patterns and event related peaks in δ 18 O enrichment were well predicted. These results suggest that stable isotope ratios of cellulose from annual rings reflect the canopy response to interactions between site-specific and seasonal variation in climatic conditions and soil water availability

  15. Tolerance and toxicity levels of boron in mung bean (vigna radiata (l.) wilczek) cultivars at early growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, A.; Mahmood, S.; Akhtar, S.; Malik, S.A.; Bashir, N.

    2011-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity has been recognized as a serious problem in arid and semi arid regions of the world. This study was aimed to determine critical levels of B by studying phenotypic variation for B-tolerance/ toxicity at the germination and seedling stage in three mung bean (Vigna radiata) cultivars; M-6, M-8 and 96009. Boron levels ranging from 0-20 ppm were applied using Boric acid. Germination, growth and photosynthetic attributes were significantly (p<0.001) influenced by varying B levels. However, the cultivars were significantly invariable for germination, seedling height and leaf number. B levels (5-10 ppm) appeared to be nutritionally critical whereas, 15-20 ppm induced B toxicity. The toxicity was expressed in terms of reduction in plant's growth as well as by visible symptoms which included chlorosis and necrosis of the foliage. The present study also demonstrated variation in B tolerance at the seedling stage in these cultivars. Among the tested cultivars, M-6 and M-8 exhibited better growth responses as compared with 96009. Fresh biomass and shoot: root ratio appeared to serve as selection criteria for B tolerance. The study further suggested screening of cultivars/ accessions on a large scale to explore more diversity of traits as well as the use of biochemical markers for mechanistic understanding of B tolerance. (author)

  16. Seasonal Terpene Variation in Needles of Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae) Trees Attacked by Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and the Effect of Limonene on Beetle Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romón, Pedro; Aparicio, Domitila; Palacios, Francisco; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Hance, Thierry; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2017-09-01

    Concentrations of four monoterpenes were determined in needles of Pinus radiata (D.Don) (Pinales: Pinaceae) trees that were attacked or nonattacked by Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Compounds were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean ambient temperature was obtained using climate-recording data loggers. The effect of limonene on field aggregation was also evaluated at three limonene release rates using Lindgren attractant-baited traps and trap logs. Attacked trees produced less α-pinene in March, July, and November than nonattacked trees, less β-pinene in July and November, and less limonene from May to November. Limonene reduced the attraction of T. piniperda to attractant-baited traps and trap logs. Results were linked to better responses to high temperatures, with respect to terpene contents, by the nonattacked trees after the spring attack. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Long-Term Trends In Loblolly Pine Productivity And Stand Characteristics In Response To Stand Density And Fertilization In The Western Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword; J. L. Chambers; Z. Tang; T. J. Dean; J. C. Goelz

    2002-01-01

    Two levels each of fertilization and stand density were established to create four environments in a 7-year-old loblolly pine plantation on a N and P deficient western Gulf Coastal Plain site in Louisiana. Levels of fertilization were no fertilization and application of 120 lb N and 134 lb P/ac. Levels of stand density were the original stocking (1,210 trees/ac), and...

  18. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  19. Branch growth and gas exchange in 13-year old loblobby pine (Pinus taeda) trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, C. A.; Johnsen, K. H.; Butnor, J.; Kress, L. W.; Anderson, P. H.

    2002-01-01

    The combined effects of nutrient availability and carbon dioxide on growth and physiology in mature loblobby pine trees was investigated. Whole-tree open top chambers were used to expose 13-year old loblobby pine trees, growing in soil with high or low nutrient availability to elevated carbon dioxide to examine how carbon dioxide, foliar nutrition and crown position affect branch growth, phenology and physiology. Results showed that fertilization and elevated carbon dioxide increased branch leaf area, and the combined effects were additive. However, fertilization and elevated carbon dioxide differentially altered needle lengths, number of fascicles and flush length in such a way that flush density increased with improved nutrition but decreased with exposure to elevated carbon dioxide. Based on these results, it was concluded that changes in nitrogen availability and atmospheric carbon dioxide may alter canopy structure, facilitating greater foliage retention and deeper crowns in loblobby pine forests. Net photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency was increased in the presence of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and lowered the light compensation point, whereas fertilization had no appreciable effect on foliage gas exchange. 71 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  20. INFLUENCIA DE LA MADERA JUVENIL DE PINO RADIATA SOBRE LAS PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DE TABLEROS OSB

    OpenAIRE

    PECHO,Robert; ANANIAS,Rubén A; BALLERINI,Aldo; CLOUTIER,Alain

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia la influencia de la madera juvenil de pino radiata (Pinus radiata D. Don) sobre las propiedades mecánicas de tableros de hojuelas orientadas OSB. La madera para los ensayos es recogida de 10 árboles en pié de 26 años creciendo en plantaciones manejadas de la Octava región, Chile. La determinación de madera juvenil se realiza observando la variación radial de los anillos de crecimiento de la madera, usando un analizador de anillos en base a rayos X. Los detalles de l...

  1. THE ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF SHREDDED LEAVES OF ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS AND A. ALTILIS ON VIGNA RADIATA L

    OpenAIRE

    Romilly Margaret Mendez* & Glaxy Ezekel.V

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg on seed germination, seedling growth and total phenolic content of Vigna radiata L. The objective of this study is to assess the rate of germination, growth of the seedlings and the chlorophyll content of the cultivar seeds exposed to four concentrations (10 ppm, 1 ppm, 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm) of the leaf extracts of A. heterophyllus and A. altilis. I...

  2. Induction of chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations in mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.; Yadav, R.D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Uniform and healthy seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44 were exposed to varying doses of gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and combination treatment of gamma rays with EMS. The data were recorded for seed germination, plant survival, frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll chimeras in M 1 and chlorophyll mutations in M 2 generation. Among all, the combination treatments were found most effective for inducing chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations than the gamma rays or EMS alone. Of the mutants under reference, the albino, xantha and chlorina showed monogenic recessive while viridis exhibited digenic recessive inheritance. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Madera de compresión en Pinus radiata III: propiedades de pulpas kraft

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-vaz,J.E; Ananias,R. A; Valenzuela,L; Torres,M; Rodriguez,S

    2012-01-01

    Estudios anteriores en estos mismos árboles de Pinus radiata con fustes levemente inclinados, demostraron que la madera de compresión leve que ellos exhibían presentaba: traqueidas más cortas, mayor densidad, mayor proporción de lignina, mayor proporción de extraíbles en etanol tolueno y menor proporción de alfa celulosa que la madera opuesta y que la madera de árboles sin madera de compresión. En el presente estudio se analiza las propiedades pulpables de la madera de compresión y la de sus ...

  4. Effect of chronic administration of Tamoxifen on fertility in male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A J; Ramachandra, S G; Ramesh, V; Krishnamurthy, H N; Jayaraman, S; Gopalakrishnan, K; Juneja, H S

    1998-01-01

    Administration of Tamoxifen via the Alzet pump at a rate of 50 micrograms hr-1 for 90 days in the adult male bonnet monkeys Macaca radiata had no effect on the serum testosterone concentration determined at 10 AM and 10 PM as well as total sperm count determined at 15-day intervals over a period of 260 days. However, a significant reduction in sperm motility was observed beyond 90 days up until the 225th day. Breeding studies conducted from day 90 to 260 revealed that these males were infertile.

  5. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  6. The potential of L. scoparium, K. robusta and P. radiata to mitigate N-losses in silvopastural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperschuetz, J; Balaine, N; Clough, T; Bulman, S; Dickinson, N M; Horswell, J; Robinson, B H

    2017-06-01

    Silvopastoral systems aim to enhance economic, cultural and social principles by sustainably combining forest management with agriculture. In these typically high-nitrogen (N) environments, plant species selection can profoundly influence N fluxes. For grazed pastures, plants may be exposed to urine patches that have received the equivalent of up to 1000 kg N ha -1 . We aimed to determine the growth and N fluxes in three potential trees that may be used in silvopastoral systems: L. scoparium, K. robusta and P. radiata. Plants were grown in a greenhouse lysimeter experiment, with controlled irrigation and temperature and exposed to N at rates of 200 kg ha -1 equiv. for 15 weeks, followed by the addition of 800 kg ha -1 N equiv, to simulate a urine patch. Urea produced a positive growth response of all plant species. Treatments containing L. scoparium and K. robusta leached lower amounts of nitrate (NO 3 - ) (2 kg ha -1 NO 3 - ) compared to P. radiata (53 kg ha -1 ). Measurements of N 2 O over 20 days after the application of 800 kg N ha -1 indicated an inhibitory effect of L. scoparium and K. robusta on denitrification, hence loss of N via N 2 O. Both L. scoparium and K. robusta demonstrated that they have potential to reduce N-losses in silvopastural systems, while producing valuable biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Pinus radiata derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Honghua; Lin Kunde; Wang Hailong; Gan, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Biochars are anthropogenic carbonaceous sorbent and their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants need to be characterized. Here we evaluated the effect of Pinus radiata derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene. Two biochars separately produced at 350 o C and 700 o C and three soils were tested. Biochar amendment generally enhanced the soil sorption of phenanthrene. The biochar produced at 700 o C generally showed a greater ability at enhancing a soil's sorption ability than that prepared at 350 o C. The single-step desorption measurement showed an apparent hysteresis in biochar-amended soils. After 28 d equilibration, the sorptive capacity of biochar-amended soil (with an organic carbon content of 0.16%) significantly decreased. This study clearly suggested that biochar application enhanced soil sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds, but the magnitude of enhancement depended on the preparation of biochars, the indigenous soil organic carbon levels, and the contact time between soil and biochar. - Pinus radiata derived biochars influence soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene.

  8. 28-Homobrassinolide mitigates boron induced toxicity through enhanced antioxidant system in Vigna radiata plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish relationship between boron induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in Vigna radiata plants and also to investigate whether brassinosteroids will enhance the level of antioxidant system that could confer tolerance to the plants from the boron induced oxidative stress. The mung bean (V. radiata cv. T-44) plants were administered with 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 mM boron at 6 d stage for 7 d along with nutrient solution. At 13 d stage, the seedlings were sprayed with deionized water (control) or 10(-8) M of 28-homobrassinolide and plants were harvested at 21 d stage to assess growth, leaf gas-exchange traits and biochemical parameters. The boron treatments diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activity in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H(2)O(2) as well as proline, and various antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of mung bean which were more pronounced at higher concentrations of boron. However, the follow-up application of 28-homobrassinolide to the boron stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthesis and further enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the B-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  10. Biochemical Changes under Chromium Stress on Germinating Seedlings of Vigna radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavin SUTHAR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalant chromium is considered the most toxic form because of its high solubility in water. Cr is known to induce production of elevated concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS resulted in macromolecule damage. Plants are having unique mechanisms to overcome ROS induced damage by accumulation of proline, ascorbate and glutathione and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, and ascorbate peroxidaes (APX, peroxidise (POX. In the present investigation effects of chromium on seed germination of Mung bean (Vigna radiata 'Gujarat Mung-4’ were studied. Seeds were treated with different Cr concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 4M for seven days. On 7th day root and shoot length was measured and activities of antioxidant enzyme SOD, APX, POX, CAT and GR were checked along with protein, proline and lipid peroxidation. It was observed that there is gradual decrease in shoot and root length with respect to the increase in Cr concentration. Level of lipid peroxidation significantly increased along with proline and antioxidant enzyme activity at higher Cr concentration. Lipid peroxidation is an indication of membrane damage due to elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. To combat oxidative damage by ROS antioxidant enzyme activity increased significantly, which indicates that antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR play a crucial role during Cr stress during germination of V. radiata.

  11. Identification of Bradyrhizobium elkanii Genes Involved in Incompatibility with Vigna radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hien P. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a root nodule symbiosis between a leguminous plant and a rhizobium requires complex molecular interactions between the two partners. Compatible interactions lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules, however, some legumes exhibit incompatibility with specific rhizobial strains and restrict nodulation by the strains. Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA61 is incompatible with mung bean (Vigna radiata cv. KPS1 and soybean cultivars carrying the Rj4 allele. Here, we explored genetic loci in USDA61 that determine incompatibility with V. radiata KPS1. We identified five novel B. elkanii genes that contribute to this incompatibility. Four of these genes also control incompatibility with soybean cultivars carrying the Rj4 allele, suggesting that a common mechanism underlies nodulation restriction in both legumes. The fifth gene encodes a hypothetical protein that contains a tts box in its promoter region. The tts box is conserved in genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS, which is known for its delivery of virulence effectors by pathogenic bacteria. These findings revealed both common and unique genes that are involved in the incompatibility of B. elkanii with mung bean and soybean. Of particular interest is the novel T3SS-related gene, which causes incompatibility specifically with mung bean cv. KPS1.

  12. ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLY IN WHITE AND BROWN ROOT RESPIRATION OF PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory responses of fine ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) roots of differing morphology were measured to evaluate response to excision and to changes in the shoot light environment. Ponderosa pine seedlings were subject to either a 15:9 h light/dark environment over 24...

  13. Influencia de la poda en el desarrollo de masas de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia Cabal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis evaluó la influencia de diferentes intensidades de poda sobre el crecimiento, desarrollo y persistencia de masas regulares jóvenes de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias, dentro de una selvicultura sostenible enfocada a la producción de madera de calidad.

  14. Family-site interaction in Pinus radiata: implications for progeny testing strategy and regionalised breeding in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; R.D. Brudon

    1990-01-01

    A progeny test of 170 open-pollinated families from second-generation plus trees of Pinus radiata was established on four sites in New Zealand in 1981. Two test sites were on volcanic purnice soils in the Central North Island region and two were on phosphate-retentive clay soils in the Northland region.Assessments of volume growth, stem straightness, mal-...

  15. Comparison of traditional field retting and Phlebia radiata Cel 26 retting of hemp fibres for fibre-reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Kołaczkowski, Bartłomiej

    2017-01-01

    Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. For field retting a classification...

  16. Climatic response of stable isotope variations in wood cellulose of pine (Pinus sylvestris l.) and their tree-ring width on the Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, T.; Hiller, A.; Gehre, M.; Friedrich, M.; Kremenetski, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Kola Peninsula region of northwestern Russia, adjacent to relatively well studied Scandinavian areas, is climatically affected by not only the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic but also the Eurasian continent. Living and subfossil pine trees from the Khibiny mountains on the Kola Peninsula were analysed for carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition and for tree-ring width. Comparisons of local meteorological and tree-ring data revealed significant correlations. δ 13 C and δ 18 O values are particularly sensitive to changes in the temperature in July and August and to precipitation in the winter months of the previous year, respectively. On average, 13 C in the cellulose of pine trees between c. 1000 and 1300 AD is enriched by δ values of around 1 per mille compared to the modern trees from this region. This indicates a distinctly warmer summer climate at that time (the Medieval Warm epoch in Europe) than recently observed. The δ 18 O values of wood cellulose and the δ 2 H values of non-exchangeable hydrogen of tree cellulose from both fossil and modern samples cover a wide range between around 22 and 29 per mille and between about -80 and -120 per mille vs. SMOW, respectively. This suggests variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation at that time, assuming its source has remained the same as in the past. (author)

  17. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M Lanner; Kristina F. Connor

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senscence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in great basin bristlecone pine ( Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To teast a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statiscally significant...

  18. Diseases of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth

    1964-01-01

    Diseases are a major concern to forest managers throughout the lodgepole pine type. In many areas, diseases constitute the primary management problem. As might be expected for a tree that has a distribution from Baja California, Mexico to the Yukon and from the Pacific to the Dakotas, the diseases of chief concern vary in different parts of the tree's range. For...

  19. Smoke hardiness of pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E

    1958-01-01

    It has been determined in East Germany that some species of pines are more susceptible to the damaging effects of sulfates than others. On sites that are deficient in nutrients, the trees were found to be more susceptible to injuries. Pinus nigra was the most resistant, then Pinus strobus was next, and Pinus sylvestris was the most sensitive.

  20. Susceptibility of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and Its Parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Entomopathogenic Fungi under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Cortés, K H; Guzmán-Franco, A W; González-Hernández, H; Ortega-Arenas, L D; Villanueva-Jiménez, J A; Robles-Bermúdez, A

    2018-02-01

    Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) is a global pest of citrus that transmits the bacteria associated with the disease, Huanglongbing. Entomopathogenic fungi and the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) are important biological control agents of this pest and likely to interact in D. citri populations. As a basis for interaction studies, we determined the susceptibility of nymphs and adults of D. citri and adults of the parasitoid T. radiata to six fungal isolates from the species Beauveria bassiana s.l. (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (isolates B1 and B3), Metarhizium anisopliae s.s. (Metsch.) (Ma129 and Ma65) and Isaria fumosorosea Wize (I2 and Pae). We conducted experiments evaluating infection levels in all three insect groups following inoculation with a series of conidial concentrations (1 × 10 4 -1 × 10 8 conidia mL -1 ). Results showed that D. citri nymphs and T. radiata were more susceptible to fungal isolates than D. citri adults. Overall, B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates caused the greatest infection compared with I. fumosorosea isolates in all three groups of insects. Isolates B1 (B. bassiana) and Ma129 (M. anisopliae) infected a greater proportion of adults and nymphs of D. citri, respectively. Both isolates of B. bassiana caused greater infection in T. radiata compared with isolates of the other fungal species. We propose that isolates B1 and Ma129 are the strongest candidates for control of D. citri. Our results represent the first report of entomopathogenic fungi infecting T. radiata, and the basis for future studies to design a biological control programme that uses both agents more efficiently against D. citri populations.

  1. Lethal and Sublethal Impacts of Acaricides on Tamarixia radiata (Hemiptera: Eulophidae), an Important Ectoparasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, A C S; Zanardi, O Z; Beloti, V H; Bordini, G P; Yamamoto, P T; Parra, J R P; Carvalho, G A

    2015-10-01

    The use of synthetic acaricides for management of pest mites may alter the efficacy of the ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) in biological control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus orchards. We evaluated the toxicity of 16 acaricides that are recommended for the control of citrus-pest mites to T. radiata. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbosulfan, and fenpropathrin caused high acute toxicity and were considered harmful (mortality >77%) to T. radiata. Abamectin, diflubenzuron, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide, fenpyroximate, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, propargite, spirodiclofen, and sulfur caused low acute toxicity and affected the parasitism rate and emergence rate of adults (F1 generation), and were considered slightly harmful to T. radiata. Dicofol and pyridaben did not affect the survival and action of the ectoparasitoid, and were considered harmless. In addition to its acute toxicity, carbosulfan caused mortality higher than 25% for >30 d after application, and was considered persistent. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyroximate, propargite, and sulfur caused mortalities over 25% until 24 d after application and were considered moderately persistent; abamectin was slightly persistent, and fenbutatin oxide was short lived. Our results suggest that most acaricides used to control pest mites in citrus affect the density and efficacy of T. radiata in the biological control of D. citri. However, further evaluations are needed in order to determine the effect of these products on this ectoparasitoid under field conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Oviposition behavior and survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ectoparasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), on hosts exposed to an entomopathogenic fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina ...

