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Sample records for radiasi dan parasit

  1. RADIASI DI SEKITAR MENARA BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION DI BANDUNG DAN JAKARTA

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    Athena Athena

    2014-02-01

    umum radiasi di sekitar BTS  telah  melampaui  masih  di  bawah  nilai  yang  direkomendasikan  oleh  WHO  dan  ITU  maupun  Keputusan  Ditjen Parpostel tahun 2007, tetapi di beberapa titik pengukuran telah melampaui nilai yang direkomendasikan oleh peraturan tersebut.   Mengingat  efek  yang  ditimbulkan  oleh  pajanan  radiasi  ini  bersifat  kronis,  maka  perlu  adanya  pemantauan besaran radiasi maupun kondisi kesehatan masyarakat di sekitar BTS.Kata Kunci: Menara telepon seluler, radiasi, medan elektromagnetikAbstractResearch of Health Effect of Electromagnetic Fields to People around the Base Transceiver Station (BTS in Jakarta and Bandung.  The aim of the  research is to study the health effects of  BTS existence and BTS radiation exposure to the community who lives near the stations.  The research design  was  cross-sectional  with the number of samples in each location was 10 (7  BTSs with GSM system and 3 BTSs with CDMA system. The samples were chosen purposively. Data collection was performed by measuring the power density in 16 points with a radius of 100 meters around the BTS (every  22,5o angle. According to these measurement results, a further measurement was performed for every 50, 150,200, and 300 meters in the direction where the largest power density was found. The measuring tool used was  Radio Frequency  Electromagnetic  Field  Strength  Meters  SPECTRAN®  HF-2025E.  Afterwards, electromagnetic  field measurement  data  was  mapped  based  on  the  measurement  points  in  each  BTS  and  compared  with  the  existingregulations.  Result:  At  a  distance  of  100  meters  from  BTS,  the  power  density  of  900  MHz  wave  was  ranged  from undetected to 396  W/cm2 with a modus value of 2  W/cm2. For the 1800 MHz wave, the power density was ranged from undetected to 282  W/cm2 with a modus value of 0,4  W/cm2. Meanwhile, the 2200 MHz wave was found to

  2. PERKEMBANGAN DAN PROSPEK PROSES RADIASI PANGAN DI INDONESIA [Development and Prospect of Food Radiation Processing in Indonesia

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    Zubaidah Irawati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors such as insufficient harvesting and handling methods as well as inadequate methods of storage and distribution, poor processing techniques and poor quality of raw materials used in making ready to eat foods may lead to the cumulative causes of food borne illness particularly in developing countries. Public trend in the world nowadays are demanding access to more and more fresh eating products practical but nutritious, safe and preferably processed under non thermal treatments. The new and emerging post harvest technologies in controlling pathogen and maintaining quality of food products is ionizing radiation, because it is applicable for almost all type of foods without impairing the overall quality as well as sensory attributes. The foods either fresh, dried, or ready to eat meals in the packages can be exposed to ionizing radiation for different purposes such as quarantine measures, control of sprouting and germination, shelf-life extension of perishable foods, delaying ripening and aging of fruits and vegetables, destruction of parasites and harmful pathogenic microorganisms. International trade of agricultural commodities opens the possibility of the movement of pests such as insects from country to country. The countries involve in this business have established laws and regulations, including international trade regulation of irradiated foods, in order to minimize the risk and trade barrier. The future of food irradiation is filled with promise although the needs for this technique relates to consumer acceptance. Consumers will grow to appreciate the technology for the lifesaving and good food availability. It should be kept in mind that irradiation is controlling contamination and it does not prevent it.

  3. PENGARUH BERBAGAI LUAS PERMUKAAN DAUN TANAMAN LIDAH MERTUA (Sansevieria trifasciata ‘Golden Hahnii’ TERHADAP PENURUNAN RADIASI KOMPUTER RUANG KERJA DI RS KIA SADEWA, YOGYAKARTA

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    Dwi Larasati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Komputer yang banyak digunakan oleh masyarakat karena bermanfaat dalam menyelesaikan banyak pekerjaan, memiliki dampak negatif berupa radiasi jenis non pengion. Berdasarkan sur-vei pendahuluan, hasil pengukuran radiasi komputer di RS KIA Sadewa tidak melebihi baku mu-tu, tetapi apabila terpapar terus-menerus akan menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi kesehatan. Lidah Mertua merupakan salah satu tanaman yang dapat mengurangi radiasi komputer. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai luas permukaan daun jenis Sansevie-ria trifasciata ‘Golden Hahnii’ terhadap penurunan radiasi komputer. Ada tiga perlakuan yang di-gunakan, yaitu: Perlakuan A (510-570 cm2 luas daun, Perlakuan B (1020-1140 cm2 luas daun, dan Perlakuan C (1530-1710 cm2 luas daun. Penelitian ini bersifat quasi experiment dengan menggunakan desain pre-test post-test with control group. Ada 10 komputer dalam 10 ruangan berbeda yang diukur radiasinya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata penurunan radiasi setelah diletakkan Perlakuan A adalah sebesar 0.142 x 10-4 mT, Perlakuan B sebesar 0.277 x 10-4 mT dan Perlakuan C sebesar 0.351 x 10-4 mT. Hasil uji statistik menggunakan uji One Way Anova pada derajat kepercayaan 95 % menghasilkan p-value < 0,001 yang berarti perbedaan penurunan tersebut bermakna. Hasil uji lanjutan dengan LSD menyimpulkan bahwa Perlakuan C menghasilkan penurunan radiasi komputer yang paling tinggi.

  4. Hubungan Ekspresi NFκB dengan Respons Radiasi Kanker Serviks Stadium Lokal Lanjut

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    Affi A. Ratnasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis merupakan salah satu jalur eliminasi sel kanker pada proses radiasi dan nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB merupakan faktor transkripsi yang diduga berhubungan dengan mekanisme resistensi apoptosis suatu sel sehingga dapat memengaruhi respons pascaradiasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai ekspresi relatif NFkB pada kanker serviks stadium lokal lanjut dan hubungannya dengan respons radiasi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan desain kohort observasional pada bulan Januari-Oktober 2015. Jaringan biopsi pra-radiasi dari kanker serviks diperoleh dari 17 subjek dan biopsi mid-radiasi didapatkan dari 10 subjek. mRNA NFkB diekstraksi dan dianalisis menggunakan qRT-PCR. Ekspresi relatif NFkB diuji terhadap hubungannya dengan respons radiasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan median ekspresi relatif NFkB pra-radiasi pada kelompok subyek dengan respons negatif (0,667; SD 0,413 lebih tinggi daripada kelompok respons positif (0,315; SD 160,298, namun tidak terdapat hubungan dengan respons pascaradiasi (p=0,578. Terdapat hubungan antara perubahan ekspresi NFkB midterapi dibandingkan praterapi terhadap respons radiasi (p=0,035; RR 0,33. Disimpulkan bahwa penurunan ekspresi NFkB mid-radiasi dapat berperan dalam meningkatkan respons pascaradiasi. Kata kunci: NFkB, respons radioterapi, kanker serviks stadium lanjut lokal Expression of NFkB in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer and Its Relation to Radiotherapy Response Abstract One of the expected elimination pathways of cancer cells in the process of radiation is apoptosis. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB is a transcription factor related to the mechanism of apoptosis resistance of a cell, which can affect the post-radiation response. The aim of this study is to assess the relative expression of NFkB in locally advanced cervical cancer and its relation to radiotherapy response. The study was conducted with observational cohort design on January-October 2015. Pre-radiotherapy cervical biopsy specimen was collected from

  5. Kajian Pengaruh Radiasi Sinar Gamma Terhadap Susut Bobot Pada Buah Jambu Biji Merah Selama Masa Penyimpanan

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    M. Akrom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan radiasi pada sampel jambu biji merah (psidium guajava linn pada variasi dosis 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, dan 1 kGy menggunakan sinar gamma dengan sumber isotop Co-60 serta sampel yang tidak diradiasi sebagai sampel kontrol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh radiasi sinar gamma terhadap susut bobot sebagai indikasi dari terjadinya perlambatan proses fisiologis pada buah jambu biji merah selama masa penyimpanan. Sampel jambu biji merah diradiasi sesuai dosis yang ditentukan kemudian disimpan dalam wadah plastik selama 8 hari masa penyimpanan. Hari ke 4 dan ke 8 dilakukan evaluasi terhadap massa sampel untuk mengetahui penyusutan bobot yang terjadi. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa sampel yang tidak diradiasi mengalami penyusutan bobot rata-rata 20.27% dan sampel yang diradiasi mengalami penyusutan bobot rata-rata sebesar 1.23 – 5.98%. Perlakuan radiasi gamma mampu memperlambat proses fisiologis dimana terjadi perlambatan penyusutan bobot pada buah jambu biji merah selama masa penyimpanan. The samples of red guava (psidium guajava linn have been irradiated at variation doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 kGy using gamma rays with Co-60 isotope source and un-irradiated samples as control. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on shrinkage weights as indication of slowing in physiological processes on red guava fruit during storage. Red guava fruit samples were irradiated in certain doses then saved in plastic pan during 8 days storage time. The fourth and eighth day sample mass was measured to determine the shrinkage of the weight. The result showed that un-irradiated sample was shrinkage weighted average 20.27% and the samples were irradiated shrinkage weight by an average of 1.23 to 5.98%. Gamma irradiation is able to slow the physiological processes which cause shrinkage weight on red guava fruit during storage.

  6. Analisa kinerja sistempendingin peltier yang menggunakan sel PVdengan sumber energi radiasi matahari

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    Terang UHSG

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Pemanfaatan energi surya secara umum digunakan untuk energi termal dan energi listrik. Salah satu aplikasi dari sistempemanfaatan untuk energi listrik adalah penggunaan fotovoltaik (PV. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kinerjasistem kerja kotak pendingin dengan bantuan sel PV yang menyerap sumber energi matahari. Kelebihan dari dari sistempendinginan ini adalah beroperasi tanpa menggunakan energi listrik serta ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini menggunakankomponen elektronik peltier untuk pendingin. Komponen peltier dirangkai dengan heat sink dan kipas kecil diletakkan di bagianluar dan kipas yang lain diletakkan di bagian dalam kotak pendingin. Kotak pendingin terbuat dari styrofoam. Data perubahantemperatur sistem kotak pendingin yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisa sehingga dapat diperoleh kinerja sistem kotak pendingintersebut. Pengujian dilakukan di ruangan terbuka yang mengalami paparan radiasi matahari. Proses pengukuran parametercuaca dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat ukur cuaca HOBO dan untuk merekam perubahan temperatur pada setiapkomponen sistem pendingin peltier digunakan data akuisisi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai COP maksimum sistempendingin peltier yang dapat dicapai adalah 0,317. Pada penelitian ini, juga diteliti pengaruh kondisi cuaca yang meliputi radiasimatahari, temperatur dan kelembaban udara terhadap kinerja sistem pendingin peltier.Kata kunci: sistem pendingin peltier, kinerja Abstract: The utilization of solar energy consist of thermal energy and electrical energy. One application of the system for the utilization ofelectrical energy was photovoltaic (PV. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of cooler box with PV cellsthat absorb the solar energy. The advantages of this cooling system was operated without using the electrical energy andenvironmentally friendly. This study uses electronic components Peltier for cooling. The peltier component assembled with a heatsink. The

  7. Study of the parasitic oscillations in a gyrotron; Etudes des oscillations parasites dans un gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrozzi, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1997-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of parasitic instabilities in a gyrotron, and to the influence of such instabilities on the interaction efficiency. The gyrotron is a high-power millimeter wave radiation source, based on the resonant interaction between a weakly relativistic electron beam immersed in a guiding magnetic field, and an electromagnetic wave. The gyrotron investigated here operates at a frequency close to 100 GHz: its main feature is that it is quasi optical. In this configuration, the electron beam interacts with a high order TEM eigenmode of a Fabry-Perot resonator, the axis of which is perpendicular to the electron beam path. During the development of this source, the highest efficiency that was achieved is approximately 30% lower than the theoretical predictions. At the same time, parasitic oscillations at frequencies close to the maximum relativistic cyclotronic frequency are detected. The power associated with these oscillations ranges from a few watts to a few kilowatts, with threshold currents of the order of 100 mA. It is suspected that the excitation of parasitic oscillations in the beam duct section before the interaction region might have a dramatic effect on the electron beam distribution function inducing, in particular, an energy spread. The cyclotron maser instability responsible for the energy exchange between particles and fields in a gyrotron, is very sensitive to energy spreads. It is thus necessary to identify the origin of the parasitic radiation. A few physical mechanisms suspected to lead to a degradation of the electron beam properties were investigated: the cyclotron maser process itself, the Bernstein electrostatic instability and the Langmuir instability. The experimental work concentrated on the study of the beam ducts between the electron gun and the resonant cavity. (author) figs., tabs., 90 refs.

  8. PEMBUATAN SUMBER RADIASI GAMMA 137Cs DENGAN AKTIVITAS 20 mCi DARI PEB U3Si2-Al PASCA IRADIASI DALAM CONTAINER STAINLESS STEEL

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    Aslina Br. Ginting

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMBUATAN SUMBER RADIASI GAMMA ISOTOP 137Cs DENGAN AKTIVITAS 20 mCi DARI PEB U3Si2-Al PASCA IRADIASI DALAM CONTAINER STAINLESS STEEL. Kegiatan uji pasca iradiasi pelat elemen bakar (PEB U3Si2-Al banyak menghasilkan larutan dengan keaktifan yang sangat tinggi. Larutan tersebut mengandung isotop 137Cs, uranium serta transuranium yang mempunyai waktu paroh panjang dan berbahaya bagi lingkungan. Namun larutan tersebut memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi karena dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku untuk pembuatan sumber radiasi sinar gamma isotop 137Cs. Hal ini dapat membantu bidang industri dalam memenuhi kebutuhan sumber radioaktif dalam negeri karena selama ini kebutuhan isotop 137Cs di Indonesia masih tergantung dari industri luar negeri. Selain itu, pengadaan dan transportasi isotop 137Cs dari luar negeri serta dalam penggunaannya memerlukan persyaratan yang cukup ketat dari Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir Nasional (BAPETEN, sehingga menyebabkan harga isotop 137Cs menjadi mahal sampai di Indonesia. Dengan alasan tersebut, BATAN sebagai lembaga litbang nuklir di Indonesia perlu mempelajari pembuatan sumber radiasi gamma isotop 137Cs dari larutan hasil pengujian bahan bakar nuklir U3Si2-Al pasca iradiasi. Manfaat isotop 137Cs sangat luas antara lain digunakan dalam menganalisis sampel lingkungan, industri migas, konstruksi, radiografi, perikanan, rumah sakit dan pertambangan. Pembuatan sumber radiasi gamma isotop 137Cs dimulai dari pengumpulan larutan hasil pengujian PEB U3Si2-Al. Larutan larutan hasil pengujian mengandung isotop 137Cs dan isotop lainnya dikumpulkan menjadi satu dalam botol dengan volume 65 mL. Pemisahan isotop 137Cs dari hasil fisi lainnya dilakukan dengan metode penukar kation menggunakan zeolit Lampung dengan berat 45 gr. Hasil pemisahan diperoleh 137Cs-zeolit dalam fasa padat dan isotop lainnya berada dalam fasa cair. Padatan137Cs-zeolit kering kemudian kemudian ditimbang dan diukur aktivitasnya menggunakan spektrometer

  9. Parasites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-06

    In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  10. Rôle des germes parasites des bactéries pathogènes dans l'autoépuration des eaux

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    GUELIN A.

    1969-04-01

    Full Text Available Existence dans les eaux polluées de germes parasites qui s'attaquent aux bactéries pathogènes. Le pouvoir bactéricide des eaux polluées dû, en grande partie à la présence dans ces eaux de différents représentants des germes parasites. Possibilité d'application pratique des germes parasites pour l'assainissement des eaux polluées.

  11. Proceeding of Radiation Safety and Environment; Prosiding Presentasi Ilmiah Keselamatan Radiasi dan Lingkungan

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    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Scientific Presentation of Radiation Safety and Environment was held on 20-21 august 1996 at Center of Research Atomic Energy Pasar Jum'at, Jakarta, Indonesia. Have presented 50 papers about Radiation Safety, dosimetry and standardization, environment protection and radiation effect.

  12. Les nématodes parasites associés au riz dans les trois (3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A survey of rice parasitic nematodes has been conducted in Burkina Faso during the rainy crop ... adjacent soils were collected at 40 locations of rice production. The extraction of ..... de 2ème stade) en pot et de 60,3% au champ.

  13. Pengembangan Mikroskop Dengan Mikrokontroler dan Cahaya Monokromatik Untuk Mendeteksi Parasit Malaria

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    Ida Susanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria still become one of major health burden in Indonesia especially in remote areas of east Indonesia. Golden standard of malaria parasite detection is still microscopic technique using polychromatic light source whether from halogen or natural light source. A microscopic technique has a lot of benefits but still have weaknesses, such as time-consuming and bias on the reading by microscopist, because of artifact in the image. Aims of this study were to designed malaria parasites detection tool that is robust, fast, convenient and clear by minimizing artifact on the slide. Design of this study was laboratory experimental which modified simple microscope into an automatic microscope with table movement and webcam recording using a microcontroller and monochromatic light source. The wavelength of the light sources was 402nm(blue, 532 nm (green and 650 nm (red, the intensity of each source differed. The reading of the slide image was conducted by two certified microscopists, who read 60 images of a thick and thin slide with three different live stage of Plasmodium falciparum live, which wearing, trophozoite and schizont. This study showed that modification of microscope was succeeded with automatic movement and webcam recording, process time in one step movement and recording approximately 10 seconds or 17minutes for 100 fields of view as confirmation process. The monochromatic light source has proven to give a clear and contrast field of view when the intensities were higher than 40 mW and the certified microscopist able to identified Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Data analysis of microscopist reading used nonparametric statistic Friedman by SPSS showed that correlation between images using monochromatic and polychromatic lights have meaningless differences in a thick and thin slide. However, hemozoin as a marker of Plasmodium falciparum parasite was less detected by monochromatic light used in this study.

  14. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl.) Dans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrin, E.; Winarno, H.; Yulianti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 10 9 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ≥ 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 10 8 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ≥ 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC 50 values of 9 cfu/g and 5.68 x 10 8 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2) in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities. (author)

  15. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

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    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  16. PENGARUH INTENSITAS RADIASI SAAT GERHANA MATAHARI CINCIN TERHADAP BEBERAPA PARAMETER CUACA

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    Wido Hanggoro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan pengaruh kejadian gerhana matahari terhadap perubahan parameter-parameter cuaca seperti temperatur udara, kelembaban udara, kecepatan angin serta tekanan udara dilakukan di Gunung Sugih, Lampung pada tanggal 26 Januari 2009. Pengamatan dilakukan sebelum, selama dan sesudah kejadian gerhana matahari menggunakan stasiun pengamatan cuaca otomatis (AWS secara periodik dengan interval pengamatan satu jam dan 10 detik-an. Dari data yang diperoleh, tekanan udara dan kelembaban udara meningkat selama kejadian gerhana. Namun dari beberapa faktor cuaca yang diamati, hanya suhu udara dan tekanan udara yang mempunyai hubungan yang cukup besar dengan gerhana matahari. Penurunan suhu sebesar 4-5°C terjadi selama kejadian gerhana dan mencapai titik minimum 5 menit setelah kejadian gerhana.   The changes of meteorological parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and barometric pressure observed during annular eclipse January 26, 2009 at Gunung Sugih, Lampung. Meteorological observation were made before, during and after the annular eclipse using Automatic Weather Station and periodically measured with hourly and ten seconds interval. From the data, both barometric pressure and relative humidity respectively increased during the annular eclipse but only air temperature and relative humidity have a strong relationship with annular eclipse. The air temperature decreased 4-5°C and reaches the minimum value just 5 minutes after annular eclipse.

  17. ANALISA TINGKAT PREVALENSI DAN DERAJAT INFEKSI PARASIT PADA IKAN KERAPU MACAN (Ephinephilus fuscoguttatus DI LOKASI BUDIDAYA BERBEDA

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    Marzuki Musyaffak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish is the potential protein source for human. People consumption of fish requires attention related to whether the fish is safe to consume. This research is aimed at finding kind of parasite attack Groupers (E. fuscoguttatus and the prevalence and the infection level in the different farming location. The research method used that is by taking Groupers size between 10 cm - 35 cm as many  fish from all population in each location with the assumption of percentage the prevalence used was 10%. Sample then analyzed for amount and type of parasite attacked and determined level of prevalence and degree of parasite infection. Result showed the type of parasite attack Groupers are Anasakis sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Caligus sp., Diplectanum sp., Ergasillus sp., and Argulus sp. The different location of farming didn’t influence the parasite prevalence degree in Groupers. It is known that in location 1 in Lamongan, the prevalence level is 60% and the amount of fish attacked is 12, while in location 2 which is in Situbondo regency the prevalence degree is 50% with 10 fish attacked. t-test result showed that the level of infection degree did not differ perhaps because of the water condition quality between two location was relatively similar and still in the normal category, and also farmers have known the farming techniques well. Key Words : Prevalence, Degree of parasite infection, Groupers

  18. PENGARUH RADIASI SINAR GAMMA COBALT-60 TERHADAP SIFAT MORFOLOGI DAN AGRONOMI KETIGA VARIETAS JAGUNG (ZEA MAYS L.

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    Makhziah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutation is one of the ways to improve genetic variation in plant breeding so the target traits were more easily obtained. Grains of three varieties of maize (Bisma, Madura local, and Gumarang were treated with gamma 60cobalt irradiation doses (0, 100, 200, and 300 Gy before sowing then planted in a split plot randomized block design with three replication, to be evaluated for their morphology and agronomic traits. The Main plot was cultivars and sub plot was gamma radiation rates. There was no interaction between gamma rates and cultivars of maize, but increasing of gamma rates caused decreasing of some traits. Some traits such as plant height and leaves number were decreased significantly when gamma rate increased 100 to 300 Gy as well yield components such as grain weight and grain number per ear. Gamma 200 caused produce more ears than other rates. Bisma exhibited greater performance than Madura and Gumarang both of morphology and agronomic traits.

  19. INTESTINAL AND BLOOD PARASITES OF MAN IN TIMOR

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    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey tinja dan darah dipulau Timor guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit parasit diantara penduduk telah dilakukan pada bulan Juli dan Agustus tahun 1972 sebagai kelanjutan dari deretan survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal Pencegahan Pemberantasan Penyakit menular Departemen Kesehatan, Bagian Parasitologi dan Pathologi Umum Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia dan US Namru-2 di Indonesia. Sejumlah 445 sediaan tinja untuk pemeriksaan parasit usus, 581 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit malaria dan 663 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit filaria telah diambil dari penduduk cara merata di 7 desa pada 3 kabupaten di Timor, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Enam puluh delapan per cent diantara penduduk melihatkan satu atau lebih parasit usus didalam tinjanya dimana cacing tambang merupakan parasit usus yang terbanyak. Ascaris lumbricoides ketemukan jauh lebih kurang daripada di Jawa, Sumatra dan Sulawesi, juga diketemukan perbedaan itara "intestinal parasite rate" di Timor Indonesia dan Timor Portugis. Dua belas percent penduduk yang diperiksa melihatkan parasit malaria didalam darahnya sedangkan parasit filaria ditemukan sebanyak 8 percent. Plasmodium falciparum merupakan parasit malaria yang terbanyak ditemukan, ia jenis parasit fdaria yang ditemukan adalah "Timor microfilaria" dan Wuchereria bancrofti dimana yang pertama merupakan parasit yang terbanyak diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  20. PERFORMANS DAN INDEKS KELEMBABAN SUHU KELINCI JANTAN (Lepus nigricollis YANG DIPELIHARA DENGAN LUAS LANTAI KANDANG DAN DIBERI RANSUM DENGAN IMBANGAN ENERGI DAN PROTEIN BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Puspani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang bertujuan mempelajari indeks kelembaban suhu atau temperature humidity index dan performans kelinci jantan lokal pada kepadatan ternak berbeda dan diberi ransum dengan imbangan energi protein berbeda telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK pola Faktorial 2 x 3 dengan empat kali ulangan (blok. Sebagai perlakuan pertama adalah imbangan energi dan protein pada ransum (R yang terdiri dari ransum dengan kandungan energi termetabolis 2500 kkal/kg dan protein kasar 17% dengan imbangan energi dan protein 147 (R1, ransum dengan kandungan energi termetabolis 2800 kkal/kg dengan kandungan protein kasar 18,5% dengan imbangan energy dan protein 151 (R2. Sebagai perlakuan kedua adalah luas lantai kandang (L yang terdiri dari 3500 cm2 (L1, 1750 cm2 (L2 dan 1166 cm2 (L3. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa iklim mikro pada perlakuan tingkat kepadatan ternak dan ransum dengan imbangan energi dan protein yang berbeda memberikan pengaruh tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 terhadap kelembapan udara, temperatur udara, “temperature humidity index” dan radiasi matahari. Performans pada perlakuan ransum dengan imbangan energy dan protein R1 menyebabkan konsumsi air, ransum, berat badan akhir dan pertambahan berat badan lebih tinggi (P0,05. Performans pada perlakuan tingkat kepadatan ternak L2 dan L3 menyebabkan konsumsi air dan ransum lebih tinggi sehingga berat badan akhir pada kandang L2 dan L3 juga lebih tinggi dibandingkan L1 kecuali pertambahan berat badan dan FCR memberikan pengaruh tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak terjadi perbedaan iklim mikro pada kandang dengan perlakuan ransum dengan imbangan energi dan protein berbeda serta perlakuan dengan tingkat kepadatan ternak berbeda. Kelinci yang diberi ransum dengan imbangan energi dan protein 147 (R1 menghasilkan performans lebih tinggi daripada imbangan energi dan protein 151 (R2. Kelinci yang dipelihara pada tingkat

  1. Inventarisasi Cacing Parasitik pada Ikan Kembung di Perairan Teluk Banten dan Pelabuhan Ratu (THE HELMINTH PARASITES INVENTORY OF RASTRELLIGER SP. FROM BANTEN BAY AND PELABUHAN RATU BAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forcep Rio Indaryanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of health and disease in a fish is important as parasitism plays a central role in fishbiology. Parasitism is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the marine environment and it is probable that allmarine fishes are infected with parasites. The aims of the research were to inventory the helminth parasitesof Rastrelliger sp. from Banten Bay and Pelabuhan Ratu Bay. As many as 25–30 of fish samples werecollected using gill net and examined for helminth parasites. The helminth parasitic calculated intensityand prevalence. The helminth parasites of Rastrelliger sp. were found Lechitocladium angustiovum (digenea:Hemiuridae, Lecitochirium sp. (digenea: Hemiuridae, Prodistomum orientalis (digenea: Lepocreadiidaeand Anisakis typica (nematodes: Anisakidae, with 90.12% of prevalence. L. angustonum was dominancehelminth parasites found in fish. There was no difference on parasites found in R. kanagurta and R.brachysoma wich were of Restrellinger genus. The location not appear have no significant after on helminthparasitic infection as they have a same genetic stock. Anisakis species in Java sea have a same genetipewith Anisakis typical and was not zoonotic parasite categories.