  3. Seasonal response of photosynthetic electron transport and energy dissipation in the eighth year of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 (FACE) in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.A.; Combs, A.; Kent, R.; Stanley, L.; Myers, K.; Tissue, D.T.; Western Sydney Univ., Richmond, NSW

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the biological adaptation of loblolly pine following long-term seasonal exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) partial pressures (pCO 2 ). Exposure to elevated atmospheric CO 2 (pCO 2 ) usually results in significant stimulation in light-saturated rates of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. Plants are protected against photoinhibition by biochemical processes known as photoprotection, including energy dissipation, which converts excess absorbed light energy into heat. This study was conducted in the eighth year of exposure to elevated pCO 2 at the Duke FACE site. The effect of elevated pCO 2 on electron transport and energy dissipation in the pine trees was examined by coupling the analyses of the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen (O 2 ) evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and photosynthetic pigment composition with measurements of net photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation (Asat). During the summer growing season, Asat was 50 per cent higher in current-year needles and 24 per cent higher in year-old needles in elevated pCO 2 in comparison with needles of the same age cohort in ambient pCO 2 . Thus, older needles exhibited greater photosynthetic down-regulation than younger needles in elevated pCO 2 . In the winter, Asat was not significantly affected by growth pCO 2 . Asat was lower in winter than in summer. Growth at elevated pCO 2 had no significant effect on the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photosystem 2 efficiencies, chlorophyll content or the size and conversion state of the xanthophyll cycle, regardless of season or needle age. There was no evidence that photosynthetic electron transport or photoprotective energy dissipation responded to compensate for the effects of elevated pCO 2 on Calvin cycle activity. 73 refs., 4 figs

  4. Response of brown-headed cowbirds and three host species to thinning treatments in low-elevation ponderosa pine forests along the northern Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, W.H.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Spaulding, Sarah A.; Wanner, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Thinning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests to achieve desired ecological conditions remains a priority in the North American west. In addition to reducing the risk of high-severity wildfires in unwanted areas, stand thinning may increase wildlife and plant diversity and provide increased opportunity for seedling recruitment. We initiated conservative (i.e. minimal removal of trees) ponderosa stand thinning treatments with the goals of reducing fire risk and improving habitat conditions for native wildlife and flora. We then compared site occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina), plumbeous vireos (Vireo plumbeus), and western wood-pewees (Contopus sordidulus) in thinned and unthinned (i.e., control) forest stands from 2007 to 2009. Survey stations located in thinned stands had 64% fewer trees/ha, 25% less canopy cover, and 23% less basal area than stations in control stands. Occupancy by all three host species was negatively associated with tree density, suggesting that these species respond favorably to forest thinning treatments in ponderosa pine forests. We also encountered plumbeous vireos more frequently in plots closer to an ecotonal (forest/grassland) edge, an association that may increase their susceptibility to edge-specialist, brood parasites like brown-headed cowbirds. Occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds was not related to forest metrics but was related to occupancy by plumbeous vireos and the other host species in aggregate, supporting previous reports on the affiliation between these species. Forest management practices that promote heterogeneity in forest stand structure may benefit songbird populations in our area, but these treatments may also confer costs associated with increased cowbird occupancy. Further research is required to understand more on the complex relationships between occupancy of cowbirds and host species, and between cowbird occupancy and realized rates of nest parasitism.

  5. Climate Change Altered Disturbance Regimes in High Elevation Pine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Insects in aggregate are the greatest cause of forest disturbance. Outbreaks of both native and exotic insects can be spectacular events in both their intensity and spatial extent. In the case of native species, forest ecosystems have co-evolved (or at least co-adapted) in ways that incorporate these disturbances into the normal cycle of forest maturation and renewal. The time frame of response to changing climate, however, is much shorter for insects (typically one year) than for their host forests (decades or longer). As a result, outbreaks of forest insects, particularly bark beetles, are occurring at unprecedented levels throughout western North America, resulting in the loss of biodiversity and potentially entire ecosystems. In this talk, I will describe one such ecosystem, the whitebark pine association at high elevations in the north-central Rocky Mountains of the United States. White bark pines are keystone species, which in consort with Clark's nutcracker, build entire ecosystems at high elevations. These ecosystems provide valuable ecological services, including the distribution and abundance of water resources. I will briefly describe the keystone nature of whitebark pine and the historic role of mountain pine beetle disturbance in these ecosystems. The mountain pine beetle is the most important outbreak insect in forests of the western United States. Although capable of spectacular outbreak events, in historic climate regimes, outbreak populations were largely restricted to lower elevation pines; for example, lodgepole and ponderosa pines. The recent series of unusually warm years, however, has allowed this insect to expand its range into high elevation, whitebark pine ecosystems with devastating consequences. The aspects of mountain pine beetle thermal ecology that has allowed it to capitalize so effectively on a warming climate will be discussed. A model that incorporates critical thermal attributes of the mountain pine beetle's life cycle was

  6. Utilization of Diamine Oxidase Enzyme from Mung Bean Sprouts (Vigna radiata L) for Histamine biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Abdul; Wahab, A. W.; Raya, I.; Natsir, H.; Arif, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to utilize the diamine oxidase enzyme (DAO) which isolated from mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L) to develop histamine biosensors based on electode enzyme with the amperometric method (cyclic voltammetry).The DAO enzyme is trapped inside the membrane of chitin-cellulose acetate 2:1 and glutaraldehyde which super imposed on a Pt electrode. Histamine will be oxidized by DAO enzyme to produce aldehydes and H2O2 that acting as electron transfer mediators.The performance of biosensors will be measured at various concentrations of glutaraldehyde, temperature changes and different range of pH. Recently, it has been found that the optimal conditions obtained from the paramaters as follows; at 25% of glutaraldehyde, temperature of 37°C and pH of 7.4. Eventually, the results provided an expectation for applying histamine biosensors in determining the freshness and safety of fish specifically skombroidae families.

  7. Phase-change related epigenetic and physiological changes in Pinus radiata D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Mario F; Cañal, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2002-08-01

    DNA methylation and polyamine levels were analysed before and after Pinus radiata D. Don. phase change in order to identify possible molecular and physiological phase markers. Juvenile individuals (without reproductive ability) were characterised by a degree of DNA methylation of 30-35% and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates greater than 1, while mature trees (with reproductive ability) had 60% 5-methylcytosine and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates of less than 1. Results obtained with trees that attained reproductive capacity during the experimental period confirmed that changes in the degree of DNA methylation and polyamine concentrations found among juvenile and mature states come about immediately after the phase change. We suggest that both indicators may be associated with the loss of morphogenic ability during ageing, particularly after phase change, through a number of molecular interactions, which are subsequently discussed.

  8. Genomic DNA methylation-demethylation during aging and reinvigoration of Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Mario F; Rodríguez, Roberto; Cañal, Maria Jesús

    2002-08-01

    In animals, DNA methylation is related to gene silencing during ontogenic development. Little is known about DNA methylation in plants, although occasional changes in the DNA methylation state of specific gene promoters have been reported in angiosperms during some developmental processes. We found large differences in the extent of DNA methylation between meristematic areas of juvenile and mature Pinus radiata D. Don. trees, whereas differences in the extent of DNA methylation between differentiated tissues of juvenile and mature trees were small. In meristematic areas, there was a gradual decrease in extent of DNA methylation as the degree of reinvigoration increased. The observed changes in extent of DNA methylation during aging and reinvigoration indicate that reinvigoration could be a consequence of epigenetic modifications opposite in direction to those that occur during aging.

  9. Yield and Quality of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (l. R. Wilczek Seeds Produced in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil MISIAK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to do field and laboratory assessments of yield and quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek seeds cultivated in Western Poland. Mean yield of seeds per plant was higher for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. than for mung one: 13.1 g and 2.58 g, respectively. The mean 1000 mung seeds weight was 50.9 g and their germination – 78 %. Germination capacities of seeds of both beans in the field were similar. Mung beans, compared to common bean, had much smaller seeds, started to bloom later and produced mature seeds later than the latter. Mung bean seeds had more total proteins and Magnesium and Copper than common bean seeds. In Western Poland, production of high quality mung bean seeds was possible.

  10. Biogenic synthesis and spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in the legume mungbean plant (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rima; Singh, Jay Shankar; Singh, Devendra Pratap

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the in vivo synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the legume Vigna radiata. The level of plant metabolites such as total phenolics, lipid, terpenoids, alkaloids and amino acid increased by 65%, 133%, 19%, 67% and 35%, respectively, in AgNO 3 (100 mg L -1 ) treated plants compared to control. Whereas protein and sugar contents in the treated plants were reduced by 38% and 27%, respectively. FTIR analysis of AgNO 3 (20-100 mg L -1 ) treated plants exhibited changes in the IR regions between 3297 and 3363 cm -1 , 1635-1619 cm -1 , 1249-1266 cm -1 and that corresponded to alterations in OH groups of carbohydrates, OH and NH groups of amide I and II regions of protein, when compared with the control. Transmission electron micrographs showed the spatial distribution of AgNPs in the chloroplast, cytoplasmic spaces, vacuolar and nucleolar plant regions. Metal quantification in different tissues of plants exposed to 20-100 mg L -1 AgNO 3 showed about a 22 fold accumulation of Ag in roots as compared to shoots. The phytotoxic parameters such as percent seed germination and shoot elongation remained almost unaltered at low AgNO 3 doses (20-50 mg L -1 ). However, at higher levels of exposure (100 mg L -1 ), the percent seed germination as well as root and shoot elongation exhibited concentration dependent decline. In conclusion, synthesis of AgNPs in V. radiata particularly at lower doses of AgNO 3 , could be used as a sustainable and environmentally safe technology for large scale production of metal nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Anatomical aspects of the male reproductive system in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S; Suresh, S; Prithiviraj, E

    2009-04-01

    The normal anatomy of the male reproductive system in Macaca radiata is presented here. The external genitalia consist of a triangular button-shaped glans penis. The corpus cavernosum, and spongiosum form the vascular component of the penis and the baculum or os penis forms the non-vascular erectile component. The baculum is one of the longest in the genus macaques. The scrotal sac is non-pigmented, slightly pendulous, with scattered hairs, faintly corrugated, and does not reach the ischial callosities in the sitting posture. The testicles are ovoid in shape without appendix. Right and left testicular arteries originate at the level of the inter-vertebral disc between T12-L1 and L2-L3, respectively. Seminiferous tubules present mixed stages of spermatogenesis, i.e. single/multistage. The epididymis is crescent shaped, attached to the postero-lateral border of the testis without an appendix. Light microscopic observation revealed a characteristic high columnar epithelium with stereocilia. Clear cells or light cells are seen in the caudal region. The ductus deferens display a lumen lined by pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium separated by concentric layers of smooth muscle cells covered by serosa. The seminal vesicles are pyramidal in shape, prominently projecting above the urinary bladder, and are the largest of the accessory glands, typical of polyandrous primate genera. The prostate is conical in shape. Its base is in contact with the trigone of the bladder. Its posterior surface shows a transverse cleft separating an upper quarter, the cranial lobe, from the lower three-quarters of the gland. Compared with other macaques there are many distinguishing features in M. radiata. Excellent adaptability and spermatogenic efficiency in the laboratory environment makes this animal a good primate model for andrological research.

  12. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  13. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Beloti

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1, 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2, 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3 and 56% as harmful (Class 4, according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  14. Vigna radiata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table 2. Cluster mean for different traits. Characters/ Days to 50% Days to Plant height Plant yield. 100-seed. Pods per Pods per Pod length Seeds per clusters flowering maturity. (cm). (gm) weight (gm) plant cluster. (cm) pod. Cluster I. 34.00. 6.20. 29.64. 4.89. 4.71. 13.15. 3.29. 6.69. 8.74. Cluster II. 35.17. 61.00. 31.29. 5.26.

  15. Extração e caracterização de hemiceluloses de Pinus radiata e sua viabilidade para a produção de bioetanol Extraction and characterization of hemicelluloses from Pinus radiata and its feasibility for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Reyes

    2013-02-01

    neutral aqueous solutions of hemicelluloses from Pinus radiata wood chips and investigate their feasibility for bioethanol production. Hemicelluloses in P. radiata represented 26 g/100 g wood (o.d.w. and hexoses are responsible for approximately 64% of this amount. According to the different extraction conditions, approximately 50% of the hemicellulosic fraction was solubilized and recovered after precipitation with ethanol. The recovered hemicellulosic fractions were in the form of oligomers with weight-average molecular weigth (Mw varying from 4x10³ to 4x10(5 g/mol. Hemicellulosic oligomers were hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid and the hydrolysates concentrated until approximately 70 g/L of hexoses and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Fermentation results showed that sugar obtained from acid and neutral extractions were fermented to ethanol with maximum yields of 63% and 54% (22 g/ L and 19 g/L, respectively. The conversion of wood hemicellulosic substrates to ethanol is feasible but the low ethanol yields obtained make the process not economically attractive and optimization of the process or alternatives uses for hemicelluloses should be evaluated.

  16. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  17. Pheromones in White Pine Cone Beetle, Conophthorus coniperdu (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Birgersson; Gary L. DeBarr; Peter de Groot; Mark J. Dalusky; Harold D. Pierce; John H. Borden; Holger Meyer; Wittko Francke; Karl E. Espelie; C. Wayne Berisford

    1995-01-01

    Female white pine cone beetles, Conophrhorus coniperda, attacking second-year cones of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., produced a sex-specific pheromone that attracted conspecific males in laboratory bioassays and to field traps. Beetle response was enhanced by host monoterpenes. The female-produced compound was identified in...

  18. Soil physical effects on longleaf pine performance in the West Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Anne S. Sayer; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2015-01-01

    We summarize 8 years of soil physical property responses to herbicide manipulation of the understory in two young longleaf pine stands growing on either Ruston fine sandy loam or Beauregard silt loam soils. We also describe relationships between pine sapling vigor and the soil physical environment across a 3-year period on the Ruston soil and a 2-year period on the...

  19. Carbon respiration and nitrogen dynamics in Corsican pine litter amended with aluminium and tannins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraal, P.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Kaal, J.; Tietema, A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the carbon (C) mineralisation and nitrogen (N) dynamics in litter from a Corsican pine forest in response to individual and combined additions of aluminium (M), condensed tannin (extracted from fresh Corsican pine needles) and hydrolysable tannin (commercial tannic acid). Production

  20. INTERACTION OF GRASS COMPETITION AND OZONE STRESS ON C/N RATIO IN PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings were grown with three levels of blue wild-rye grass (Elymus glaucus Buckl.) (0,32, or 88 plants m-2) to determine if the presence of a natural competitor altered ponderosa pine seedling response to ozone. Gras...

  1. Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) is distributed throughout the western half of North America, where it is the most widely adapted and ubiquitous conifer. Ponderosa Pine contains isocupressic acid, a diterpene acid, which has been shown to be responsible for its abortifacient activity. The objectiv...

  2. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  3. Application of gamma radiation to the nodes detection in Pinus Radiata (D.Don) wood pieces; Aplicacion de la radiacion gamma en la deteccion de nudos en piezas de madera de Pino Radiata (D.Don)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J R; Dinator, Maria I [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Karsulovic C, Jose T; Leon G, Adolfo [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Tecnologia de la Madera

    1997-12-31

    Attenuation of 59.5 KeV photons provided by an Am-241 source, has been used to detect knots in lumber pieces from Pinus Radiata (D.Don). It is shown that the linear attenuation coefficient is a sensitive parameter to detect singularities in the structure of this material. The scanning of the piece provides profiles which define the position and extension of the singularity. (author). 7 refs.

  4. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  5. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  6. EFFECT OF THE REACTION CONDITIONS OVER THE YIELD AND PROPERTIES OF METHYLCELLULOSE OBTAINED FROM PINUS RADIATA KRAFT BLEACHED CELLULOSE

    OpenAIRE

    TAPIA, C.; SAPAG-HAGAR, J.; ANDRADE, C.T.; HASSÓN, J.; VALENZUELA, F.; BASUALTO, C.

    2002-01-01

    Kraft bleached cellulose from Pinus radiata was submitted to methylation reactions in heterogeneous media. After activation with 29% (w/w) NaOH solution, methylation reactions were carried out both with dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and methyl iodide (MI). The effects of the pressing ratio, reaction time and type of methylation agent were studied. The better yields were obtained with dimethylsulphate and the pressing ratio and reaction time were not signficant over the yield. Methylcellulose (MC) of...

  7. First report of shoot blight and dieback caused by Diplodia pinea on Pinus pinaster and P. radiata trees in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Linaldeddu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by Diplodia pinea on Pinus pinaster and P. radiata forests are reported for the fi rst time in Tunisia. The affected plants show shoot blight, canker and branch dieback. On decaying and dead branches pycnidia of D. pinea are observed. The fungus was repeatedly isolated from the bark of symptomatic branches. The results of pathogenicity tests confirm the virulence of D. pinea and the susceptibility of both Pinus species to infection.

  8. La corona radiata de Helios-Sol como símbolo de poder en la Cultura Visual Romana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Tomás García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende analizar la presencia del motivo iconográfico de la corona radiata en la cultura visual romana como símbolo de poder. Para ello, analizaremos la figura mitológica de Helios, y sus múltiples variantes en las fuentes clásicas, especialmente aquellas que más la relacionan con la divinidad del Sol en el mundo romano. Las principales categorías de interpretación de la iconografía del Sol en la cultura visual romana enriquecen las variantes iconológicas de la presencia de la corona radiata. Así, pretendemos analizar la naturaleza real o simbólica de este atributo iconográfico tan presente desde la época de Augusto como símbolo de poder y luz ligado a la realía imperial. This article aims to analyze the presence of the iconographic motif of the corona radiata in the Roman visual culture as a symbol of power. For this, we will analyze the mythological figure of Helios, and its multiple variants in the classical sources, especially those that relate more to the divinity of the Sun in the Roman world. e main categories of interpretation of the Sun's iconography in the Roman visual culture enrich the iconological variants of the presence of the corona radiata. us, we intend to analyze the real or symbolic nature of this iconographic attribute so present since the time of Augustus as a symbol of power and light linked to the imperial realia.

  9. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  10. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  11. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  12. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  13. The potential of breeding for enhanced inducibility in Pinus pinaster and Pinus radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael Zas; Alejandro Solla; Xoaquin Moreira; Luis Sampedro

    2012-01-01

    Most resistance mechanisms against pests and pathogens in pine trees involve the production of chemical defenses. These defenses are not cost free and the production of secondary metabolisms is generally inversely related with other plant fitness correlates, such as growth. The existence of these negative genetic correlations imposes an important obstacle for breeding...

  14. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  15. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (citri poses negligible environmental risk.