  2. PARASITES OF MAN IN SERANG, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey penyakit menular didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat pada bulan Juni 1974 ini adalah merupakan salah satu dari serangkaian survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal P3.M. Dep. Kes. dan US Namru-2 guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit terutama malaria, filariasis dan penyakit parasit perut. Khususnya didaerah Cikurai dimana dilaporkan adanya Schistosoma in­cognitum secara hyperenzootik maka perlulah dilihat apakah parasit ini ditemukan pula diantara pend-duk setempat. Dari hasil survey didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat ini dilihat bahwa Plasmodium falciparum ditemukan pada 8 atau 3 persen dari sediaan darah 261 penduduk yang diperiksa dan tidak terlihat adanya microfilariae. Parasit perut yang menonjol terlihat pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa adalah Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura dan cacing tambang masing-masing sebesar 89 persen, 87 persen dan 65 persen ; parasit lainnya adalah Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hart manni, Entamoeba coli, Endolinuu nana, lodamoeba butschlii, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastvc mesnili, Enterobius vermicularis, dan Echinostoma sp. Tidak terlihat adanya Schistosoma incognitum pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa dikedua desa ini.

  3. Diagnosis dan Penatalaksanaan Tumor Ganas Laring

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    Dolly Irfandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Laring berperan dalam koordinasi fungsi saluran aerodigestif atas seperti bernafas, berbicara dan menelan.Laring terbagi tiga yaitu supraglotis, glotis dan subglotis. Laring merupakan daerah tersering kedua untuk kasuskarsinoma sel skuamosa kepala-leher, biasanya berhubungan dengan tembakau dan alkohol. Lebih dari 95% kasustumor ganas laring adalah karsinoma sel skuamosa. Pasien tumor ganas laring datang dengan berbagai keluhanseperti disfonia, obstruksi jalan napas, disfagia, odinofagi dan hemoptisis. Diagnosis tumor ganas laring ditegakkanberdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan klinis menggunakan endoskopi kaku, serat optik dan biopsi. Penatalaksanaantumor ganas laring tergantung stadium dengan modalitas berupa operasi, kemoterapi, radiasi atau terapi kombinasi.Dilaporkan kasus laki-laki 53 tahun dengan karsinoma glotis stadium III (T3N0M0 squamous cell ca keratinized welldifferentiated. Penatalaksanaan pada pasien ini dengan melakukan laringektomi total.Kata kunci: Tumor ganas laring, karsinoma, laringektomi, tembakau Abstract Larynx plays a certain role in coordinating functions of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as respiration,speech, and swallowing. The larynx is divided into three region; supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic. Larynx is thesecond most common site for squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck and usually related to tobacco andalcohol exposure. Primary malignant tumors of the larynx are squamous cell carcinomas can found more than 95% ofcases. Patients with laryngeal tumors usually present with complaints of hoarseness, respiratory obstruction,dysphagia, odynophagia and hemoptysis. Diagnosis of laryngeal cancer is made by medical history, clinicalexamination using a rigid or fiberoptic endoscope and biopsy. Management of laryngeal tumour depends on stadiumwith various modality included surgery, chemotheraphy, radiotheraphy or combined therapy. Reported case of 53years old male with Glottic carcinoma of the larynx

  4. Tinjauan Kembali* (Review Sebuah Tinjauan Tentang Parasit Tali Putri (Cuscuta Spp.) Dan Pengendaliannya [a Review of Dodder (Cuscuta Spp.) and Its Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sunaryo, Sunaryo

    2003-01-01

    Cuscuta species are parasitic seed plants with twining stems, that coil and fasten to host plants with attachments called haustoria.The Cuscuta stem forms the haustorial coil around the host.Several species of Cuscuta are troublesome parasites on numerous dicotyledonous plants and make eradication and control most difficult. Overall control of Cuscuta is based on mechanical, cultural,chemical and biological methods. Resistant varieties of susceptible crops and biological control are presently...

  5. EFEK KOMBINASI SISTEM PENGATURAN AIR IRIGASI DENGAN PEMANGKASAN DAUN BAWAH TERHADAP EFISIENSI AIR DAN RADIASI, SERTA PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN JAGUNG PADA LAHAN KERING BERIKLIM KERING

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    Yonny Koesmaryono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Study on the effect of dose management on water irrigation and the effect of pruning corn lower leaves on productivity of Lamuru variety grown on dry land of dry climate area has been done. The experiment was organized at Naibonat Experimental Station, East Kupang Subdistrict, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, from June to October 2011. The area used was 72 × 32 m using split plot design methods, employing two treatments. The first treatment was conducted on the main plot with water irrigation dose given 100, 80, and 60% the dose control was according to the farmer’s customary. The second treatment was applied by pruning or not pruning the lower leaves at the generative phase on the determined submain plot. The result showed that dose of water irrigation of 80 and 60% gave significant effect on corn productivity, that is 7.3 and 5.3 ton/ha, but not significant to the control (6.6 ton/ha. On the other hand, the treatment with and without leaf pruning did not give significant effect on the growth component because pruning was conducted during the generative phase. The Anova test result of corn productivity was not significantly different between the treatment of with and without pruning. The treatment of 80% dose of water irrigation could save water until 842 m3 or 20% per planting season per hectare. Meanwhile, the farmer’s customary wasted the water up to 2.105 m3 or 50% per planting season per hectare. Based on the results, the optimizing of water irrigation interval is seven times more efficient in one planting period as compared to 14 irrigation times in one planting period.

  6. SIMULASI KESEIMBANGAN ENERGI PERMUKAAN DI JAKARTA DAN SEKITARNYA MENGGUNAKAN MODEL NUMERIK MM5

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    Yopi Ilhamsyah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studi simulasi keseimbangan energi permukaan di Jakarta dan daerah sekitarnya menggunakan model numerik Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5 telah dilakukan. Empat domain dengan resolusi spasial 9 km yang menggambarkan daerah Jakarta dan sekitarnya disimulasikan selama 5 hari pada tanggal 04-08 Agustus 2004 untuk memperoleh hubungan radiasi dan keseimbangan energi di wilayah tersebut. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa keseimbangan energi lebih tinggi pada siang hari terjadi di perkotaan dibandingkan daerah lainnya. Sementara itu, komponen energi seperti fluks bahang terindera dan laten di permukaan masing-masing menunjukkan bahwa wilayah laut dan perkotaan lebih tinggi daripada daerah lainnya. Sebaliknya, fluks bahang tanah menunjukkan daerah rural di bagian timur Jakarta lebih tinggi dibandingkan daerah lainnya. Secara umum, keseimbangan radiasi dan energi pada siang hari lebih tinggi daripada malam hari di seluruh daerah. Rasio Bowen di wilayah kota yang mencerminkan kawasan bangunan dan perkotaan lebih tinggi daripada di daerah rural yang didominasi oleh lahan pertanian beririgasi. Hal ini sesuai dengan perubahan sifat fisik tutupan lahan seperti albedo, kelembaban tanah dan karakteristik bahang.    A study of surface energy balance simulation in Jakarta and surrounding areas by using Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5 numerical model was done. Four domains that presented the outermost and the innermost of Jakarta and surrounding areaswere utilized. All domains have spatial resolutions of 9 km. Model was simulated for 5 days on August 4-8, 2004. The relation of radiation and energy balance at the surface were derived from model output. The result showed that energy balance was higher in the city during daytime. Meanwhile, energy component, i.e., surface sensible and latent heat flux showed that sea and city were higher than others, respectively. Moreover, ground flux showed eastern rural areawas higher than others

  7. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  8. Perawatan Kandidiasis Pseuodomembran Akut dan Mukositis Oral pada Penderita Kanker Nasofaring yang Menerima Khemoterapi dan Radioterapi

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    S. Supriatno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Terapi radiasi merupakan metode primer perawatan pasien kanker leher dan kepala. Perubahan funsional dan kerusakan jaringan oral menyebabkan timbulnya mukositia oral yang diikuti dengan kandidiasis oral. Tujuan: Melaporkan efek samping perawatan khemoterapi dan radioterapi pada pasien kanker nasofaring yang terjadi di rongga mulut berupa kandidiasis pseudomembran akut dan mukositis oral serta penatalaksanaannya. Kasus: Seorang laki-laki, 69 tahun, datang ke Bagian Gigi dan Mulut RSUP Dr. Sardjito, atas rujukan dari instalasi Penyakit Dalam., RSUP Dr. Sardjito, dengan keluhan sakit untuk menelan makanan dan mulutnya banyak bercak-bercak putih. Keluhan dirasakan satu minggu setelah dilakukan khemoterapi ke-3 dan radioterapi ke-9. Pasien didiagnosa kanker nasofaring (NPC dengan klasifikasi T2N3M0. Pemeriksaan klinik menunjukkan adanya lapisan putih pada mukosa lidah, pipi, palatum, dan mukosa bibir. Seluruh mukosa mulut berwarna merah tua dan terdapat anguler cheilitis di kedua sudut bibir. Pasien diklasifikasikan menderita mukositis oral derajat 1. Penatalaksanaan: Menghilangkan jaringan nekrotik dan debris dengan berkumur larutan perhidrol 3% dan pemberian medikasi termasuk tablet nistatin 500.000 IU, betadin kumur, dan larutan perhidrol 3% selama 1 minggu. Saat reevaluasi, pasien sudah dapat menelan dan makan yang sedikit keras tanpa ada rasa sakit lagi. Pemeriksaan klinis didapatkan bercak putih di lidah, palatum, pipi dan bibir sudah tidak ada. Warna mukosa oral telah normal, OHI dan kondisi umum baik dalam 1 minggu pasca perawatan. Kesimpulan: Perawatan kandidiasis dan mukositis oral akibat kemoradioterapi pada pasien kanker nasofaring telah berhasil dan kondisi oral membaik. Pasien dapat mengunyah dan menelan makanan tanpa ada rasa sakit, dan hasil pengobatan yang diberikan pada pasien sesuai dengan harapan operator.   Background: Radiation therapy remains the primary method of treatment for patients with head and neck

  9. Social Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Nguyen, HoangKim T.; Oberholzer, Michael; Hill, Kent L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Protozoan parasites cause tremendous human suffering worldwide, but strategies for therapeutic intervention are limited. Recent studies illustrate that the paradigm of microbes as social organisms can be brought to bear on questions about parasite biology, transmission and pathogenesis. This review discusses recent work demonstrating adaptation of social behaviors by parasitic protozoa that cause African sleeping sickness and malaria. The recognition of social behavior and cell-cell communication as a ubiquitous property of bacteria has transformed our view of microbiology, but protozoan parasites have not generally been considered in this context. Works discussed illustrate the potential for concepts of sociomicrobiology to provide insight into parasite biology and should stimulate new approaches for thinking about parasites and parasite-host interactions. PMID:22020108

  10. Incidence de quatre vers parasites gastro-intestinaux dans un groupe de cricétomes, Cricetomys gambianus (Rongeur : Cricetidae, capturés à Lukaya (République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobe, L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence de quatre vers parasites gastro-intestinaux dans un groupe de cricétomes, Cricetomys gambianus (Rongeur : Cricetidae, capturés à Lukaya (République Démocratique du Congo. Three soil tillage practices - summer ploughing, autumn ploughing and chisel - have been evaluated through their effect on soil physical characteristics and on water content during three months after wheat seeding. A comparison was made with no-tillage. This experiment has been conducted on a shallow calcareous clay soil during the season 1995-96. Primary field preparation allows a porous layer up to 20 cm depth which reduces bulk density and penetration resistance. All the profiles generated by the tillage implements were uniformed by the rain effect. The water content and distribution in the profile was significantly affected by the tillage implements. No-tillage allows the best distribution of water in the profile which is the most suitable to seed germination and plant stand. The increasing porosity due to the autumn tillage action reduced the amount of water stored in the soil in comparison with the no-tillage case.

  11. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Book I, Agricultural, Animal and Biology; Risalah Pertemuan Ilmiah Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Aplikasi Isotop Dan Radiasi. Buku 1, Pertanian, Peternakan dan Biologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhadi, F; Sisworo, E L; Maha, M; Ismachin, M; Hilmy, N; Sumatra, M; Mugiono,; Wandowo,; Soebianto, Y S [Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the 10{sup t}h Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  12. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  13. Parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    Foundations of roentgenological semiotics of parasitic diseases of lungs, w hich are of the greatest practical value, are presented. Roentgenological pictu res of the following parasitic diseases: hydatid and alveolar echinococcosis, pa ragonimiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiasis, bilharziasis (Schistosomias is) of lungs, are considered

  14. Perancangan Dan Analisis Antena Mikrostrip Mimo Circular Pada Frekuensi 2.35 GHz Untuk Aplikasi LTE

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    Imam M.P Budi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available LTE (long Term Evolution merupakan teknologi komunikasi wireless generasi keempat yang saat ini sedang mengalami perkembangan. Salah satu perangkat yang sangat dibutuhkan pada teknologi tersebut adalah antenna. Teknik yang digunakan adalah teknik MIMO. Teknik MIMO menggunakan multiantena baik di sisi transmitter maupun di sisi receiver dengan koefisien korelasi di bawah 0.2. Untuk menghasilkan nilai koefisien korelasi di bawah 0.2, antena menggunakan ?/2 untuk jarak antar dua antena. Perancangan dan realisasi antena pada skripsi ini dipergunakan untuk aplikasi LTE yang bekerja pada frekuensi 2.3 GHz sampai 2.4 GHz. Simulasi antena menunjukkan frekuensi kerja yang direncanakan yaitu antara 2.3 GHz – 2.4 GHz, memiliki Return Loss -38.582 dB dan VSWR 1.0238 pada frekuensi tengah 2.350 MHz, gain sebesar 4.332 dBi. Hasil pengukuran antena satu terdapat pergeseran frekuensi dari 2.300 MHz - 2.400 MHz menjadi 2.310 - 2.384 MHz, antena  ini memiliki  Return  Loss -35.476 dB dan VSWR 1.034. Bandwidth 74 Mhz. Untuk antena dua terdapat pergeseran frekuensi menjadi 2.310 - 2.382 MHz, dengan Return  Loss -33.637 dB  dan VSWR  1.042. Bandwidth 72 MHz. Pada frekuensi 2.35 GHz gain sebesar 8 dBi dengan pola radiasi unidirectional dan polarisasi elips. Dari perancangan dan analisis tersebut, maka antena ini dapat digunakan sebagai antena teknologi LTE

  15. PSA LEVEL 3 DAN IMPLEMENTASINYA PADA KAJIAN KESELAMATAN PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande Made Udiyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kajian keselamatan PLTN menggunakan metodologi kajian probabilistik sangat penting selain kajian deterministik. Metodologi kajian menggunakan Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA Level 3 diperlukan terutama untuk estimasi kecelakaan parah atau kecelakaan luar dasar desain PLTN. Metode ini banyak dilakukan setelah kejadian kecelakaan Fukushima. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan implementasi PSA Level 3 pada kajian keselamatan PWR, postulasi kecelakan luar dasar desain PWR AP-1000 dan disimulasikan di contoh tapak Bangka Barat. Rangkaian perhitungan yang dilakukan adalah: menghitung suku sumber dari kegagalan teras yang terjadi, pemodelan kondisi meteorologi tapak dan lingkungan, pemodelan jalur paparan, analisis dispersi radionuklida dan transportasi fenomena di lingkungan, analisis deposisi radionuklida, analisis dosis radiasi, analisis perlindungan & mitigasi, dan analisis risiko. Kajian menggunakan rangkaian subsistem pada perangkat lunak PC Cosyma. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa implementasi metode kajian keselamatan PSA Level 3 sangat efektif dan komprehensif terhadap estimasi dampak, konsekuensi, risiko, kesiapsiagaan kedaruratan nuklir (nuclear emergency preparedness, dan manajemen kecelakaan reaktor terutama untuk kecelakaan parah atau kecelakaan luar dasar desain PLTN. Hasil kajian dapat digunakan sebagai umpan balik untuk kajian keselamatan PSA Level 1 dan PSA Level 2. Kata kunci: PSA level 3, kecelakaan, PWR   Reactor safety assessment of nuclear power plants using probabilistic assessment methodology is most important in addition to the deterministic assessment. The methodology of Level 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA is especially required to estimate severe accident or beyond design basis accidents of nuclear power plants. This method is carried out after the Fukushima accident. In this research, the postulations beyond design basis accidentsof PWR AP - 1000 would be taken, and simulated at West Bangka sample site. The

  16. Parasitic Apologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatolo, Renata; Ursi, Biagio; Bongelli, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The action of apologizing can be accomplished as the main business of the interaction or incidentally while participants are doing something else. We refer to these apologies as "parasitic apologies," because they are produced "en passant" (Schegloff, 2007), and focus our analysis on this type of apology occurring at the…

  17. Parasitic diseases of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of the main parasitic diseases of lungs is described: echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiosis and some rarely met parasitic diseases

  18. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN MUSI BANYU ASIN AND OGAN KOMERING ULU REGENCIES, SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada bulan Mei 1973 diadakan survey tinja dan darah di lima desa di Sumatra Selatan untuk mengetahui aspek-aspek penyakit parasit pada penduduk asli dan para transmigran yang datang antara tahun 1935 dan 1955. Desa-desa Tanjung Kerang, Simpang Langkap dan Biuku di Kabupaten Musi Banyu Asin yang terletak di sebelah barat laut kota Palembang merupakan daerah hutan-ladang-huma dan perkebunan karet rakyat dikelilingi oleh rawa-rawa, yang di diami oleh penduduk asli. Desa-desa Sidomulyo dan Tanjung Raya di Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu, terletak di sebelah tenggara' kota Palembang, adalah tempat transmigrasi yang merupakan daerah persawahan." Dari 358 orang yang diperiksa tinjanya yang terdiri dari 193 laki-laki dan 165 wanita, di keiemukan 97 per cent terinfeksi oleh sedikitnya satu macam parasit, 87 per cent oleh 2 macam parasit atau lebih dan 55 per cent oleh 3 macam parasit atau lebih. Telur-telur cacing yang di temukan antara lain ialah: Trichuris trichiura. (83 per cent, Ascaris lumbricoides (78 per cent dan cacing tambang (59 per cent. Enterobius vermicularis (1 per cent dan Strongyloides stercoralis (0,3 per cent jarang di jumpai. Entamoeba coli (29 per cent merupakan parasit protozoa yang biasa di temukan. Jumlah rata-rata protozoa yang ada dalam usus ialah: Entamoeba histofytica (4 per cent, Entamoeba hartmanni (1 per cent, Endolimax nona (5 per cent, Iodamoeba butschlii (5 per cent, Giardia lamblia (3 per cent dan Chilomastbc mesnili (4 per cent. Distribusi dari parasit usus hampir sama di antara golongan laki-laki dan wanita; meskipun tanah memegang peranan yang sama dalam pemindahan cacing-cacing, tetapi A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura lebih banyak di jumpai pada wanita, sedangkan cacing tambang lebih banyak pada laki-laki. Prevalensi parasit usus menurut golongan umur adalah sebagai berikut: A. lumbricoides lebih banyak pada golongan muda, T. trichiura merata pada semua golongan umur, tetapi yang terbanyak pada golongan umur antara 30

  19. DAN IDENTIFIKASI PATOGEN POTENSIAL YANG MENGINFEKSI IKAN RAINBOW (Melanotaenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemeliharaan ikan rainbow (Melanotaenia sp. di Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Hias selalu terjadi kematian secara bertahap mulai calon induk hingga proses pemijahan. Hal ini terjadi berulang kali sehingga ketersediaan induk Melanotaenia sp. sangat terancam. Ikan ini berasal dari Papua yang diperoleh mengandalkan penangkapan di alam. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menginventarisir dan mengidentifikasi berbagai patogen (parasit, jamur, bakteri potensial yang menginfeksi ikan rainbow yang dipelihara di dalam akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm dengan sistem aliran air stagnan. Tiga jenis rainbow yang dipelihara yaitu: rainbow Sungai Salawati, asal Sungai Sawiat, dan asal Danau Kurumoi. Setiap ikan masing-masing berjumlah 100 ekor dipelihara di akuarium dengan penambahan batu karang dan tanpa penambahan karang (kontrol ke dalam akuarium. Ikan diberi pakan sekenyangnya berupa jentik nyamuk dan cacing rambut beku setiap pagi dan sore hari. Sampling dilakukan secara random sebulan sekali dan secara unrandom setiap ada kejadian ikan sakit. Gejala klinis ikan yang sakit sebagai berikut: ikan berenang di permukaan dan menggosok-gosokkan badan di dinding akuarium, nafsu makan berkurang, gerakan berputar-putar, warna memudar menjadi putih, penekanan warna hitam pada sirip punggung dan perut meningkat, pendarahan pada perut, lendir berlebihan dan sangat berbau, serta sisik berdiri/terbuka. Diagnosa dan deteksi penyakit awal berupa pengamatan parasit baik ektoparasit maupun endoparasit, pengamatan dan isolasi jamur pada media selektif jamur, dan isolasi bakteri dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis patogen yang menginfeksi ketiga jenis ikan rainbow. Selanjutnya dilakukan uji histologi dan analisa DNA beberapa patogen. Hasil pengamatan diperoleh patogen berupa parasit (Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., dan Trichodina sp. dan bakteri (Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinetobacter sp

  20. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Infection with ... of parasites can lead to unique consequences for women. Some examples are given below. Infection with Toxoplasma ...

  1. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    ... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...

  2. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    .... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...

  3. Pets and Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good news is that this rarely happens. Most pet-to-people diseases can be avoided by following a few ... your doctor Can a parasite cause death in people and pets? Can human disease from a parasite be treated ...

  4. Parasites as prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Welsh, J.E.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Parasites are usually considered to use their hosts as a resource for energy. However, there is increasing awareness that parasites can also become a resource themselves and serve as prey for other organisms. Here we describe various types of predation in which parasites act as prey for other

  5. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.

  6. Distribusi patogen dan kualitas lingkungan pada budidaya perikanan laut di Provinsi Kepulauan Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Novriadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan laju produksi perikanan budidaya secara umum berperan penting dalam peningkatan masalah lingkungan dan patogen di beberapa unit produksi budidaya. Oleh karena itu, pencegahan dan pengendalian penyakit saat ini menjadi prioritas untuk menjamin keberlanjutan industri ini. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan monitoring dan menilai distribusi patogen pada beberapa sentra produksi perikanan laut di Provinsi Kepulauan Riau. Monitoing dilakukan mulai Februari 2011 sampai Desember 2013. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Nodavirus dan Iridovirus merupakan agen penyebab penyakit virus yang umum ditemukan di budidaya ikan laut. Sementara Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp. dan Edwardsiella spp. merupakan mikroorganisme patogen yang umum ditemukan di sentra budidaya ikan laut dan ikan air tawar. Hasil kajian monitoring juga menunjukkan bahwa Diplectanum sp., Gyrodactilus sp., Caligus sp., Trichodina sp., Rhexanella sp., Hirudinae sp., Benedenia sp. dan Cylodonela sp. merupakan parasit yang memiliki distribusi tinggi di berbagai sentra produksi ikan air laut dan tawar di Kepulauan Riau.

  7. MODELING THE RADIATION SHIELDING OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY BASED ON 2.4 MEV D-D NEUTRON GENERATOR FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mu’Alim

    2018-01-01

    PEMODELAN PERISAI RADIASI PADA FASILITAS BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY BERBASIS GENERATOR NEUTRON D-D 2,4 MeV. Telah dimodelkan perisai radiasi pada fasilitas Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT berbasis reaksi D-D pada Neutron Generator 2,4 MeV dengan Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA yang telah didesain sebelumnya. Pemodelan ini dilakukan untuk memperoleh suatu desain perisai radiasi untuk fasilitas BNCT berbasis generator neutron 2,4 MeV. Pemodelan dilakukan dengan cara memvariasikan bahan dan ketebalan perisasi radiasi. Bahan yang dipilih adalah beton barit, parafin, polietilen terborasi dan timbal. Perhitungan dilakukan menggunakan program MCNPX dengan tally F4 untuk menentukan laju dosis yang keluar dari perisai radiasi. Desain periasi radiasi dinyatakan optimal jika radiasi yang dihasilkan diluar perisai radiasi tidak melebihi Nilai Batas Dosis (NBD yang telah ditentukan oleh BAPETEN. Hasilnya, diperoleh suatu desain perisai radiasi menggunakan lapisan utama beton barit setebal 100 cm yang mengelilingi ruangan 100 cm x 100 cm x 166,4 cm dan polietilen terborasi 40 cm yang mengelilingi bahan beton barit. Kemudian ditambahkan beton barit 10 cm dan polietilen terborasi 10 cm untuk mengurangi radiasi primer yang lurus dari BSA setelah keluar dari lapisan utama. Laju dosis terbesar adalah 4,58 μSv·jam-1 pada sel 227 dan laju dosis rata-rata yang dihasilkan adalah sebesar 0,65 µSv·jam-1. Nilai laju dosis tersebut masih dibawah ambang batas NBD yang diperbolehkan oleh BAPETEN untuk pekerja radiasi. Kata kunci: Perisai radiasi, tally, laju dosis radiasi, BSA, BNCT

  8. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  9. Être parasité par les fictions des autres. Rôle et (impertinence du personnage de Gabriel Rivages dans la trilogie 1984 d’Éric Plamondon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Audet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Romans fragmentaires autant que romans duels, les trois tomes de la trilogie 1984 d’Éric Plamondon associent chacun à une figure américaine (Weissmuller, Brautigan, Jobs le personnage de Gabriel Rivages, dont le destin est placé en écho à ces mythes. Singulier dans son histoire, Rivages reste toutefois un personnage faible, jouant un rôle de relais et de faire-valoir. Son actantialité réduite pourrait être perçue, à la lumière de la fragmentation romanesque et de l’architecture livresque de cet ensemble, comme le signal d’une individualité tiraillée entre la grandeur du réel mythifié et la faiblesse de la fiction ordinaire. As much fragmentary novels as they are dual novels, each of the three volumes of Eric Plamondon’s 1984 trilogy associates the character Gabriel Rivages with an American figure (Weissmuller, Brautigan, Jobs, placing the destiny of the character as an echo to the myths surrounding each figure. Though unique within his story, Rivages nevertheless remains a weak character, playing the role of relay or foil. His reduced actantiality may be perceived, in light of the novelistic fragmentation and the architecture of the trilogy, as the signal of an individuality caught between the grandeur of a mythologized reality and the feebleness of ordinary fiction.

  10. GAMBARAN GANGGUAN CEMAS MASYARAKAT DI SEKITAR MENARA BASE TRANCEIVER STATION/BTS DI BANDUNG DAN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Anwar

    2015-01-01

    peneliti Pusat Teknologi Intervensi Kesehatan Masyarakat. Pengolahan dan analisis data dilakukan secara bivariat antara jarak rumah terhadap BTS dengan kejadian gangguan cemas. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa 64,8% responden di Bandung dan 57,8% di Jakarta mempunyai keluhan kesehatan yang bersifat umum seperti pusing/sakit kepala, batuk dan demam, menderita penyakit degeneratif seperti darah tinggi, stroke, dan diabetes mellitus (DM. Khusus untuk kesehatan mental, terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara gangguan cemas responden dengan jarak rumah ke BTS (p<0,05. Proporsi gangguan cemas pada responden dengan rumah berjarak kurang dari 100 meter ke BTS lebih tinggi dari pada responden dengan jarak rumah lebih jauh (lebih dari 100 meter. Gangguan cemas yang dialami kemungkinan besar karena pengaruh keberadaan BTS di sekitar rumah.Kata kunci : Menara BTS, Radiasi, Gangguan Cemas

  11. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  12. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  14. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  15. Preferensi dan kerusakan tumbuhan koleksi Kebun Raya Cibodas oleh benalu Scurrula oortiana (Korth. Dans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mistletoe of Scurrula oortiana (Korth. Dans. (Loranthaceae growing on several collection plants at Cibodas Botanical Garden. The mistletoe parasite 48 species of plants collection, what come within in 24 tribe. Plants collection which attacked as thehighest is group of Ficus type (Moraceae. While attacked by individual in number at most is Callistemon citrinus (Myrtaceae. Themistletoe has caused the damage at part of branch. Infected and uninfected branches of host species were observed. The result showedthat the mistletoe causes degradation of the distal part of the infected branches. Damage value of branch which parasite of mean morethan 50%.

  16. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  17. Parasites from the Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    will investigate how the diversity of food-borne parasitic infections has changed with cultural and dietary habits, hunting practice and intensity of animal husbandry. This is done by isolating and typing ancient DNA remains from parasite eggs found in archeological samples from across Denmark....

  18. Inevitability of Genetic Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Jaime; Puigbò, Pere; Lobkovsky, Alexander E.; Wolf, Yuri I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Almost all cellular life forms are hosts to diverse genetic parasites with various levels of autonomy including plasmids, transposons and viruses. Theoretical modeling of the evolution of primordial replicators indicates that parasites (cheaters) necessarily evolve in such systems and can be kept at bay primarily via compartmentalization. Given the (near) ubiquity, abundance and diversity of genetic parasites, the question becomes pertinent: are such parasites intrinsic to life? At least in prokaryotes, the persistence of parasites is linked to the rate of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We mathematically derive the threshold value of the minimal transfer rate required for selfish element persistence, depending on the element duplication and loss rates as well as the cost to the host. Estimation of the characteristic gene duplication, loss and transfer rates for transposons, plasmids and virus-related elements in multiple groups of diverse bacteria and archaea indicates that most of these rates are compatible with the long term persistence of parasites. Notably, a small but non-zero rate of HGT is also required for the persistence of non-parasitic genes. We hypothesize that cells cannot tune their horizontal transfer rates to be below the threshold required for parasite persistence without experiencing highly detrimental side-effects. As a lower boundary to the minimum DNA transfer rate that a cell can withstand, we consider the process of genome degradation and mutational meltdown of populations through Muller’s ratchet. A numerical assessment of this hypothesis suggests that microbial populations cannot purge parasites while escaping Muller’s ratchet. Thus, genetic parasites appear to be virtually inevitable in cellular organisms. PMID:27503291

  19. Current State in the Diagnosis of Blood Parasite Babesia SP

    OpenAIRE

    Suteky, Tatik

    2007-01-01

    Babesiosis merupakan penyakit parasit yang disebabkan oleh Babesia sp tidak hanya menyerang berbagai spesies hewan tetapi juga pada manusia. Kasus babesiosis pada orang yang disebabkan oleh Babesia microti telah dilaporkan diberbagai negara. Diagnosis untuk Babesia biasanya dilakukan secara mikroskopis dengan preparat apus darah, namun dengan metode ini sering tidak menunjukkan hasil akurat sehingga metode lain perlu dikembangkan. Metode seperti sub inokulasi pada hewan percobaan dan Quantita...

  20. Potensi Jamur Parasit Telur Sebagai Agens Hayati Pengendali Nematoda Puru Akar Meloidogyne incognita pada Tanaman Tomat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwi Indarti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. are sedentary endoparasitic that attacks various economically important plants. Utilization of nematode’s fungal egg parasite as biocontrol agents of sedentary endoparasitic nematodes have a good possibility of potential success to be applied in the field level, because this fungi is able to colonize in and causes damage to eggs as well as female nematodes inside the root. The purpose of this research are to know the parasitism ability of this parasitic fungi to Meloidogyne incognita eggs, and its effects on second stage larvae hatching rate and the development of galls number in the host. The result shows that the parasitic fungi, those of Trichoderma, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Fusarium genera were able to parasitize root-knot nematode eggs (25.09 to 89.79%, caused root-knot nematode egg hatching to decrease, suppressed the formation of galls, and reduced the population of second stage nematode larvae in the greenhouse. Nematoda puru-akar Meloidogyne spp. adalah nematoda endoparasitik sedentari, bersifat polifag, dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Pemanfaatan jamur parasit telur sebagai agens hayati pengendali nematoda endoparasitik sedentari mempunyai potensi tingkat keberhasilan tinggi untuk diterapkan pada aras lapangan karena mampu mengoloni dan merusak telur maupun stadium nematoda betina yang terlindungi jaringan tanaman. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kemampuan parasitasi isolat-isolat jamur parasit telur terhadap telur nematoda Meloidogyne incognita, dan pengaruhnya terhadap tingkat penetasan telur menjadi L-2, serta pembentukan jumlah puru pada tanaman terserang. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa jamur parasit telur yang termasuk genera Tricoderma, Penicillium, Talaromyces, dan Fusarium mampu memarasit telur M. incognita berkisar antara 25,09–89,79%, mengakibatkan penurunan persentase jumlah L-2 nematoda yang bersangkutan, serta menekan pembentukan puru akar pada aplikasi aras

  1. The Effect Of Intensive Keramba On The Presence Of Parasite Organisms In Rivers Of Lingsar Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriadi Supriadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of intensive keramba in rivers could affect the presence of parasite organisms throughout  the river downstream. The aims of this research are to find out the diversity of parasite species and the effect of intensive aquaculture method developed by the community on the presence of various parasitic organisms, particularly in the downstream area. A total of 65 Tilapia fish samples (O. niloticus that was collected from 3 areas ( 15 samples from upstream, 25 samples in keramba and 25 samples from downstream areas have been examined  in the laboratory of Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, University of Mataram. Methods employed  to identify parasites that  infected fish samples are native method and flotation method. This research has identified 7 species of parasites which were divided into 2 groups: ectoparasites (Trichodina sp., Amylodinium sp., Oogonium sp., Dactylogirus sp., Trematode and endoparasites (Entamoeba sp. dan Camallanus sp.. Diversity index calculation  indicated that parasite organisms in upstream area were lower in number than that in the downstream and intensive karamba area (H’= (0,825; 1,596 dan 1.324 respectively.  These data has showed there was a difference in species diversity and evenness index of parasite organisms in the upstream, downstream and intensive keramba area. In conclusion, there was significant influence of the application of intensive keramba on the appearance of various parasite organisms that could affect the sustainability of  fish aquaculture.

  2. Intervensi Perilaku dan Lingkungan dalam Pencegahan Kejadian Penyakit Malaria di Indonesia Tahun 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Etrawati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria adalah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh parasit Plasmodium yang hidup dan berkembang biak dalam sel darah merah manusia. Penyakit ini secara alami ditularkan oleh gigitan nyamuk Anopheles betina. Infeksi ini dapat menyebabkan anemia dan penurunan produktivitas pada penderitanya bahkan menyebabkan kematian. Saat ini tercatat 18,6 juta kasus malaria per tahun. Berdasarkan konsep Blum, perilaku dan lingkungan merupakan faktor yang cukup dominan dalam mempengaruhi status kesehatan seseorang. Studi literatur ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis peran intervensi perilaku dan lingkungan dalam menanggulangi kejadian malaria. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian studi literatur yang didasarkan pada teori dan penelitian terdahulu.Angka kesakitan malaria yang tercatat dalam Indikator Annual Parasite Incidence (API tahun 2009 yakni 1,85 per 1000 penduduk. Guna menurunkan angka kesakitan tersebut diperlukan upaya penanggulangan vektor malaria yang efektif dan efisien diantaranya melalui intervensi perilaku dan lingkungan. Penerapan Pola Hidup Bersih dan Sehat (PHBS serta penyehatan lingkungan guna menghilangkan tempat perindukan vektor malaria harus dilakukan secara berkesinambungan dan melibatkan partisipasi masyarakat agar tercipta derajat kesehatan masyarakat Indonesia yang setingi-tingginya.

  3. Children and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they disproportionately affect impoverished people. More on: Neglected Tropical Diseases Prevention One of the most important ways to help prevent these parasitic diseases is to teach children the importance of washing hands correctly with soap ...

  4. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... those conditions that are encountered in daily practice and to remind you of those ... care conditions. Parasitic infections can be solely confined to the skin, as seen ..... endemic areas or may become chronic and disseminate.

  5. Parasitic Diseases: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the leg. Endemic: A disease that is native to a particular geographic region. Epidemiology: The study ... parasites/glossary.html) T Telediagnosis: The transmission of digital images captured from a clinical specimen and sent ...

  6. Imaging of parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Maurice C.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the imaging findings of parasitic diseases using modern imaging equipment. The chapters consist of short descriptions of causative pathogens, epidemiology, modes of transmission, pathology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging findings, with illustrative examples of parasitic diseases that can affect various systems of the human body. Tables summarizing key diagnostic features and clinical data pertinent to diagnosis are also included. This book is intended for radiologists worldwide. (orig.)

  7. Imaging of parasitic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Maurice C. [American Univ. of Beirut Medical Center (Lebanon). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E. [Riyadh Military Hospital (Saudi Arabia). Radiology and Imaging Dept. 920W; Tamraz, Jean C. (eds.) [CHU Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2008-07-01

    This book provides an overview of the imaging findings of parasitic diseases using modern imaging equipment. The chapters consist of short descriptions of causative pathogens, epidemiology, modes of transmission, pathology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging findings, with illustrative examples of parasitic diseases that can affect various systems of the human body. Tables summarizing key diagnostic features and clinical data pertinent to diagnosis are also included. This book is intended for radiologists worldwide. (orig.)

  8. Pathoecology of Chiribaya parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The excavations of Chiribaya culture sites in the Osmore drainage of southern Peru focused on the recovery of information about prehistoric disease, including parasitism. The archaeologists excavated human, dog, guinea pig, and llama mummies. These mummies were analyzed for internal and external parasites. The results of the analysis and reconstruction of prehistoric life from the excavations allows us to interpret the pathoecology of the Chiribaya culture.

  9. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  10. Parasites in marine food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  11. Meet EPA's Dan Nelson

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Dan Nelson is the Director of the Human Research Protocol Office at the National Health and Environmental Effect Research Laboratory, Dan works to protect the rights and welfare of EPA’s research participants.

  12. Bahasa, Simbol, dan Religi

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyadi, Supriyadi

    1999-01-01

    Manusia sering disebut sebagai makhluk sosial, makhluk berakal, makhluk berseni, dan sebagainya. Tulisan ini secara tidak langsung membicarakan manusia sebagai makhluk berbahasa, bersimbol, dan bereligi . Meskipun demikian, titik tolaknya bukan pada manusia itu sendiri, tetapi pada bahasa, simbol, dan religinya, terutama pada hubungan di antara ketiganya . Hubungan antara bahasa dan simbol tidak diragukan lagi karena bahasa merupakan jenis simbol . Demikian juga hubungan antara simbol dengan ...

  13. Internal parasites of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals.

  14. Malaria parasites: the great escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Rénia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Plasmodium have a complex life cycle. They alternate between their final mosquito host and their intermediate hosts. The parasite can be either extra- or intracellular, depending on the stage of development. By modifying their shape, motility, and metabolic requirements, the parasite adapts to the different environments in their different hosts. The parasite has evolved to escape the multiple immune mechanisms in the host that try to block parasite development at the different stages of their development. In this article, we describe the mechanisms reported thus far that allow the Plasmodium parasite to evade innate and adaptive immune responses.

  15. EFEK PEMBERIAN VITAMIN E TERHADAP JUMLAH ERYTROSIT DAN AKTIVITAS ENZIM KATALASE TIKUS AKIBAT PAPARAN SINAR ULTRAVIOLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustini Alioes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSinar ultra violet (UV selain mempunyai dampak positif terhadap kesehatan, UV juga dapat membahayakan kesehatan. Dampak negatif UV ini dirasakan oleh orang-orang yang terpapar sinar UV dalam jangka waktu lama, seperti nelayan dan petani. Radiasi UV tingkat sedang menyebabkan kulit kemerahan (eritema, sedangkan tingkat tinggi dapat menyebabkan perdarahan pada kulit.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek pemberian vitamin E terhadap jumlah erytrosit dan aktifitas enzim katalase tikus akibat paparan sinar ultra violet. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental dengan menggunakan tikus sebagai hewan coba, yang dilakukan di Laboratorium Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas dari bulan September – Desember 2008. Populasi adalah 20 ekor tikus galur Wistar, umur ± 2 bulan dan berat badan 200-250 gram. Sampel diambil secara acak (simple random sampling dari populasi dan dibagi menjadi dua kelompok yaitu : Kelompok kontrol (Kelompok yang diradiasi UV 6 jam/hari selama 3 minggu tanpa pemberian vitamin E dan kelompok perlakuan (Kelompok yang diradiasi UV 6 jam/hari selama 3 minggu dengan pemberian vitamin E dosis 0.45 IU/kg BB/1 kali/hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada kelompok kontrol terjadi penurunan jumlah erytrosit dan aktifitas enzim katalase akibat paparan sinar UV. Jumlah Penurunan ini akan lebih sedikit setelah pemberian vitamin E.Efek pemberian vitamin E dapat menghambat penurunan jumlah erytrosit dan aktivitas enzim katalase tikus yang terpapar sinar ultraviolet.Kata Kunci : VitaminE, Erytrosit, KatalaseAbstract Ultraviolet (UV in addition to having a positive impact on health, UV can also endanger your health. UV negative impact is felt by the people who are exposed to UV light for long periods, such as fishermen and farmers. UV radiation levels are causing skin redness (erythema, whereas high levels can cause bleeding in the skin. This study aims to determine the effect. These are experimental studies using rats as

  16. Past Intestinal Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Araújo, Adauto

    2016-08-01

    This chapter aims to provide some key points for researchers interested in the study of ancient gastrointestinal parasites. These few pages are dedicated to my colleague and friend, Prof. Adauto Araújo (1951-2015), who participated in the writing of this chapter. His huge efforts in paleoparasitology contributed to the development and promotion of the discipline during more than 30 years.

  17. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  18. Preliminary Note on the Use of Radioisotopes to Study Some Cotton-Plant Pests in Africa; Note preliminaire sur l 'utilisation des radioisotopes dans l 'etude des parasites du cotonnier en afrique; Predvaritel'nye zamechaniya o primenenii radioizotopov dlya izucheniya nekotorykh vreditelej khlopchatnika v afrike.; Nota preliminar sobre el empleo de radioisotopos en el estudio de parasitos del algodonero en africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delattre, R. [Institut de Recherches du Coton et Textiles, Paris (France)

    1963-09-15

    appliques sur des cotonniers ages, juste avant la periode de mise en diapause naturelle de Diparopsis. Les resultats d'ensemble laissent esperer que l'on pourra sans trop de difficultes distinguer, parmi les populations de chrysalides prelevees dans le sol, celles nourries sur le cotonnier avant qu'il ne soit marque, donc qui auront subi une diapause. Une contre-experience sera ensuite necessaire; elle consistera a marquer, en cours de saison, les cotonniers d'un champ ayant deja porte la meme culture Tannee precedente, les chrysalides sans diapause etant cette fois marquees. Des observations annexes sont egalement en cours sur divers autres parasites du cotonnier. (author) [Spanish] La oruga de Diparopsis watersi Roth es perjudicial para el algodonero, pues destruye sus flores y capsulas. Este noctuido, practicamente monofago, pasa el periodo interestacional bien en el suelo en forma de crisalidas en diapausa a partir del 10 de noviembre, bien por generaciones continuas (especies que se reproducen varias veces al ano) en las plantas sin arrancar. Los estudios de laboratorio han permitido dilucidar los principales mecanismos que determinan e l comienzo y el fin de la diapausa. En la naturaleza, las pululaciones durante el cultivo provienen de individuos de una sola generacion al ano, que alcanzan la eclosion hacia abril o mayo, asi como de generaciones sin diapausa. Deberia averiguarse con suficiente exactitud el papel que desempenan estas dos cepas diferentes, para determinar los medios de lucha mas apropiados: arranque del algodonero, destruccion de las ninfas durante la diapausa en el suelo, anticipacion de la campana, etc. La marcacion radioisotopica de las orugas que alcanzan la madurez en las epocas criticas permitiria seguramente abordar este problema en el plano practico. En Tikem (Republica del Chad) se han realizado experimentos preliminares para preparar tecnicas sencillas de marcacion. En el primer ensayo se aplico {sup 32}P en pulverizacion acuosa directa sobre

  19. Studi Keberadaan Mineralisasi Uranium Di Daerah Biak Numfor, Provinsi Papua Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Suharji, Suharji; Subiantoro, Lilik; Syaeful, Heri; Widana, Kurnia Setiawan; Prabowo, Hery

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan berdasarkan adanya temuan indikasi mineral radioaktif berupa anomali laju dosis radiasi bernilai relatif tinggi. Hipotesis yang mendasari keberadaan laju dosis radiasi tinggi adalah pengendapan uranium yang berasal dari batuan basal Formasi Auwea, pengkayaan uranium yang berasal dari batugamping pada tanah permukaan, dan pengendapan uranium yang berasal dari penggunaan pupuk pertanian. Penelitian yang dilakukan bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kesimpulan dari beber...

  20. Analisis Kebijakan dan Efektivitas Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin Kiwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan Peraturan Gubernur Nusa Tenggara Timur Nomor 8 Tahun 2011 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Unit Pelaksana Teknis Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah pada Dinas Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur adalah dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan efektivitas kerja organisasi pada UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk melihat dampak kebijakan organisasi terhadap efektivitas organisasi dengan menggunakan enam elemen variabel dari kebijakan dan praktik manajemen. Keenam elemen tersebut adalah penetapan tujuan strategis, pencarian dan pemanfaatan sumber daya, lingkungan prestasi, proses komunikasi, kepemimpinan dan pengambilan keputusan, serta adaptasi dan inovasi organisasi. Penelitian kualitatif ini menggunakan pendekatan studi kasus. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis data model Miles dan Huberman, yang terdiri atas reduksi data, display/penyajian data, dan kesimpulan/verifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efektivitas organisasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM belum berjalan secara baik, hal ini dapat dilihat dari beberapa hal antara lain, belum adanya tenaga spesialisasi pengelola diklat dan tenaga khusus (sarjana di bidang perkoperasian dan kondisi lingkungan kerja (lingkungan prestasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM yang belum efektif. Penempatan pegawai juga belum tepat, mutasi ke UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM tidak memperhatikan latar belakang pendidikan dan spesialisasi/keahlian pegawai sehingga membutuhkan waktu dalam proses penyesuaian serta menurunkan jumlah pelaksanaan diklat dikarenakan keterbatasan alokasi dana.

  1. Pengaruh Penempatan Sirip Berbentuk Segitiga Yang Dipasang Secara Aligned Dan Staggered Terhadap Performansi Kolektor Surya Pelat Datar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Astawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Energi surya adalah jenis energi terbarukan yang umum digunakan karena ketersediaannya yang sangat besar. Teknologi pengolah energi surya, salah satunya adalah kolektor surya. Kolektor surya pada umumnya, menggunakan laju aliran massa udara yang secara parallel melewati pelat penyerap. Udara yang masuk inlet akan melewati pelat penyerap dan langsung keluar melalui outlet. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membandingkan pengaruh penempatan sirip berbentuk segitiga yang dipasang secara alignedyang mengarah ke atas pada bagian atas pelat penyerap dan staggeredyang mengarah ke bawah pada bagian bawah dari pelat penyerap sehingga akan terjadi aliran udara secara turbulen di dalam kolektor dan dengan penambahan sirip segitiga ini juga dapat memperluas daerah penyerapan panas pada pelat penyerap kolektor surya yang secara langsung memperluas permukaan perpindahan panas dari pelat penyerap ke fluida kerja yang nantinya diharapkan mampu menghasilkan temperatur keluar kolektor yang lebih tinggi dan meningkatkan performansi kolektor surya pelat datar.Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimen, sebagai variable bebas dalam penelitian ini adalah intensitas radiasi matahari dan variabel terikatnya adalah energi berguna dan efisiensi kolektor surya pelat datar.Dari hasil pembahasan penempatan sirip berbentuk segitiga pada kolektor surya pelat datar yang dipasang secara staggered menghasilkan energi berguna dan efisiensi yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan kolektor surya yang dipasang secara aligned. Dilihat dari rata-rata hariannya energi berguna untuk kolektor bersirip aligned adalah 153.01 Watt dan untuk kolektor bersirip staggered sebesar 157.42 Watt, sedangkan untuk efesiensinya pada kolektor surya bersirip aligned adalah 37.94% dan untuk kolektor bersirip staggered42.12 %.Kata kunci : Performansi kolektor surya pelat datar, sirip segitiga aligned, sirip segitiga staggered Abstract: Solar energy is a type of renewable energy that is commonly used

  2. Role of parasites in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandong, B M; Ngbea, J A; Raymond, Vhriterhire

    2013-01-01

    In areas of parasitic endemicity, the occurrence of cancer that is not frequent may be linked with parasitic infection. Epidemiological correlates between some parasitic infections and cancer is strong, suggesting a strong aetiological association. The common parasites associated with human cancers are schistosomiasis, malaria, liver flukes (Clonorchis sinenses, Opistorchis viverrini). To review the pathology, literature and methods of diagnosis. Literature review from peer reviewed Journals cited in PubMed and local journals. Parasites may serve as promoters of cancer in endemic areas of infection.

  3. TANGKI SEPTIK DAN MASALAHNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Soewasti Soesanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Manusia yang sehat tiap hari membuang tinja yang harus ditampung dan/atau diolah secara saniter. Meskipun Indonesia telah 55 tahun merdeka dan telah memiliki banyak ahli sanitasi/teknik penyehatan baik lulusan dalam maupun luar negeri, namun cara pengelolaan tinja yang ada kebanyakan masih belum memenuhi syarat kesehatan. Tangki septik dianggap sebagai cara penampungan tinja yang terbaik, padahal sebenarnya masih terjadi pencemaran tanah dan air melalui saluran perembesan.Tangki septik (septic tank merupakan salah satu macam sarana pengolahan tinja manusia yang pada garis besarnya terdiri dari sebuah tangki pembusukan lumpur (sludge digester dan saluran perembesan efluen. Tangki pembusukan harus memenuhi syarat mengenai perbandingan panjang dan lebar serta syarat kedalaman maksimum dan minimum, agar pembusukan lumpur dari tinja manusia dapat berjalan sempurna malahan tidak berbau busuk lagi.

  4. Protein moonlighting in parasitic protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginger, Michael L

    2014-12-01

    Reductive evolution during the adaptation to obligate parasitism and expansions of gene families encoding virulence factors are characteristics evident to greater or lesser degrees in all parasitic protists studied to date. Large evolutionary distances separate many parasitic protists from the yeast and animal models upon which classic views of eukaryotic biochemistry are often based. Thus a combination of evolutionary divergence, niche adaptation and reductive evolution means the biochemistry of parasitic protists is often very different from their hosts and to other eukaryotes generally, making parasites intriguing subjects for those interested in the phenomenon of moonlighting proteins. In common with other organisms, the contribution of protein moonlighting to parasite biology is only just emerging, and it is not without controversy. Here, an overview of recently identified moonlighting proteins in parasitic protists is provided, together with discussion of some of the controversies.

  5. Hubungan Infeksi Parasit Usus dengan Pengetahuan Perilaku Hidup Bersih Sehat pada Anak SD Bekasi, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O. Fransisca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Infeksi parasit usus dapat mengganggu tumbuh kembang anak dan mempengaruhi kualitas hidup. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui prevalensi infeksi parasit usus pada anak sekolahdasar di Bekasi pada tahun 2012 dan hubungannya dengan tingkat pengetahuan tentang perilakuhidup bersih sehat (PHBS. Penelitian cross sectional ini dilakukan di sekolah dasar negri (SDNdan madrasah ibtidaiyah (MI di Bekasi. Data diambil pada bulan April 2012 dengan menggunakankuesioner yang berisi pertanyaan mengenai PHBS dan pemeriksaan feses. Semua murid kelas 3, 4,5, dan 6 yang hadir dijadikan subjek penelitian. Dari 130 sampel feses, 64,6% positif terinfeksi parasitusus yaitu B.hominis (43,1%, E. coli (3,1%, G. lamblia (3,1%, H. nana (2,3%, infeksi campur B.hominis dan E. coli (3,1%, B. hominis dan G. lamblia (8,5%, B. hominis dan T. trichiura (0,8%, B.hominis, E. coli, T. trichiura dan H. nana (0,8%. Hanya 3 subjek (2,3% yang memiliki pengetahuanbaik mengenai PHBS sedangkan 72 subjek (55,4% berpengetahuan sedang dan 55 subjek (42,3%memiliki pengetahuan kurang. Uji chi square menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna (p=0,043 sehinggadisimpulkan infeksi parasit usus berhubungan dengan tingkat pengetahuan PHBS. Kata Kunci: infeksi parasit usus, pengetahuan PHBS, anak sekolah dasar The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Primary School Childrenin Bekasi, 2012 and its Associationwith Knowledge about Clean and Healthy Behaviour Abstract Intestinal parasitic infection can interfere children’s growth and development which will affect their quality of life. The purpose of this research is to find out the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infectionamong primary school children in Bekasi in 2012 and its association with knowledge level about cleanand healthy living behaviour (PHBS. This cross sectional study was conducted in primary school(SDN and Islamic primary school in Bekasi (MI. Data was

  6. Peroxisomes in parasitic protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón, Toni; Ginger, Michael L; Michels, Paul A M

    Representatives of all major lineages of eukaryotes contain peroxisomes with similar morphology and mode of biogenesis, indicating a monophyletic origin of the organelles within the common ancestor of all eukaryotes. Peroxisomes originated from the endoplasmic reticulum, but despite a common origin and shared morphological features, peroxisomes from different organisms show a remarkable diversity of enzyme content and the metabolic processes present can vary dependent on nutritional or developmental conditions. A common characteristic and probable evolutionary driver for the origin of the organelle is an involvement in lipid metabolism, notably H 2 O 2 -dependent fatty-acid oxidation. Subsequent evolution of the organelle in different lineages involved multiple acquisitions of metabolic processes-often involving retargeting enzymes from other cell compartments-and losses. Information about peroxisomes in protists is still scarce, but available evidence, including new bioinformatics data reported here, indicate striking diversity amongst free-living and parasitic protists from different phylogenetic supergroups. Peroxisomes in only some protists show major involvement in H 2 O 2 -dependent metabolism, as in peroxisomes of mammalian, plant and fungal cells. Compartmentalization of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes inside peroxisomes is characteristic of kinetoplastids and diplonemids, where the organelles are hence called glycosomes, whereas several other excavate parasites (Giardia, Trichomonas) have lost peroxisomes. Amongst alveolates and amoebozoans patterns of peroxisome loss are more complicated. Often, a link is apparent between the niches occupied by the parasitic protists, nutrient availability, and the absence of the organelles or their presence with a specific enzymatic content. In trypanosomatids, essentiality of peroxisomes may be considered for use in anti-parasite drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DEPRESI DAN GANGGUAN TIDUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Eko Radityo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Depresi merupakan gangguan mood berupa kesedihan yang intens, berlangsung dalamwaktu lama, dan mengganggu kehidupan normal yang insidennya semakin meningkatseiring dengan meningkatnya tekanan hidup. Tahun 2020, depresi diperkirakanmenempati urutan kedua penyakit di dunia. Gejala-gejala depresi terdiri dari gangguanemosi, gangguan kognitif, keluhan somatik, gangguan psikomotor, dan gangguanvegetatif. Salah satu gejala depresi yang muncul adalah gangguan tidur yang bisaberupa insomnia, bangun secara tiba-tiba, dan hipersomnia. Hal ini disebabkan olehgangguan neurotransmiter dan regulasi hormon. Selain sebagai gejala depresi, gangguantidur juga bisa merupakan penyebab depresi. Beberapa penelitian memberikanhubungan gangguan tidur dapat meningkatkan risiko depresi di kemudian hari.