  16. Descomposición de hojarasca de Pinus radiata y tres especies arbóreas nativas Decomposition of leaf litter of Pinus radiata and three native tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available En el centro-sur de Chile, las últimas décadas han sido testigo de una conversión masiva de bosques, matorrales y tierras agrícolas a plantaciones de árboles exóticos. Aunque se ha estudiado la influencia de dichos cambios sobre el balance hídrico, los posibles efectos sobre otros procesos ecosistémicos han recibido poca atención. En esta breve comunicación se presentan datos de un estudio de la descomposición de hojarasca de Pinus radiata y tres especies arbóreas nativas, llevado a cabo con el fin de explorar los posibles efectos del reemplazo de bosque nativo por plantaciones exóticas sobre el ciclaje de nutrientes. Se incubaron muestras de las cuatro especies en dos ambientes distintos en sitios colindantes: bajo un bosque nativo secundario, y bajo un rodal de P. radiata. Se registró la pérdida de peso seco después de dos meses y seis meses. Las tasas diarias de descomposición fueron mucho mayores durante los primeros dos meses de incubación que durante los cuatro meses subsiguientes. En ambas fechas hubo diferencias significativas entre las especies y entre los sitios: todas las especies presentaron mayores tasas de descomposición bajo P. radiata que bajo el bosque nativo. No hubo evidencia de interacción entre sitio y especie. Después de seis meses, el orden de pérdida de peso seco fue Nothofagus obliqua > P. radiata > Peumus boldus > Cryptocarya alba. La variación interespecífica en la tasa de descomposición presentó más relación con el área foliar específica que con el contenido de nitrógeno en la hojarasca. Dado que la hojarasca de P. radiata se descompuso más lentamente que la de la especie caducifolia N. obliqua, pero más rápidamente que las especies esclerófilas, los efectos de la sustitución o invasión sobre descomposición dependerían de la composición original del bosque nativo en cuestiónRecent decades have seen widespread conversion of native forests, shrublands and farmland in south

  17. Treatment of Cr/sup 3+/ contaminated soil by solid tea wastage I. A study of physiological processes of Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Akhter, Y.; Sara Qureshi, S.; Ahmed, T.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the option of using domestic tea waste in soil contaminated with the Cr/sup 3+/ trace metal due to industrial and mine activity, continuously discharging in the land and aquatic resources. This disposal of industrial wastage without proper treatment is responsible for the lowering of crop productivity with the accumulation of essential and non essential trace metals in the plants. On the other hand domestic waste management in soil and aquatic resources are also accountable for the reduced field productivity. This research discusses the proper domestic waste management in the agriculture land for the cultivation of crop in the contaminated soil. Vigna radiata has been selected as a crop to check the effects of Cr/sup 3+/ and its deletion in the contaminated soil. The highest yield was obtained when soil was mixed with tea wastage instead of spreaded tea wastage. Seed germination, morphology and physiology of 15 days old plant showed remarkable improvement in the plant growth including seed germination with activated tea wastage in the presence of Cr/sup 3+/ as compared to those plants which were grown in Cr/sup 3+/ contaminated soil only. Biochemical analysis of seedling showed an increase in the concentration of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, protein and amino acids, which confirms the remediation of contaminated soil through tea wastage. It was concluded that proper use of domestic waste can be helpful to increase the soil fertility and can concentrate the heavy toxic metals in it through complex formation. (author)

  18. Elevated [CO2] does not ameliorate the negative effects of elevated temperature on drought-induced mortality in Eucalyptus radiata seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Honglang; Duursma, Remko A; Huang, Guomin; Smith, Renee A; Choat, Brendan; O'Grady, Anthony P; Tissue, David T

    2014-07-01

    It has been reported that elevated temperature accelerates the time-to-mortality in plants exposed to prolonged drought, while elevated [CO(2)] acts as a mitigating factor because it can reduce stomatal conductance and thereby reduce water loss. We examined the interactive effects of elevated [CO(2)] and temperature on the inter-dependent carbon and hydraulic characteristics associated with drought-induced mortality in Eucalyptus radiata seedlings grown in two [CO(2)] (400 and 640 μL L(-1)) and two temperature (ambient and ambient +4 °C) treatments. Seedlings were exposed to two controlled drying and rewatering cycles, and then water was withheld until plants died. The extent of xylem cavitation was assessed as loss of stem hydraulic conductivity. Elevated temperature triggered more rapid mortality than ambient temperature through hydraulic failure, and was associated with larger water use, increased drought sensitivities of gas exchange traits and earlier occurrence of xylem cavitation. Elevated [CO(2)] had a negligible effect on seedling response to drought, and did not ameliorate the negative effects of elevated temperature on drought. Our findings suggest that elevated temperature and consequent higher vapour pressure deficit, but not elevated [CO(2)], may be the primary contributors to drought-induced seedling mortality under future climates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana F. Tomback

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz conifer communities in the alpine-treeline ecotone (ATE, and thus potentially provides capacity for critical ecosystem services such as snow retention and soil stabilization. The invasive, exotic pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine communities, to their northern limits. Here, we synthesize data from 10 studies to document geographic variation in structure, conifer species, and understory plants in whitebark pine treeline communities, and examine the potential role of these communities in snow retention and regulating downstream flows. Whitebark pine mortality is predicted to alter treeline community composition, structure, and function. Whitebark pine losses in the ATE may also alter response to climate warming. Efforts to restore whitebark pine have thus far been limited to subalpine communities, particularly through planting seedlings with potential blister rust resistance. We discuss whether restoration strategies might be appropriate for treeline communities.

  20. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut

    1982-01-01

    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  1. Pine weevil feeding in Scots pine and Norway spruce regenerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallertz, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Damage caused by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L) feeding on conifer seedlings is a major problem in reforested areas in many parts of Europe. The adult weevil feeds on the stem-bark of young seedlings, frequently killing a large proportion of newly planted seedlings. The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to investigate whether additional food supplies could decrease the damage caused by pine weevil to seedlings, and to determine whether access to extra food might explain w...

  2. Effect of Partial Pre-Extraction of Hemicelluloses on the Properties of Pinus radiata Chemimechanical Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Reyes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of hemicelluloses prior to pulping and conversion of the extracted hemicelluloses to other bioproducts could provide additional revenue to traditional pulp and paper industries. The effect of hemicelluloses pre-extraction with a hydrothermal (HT process on Pinus radiata chemimechanical pulp (CMP properties was investigated in this study. The HT extraction resulted in a release of 7% to 58% of the initial amount of hemicelluloses from the wood. The extraction yield increased with temperature and extraction time. This hemicellulosic fraction was in the form of low molar mass oligomers with molecular weights varying from 1.5 to 100 kDa. Compared with the control (unextracted CMP pulp, the HT pre-extraction significantly reduced the refining energy to obtain a given fibrillation degree (freeness. The pulp yield with the HT/CMP process was in the range of 56% to 75%. Fiber properties of the pulps from pre-extracted wood, such as fiber length, were reduced, while increases in fiber width, fines content, fiber coarseness, and kink index were observed in comparison with the control pulps. The strength properties of CMP pulps decreased with increasing amounts of hemicellulose removal during the stage prior to pulping.

  3. Connectivity of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among estuaries and open coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Melinda A

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats.

  4. The AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center mungbean (Vigna radiata) core and mini core collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafleitner, Roland; Nair, Ramakrishnan Madhavan; Rathore, Abhishek; Wang, Yen-wei; Lin, Chen-yu; Chu, Shu-hui; Lin, Pin-yun; Chang, Jian-Cheng; Ebert, Andreas W

    2015-04-29

    Large ex situ germplasm collections generally harbor a wide range of crop diversity. AVRDC--The World Vegetable Center is holding in trust the world's second largest mungbean (Vigna radiata) germplasm collection with more than 6,700 accessions. Screening large collections for traits of interest is laborious and expensive. To enhance the access of breeders to the diversity of the crop, mungbean core and mini core collections have been established. The core collection of 1,481 entries has been built by random selection of 20% of the accessions after geographical stratification and subsequent cluster analysis of eight phenotypic descriptors in the whole collection. Summary statistics, especially the low differences of means, equal variance of the traits in both the whole and core collection and the visual inspection of quantile-quantile plots comparing the variation of phenotypic traits present in both collections indicated that the core collection well represented the pattern of diversity of the whole collection. The core collection was genotyped with 20 simple sequence repeat markers and a mini core set of 289 accessions was selected, which depicted the allele and genotype diversity of the core collection. The mungbean core and mini core collections plus their phenotypic and genotypic data are available for distribution to breeders. It is expected that these collections will enhance the access to biodiverse mungbean germplasm for breeding.

  5. Cellular modelling of secondary radial growth in conifer trees: application to Pinus radiata (D. Don).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Loïc; Demongeot, Jacques; Demongeota, Jacques

    2006-05-01

    The radial growth of conifer trees proceeds from the dynamics of a merismatic tissue called vascular cambium or cambium. Cambium is a thin layer of active proliferating cells. The purpose of this paper was to model the main characteristics of cambial activity and its consecutive radial growth. Cell growth is under the control of the auxin hormone indole-3-acetic. The model is composed of a discrete part, which accounts for cellular proliferation, and a continuous part involving the transport of auxin. Cambium is modeled in a two-dimensional cross-section by a cellular automaton that describes the set of all its constitutive cells. Proliferation is defined as growth and division of cambial cells under neighbouring constraints, which can eliminate some cells from the cambium. The cell-growth rate is determined from auxin concentration, calculated with the continuous model. We studied the integration of each elementary cambial cell activity into the global coherent movement of macroscopic morphogenesis. Cases of normal and abnormal growth of Pinus radiata (D. Don) are modelled. Abnormal growth includes deformed trees where gravity influences auxin transport, producing heterogeneous radial growth. Cross-sectional microscopic views are also provided to validate the model's hypothesis and results.

  6. Cytotoxic and Antimalarial Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from the Bulbs of Lycoris radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the 80% ethanol extract of the bulbs of Lycoris radiata resulted in the isolation of five new Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: (+-5,6-dehydrolycorine (1, (+-3α,6β-diacetyl-bulbispermine (2, (+-3α-hydroxy-6β-acetyl- bulbispermine (3, (+-8,9-methylenedioxylhomolycorine-N-oxide (5, and 5,6-dihydro-5- methyl-2-hydroxyphenanthridine (7, together with two known compounds, (+-3α-methoxy- 6β-acetylbulbispermine (4 and (+-homolycorine- N-oxide (6. Structural elucidation of all the compounds were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. Alkaloid 1 showed potent cytotoxicity against astrocytoma and glioma cell lines (CCF-STTG1, CHG-5, SHG-44, and U251, as well as HL-60, SMMC-7721, and W480 cell lines with IC50 values of 9.4–11.6 μM. Additonally, compound 1 exhibited antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 2.3 μM for D-6 strain and 1.9 μM for W-2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

  7. Injury of leg somatotopy of corticospinal tract at corona radiata by ventriculoperitoneal shunt: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Younghyeon

    2018-03-01

    A 45-year-old right-handed female patient suffered head trauma after being hit by a truck that ran into a house. The patient lost consciousness for 1 hour and experienced posttraumatic amnesia for 1 month after the accident. She underwent conservative management for a subdural hematoma in the left frontotemporal lobes and intracerebral hematoma in the left frontal lobe. The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 11. She underwent a VP shunt operation, approached through the right posterior parietal area of the brain, at 4 months after onset. Approximately, 6 months after onset, she was admitted to the rehabilitation department of a university hospital. She presented with moderate weakness of the left leg: Medical Research Council scores: hip flexor; 3, knee extensor; 3+, ankle dorsiflexor; 3-. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a leukomalactic lesion in the right posterior corona radiata along the shunt. On 6-month (2 months after the shunt operation) diffusion tensor tractography, the left CST showed partial injury in the posterior portion compared with the right CST. On 6-month transcranial magnetic stimulation study, the motor-evoked potential obtained at the left tibialis anterior muscle revealed lower amplitude than that on the right side. Injury of leg somatotopy of a CST was demonstrated in a patient with leg weakness following a VP shunt operation.

  8. Increased antioxidant activity and polyphenol metabolites in methyl jasmonate treated mung bean (Vigna radiata sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    Full Text Available Abstract Mung bean sprouts are a popular health food both in China and worldwide. We determined the optimal concentration of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA for the promotion of the sprouting in mung beans (Vigna radiata. The 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging test showed that MeJA application resulted in significantly improved antioxidant capacity in the sprouts 72 h later. Measurement of total polyphenols in MeJA-treated beans from 0 to 168 h, using Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetry, showed that the polyphenols changing was significantly correlated with antioxidant activity. The main polyphenols isovitexin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, daidzein, genistein, isoquercitrin, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/QqQ MS and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. MeJA promoted the production of polyphenols, metabolites, and antioxidants in the sprouts; therefore, its use may allow sprouts to be prepared more quickly or increase their nutritional value.

  9. Rapid changes in the range limits of Scots pine 4000 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, A.J.; Huntley, B.

    1991-01-01

    Paleoecological data provide estimates of response rates to past climate changes. Fossil Pinus sylvestris stumps in far northern Scotland demonstrate former presence of pine trees where conventional pollen evidence of pine forests is lacking. Radiocarbon, dendrochronological, and fine temporal-resolution palynological data show that pine forest were present for about four centuries some 4,000 years ago; the forests expanded and then retreated rapidly some 70 to 80 kilometers. Despite the rapidity of this response to climate change, it occurred at rates slower by an order of magnitude than those necessary to maintain equilibrium with forecast climate changes attributed to the greenhouse effect

  10. Utilization of the southern pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P

    1972-01-01

    After several years out of print, this book is again available. The two-volume reference characterizes the southern pine tree as raw material and describes the process by which it is converted to use. All 10 species are considered. The book is addressed primarily to the incoming generation of researchers and industrial managers in the southern pine industry. Foremen, superintendents, quality control personnel, wood procurement men, forest managers, extension workers, professors, and students of wood technology should find the handbook of value.

  11. Modeling of SAR returns from a red pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. H.; Kilic, O.; Chauhan, N. S.; Ranson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Bright P-band radar returns from red pine forests have been observed on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in Bangor, Maine. A plot of red pine trees was selected for the characterization and modeling to understand the cause of the high P-band returns. The red pine stand under study consisted of mature trees. Diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements were made to determine stand density as a function of tree diameter. Soil moisture and bulk density measurements were taken along with ground rough surface profiles. Detailed biomass measurements of the needles, shoots, branches, and trunks were also taken. These site statistics have been used in a distorted Born approximation model of the forest. Computations indicate that the direct-reflected or the double-bounce contributions from the ground are responsible for the high observed P-band returns for HH polarization.

  12. Molecular dissection of white pine genetic resistance to Cronartium ribicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-Jun Liu; Richard Sniezko

    2011-01-01

    Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don.) maintains a complex defence system that detects white pine blister rust pathogen (Cronartium ribicola J.C.Fisch.) and activates resistance responses. A thorough understanding of how it functions at the molecular level would provide us new strategies for creating forest trees with durable disease resistance. Our research focuses on...

  13. Successful Colonization of Lodgepole Pine Trees by Mountain Pine Beetle Increased Monoterpene Production and Exhausted Carbohydrate Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marla; Hussain, Altaf; Cale, Jonathan A; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2018-02-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests have experienced severe mortality from mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North America for the last several years. Although the mechanisms by which beetles kill host trees are unclear, they are likely linked to pine defense monoterpenes that are synthesized from carbohydrate reserves. However, how carbohydrates and monoterpenes interact in response to MPB colonization is unknown. Understanding this relationship could help to elucidate how pines succumb to bark beetle attack. We compared concentrations of individual and total monoterpenes and carbohydrates in the phloem of healthy pine trees with those naturally colonized by MPB. Trees attacked by MPB had nearly 300% more monoterpenes and 40% less carbohydrates. Total monoterpene concentrations were most strongly associated with the concentration of sugars in the phloem. These results suggest that bark beetle colonization likely depletes carbohydrate reserves by increasing the production of carbon-rich monoterpenes, and other carbon-based secondary compounds. Bark beetle attacks also reduce water transport causing the disruption of carbon transport between tree foliage and roots, which restricts carbon assimilation. Reduction in carbohydrate reserves likely contributes to tree mortality.

  14. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  15. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  16. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  17. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  18. Novel ssDNA Viruses Detected in the Virome of Bleached, Habitat-Forming Kelp Ecklonia radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas T. Beattie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kelp forests provide essential habitats for organisms in temperate rocky shores. Loss of kelp forests has occurred over large areas in a number of temperate regions, including in Australia, where the dominant kelp Ecklonia radiata has been lost from substantial areas of the shoreline. Loss of E. radiata has been associated with environmental stressors, including increased temperature and anthropogenic contaminants, as well as biological factors, such as herbivory. Disease may also play a role, but there is little information on the role of disease in the loss of kelp from coastal ecosystems or on the potential role of pathogenic microorganisms, such as viruses. E. radiata across much of its distribution in Australia can develop a “bleached” phenotype, which may be a disease. To investigate whether the phenotype was associated with a potential viral agent, we shotgun sequenced viral particles that were isolated from kelp with normal (healthy and bleached phenotypes. Each virome consisted of ~380,000 reads, of which ~25% were similar to known viruses. All samples were dominated by bacteriophages, but novel ssDNA virus sequences were detected that were almost exclusively in viromes from the bleached kelp phenotype. These ssDNA viruses are covered by 11 contigs that contained complete capsids and characteristic rep genes that were 30–60% similar to those of circular, Rep-encoding ssDNA viruses (CRESS-DNA viruses. CRESS-DNA viruses have not previously been described from macroalgae, and the rep genes were similar to CRESS-DNA viruses from marine water samples, snails, crabs, anemones, but also dragonflies. This raises the interesting possibility that the kelp could be a vector of the CRESS-DNA viruses to other organisms that are associated with the bleached state.

  19. Study of the effects of gamma sterilization on a bio material potential bone substitute: the nacre of Pinctada radiata (Leach, 1814)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ammar, Rim

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of gamma irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy on physico-chemical properties of the nacre of the pearl oyster P. radiata Tunisian coast. The aim of our work is, after sterilizing the shell to gamma radiation, the study of its crystal structure, behavior and thermodynamics of the qualitative and quantitative composition of organic and inorganic matrices and compare them with those of the non-irradiated pearl . In addition, there has been interest in developing the method of sterilization with gamma irradiation to 25 kGy of the nacre of the pearl oyster Pinctada radiata.

  20. Density determination in Pino Radiata (D.Don) samples using 59.5 keV gamma radiation attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinator, Maria I.; Morales, Jose R.; Aliaga, Nelson; Karsulovic, Jose T.; Sanchez, Jaime; Leon, Adolfo

    1996-01-01

    A non destructive method to determine wood samples density is presented. The photon mass attenuation coefficient in samples of Pino radiata (D.Don) was measured at 59.5 keV with a radioactive source of Am-241. The value of 0.192 ± 0.002 cm 2 /g was obtained with a gamma spectroscopy system and later used on the determination of the mass density in sixteen samples of the same species. Comparison of these results with those of gravimetric method through a linear regression showed a slope of 1.001 and a correlation factor of 0.94. (author)

  1. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  2. Prescribed Burn at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peacock, Lance

    2000-01-01

    .... Abandoned fields grew up in pine or in some cases were planted in pine during the 1930's. The burning of farm stubble and woodlands was a common practice in Arkansas throughout this time period...

  3. Potential use of Vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in Peregrine falcon exposed to organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Mori, G.; Concejero, M.A.; Casini, S.; Fossi, M.C. [Siena Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Many different classes of environmental contaminants such as industrial chemicals (e.g. alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans), ''can cause adverse effects in the reproductive functions of intact organisms or their progenies, consequent to changes in endocrine functions'' showing a so-called Endocrine disruptor activity. Avian raptor species, such as peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) for their peculiar position in the food web are potentially at risk in relation to the accumulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals. Recent studies carried out with Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Spain reveal a contamination with organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) which could be responsible of the decrease of successful pairs observed during the last ten years. Thus there is a need to develop sensitive diagnostic monitoring tools for the evaluation of toxicological risk and potential effects on the reproductive function and population dynamic of avian top predator species. Two markers for the detection of EDs effects in oviparous vertebrates are induction of Vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona Radiata Proteins (ZR). Vtg, a complex phospholipoglycoprotein, is the major egg-yolk protein precursor and is normally synthesized by females in response to estradiol. ZR together with Zona Pellucida (ZP) constitutes in birds part of the eggshell. These proteins (Vtg, ZR and ZP) are normally synthesised in the liver as a response to an estrogen signal given by Estradiol. Males and sexually undifferentiated specimens also have the Vtg and ZR genes but do not express them unless exposed to estrogenic compounds. The main aim of this preliminary study was to develop methods for the detection of Vtg and ZR in plasma obtained from peregrine falcon as a specific biomarker for the evaluation of the effects of EDCs.

  4. Effect of High-Intensity Wildfire and Silvicultural Treatments on Reptile Communities in Sand-Pine Scrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Daniel G. Neary; Larry D. Harris

    1994-01-01

    We tested whether the herpetofuunal response to clearcutting followed by site preparation was similar to high-intensity wildfire foIlowed by salvage logging in sand- pine scrub. Herpetofaunal communities were compared in three replicated 5- to 7-yearpost-disturbance treatments and mature sand-pine forest. The three disturbance treatments were (1) high-intensity...

  5. Influence of mountain pine beetle epidemic on winter habitat conditions for Merriam's turkeys: Management implications for current and future condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Michael A. Battaglia; Todd R. Mills; Lance A. Asherin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding response of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest development following a mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has important management implications for winter habitat conditions for Merriam’s wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami; hereafter, turkeys). Therefore, we quantified habitat changes over time for turkeys...

  6. Coronal MRI in the diagnosis of corona radiata infarcts adjacent to the lateral ventricles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kanaya, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Hideki; Takasaki, Masaru (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-04-01

    To clarify pathophysiology of vascular lesions in corona radiata infarcts adjacent to the body of the lateral ventricle (CRILV), 17 patients with CRILV were studied by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Based on the coronal MR images obtained between the anterior and posterior commissures, the patients were divided into two groups: (I) the group having infarcts below a line extending from the upper edge of the insular cistern to the external angle of the lateral ventricle adjacent to the corpus callosum (n=11); and (II) the group having lesions above the line towards the centrum semiovale (n=6). Most of the patients in both groups were male and had hypertension. Symptoms were gradually deteriorated and stroke in the morning was frequent in both groups, althrough the time from onset to completion was longer in Group II than Group I. In comparing clinical manifestations in Groups I and II, pure motor hemiparesis was found in 5 and 3 patients, and sensorimotor stroke in 2 and one patients, respectively. Drowsiness was found in 2 for Group I, while aphasia occurred in 2 for Group II. In addition, pseudobular and asymptomatic palsy occurred in each one patient for Group I. Prognosis was favorable in both groups, except for 2 who died of aspiration pneumonia. In Group I, 11 infarcts were well-defined, less than 15 mm in diameter on CT scans and were sclerotic in the main arteries without obstruction on angiograms. In contrast, Group II had ill-defined, larger low-density areas on CT scans and trunk obstruction of the internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries on angiograms. SPECT scans showed diffuse defect in Group II, in contrast to normal to diffuse or multiple defects in Group I. In Group I, lacunar lesions seemed to be caused by ischemia of the perforators, and in Group II, terminal zone infarcts in the territory of the cortical branches or watershed infarcts seemd to be caused by main trunk obstruction. (N.K.).

  7. Genetic variation for phytic acid content in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Janardan Dhole

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek is a short-duration legume crop cultivated for seeds that are rich in protein and carbohydrates. Mungbeans contain phytic acid (PA, an anti-nutritional factor that is the main storage form of organic phosphorus in seeds. It is a strong inhibitor against the absorption of nutrients including iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium in monogastric animals. Genotypes with low phytic acid (lpa in seed may show increased assimilation of nutrients and be useful in breeding lpa cultivars. The present study was conducted to identify lpa sources, genetic variation, heritability, and association with seed coat color, inorganic phosphorus (IP, and seed size in 102 mungbean genotypes including released varieties, land races, mutants, and wild species grown in two seasons: summer 2011 and rabi 2012. PA and IP in dry seeds were estimated by modified colorimetric method and Chen's modified method, respectively. PA, IP, and 100-seed weight differed significantly in the two seasons. PA content in 102 genotypes ranged from 5.74 to 18.98 mg g− 1 and 5.85 to 20.02 mg g− 1 in summer 2011 and rabi 2012, respectively. High heritability was found for PA (0.87 and 0.86 and seed size (0.82 and 0.83 but low heritability for IP (0.61 and 0.60. A negative correlation was found between PA and seed size (r = − 0.183 and − 0.267. Yellow and green seed coat genotypes contained significantly less PA than black seed coat genotypes. Cluster analysis revealed the distinctness of wild species, land races and cultivated varieties on the basis of PA content. The genotypes YBSM (6.001 mg g− 1 and JL-781 (6.179 mg g− 1 showed lowest PA. These lpa sources can be used to develop high-yielding mungbean cultivars with low phytic acid.

  8. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, A. [Biomembrane Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Upreti, Raj K. [Biomembrane Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)], E-mail: upretirk@rediffmail.com

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6 h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels.

  9. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    habitat use responses to the mountain pine beetle epidemic.

  10. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  11. Are we over-managing longleaf pine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow; John C. Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is not loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) or slash pine (Pinus elliottii L.). There is the need for a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about longleaf pine. All too often we think of longleaf as an intolerant species, slow-grower, difficult to regenerate, and yet it dominated the pre...

  12. Guidelines for whitebark pine planting prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenda L. Scott; Ward W. McCaughey; Kay Izlar

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a keystone species in high-elevation ecosystems of the western United States. Unfortunately many fragile subalpine ecosystems are losing whitebark pine as a functional community component due to the combined effects of an introduced disease, insects and succession. Planting whitebark pine is one part of a multifaceted restoration...

  13. Quantifying the transient carbon dynamics of ecosystem scale carbon cycle responses to piñon pine mortality using a large-scale experimental manipulation, remote sensing and model-data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. E.; Hilton, T. W.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Fox, A. M.; Robinson, E.; McDowell, N. G.; Rahn, T.; Sinsabaugh, R.

    2012-12-01

    The southwestern United States experienced an extended drought from 1999-2002 which led to widespread coniferous tree mortality throughout New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Colorado. Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands, which occupy 24 million ha throughout the Southwest, proved to be extremely vulnerable to this drought, experiencing 40 to 95% mortality of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% mortality of juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in less than 3 years (Breshears et al., 2005). Understanding the response trajectories of these woodlands is crucial given that climate projections for the region suggest that episodic droughts, such as the one correlated with these recent conifer mortality, are likely to increase in frequency and severity and to expand northward. We are using a combination of eddy covariance, soil respiration, sap flow and biomass carbon pool measurements made at: (i) an undisturbed PJ woodland (control) in central New Mexico and at a manipulation site within 2 miles of the control where all piñon trees greater than 7 cm diameter at breast height within the 4 ha flux footprint were girdled (decreasing LAI by ~ 1/3) to quantify the response of ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in PJ woodlands to widespread piñon mortality. As expected, piñon mortality triggered an abrupt shift in carbon stocks from productive biomass to detritus, leading to a 25% decrease in gross primary production, and >50% decrease in net ecosystem production in the two years following mortality. Because litter and course woody debris are slow to decompose in these semiarid environments, ecosystem respiration initially decreased following mortality, and only increased two years post mortality following a large monsoon precipitation event. In the three years following mortality, reduced competition for water in these water limited ecosystems and increased light availability has triggered compensatory growth in understory vegetation observed in both remote sensing and ground

  14. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Seidel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index. Both indices were derived from infrared images during a six-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland. In pines from the Spanish and Bulgarian provenances, the stress level differences were significantly lower than in continental pines. Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  15. Efficacy of insecticides against army worm (spodoptera mauritia) on mung bean (vigna radiata l.) under arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Aslam, M.; Khokhar, M.B.; Khattak, J.Z.K.; Malik, A.U.

    2011-01-01

    Influence of Bifenthrine (Talstar) at the rate 375 ml ha/sup -1/, Deltaphos 10+350 EC at the rate 500 ml ha/sup -1/, Lorsban 40 EC at the rate 850 ml ha/sup -1/, Triazofos (20/400 EC) at the rate 750 ml ha/sup -1/and Karate 5 EC at the rate 1250 ml ha/sup -1/ was studied on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) yield under arid climate at Adaptive Research Farm, Karor during two kharif seasons of 2007 and 2008. Experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with six a test variety. All the chemicals showed significant impact on mung crop as compared to that in control treatments. AZRI- 2006, a promising variety of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) for arid climate was used as plots, but the treatment of Deltaphos 10+350 EC at the rate 350 ml ha/sup -1/consistently proved better than other treatments. (author)

  16. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging for hand and foot fibers location at the corona radiata: comparison with two lesion studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon eLee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The corticospinal tract is the motor pathway in the human brain, and corona radiata is an important location to diagnose stroke. We detected hand and foot motor fiber tracts in the corona radiata to investigate accurate locations using diffusion tensor imaging and functional imaging. Ten right-handed normal volunteers participated in this study. We used a probabilistic tracking algorithm, a brain normalization method, and functional imaging results to set out ROIs. Moreover, our results were compared to previous results of lesion studies to confirm their accuracy and usefulness. The location measurements were performed in two index types; anteriority index on the basis of the anterior and posterior location of lateral ventricle, laterality index on the basis of the left and right location. The anteriority indices were 56.40/43.2 (hand/foot at the upper CR and lower CR 40.72/30.90 at the lower CR. The measurements of anteriority and laterality of motor fibers were represented as anteriority index 0.40/0.31 and laterality index 0.60/0.47 (hand/foot. Our results showed that the hand and foot fibers were in good agreements with previous lesion studies. This study and approaches can be used as a standard for diffusion tensor image combined with lesion location studies in patients who need rehabilitation or follow up.

  17. In silico genome-wide identification and characterization of the glutathione S-transferase gene family in Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Swati; Awasthi, Praveen; Tiwari, Siddharth; Tiwari, Shailesh Kumar; Gupta, Divya; Basantani, Mahesh Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are integral to normal plant metabolism and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. The GST gene family has been characterized in diverse plant species using molecular biology and bioinformatics approaches. In the current study, in silico analysis identified 44 GSTs in Vigna radiata. Of the total 44 GSTs identified, chromosomal locations of 31 GSTs were confirmed. The pI value of GST proteins ranged from 5.10 to 9.40. The predicted molecular weights ranged from 13.12 to 50 kDa. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that all GSTs were predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. The active site amino acids were confirmed to be serine in tau, phi, theta, zeta, and TCHQD; cysteine in lambda, DHAR, and omega; and tyrosine in EF1G. The gene architecture conformed to the two-exon/one-intron and three-exon/two-intron organization in the case of tau and phi classes, respectively. MEME analysis identified 10 significantly conserved motifs with the width of 8-50 amino acids. The motifs identified were either specific to a specific GST class or were shared by multiple GST classes. The results of the current study will be of potential importance in the characterization of the GST gene family in V. radiata, an economically important leguminous crop.

  18. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments.

  19. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-05-27

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata.

  20. Improving initiation, genotype capture, and family representation in somatic embryogenesis of Pinus radiata by a combination of zygotic embryo maturity, media, and explant preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, Cathy; Find, Jens; Reeves, Cathie

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this investigation was to improve somatic embryogenesis initiation and to enhance representation of families and genotypes within those families of Pinus radiata D. Don. A total of 19 open-pollinated seed families, many with unrelated and weakly related parents, were tested...

  1. Acute Toxicity of Fresh and Aged Residues of Pesticides to the Parasitoid Tamarixia radiata and to the HLB-Bacteria Vector Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloti, V H; Alves, G R; Moral, R A; Demétrio, C G B; Yamamoto, P T

    2018-06-01

    One method for controlling the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the putative causal agent of Huanglongbing, uses the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). However, the general intensive use of insecticides has reduced the numbers of this parasitoid. This study evaluated the effect of the residual action of 24 insecticides on T. radiata and also determined the differential toxicity of insecticides to D. citri and T. radiata, using three bioassays. In the first, when adults of the parasitoid were exposed to residues of the 24 insecticides, ten were considered short-life (class 1), six slightly persistent (class 2), five moderately persistent (class 3), and three insecticides were considered persistent (class 4), under the IOBC/WPRS classification system. The second bioassay evaluated the sublethal concentrations of the persistent insecticides (formetanate, dimethoate, spinosad). Increasing the concentrations of the insecticides increased the number that were classified as persistent. In the third bioassay, evaluation of the differential toxicity of eight insecticides to the ACP and the parasitoid showed that chlorpyrifos and bifenthrin were more harmful to T. radiata. Therefore, these two insecticides are not recommended for application at the time of parasitoid release. Cypermethrin, imidacloprid, and dimethoate caused higher mortality of D. citri and are most often recommended in IPM programs. The choice of an insecticide for the control of citrus pests must be made with care, aiming to preserve the natural enemies in the ecosystem, and thereby contribute to the success of biological control.

  2. Estrogenicity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Pine/Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Gustavo; Barra, Ricardo; Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio; Rivas, Meyling; Bahamonde, Paulina; Munkittrick, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Juvenile rainbow were exposed to Pine and Eucalyptus PPME along with an in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge. • Fish exposed to PPME showed induced levels of plasma vitellogenin and female gonad maturation. • Male fish showed intersex characteristics in laboratory and in situ assays. • Tertiary treated PPME from Eucalyptus production have stronger estrogenic effects on juvenile fish. - Abstract: Pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) have been shown to increase gonad size, cause early maturation, and disrupt hormone functions in native and non-native Chilean fish. In this study, we assessed reproductive (plasma vitellogenin; VTG, gonad development) and metabolic (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) end points, relative liver size (LSI) and condition factor (K) of juvenile female and male rainbow trout exposed to effluents. Unlike previous studies, which have focus either on the specific effects of effluent on fish in laboratory exposures or biotic population statuses downstream of discharge sites, we simultaneously assessed the impacts of PPMES on trout using two approaches: (1) laboratory exposures of tertiary treated PPME produced from processing Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus radiata; and (2) in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge of the same pulp mill. Despite an increase in the average gonadosomatic index (GSI) in exposed fish, no statistical differences in gonad size between exposed and unexposed individuals was detected. However, both female and male fish exposed to effluents showed significantly higher concentrations of plasma VTG, so more in fish exposed to Eucalyptus-based effluent when compared to Pinus PPME. In addition, male fish showed intersex characteristics in all exposure assays (Eucaliptus and Pinus) and, despite the low concentration of effluent in the river (<1% [v/v]), similar responses were observed in the caged fish. Finally, EROD activity was induced in both in situ exposures and

  3. Estrogenicity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Pine/Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Gustavo, E-mail: gchiang@centromeri.cl [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Barra, Ricardo [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA–Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, University of Concepción, Concepcion (Chile); Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología y Contaminación Ambiental (ECoA), IIMyC-CONICET-UNMdP, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Rivas, Meyling [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bahamonde, Paulina; Munkittrick, Kelly R. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Juvenile rainbow were exposed to Pine and Eucalyptus PPME along with an in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge. • Fish exposed to PPME showed induced levels of plasma vitellogenin and female gonad maturation. • Male fish showed intersex characteristics in laboratory and in situ assays. • Tertiary treated PPME from Eucalyptus production have stronger estrogenic effects on juvenile fish. - Abstract: Pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) have been shown to increase gonad size, cause early maturation, and disrupt hormone functions in native and non-native Chilean fish. In this study, we assessed reproductive (plasma vitellogenin; VTG, gonad development) and metabolic (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) end points, relative liver size (LSI) and condition factor (K) of juvenile female and male rainbow trout exposed to effluents. Unlike previous studies, which have focus either on the specific effects of effluent on fish in laboratory exposures or biotic population statuses downstream of discharge sites, we simultaneously assessed the impacts of PPMES on trout using two approaches: (1) laboratory exposures of tertiary treated PPME produced from processing Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus radiata; and (2) in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge of the same pulp mill. Despite an increase in the average gonadosomatic index (GSI) in exposed fish, no statistical differences in gonad size between exposed and unexposed individuals was detected. However, both female and male fish exposed to effluents showed significantly higher concentrations of plasma VTG, so more in fish exposed to Eucalyptus-based effluent when compared to Pinus PPME. In addition, male fish showed intersex characteristics in all exposure assays (Eucaliptus and Pinus) and, despite the low concentration of effluent in the river (<1% [v/v]), similar responses were observed in the caged fish. Finally, EROD activity was induced in both in situ exposures and

  4. Climatic factors controlling the productivity of pine stands. A model-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtrie, R.E.; Gholz, H.L.; Linder, S.; Gower, S.T.

    1994-01-01

    A process-based forest growth model, BIOMASS, is applied to stands of four pine species (Pinus elliottii, P. radiata, P. resinosa, and P. sylvestris) growing in five sub-tropical, temperate and boreal environments (in Australia, New Zealand, Florida, Sweden and Wisconsin). Measured annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP) at these sites ranges from 0.2 to 1.6 kg C m -2 . After establishing that simulated ANPP closely matches biomass production measured for the various stands, we analyse model runs to relate simulated productivity to absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation (APAR). Annual photosynthetic productivity (or gross primary production, GPP) simulated for the five stands is linearly related to utilizable APAR, derived by estimating the extent to which photosynthesis is limited by soil water deficit, high air saturation vapor deficit or low temperature. The reduction of GPP due to incomplete radiation interception is 10 to 25% for stands with high leaf area index (LAI) in Australia, New Zealand and Wisconsin and 50 to 60% for low LAI stands in Florida and Sweden. Gross carbon gain is reduced by a further 50 to 70% at sites experiencing cold winters (Sweden and Wisconsin), summer drought (Australia) or high summer humidity deficits (Australia and Wisconsin). Simulated carbon losses due to above-ground respiration average 50% of GPP, but are highly variable among the sites due to large differences in live biomass and tissue nitrogen concentrations. This results in a weaker relationship between simulated NPP and APAR. (au) 93 refs

  5. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  6. Hylastes ater (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Affecting Pinus radiata Seedling Establishment in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Reay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduced pine bark beetle Hylastes ater has been present in New Zealand for around 100 years. The beetle has been a minor pest on pines. Research was undertaken to control the pest in the 1950s–1970s, with a biological control agent introduced with limited success. Following a reasonably long period with minimal research attention, renewed interest in developing a better understanding of the pest status was initiated in the mid to late 1990s. Subsequently, a significant amount of research was undertaken, with a number of studies exploring the role of this pest of exotic forests in New Zealand. These studies ranged from attempting to quantify damage to seedlings, evaluate the role of the beetle in vectoring sapstain fungi, explore options for management, and evaluate the potential for chemical and biological control. From these studies, a number of findings were made that are relevant to the New Zealand exotic forest industry and shed new light onto the role of secondary bark beetles globally.