  8. Archéologie d’un parasite du cheval

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Benjamin; Bailly, Matthieu Le

    2017-01-01

    Oxyuris equi, l’oxyure du cheval, est un vers parasite spécifique des équidés régulièrement mis en évidence lors des études paléoparasitologiques. Nous proposons ici une synthèse originale entre les mentions de ce parasite connues dans la bibliographie et les textes anciens, avec des données inédites issues de nos recherches en paléoparasitologie. Cette compilation des données montre que la plus ancienne observation de l’oxyure du cheval date du milieu du Ier millénaire avant notre ère en Asi...

  9. IDENTIFIKASI NEMATODA PARASIT PADA SALURAN PENCERNAAN MARMUT (Cavia cobaya SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI PADA MATERI INVERTEBRATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septia Nurhasanah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the Laboratory of Science Education, University of Muhammadiyah Metro. The research is a descriptive analysis, morphological observations were made by identifying the nematode parasite found that Trichostrongylus sp, Strongyloides sp, Trichuris sp, Trichuris sp. The results showed the prevalence and intensity values is the large number of guinea pigs to parasites divided by the number of guinea pigs that are 100% inspected. While the intensity is seen from the total number of nematode parasites that infect in the number of guinea pigs infected with a parasite that is 2,3. The population in this study was 10 cows pigs (Cavia cobaya . This study took a part in the digestion of marmots (Cavia cobaya the intestines and stomach , then cut and taken part in the large intestine and be Indian ink or coloring 2-3 drops to be easily identified microscopically . Put the preparations into a petri dish , and given alcohol as much as 96 % with 2-3 drops . Taking part in the examination of the large intestine to taste then used the nematode worm structure with Indian ink dye to be observed , and placed in the glass object . Observed with a microscope. Document if the parasites are found by using the camera Erlina 2008. Identification of the observations made have found 3 types of parasites that attack the guinea pig (Cavia cobaya is Strongyloides sp on samples 1,2,3,4,5,6 , dan10 . Then parasite Trichuris sp species found in samples 8 and 9. Trichostrongylus sp parasite species found in sample 7 . Parasitic nematodes found were 3 types of Trichostrongylus sp, Strongyloides sp, Trichuris sp. Number of samples that have been observed as many as 10 cows pigs (Cavia cobaya , with the overall result is as much as 23 tails parasites.               Kata kunci: nematode parasit, marmut (Cavia cobaya, sumber belajar biologi.

  10. Keragaman dan Peran Biologi Arthrophoda pada Sawah Irigasi dan Tegalan

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarno, Suwarno

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman arthropoda dan peran biologinya pada tanah sawah irigasi dan tegalan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di daerah persawahan di daerah Sragen pada bulan Maret – Mei 2016. Metode Penelitian dengan menggunakan pitfall trap atau perangkap jebakan yang diletakkan area persawahan dan tegalan. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan purposive sampling. Sampel arthropoda yang diperoleh diidentifikasi dan dianalisis di Laboratorium pendidikan Biologi. ...

  11. Parasitic worms: how many really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Fattorini, Simone

    2014-04-01

    Accumulation curves are useful tools to estimate species diversity. Here we argue that they can also be used in the study of global parasite species richness. Although this basic idea is not completely new, our approach differs from the previous ones as it treats each host species as an independent sample. We show that randomly resampling host-parasite records from the existing databases makes it possible to empirically model the relationship between the number of investigated host species, and the corresponding number of parasite species retrieved from those hosts. This method was tested on 21 inclusive lists of parasitic worms occurring on vertebrate hosts. All of the obtained models conform well to a power law curve. These curves were then used to estimate global parasite species richness. Results obtained with the new method suggest that current predictions are likely to severely overestimate parasite diversity. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. One Health: parasites and beyond…

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, DP; Betson, ME

    2016-01-01

    The field of parasitism is broad, encompassing relationships between organisms where one benefits at the expense of another. Traditionally the discipline focuses on eukaryotes, with the study of bacteria and viruses complementary but distinct. Nonetheless, parasites vary in size and complexity from single celled protozoa, to enormous plants like those in the genus Rafflesia. Lifecycles range from obligate intracellular to extensive exoparasitism. Examples of parasites include high profile med...

  13. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi dan Teknologi Pengolahan pada Gabah dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Susilo

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  14. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi Dan Teknologi Pengolahan Pada Gabah Dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Susilo

    1982-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  15. Parasite communities: patterns and processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esch, Gerald W; Bush, Albert O; Aho, John M

    1990-01-01

    .... Taking examples from many hosts including molluscs, marine and freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, this book shows how parasitic communities are influenced by a multitude...

  16. Parasitism and calfhood diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlich, H; Douvres, F W

    1977-02-01

    That animals can and do acquire an effective immunity against helminth parasites has been demonstrated extensively experimentally, and the fact that domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses become adults while maintaining good health in spite of constant exposure to reinfection long has suggested that immunity must be important to such survival. Although our attempts to date to vaccinate calves against helminth parasites have either failed or been unsatisfactory because of the pathosis induced by the experimental vaccines, the results are not surprising or discouraging. In contrast to the long history of immunization research on bacterial and viral diseases, only within a relatively short time have serious efforts been directed at exploiting hostal immunity for prevention and control of helminthic diseases. Unlike the comparatively simple structures of viruses and bacteria, helminths are complex multicellular animals with vast arrays of antigens and complicated physiological and immunological interactions with their hosts. Much more fundamental information on helminth-bovine interactions, on helminth antigens, and on cattle antibody systems must be developed before progress on control of cattle helminths by vaccination can be meaningful.

  17. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  18. Integrated parasite management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Van, Phan Thi

    2015-01-01

    communities at risk through mass drug administration. However, we argue that treatment alone will not reduce the risk from eating infected fish and that sustainable effective control must adopt an integrated FZT control approach based on education, infrastructure improvements, and management practices...... that target critical control points in the aquaculture production cycle identified from a thorough understanding of FZT and host biology and epidemiology. We present recommendations for an integrated parasite management (IPM) program for aquaculture farms.......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are an emerging problem and there is now a consensus that, in addition to wild-caught fish, fish produced in aquaculture present a major food safety risk, especially in Southeast Asia where aquaculture is important economically. Current control programs target...

  19. How have fisheries affected parasite communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    To understand how fisheries affect parasites, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that contrasted parasite assemblages in fished and unfished areas. Parasite diversity was lower in hosts from fished areas. Larger hosts had a greater abundance of parasites, suggesting that fishing might reduce the abundance of parasites by selectively removing the largest, most heavily parasitized individuals. After controlling for size, the effect of fishing on parasite abundance varied according to whether the host was fished and the parasite's life cycle. Parasites of unfished hosts were more likely to increase in abundance in response to fishing than were parasites of fished hosts, possibly due to compensatory increases in the abundance of unfished hosts. While complex life cycle parasites tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, directly transmitted parasites tended to increase. Among complex life cycle parasites, those with fished hosts tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, while those with unfished hosts tended to increase. However, among directly transmitted parasites, responses did not differ between parasites with and without fished hosts. This work suggests that parasite assemblages are likely to change substantially in composition in increasingly fished ecosystems, and that parasite life history and fishing status of the host are important in predicting the response of individual parasite species or groups to fishing.

  20. Liever kraanwater dan bronwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Een test in het Restaurant van de Toekomst van de invloed van CO2-labels op het aankoopgedrag van consumenten, heeft nog geen duidelijk beeld opgeleverd. Wel pakten mensen vaker kraanwater dan bronwater.

  1. Dan Performer Mei Lanfang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The convention of performing female characters (dan characters) in Beijing opera, as practised by its most prominent male performer of female characters Mei Lanfang, and its and his cultural context and aesthetic aim...

  2. PREFERENSI PEMBIAYAAN USAHA MIKRO DAN KECIL : PERSPEKTIF GENDER DAN ENTREPRENEURABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaira Amalia Fachrudin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Preferensi pembiayaan dalam perusahaan besar lebih didasarkan pada karakteristik perusahaan tersebut.  Namun dalam usaha mikro dan kecil hal ini mungkin berbeda dan bergantung pada karakteristik pemiliknya seperti gender dan entrepreneurability.   Perbedaan gender mungkin juga membedakan entrepreneurability dan dukungan yang diterima.  Penelitian ini akan menguji apakah terdapat perbedaan preferensi pembiayaan berdasarkan gender, entrepreneurability berdasarkan gender dan berdasarkan preferensi pembiayaan, serta perbedaan dukungan berdasarkan gender.  Sampel dari usaha mikro dan kecil yang bergerak dalam bidang kuliner  diuji dengan uji beda Independent Sample t Test dan kemudian dengan Crosstabulation untuk lebih memperinci hasilnya.  Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan preferensi pembiayaan berdasarkan gender dan berdasarkan  entrepreneurability, namun entrepreneurability berbeda signifikan berdasarkan gender dan juga ditemukan bahwa dukungan moral, tenaga, dan modal yang diterima pemilik usaha pria dan wanita tidak berbeda signifikan (p value lebih kecil dari 0.05.   Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat kesetaraan gender dalam pembiayaan usaha dan entrepreneurability lebih tinggi pada pria.  Pria pemilik usaha juga mendapatkan dukungan tenaga kerja yang lebih banyak daripada wanita.  Dukungan tenaga ini adalah salah satu bentuk  financial bootstrapping karena dapat mengurangi pembiayaan usaha

  3. Parasites in pet reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavri Urška

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles, belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (4 of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3% of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (6 of endoparasites in 252 (76.1% of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1 and Protozoa (2 of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5% animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  4. Disain Sistem Pemantauan Lingkungan Untuk Evaluasi Lepasan Radionuklida dari Subsistem pada Kecelakaan Reaktor Daya PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PLTN. (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir sebagai sumber energi baru dipilih sebagai alternatif, karena memiliki berbagai kelebihan yaitu ramah lingkungan, pasokan bahan bakar yang tidak bergantung musim, serta harganya yang dapat bersaing dengan pembangkit listrik yang lain. Namun demikian, adanya keraguan sebagian masyarakat tentang keselamatan radiasi PLTN, maka pemerintah harus bisa meyakinkan tentang operasi PLTN yang aman dan selamat. Penelitian tentang disain sistem pemantauan lingkungan untuk evaluasi lepasan radionuklida dari subsistem reaktor dan lingkungan akibat terjadinya kecelakaan pada reaktor daya telah dilakukan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan melakukan perhitungan sebaran radionuklida ke subsistem dan lingkungan serta membuat sistim monitoring radiasi di lingkungan. Sistem monitoring lingkungan terdiri dari system pencacah radiasi, sistem peringatan dini, sistem pengukuran meteorologi, sistem GPS dan system GIS. Sistem pencacah radiasi digunakan untuk mencatat data radiasi, sistem pengukuran meteorologi digunakan untuk mencatat data arah dan kecepatan angin, sedangkan sistem GPS digunakan untuk menentukan data posisi pengukuran. Data tersebut kemudian dikirimkan ke system akuisisi data untuk ditransmisikan ke pusat kendali. Pengumpulan dan pengiriman data dilakukan melalui SMS menggunakan perangkat modem yang ditempatkan di ruang kendali. Ruang kendali menerima data dari berbagai tempat pengukuran. Dalam hal ini ruang kendali memiliki fungsi sebagai SMS gateway. Sistem ini dapat memvisualisasi untuk lokasi pengukuran yang berbeda. Selanjutnya, data posisi dan data radiasi diintegrasikan dengan peta digital. Integrasi sistem tersebut kemudian divisualisasikan dalam personal komputer. Untuk posisi pengukuran terlihat langsung di peta dan untuk data radiasi ditampilkan di monitor dengan tanda lingkaran merah atau hijau yang digunakan sebagai pemonitor batas aman radiasi. Bila tanda lingkaran berwarna merah maka akan menyalakan alarm di

  5. Parasitic Worm in Tiger (Panthera tigris at Serulingmas Zoological Garden Banjarnegara, Bandung Zoological Garden, and Indonesia Safari Park Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Tiuria

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was done to infestigate the existence and the type of parasitic worms from feces of tiger (Panthera tigris at Serulingmas Zoological Garden (TRMS at Banjarnegara, Central Java , Bandung Zoological Garden (KBB, and Indonesia Safari Park Bogor (TSI. Total of 35 tigers feces samples were examined. They are taken from 4 Bengal tigers at Serulingmas Zoological Garden, 12 tigers (8 Bengal tigers and 4 Sumatran tigers at Bandung Zoological Garden, and 19 tigers (4 Bengal tigers and 15 Sumatran tigers at Indonesia Safari Park Bogor. All of the feces samples were examined with qualitative (flotation and sedimentation and quantitative (McMaster slide method to know the existence of parasitic worm eggs. Moreover, a tiger feces that contain eggs of strongylid were cultured. Parasitic worms that were found in tigers from the research were ascarid (Toxocara sp, Toxascaris sp, strongylid (Trichostrongylus sp, Ancylostoma sp, Cooperia sp, , oxyurid (Oxyuris sp and Strongyloides sp. The result showed that prevalence index of parasitic worms in tigers at TRMS, KBB, and TSI were 100%, 50%, and 47,4%, respectively. Parasitic worms at TRMS were ascarid (Toxocara sp, strongylid (Ancylostoma sp, Trichostrongylus sp, Cooperia sp and Strongyloides sp. Parasitic worms at KBB were ascarid (Toxocara sp, Toxascaris sp, strongylid (Ancylostoma sp, Trichostrongylus sp, dan oxyurid (Oxyuris sp. Parasitic worms at TSI were ascarid (Toxocara sp, Toxascaris sp, strongylid (Ancylostoma sp, and oxyurid (Oxyuris sp. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis cacing parasitik pada harimau (Panthera tigris di Taman Rekreasi Margasatwa Serulingmas (TRMS Banjarnegara Jawa Tengah, Kebun Binatang Bandung (KBB, dan Taman Safari Indonesia (TSI Bogor. Sebanyak 35 sampel tinja harimau dari tiga lembaga konservasi eks-situ, yaitu 4 ekor harimau Benggala dari TRMS, 12 ekor (4 ekor harimau Benggala dan 8 ekor harimau Sumatera dari KBB, dan 19 ekor (4 ekor harimau

  6. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibson, D. I.; Bray, R. A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B. B.; Scholz, Tomáš; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pomajska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.-C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, František; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E. T.; de Jong, Y.

    -, č. 2 (2014), e1060 ISSN 1314-2828 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Biodiversity * Biodiversity Informatics * Cestoda * Fauna Europaea * Helminth * Monogenea * Nematoda * Parasite * Taxonomic indexing * Taxonomy * Trematoda * Zoology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Adaptations in the energy metabolism of parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, K.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833436

    2009-01-01

    For this thesis fundamental research was performed on the metabolic adaptations found in parasites. Studying the adaptations in parasite metabolisms leads to a better understanding of parasite bioenergetics and can also result in the identification of new anti-parasitic drug targets. We focussed on

  8. Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E F Evison

    Full Text Available Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here we carry out a preliminary screening of pollinators (honey bees, five species of bumblebee, three species of wasp, four species of hoverfly and three genera of other bees in the UK for parasites. We used molecular methods to screen for six honey bee viruses, Ascosphaera fungi, Microsporidia, and Wolbachia intracellular bacteria. We aimed simply to detect the presence of the parasites, encompassing vectoring as well as actual infections. Many pollinators of all types were positive for Ascosphaera fungi, while Microsporidia were rarer, being most frequently found in bumblebees. We also detected that most pollinators were positive for Wolbachia, most probably indicating infection with this intracellular symbiont, and raising the possibility that it may be an important factor in influencing host sex ratios or fitness in a diversity of pollinators. Importantly, we found that about a third of bumblebees (Bombus pascuorum and Bombus terrestris and a third of wasps (Vespula vulgaris, as well as all honey bees, were positive for deformed wing virus, but that this virus was not present in other pollinators. Deformed wing virus therefore does not appear to be a general parasite of pollinators, but does interact significantly with at least three species of bumblebee and wasp. Further work is needed to establish the identity of some of the parasites, their spatiotemporal variation, and whether they are infecting the various pollinator species or being vectored. However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities.

  9. DETEKSI DAN MANAJEMEN REFEEDING SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Darmadi Darmadi; Riska Habriel Ruslie

    2012-01-01

    AbstrakRefeeding syndrome (RFS) dideskripsikan sebagai perubahan biokimiawi, manifestasi klinis dan komplikasi sebagai konsekuensi pemberian nutrisi pada pasien kurang gizi. Refeeding syndrome ini menyebabkan dampak buruk dan kematian. Sindroma ini lebih sering terjadi pada kelompok risiko. Refeeding syndrome merupakan suatu sindroma yang sering tak terdiagnosis oleh karena itu perlu peningkatan pengetahuan dan kesadaran dari tenaga medis untuk mengurangi morbiditas dan mortalitas dari RFS. K...

  10. Paleoparasitology: the origin of human parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration spread inherited parasites throughout the globe. To recover and trace the origin and evolution of infectious diseases, paleoparasitology was created. Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites in ancient material, which provided new information on the evolution, paleoepidemiology, ecology and phylogenetics of infectious diseases.

  11. INOVASI DAN STRATEGI PENCAPAIANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Ferryanto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is the way of life of any institution to profitably sustain its life. It starts with empathy, the ability to reach outside of ourselves and walk in someone else’s shoes, and optimal implementation of the newly advanced technology. Innovation shows its results through continuously hard working efforts known as "10 Thousand Hours Rule". As world uncertainty creates complexity we, instead of predicting, should therefore anticipate the future by creating and managing real options on contingent projects or elements of alternative optimal strategies. This should reflect into our portfolio strategy. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Inovasi merupakan darah bagi suatu institusi untuk bisa hidup berkelanjutan serta menguntungkan. Inovasi berupa penemuan baru secara sistematis yang berawal dari empati, kemampuan untuk melihat dunia melalui mata orang lain, dan pemanfaatan secara optimal kemajuan teknologi yang ada. Inovasi baru menghasilkan buahnya melalui kerja keras, yaitu dengan mengikuti “Aturan 10 Ribu Jam” secara berkesinambungan. Ketidakpastian, interaksi, keterbatasan dan degradasi menciptakan kompleksitas tentang kebutuhan dan solusi di masa depan. Oleh sebab itu daripada meramalkan risiko yang bakal terjadi, kita sebaiknya memasang strategi berupa skenario untuk mereduksi akibat dari risiko masa depan yang tidak kita mengerti. Skenario ini dapat diperoleh lewat penciptaan dan penanganan beberapa pilihan nyata atas semua proyek antisipatif yang ada. Kata kunci: Inovasi, ketidakpastian dan kompleksitas, aturan 10 ribu jam, paradoks strategi, peta jalan, empati, kerja berkesinambungan.

  12. PENGELOLAAN PENELITIAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN KESEHATAN DI THAILAND, MYANMAR, DAN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital, SKM Anorital, SKM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bulan Januari 1991 yang lalu, Sdr. Anorital, SKM (Ka. Subbag. Pengumpulan dan PengolahanData Badan Litbangkes dan H. Syafwani Mirin, SKM (Ka. Bag. Keuangan Badan Litbangkes memperoleh fellowship dari WHO untuk melakukan studi perbandingan ke institusi-institusi penelitian kesehatan di Thailand,Myanmar, dan India.Berikut di bawah ini tulisan bersangkutan yang menggambarkan secara garis besar pengelolaan penelitian dan pengembangan kesehatan pada masing-masing negara obyek studi. Semoga informasi yang terkandung pada tulisan ini dapat bermanfaat bagi pengembangan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.

  13. Kinerja Dan Efisiensi Bank Pemerintah (Bumn) Dan Busn Yang Go Publik Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Sugeng

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini menganalisis kinerja dan tingkat efisiensi bank-bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go Publik di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Sample penelitian ini mengambil tiga bank BUMN Bank BNI 46, Bank Mandiri dan Bank BRI) dan tiga bank BUSN (Bank BCA, Bank Niaga dan Bank Panin) dengan periode analisis tahun 2005-2011. Varibael yang digunakan meliputi ROA, ROE, LAR. LDR, NPL dan BOPO. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah melihat dan menganalisis perbedaan kinerja antara Bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go public di...

  14. Kondisi oral higiene dan karies gigi pada vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Prawira, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Perbedaan pola makan antara vegetarian dan non vegetarian dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi oral higiene dan karies gigi pada umat vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan. Jenis penelitian adalah survei deskriptif. Sampel terdiri atas 74 vegetarian dan 65 non vegetarian. Pemeriksaan oral higiene dan karies gigi masing-masing menggunakan indeks OHIS Greene dan Vermillion dan indeks DMFT Klein, se...

  15. Glyoxalase diversity in parasitic protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deponte, Marcel

    2014-04-01

    Our current knowledge of the isomerase glyoxalase I and the thioesterase glyoxalase II is based on a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic (model) systems with an emphasis on human glyoxalases. During the last decade, important insights on glyoxalase catalysis and structure-function relationships have also been obtained from parasitic protists. These organisms, including kinetoplastid and apicomplexan parasites, are particularly interesting, both because of their relevance as pathogens and because of their phylogenetic diversity and host-parasite co-evolution which has led to specialized organellar and metabolic adaptations. Accordingly, the glyoxalase repertoire and properties vary significantly among parasitic protists of different major eukaryotic lineages (and even between closely related organisms). For example, several protists have an insular or non-canonical glyoxalase. Furthermore, the structures and the substrate specificities of glyoxalases display drastic variations. The aim of the present review is to highlight such differences as well as similarities between the glyoxalases of parasitic protists and to emphasize the power of comparative studies for gaining insights into fundamental principles and alternative glyoxalase functions.

  16. Genome Evolution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Jones, John T

    2017-08-04

    Plant parasitism has evolved independently on at least four separate occasions in the phylum Nematoda. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to plant-parasitic nematodes has allowed a wide range of genome- or transcriptome-level comparisons, and these have identified genome adaptations that enable parasitism of plants. Current genome data suggest that horizontal gene transfer, gene family expansions, evolution of new genes that mediate interactions with the host, and parasitism-specific gene regulation are important adaptations that allow nematodes to parasitize plants. Sequencing of a larger number of nematode genomes, including plant parasites that show different modes of parasitism or that have evolved in currently unsampled clades, and using free-living taxa as comparators would allow more detailed analysis and a better understanding of the organization of key genes within the genomes. This would facilitate a more complete understanding of the way in which parasitism has shaped the genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  17. Mortalité du tourteau Cancer pagurus provoquée par le dinoflagelle parasite : Hematodinium sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Latrouite, Daniel; Morizur, Yvon; Noel, Philippe; Chagot, Dominique; Wilhelm, G

    1988-01-01

    Suite à des mortalités hivernales inhabituelles, des recherches d'agent pathogène chez des tourteaux, Cancer pagurus, ont conduit à l'identification d'un dinoflagellé parasite du genre Hematodinium dans le sang de ces crustacés. Des tourteaux en provenance de divers secteurs de pêche (Manche, Iroise, Golfe de Gascogne, Ecosse) et de la zone intertidale de la Manche ont été examinés. Le parasite a été trouvé partout et quelle que soit la saison. Le taux d'infection serait plus faible au large ...

  18. La punaise de lit : un parasite en pleine recrudescence

    OpenAIRE

    Begin , Alban

    2016-01-01

    Non disponible / Not available; La punaise de lit est un ectoparasite hématophage de la famille des cimicidés, cet insecte furtif se nourrit au dépend de l’homme en le parasitant pendant son sommeil. Le terme punaise de lit englobe deux espèces: Cimex lectularius vivant dans des régions tempérées et Cimex hemipterusqui est une espèce tropicale. D’autres espèces peuvent piquer exceptionnellement l’homme. La punaise de lit cohabite avec l’homme depuis des milliers d’années, nos grands-parents l...

  19. Baisse de la transmission de la douve du foie dans le nord-est de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mortelle de cancer du foie liée à l'O. viverrini. Dans cer- taines régions, près de 85 % de la population est porteuse du parasite. Les villages du nord-est de la Thaïlande, où l'on raffole du poisson cru, ont des taux d'infection parmi les plus élevés du pays. Les personnes infectées peuvent porter le parasite adulte pendant ...

  20. Taming Parasites by Tailoring Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjian Ren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The next-generation gene editing based on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats has been successfully implemented in a wide range of organisms including some protozoan parasites. However, application of such a versatile game-changing technology in molecular parasitology remains fairly underexplored. Here, we briefly introduce state-of-the-art in human and mouse research and usher new directions to drive the parasitology research in the years to come. In precise, we outline contemporary ways to embolden existing apicomplexan and kinetoplastid parasite models by commissioning front-line gene-tailoring methods, and illustrate how we can break the enduring gridlock of gene manipulation in non-model parasitic protists to tackle intriguing questions that remain long unresolved otherwise. We show how a judicious solicitation of the CRISPR technology can eventually balance out the two facets of pathogen-host interplay.

  1. IDE DAN DESAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilia Yunita Wijaya

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have seen many desain all around our everyday living. Design exist in the form of brochures%2C posters%2C banners%2C signages%2C book covers%2C and etcetera. Some are nice and easy to understand%2C some are ok%2C and some look like they are not fully develop and thought. A word that run across our mind whrn we enjoying a design is idea . A good design almost always associated with a good idea%2C is it tru? This paper is going to discuss about desain and its relationship to idea. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Banyak desain yang diamati dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari. Desain hadir dalam bentuk brosur%2C poster%2C spanduk%2C tanda-tanda%2C sampul buku%2C dan lain sebagainya. Ada beberapa yang bagus dan mudah untuk dimengerti%2C beberapa yang biasa%2C dan beberapa yang tampak asal dibuat. Sebuah kata yang terlintas dalam pemikiran kita dalam menikmati sebuah desain adalah ide . Sebuah desain yang baik selalu di identikan dengan ide yang baik%2C benarkah hal ini? Apakah desain dan apa hubungannya dengan ide akan dibahas pada tulisan ini.

  2. Parasites and immunotherapy: with or against?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi Darani, Hossein; Yousefi, Morteza; Safari, Marzieh; Jafari, Rasool

    2016-06-01

    Immunotherapy is a sort of therapy in which antibody or antigen administrates to the patient in order to treat or reduce the severity of complications of disease. This kind of treatment practiced in a wide variety of diseases including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, cancers and allergy. Successful and unsuccessful immunotherapeutic strategies have been practiced in variety of parasitic infections. On the other hand parasites or parasite antigens have also been considered for immunotherapy against other diseases such as cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis. In this paper immunotherapy against common parasitic infections, and also immunotherapy of cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis with parasites or parasite antigens have been reviewed.

  3. PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI: DISTRIBUSI, GAMBARAN MIKROSKOPIS, GEJALA PENDERITA DAN VEKTOR POTENSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasbudi Pertama Ambarita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMalaria in humans is caused by an infection of genus Plasmodium, especially P. falciparum, P. vivax.P.mulariae and P. ovate. Types of Plasmodium in animals that can inject humans is P. knowlesi. Animalswhich are found parasites in their body are long tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and pig-tailedmacaques (Macaca nemestrina. .There have been many cases with positive malaria knowlesi as ithappened in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, China, Vietnam and Indonesia. Studyof P. knowlesi aims to give an overview of the • case distribution, microscopic. features, patient characteristic, potential vector, as well as potential spread of malaria knowlesi in Indonesia. The methodused in this study is study literature from various sources. The microscopic features of the parasite inpatient blood films is pretty similar to P. falciparum and P. malariae in certain stadium. Therefore more awareness are needed regarding the spread of this parasite, especially in border areas of malaria endemiccountries and newly arrived immigrants in endemic areas of P. knowlesi.Keywords: Plasmodium knowlesi, malaria, parasite, vector ABSTRAKMalaria pada manusia selama ini disebabkan oleh infeksi genusPlasmodiumkhususnyaP. falciparum, P.vivax, P. malariaedanP. ovate. JenisPlasmodiumpada hewan yang dapat menginfeksi manusia adalahP.knowlesi.Hewan yang banyak ditemukan parasit ini dalam tubuhnya adalah kera ekor panjang(Macacajascicularisdan kera ekor babi(Macaca nemestrina.Sudah banyak kasus penderita malaria yang positif parasit ini seperti yang terjadi di Malaysia, Singapura, Thailand, Filipina, Myanmar, Cina, Vietnam danIndonesia. Kajian tentangP. knowlesiini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran tentang penyebarankasus, gambaran mikroskopis, karakteristik penderita, vektor potensial serta potensi penyebaran malaria knowlesidi Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah studi kepustakaan (literatur dariberbagai sumber. Secara

  4. The fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff

    2017-01-01

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the causative agent of white spot disease (ichthyophthiriasis) is a major burden for fish farmers and aquarists globally. The parasite infects the skin and the gills of freshwater fish, which may acquire a protective adaptive immune response against this disease...... and recognition of carcinogenic and environmentally damaging effects the most efficient compounds are prohibited. A continuous search for novel substances, which are highly effective against the parasites and harmless for the fish is ongoing. These compounds should be environmentally friendly and cost...

  5. Parasitism of The Rice Brown Planthopper Eggs in Various Periods of Time of The Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Haryati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae is an important pest of rice. Since at the early stage, this pest is infested by parasitoids, but most cultural practices do not consider the existences of parasitoids in rice ecosystem. This study was aimed to determine the level of parasitism on N. lugens with regard to the time of the day. This information would be useful to minimize the effect of insecticide application to the parasitoids. Trapping  of  egg parasitoids in rice ecosystem was conducted every two hours from 05.00 a.m. until 04.00 p.m. Parasitism occured as early as at 05.00 a.m. (12.26% of the total parasitoid found, reached the peak abundance at 11.00 a.m. (36.13%, and decreased at 01.00 p.m. The parasitism level varied from 1.12 to 8.51% at 66 days after planting. The highest number of parasitoids and the highest parasitism level occured when trapping was conducted between 11.00 a.m.−01.00 p.m.. Before and after this period of time, the number of parasitoid emerged and parasitism were low. This suggest that if insecticide is necessary, it should be applied in the early morning or late afternoon.   INTISARI Wereng batang padi cokelat, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, merupakan salah satu hama penting padi. Praktik budidaya pertanian padi belum memperhatikan aktivitas parasitoid dalam ekosistem. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui tingkat parasitasi telur N. lugens pada beberapa waktu dalam sehari. Informasi ini akan bermanfaat untuk mengurangi dampak aplikasi insektisida terhadap parasitoid. Pemerangkapan parasitoid telur N. lugens di lahan padi dilakukan setiap dua jam yang dimulai pada pukul 05.00 sampai pukul 16.00. Parasitoid telur N. lugens mulai aktif pada pukul 05.00 (12,26%, mencapai puncaknya pukul 11.00 (36,13%, dan mulai mengalami penurunan pada pukul 13.00. Tingkat parasitasi pada tanaman padi umur 66 hari setelah tanam berkisar mulai 1,12−8,51%. Hasil

  6. URGENSI DAN PROSPEK PENGATURAN (IUS CONSTITUENDUM UU TENTANG CONTEMPT OF COURT UNTUK MENEGAKKAN MARTABAT DAN WIBAWA PERADILAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Mulyadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available UU Contempt of Court merupakan kebutuhan yang bersifat urgent, segera dan mendesak, sehingga perlu dilakukan kajian dan penelitian secara kritis, akademis dan bersifat komprehensif untuk menjaga keluhuran dan menegakkan martabat dan wibawa peradilan.

  7. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  8. Parasitic Nematode Interactions with Mammals and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasmer, D.P.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent

  9. Everyday and Exotic Foodborne Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn B Lee

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Canada because of effective sewage treatment. However, a common foodborne parasite of significance is Toxoplasma gondii. Although infection can be acquired from accidental ingestion of oocysts from cat feces, infection can also result from consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat, such as pork or lamb. Congenital transmission poses an immense financial burden, costing Canada an estimated $240 million annually. Also of concern is toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which may lead to toxoplasmosis encephalitis, the second most common AIDS-related opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Exotic parasites (ie, those acquired from abroad or from imported food are of growing concern because more Canadians are travelling and the number of Canada?s trading partners is increasing. Since 1996, over 3000 cases of Cyclospora infection reported in the United States and Canada were epidemiologically associated with importation of Guatemalan raspberries. Unlike toxoplasmosis, where strategies for control largely rest with individual practices, control of cyclosporiasis rests with government policy, which should prohibit the importation of foods at high risk.

  10. Energy parasites trigger oncogene mutation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Jandová, Anna; Kobilková, J.; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J. jr.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 10 (2016), s. 577-582 ISSN 0955-3002 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-12757S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : cancer initiation * cell-mediated immunity * coherent electromagnetic states * genome somatic mutation * LDH virus * parasitic energy consumption Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.992, year: 2016

  11. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intestinal Parasites of the Grasscutter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    excretions of carrier cane rats (Oboegbulem. & Okoronkwo, 1990). The possibility of transmission of parasites of the grasscutter to humans cannot be overlooked. This is more so as some people do not only cherish grasscutter meat but also use the content of the gut both for medicinal purposes and for food (pers. comm.).

  13. Fish immunity to scuticociliate parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzon de Haro, M.C.; Leiro, J.M.; Lamas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Some species of scuticociliates (Ciliophora) behave as facultative parasites and produce severe mortalities in cultured fish. Pathogenic scuticociliates can cause surface lesions and can also penetrate inside the body, where they feed on tissue and proliferate in the blood and most internal organs,

  14. Epistemologi dan Keterbatasan Teori Gravitasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.

  15. EPISTEMOLOGI DAN KETERBATASAN TEORI GRAVITASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.

  16. ISLAM DAN RADIKALISME: Upaya Antisipasi dan Penanggulangannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus Ruslan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sejak tragedi pemboman WTC tanggal 11 September 2001 yang disusul dengan rangkaian peledakan bom di sejumlah negara, banyak orang non Muslim yang berasumsi bahwa ajaran Islam identik dengan radikalisme. Walaupun assumsi yang berkembang itu dapat dimaklumi, namun keyakinan tersebut tentu saja tidak sepenuhnya benar. Karena meskipun terdapat sekelompok orang Islam yang berbuat radikal, akan tetapi mayoritas Muslim justru bertentangan dengan mereka. Lagi pula, jika dicermati secara mendalam, sesungguhnya Islam sama sekali tidak mentolerir tindakan radikal. Ia adalah agama kasih sayang yang sangat mendodrong penganutnya untuk berbuat baik terhadap orang lain, termasuk kepada orang-orang non-Muslim. Artikel ini menawarkan beberapa upaya strategis dalam mengantisipasi dan menanggulangi bahaya radikalisme-terorisme.

  17. One Health: parasites and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Damer P; Betson, Martha

    2017-01-01

    The field of parasitism is broad, encompassing relationships between organisms where one benefits at the expense of another. Traditionally the discipline focuses on eukaryotes, with the study of bacteria and viruses complementary but distinct. Nonetheless, parasites vary in size and complexity from single celled protozoa, to enormous plants like those in the genus Rafflesia. Lifecycles range from obligate intracellular to extensive exoparasitism. Examples of parasites include high-profile medical and zoonotic pathogens such as Plasmodium, veterinary pathogens of wild and captive animals and many of the agents which cause neglected tropical diseases, stretching to parasites which infect plants and other parasites (e.g. Kikuchi et al. 2011; Hotez et al. 2014; Blake et al. 2015; Hemingway, 2015; Meekums et al. 2015; Sandlund et al. 2015). The breadth of parasitology has been matched by the variety of ways in which parasites are studied, drawing upon biological, chemical, molecular, epidemiological and other expertise. Despite such breadth bridging between disciplines has commonly been problematic, regardless of extensive encouragement from government agencies, peer audiences and funding bodies promoting multidisciplinary research. Now, progress in understanding and collaboration can benefit from establishment of the One Health concept (Zinsstag et al. 2012; Stark et al. 2015). One Health draws upon biological, environmental, medical, veterinary and social science disciplines in order to improve human, animal and environmental health, although it remains tantalizingly difficult to engage many relevant parties. For infectious diseases traditional divides have been exacerbated as the importance of wildlife reservoirs, climate change, food production systems and socio-economic diversity have been recognized but often not addressed in a multidisciplinary manner. In response the 2015 Autumn Symposium organized by the British Society for Parasitology (BSP; https

  18. IDENTIFIKASI JENIS JAMUR ASOSIASI KUDA LAUT Hippocampus barbouriYANG HIDUP DI PERAIRAN ALAMI DAN PENANGKARAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Ratna

    2017-01-01

    Jamur merupakan organisme heterotrof yang menggunakan bahan organik untuk nutrisinya. Jamur dapat sebagai patogen yang bersifat infeksi sekunder. Penyakit yang umum terjadi pada banyak ikan dapat juga terjadi pada kuda laut, diantaranya adalah jamur, parasit dan bakteri.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenisjamuryang berasosiasi dengan kuda laut (Hippocampus barbouri). Jamur asosiasi kuda laut diperoleh dengan metode swab menggunakan cotton swab microbiology. Identifikasi dil...

  19. Nuclear hormone receptors in parasitic helminths

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wenjie; LoVerde, Philip T

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) belong to a large protein superfamily that are important transcriptional modulators in metazoans. Parasitic helminths include parasitic worms from the Lophotrochozoa (Platyhelminths) and Ecdysozoa (Nematoda). NRs in parasitic helminths diverged into two different evolutionary lineages. NRs in parasitic Platyhelminths have orthologues in Deuterostomes, in arthropods or both with a feature of extensive gene loss and gene duplication within different gene groups. NRs in p...

  20. Fishing drives declines in fish parasite diversity and has variable effects on parasite abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian; Guerra, Ana Sofía; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2014-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected parasite species. Here, we assess the abundance of parasites of seven species of coral reef fishes collected from three fished and three unfished islands of the Line Islands archipelago in the central equatorial Pacific. Because we chose fish hosts that spanned different trophic levels, taxonomic groups, and body sizes, we were able to compare parasite responses across a broad cross section of the total parasite community in the presence and absence of fishing, a major human impact on marine ecosystems. We found that overall parasite species richness was substantially depressed on fished islands, but that the response of parasite abundance varied among parasite taxa: directly transmitted parasites were significantly more abundant on fished than on unfished islands, while the reverse was true for trophically transmitted parasites. This probably arises because trophically transmitted parasites require multiple host species, some of which are the top predators most sensitive to fishing impacts. The increase in directly transmitted parasites appeared to be due to fishing-driven compensatory increases in the abundance of their hosts. Together, these results provide support for the predictions of both heuristic models, and indicate that the direction of fishing's impact on parasite abundance is mediated by parasite traits, notably parasite transmission strategies.

  1. Parasites as prey in aquatic food webs: implications for predator infection and parasite transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Amundsen, P.-A.; Hechinger, R.F.; Johnson, P.T.J.; Lafferty, K.D.; Mouritsen, K.N.; Preston, D.L.; Reise, K.; Zander, C.D.; Poulin, R.

    2013-01-01

    While the recent inclusion of parasites into food-web studies has highlighted the role of parasites as consumers, there is accumulating evidence that parasites can also serve as prey for predators. Here we investigated empirical patterns of predation on parasites and their relationships with

  2. POLA KARIES PENDERITA KARSINOMA NASOFARING YANG MEMPEROLEH TERAPI RADIASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Meidyawati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of radiation is chosen therapy for oral cancer especially Carcininoma Nasopharynx, however, often caused changes in normal tissue in the oral cavity. Based on the anamneses of the patient, they have dry mouth since the disturbance of the function of parotid salivary gland has causing the saliva amount become lower. This condition can encourage the caries process. From all of the five cases occurred after the radiation between one month until six years the time, extended damage is seen, demineralization with a small cavity, and discoloring teeth color into brown.

  3. Parasites of mammals species abundance near zone Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen'kevich, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    In wildlife reserve parasitize various types of parasites: arachnids (mites) parasitic insects (horseflies, keds, mosquitoes, gnats, midges), helminths (trematodes, cestodes, nematodes and acanthocephalans) and parasitic protozoa. In quantity: 3 (beaver) to 25 species (wolf). (authors)

  4. Quantitative Analysis of a Parasitic Antiviral Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hwijin; Yin, John

    2004-01-01

    We extended a computer simulation of viral intracellular growth to study a parasitic antiviral strategy that diverts the viral replicase toward parasite growth. This strategy inhibited virus growth over a wide range of conditions, while minimizing host cell perturbations. Such parasitic strategies may inhibit the development of drug-resistant virus strains.

  5. Parasitism and the biodiversity-functioning relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frainer, André; McKie, Brendan G.; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2018-01-01

    Biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning.Biodiversity may decrease or increase parasitism.Parasites impair individual hosts and affect their role in the ecosystem.Parasitism, in common with competition, facilitation, and predation, could regulate BD-EF relationships.Parasitism affects host phenotypes, including changes to host morphology, behavior, and physiology, which might increase intra- and interspecific functional diversity.The effects of parasitism on host abundance and phenotypes, and on interactions between hosts and the remaining community, all have potential to alter community structure and BD-EF relationships.Global change could facilitate the spread of invasive parasites, and alter the existing dynamics between parasites, communities, and ecosystems.Species interactions can influence ecosystem functioning by enhancing or suppressing the activities of species that drive ecosystem processes, or by causing changes in biodiversity. However, one important class of species interactions – parasitism – has been little considered in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BD-EF) research. Parasites might increase or decrease ecosystem processes by reducing host abundance. Parasites could also increase trait diversity by suppressing dominant species or by increasing within-host trait diversity. These different mechanisms by which parasites might affect ecosystem function pose challenges in predicting their net effects. Nonetheless, given the ubiquity of parasites, we propose that parasite–host interactions should be incorporated into the BD-EF framework.

  6. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites, or...

  7. New Laboulbeniales parasitic on endogean ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Walter; Santamaria, Sergi

    2008-01-01

    Three new species of Laboulbenia occurring on endogean Carabidae are described. These are L. lucifuga, parasitic on Winklerites spp. from Greece, L. magrinii, parasitic on Typloreicheia spp. from Italy, Reicheia spp. from Italy and Corsica and L. vailatii, parasitic on Coecoparvus spp. from Greece. New characters of L. coiffatii and L. endogea are pointed out, and the genus Scalenomyces is synonymized with Laboulbenia.

  8. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  9. DAKWAH DAN PEMBERDAYAAN PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurmahyati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Da’wah is an attempt to persuade and influence others in realizing the teachings of Islam, to achieve worldly prosperity and welfare of the hereafter. The success was fueled by propaganda aspects are interrelated, anatara preachers, propaganda material, propaganda strategy, mad’u (target da’wah. The number of women in this country nearly half of people (49.36. therefore, it is important to empower women in da’wah to build their own people in consciousness and religious activities that provide the basics of life prosperous world and hereafter.   Dakwah merupakan suatu upaya untuk mengajak dan mempengaruhi orang lain dalam merealisasikan ajaran Islam, untuk mencapai tujuan kesejahteraan duniawi maupun kesejahteraan ukhrawi. Keberhasilan tersebut pun dipicu oleh berbagai aspek dakwah yang saling terkait, antara juru dakwah, materi dakwah, strategi dakwah, mad’u (sasaran dakwah. Jumlah kaum perempuan di negara ini hampir mencapai separuh dari jumlah masyarakatnya (49,36. Oleh karena itu, sangat penting sekali pemberdayaan perempuan dalam dakwah untuk membangun kaumnya sendiri dalam kesadaran dan aktivitas-aktivitas keagamaan yang memberikan dasar kehidupan sejahtera duniawi dan ukhrawi.

  10. ASIMETRI INFORMASI DAN UNDERPRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tety Anggita Safitri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh asimetri informasi terhadap underpricing. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel 63 perusahaan yang melakukan penawaran umum perdana di Bursa Efek Indonesia dalam kurun waktu 2005-2010. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linier berganda, yaitu menguji proksi asimetri informasi yang terdiri atas ukuran perusahaan, umur perusahaan, proporsi saham yang ditawarkan kepada masyarakat, reputasi underwriter dan reputasi auditor terhadap underpricing. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa reputasi underwriter dan reputasi auditor berpengaruh terhadap underpricing. Ukuran perusahaan, umur perusahaan dan proporsi saham yang ditawarkan tidak berpengaruh terhadap underpricing.The aim of this research is to examine the effect of assymetric information on underpricing. This research used a sample of 63 companies that make initial public offering on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2005-2010. The data analysis is using multiple linear regression, which is testing the proxy of asymmetric information which consists of the firm size, the firm age, the proportion of shares offered to the public, underwriter reputation and auditor reputation on underpricing. This research indicates that underwriter reputation and auditor reputation have a significant effect on underpricing. The firm size, the firm age and the proportion of shares offered to the public have no significant effect on underpricing.

  11. Diagnostic problems with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adas Gokhan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The splenic cysts constitute a very rare clinical entity. They may occur secondary to trauma or even being more seldom due to parasitic infestations, mainly caused by ecchinocccus granulosus. Literature lacks a defined concencus including the treatment plans and follow up strategies, nor long term results of the patients. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnosis, management of patients with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts together with their long term follow up progresses. Methods Twenty-four patients with splenic cysts have undergone surgery in our department over the last 9 years. Data from eighteen of the twenty-four patients were collected prospectively, while data from six were retrospectively collected. All patients were assessed in terms of age, gender, hospital stay, preoperative diagnosis, additional disease, serology, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT, cyst recurrences and treatment. Results In this study, the majority of patients presented with abdominal discomfort and palpable swelling in the left hypochondrium. All patients were operated on electively. The patients included 14 female and 10 male patients, with a mean age of 44.77 years (range 20–62. Splenic hydatid cysts were present in 16 patients, one of whom also had liver hydatid cysts (6.25%. Four other patients were operated on for a simple cyst (16% two patients for an epithelial cyst, and the last two for splenic lymphangioma. Of the 16 patients diagnosed as having splenic hydatit cysts, 11 (68.7% were correctly diagnosed. Only two of these patients were administered benzimidazole therapy pre-operatively because of the risk of multicystic disease The mean follow-up period was 64 months (6–108. There were no recurrences of splenic cysts. Conclusion Surgeons should keep in mind the possibility of a parasitic cyst when no definitive alternative diagnosis can be made. In the treatment of splenic hydatidosis, benzimidazole

  12. Nuclear techniques in the study of parasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 57 papers published, 47 fall within the INIS subject scope. Seven main topics were covered: resistance to infections with protozoan parasites; resistance to infections with African trypanosomes and helminths of ruminant animals; resistance to infections with filarial parasites and schistosomes; pathology of parasitic infections; epidemiology and diagnosis of parasitic infections; physiology and biochemistry of parasitic organisms; pharmacodynamics of anti-parasitic agents

  13. Smart Parasitic Nematodes Use Multifaceted Strategies to Parasitize Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants. In this review, we have summarized which physiological and molecular changes occur when endoparasitic nematodes invade the plant roots and how they develop a successful interaction with plants using the effector proteins. We have also mentioned the host genes which are induced by the nematodes for a compatible interaction. Additionally, we discuss how nematodes modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS and RNA silencing pathways in addition to post-translational modifications in their own favor for successful parasitism in plants.

  14. Parasitic infections of the external eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, Shivani; Puranik, Charuta; Jelliti, Bechir; Khairallah, Moncef; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-08-01

    To review the published literature on parasitic infections of external eye. Published articles and case reports on parasitic infections of external eye were reviewed and relevant information was collected. Parasitic infections of the eye are rare. However, being more commonly seen in developing nations, they require active measures for screening, diagnosis, and therapy. Parasites of importance causing external ocular disease are protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania; metazoans, such as nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flatworms); or ectoparasites, such as Phthirus pubis and Demodex.

  15. PROFIL DARAH DAN TINGKAT KERUSAKAN HATI PADA SAPI BALI YANG DIGEMBALAKAN DI TEMPAT PEMEROSESAN AKHIR SUWUNG DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardani T I A S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Daging dapat terkontaminasi oleh parasit melalui pencemaran primer dan pencemaran sekunder. Salah satukontaminasi yang sering dijumpai pada sapi bali adalah penyakit cacing hati atau Fascioliasis. TPA Suwung yangberfungsi sebagai tempat pemerosesan akhir sampah dari seluruh daerah di kota Denpasar kini dialihfungsikanoleh masyarakat sebagai tempat memelihara ternak. Makanan pokoknya hanya dari sampah-sampah di areal TPAyang secara fisik hampir tidak dapat dibedakan lagi jenisnya, semua bercampur dan membusuk. Sering kali sesuaipermintaan, ternak dari TPA dijual Pasar Hewan atau langsung ke tukang potong yang akhirnya dikonsumsi olehmasyarakat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, semakin kecil rasio albumin:globulin maka semakin besar jumlah telurcacing yang terdapat dalam feses sapi bali yang dipelihara di TPA dan dan sapi kontrol dalam satuan telur per gram(tpg. Sebaliknya semakin sedikit jumlah telur semakin tinggi rasio albumin:globulin. Dapat disimpulkan bahwatidak terdapat hubungan antara rasio albumin:globulin dalam serum darah, namun terdapat hubungan yang nyataantara jumlah telur cacing dalam feses dengan persentase kerusakan hati sebagai pendugaan kerusakan hati akibatFascioliasis. Densitas telur cacing parasit usus pada hewan ternak sapi yang dipelihara di TPA bernilai <500 tpg,menunjukkan bahwa hewan ternak sapi tersebut tergolong mengalami infeksi ringan cacing parasit sehingga dagingmasih aman untuk dikonsumsi.

  16. STATUS KEKEBALAN DAN FAKTOR RISIKO TOXOPLASMOSIS PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR HASIL RISKESDAS 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabea Pangerti Jekti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis disebabkan oleh parasit Toxoplasma gondii. Diperkirakan sekitar 30 - 50% populasi dunia telah terinfeksi oleh toxoplasma, sebagian besar tanpa gejala. Penderita dengan kekebalan tubuh yang kuat apabila terinfeksi T. gondii pada umumnya tidak mengalami keadaan patologik yang nyata walaupun pada beberapa kasus dapat juga mengalami pembesaran kelenjar limfe, rasa lelah yang berlebihan, miokarditis akut, miositis hingga radang otak. Analisis ini bertujuan untuk mengukur hubungan kekebalan tubuh (titer antibodi pada wanita usia subur  terhadap kejadian toxoplasmosis  dan faktor risiko tingkat kekebalan tubuh. . Analisis ini menggunakan data potong lintang Riskesdas 2007. Subjek adalah wanita usia subur (WUS yang berusia 15-45 tahun. Kekebalan terhadap toxoplasmosis dilihat dengan mengukur kadar immunoglobulin G (IgG melalui tehnik ELISA (toxolisa. Subjek dikatakan tidak memiliki kekebalan terhadap toxoplasmosis jika toxolisanya <32 IU Sampel yang terpilih di analisis lebih lanjut untuk mengetahui faktor demografi, risiko, dan perilaku yang berhubungan dengan status kekebalan toksoplasmosis. Jumlah sampel yang terpilih dan mempunyai data yang lengkap sejumlah 6068 subjek dari 10521 women in repeoductive age. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa 63,7% memiliki kekebalan, dan 36,3% tidak memiliki kekebalan terhadap toxoplasmosis.  WUS yang berusia 15-17 tahun mempunyai risiko yang lebih tinggi untuk tidak memiliki kekebalan toxoplasmosis yaitu sebesar 26% (ORs=1,26, 95% CI 1,03-1,55, p=0,027, begitu juga dengan WUS yang berstatus Ibu Rumah Tangga (IRT dan pelajaryaitu 16% (ORs=1,16, 95% CI 1,04-1,30, p=0,007, dan WUS yang berstatus kawin yaitu 30% (ORs=1,30, 95% CI 1,13-1,49, p=0,000. WUS yang berusia 15-17 tahun, berstatus kawin, dan IRT serta pelajar, merupakan kelompok yang berisiko tidak memiliki kekebalan terhadap toxoplasmosis, sehingga perlu kewaspadaan untuk meningkatkan upaya pencegahan dan perlindungan terhadap toxoplasmosis.   Kata kunci

  17. The role of moulting in parasite defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-08-07

    Parasitic infections consist of a succession of steps during which hosts and parasites interact in specific manners. At each step, hosts can use diverse defence mechanisms to counteract the parasite's attempts to invade and exploit them. Of these steps, the penetration of parasites into the host is a key step for a successful infection and the epithelium is the first line of host defence. The shedding of this protective layer (moulting) is a crucial feature in the life cycle of several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, and is generally considered to make hosts vulnerable to parasites and predators. Here, we used the crustacean Daphnia magna to test whether moulting influences the likelihood of infection by the castrating bacterium Pasteuria ramosa. This parasite is known to attach to the host cuticula before penetrating into its body. We found that the likelihood of successful parasite infection is greatly reduced if the host moults within 12 h after parasite exposure. Thus, moulting is beneficial for the host being exposed to this parasite. We further show that exposure to the parasite does not induce hosts to moult earlier. We discuss the implications of our findings for host and parasite evolution and epidemiology.