  7. VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DEL CRECIMIENTO EN PROGENIES SELECTAS DE Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Heredabilidad en sentido estricto (h2, correlación genética intra-clase (2IC y componentes de varianza para la altura, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP y volumen del fuste, a los siete años de edad después de la plantación, fueron analizados en dos ensayos de progenie de Pinus radiata establecidos en el sur de Chile, en orden a examinar la variabilidad genética del crecimiento en una generación avanzada de la especie. Estos ensayos incluyeron árboles provenientes de propagación vegetativa y generativa. Las heredabilidades fueron estimadas para los árboles originados de semillas, y mostraron los siguientes valores: altura, 0.08-0.13; diámetro a la altura del pecho, 0-0.13; volumen del fuste, 0-0.09. Los valores de la correlación genética intra-clase, estimados para el grupo de árboles originados de propagación vegetativa, fueron moderados a bajos (2IC: altura, 0.1-0.11; diámetro a la altura del pecho, 0.01-0.05; volumen del fuste, 0.03-0.06. No obstante la presencia de heredabilidades y correlaciones moderadas para algunas características y, la variación relativamente limitada entre grupos de árboles reflejan la fuerte selección realizada a las progenies. En general, los árboles provenientes de estacas presentaron una tendencia a la menor variación intra-genotípica, y evidenciaron magnitudes relativas de las varianzas debida al grupo (2G mayores a las varianzas familiares (2F, en cuatro de seis caracteres evaluados, indicando una tendencia a la mayor homogeneidad en el crecimiento, característica común de la propagación vegetativa.

  8. Pine creek geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Ewers, G.R.; Ferguson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline is a 66,000 km 2 inlier of Early Proterozoic metasediments, mafic and felsic intrusives and minor extrusives, surrounding small late Archaean granitic domes. Economic uranium occurrences cluster into three fields, with the Alligator Rivers field being the most significant. The metasediments are alluvial and reduced shallow-water pelites and psammites. Evaporitic carbonate developed on shallow shelves around Archaean islands. Basin development and sedimentation (c. 2000-1870 Ma) were related to gradual subsidence induced by crustal extension. Facies variations and volcanism were in places controlled by the extensional faults. The rocks were metamorphosed to lower the high grade, complexly folded, and intruded by numerous granitoids from c. 1870 to 1730 Ma. Late orogenic felsic volcanics accumulated in local rift systems. Middle Proterozoic sandstone was deposited on a peneplaned and deeply weathered surface from about 1650 Ma. Uranium is enriched in some Archaean and Proterozoic igneous rocks, but there is no local or regional enrichment of the metasedimentary hosts or of the unconformably overlying sandstone. There is no regional gravity, magnetic or radiometric character attributable to the region's significance as a uranium province; contrasts with surrounding sedimentary basins reflect expected differences in rock properties between a heterogeneous igneous/metamorphic region and relatively homogeneous undeformed and unmineralized sediments. Uranium-enriched Archaean and Proterozoic granitoids and felsic volcanics with labile U are likely though not exclusive source rocks. U was probably transported in oxidized low temperature solutions as uranyl complexes and precipitated in reduced, structurally controlled, low-pressure traps. All uranium occurrences are broadly classified as 'Proterozoic unconformity related'. Greatest potential for further discovery is offered in the Alligator Rivers field, where perhaps at least 3 to 5.5 times the

  9. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  10. Contrasting Effects of Aqueous Tissue Extracts from an Invasive Plant, Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata, on the Performance of Its Sympatric Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Mei Hsu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch. Bip., a common weed in lowland Taiwan, is listed as one of the twenty most noxious invasive plants in Taiwan. In this study, we examined the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and roots of the invasive plant on germination and growth of seedlings (estimated by measuring the elongation of hypocotyls and radicals of the same species and two other sympatric species, B. bipinnata and Ageraturem conyzoides. The objective of this study was to understand whether the aqueous tissue extracts affected the performance of the target species and whether these effects varied among tissue types and among target species. We found that the germination percentage of seeds of B. bipinnata was significantly reduced by root and leaf extracts, that of B. pilosa var. radiata was also significantly reduced by the application of root extract, while that of A. conyzoides was not affected by any of the three tissue extracts. The application of stem and leaf extracts inhibited the elongation of radicals of B. pilosa var. radiata, consequently, the growth of seedlings of this species was decreased in these two treatments. Though the elongation of hypocotyls was stimulated by leaf extract, the overall growth of seedlings of B. bipinnata was not affected by any tissue extract. In contrast, all three extracts stimulated the elongation of hypocotyls and radicals of A. conyzoides, consequently, the overall growth of seedlings of this plant was promoted by all three extracts. These results revealed that aqueous extracts from tissue of B. pilosa var. radiata had differential effect on the emergence and seedling growth of the three target species. The inhibition effect of its root and leaf extracts on the germination of B. bipinnata may partially explain the overwhelming dominance of B. pilosa var. radiata over B. bipinnata when they are sympatric.

  11. Longleaf Pine: An Updated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer; Charles K. McMahon

    1996-01-01

    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forest figured prominently in the cultural and economic development of the South. What was once one of the most extensive forest ecosystems in North America has now become critically endangered (6). At the time of European settlement, this ecosystem dominated as much as 92 million acres throughout the...

  12. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Phelps; F. L. Czabator

    1978-01-01

    Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo...

  13. Responses of fine roots and soil N availability to short-term nitrogen fertilization in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunguo Wang

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the responses of soil nitrogen (N availability, fine root mass, production and turnover rates to atmospheric N deposition is crucial for understanding fine root dynamics and functioning in forest ecosystems. Fine root biomass and necromass, production and turnover rates, and soil nitrate-N and ammonium-N in relation to N fertilization (50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1 were investigated in a temperate forest over the growing season of 2010, using sequential soil cores and ingrowth cores methods. N fertilization increased soil nitrate-N by 16% (P<0.001 and ammonium-N by 6% (P<0.01 compared to control plots. Fine root biomass and necromass in 0-20 cm soil were 13% (4.61 vs. 5.23 Mg ha(-1, P<0.001 and 34% (1.39 vs. 1.86 Mg ha(-1, P<0.001 less in N fertilization plots than those in control plots. The fine root mass was significantly negatively correlated with soil N availability and nitrate-N contents, especially in 0-10 cm soil layer. Both fine root production and turnover rates increased with N fertilization, indicating a rapid underground carbon cycling in environment with high nitrogen levels. Although high N supply has been widely recognized to promote aboveground growth rates, the present study suggests that high levels of nitrogen supply may reduce the pool size of the underground carbon. Hence, we conclude that high levels of atmospheric N deposition will stimulate the belowground carbon cycling, leading to changes in the carbon balance between aboveground and underground storage. The implications of the present study suggest that carbon model and prediction need to take the effects of nitrogen deposition on underground system into account.

  14. Evaluation of ischemic corticospinal tract damage by diffusion tensor MRI. Its significance to predict functional outcome of corona radiata infarct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    Motor impairment is one of the most frequent symptoms among stroke patients and often leads to poststroke dependency. Recent advances of diffusion tensor MR imaging made it possible to identify corticospinal tract (CST) three-dimensionally and evaluate structural damage, so precise evaluation of the ischemic CST damage became feasible.Motor impairment, lesion size and location upon diffusion weighted MR image and clinical outcome were assessed in 23 acute to subacute capsular and corona radiata infarct patients. According to the lesion size, patients were grouped into A, maximal diameter below 15 mm and B, that above 15 mm. Motor impairment was graded severe: limb movement synergy level, moderate: selective muscle activity possible and mild: isolated movements well co-ordinated, each corresponding to Brunnstrom stage 1-3, 4-5, and 6, respectively. Outcome at the time of discharge was assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS), discharge destination and length of hospital stay were also registered. Diffusion tensor MR imaging was conducted in 15 corona radiata infarct patients at 2.3+-2.2 days from the onset of the clinical symptoms. CST was 3-dimensionally identified with dTV. II. SR and Volume-one 1.72 and CST-FA ratio (ipsi-/contralesional CST-FA) and CST-Area% (CST lesion free area/whole CST area) were obtained at the level where ischemic damage was most prominent and correlation of these parameters to motor impairment and clinical outcome was studied. CST-FA ratio and CST-Area% were in good correlation to motor impairment at presentation. Patients with severe motor impairment had lower CST-FA ratio and CSF-Area% than those with moderate or mild. CST-FA ratio was 0.73+-0.22 in patients with poor clinical outcome (mRS 3-6) and 0.93+-0.09 with good clinical outcome (mRS 0-2) (p=0.038). Diffusion tensor MR imaging is useful in evaluating motor impairment and predicting functional outcome of corona radiata infarct patient in the acute to subacute stage. (author)

  15. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: a fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H L; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2009-05-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils.

  16. First record of the genus .i.Bloszykiella./i. in Kenya with the description of .i.Bloszykiella tertia./i. sp n. (Acari: Uropodidae) from a .i.Pinus radiata./i. D. Don plantation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2015), s. 629-635 ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * new species * Pinus radiata plantation * Kenya Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.708, year: 2015

  17. COMBINED EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 ON ANTIOXIDATIVE AND PHOTOPROTECTIVE DEFENSE SYSTEMS IN NEEDLES OF PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine interactive effects of important environmental stresses on biochemical defense mechanisms of tree seedlings, we studied responses to elevated O3 and elevated atmospheric CO2 on antioxidative and photoprotective systems in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Do...

  18. Effect of (/sup 60/cobalt) gamma rays on growth and root rot diseases in mungbean (vigna radiata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, N.; Dawar, S.; Zaki, M.J.; Abass, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Present investigation showed that gamma rays influences suppressive effect on root rot fungi such as Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Fusarium spp., and inducive effect on growth parameters of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). Seeds of mung bean were treated with gamma rays (/sup 60/Cobalt) at time periods of 0 and 4 minutes and stored for 90 days at room temperature to determine its effect on growth parameters and infection of root infecting fungi. All treatments of gamma rays enhanced the growth parameters as compared to untreated plants. Infection of M. phaseolina, R. solani and Fusarium spp., were significantly decreased on mung bean seeds treated with gamma rays. Gamma rays significantly increased the growth parameters and controlled the root rot fungi up to 90 days of storage of seeds. (author)

  19. MADERA DE COMPRESIÓN EN PINUS RADIATA D. DON: I, CARACTERÍSTICAS ANATÓMICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-vaz,J.E; Fernandez,A; Valenzuela,L; Torres,M

    2007-01-01

    Se caracterizó la madera de compresión en 10 árboles de Pinus radiata D.Don con inclinaciones menores a 10 º en dos sitios.          Los diámetros de traqueidas de los árboles del sitio Arena húmeda resultaron estadísticamente mayores que los del sitio Arcilla; pero no resultaron diferentes al comparar madera juvenil y madura o al compara madera de compresión con madera opuesta.          Diferencias significativas se determinaron en el largo de traqueida entre sitios (Arena húmeda-Arcilla), t...

  20. Biofertilizing efficiency of Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical composition of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bharath

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of marine brown alga Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical parameters of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo.Methods: Different concentrations of algal extracts (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, and 5.0% were prepared and applied to the crops at every 10-day intervals under natural conditions. After 30 d, the plants were harvested to evaluate the growth and biochemical parameters.Results: Seaweed liquid fertilizers treated seedlings showed maximum growth in 3.0% concentration when compared to the untreated seedlings. Similarly, biochemical parameters such as photosynthetic pigments, protein, reducing sugar, total sugar and amino acids exhibited increases in 3.0% concentration seaweed extract. Decreases in growth and biochemical parameters were noticed in concentrations higher than 3.0%.Conclusions: Presence of micronutrients and growth regulating substances in the liquid extract help healthier and faster productivity of the crop.

  1. Optimisation of steam extraction of oil from maritime pine needles

    OpenAIRE

    Rezzoug , Sid-Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Essential oil from pine maritime needles is generally extracted by steam distillation process at atmospheric pressure for more than one hour, or by solvent extraction process. In the last decade, there has been an increasing demand for new extraction techniques enabling automation, shorter extraction time and reduced consumption of organic solvent. In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of two processing parameters of an alte...

  2. Relationship between diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy and motor outcome in patients with hemiparesis after corona radiata infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Marumoto, Kohei; Miyake, Hiroji; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between fractional anisotropy (FA) values of magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and motor outcome (1 month after onset) in 15 patients with hemiparesis after ischemic stroke of corona radiata lesions. DTI data were obtained on days 14-18. FA values within the cerebral peduncle were analyzed using a computer-automated method. Motor outcome of hemiparesis was evaluated according to Brunnstrom stage (BRS; 6-point scale: severe to normal) for separate shoulder/elbow/forearm, wrist/hand, and lower extremity functions. The ratio of FA values in the affected hemisphere to those in the unaffected hemisphere (rFA) was assessed in relation to the BRS data (Spearman rank correlation test, P<.05). rFA values ranged from .715 to 1.002 (median=.924). BRS ranged from 1 to 6 (median=4) for shoulder/elbow/forearm, from 1 to 6 (median=5) for wrist/hand, and from 2 to 6 (median=4) for the lower extremities. Analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between rFA and upper extremity functions (correlation coefficient=.679 for shoulder/elbow/forearm and .706 for wrist/hand). Although slightly less evident, the relationship between rFA and lower extremity function was also statistically significant (correlation coefficient=.641). FA values within the cerebral peduncle are moderately associated with the outcome of both upper and lower extremity functions, suggesting that DTI may be applicable for outcome prediction in stroke patients with corona radiata infarct. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Halopriming of seeds imparts tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2014-07-01

    The investigation was carried out to study the effect of halopriming on NaCl and polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) induced stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties, with varied abiotic stress tolerance potential. Halopriming is a seed priming technique in which the seeds were soaked in various salt solutions (in this study NaCl was used). The results of the study indicated that the application of stresses (both NaCl and PEG) induced retardation of growth attributes (measured in terms of shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight) and decrease in physiological attributes like total chlorophyll content, metabolites, photosynthetic and mitochondrial activity of the seedlings in all three V. radiata (L.) varieties. However, halopriming of the seeds could reduce the extent of decrease in these biological attributes. NaCl and PEG stress also caused increase in MDA content (a product of membrane lipid peroxidation) in all the varieties studied and this increase was significantly minimized under halopriming. From the present investigation it was evident that among the green gram varieties studied, Pusa Vishal, a NaCl tolerant variety showed enhanced tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress, when the seeds were subjected to halopriming followed by Pusa Ratna (stress sensitive variety). Pusa 9531 (drought tolerant variety) also showed positive halopriming effects but it was less significant when compared to other two varieties. It could be concluded that halopriming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all varieties and it was significantly higher in the Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa 9531 and Pusa Ratna.

  4. Expanding the repertoire of microsatellite markers for polymorphism studies in Indian accessions of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Divya; Verma, Priyanka; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2014-09-01

    Limited availability of validated, polymorphic microsatellite markers in mung bean (Vigna radiata), an important food legume of India, has been a major hurdle towards its improvement and higher yield. The present study was undertaken in order to develop a new set of microsatellite markers and utilize them for the analysis of genetic diversity within mung bean accessions from India. A GA/CT enriched library was constructed from V. radiata which resulted in 1,250 putative recombinant clones of which 850 were sequenced. SSR motifs were identified and their flanking sequences were utilized to design 328 SSR primer pairs. Of these, 48 SSR markers were employed for assessing genetic diversity among 76 mung bean accessions from various geographical locations in India. Two hundred and thirty four alleles with an average of 4.85 alleles per locus were detected at 48 loci. The polymorphic information content (PIC) per locus varied from 0.1 to 0.88 (average: 0.49 per locus). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.40 to 0.95 and 0.40 to 0.81 respectively. Based on Jaccard's similarity matrix, a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis which revealed that one accession from Bundi, Rajasthan was clustered out separately while remaining accessions were grouped into two major clusters. The markers generated in this study will help in expanding the repertoire of the available SSR markers thereby facilitating analysis of genetic diversity, molecular mapping and ultimately broadening the scope for genetic improvement of this legume.

  5. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  6. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    longleaf pine forests (Figure 1) for the diverse values they provide. These forests afford abundant recreational opportunities like hiking , bird...combined herbicide-fertilizer treatments that might benefit planted longleaf pine seedlings after planting. In addition to measuring longleaf pine

  7. Tip moth control and loblolly pine growth in intensive pine culture: four year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana Comstock, and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar®,...

  8. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  9. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  10. Bio-composites made from pine straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Jamie Tang

    2004-01-01

    Pine straw is renewable natural resource that is under-utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical performances of pine straw composites. Three panel density levels (0.8, 0.9, 1.0 g/cm2) and two resin content levels (1% pMDI + 4% UF, 2% pMDI + 4% UF) were selected as treatments. For the pine-straw-bamboo-...

  11. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  12. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  13. Reciprocal selection causes a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkman, Craig W; Parchman, Thomas L; Favis, Amanda; Siepielski, Adam M

    2003-08-01

    Few studies have shown both reciprocal selection and reciprocal adaptations for a coevolving system in the wild. The goal of our study was to determine whether the patterns of selection on Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta spp. latifolia) and red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) were concordant with earlier published evidence of reciprocal adaptations in lodgepole pine and crossbills on isolated mountain ranges in the absence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). We found that selection (directional) by crossbills on lodgepole pine where Tamiasciurus are absent was divergent from the selection (directional) exerted by Tamiasciurus on lodgepole pine. This resulted in divergent selection between areas with and without Tamiasciurus that was congruent with the geographic patterns of cone variation. In the South Hills, Idaho, where Tamiasciurus are absent and red crossbills are thought to be coevolving with lodgepole pine, crossbills experienced stabilizing selection on bill size, with cone structure as the agent of selection. These results show that crossbills and lodgepole pine exhibit reciprocal adaptations in response to reciprocal selection, and they provide insight into the traits mediating and responding to selection in a coevolutionary arms race.

  14. Wood formation from the base to the crown in Pinus radiata: gradients of tracheid wall thickness, wood density, radial growth rate and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheree Cato; Lisa McMillan; Lloyd Donaldson; Thomas Richardson; Craig Echt; Richard Gardner

    2006-01-01

    Wood formation was investigated at five heights along the bole for two unrelated trees of Pinus radiataBoth trees showed clear gradients in wood properties from the base to the crown. Cambial cells at the base of the tree were dividing 3.3-fold slower than those at the crown, while the average thickness of cell walls in wood was highest at the base....

  15. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd. (Scion Research.)

    2005-11-30

    divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

  16. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  17. Natural parasitism of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera, Psyllidae nymphs by Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae in São Paulo orange groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Branco Paiva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama 1908 has become the main citrus pest species in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, after the introduction of the huanglongbing or citrus greening. This study evaluated the parasitism of 3rd, 4th and 5th instar D. citri nymphs by Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922 in citrus groves under a regimen of regular insecticide applications in ten producing regions: Araraquara, Barretos, Bauru, Botucatu, Franca, Itapetininga, Jaú, Limeira, Lins and São João da Boa Vista. Sixty-nine samples of new branches infested with nymphs of D. citri were collected from 2005 to 2008 in orange groves ranging from 1 to 20 years old, of the varieties Hamlin, Pera, Valencia and Natal. The parasitoid T. radiata is widely distributed in São Paulo orange groves, and was identified in 50 (72% of the samples, showing a mean parasitism rate of 12.4%. The highest parasitism rate was observed in the "summer" (from January through March, with a mean of 25.7%. Nymphal parasitism was above 90% in two samples. The probable causes of the variations in parasitism of D. citri by T. radiata are discussed.

  18. Post-fertilization physiology and growth performance of loblolly pine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.T. King; J.R. Seiler; T.R. Fox; KurtH. Johnsen

    2008-01-01

    The physiological processes leading to enhanced growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) following fertilization are not clearly understood. Part of the debate revolves around the temporal response of net photosynthetic rate (An) to fertilization and whether the An response is always positive. We measured light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat), dark respiration...