  18. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  19. The adaptive significance of inquiline parasite workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2003-01-01

    Social parasites exploit the socially managed resources of their host's society. Inquiline social parasites are dependent on their host throughout their life cycle, and so many of the traits inherited from their free-living ancestor are removed by natural selection. One trait that is commonly lost...... is the worker caste, the functions of which are adequately fulfilled by host workers. The few inquiline parasites that have retained a worker caste are thought to be at a transitional stage in the evolution of social parasitism, and their worker castes are considered vestigial and non-adaptive. However...... a vital role in ensuring the parasite's fitness. We show that the presence of these parasite workers has a positive effect on the production of parasite sexuals and a negative effect on the production of host sexuals. This suggests that inquiline workers play a vital role in suppressing host queen...

  20. PARASITIC MITES IN BACKYARD TURKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To describe the parasitic mites in backyard turkeys, was did this work. The mites were obtain by hand for 30 backyard turkeys in Oaxaca’s Coast region, Mexico; the mites were mount in adhesive paper and wash with the 200X lent in a computer optical microscopy, the parasites size were determinate in the pictures obtained by the microscopy software, the images were sized using a specialist software for it, which relate the number of pixels in the picture with the size of the observation field. Were indentified the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Megninia ginglymura and Ornithonyssus sylviarum, the last two described for first time in backyard turkeys in Mexico. Â

  1. DAMPAK NEGATIF PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMATIKA DAN KOMUNIKASI DAN CARA ANTISIFASINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Ratnaya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sampai saat ini perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan telah menghantarkan masyarakat menuju babak baru yaitu babak yang memanfaatkan peralatan-peralatan yang merupakan hasil dari teknologi. Penggunaan tenaga manusia yang semakin hari semakin kecil volumenya sering kali menyebabkan orang kehilangan pekerjaannya karena tugasnya telah tergantikan oleh peralatan atau mesin. Sebagai sarana penyampaian informasi dan komunikasi, komputer bisa dipakai sebagai sarana berinternetan. Lewat internet orang bisa mencari bermacam-macam informasi dan berkomunikasi. Peran yang dapat diberikan oleh aplikasi teknologi informasi ini adalah mendapatkan informasi untuk kehidupan pribadi seperti informasi tentang kesehatan, hobi, rekreasi, dan rohani. Selain memberikan keuntungan, ternyata peralatan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi juga memberikan dampak negatif bagi penggunanya. Dampak negatif tersebut muncul sebagai akibat dari penggunaan yang salah atau tidak bertanggung jawab dari yang menggunakan. Beberapa dampak negatif tersebut adalah 1. Anak lebih banyak menghabiskan waktu menonton TV ketimbang melakukan hal lainnya (seperti belajar dan olah raga, 2. Anak kehilangan kemampuan berbaur dengan masyarakat dan cenderung nyaman dengan kehidupan online, 3 Adanya pelanggaran hak cipta, 4.  Kejahatan di internet, 5. Penyebaran virus komputer, dan 6. Pornografi, perjudian, penipuan, tayangan kekerasan. Adapun cara mengatasi dampak-dampak negatif tersebut adalah : 1. Gunakan teknologi untuk menjalin hubungan dengan orang yang sudah dikenal, 2. Cari komunitas positif  yang sering melakukan pertemuan didunia nyata, 3. Perlunya penegakkan hukum yang berlaku dengan dibentuknya polisi internet, 4. Menghindari pemakaian telepon seluler yang berfitur canggih oleh anak-anak dibawah umur dan lebih mengawasi penggunaan telepon seluler, 5. Perbanyak membaca buku-buku yang bersifat edukatif dan bersifat keimanan serta aplikasi komputer yang bersifat mendidik, dan 6. Perlunya pengaturan

  2. Successes against insects and parasites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-15

    With more and more answers being found to intricate problems which have entailed years of research in many parts of the world, some successes can now be claimed in the fight to control insect threats to crops, animals and human beings. Nuclear techniques are playing an important part in world efforts, and recent reports show that they have been effective in pioneer work against crop pests as well as in finding an answer to some diseases caused by parasites

  3. Parasitic Diseases and Psychiatric Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Mitchell Gralnick

    1994-01-01

    Distinguishing parasitic diseases from other infections and tropical medical disorders based on microbiological classification is a matter of convenience. Organic brain syndromes are associated with both protozoan and helminthic infections; side-effects of drugs commonly used to treat parasitoses may impair mood and cause anxiety, agitation or psychosis. Emotional states may in turn affect the experience of medical illness. Psychiatrically significant features of medical illness are determine...

  4. Parasites and chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Manesh, Reza; Hosseini Safa, Ahmad; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Jafari, Rasool; Bahadoran, Mehran; Yousefi, Morteza; Nasri, Hamid; Yousofi Darani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Suppression of the human immune system results in an increase in susceptibility to infection by various infectious agents. Conditions such as AIDS, organ transplantation and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) are the most important cause of insufficient immune response against infections. Long term renal disorders result in uremia, which can suppress human immune system. Parasitic infections are one of the most important factors indicating the public health problems of the societies. These inf...

  5. KETERGANTUNGAN ONLINE GAME DAN PENANGANANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Syahran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui perilaku yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermaian online game pada siswa SMP Negeri 1 Palu yang meliputi faktor-faktor penyebab kecanduan, keadaan psikologis yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game dan dampak-dampak yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game.Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus dengan berdasarkan responden dan informan sebagai bahan sumber data. Dalam proses pengumpulan data digunakan teknik observasi dan wawancara, dimana setelah data diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif kualitatif.Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, bahwa subyek (RZ dan (MT, kedua subyek penelitian menjadi ketergantungan atau kecanduan untuk bermain online game yang dikarenakan tersedianya beberapa fasilitas pendukung untuk bermain game di rumah, adanya faktor sosial dari pertemanan dengan teman bermain dan keingintahuan yang sangat besar terhadap suatu jenis game. Penanganan ketergantungan game online dengan bantuan dari berbagai pihak terutama pihak sekolah memberikan kepercayaan kepada konselor sekolah atau guru BK untuk mengadakan seminar kepada orang tua siswa tentang game online dan masalah yang akan ditimbulkan, mengatur waktu belajar dan bermain anak, memasukkan materi tentang game online dan dampaknya kepada siswa serta memberikan penyaluran yang baik dalam memilih game yang edukatif serta Menjalin komunikasi interpersonal agar anak dapat terbuka dengan orang tua.

  6. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  7. Parasitic leiomyoma after laparoscopic myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srithean Lertvikool

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old nulligravid underwent laparoscopic myomectomy and the masses were removed by an electric morcellator. Five years later, this patient suffered from acute pelvic pain and received an operation. During laparoscopic surgery, an 8-cm right-sided multiloculated ovarian cyst with chocolate-like content was seen. After adhesiolysis, two parasitic myomas (each ∼2 cm in diameter were found attached to the right ovarian cyst and the other two parasitic myomas (each ∼1 cm in diameter were found at the right infundibulopelvic ligament and omentum respectively. These tumors were successfully removed by laparoscopic procedure. Histopathological examination confirmed that all masses were leiomyomas and the right ovarian cyst was confirmed to be endometriosis. The formation of parasitic myomas was assumed that myomatous fragments during morcellation at the time of myomectomy may have been left behind unintentionally. Thus, morcellator should be used carefully. With that being said, all of the myomatous fragment should be removed after morcellation.

  8. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  9. Profil Ekspresi mRNA Gen Murine Double Minute2, Kruppel-Like Factor4, dan c-Myc pada Fibrosarkoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Humaryanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Fibrosarkoma hanya terjadi 1–3% dari seluruh keganasan jaringan lunak. Hingga saat ini etiologi fibrosarkoma belum diketahui dengan pasti. Beberapa faktor dapat menjadi penyebab patogenesis fibrosarkoma antara lain radiasi, terpapar zat kimia tertentu, serta infeksi human herpes virus 8 (HHV8 dan Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Penelitian terkini menunjukkan bahwa banyak sarkoma terkait dengan mutasi genetik. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat profil ekspresi mRNA gen Krüppel-like Factor4, Murine Double Minute2, dan c-Myc pada fibrosarkoma menggunakan teknik real time PCR kuantitatif (quantitative real time PCR, qRT-PCR. Analisis data menggunakan metode kuantititatif relatif 2-ΔΔCt. Penelitian ini menggunakan 10 sampel kasus fibrosarkoma yang ditemukan di Kota Jambi dari tahun 2011–2015. Hasil ΔCt (+SD MDM2, KLF-4, dan c-Myc disusun dari nilai yang terkecil hingga tertinggi adalah 1,85±2,14; 2,06±3,86; 2,9±2,66 secara berurutan. Dibanding dengan level ekspresi dengan GAPDH sebagai housekeeping gene, gen MDM2 dan KLF-4 relatif menurun dua kali lipat, sedangkan gen c-Myc relatif menurun lebih dari tiga kali lipat. Simpulan, penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pada kasus fibrosarkoma, gen c-Myc disupresi lebih kuat dibanding dengan gen MDM2 dan KLF-4. Abstract Fibrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma, reported only 1–3% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Like any other soft-tissue sarcomas the definitive caused has not yet understood. Recognized causes include exposure to ionizing radiation, various physical and chemical factors, infection with human herpes virus (HHV8 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Current research indicates many sarcomas are associated with genetic mutations. In this study, we investigated profile of mRNA gene expression KLF4, MDM2, and c-Myc of RNA in fibrosarcoma cases. The genes expression was examined using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR and we analyzed the relative gene expression using the 2-ΔΔCt method. Ten

  10. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Megan; Kim, Gunjune; Westwood, James H.

    2012-01-01

    RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs, and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host–parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host–parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking. PMID:22936942

  11. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L LeBlanc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host-parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking.

  12. Transport de paires EPR dans des structures mesoscopiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Emilie

    Dans cette these, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses a la propagation de paires EPR1 delocalisees et localisees, et a l'influence d'un supraconducteur sur le transport de ces paires. Apres une introduction de cette etude, ainsi que du cadre scientifique qu'est l'informatique quantique dans lequel elle s'inscrit, nous allons dans le chapitre 1 faire un rappel sur le systeme constitue de deux points quantiques normaux entoures de deux fils supraconducteurs. Cela nous permettra d'introduire une methode de calcul qui sera reutilisee par la suite, et de trouver egalement le courant Josephson produit par ce systeme transforme en SQUID-dc par l'ajout d'une jonction auxiliaire. Le SQUID permet de mesurer l'etat de spin (singulet ou triplet), et peut etre forme a partir d'autres systemes que nous etudierons ensuite. Dans le chapitre 2, nous rappellerons l'etude detaillee d'un intricateur d'Andreev faite par un groupe de Bale. La matrice T, permettant d'obtenir le courant dans les cas ou les electrons sont separes spatialement ou non, sera etudiee en detail afin d'en faire usage au chapitre suivant. Le chapitre 3 est consacre a l'etude de l'influence du bruit sur le fonctionnement de l'intricateur d'Andreev. Ce bruit modifie la forme du courant jusqu'a aboutir a d'autres conditions de fonctionnement de l'intricateur. En effet, le bruit present sur les points quantiques peut perturber le transport des paires EPR par l'intermediaire des degres de liberte. Nous montrerons que, du fait de l'"intrication" entre la charge de la paire et le bruit, la paire est detruite pour des temps longs. Cependant, le resultat le plus important sera que le bruit perturbe plus le transport des paires delocalisees, qui implique une resonance de Breit-Wigner a deux particules. Le transport parasite n'implique pour sa part qu'une resonance de Breit-Wigner a une particule. Dans le chapitre 4, nous reviendrons au systeme constitue de deux points quantiques entoures de deux fils

  13. GAMBARAN JENIS DAN JUMLAH KONSUMSI FAST FOOD DAN SOFT DRINK PADA MAHASISWA OBESITAS DI UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanti, Rut; Jafar, Nurhaedar; Syam, Aminuddin

    2013-01-01

    Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink dapat menyebabkan kelebihan berat badan dan obesitas.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran jenis dan jumlah zat gizi makro dari konsumsi fast food dan soft drink pada mahasiswa yang obesitas.Jenis penelitian adalah deskriptif, dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Juni 2013 di Universitas Hasanuddin dengan jumlah responden 60 orang. Instrument penelitian adalah kuesioner identitas diri dan food frekuensiSemiQuantitatif fast food dan soft drink, food pictur...

  14. PERSEPSI DAN TRANSFORMASI VISI DAN MISI PADA CIVITAS AKADEMIKA STAIN PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Khanafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mengukur tingkat persepsi visi dan misi civitas akademika STAIN Pekalongan, dan mengukur juga tingkat implementasi sebagai transformasi visi misi tersebut serta menemukan hubungan antara persepsi dengan implementasinya. Kajian ini memiliki signifikan yang strategis dalam konteks manajemen dan pengembangan Pendidikan di STAIN Pekalongan dan lembaga pendidikan lainnya. Hal ini karena posisi visi dan misi sebagai kerangka acuan (frame of reference yang mengarahkan dan menjelaskan kepada keseluruh unsur civitas akademika dalam setiap program kerjanya.

  15. Introduction of New Parasites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    examples of such parasites/parasitic diseases: Setaria tundra, a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode which was detected for the first time in Danish deer in 2010. This parasite is usually considered harmless but is capable of causing peritonitis and mortality in ungulates. The newly detected parasite...... was genetically very similar to previously published isolates from France and Italy, and may have been spread to Denmark from southern Europe. Giardia spp. a zoonotic, unicellular parasite (protozoa) well known in Danish livestock but recently found in extremely high numbers in Danish deer with chronic diarrhea...... for the first time in Denmark approximately 10 years ago in 3 foxes from the Copenhagen area. Since then, no systematic surveillance has been performed, and therefore the current prevalence among wildlife and pets is unknown. So far the parasite has not been found in intermediate hosts (rodents) in Denmark...

  16. Hepatozoon parasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, C Miguel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Perkins, Susan L

    2013-08-01

    We provide the first evidence of Hepatozoon parasites infecting bats. We sequenced a short fragment of the 18S rRNA gene (~600 base pairs) of Hepatozoon parasites from 3 Hipposideros cervinus bats from Borneo. Phylogenies inferred by model-based methods place these Hepatozoon within a clade formed by parasites of reptiles, rodents, and marsupials. We discuss the scenario that bats might be common hosts of Hepatozoon.

  17. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  18. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perancangan dan Analisis Redistribution Routing Protocol OSPF dan EIGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First dan EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol adalah dua routing protokol yang banyak digunakan dalam jaringan komputer. Perbedaan karakteristik antar routing protokol menimbulkan masalah dalam pengiriman paket data. Teknik redistribution adalah solusi untuk melakukan komunikasi antar routing protokol. Dengan menggunakan software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 pada penelitian ini dibuat simulasi OSPF dan EIGRP yang dihubungkan oleh teknik redistribution, kemudian dibandingkan kualitasnya dengan single routing protokol EIGRP dan OSPF. Parameter pengujian dalam penelitian ini adalah nilai time delay dan trace route. Nilai trace route berdasarkan perhitungan langsung cost dan metric dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi. Hasilnya dapat dilakukan proses redistribution OSPF dan EIGRP. Nilai delay redistribution lebih baik 1% dibanding OSPF dan 2-3% di bawah EIGRP tergantung kepadatan traffic. Dalam perhitungan trace route redistribution dilakukan 2 perhitungan, yaitu cost untuk area OSPF dan metric pada area EIGRP. Pengambilan jalur utama dan alternatif pengiriman paket berdasarkan nilai cost dan metric yang terkecil, hal ini terbukti berdasarkan perhitungan dan simulasi. Kata kunci: OSPF, EIGRP, Redistribution, Delay, Cost, Metric. Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol are two routing protocols are widely used in computer networks. Differences between the characteristics of routing protocols pose a problem in the delivery of data packets. Redistribution technique is the solution for communication between routing protocols. By using the software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 in this study were made simulating OSPF and EIGRP redistribution linked by technique, then compared its quality with a single EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. Testing parameters in this study is the value of the time delay and trace route. Value trace route based on direct calculation of cost

  20. How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Magalhães Campião

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR. We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

  1. Energy parasites trigger oncogene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Jandová, Anna; Kobilková, Jitka; Vrba, Jan; Vrba, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Cancer initialization can be explained as a result of parasitic virus energy consumption leading to randomized genome chemical bonding. Analysis of experimental data on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) containing about 12,000 cases of healthy humans, cancer patients and patients with precancerous cervical lesions disclosed that the specific cancer and the non-specific lactate dehydrogenase-elevating (LDH) virus antigen elicit similar responses. The specific antigen is effective only in cancer type of its origin but the non-specific antigen in all examined cancers. CMI results of CIN patients display both healthy and cancer state. The ribonucleic acid (RNA) of the LDH virus parasitizing on energy reduces the ratio of coherent/random oscillations. Decreased effect of coherent cellular electromagnetic field on bonding electrons in biological macromolecules leads to elevating probability of random genome reactions. Overlapping of wave functions in biological macromolecules depends on energy of the cellular electromagnetic field which supplies energy to bonding electrons for selective chemical bonds. CMI responses of cancer and LDH virus antigens in all examined healthy, precancerous and cancer cases point to energy mechanism in cancer initiation. Dependence of the rate of biochemical reactions on biological electromagnetic field explains yet unknown mechanism of genome mutation.

  2. Local immune mechanisms against parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, S.

    1981-01-01

    The secretory immunological system of the gastrointestinal tract is associated with the production of secretory IgA immunoglobulins. However, despite the fact that secretory IgA antibodies are known to mediate protection against infection with a number of bacteria and viruses, little information is available on their role in protection against infection with parasites. Thus, although elevated levels of IgA immunoglobulins and antibodies are present in the gastrointestinal tract after infection with a number of helminths and protozoa, conclusive evidence that these are associated with protection against infection is often lacking. However, it has now been demonstrated that intestinal IgA antibodies are associated with protection against infection with Taenia taeniaeformis in mice. In addition, secretory IgA antibodies arising from the common mucosal immunological system of the mammary gland are associated with protection against infection with T. taeniaeformis in mice and rats. Thus, since the portal of entry and site of residence of many parasites is the gastrointestinal tract, the secretory immunological system may act as a first line of defence against infection, and it is possible that oral immunization and local stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract may be effective in inducing protection against infection. The use of nuclear techniques (radioisotope-labelled IgA, autoradiography to follow the role of hepatocytes in IgA transport across the liver) are mentioned marginally only in this review

  3. Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasel Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms. In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities.

  4. Pengaruh Perebusan, Penggaraman Dan Penjemuran Pada Udang Dan Cumi Terhadap Pembentukan 7 Ketokolesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Riyanto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pengaruh perebusan, penggaraman dan penjemuran pada udang dan cumi terhadap pembentukan 7‑ketokolesterol telah dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini, udang dan cumi masing ­masing dibagi dalam dua kelompok. Pada kelompok pertama diberikan perlakuan perebusan dalam air, dan pada kelompok kedua diberikan perlakuan perebusan dalam air garam (3% air garam untuk udang dan 20% air garam untuk cumi. Setelah perebusan, dilakukan pengeringan di bawah matahari (udang dikupas dahulu sebelum dijemur. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan saat kondisi segar, setelah direbus dan setelah dijemur. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kandungan 7‑ketokolesterol, kolesterol, nilai TBA, dan kadar air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perebusan, penggaraman dan penjemuran berpengaruh terhadap pembentukan 7‑ketokolesterol sampai konsentrasi 20,82 ppm pada udang dan 15,05 ppm pada cumi sebagai konsentrasi tertinggi produk hasil oksidasi kolesterol yang terbentuk. Penelitian ini dapat dijadikan bukti bahwa pemanasan (perebusan dan penjemuran, serta penggaraman berpengaruh dalam proses oksidasi kolesterol pada udang dan cumi.

  5. CORPORATE IDENTITY SEJARAH DAN APLIKASINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Suharto Cenadi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent globalization era%2C and the developed market%2C many companies compete to attract consumers to buy their products. One of the keys to compete and survive in this developing market is by creating an image and graphic identity. This paper will discuss about corporate identity%2C image%2C its purpose and applications. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam era globalisasi dewasa ini%2C dan dengan berkembangnya pasar (market%2C banyak perusahaan bersaing untuk menarik perhatian konsumen untuk membeli produknya. Salah satu cara untuk bersaing dan dapat bertahan di dalam pasar yang terus berkembang ini adalah dengan menciptakan suatu image dan identitas graphic. Tulisan ini akan membahas tentang corporate identity%2C image%2C fungsi dan aplikasinya

  6. Profil Sensori dan Nilai Gizi Beberapa Jenis Ikan Patin dan Hibrid Nasutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Dwi Suryaningrum

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai profil sensori dan nilai gizi filet patin Siam (Pangasius hypopthalmus, Jambal (Pangasius djambal Bleeker, Pasupati, Nasutus serta hasil silangan Siam dan Nasutus (hibrid Nasutus telah dilakukan. Analisis sensori dilakukan dengan uji pembeda menyeluruh, uji pembeda atribut, uji kesukaan, dan uji rangking. Pengamatan lainnya dilakukan terhadap edible portion dan nilai gizi (proksimat dan profil asam amino. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa filet patin hibrid Nasutus lebih memiliki kesamaan warna dengan filet patin Nasutus daripada filet patin Siam. W arna daging filet patin hibrid Nasutus berbeda nyata dengan induknya yaitu patin Nasutus dan patin Siam. Panelis lebih menyukai warna filet patin hibrid Nasutus dibandingkan dengan patin Pasupati. Patin hibrid Nasutus mempunyai tekstur yang berbeda nyata dengan Nasutus dan Jambal yang kompak dan padat, tetapi mempunyai kesamaan dengan patin Siam dan Pasupati yang agak kompak dan agak padat. Berdasarkan intensitas warna, hasil uji pembeda atribut dan uji kesukaan, maka secara berturut-turut panelis menyukai filet patin Jambal, Nasutus, hibrid Nasutus, Pasupati, dan Siam. Hibrid Nasutus mempunyai edible portionpaling tinggi (49% dibandingkan dengan patin lainnya tetapi mempunyai kadar air, kadar lemak, dan kadar protein yang lebih rendah dan berbeda nyata dengan induknya (patin Siam dan Nasutus. Patin Siam mengandung asam amino esensial paling tinggi di antara berbagai jenis patin yang diteliti. Profil asam amino patin hibrid Nasutus, Jambal, Pasupati, dan Nasutus hampir sama, kecuali pada patin Siam yang mengandung glisin, leusin, isoleusin, histidin, serin, treonin, dan prolin yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan patin lainnya

  7. MENGENALI GEJALA TINITUS DAN PENATALAKSANAANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Purwita Agustini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Telinga berdenging atau dikenal dalam bahasa medis sebagai tinitus, banyak dikeluhkan sebagai suatu bising atau bunyi yang muncul di kepala tanpa adanya rangsangan dari luar. Adapun keluhan yang dialami ini seperti bunyi mendengung, mendesis, menderu, atau berbagai variasi bunyi yang lain. Tinitus bukanlah penyakit atau sindroma, tapi hanya merupakan gejala yang mungkin berasal dari satu atau sejumlah kelainan. Sebetulnya suara yang terdengar oleh telinga tersebut belum tentu bersifat kelainan atau patologis. Jika orang sehat yang terbukti telinganya normal, berada dalam ruang kedap (anehoic chamber, maka ia akan dapat mendengar berbagai macam suara yang berasal dari berbagai organ tubuhnya sendiri yang memang bekerja setiap saat, contohnya: pernapasan, kontraksi jantung, dan aliran darah. Kenyataannya, dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, suasana yang memungkinkan suara fisiologis atau normal tersebut terdengar oleh seseorang sangat jarang tercipta dan bahkan dalam kamar yang sunyi di malam hari sekalipun. Hal ini dikarenakan, bunyi masking dari lingkungan dengan berintensitas bunyi sekitar 25 – 30 dB. Tinitus baru menjadi gejala jika suara organ tubuh intensitasnya melebihi bunyi masking lingkungan tadi. Tinitus kerap diderita terutama orang pada kelompok usia pertengahan dan usia tua. Menurut data statistic dari pusat kesehatan di Amerika, sekitar 32% orang dewasa pernah mengalami tinitus pada suatu saat tertentu dalam hidupnya, dan 6 % nya sangat menganggu dan cukup sulit disembuhkan. Di Inggris, 17% populasi juga memiliki masalah tinitus. Sayangnya di Indonesia belum ada data statistic yang memadai, namun berdasarkan pengalaman empiris, penderita tinitus cukup banyak dan sering ditemui di tempat praktek, klinik, maupun rumah sakit. Meski tinitus bukanlah keadaan yang membahayakan, munculnya gejala ini pada hampir kebanyakan orang sangat mengganggu dan sering mempengaruhi kualitas hidup dan pekerjaannya. Kata Kunci: Tinitus, berdenging, telinga

  8. Le CRDI dans les Philippines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI appuie la recherche dans les. Philippines depuis 1972. Le travail qu'y ont accompli des universités et des instituts de recherche vigoureux et la participation active de la société civile ont entraîné d'importantes améliorations dans les domaines de l'agriculture, du suivi de la pauvreté et de la gestion des forêts.

  9. XML specifications DanRIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now......XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now...

  10. Ketergantungan Online Game Dan Penanganannya

    OpenAIRE

    Syahran, Ridwan

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui perilaku yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermaian online game pada siswa SMP Negeri 1 Palu yang meliputi faktor-faktor penyebab kecanduan, keadaan psikologis yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game dan dampak-dampak yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game.Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus dengan berdasarkan responden dan informan sebagai bahan sumber data. Dalam proses ...

  11. ENERGI DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Energi dapat berubah dari satu bentuk ke bentuk yang  lainnya, perubahannya sering mempengaruhi lingkungan dan udara yang kita hirup dengan berbagai cara. Energy kimia dalam bahan bakar fosil diubah menjadi energy panas, mekanik, atau listrik melalui pembakaran dan  ini sebagai penghasil polutan terbesar. Dan dengan demikian pembangkit listrik, kendaraan bermotor, dan kompor adalah penyebab utama terjadinya polusi udara.  Polutan yang dikeluarkan biasanya dikelompokan menjadi  hidrokarbon (HC, nitrogen oksida (NOx, dan  karbon monoksida (CO. Polutan yang dihasilkan pada pembakaran fosil merupakan faktor terbesar terjadinya asap, hujan asam,  pemanasan global dan perubahan iklim.   The conversion of energy from one form to another often affects the environment and the air we breath in many ways. Pollutants are emitted as the chemical energy in fossil fuels is converten to thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy via combustion, and thus power plants, motor vehicles, and even stoves take the blame for air pollution, and  the pollutants released by the vehicles are usually grouped as hydrocarbons (HC, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and carbon monoxide (CO. Pollutans emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels are responsible for smog, acid rain, and global warming and climate change.

  12. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Ralstonia syzygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar Danaatmadja

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia syzygii is one of important pathogens of cloves. This study was aimed at obtaining pure culture of R. syzygi from diseased plant tissue samples. The acterium was isolated from infected clove plantations in Ungaran, Central Java. It had the ability to make clove seedlings show symptoms and then die 41 days after inoculation. The reisolated bacterium also showed its ability to kill clove seedlings after 17 days. The bacterium is gram negative, able to ultilize glucose, sucrose, maltose, mannitol, sorbitol, dulcitol, and glycerol, able to hydrolyze starch, grow well at 27oC, able to catalyze and release water and oxygen from hydrogen peroxyde (H2O2 and aerobically.   Ralstonia syzygii merupakan salah satu patogen penting pada tanaman cengkeh. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapakan isolat murni R syzygii dari jaringan tanaman terinfeksi. Bakteri diisolasi dari pertanaman cengkeh sakit yang berasal dari daerah Ungaran, Jawa Tengah. Bakteri menunjukkan kemampuan untuk menyebabkan bibit tanaman cangkeh sakit dan kemudian mati 41 hsi. Bakteri hasil reisolasi juga menunjukkan kemampuannya menyebabkan sakit dan kematian pada bibit tanaman cengkeh setelah 17 hsi. Bakteri yang diperoleh bersifat gram negatif, mampu memanfaatkan glukosa, sukrosa, maltosa, manitol, sorbitol, dulsitol, dan gliserol, mampu menghidrolisis pati, tumbuh baik pada suhu 27o C, mampu mengkatalisis dan melepaskan air dan oksigen dari hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 dan bersifat aerob.

  13. Parasites and cancers: parasite antigens as possible targets for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darani, Hossein Yousofi; Yousefi, Morteza

    2012-12-01

    An adverse relationship between some parasite infections and cancer in the human population has been reported by different research groups. Anticancer activity of some parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis, Acantamoeba castellani and Plasmodium yoelii has been shown in experimental animals. Moreover, it has been shown that cancer-associated mucin-type O-glycan compositions are made by parasites, therefore cancers and parasites have common antigens. In this report anticancer activities of some parasites have been reviewed and the possible mechanisms of these actions have also been discussed.

  14. Signalling in malaria parasites. The MALSIG consortium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doerig, C.; Baker, D.; Billker, O.; Blackman, M.J.; Chitnis, C.; Dhar Kumar, S.; Heussler, V.; Holder, A.A.; Kocken, C.; Krishna, S.; Langsley, G.; Lasonder, E.; Menard, R.; Meissner, M.; Pradel, G.; Ranford-Cartwright, L.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, P.; Tardieux, T.; Tatu, U.; Alano, P.

    2009-01-01

    Depending on their developmental stage in the life cycle, malaria parasites develop within or outside host cells, and in extremely diverse contexts such as the vertebrate liver and blood circulation, or the insect midgut and hemocoel. Cellular and molecular mechanisms enabling the parasite to sense

  15. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-11-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  16. Considering RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; Warnock, Neil D; McVeigh, Paul; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela; Atkinson, Louise; Maule, Aaron G

    2012-04-01

    Almost a decade has passed since the first report of RNA interference (RNAi) in a parasitic helminth. Whilst much progress has been made with RNAi informing gene function studies in disparate nematode and flatworm parasites, substantial and seemingly prohibitive difficulties have been encountered in some species, hindering progress. An appraisal of current practices, trends and ideals of RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths is both timely and necessary for a number of reasons: firstly, the increasing availability of parasitic helminth genome/transcriptome resources means there is a growing need for gene function tools such as RNAi; secondly, fundamental differences and unique challenges exist for parasite species which do not apply to model organisms; thirdly, the inherent variation in experimental design, and reported difficulties with reproducibility undermine confidence. Ideally, RNAi studies of gene function should adopt standardised experimental design to aid reproducibility, interpretation and comparative analyses. Although the huge variations in parasite biology and experimental endpoints make RNAi experimental design standardization difficult or impractical, we must strive to validate RNAi experimentation in helminth parasites. To aid this process we identify multiple approaches to RNAi experimental validation and highlight those which we deem to be critical for gene function studies in helminth parasites.

  17. [Dipylidium caninum, a rare parasite in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, W; Auer, H

    1994-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum, the dog tapeworm, is a common cosmopolitan parasite of dogs and cats. Infestations of man are observed only sporadically. We report the case of a 22 months-old child living in Upper Austria with dipylidiasis. The parasite is briefly outlined with respect to biology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, therapy and prevention.

  18. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we studied the gastrointestinal parasites of nonhuman mammalian hosts living in 10 rainforest patches of the Anamalai Tiger Reserve, India. We examined 349 faecal samples of 17 mammalian species and successfully identified 24 gastroin-testinal parasite taxa including 1 protozoan, 2 trematode, 3 cestode and 18 ...

  19. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Wendling, C.C.; Wegner, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest

  20. The effect of parasites on wildlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Populations of animals which live in the wild are regulated by many biotic and abiotic factors. Parasites are one of the biotic factors. Parasites may influence their hosts in different ways. They may cause the death of the host due to a direct lethal effect or an indirect effect. Direct lethal

  1. Parasitic Rachipagus Conjoined Twins: Surgical Management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parasite upper limb. The parasite was successfully excised. Subsequent follow up of the child has revealed a boy who despite the weakness of his left lower limb is able ... of the limbs. The defect in dura in the lumbar region was also repaired. The limbs excised are shown in figures 5 and 6, with the post operative picture in.

  2. Parasitic nematode interactions with mammals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent reinfection of host species. In addition, development of resistance to nematicides and anthelmintics by these parasites and reduced availability of some nematicides, for environmental protection, pose significant obstacles for current and future prospects of effective parasite control. Due to marked differences in host species, research on animal and plant parasitic nematodes often proceeds independently. Despite the differences between animals and plants, basic cellular properties are shared among these host organisms. Some common properties may be important for mechanisms [homologous or convergent (homoplastic)] by which nematodes successfully infect these diverse hosts or by which animal and plant hosts resist infections by these pathogens. Here we compare host/parasite interactions between plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) and animal parasitic nematodes, with an emphasis on mammalian hosts (MPN). Similarities and differences are considered in the context of progress on molecular dissection of these interactions. A comprehensive coverage is not possible in the space allotted. Instead, an illustrative approach is used to establish examples that, it is hoped, exemplify the value of the comparative approach.

  3. First report of Orobanche ludoviciana parasitizing sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomrape is the common name given to a group of flowering plants belonging to the genus Orobanche that parasitize the roots of higher dicotyledonous plants. More than 100 species of Orobanche have been identified, all of which are obligate parasites that lack chlorophyll and depend upon their host ...

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites may cause mild, acute and chronic human infections. There is inadequate reliable information on the epidemiology of these parasites among patients attending tertiary hospitals in Tanzania. This retrospective study was conducted using hospital data obtained from the ...

  5. Cell fractionation of parasitic protozoa: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Wanderley de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell fractionation, a methodological strategy for obtaining purified organelle preparations, has been applied successfully to parasitic protozoa by a number of investigators. Here we present and discuss the work of several groups that have obtained highly purified subcellular fractions from trypanosomatids, Apicomplexa and trichomonads, and whose work have added substantially to our knowledge of the cell biology of these parasites.

  6. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa or multicellular (helminths and arthropods. The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  7. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment—lethal and non-lethal—across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date. PMID:22042922

  8. Rodent malaria parasites : genome organization & comparative genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Taco W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P.

  9. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  10. Timing of host feeding drives rhythms in parasite replication

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, Kimberley F.; van der Veen, Daan R.; O’ Donnell, Aidan J.; Cumnock, Katherine; Schneider, David; Pain, Arnab; Subudhi, Amit; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Rund, Samuel S. C.; Savill, Nicholas J.; Reece, Sarah E.

    2018-01-01

    by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms

  11. Immunodiagnosis of parasitic infections using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    This report documents the recommendations of the ''Advisory Group on Immunodiagnosis of Parasitic Infections Using Nuclear Techniques'' with a focus on malaria, schistosomiasis and filariasis. Radionuclide tracers are considered an important component of present and future immunological methods for the assessment of the host's humoral and cellular immunity to the parasite and the detection of parasite antigen(s) in human body fluids. The Advisory Group has concluded that there is a continuing need for the development and application of immunodiagnostic methods in parasitic diseases. This report concerns methods which are currently or potentially applicable to immunodiagnostic investigations in parasitic diseases. Reference is made, where appropriate, to recent developments in research which may lead to improvement and standardization of methods now available and the development of new methodology. Separate abstracts on various papers presented were prepared

  12. Parasites and poverty: the case of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charles H

    2010-02-01

    Simultaneous and sequential transmission of multiple parasites, and their resultant overlapping chronic infections, are facts of life in many underdeveloped rural areas. These represent significant but often poorly measured health and economic burdens for affected populations. For example, the chronic inflammatory process associated with long-term schistosomiasis contributes to anaemia and undernutrition, which, in turn, can lead to growth stunting, poor school performance, poor work productivity, and continued poverty. To date, most national and international programs aimed at parasite control have not considered the varied economic and ecological factors underlying multi-parasite transmission, but some are beginning to provide a coordinated approach to control. In addition, interest is emerging in new studies for the re-evaluation and recalibration of the health burden of helminthic parasite infection. Their results should highlight the strong potential of integrated parasite control in efforts for poverty reduction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Subversion of complement by hematophagous parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Hélène; Skelly, Patrick J; Zipfel, Peter F; Losson, Bertrand; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The complement system is a crucial part of innate and adaptive immunity which exerts a significant evolutionary pressure on pathogens. It has selected for those pathogens, mainly microorganisms but also parasites, that have evolved countermeasures. The characterization of how pathogens evade complement attack is a rapidly developing field of current research. In recent years, multiple complement evasion strategies have been characterized. In this review, we focus on complement escape mechanisms expressed by hematophagous parasites, a heterogeneous group of metazoan parasites that share the property of ingesting the whole blood of their host. Complement inhibition is crucial for parasite survival within the host tissue or to facilitate blood feeding. Finally, complement inhibition by hematophagous parasites may also contribute to their success as pathogen vectors.

  14. Coccidian intestinal parasites in the Priapulidae (Priapulida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J F; Storch, V

    1997-01-01

    Four relatively uncommon members of the family Priapulidae (Priapulida) from very different parts of the world were examined to determine the presence of a parasitic coccidian in their midgut. The parasite was found in three of those priapulid species, Priapulopsis bicaudatus, P. australis, and Halicryptus higginsi, but not in the fourth one, Priapulus tuberculatospinosus. Using electron-microscopy techniques, we compared parasites of the different species with one another and with a parasite of Priapulus caudatus investigated by McLean in 1984. All of these parasites apparently belong to the same species and are likely to be Alveocystis intestinalis, a coccidian first described by Beltenev from P. caudatus and H. spinulosus. The present work greatly expands the geographical range of Alveocystis intestinalis and documents an uncommon case of low host specificity in eimeriid coccidians.

  15. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The origin of malarial parasites in orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Andreína Pacheco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings of Plasmodium in African apes have changed our perspectives on the evolution of malarial parasites in hominids. However, phylogenetic analyses of primate malarias are still missing information from Southeast Asian apes. In this study, we report molecular data for a malaria parasite lineage found in orangutans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened twenty-four blood samples from Pongo pygmaeus (Kalimantan, Indonesia for Plasmodium parasites by PCR. For all the malaria positive orangutan samples, parasite mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA and two antigens: merozoite surface protein 1 42 kDa (MSP-1(42 and circumsporozoite protein gene (CSP were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Fifteen orangutans tested positive and yielded 5 distinct mitochondrial haplotypes not previously found. The haplotypes detected exhibited low genetic divergence among them, indicating that they belong to one species. We report phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial genomes, MSP-1(42 and CSP. We found that the orangutan malaria parasite lineage was part of a monophyletic group that includes all the known non-human primate malaria parasites found in Southeast Asia; specifically, it shares a recent common ancestor with P. inui (a macaque parasite and P. hylobati (a gibbon parasite suggesting that this lineage originated as a result of a host switch. The genetic diversity of MSP-1(42 in orangutans seems to be under negative selection. This result is similar to previous findings in non-human primate malarias closely related to P. vivax. As has been previously observed in the other Plasmodium species found in non-human primates, the CSP shows high polymorphism in the number of repeats. However, it has clearly distinctive motifs from those previously found in other malarial parasites. CONCLUSION: The evidence available from Asian apes indicates that these parasites originated independently from those found in Africa, likely as the result of host

  17. Penskalaan Butir Format Respons Pilihan dan Respons Bebas Berdasarkan Model Rasch dan Partial Credit

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Hariadi

    2007-01-01

    Penelitian melihat pengaruh jumlah parameter butir, kategori respons bebas (RB), pengaruh sampel terhadap akurasi estimasi parameter kemampuan untuk menghasilkan estimasi yang stabil dan pengaruh pembobotan butir RP dan butir RB terhadap kesalahan baku. Penelitian dalam dua tahap, simulasi menggunakan 30 kondisi dengan replikasi 50 dengan variabel panjang tes, jumlah kategori, dan jumlah parameter butir, dan analisis deskriptif, dilanjutkan penerapan penskalaan gabungan butir tipe res...

  18. Metode Sederhana dan Efektif untuk Penghitungan dan Visualisasi Tiga Dimensi (3D) Biofilm Vibriio Cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Andi; Fadjar, Mohamad; Sukoso, Sukoso; Prihanto, Asep Awaludin

    2015-01-01

    Mikroorganisme yang mampu menghasilkan biofim menimbulkan masalah yang serius dalam bidang kesehatan dan pangan. Penelitian biofim bagi sebagian peneliti sangat identik dengan kerumitan proses penghitungan dan visualisasi penutupan permukaan substrat penempelan bakteri. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mengetahui efiiensi metode alternatif untuk menghitung dan memvisualisasikan biofimVibrio cholera. Pada penelitian ini beberapa faktor lingkungan seperti pH, suhu, dan kondisi kultur diujicobakan...

  19. PERUBAHAN KARAKTER KUANTITATIF MUCUNA PRURIENS GENERASI M1 PASCA IRRADIASI SINAR GAMMA CO-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Ulung Anggraito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens berpotensi sebagai bahan substitusi kedelai. Keragaman genetik koro benguk termasuk kategori rendah, sehingga perlu ditingkatkan keragaman genetiknya terutama pada faktor-faktor produksi. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan informasi mutasi mikro pada koro benguk generasi M1 setelah diradiasi dengan sinar gamma dari Cobalt-60. Benih koro benguk diperoleh dari Balai Pengembangan Perbenihan Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura (BP2TPH Ngipiksari, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Radiasi sinar gamma dilakukan di PAIR BATAN Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. Dosis radiasi gamma yang digunakan adalah 0; 25 Gy, 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy, 200 Gy, dan 250 Gy. Eksperimen dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK. Parameter yang diamati adalah umur berbunga, jumlah polong, jumlah biji, berat 100 biji tanaman generasi M1. Data dianalisis menggunakan Anava, dilanjutkan dengan Uji Beda Nyata Duncan (DMRT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan dosis radiasi sinar gamma akan memperpanjang hari munculnya bunga dan berat biji, namun menurunkan jumlah polong dan jumlah biji pada tanaman generasi M1.

  20. Purwarupa Sistem Integrasi Quadcopter dan Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmawan, Andi; Lusiarta Putera, Christian Antonia

    2012-01-01

    AbstrakQuadcopter, juga dikenal sebagai quadrotor, adalah helikopter dengan empat motor yang dilengkapi dengan  empat buah propeller pada masing-masing motornya yang digunakan untuk terbang dan bermanuver. Pada quadcopter terdapat 3 variabel sudut yang menjadi element utama dalam pengendaliannya yaitu roll, pitch, dan yaw yang diperoleh dari penggabungan sensor accelerometer, gyroscope dan magnetometer dengan metode Direction Cosine Matrix. Pada sistem integrasi mobile robot dan quadcopter, d...

  1. Review Dendrimer : Definisi, Sintesis, Aplikasi Dan Prospektif

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi, Dwinna

    2013-01-01

    Dendrimer merupakan makrostruktur monodisperse dengan banyak cabang yang homogen dan degree of branching (DB) 100%. Dua cara sintesis dendrimer yaitu convergent dan divergent dilakukan. Convergent dilakukan dengan reaksi kovalen antara dua dan lebih monomer. Divergent dimulai dengan pembentukan inti dilanjutkan dengan pembentukan cabang yang merupakan group fungsional yang aktif. Sejauh ini dendrimer sudah banyak diterapkan pada bidang farmasi yaitu drug delivery dan non farmasi pada proses i...

  2. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Enkripsi dan Dekripsi Email Dengan Menggunakan Algoritma Advanced Encryption Standard Dan Knapsack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy John Pattiasina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES dan Knapsack adalah dua algoritma enkripsi simetris dan asimetris yang paling sering digunakan. Penelitian ini menganalisa kedua algoritma AES dan algoritma Knapsack. Prototipe aplikasi enkripsi email ini dirancang dengan menggabungkan karateristik algoritma AES dan Knapsack untuk memecahkan masalah keamanan email. Algoritma AES digunakan untuk mengenkripsi dan deskripsi email berupa teks atau file, sedangkan Algoritma Knapsack di gunakan untuk mengenkripsi kunci AES. Enkripsi hybrid yang diterapkan pada aplikasi bertujuan untuk menambah keamanan informasi dalam sebuah jaringan.

  3. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  4. Where are the parasites in food webs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdeo Michael VK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles.

  5. Mechanisms of cellular invasion by intracellular parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dawn M; Oghumu, Steve; Gupta, Gaurav; McGwire, Bradford S; Drew, Mark E; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2014-04-01

    Numerous disease-causing parasites must invade host cells in order to prosper. Collectively, such pathogens are responsible for a staggering amount of human sickness and death throughout the world. Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, and malaria are neglected diseases and therefore are linked to socio-economical and geographical factors, affecting well-over half the world's population. Such obligate intracellular parasites have co-evolved with humans to establish a complexity of specific molecular parasite-host cell interactions, forming the basis of the parasite's cellular tropism. They make use of such interactions to invade host cells as a means to migrate through various tissues, to evade the host immune system, and to undergo intracellular replication. These cellular migration and invasion events are absolutely essential for the completion of the lifecycles of these parasites and lead to their for disease pathogenesis. This review is an overview of the molecular mechanisms of protozoan parasite invasion of host cells and discussion of therapeutic strategies, which could be developed by targeting these invasion pathways. Specifically, we focus on four species of protozoan parasites Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium, and Toxoplasma, which are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality.

  6. Where are the parasites in food webs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles. PMID:23092160

  7. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  8. Parasitism, personality and cognition in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, I; Mora, A B; Payne, E M; Weinersmith, K L; Sih, A

    2017-08-01

    It is well established that parasites can have profound effects on the behaviour of host organisms, and that individual differences in behaviour can influence susceptibility to parasite infections. Recently, two major themes of research have developed. First, there has been a growing interest in the proximate, mechanistic processes underpinning parasite-associated behaviour change, and the interactive roles of the neuro-, immune, and other physiological systems in determining relationships between behaviour and infection susceptibility. Secondly, as the study of behaviour has shifted away from one-off measurements of single behaviours and towards a behavioural syndromes/personality framework, research is starting to focus on the consequences of parasite infection for temporal and contextual consistency of behaviour, and on the implications of different personality types for infection susceptibility. In addition, there is increasing interest in the potential for relationships between cognition and personality to also have implications for host-parasite interactions. As models well-suited to both the laboratory study of behaviour and experimental parasitology, teleost fish have been used as hosts in many of these studies. In this review we provide a broad overview of the range of mechanisms that potentially generate links between fish behaviour, personality, and parasitism, and illustrate these using examples drawn from the recent literature. In addition, we examine the potential interactions between cognition, personality and parasitism, and identify questions that may be usefully investigated with fish models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. KORELASI ANTARA ISLAM DAN EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Zainal Abidin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CORELATION BETWEEN ISLAM AND ECONOMY. This paper aims to identifies about the correlation between economic and Islam. Islam is the perfect religion that governs all things in life, including the economy. This is evident with the concept of  well-being which is described in the al-Quran and Sunnah. Basically the goal of every human life is to prosper, although humans make sense of  well- being with a different perspective. Most understand economics assume that welfare is the welfare of  earthly material. But to make sense of well-being with the term al-Falah, is meaning holistic wellbeing and balance between material and spiritual dimensions. al-Quran and Sunnah have taught that the human being will be achieved if  living in balance between material and spiritual. This is because human life does not just stop in the life of this world, but there is still a second life that will be faced by humanity in the hereafter, and well-being will be achieved with the truth is that people can balance the needs of the world and the hereafter, and that is what is taught in Islamic economics. Keywords: Islam, Economy, Prosperity. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menjelasakn tentang korelasi antara ekonomi  dan  Islam.  Islam  adalah  agama  yang  sempurna  yang mengatur segala hal dalam kehidupan ini, termasuk juga ekonomi. Hal ini terbukti dengan konsep kesejahteraan yang dipaparkan dalam al-Quran dan Sunnah. Pada dasarnya tujuan hidup setiap manusia adalah untuk mencapai kesejahteraan, meskipun manusia memaknai kesejahteraan dengan perspektif  yang berbeda-beda. Sebagian besar paham ekonomi menganggap bahwa kesejahteraan adalah kesejahteraan material duniawi. Namun Islam memaknai kesejahteraan dengan istilah  Falah  yang  berarti  kesejahteraan  holistik  dan  seimbang antara dimensi material dan spiritual. Al-Quran dan Sunnah telah mengajarkan bahwa kesejahteraan akan tercapai jika manusia menjalani hidup secara seimbang antara material dan

  10. Karakteristik Dan Spektrum Manajemen Pendidikan Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Jannah, Siti Raudhatul

    2013-01-01

    Artikel ini mendiskusikan mengenai manajemen pendidikan Islam, karakteristik, dan spektrumnya. Karakteristik manajemen pendidikan Islam harus didasarkan pada al-Qur'an dan Hadits serta pemikiran rasional yang telah diuji validitasnya. Spektrum manajemen pendidikan Islam meliputi lingkup manajemen personalia pendidikan Islam, manajemen peserta didik pendidikan Islam, maanjemen kurikulum pendidikan Islam, manajemen keuangan pendidikan Islam, manajemen sarana dan prasarana pendidikan Islam, mana...

  11. PRODUKSI NANOFIBER DAN APLIKASINYA DALAM PENGOLAHAN AIR

    OpenAIRE

    Krisnandika, Vania Elita

    2017-01-01

    Abstrak Kebutuhan air meningkat seiring meningkatnya jumlah penduduk dan taraf kehidupan masyarakat. Pembangunan yang dilakukan secara terus-menerus dan sangat cepat di Indonesia mengakibatkan penurunan kualitas air permukaan. Teknologi membran merupakan salah satu teknologi pengolahan air yang menghasilkan produk dengan kualitas tinggi. Membran berstruktur nano, khususnya nanofiber, saat ini menjadi perhatian karena menjawab kebutuhan teknologi filtrasi yang efektif dan hemat biaya. Pr...

  12. DETEKSI DAN MANAJEMEN REFEEDING SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi Darmadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakRefeeding syndrome (RFS dideskripsikan sebagai perubahan biokimiawi, manifestasi klinis dan komplikasi sebagai konsekuensi pemberian nutrisi pada pasien kurang gizi. Refeeding syndrome ini menyebabkan dampak buruk dan kematian. Sindroma ini lebih sering terjadi pada kelompok risiko. Refeeding syndrome merupakan suatu sindroma yang sering tak terdiagnosis oleh karena itu perlu peningkatan pengetahuan dan kesadaran dari tenaga medis untuk mengurangi morbiditas dan mortalitas dari RFS. Karena alasan tersebut ditulis tinjauan pustaka ini yang akan membahas mengenai patofisiologi, faktor risiko, manifestasi klinis, dan manajemennya.Kata kunci : refeeding syndrome, kurang gizi, hipofosfatemia, dukungan nutrisiAbstractRefeeding syndrome (RFS describel as biochemical changes, clinical manifestations, and complications that can occur as a consequence of feeding a malnourished individual. RFS can result in serious harm and death. RFS more commonly occurs in at-risk populations. Increased awareness amongst healthcare professionals is likely to reduce morbidity and mortality. This review examines the pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and management of RFS.Key word : refeeding syndrome, malnourished, hypophosphatemia, nutritional support

  13. Islam, Media, dan Politik : Sebuah Perdebatan dan Kontempelasi Nilai Berdemokrasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Infact, press or media is one of pilar democracy. Media in democracy is a public sphere to communi-cation and makes relation, and a same time as public arena to gain information. But, media also could not release from streotypes and tendency that usually bring of interest, either the owner or ideology. It is meaning media can not released from perspective distorsion, values bias and take a side. Media also effective to become propaganda instrument for a political interest and an ideology. It is seen like how media in US, for example, stereotype of Islam in discourses contradiction and glob-al interest opposition. Then, Islam dominantly identified as doctrine teaches radicalism, fundamen-talism and terorism. Thus, it is often be justification for US to operate the military mission in the name of democracy. Tak dipungkiri pers atau media menjadi salah satu pilar bagi demokrasi. Media dalam demokrasi adalah sebagai ruang bagi publik berkomunikasi dan berinteraksi, sekaligus sarana publik mem-peroleh informasi tentang banyak hal. Namun, media juga tak bisa dilepaskan dari stereotip dan kecenderungan-kecenderungan, yang biasanya membawa kepentingan, baik pemilik maupun ide-ologi. Media karenanya tak lepas dari distorsi perspektif, bias nilai dan berpihak. Media juga efektif menjadi alat propaganda bagi sebuah kepentingan politik dan ideologi, seperti bagaimana media di negara Amerika, misalnya, menstereotipkan Islam dalam analisis pertentangan wacana dan kepent-ingan global. Sehingga, dominan Islam diidentikkan dengan sematan sebagai ajaran yang mengajarkan radikalisme, fundamentalisme dan terorisme. Karenanya pula seringkali menjadi alasan pembenar bagi Amerika untuk menjalankan misi militer atas nama demokrasi.

  14. Host Diet Affects the Morphology of Monarch Butterfly Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Kevin; Tao, Leiling; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2017-06-01

    Understanding host-parasite interactions is essential for ecological research, wildlife conservation, and health management. While most studies focus on numerical traits of parasite groups, such as changes in parasite load, less focus is placed on the traits of individual parasites such as parasite size and shape (parasite morphology). Parasite morphology has significant effects on parasite fitness such as initial colonization of hosts, avoidance of host immune defenses, and the availability of resources for parasite replication. As such, understanding factors that affect parasite morphology is important in predicting the consequences of host-parasite interactions. Here, we studied how host diet affected the spore morphology of a protozoan parasite ( Ophryocystis elektroscirrha ), a specialist parasite of the monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus ). We found that different host plant species (milkweeds; Asclepias spp.) significantly affected parasite spore size. Previous studies have found that cardenolides, secondary chemicals in host plants of monarchs, can reduce parasite loads and increase the lifespan of infected butterflies. Adding to this benefit of high cardenolide milkweeds, we found that infected monarchs reared on milkweeds of higher cardenolide concentrations yielded smaller parasites, a potentially hidden characteristic of cardenolides that may have important implications for monarch-parasite interactions.