  19. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  20. Dynamics of whlte pine in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; J.B. Cullen; Thomas S. Frieswyk

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of growth, regeneration, and quality changes for white pine between the 1970's and 1980's in the six-state New England region. Growth rates seemed comparable among ail states except Rhode Island, where the percentage of growth (1.71%) seemed low. Over all states, the proportion of acreage in seedling/sapling white pine stands averaged too low (8%) to...

  1. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  2. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  3. Survey of microsatellite DNA in pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; P. May-Marquardt

    1997-01-01

    A large insert genomic library from eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) was probed for the microsatellite motifs (AC)n and (AG)n, all 10 trinucleotide motifs, and 22 of the 33 possible tetranucleotide motifs. For comparison with a species from a different subgenus, a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) genomic...

  4. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  5. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  6. Geographic variation in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) - cortical monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Schmidtling; J.H. Myszewski; C.E. McDaniel

    2005-01-01

    Cortical monoterpenes were assayed in bud tissue from 16 Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study (SSPSS) sources and from 6 seed orchard sources fiom across the natural range of the species, to examine geogaphic variation in shortleaf pine. Spruce pine and pond pine were also sampled. The results show geographic differences in all of the major terpenes. There was no...

  7. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  8. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  9. Forest development and carbon dynamics after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew. Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles periodically infest pine forests in western North America, killing many or most overstory pine stems. The surviving secondary stand structure, along with recruited seedlings, will form the future canopy. Thus, even-aged pine stands become multiaged and multistoried. The species composition of affected stands will depend on the presence of nonpines...

  10. Biogeography and diversity of pines in the Madrean Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Ferguson; Aaron D. Flesch; Thomas R. Van Devender

    2013-01-01

    Pines are important dominants in pine-oak, pine and mixed-conifer forests across the Colorado Plateau, southern Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, and in the intervening Sky Islands of the United States-Mexico borderlands. All 17 native species of pines in the Sky Islands region or their adjacent mountain mainlands reach the northern or southern margins of their...

  11. Length Research Paper The effects of the pine processionary moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pine processionary moth (PPM), causing significant damage on pine stands in Turkey, affects mainly crimean pine stands within the Ulus vicinity. To determine the damage, 20 sample plots of second site class crimean pine stands were measured; 10 of which were taken as the control sample and 10 of which were ...

  12. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  13. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike

    2012-01-01

    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  14. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  15. Optimum Vegetation Conditions for Successful Establishment of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Pitt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 10th-growing season performance of planted eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings was evaluated in response to herbaceous and woody vegetation control treatments within a clearcut and two variants of the uniform shelterwood regeneration system (single vs. multiple future removal cuts. Herbaceous vegetation control involved the suppression of grasses, forbs, ferns and low shrubs for the first 2 or 4 growing seasons after planting. Deciduous woody vegetation control treatments, conducted in combination with the herbaceous treatments within a response-surface design, involved the permanent removal of all tall shrubs and deciduous trees at the time of planting, at the end of the 2nd or 5th growing seasons, or not at all. In general, the average size of planted pine was related positively to the duration of herbaceous vegetation control and negatively to delays in woody control. White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck altered these trends, reducing the height of pine on plots with little or no overtopping deciduous woody vegetation or mature tree cover. Where natural pine regeneration occurred on these plots, growth was similar but subordinate to the planted pine. Data from the three sites indicate that at least 60% of planted pine may be expected to reach an age-10 height target of 2.5 m when overtopping cover (residual overstory + regenerating deciduous is managed at approximately 65% ± 10%, and total herbaceous cover is suppressed to levels not exceeding 50% in the first five years. On productive sites, this combination may be difficult to achieve in a clearcut, and requires fairly rigorous vegetation management in shelterwood regeneration systems. Currently, synthetic herbicides offer the only affordable and effective means of achieving such vegetation control.

  16. Non-Ribes alternate hosts of white pine blister rust: What this discovery means to whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul J. Zambino; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook. Kim

    2006-01-01

    From early to present-day outbreaks, white pine blister rust caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola, in combination with mountain pine beetle outbreaks and fire exclusion has caused ecosystem-wide effects for all five-needled pines (McDonald and Hoff 2001). To be successful, efforts to restore whitebark pine will require sound management decisions that incorporate an...

  17. Hybridization in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine as affected by the distance to nearby artificially regenerated stands of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The natural range of shortleaf pine encompasses 22 states from New York to Texas, second only to eastern white pine in the eastern United States. It is a species of minor and varying occurrence in most of these states usually found in association with other pines, but it is the only naturally occurring pine in the northwestern part of its range in Oklahoma, Arkansas,...

  18. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  19. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  20. Damage by pathogens and insects to Scots pine and lodgepole pine 25 years after reciprocal plantings in Canada and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A combined species - provenance - family experiment with Scots pine and lodgepole pine was planted in Canada and Sweden. One aim of the experiment was to evaluate the two species' sensitivities to pathogens and insects 25 years after establishment in their non-native continents. In Canada, Scots pine had better average survival than lodgepole pine, but survival rates among trees from the best seed-lots were equal. In Canada only western gall rust infected Scots pine to some extent, and mounta...

  1. Natural parasitism of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera, Psyllidae nymphs by Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae in São Paulo orange groves Parasitismo natural de ninfas de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera, Psyllidae por Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae em pomares de laranja em São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Branco Paiva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama 1908 has become the main citrus pest species in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, after the introduction of the huanglongbing or citrus greening. This study evaluated the parasitism of 3rd, 4th and 5th instar D. citri nymphs by Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922 in citrus groves under a regimen of regular insecticide applications in ten producing regions: Araraquara, Barretos, Bauru, Botucatu, Franca, Itapetininga, Jaú, Limeira, Lins and São João da Boa Vista. Sixty-nine samples of new branches infested with nymphs of D. citri were collected from 2005 to 2008 in orange groves ranging from 1 to 20 years old, of the varieties Hamlin, Pera, Valencia and Natal. The parasitoid T. radiata is widely distributed in São Paulo orange groves, and was identified in 50 (72% of the samples, showing a mean parasitism rate of 12.4%. The highest parasitism rate was observed in the "summer" (from January through March, with a mean of 25.7%. Nymphal parasitism was above 90% in two samples. The probable causes of the variations in parasitism of D. citri by T. radiata are discussed.O psilídeo Diaphorina citri Kuwayama 1908 tornou-se a principal praga dos citros no estado de São Paulo após a introdução do huanglongbing ou grenning dos citros. Este estudo avaliou as proporções de ninfas de terceiro a quinto ínstares de D. citri parasitadas por Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922 em pomares de laranja submetidos a pulverizações constantes de inseticidas em dez regiões produtoras, Araraquara, Barretos, Bauru, Botucatu, Franca, Itapetininga, Jaú, Limeira, Lins e São João da Boa Vista. Foram coletadas 69 amostras de ramos jovens infestados com ninfas de D. citri obtidas entre 2005 e 2008 em pomares de 1 a 20 anos de idade, das cultivares Hamilin, Pera, Valencia e Natal. O parasitóide T. radiata encontra-se amplamente distribuído em pomares de São Paulo, tendo sido observado em 50 amostras (72%, com taxa média de

  2. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  3. Persistence of evapotranspiration impacts from mountain pine beetle outbreaks in lodgepole pine forests, south-central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Williams, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The current extent and high severity (percent tree mortality) of mountain pine beetle outbreaks across western North America have been attributed to regional climate change, specifically warmer summer and winter temperatures and drier summers. These outbreaks are widespread and have potentially persistent impacts on forest evapotranspiration. The few data-driven studies have largely been restricted by the temporal availability of remote sensing products. This study utilized multiple mountain pine beetle outbreak location datasets, both current and historical, within lodgepole pine stands in the south-central Rocky Mountains. The full seasonal evapotranspiration impact of outbreak events for decades after outbreak (0 to 60 years) and the role of outbreak severity in determining that impact were quantified. We found a 30% reduction in evapotranspiration peaking at 14-20 years post-outbreak during the spring snowmelt period, when water was not limited, but a minimal reduction in evapotranspiration during the remainder of the growing season (June - August). We also found a significant increase in evapotranspiration, relative to non-attacked stands, in intermediate aged stands (20-40 years post-disturbance) corresponding with a peak in LAI and therefore transpiration. During the snow-cover months evapotranspiration initially increased with needle fall and snag fall and corresponding increases in albedo and shortwave transmission to the surface. We found that changes in evapotranspiration during all seasons dissipated by 60 years post-attack. MODIS evapotranspiration values responded most strongly to mountain pine beetle driven changes in net radiation or available energy, and vegetation cover (e.g. LAI, fPAR and EVI). It also appears that the post-attack response of evapotranspiration may be sensitive to precipitation patterns and thus the consequences of a disturbance event may depend on the directionality of climate change conditions.

  4. Southern pine beetle in loblolly pine: simulating within stand interactions using the process model SPBLOBTHIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; J. R. Meeker; J. Bishir; James Roberds; X. Wan

    2016-01-01

    Pine stand density is a key determinant of damage resulting from attacks by the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). High-density stands of maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are at high risk for losses to SPB, and reducing stand density is the primary tool available to forest managers for preventing and mitigating damage. Field studies are...

  5. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Amalesh; Balliet, Nicole; Runzer, Kyle; Hawkins, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age) trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in y...

  6. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm

  7. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi, E-mail: shilpi@dbeb.iitd.ac.in

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  8. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under 4 climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simioni, G.; Ritson, P.; McGrath, J.; Dumbrell, I.; Copeland, B.

    2009-01-01

    The future stem wood production and net ecosystem production of Pinus radiata plantations in southwestern Australia were estimated in this modelling study, which was conducted in order to determine the potential effects of anticipated severe rainfall reductions in the region. Four climate change and emission scenarios were considered as well as simulations of the present climate. Results of the study showed that stem wood production and NEP were not significantly influenced by moderate changes in temperature. However, stem wood production and NEP decreased significantly under the most pessimistic climate change scenarios. Results of the study suggested that a trade-off between the positive effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on plant and water use efficiency and the negative impacts of decreased rainfall and increased temperatures. Changes in heterotrophic respiration lagged behind changes in plant growth. It was concluded that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential will require modelling tools capable of characterizing interactions between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, as well as the potential range of climate change scenarios. 53 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  9. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rosario del P., E-mail: rosariocastillo@udec.cl [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Araya, Juan [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Troncoso, Eduardo [Consorcio Bioenercel S.A, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita [Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) – Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required.

  11. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture

  12. Arseno-sugars from brown kelp (Ecklonia radiata) as intermediates in cycling of Arsenic in a marine ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, J S; Francesconi, K A

    1981-02-12

    The high concentration (relative to seawater) of arsenic in many marine animals eaten as human food has stimulated interest in the cycling of arsenic in the marine environment. Although arsenic is present in arsenobetaine ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/As/sup +/CH/sub 2/COO/sup -/) in the wester rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus), the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and the school whiting (Sillago bassensis) it is not clear what intermediate stages are involved in the biosynthesis of this compound from arsenate, the major form of arsnenic in seawater. We now report the isolation of the two main arsenical constituents of the brown kelp, Ecklonia radiata, and their identification as a 2-hydroxy-3-sulphopropyl-5-deoxy-5-(dimethylarsenoso)furanoside and a 2,3-dihydroxypropyl-5-deoxy-5-(dimethylarsenoso)furanoside. A ..beta..-ribo structure for the sugar system is strongly indicated in each case. Ecklonia is the major organisms that concentrates arsenic in the coastal ecosystem to which the western rock lobster and school whiting belong. It is clear that the compounds described here could readily be further metabolized to arsenobetaine and may well be the source of arsenobetaine in marine fauna associated with the region.

  13. Distribution and movement of nutrients and metals in a Pinus radiata forest soil following applications of biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, Ronald G.; Clucas, Lynne M.; Speir, Tom W.; Schaik, Andrew P. van

    2007-01-01

    Samples of biosolids, spiked with increasing amounts of Cu, Ni or Zn were applied to field plots in a Pinus radiata forest, and the nutrient and metal status of the forest litter and underlying mineral soil was monitored over a period of six years following application. The macronutrient status of the forest litter was changed markedly by the biosolids application, with substantial increases in N, P and Ca concentrations, and decreases in Mg and K. The C/N ratio of the litter was also decreased and pH was increased by the biosolids application. The metals applied with the biosolids were retained predominantly in the litter layer, and even with non-metal-spiked biosolids there were substantial increases in litter metal concentrations. There was also firm evidence of some movement of Cu, Ni and Zn into the underlying mineral soil. The potential environmental issues resulting from these changes in nutrient and metal status are discussed. - Biosolids application to forest soils results in substantial build-up of macronutrients and metals in the forest litter layer

  14. Distribution and movement of nutrients and metals in a Pinus radiata forest soil following applications of biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Ronald G. [Centre for Soil and Environmental Quality, Agriculture and Life Sciences Division, P.O. Box 84, Lincoln University Canterbury (New Zealand)]. E-mail: mclaren@lincoln.ac.nz; Clucas, Lynne M. [Centre for Soil and Environmental Quality, Agriculture and Life Sciences Division, P.O. Box 84, Lincoln University Canterbury (New Zealand); Speir, Tom W. [Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd, P.O. Box 50348, Porirua (New Zealand); Schaik, Andrew P. van [Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd, P.O. Box 50348, Porirua (New Zealand)

    2007-05-15

    Samples of biosolids, spiked with increasing amounts of Cu, Ni or Zn were applied to field plots in a Pinus radiata forest, and the nutrient and metal status of the forest litter and underlying mineral soil was monitored over a period of six years following application. The macronutrient status of the forest litter was changed markedly by the biosolids application, with substantial increases in N, P and Ca concentrations, and decreases in Mg and K. The C/N ratio of the litter was also decreased and pH was increased by the biosolids application. The metals applied with the biosolids were retained predominantly in the litter layer, and even with non-metal-spiked biosolids there were substantial increases in litter metal concentrations. There was also firm evidence of some movement of Cu, Ni and Zn into the underlying mineral soil. The potential environmental issues resulting from these changes in nutrient and metal status are discussed. - Biosolids application to forest soils results in substantial build-up of macronutrients and metals in the forest litter layer.

  15. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Rosario del P.; Araya, Juan; Troncoso, Eduardo; Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) – Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required

  16. Yield and Yield Components of Vetch (Vigna radiata as Affected by the Use of Vermicompost and Phosphate Bio-fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rahimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects different levels of phosphate biofertilizer barvar-2 and vermi compost on yield and yield components of vetch plant (Vigna radiata L.in Yasouj a factorial experiments was performed in completely randomized design in crop year of 2013. Experimental treatments were phosphate biofertilizer barvar-2 at 3 levels (0, 50, 100 gram per hectare and vermicompost at 4 levels (0, 10, 20, 30 ton per hectare. In this study stem height, root length, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index was measured. ANOVA and comparison of means showed that vermicompost significantly increased stem height, economic and biological yields. Results, also, indicated that highest yield and biomass, 4.3 and 18.8 g/plant, observed respectively when 100 g/ha of barvar-2 and 30 t/ha of vermi compost were used. Using both of phosphate biofertilizer barvar-2 and vermicompost was better than their individnal usage. This indicates that combined use of these 2 factors would produce higher yield. It can be concluded that application of 100 g/ha of barvar-2 and 30 t/ha of vermicompost would a proper recommendation.

  17. Acetylcholineestarase-inhibiting alkaloids from Lycoris radiata delay paralysis of amyloid beta-expressing transgenic C. elegans CL4176.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Xin

    Full Text Available The limited symptom relief and side effects of current Alzheimer's disease (AD medications warrant urgent discovery and study of new anti-AD agents. The "cholinergic hypothesis" of AD prompts us to search for plant-derived acetylcholineesterase (AChE inhibitors such as galanthamine that has been licensed in Europe for AD treatment. We used the unique amyloid β-expressing transgenic C. elegans CL4176, which exhibits paralysis when human Aβ1-42 is induced, to study two natural benzylphenethylamine alkaloids isolated from Lycoris radiata (L' Her. Herb, galanthamine and haemanthidine, and their synthetic derivatives 1,2-Di-O-acetyllycorine and 1-O-acetyllycorine for their anti-paralysis effects. Our data indicate that these Lycoris compounds effectively delay the paralysis of CL4176 worms upon temperature up-shift, and prolong the lives of these transgenic worms. Lycoris compounds were shown to significantly inhibit the gene expression of ace-1 and ace-2. Additionally, the Lycoris compounds may modulate inflammatory and stress-related gene expressions to combat the Aβ-toxicity in C. elegans.

  18. Economic evaluation (quantitative for Mung bean (Vigna radiata production in the Kamin Region, Sadat Shahr, Fars province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Reza Sadikhani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although one of the biggest disadvantages of an economic evaluation, is volatility of price and instability of economic conditions, But for land use planning, economic considerations play a key role in land use and making decision. Cost is an important factor that encourage farmers to grow special crop. Thus, in addition to the qualitative and quantitative evaluation, Land Suitability can be based on net or gross profit per unit area of land to be assessed in economic terms. The economic evaluation is based on net income or gross income from the land. The purpose of this study was to assess the economic evaluation for part of Saadat Shahr (Kamin region for Mung bean (Vigna radiata. 8 drilled profiles in order to see the profiles were chosen and after collecting data on real output, the variable cost of producing the product and the critical values and estimated gross profit are calculated and land suitability classes were determined. The results showed that one unit has a moderate suitability (S2 and two units have suitable classes (S1 from separate units.

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the legume Vigna radiata and the analysis of recombination across short mitochondrial repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Alverson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean, and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt, the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38-297 nt repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes.

  20. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  1. Common environmental factors explain both ectomycorrhizal species diversity and pine regeneration variability in a post-fire Mediterranean forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscardo, Erika; Freitas, Helena; Pereira, João Santos; De Angelis, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    Natural seedling regeneration and establishment after stand replacing wildfires is influenced by a series of environmental and biological constraints. In this study, we characterized the diversity and structure of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community associated with post-fire naturally regenerated maritime pine saplings, and individuate the environmental factors responsible for fungal species distribution. We also identify the main environmental factors responsible for maritime pine regeneration variability and assessed the relation between saplings performance and ECM fungal diversity indices. Fungal species were identified by direct sequencing of internal transcribed spacer regions. Five years after the disturbance event, a total of 30 taxa colonized the pine saplings. The ECM fungal community was dominated by ruderal species of the genus Rhizopogon (present in almost half of the samples). Almost one third of the identified ECM fungal species belonged to the family Thelephoraceae. Typical k-selected species like Amanita pantherina, Boletus aestivalis, Lactarius chrysorrheus, and Russula densifolia were found on pine saplings collected in proximity of unburnt pine trees, in correspondence with low erosion extents. Pine regeneration varied throughout the study areas and was enhanced at higher elevations, in correspondence with moderate slopes, shallower soils, and a reduced cover of ericaceous shrubs and bare ground. These conditions were found in close proximity to patches of pine trees that survived the disturbance event and were previously characterized by a higher pre-fire pine biomass. Even though no correlations were found between saplings performance and ECM fungal diversity indices, common environmental factors (i.e., ericaceous shrub cover, extent of erosion, slope, and soil depth) were responsible for shaping the ECM fungal distribution and for describing most of the explained regeneration variability.

  2. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Peemoeller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  4. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  5. Effect of Light Availability on the Interaction between Maritime Pine and the Pine Weevil: Light Drives Insect Feeding Behavior But Also the Defensive Capabilities of the Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Suárez-Vidal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Light is a major environmental factor that may determine the interaction between plants and herbivores in several ways, including top-down effects through changes in herbivore behavior and bottom-up effects mediated by alterations of plant physiology. Here we explored the relative contribution of these two regulation processes to the outcome of the interaction of pine trees with a major forest pest, the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis. We studied to what extent light availability influence insect feeding behavior and/or the ability of pines to produce induced defenses in response to herbivory. For this purpose, 3-year old Pinus pinaster plants from three contrasting populations were subjected to 6 days of experimental herbivory by the pine weevil under two levels of light availability (complete darkness or natural sunlight independently applied to the plant and to the insect in a fully factorial design. Light availability strongly affected the pine weevil feeding behavior. The pine weevil fed more and caused larger feeding scars in darkness than under natural sunlight. Besides, under the more intense levels of weevil damage (i.e., those registered with insects in darkness, light availability also affected the pine’s ability to respond to insect feeding by producing induced resin defenses. These results were consistent across the three studied populations despite they differed in weevil susceptibility and inducibility of defenses. Morocco was the most damaged population and the one that induced more defensive compounds. Overall, results indicate that light availability modulates the outcome of the pine–weevil interactions through both bottom-up and top-down regulation mechanisms.

  6. Low offspring survival in mountain pine beetle infesting the resistant Great Basin bristlecone pine supports the preference-performance hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Eidson

    Full Text Available The preference-performance hypothesis states that ovipositing phytophagous insects will select host plants that are well-suited for their offspring and avoid host plants that do not support offspring performance (survival, development and fitness. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, a native insect herbivore in western North America, can successfully attack and reproduce in most species of Pinus throughout its native range. However, mountain pine beetles avoid attacking Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva, despite recent climate-driven increases in mountain pine beetle populations at the high elevations where Great Basin bristlecone pine grows. Low preference for a potential host plant species may not persist if the plant supports favorable insect offspring performance, and Great Basin bristlecone pine suitability for mountain pine beetle offspring performance is unclear. We infested cut bolts of Great Basin bristlecone pine and two susceptible host tree species, limber (P. flexilis and lodgepole (P. contorta pines with adult mountain pine beetles and compared offspring performance. To investigate the potential for variation in offspring performance among mountain pine beetles from different areas, we tested beetles from geographically-separated populations within and outside the current range of Great Basin bristlecone pine. Although mountain pine beetles constructed galleries and laid viable eggs in all three tree species, extremely few offspring emerged from Great Basin bristlecone pine, regardless of the beetle population. Our observed low offspring performance in Great Basin bristlecone pine corresponds with previously documented low mountain pine beetle attack preference. A low preference-low performance relationship suggests that Great Basin bristlecone pine resistance to mountain pine beetle is likely to be retained through climate-driven high-elevation mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  7. Difference in the volatile composition of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Hee; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-06-28

    The differences in volatile components of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades were observed by applying multivariate statistical methods to GC-MS data sets. A total of 35 and 37 volatile components were identified in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms, respectively. The volatile components in pine-mushrooms were primarily composed of C8 species, such as 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, (E)-2-octen-1-ol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, (E)-2-octenal, and octanoic acid. The levels of ethyl octanoate, junipene, and 3-methyl-3-buten-2-one were much higher in raw pine-mushroom of higher grades, whereas the reverse was true for C8 components. On the other hand, furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone, 2(5H)-furanone, (E)-2-methyl-2-butenal, furfural, phenylacetaldehyde, benzoic acid methyl ester, camphene, and beta-pinene were the major components of cooked mushrooms. These volatile components formed by various thermal reactions could be mainly responsible for the difference in volatile components of cooked pine-mushrooms according to their grades.

  8. Resinosis Inhibits Monochamus spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Colonization of Healthy Shortleaf Pines in Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Matthew W; Galligan, Larry D; Stephen, Fred M

    2018-05-14

    The genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) includes large, woodboring, longhorned beetles, which colonize pine trees in North America. Many authors have classified the genus as saprophagous, but one recent study reported successful colonization of standing jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) following severe wind disturbance in Minnesota. We tested whether two Monochamus species native to the southeastern United States (M. titillator (Fabricius) and M. carolinensis (Olivier)) could successfully colonize healthy shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) in recently harvested stands without coincident abiotic or biotic stressors, such as lightning strikes or bark beetle attacks. We attached commercially available semiochemical lures, including monochamol, ethanol, and ipsenol, to healthy shortleaf pine trees and observed Monochamus spp. oviposition response. Egg development was monitored following oviposition by harvesting attacked trees and dissecting oviposition pits. High numbers of oviposition pits were observed on trees treated with lures containing the bark beetle pheromone ipsenol and pits were highly concentrated on the tree bole near lures. Although egg deposition occurred, pit dissection revealed large amounts of resin present in almost all dissected pits and that egg hatch and subsequent larval development were rare. Our results demonstrate that southeastern Monochamus spp. are unlikely to be primary pests of healthy shortleaf pines due to resinosis. To better understand the host finding behavior of these two Monochamus species, we also conducted trapping trials with several semiochemical combinations. Both species and sexes demonstrated similar attraction to compounds, and the most attractive lure combined host volatiles, pheromone, and sympatric insect kairomone.

  9. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H.L.; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V.

    2009-01-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  10. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krznaric, Erik [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Verbruggen, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP242, Bd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wevers, Jan H.L. [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Colpaert, Jan V., E-mail: jan.colpaert@uhasselt.b [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2009-05-15

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  11. Studies on chlorophyll and viable mutations in green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) II: Response to mutagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswami, S; Rathinam, M [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Agricultural Botany

    1980-09-01

    The frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable mutations in relation to type and dose of mutagen and cluster progenies were studied in four green gram cultivars viz., Kopergaon, Pusa Baisakhi, L. 24/2 and Sel. 122 subjected to two levels of EMS and gamma irradiation, severally and in conjunction. While chlorophyll mutations did not vary with the mutagen dose, viable mutations exhibited a direct relationship. Combinations of the mutagens were more effective in mutation induction. While no difference was manifested between the cluster families in respect of chlorophyll mutations, progenies of the second cluster recorded less viable mutations than either the first or the third. Viridis and xanthoviridis among chlorophyll mutations, and those affecting plant duration and stature among viable were more predominant.

  12. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  13. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  14. Influence of copper and formalin on the mycorrhiza of pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations of copper sulphate and formalin were tested for their effect on the efficiency of mycorrhizal functioning in pine seedlings. Low and higher doses of copper applied to the container grown seedling exhibited a less stimulatory effect than nedium doses. When applied in higher concentrations, the formalin caused mortality in young pine seedlings. The seedling yield and phosphate uptake was found maximum in 100 ppm applied concentration of copper. while słów growth and lower phosphate concentration was observed in the seedlings not given any copper treatment. Formalin at 50 ppm concentration slightly improved the seedling growth and phosphate uptake in mycorrhizal seedling as compared with untreated ones. Variation in the development and spread of ectomycorrhiza on the surface of roots of pine seedlings was also recorded in responses to copper and formalin treatments.

  15. ß-Phellandrene: Kairomone for Pine Engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden

    1990-01-01

    The responses of Ips pini (Scolytidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with the pheromone, ipsdienol, and various monoterpenes were determined in stands of lodgepole pine in southern and central British Columbia. Ips pini was attracted to both ipsdienol and ß-phellandrene, demonstrating that ß-phellandrene is a kairomone for this...

  16. Pinus patula and pine hybrid hedge productivity in South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response to the Fusarium circinatum pine pathogen threat in southern Africa, research has been conducted on the development of F. circinatum-tolerant P. patula and P. patula hybrids. The objective of this study was to investigate the propagation potential of these taxa in two vegetative propagation systems, hydroponic ...

  17. Effects of a Commercial Chitosan Formulation on Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Resistance Parameters in Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. D. Klepzig; B. L. Strom

    2011-01-01

    A commercially available chitosan product, Beyond™, was evaluated for its effects on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., responses believed related to bark beetle resistance. Treatments were applied 4 times at approx. 6-wk intervals between May and November 2008. Five treatments were evaluated: ground application (soil drench), foliar application, ground...

  18. Water balance of pine forests: Synthesis of new and published results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantana Tor-ngern; Ram Oren; Sari Palmroth; Kimberly Novick; Andrew Oishi; Sune Linder; Mikaell Ottosson-Lofvenius; Torgny Nasholm

    2018-01-01

    The forest hydrologic cycle is expected to have important feedback responses to climate change, impacting processes ranging from local water supply and primary productivity to global water and energy cycles. Here, we analyzed water budgets of pine forests worldwide. We first estimated local water balance of forests dominated by two wide-ranging species: Pinus...

  19. Subfossil bog-pine horizons document climate and ecosystem changes during the Mid-Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckstein, J.; Leuschner, H.H.; Bauerochse, A.; Sass-Klaassen, U.

    2009-01-01

    Extended dendrochronological investigations were performed on subfossil pine entombed in peat layers of former raised bogs in Lower Saxony (NW Germany). The aim was to study of dynamics in bog development in response to local environmental conditions and regional changes in climate throughout the

  20. Seasonal photosynthesis and water relations of juvenile loblolly pine relative to stand density and canopy position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; Mary A. Sword Sayer; James P. Barnett

    2003-01-01

    To assess the effects of stand density and canopy environment on tree physiology, we measured gas exchange responses of the same needle age class of 16-year-old loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) in thinned (512 trees ha-1) and non-thinned treatment plots (2,863 trees ha-1) in central Louisiana....

  1. Reapplication of Silvicultural Treatments Impacts Phenology and Photosynthetic Gas Exchange of Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; Mary A. Sword; Shufang Yu; James P. Barnett

    2004-01-01

    A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, established in 1981, was thinned and fertilized in 1988. Thinning and fertilization treatments were applied again in early 1995. The morphology of current flushes and needles were measured between March and October in 1995 through 1997. Physiological responses were monitored in the upper and lower crowns....

  2. Whole-tree bark and wood properties of loblolly pine from intensively managed plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; Bruce E. Borders; Michael B. Kane; Harold E. Burkhart

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify geographical variation in loblolly pine bark and wood properties at the whole-tree level and to quantify the responses in whole-tree bark and wood properties following contrasting silvicultural practices that included planting density, weed control, and fertilization. Trees were destructively sampled from both conventionally managed...

  3. Comparative Transcriptomics Among Four White Pine Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A. G. Baker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conifers are the dominant plant species throughout the high latitude boreal forests as well as some lower latitude temperate forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. As such, they play an integral economic and ecological role across much of the world. This study focused on the characterization of needle transcriptomes from four ecologically important and understudied North American white pines within the Pinus subgenus Strobus. The populations of many Strobus species are challenged by native and introduced pathogens, native insects, and abiotic factors. RNA from the needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola, limber pine (Pinus flexilis, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana was sampled, Illumina short read sequenced, and de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts and their subsequent structural and functional annotations were processed through custom pipelines to contend with the challenges of non-model organism transcriptome validation. Orthologous gene family analysis of over 58,000 translated transcripts, implemented through Tribe-MCL, estimated the shared and unique gene space among the four species. This revealed 2025 conserved gene families, of which 408 were aligned to estimate levels of divergence and reveal patterns of selection. Specific candidate genes previously associated with drought tolerance and white pine blister rust resistance in conifers were investigated.

  4. Mountain pine beetle selectivity in old-growth ponderosa pine forests, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A; Soulé, Peter T; Maxwell, Justin T

    2013-05-01

    A historically unprecedented mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak affected western Montana during the past decade. We examined radial growth rates (AD 1860-2007/8) of co-occurring mature healthy and MPB-infected ponderosa pine trees collected at two sites (Cabin Gulch and Kitchen Gulch) in western Montana and: (1) compared basal area increment (BAI) values within populations and between sites; (2) used carbon isotope analysis to calculate intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) at Cabin Gulch; and (3) compared climate-growth responses using a suite of monthly climatic variables. BAI values within populations and between sites were similar until the last 20-30 years, at which point the visually healthy populations had consistently higher BAI values (22-34%) than the MPB-infected trees. These results suggest that growth rates two-three decades prior to the current outbreak diverged between our selected populations, with the slower-growing trees being more vulnerable to beetle infestation. Both samples from Cabin Gulch experienced upward trends in iWUE, with significant regime shifts toward higher iWUE beginning in 1955-59 for the visually healthy trees and 1960-64 for the MPB-infected trees. Drought tolerance also varied between the two populations with the visually healthy trees having higher growth rates than MPB-infected trees prior to infection during a multi-decadal period of drying summertime conditions. Intrinsic water-use efficiency significantly increased for both populations during the past 150 years, but there were no significant differences between the visually healthy and MPB-infected chronologies.

  5. Transcriptional Slippage and RNA Editing Increase the Diversity of Transcripts in Chloroplasts: Insight from Deep Sequencing of Vigna radiata Genome and Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ping Lin

    Full Text Available We performed deep sequencing of the nuclear and organellar genomes of three mungbean genotypes: Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata TC1966, V. radiata var. radiata NM92 and the recombinant inbred line RIL59 derived from a cross between TC1966 and NM92. Moreover, we performed deep sequencing of the RIL59 transcriptome to investigate transcript variability. The mungbean chloroplast genome has a quadripartite structure including a pair of inverted repeats separated by two single copy regions. A total of 213 simple sequence repeats were identified in the chloroplast genomes of NM92 and RIL59; 78 single nucleotide variants and nine indels were discovered in comparing the chloroplast genomes of TC1966 and NM92. Analysis of the mungbean chloroplast transcriptome revealed mRNAs that were affected by transcriptional slippage and RNA editing. Transcriptional slippage frequency was positively correlated with the length of simple sequence repeats of the mungbean chloroplast genome (R2=0.9911. In total, 41 C-to-U editing sites were found in 23 chloroplast genes and in one intergenic spacer. No editing site that swapped U to C was found. A combination of bioinformatics and experimental methods revealed that the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-transcribed genes psbF and ndhA are affected by transcriptional slippage in mungbean and in main lineages of land plants, including three dicots (Glycine max, Brassica rapa, and Nicotiana tabacum, two monocots (Oryza sativa and Zea mays, two gymnosperms (Pinus taeda and Ginkgo biloba and one moss (Physcomitrella patens. Transcript analysis of the rps2 gene showed that transcriptional slippage could affect transcripts at single sequence repeat regions with poly-A runs. It showed that transcriptional slippage together with incomplete RNA editing may cause sequence diversity of transcripts in chloroplasts of land plants.

  6. Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

    2010-11-01

    The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  7. Large-scale thinning, ponderosa pine, and mountain pine beetle in the Black Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt K. Allen; Angie Ambourn; Blaine Cook; Kenneth Marchand

    2017-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB), can cause extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, USA. Lower tree densities have been associated with reduced MPB-caused tree mortality, but few studies have reported on large-scale thinning and most data come from small plots that...

  8. Mountain pine beetle attack alters the chemistry and flammability of lodgepole pine foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    During periods with epidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests, large amounts of tree foliage are thought to undergo changes in moisture content and chemistry brought about by tree decline and death. However, many of the presumed changes have yet to be...

  9. Is lodgepole pine mortality due to mountain pine beetle linked to the North American Monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes

    2012-01-01

    Regional precipitation patterns may have influenced the spatial variability of tree mortality during the recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) (MPB) outbreak in the western United States. Data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program show that the outbreak was especially severe in the state of Colorado where over 10 million lodgepole pines (...

  10. Strong partial resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr.; Deems Burton; Dean A. Davis; Robert D. Westfall; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative resistance to white pine blister rust in 128 controlled- and open-pollinated sugar pine families was evaluated in a “disease garden”, where alternate host Ribes bushes were interplanted among test progenies. Overall infection was severe (88%), but with great variation among and within families: a 30-fold range in numbers of infections...

  11. Silvicultural Considerations in Managing Southern Pine Stands in the Context of Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin

    2011-01-01

    Roughly 30 percent of the 200 million acres of forest land in the South supports stands dominated by southern pines. These are among the most productive forests in the nation. Adapted to disturbance, southern pines are relatively easy to manage with even-aged methods such as clearcutting and planting, or the seed tree and shelterwood methods with natural regeneration....

  12. Insect biodiversity reduction of pine woods in southern Greece caused by the pine scale (Marchalina hellenica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrakis, P. V.; Spanos, K.; Feest, A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the pine scale (Marchalina hellenica Gennadius, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Margarodidae) on the insect biodiversity of pinewoods in Attica, Greece. The comparison of biodiversities was done by estimating the biodiversity by the Ewens-Caswells V statistic in a set of nine sites each containing two linetransects. Transects pairs went through free and infested pine woods from the pine scale and each one had several tenth hectare plots on both sides. The ecosystem temperature (= disorder) of the sites was computed and found high, together with the idiosyncratic temperatures (= susceptibility to extinction) of the 158 species in order to detect local extinctions. The indicator values of insect species were computed on the basis of the relative cover of each plant species. The main findings of this study are (1) the reduction of insect species biodiversity because of the introduction of the pine scale, (2) the moderate increase of disorder in pine scale infested sites,(3) many insect species can characterize site groups but none of them can distinguish infested from pine scale free sites. The introduction of pine scale in pine woods disturbs their insect fauna before its influence to the floristic composition and the associated vegetation structure appears. The causes behind this reduction of biodiversity and the anthropogenic influences are discussed. (Author) 64 refs.

  13. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2002-01-01

    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  14. Preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials from mountain pine beetle-killed pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) wood treated with iron (III) nitrate solution was used for the preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials (Fe-CNs) under various carbonization temperatures. The carbonization yield of Fe-treated sample (5% as Fe) was always 1–3% higher (after ash compensation) than that of the non-...

  15. Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the production of submicron lignocellulose fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid Hoeger; Rolland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Orlando J. Rojas; J. Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North American forests create forest management challenges. This investigation introduces the production of submicron or nanometer lignocellulose fibrils for value-added materials from the widely available resource represented by dead pines after...

  16. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  17. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: Evidence for a major gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; K. S. Burns

    2014-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections...

  18. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David

    2003-01-01

    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  19. Threats, status & management options for bristlecone pines and limber pines in Southern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; K. S. Burns; F. Freeman; R. A. Sniezko

    2006-01-01

    High-elevation white pines define the most remote alpine-forest ecotones in western North America yet they are not beyond the reach of a lethal non-native pathogen. The pathogen (Cronartium ribicola), a native to Asia, causes the disease white pine blister rust (WPBR) and was introduced into western Canada in 1910. Whitebark (Pinus albicaulis) and...

  20. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  1. Molecular and analysis of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (LrPAL2) from Lycoris radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yumei; Xia, Bing; Liang, Lijian; Li, Xiaodan; Xu, Sheng; Peng, Feng; Wang, Ren

    2013-03-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the first enzyme of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, participates in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, lignins, stilbenes and many other compounds. In this study, we cloned a 2,326 bp full-length PAL2 gene from Lycoris radiata by using degenerate oligonucleotide primer PCR (DOP-PCR) and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The cDNA contains a 2,124 bp coding region encoding 707 amino acids. The LrPAL2 shares about 77.0 % nucleic acid identity and 83 % amino acid identity with LrPAL1. Furthermore, genome sequence analysis demonstrated that LrPAL2 gene contains one intron and two exons. The 5' flanking sequence of LrPAL2 was also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR (SEFA-PCR), and a group of putative cis-acting elements such as TATA box, CAAT box, G box, TC-rich repeats, CGTCA motif and TCA-element were identified. The LrPAL2 was detected in all tissues examined, with high abundance in bulbs at leaf sprouting stage and in petals at blooming stage. Besides, LrPAL2 drastically responded to MJ, SNP and UV, moderately responded to GA and SA, and a little increased under wounding. Comparison of LrPAL2 expression and LrPAL1 expression demonstrated that LrPAL2 can be more significantly induced than LrPAL1 under the above treatments, and LrPAL2 transcripts accumulated prominently at blooming stage, especially in petals, while LrPAL1 transcripts did not accumulated significantly at blooming stage. All these results suggested that LrPAL2 might play distinct roles in different branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway.

  2. Formation and action of lignin-modifying enzymes in cultures of Phlebia radiata supplemented with veratric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundell, T.; Hatakka, A.; Leonowicz, A.; Rogalski, J.

    1990-01-01

    Transformation of veratric (3,4-dimethoxybenzoic) acid by the white rot fungus Phlebia radiata was studied to elucidate the role of ligninolytic, reductive, and demeth(ox)ylating enzymes. Under both air and a 100% O 2 atmosphere, with nitrogen limitation and glucose as a carbon source, reducing activity resulted in the accumulation of veratryl alcohol in the medium. When the fungus was cultivated under air, veratric acid caused a rapid increase in laccase (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2) production, which indicated that veratic acid was first demethylated, thus providing phenolic compounds for laccase. After a rapid decline in laccase activity, elevated lignin peroxidase (ligninase) activity and manganese-dependent peroxidase production were detected simultaneously with extracellular release of methanol. This indicated apparent demethoxylation. When the fungus was cultivated under a continuous 100% O 2 flow and in the presence of veratric acid, laccase production was markedly repressed, whereas production of lignin peroxidase and degradation of veratryl compounds were clearly enhanced. In all cultures, the increases in lignin peroxidase titers were directly related to veratryl alcohol accumulation. Evolution of 14 CO 2 from 3-O 14 CH 3 -and 4-O 14 CH 3 -labeled veratric acids showed that the position of the methoxyl substituent in the aromatic ring only slightly affected demeth(ox)ylation activity. In both cases, more than 60% of the total 14 C was converted to 14 CO 2 under air in 4 weeks, and oxygen flux increased the degradation rate of the 14 C-labeled veratric acids just as it did with unlabeled cultures

  3. Characterization of a novel Y2K-type dehydrin VrDhn1 from Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Peng, Po-Hsin; Ko, Chia-Yun; Markhart, Albert H; Lin, Tsai-Yun

    2012-05-01

    A novel dehydrin gene (VrDhn1) was isolated from an embryo cDNA library of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (mungbean) variety VC1973A. The intronless VrDhn1 gene encodes a protein belonging to the Y(2)K-type dehydrin family. VrDhn1 protein accumulated in embryos and cotyledons during seed maturation and disappeared 2 days after seed imbibition (DAI). The expression of VrDhn1 mRNA and accumulation of VrDhn1 protein were at high levels in mature seeds, but neither mRNA nor protein was detected in mungbean vegetative tissues under normal growth conditions. The VrDhn1 mRNA level was extremely high in mature seeds and decreased to ∼30% at 1 DAI, and was not detectable at ~7 DAI. Tissue dehydration, salinity and exogenous ABA markedly induced VrDhn1 transcripts in plants as measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). VrDhn1 protein was not detected using immunoblots in seedlings under stress treatments. In mature seeds or 1 DAI seedlings, VrDhn1 proteins were immunolocalized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. VrDhn1 exhibited low affinity for non-specific interaction with DNA using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), and the exogenous addition of Zn(2+) or Ni(2+) stimulated interaction. The His-tagged VrDhn1 (30.17 kDa) protein showed a molecular mass of 63.1 kDa on gel filtration, suggesting a dimer form. This is the first report showing that a Y(2)K-type VrDhn1 enters the nucleus and interacts with DNA during seed maturation.

  4. Combined efficacy of Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek and Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst. Nicolson on serum lipids in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Benil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is a major killer disease throughout the world. Dyslipidemia is a major contributor to the risk of CAD. Several dietary articles traditionally used in India and other South Asian countries reduced dyslipidemia. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the combined effect of Mung bean (Vigna radiata and Elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius on serum lipids and atherogenic indices in albino rats and to compare it with a standard drug Cholestyramine. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (150–200 g were randomized to 5 groups of 6 animals each. The grouping were done based on the following criteria: Group I: Normal Control Group, Group II: (Standard Group: Cholestyramine resin 5 mg/kg bw, Group III: (Half Dose Group: Drug powder at 540 mg/kg bw, Group IV: (Effective Dose Group: Drug powder at 1080 mg/kg bw, and Group V: (Double Dose Group: Drug powder at 2160 mg/kg bw. Lipid profile was estimated at the beginning and after 30 days of treatment. The Effective and Double doses of the drug reduced Total cholesterol along with levels of Triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein and Very low density lipoprotein levels significantly (p < 0.01 along with a significant (p < 0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in rats. There was also significant (p < 0.01 improvement in atherogenic indices like Castelli Risk Index I, Non HDL C/HDL, Castelli risk Index II, TG/HDL, Atherogenic coefficient and Atherogenic Index of Plasma. The combination of powdered sprouted mung bean and yam powder have excellent lipid lowering potential.

  5. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    city of Sydney, Australia. This giant ... It is also being exploited to grow commer- cially to ... Australia. There are huge kauri pines (Agathis sps) along with. Wollemi pine seedling ... Natural History Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies.

  6. Effects of EMS, NMU and gamma-rays in Vigna radiata(L) Wilczek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.N.; Singh, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Irrespective of the varieties involved, EMS for germination, NMU for pollen fertility and gamma-rays for seed fertility and seedling height in M 1 generation and NMU for chlorophyll mutations were proved to be most efficient. A distinct difference in genotypic response was also noticed. Variety Pusa Baisakhi was also found to be more sensitive than variety S-8. (author)

  7. Ecosystem-based management in the lodgepole pine zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Robert E. Keane; Catherine A. Stewart

    2000-01-01

    The significant geographic extent of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in the interior West and the large proportion within the mixed-severity fire regime has led to efforts for more ecologically based management of lodgepole pine. New research and demonstration activities are presented that may provide knowledge and techniques to manage lodgepole pine...

  8. Restoring fire in lodgepole pine forests of the Intermountain west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Ward W. McCaughey

    1997-01-01

    We are developing new management treatments for regenerating and sustaining lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests through emulation of natural disturbance processes. Lodgepole pine is the principal forest cover on over 26 million hectares in western North America. While infrequent, stand replacing fires following mountain pine beetle outbreaks are common to the...

  9. Direct and indirect chemical defence of pine against folivorous insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mumm, R.; Hilker, M.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical defence of pine against herbivorous insects has been intensively studied with respect to its effects on the performance and behaviour of the herbivores as well as on the natural enemies of pine herbivores. The huge variety of terpenoid pine components play a major role in mediating

  10. Early longleaf pine seedling survivorship on hydric soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Cohen; Joan Walker

    2006-01-01

    We established a study to evaluate site preparation in restoring longleaf pine on poorly drained sites. Most existing longleaf pine stands occur on drier sites, and traditional approaches to restoring longleaf pine on wetter sites may rely on intensive practices that compromise the integrity of the ground layer vegetation. We applied silvicultural treatments to improve...

  11. Blister rust control in the management of western white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth P. Davis; Virgil D. Moss

    1940-01-01

    The forest industry of the western white pine region depends on the production of white pine as a major species on about 2,670,000 acres of commercial forest land. Continued production of this species and maintenance of the forest industry at anything approaching its present level is impossible unless the white pine blister rust is controlled. Existing merchantable...

  12. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  13. Direct seeding of pitch pine in southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; C. B. Cranmer; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    There is not enough pine reproduction in the woodlands of southern New Jersey. This increasingly important problem, which plagues the state's Pine Region, is especially severe where seed sources for natural regeneration are poor. In some of these areas, pulpwood cuttings have removed all pines large enough to bear many cones. In other areas, wildfires have killed...

  14. White pines, blister rust, and management in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Conklin; M Fairweather; D Ryerson; B Geils; D Vogler

    2009-01-01

    White pines in New Mexico and Arizona are threatened by the invasive disease white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola. Blister rust is already causing severe damage to a large population of southwestern white pine in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico. Recent detection in northern and western New Mexico suggests that a major expansion of the...

  15. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  16. Natural regeneration of whitebark pine: Factors affecting seedling density

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Goeking; D. Izlar

    2014-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is an ecologically important species in high-altitude areas of the western United States and Canada due to the habitat and food source it provides for Clark’s nutcrackers, red squirrels, grizzly bears, and other animals. Whitebark pine stands have recently experienced high mortality due to wildfire, white pine blister rust, and a...

  17. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and coevolution of pines and their stem rusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. I. Millar; B. B. Kinloch

    1991-01-01

    We review and reinterpret major events in the evolution of pines and their stem rusts using information from their taxonomy, genetics, biogeography, and fossil history. Understanding of pine evolution has been significantly revised in the last 20 years. Pines appear to have evolved early in the Mesozoic and to have diversified and migrated throughout middle latitudes...

  18. Mechanized row-thinning systems in slash pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Anderson; James E. Granskog

    1974-01-01

    Over the next decade or two, most of the 15 to 20 million acres of pine plantations in the South will become ready for a first commercial thinning. The magnitude and nature of the job is illustrated by the situation in slash pine-the most extensively planted of the southern pines.

  19. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  20. Separating Trends in Whitebark Pine Radial Growth Related to Climate and Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia L. van de Gevel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins outbreaks have affected millions of hectares of high-elevation conifer forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains during the past century. Little research has examined the distinction between mountain pine beetle outbreaks and climatic influence on radial growth in endangered whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. ecosystems. We used a new method to explore divergent periods in whitebark pine radial growth after mountain pine beetle outbreaks across six sites in western Montana. We examined a 100-year history of mountain pine beetle outbreaks and climate relationships in whitebark pine radial growth to distinguish whether monthly climate variables or mountain pine outbreaks were the dominant influence on whitebark pine growth during the 20th century. High mortality of whitebark pines was caused by the overlapping effects of previous and current mountain pine beetle outbreaks and white pine blister rust infection. Wet conditions from precipitation and snowpack melt in the previous summer, current spring, and current summer benefit whitebark pine radial growth during the following growing season. Whitebark pine radial growth and climate relationships were strongest in sites less affected by the mountain pine beetle outbreaks or anthropogenic disturbances. Whitebark pine population resiliency should continue to be monitored as more common periods of drought will make whitebark pines more susceptible to mountain pine beetle attack and to white pine blister rust infection.

  1. Changes in some biophysical and biochemical parameters of mungbean [vigna radiata (L.) wilczek] grown on chromium-contaminated soils treated with solid tea wastage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Akhtar, H.

    2010-01-01

    The success of solid tea wastage treatment technology in remediating chromium (111) contamination in the soil has been demonstrated on growth of Vigna radiata. The present research was designed to study the effect of chromium (Cr3/sup +/) on plant growth, potassium (K), phosphorus (P), protease activity and proline profile of Vigna radiata as a bio indicator in the presence and absence of the solid tea surface as a bio sorbent to control the mobility of Cr3/sup +/ in the soil. Results showed toxic effects of Cr3/ sup +/ on plant growth and development, which include high protease activity with prominent proline and decreased potassium and phosphorus contents at elevated concentration of metal. Proline content is the only amino acid that accumulates to a greater extent in the leaves of plants under stress. An increase in proline contents in leaves, stem and root with high concentration of Cr3/s sup +/ gets reduced in a solid tea wastage amended plants. Metabolic alteration by Cr3/ sup +/exposure and their control by solid tea wastage already described in the first report, showed direct effect on enzymes or other metabolites or by its ability to generate reactive oxygen species which may cause oxidative stress. It is suggested that the plant can grow under chromium stress if some suitable adsorbent (like tea wastage) is mixed with the soil which can protect the plants from the phyto toxicity of Cr 3/sup +/ by altering various metabolic processes. (author)

  2. Resilience of ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests to mountain pine beetle disturbance and limited regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vandendriesche, Don

    2015-01-01

    After causing widespread mortality in lodgepole pine forests in North America, the mountain pine beetle (MPB) has recently also affected ponderosa pine, an alternate host species that may have different levels of resilience to this disturbance. We collected field data in ponderosa pine- and lodgepole pine-dominated forests attacked by MPB in Colorado and then simulated stand growth over 200 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. We compared scenarios of no disturbance with scenarios of MPB-caused mortality, both with and without regeneration. Results indicated that basal area and tree density recovered to predisturbance levels relatively rapidly (within 1‐8 decades) in both forest types. However, convergence of the disturbed conditions with simulated undisturbed conditions took longer (12‐20+ decades) and was delayed by the absence of regeneration. In MPB-affected ponderosa pine forests without regeneration, basal area did not converge with undisturbed conditions within 200 years, implying lower resilience in this ecosystem. Surface fuels accumulated rapidly in both forest types after MPB-induced mortality, remaining high for 3‐6 decades in simulations. Our results suggest that future patterns of succession, regeneration, fuel loading, climate, and disturbance interactions over long time periods should be considered in management strategies addressing MPB effects in either forest type, but particularly in ponderosa pine.

  3. Overexpression Analysis of emv2 gene coding for Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Vigna radiata (Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are speculated to protect against water stress deficit in plants. An over expression system for mungbean late embryogenesis abundant protein, emv2 was constructed in a pET29a vector, designated pET-emv2 which is responsible for higher expression under the transcriptional/translational control of T7/lac promoter incorporated in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3.Induction protocol was optimized for pET recombinants harboring the target gene. Overexpressed EMV2 protein was purified to homogeneity and the protein profile monitored by SDS-PAGE.

  4. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garyfallia Kapravelou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean (Vigna radiata, a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65–85% VO2 max has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS.

  5. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Nebot, Elena; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cantarero, Samuel; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesus M

    2017-07-19

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean ( Vigna radiata ), a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65-85% VO₂ max) has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles) factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS.

  6. Mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine: mortality and fire implications (Project INT-F-07-03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Daniel R. West; Mike A Battaglia; Sheryl L. Costello; José F. Negrón; Charles C. Rhoades; John Popp; Rick Caissie

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has infested over 2 million acres of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest since an outbreak began approximately in 2000 in north central Colorado. The tree mortality from mountain pine beetle outbreaks has the potential to alter stand composition and stand...

  7. Probability of infestation and extent of mortality models for mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Jennifer G. Klutsch

    2017-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant agent of tree mortality in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forests throughout western North America. A large outbreak of mountain pine beetle caused extensive tree mortality in north-central Colorado beginning in the late 1990s. We use data from a network of plots established in...

  8. Revivification of a method for identifying longleaf pine timber and its application to southern pine relicts in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Arvind A.R. Bhuta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) cannot be distinguished from the other southern pines based on wood anatomy alone. A method that involves measuring pith and second annual ring diameters, reported by Arthur Koehler in 1932 (The Southern Lumberman, 145: 36–37), was revisited as an option for identifying longleaf pine timbers and stumps. Cross-section...

  9. The push–pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; Constance J. Mehmel; Sylvia R. Mori; Jeffrey N. Webster; David L. Wood; Nadir Erbilgin; Donald R. Owen

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (...

  10. Development and assessment of 30-meter pine density maps for landscape-level modeling of mountain pine beetle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin A. Crabb; James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting spatial patterns of mountain pine beetle (MPB) population success requires spatially explicit information on host pine distribution. We developed a means of producing spatially explicit datasets of pine density at 30-m resolution using existing geospatial datasets of vegetation composition and structure. Because our ultimate goal is to model MPB population...

  11. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunlap

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  12. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo

    2012-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  13. Genomic selection in maritime pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Fikret; Bartholomé, Jérôme; Farjat, Alfredo; Chancerel, Emilie; Raffin, Annie; Sanchez, Leopoldo; Plomion, Christophe; Bouffier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    A two-generation maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) breeding population (n=661) was genotyped using 2500 SNP markers. The extent of linkage disequilibrium and utility of genomic selection for growth and stem straightness improvement were investigated. The overall intra-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium was r(2)=0.01. Linkage disequilibrium corrected for genomic relationships derived from markers was smaller (rV(2)=0.006). Genomic BLUP, Bayesian ridge regression and Bayesian LASSO regression statistical models were used to obtain genomic estimated breeding values. Two validation methods (random sampling 50% of the population and 10% of the progeny generation as validation sets) were used with 100 replications. The average predictive ability across statistical models and validation methods was about 0.49 for stem sweep, and 0.47 and 0.43 for total height and tree diameter, respectively. The sensitivity analysis suggested that prior densities (variance explained by markers) had little or no discernible effect on posterior means (residual variance) in Bayesian prediction models. Sampling from the progeny generation for model validation increased the predictive ability of markers for tree diameter and stem sweep but not for total height. The results are promising despite low linkage disequilibrium and low marker coverage of the genome (∼1.39 markers/cM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pinon Pine IGCC project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, E.B.; Lamarre, L.J.; Glazer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) intends to build the Pinon Pine Power Project, an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant at its Tracy Power Station near Reno, Nevada. The plant will burn approximately 800 tons of coal per day to generate electricity in a base load application. The Pinon Project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for funding under Round IV of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project will demonstrate the use of the KRW agglomerating fluidized bed gasifer operating in the air blown mode. Hot gas cleanup consisting of particulate and sulfur removal will also be demonstrated. The Cooperative Agreement between SPPCo and the DOE was executed in August 1992. Foster Wheeler USA Corporation (FWUSA) will provide engineering and construction management services. The M.W. Kellogg Company (MWK) will provide engineering of the gasifer and hot gas cleanup systems. A discussion of project progress since the 1992 Clean Coal Technology Conference, design and economic considerations, and current project status is presented

  15. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Vincent [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-05-30

    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  16. Studies on chemical and physical mutagens' induced polygenic variability in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangwan, H.P.S.; Singh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Pulses used to be and still are cultivated on marginal lands under poor management conditions which result in low production. Genotypes which could respond to better management have been eliminated by past selection. It is, therefore, difficult and challenging to breed high yielding varieties in pulse crops with the limited genetic variability available. Induced mutations could supplement this variability. Extensive studies on genotype-mutagen interaction were undertaken with six varieties of mungbean having contrasting seed characteristics, morphological traits and genetic backgrounds. Each variety was treated with 300 Gy and 600 Gy of gamma rays, 0.1 and 0.5% of EMS, and 0.1 and 0.05 of SA. Dry seeds, water soaked and phosphate buffer soaked seeds served as controls. The following observations were made: differential response of varieties to mutagen treatments - irrespective of the variety or the characters; gamma-rays proved to be more effective than chemical mutagens; mutagenic treatments resulted in development of early maturing mutants that can fit well in multiple cropping systems particularly in raising a mung crop after the wheat harvest. The fact that some mutants were detected in M 4 with significant increase in yield and marginal improvement in protein content generation suggests the possibility of improving both characters provided a large population is screened. (author)

  17. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  18. Time-of-Flight Adjustment Procedure for Acoustic Measurements in Structural Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbiel F. Llana; Guillermo Iñiguez-Gonzalez; Francisco Arriaga; Xiping Wang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of timber length on time-of-flight acoustic longitudinal measurements was investigated on the structural timber of four Spanish species: radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), laricio pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Time-of-flight longitudinal measurements were conducted on 120 specimens of...

  19. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  20. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.