  15. PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Jarque

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are rarely documented in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. However, they may be responsible for fatal complications that are only diagnosed at autopsy. Increased awareness of the possibility of parasitic diseases both in autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant patients is relevant not only for implementing preventive measures but also for performing an early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy for these unrecognized but fatal infectious complications in hematopoietic transplant recipients. In this review, we will focus on parasitic diseases occurring in this population especially those with major clinical relevance including toxoplasmosis, American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, and strongyloidiasis, among others, highlighting the diagnosis and management in hematopoietic transplant recipients.

  16. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Blood parasites are considered some of the most significant pathogens for the conservation of penguins, due to the considerable morbidity and mortality they have been shown to produce in captive and wild populations of these birds. Parasites known to occur in the blood of penguins include haemosporidian protozoans (Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus), piroplamid protozoans (Babesia), kinetoplastid protozoans (Trypanosoma), spirochete bacteria (Borrelia) and nematode microfilariae. This review provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge on these parasites, providing an overview of their biology, host and geographic distribution, epidemiology, pathology and implications for public health and conservation.

  17. Functions of myosin motors tailored for parasitism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Christina; Graindorge, Arnault; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Myosin motors are one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes that exhibit divergent cellular functions. Their roles in protozoans, a diverse group of anciently diverged, single celled organisms with many prominent members known to be parasitic and to cause diseases in human and livestock......, are largely unknown. In the recent years many different approaches, among them whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional studies have increased our understanding on the distribution, protein architecture and function of unconventional myosin motors in protozoan parasites. In Apicomplexa......, myosins turn out to be highly specialized and to exhibit unique functions tailored to accommodate the lifestyle of these parasites....

  18. Bacterial and parasitic diseases of parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doneley, Robert J T

    2009-09-01

    As wild-caught birds become increasingly rare in aviculture, there is a corresponding decline in the incidence of bacterial and parasitic problems and an increase in the recognition of the importance of maintaining health through better nutrition and husbandry. Nevertheless, the relatively close confines of captivity mean an increased pathogen load in the environment in which companion and aviary parrots live. This increased pathogen load leads to greater exposure of these birds to bacteria and parasites, and consequently a greater risk of infection and disease. This article discusses bacterial and parasitic infections in companion and aviary parrots. It includes the origins, pathogens, diagnosis, treatment, and some of the associated risk factors.

  19. Helminth parasites of conventionally mantained laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.

  20. Musisi Sekuler dan Gerejawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Cristovel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Menjadi seorang musisi tidak sekedar bermain musik atau menyanyi saja. Ada jenjang-jenjang yang akan dilewatidalam dunia musik, yang pada akhirnya setiap musisi dihadapkan kepada tanggung jawab dalam dunia tersebut. Di jaman ini, jika jenjang seorang musisi sudah tahap profesional, maka musik dan bisnis merupakan hal yang tidak terpisahkan. Jadi tidak heran jika ada banyak orang yang memimpikan untuk berkarier dalam bidang musik, bahkan telah men1adicita-cita sejak kecil.Jadi penting bagi musisi gerejawi benar-benar "mengkotakkan dirinya" terhadap persepsi yang dianut oleh musisi sekuler, bukan mencampurkannya. Hal ini sangat esensial, karena musisi gerejawi bukan melayani manusia melainkan oleh anugerah Tuhan dipercayakan pekerjaan ini. Dengan demikian pelayanan sebagai musisi gerejawi tidak tercemar oleh persepsi dari dunia musik sekuler. Selain itu musisi gerejawi dapat merefleksikan Tuhan yang disembahnya kepada dunia sekuler, karena tujuan dari semua yang dilakukannya adalah untuk kemuliaan nama Tuhan.

  1. Study of the transverse lasing in big size crystals of Ti:Sa. Application to the design of the peta-watt high-energy amplifier of the pilot laser of the LASERIX facility; Etude de l'amplification parasite transverse de la fluorescence dans les cristaux de Ti:Sa de grandes dimensions. Application a la realisation de l'amplificateur petawatt haute energie du laser pilote de la station LASERIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ple, F

    2007-11-15

    This manuscript presents experimental and theoretical works accomplished for the development of the LASERIX laser driver. The main goal of this thesis work was to design a high energy and high repetition rate titanium doped sapphire amplifier (Ti:Sa) allowing to reach an energy of 40 J at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz before compression. After a general description of amplification in chirped pulse amplification Ti:Sa laser systems (Chapter 1), I present the two particular developments we made during this work for high energy amplification (Chapter 2). First, the spatial shaping and the homogenization based on micro-lens array (MLA) systems of the eight Nd-Glass pump lasers dedicated to the pumping of the last booster amplifier.Secondly, the suppression of parasitic effects due to transverse amplification of the fluorescence in the last booster amplifier Ti:Sa crystal. The developments performed as part of this thesis allowed us to amplify an impulsion of 2 J of energy up to 39 J in a crystal of 10 cm diameter. I also present the simulation program I developed (Chapter 3) in order to simulate the three dimensional parasitic lasing effect and fluorescence transverse amplification phenomena in large Ti:Sa crystals. A parametric study of these parasitic effects is also presented. Finally, the last part of this manuscript (Chapter 4) gives prospects of this work as part of the large future ELI and ILE projects. (author)

  2. (macro- Evolutionary ecology of parasite diversity: From determinants of parasite species richness to host diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Morand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarized the factors or determinants that may explain parasite diversity among host species and the consequences of this parasite diversity on the evolution of host-life history traits. As host–parasite interactions are asymmetrical exploited–exploiter relationships, ecological and epidemiological theories produce hypotheses to find the potential determinants of parasite species richness, while life-history theory helps for testing potential consequences on parasite diversity on the evolution of hosts. This review referred only to studies that have specifically controlled or took into account phylogenetic information illustrated with parasites of mammals. Several points needing more investigation were identified with a special emphasis to develop the metabolic theory of epidemiology.

  3. Reduced helminth parasitism in the introduced bank vole (Myodes glareolus: More parasites lost than gained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C. Loxton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduced species are often less parasitised compared to their native counterparts and to ecologically similar hosts in the new environment. Reduced parasitism may come about due to both the loss of original parasites and low acquisition of novel parasites. In this study we investigated the intestinal helminth parasites of the introduced bank vole (Myodes glareolus in Ireland. Results were compared to data from other European studies and to the intestinal helminth fauna of an ecologically similar native rodent in Ireland, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus. The helminth fauna of introduced bank voles exhibited low diversity with only 3 species recovered: Aspiculuris tianjinensis; Aonchotheca murissylvatici and Taenia martis larvae. In particular, no adult parasites with indirect life-cycles were found in bank voles suggesting that indirectly transmitted parasites are less likely to establish in invasive hosts. Also, the results of this study add support to the enemy release hypothesis.

  4. PENGELOLAAN ZAKAT OLEH NEGARA DAN SWASTA Studi Efektifitas dan Efisiensi Pengelolaan Zakat Oleh BAZ Dan LAZ Kota Madiun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Abidah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstraks: Keberadaan lembaga zakat di Indonesia yang diakui oleh perundang-undangan ada dua, yaitu Badan Amil Zakat (BAZ dan Lembaga Amil Zakat (LAZ. BAZ adalah lembaga zakat yang dikelola oleh pemerintah, sedangkan LAZ adalah lembaga yang dikelola oleh masyarakat. Artikel ini merupakan merupakan hasil penelitian lapangan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Data digali langsung dari BAZ Kota Madiun dan LAZ dalam hal ini ada 2 lembaga, yaitu Lembaga Manajemen Infaq (LMI dan Baitul Maal Hidayatullah (BMH. Hasil penelitian BAZ lebih efektif dibanding LAZ, karena BAZ di bawah naungan Pemerintah Kota Madiun dan didukung dengan kebijakan dalam menjalankan progam kerjanya. Sedangkan pada LAZ (LMI dan BMH karena sifatnya mandiri, maka segala sesuatunya akan efektif jika mereka bekerja keras, dan itulah yang selama ini dilakukan oleh LMI dan BMH, sehingga sampai saat ini mereka masih eksis.

  5. INTERAKSI DAN HARMONI UMAT BERAGAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2012-05-01

    Masyarakat Singkawang adalah masyarakat yang terdiri atas berbagai kelompok suku bangsa dan agama. Secara historis, masyarakat Singkawang mampu mem­pertahankan harmoni antar agama. Model interaksi sosial yang bersifat asosiatif tampaknya potensial untuk mendukung harmoni di dalam masyarakat. Ber­dasarkan paradigma fungsional-struktural, masyarakat diasumsikan sebagai sistem organik yang memiliki huungan antar bagiannya untuk mempertahankan masyarakat. Interaksi sosial di dalam masyarakat Singkawang dikembangkan melalui interaksi di dalam lingkup keluarga, lingkungan sekitar, aktifitas ekonomi, para pimpinan agama, dan hubungan di dalam lingkup budaya dan tradisi. Meskipun demikian, hubungan antar unsur masyarakat masih kosmopolitan, yang di dalamnya anggota masyarakat kurang aktif dalam mengembangkan harmoni masyarakat.

  6. Immunological responses to parasitic arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, R W; Weintraub, J

    1987-03-01

    Parasitic arthropods are responsible for enormous economic losses to livestock producers throughout the world. These production losses may range from simple irritation caused by biting and non-biting flies to deaths and/or damage to carcass, fleece, or skin resulting from attack by myiasis flies. The estimated costs of these losses are colossal but even these usually include only direct losses and ignore those associated with pesticide application. In the USA alone (in 1976), these losses were conservatively estimated at more than 650 million US dollars. The long term use of chemical control measures for these pests has resulted in many serious problems including residues in meat and milk products, rapid development of insecticide resistance, the destruction of non-target organisms, environmental pollution, and mortality and morbidity of livestock. These concerns have prompted researchers to seek alternative methods of arthropod control, including the artificial induction of immunity. In this review, R. W. Baron and J. Weintraub discuss several examples of ectoparasites that can induce immunological resistance in the host, including Sarcoptes and Demodex mites, the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus), Anopluran lice and myiasis-causing flies such as Hypoderma.

  7. Parasite specialization in a unique habitat: hummingbirds as reservoirs of generalist blood parasites of Andean birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Michaël A J; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Paca, Anahi; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Aguirre, Nikolay; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how parasites fill their ecological niches requires information on the processes involved in the colonization and exploitation of unique host species. Switching to hosts with atypical attributes may favour generalists broadening their niches or may promote specialization and parasite diversification as the consequence. We analysed which blood parasites have successfully colonized hummingbirds, and how they have evolved to exploit such a unique habitat. We specifically asked (i) whether the assemblage of Haemoproteus parasites of hummingbirds is the result of single or multiple colonization events, (ii) to what extent these parasites are specialized in hummingbirds or shared with other birds and (iii) how hummingbirds contribute to sustain the populations of these parasites, in terms of both prevalence and infection intensity. We sampled 169 hummingbirds of 19 species along an elevation gradient in Southern Ecuador to analyse the host specificity, diversity and infection intensity of Haemoproteus by molecular and microscopy techniques. In addition, 736 birds of 112 species were analysed to explore whether hummingbird parasites are shared with other birds. Hummingbirds hosted a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of generalist Haemoproteus lineages shared with other host orders. Among these parasites, Haemoproteus witti stood out as the most generalized. Interestingly, we found that infection intensities of this parasite were extremely low in passerines (with no detectable gametocytes), but very high in hummingbirds, with many gametocytes seen. Moreover, infection intensities of H. witti were positively correlated with the prevalence across host species. Our results show that hummingbirds have been colonized by generalist Haemoproteus lineages on multiple occasions. However, one of these generalist parasites (H. witti) seems to be highly dependent on hummingbirds, which arise as the most relevant reservoirs in terms of both prevalence and

  8. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  9. Regulation of gene expression in protozoa parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  10. Parasitic myoma after supracervical laparoscopic histerectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Paulo Angelo Mieli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic myoma is a condition defined as a myoma of extrauterine nourishing. It may occur spontaneously or as a consequence of surgical iatrogeny, after myomectomy or videolaparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy, due to remaining residues of uterine tissue fragments in the pelvic cavity after morcellation. The authors describe two cases in which the patients were submitted to videolaparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and uterine body removal through morcellation. The sites of development of the parasitic myomas were next to the cervix stump in Case 1, and next to the right round ligament in Case 2. These parasitic myomas were removed by videolaparoscopy. After myomectomies or videolaparoscopic supracervical hysterectomies followed by uterine fragments removal from the pelvic cavity through morcellation, meticulous searching for residues or fragments of uterine tissue is mandatory to prevent the occurrence of parasitic myomas.

  11. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-27

    Apr 27, 2015 ... parasite recovery by sucrose floatation and sedimentation techniques ..... We thank the Chief Wildlife Warden,Tamil Nadu Forest. Department ... disease is a strong and general service of biodiversity conservation: Response ...

  12. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Koffi Mathurin

    2014-02-17

    Feb 17, 2014 ... three major protozoan parasites which cause diarrhea. Out of ... 2010) regarding the under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) and .... Positive (%) Negative Total ..... Checkley W, Epstein LD, Gilman RH, Black RE, Cabrera L, Sterling CR.

  13. Identifying energy constraints to parasite resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D E; Little, T J

    2011-01-01

    Life-history theory suggests that energetically expensive traits may trade off against each other, resulting in costs associated with the development or maintenance of a particular phenotype. The deployment of resistance mechanisms during parasite exposure is one such trait, and thus their potential benefit in fighting off parasites may be offset by costs to other fitness-related traits. In this study, we used trade-off theory as a basis to test whether stimulating an increased development rate in juvenile Daphnia would reveal energetic constraints to its ability to resist infection upon subsequent exposure to the castrating parasite, Pasteuria ramosa. We show that the presumably energetically expensive process of increased development rate does result in more infected hosts, suggesting that parasite resistance requires the allocation of resources from a limited source, and thus has the potential to be costly.

  14. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up......A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... to a dozen different males, the social parasite mates only singly. This rapid and surprising reversion to single mating in a socially parasitic ant indicates that the costs of polyandry are probably specific to a free-living lifestyle....

  15. Functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, J; Lee, E F; Fairlie, W D; Kalinna, B H

    2012-01-01

    As research on parasitic helminths is moving into the post-genomic era, an enormous effort is directed towards deciphering gene function and to achieve gene annotation. The sequences that are available in public databases undoubtedly hold information that can be utilized for new interventions and control but the exploitation of these resources has until recently remained difficult. Only now, with the emergence of methods to genetically manipulate and transform parasitic worms will it be possible to gain a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in nutrition, metabolism, developmental switches/maturation and interaction with the host immune system. This review focuses on functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths that are currently used, to highlight potential applications of these technologies in the areas of cell biology, systems biology and immunobiology of parasitic helminths. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Sheep internal parasites on Rab and Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relja Beck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to determine which groups and species of internal parasites endanger the health of sheep on the islands of Rab and Pag. The research was carried out in 10 flocks on both islands taking the fresh dung out of 30% of the total number of sheep in each flock. It was ascertained that the gastrointestinal parasites and protozoa of Eimeria genus are present in most flocks on both islands. The presence of the fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum was ascertained in considerably larger number of flocks on the island of Rab than on the island of Pag. On the other hand, the presence of parasites of Moniezia and Nematodirus genus was ascertained in larger number of flocks on the island of Pag. In two flocks on Rab parasites of Protostrongylus genus were ascertained while on the island of Pag they were not found in any flock.

  17. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  18. Cultivation of parasitic leptospires: effect of pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R C; Walby, J; Henry, R A; Auran, N E

    1973-07-01

    Sodium pyruvate (100 mug/ml) is a useful addition to the Tween 80-albumin medium for the cultivation of parasitic serotypes. It is most effective in promoting growth from small inocula and growth of the nutritionally fastidious serotypes.

  19. ETIKA BISNIS AL-GHAZALI DAN ADAM SMITH DALAM PERSPEKTIF ILMU BISNIS DAN EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM. M. Hafidz MS.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi: (1 pembangunan etika bisnis yang telah dirumuskan oleh al-Ghazali dan Adam Smith, (2 persamaan dan perbedaan antara dua etika bisnis pria, dan (3 relevansi bisnis mereka etika bisnis modern dunia dan ekonomi. Bisnis etika dibangun oleh al-Ghazali dan Smith di dataran praksis tidak jauh berbeda. Etika bisnis konstruksi dibangun oleh al-Ghazali didasarkan pada prinsip-prinsip seperti orientasi itikad baik tentang dunia dan akhirat, kejujuran, kepentingan pribadi dan social keseimbangan, dan perilaku / perbuatan yang tepat. Di sisi lain, etika bisnis konstruksi dibangun oleh Smith, berdasarkan keadilan, altruisme, keadilan dan liberal (kebebasan ekonomi. Baik etika bisnis yang diperkenalkan oleh kedua sangat relevan untuk menjadi digunakan sebagai bahan pokok acuan dalam etika bisnis modern.

  20. Pengembangan Sistem Otomatisasi AC dan Lampu Menggunakan Fuzzy dan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Ariyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Otomatisasi AC dan lampu dilakukan untuk menghemat energi yang digunakan pada kehidupan sehari-hari. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu perlu menerapkan sebuah perangkat yang memiliki fungsi maksimal dengan harga yang minimal. Raspberry Pi merupakan perangkat atau modul dengan harga rendah yang mampu melakukan komunikasi wireless tanpa bantuan modul lain. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu juga diperlukan sebuah metode yang mampu melakukan kontrol terhadap nyala AC dan lampu. Penerapan metode fuzzy dapat dilakukan untuk menghimpun informasi keadaan ruang yang didapat dari sensor untuk menentukan nyala AC dan lampu secara otomatis. Oleh sebab itu pada penelitian ini mengusulkan pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi dan Fuzzy. Otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi yang menerapkan metode Fuzzy dapat menghemat energi hingga 59,87% dalam hal lama waktu nyala AC dan 57,47% untuk lumenasi lampu

  1. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of the Gray mouse lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal material from 169 individuals of Microcebus murinus living in five littoral forest fragments was analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. The fragments differed in size and forest quality. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of M. murinus was characterised using parasite species richness, the prevalence of parasites, and ...

  2. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  3. Top of the Most Dangerous Food Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O. Mochalova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a complete description of parasitic diseases, such as taeniasis and echinococcosis. According to the rating of the risk of contamination by food parasites, which was published by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 2014, this parasitosis is a leader. We give a historical overview of these diseases, as well as the features of clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway di Petshop "PetZone"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Fadhilah Wati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dewasa ini teknologi informasi sangat membantu dalam dunia bisnis. Kemudahan yang ditawarkan akan menjaring lebih banyak konsumen. Namun, perusahan tingkat menengah seperti PetZone saat ini masih jarang yang menawarkan kemudahan berbelanja atau pemesanan layanan secara online. Oleh karena itu diperlukan sebuah sistem berbasis web di perusahaan PetZone yang dapat memudahkan pemilik dan karyawan dalam apenjualan, pelayanan, dan pemasaran, serta memudahkan pelanggan dalam jual-beli barang dan jasa. Atas dasar masalah tersebut dibangun Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway untuk menunjang proses bisnis yang ada. Sistem informasi dibangun menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP framework Codeigniter, javascript untuk tampilan yang dinamis, dan database MySQL. Proses pembuatan dan pengembangan Sistem Informasi Penjualan ini menggunakan metode air terjun. Metode air terjun meliputi kebutuhan pengguna, analisis, rancangan, implementasi dan pengujian. Pemodelan Sistem Informasi yang dibangun menggunakan metode berorientasi objek UML (Unified Modeling Language yang terdiri dari Use case  diagram, Class diagram dan Sequence diagram. Hasil pengujian Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway menunjukkan bahwa semua fitur yang terdapat baik dalam sistem informasi maupun SMS gateway dapat bekerja dengan baikdengan ratusan sample data, dan server SMS gateway dapat memproses lebih dari satu SMS secara bersamaan. Dalam perkembangan ke depannya nanti, Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway masih dapat dikembangkan lagi dengan menambah fitur-fitur pada SMS gateway sehingga lebih memudahkan konsumen.

  5. Efikasi Kendiri: Perbandingan Antara Islam dan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noornajihan, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Terminologi efikasi kendiri (EK merupakan terminologi yang diperkenalkan dalam ilmu psikologi sekitar tahun 70-an. Namun, istilah ini masih kurang difahami oleh kebanyakan individu terutama mereka yang bukan berlatar belakangkan bidang psikologi. Oleh itu, satu keperluan hasil penulisan ini diketengahkan, memandangkan konsep ini penting dalam diri setiap individu bagi memacu kecemerlangan diri. Justeru, kertas kerja ini akan mengupas serba ringkas mengenai konsep EK dari perspektif Islam dan Barat, dengan melihat kepada beberapa titik persamaan dan perbezaan antara kedua-dua pandangan. Islam dan Barat bersetuju bahawa individu yang memiliki EK yang tinggi merupakan individu yang berfikiran positif, berani mengambil risiko dan tidak mudah berputus. Namun pandangan Islam terhadap konsep ini lebih luas, kerana Islam mengaitkan konsep ini dengan konsep tauhid uluhiyyah dan konsep manusia sebagai ahsan al-taqwim. Oleh demikian, EK dari perspektif Islam lebih bersifat kekal dan umum, di samping individu yang berefikasi tinggi menurut Islam ialah individu yang memiliki sifat sabar, syukur, redha dan redha.

  6. PERANCANGAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN PROTOTYPE SISTEM PARKIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Ayu Septriyaningrum

    2016-10-01

    Abstrak  Sistem parkir manual pada pelayanan parkir mall memerlukan pengelolaan dan pengembangan sistem yang lebih rumit dan jauh dari kata efisien. Informasi yang didapatkan pengelola parkir terkait kondisi parkir di lapangan setiap harinya masih kurang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah merancang dan mengembangkan prototype sistem parkir. Metode pengembangan dan perancangan sistem pada penelitian ini adalah metode Waterfall. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah sistem ini dapat mendeteksi keberadaan mobil pada slot parkir yang tersedia dengan bantuan Intel Galileo Board Gen 2 sebagai kontroler, sensor LDR (Light Dependent Resistor dan sensor ultrasonik (PING sebagai alat bantu pendeteksi keberadaan mobil. Sistem dapat menampilkan aktifitas parkir pada aplikasi web seperti kondisi lahan parkir kosong, lahan terisi, waktu masuk, waktu keluar, lama parkir dan kapasitas parkir yang tersedia serta grafik pemakaian lahan parkir. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa perancangan dan pengembangan sistem berhasil diimplementasikan. Kata Kunci : Sistem parkir, waterfall, Intel Galileo Board Gen 2,sensor LDR (Light Dependent Resistor, sensor ultrasonik

  7. Immune escape strategies of malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Stephanie Gomes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites have to pass through various immunological barriers within the mosquito such as anti-microbial molecules and the mosquito microbiota in order to achieve successful transmission to the vertebrate host. Within these hosts, Plasmodium species employ various immune evasion strategies during different life cycle stages. Parasite persistence against the vertebrate immune response depends on the balance among virulence factors, pathology, metabolic cost of the host immune response, and the parasites ability to evade the immune response. In this review we discuss the strategies that Plasmodium parasites use to avoid the vertebrate host immune system and how they promote successful infection and transmission.

  8. Dynamic analysis of a parasite population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibona, G. J.; Condat, C. A.

    2002-03-01

    We study the dynamics of a model that describes the competitive interaction between an invading species (a parasite) and its antibodies in an living being. This model was recently used to examine the dynamical competition between Tripanosoma cruzi and its antibodies during the acute phase of Chagas' disease. Depending on the antibody properties, the model yields three types of outcomes, corresponding, respectively, to healing, chronic disease, and host death. Here, we study the dynamics of the parasite-antibody interaction with the help of simulations, obtaining phase trajectories and phase diagrams for the system. We show that, under certain conditions, the size of the parasite inoculation can be crucial for the infection outcome and that a retardation in the stimulated production of an antibody species may result in the parasite gaining a definitive advantage. We also find a criterion for the relative sizes of the parameters that are required if parasite-generated decoys are indeed to help the invasion. Decoys may also induce a qualitatively different outcome: a limit cycle for the antibody-parasite population phase trajectories.

  9. Hubungan Polimorfisme Gen FcγRIIA dengan Densitas P. falciparum dan Efikasi Dihidroartemisinin-Piperakuin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Sance Marantina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorfisme FcγRlla memiliki keterkaitan dengan kemampuan inang dalam mengeliminasi parasit malaria sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui polimorfisme alel FcγRlla dari populasi di daerah endemis malaria di Indonesia agar dapat diketahui peran imunitas dalam mengeliminasi parasit malaria. Sebanyak 120 sampel dried blood spot (DBS malaria falsifarum yang diperoleh dari studi efikasi obat DHP di lima wilayah di Indonesia dianalisis dengan polymerase chain reaction (PCR dan sekuensing untuk melihat varian alel FcγRIIa-131 serta hubungannya dengan densitas parasit dan efikasi dihidroartemisinin-piperakuin. Analisis gen FcγRIIa menunjukkan bahwa genotip RH memiliki frekuensi paling tinggi (50,8% dibandingkan RR (17,5% dan HH (31,7%. Alel R131 gen FcγRIIa menunjukkan efek protektif terhadap high density parasitemia/HDP (>5000 parasit/μL; odds ratio [OR]= 0,133, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 0,053–0,334, p< 0,001 dan berhubungan dengan keberadaan gametosit yang lebih lama pada inang (>72 jam; relative risk [RR]= 1,571, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1,005–2,456, p= 0,090. Kata Kunci: malaria falsiparum, dihidroartemisinin-piperakuin, K13, FcγRIIa, efikasi obat Polymorphism of Human FcγRIIa and Its Association with P. falciparum Density and Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin- Piperaquine Abstract FcγRlla dimorphism has been related to the ability of the host to eliminate malaria parasite so it is necessary to investigate the allele polymorphism FcγRlla of population in malaria-endemic areas in Indonesia in order to know the role of immunity in eliminating malaria parasite. A total of 120 samples of Dried Blood Spot (DBS falciparum malaria acquired from DHP drug efficacy studies in 5 regions in Indonesia were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and sequencing, to look at variants of FcγRIIa-131 allele and its Association with Parasite DensityandEfficacy ofDihydroartemisinin- Piperaquine. The FcγRIIa gene analysis indicated

  10. IMPORTANT PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisasi Gandahusada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important protozoan parasites in Indonesia are the malaria parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica. After the second world war the residual insecticides and effective antimalarial drugs were used in the control of malaria. After development of resistance among mosquitoes to insecticides, the Malaria Control Programme was switched over to the Malaria Eradication Programme. Malaria incidence dropped heavily. However, due to the quick development of vector resistance and financial limitations, malaria came back and so did the Malaria Control Programme. P. falciparum and P.vivax are the most common species in Indonesia. Important vectors are An. sundaicus, An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. hyrcanus group, An. balabacensis, An. farauti etc. An. sundaicus and An. aconitus have developed resistance to DDT and Dieldrin in Java. In 1959 the Malaria Eradication Programme was started in Java, Bali and Lampung. In 1965 the API dropped to 0,15 per thousand. From 1966 onwards malaria transmission was on the increase, because spraying activities were slowed down, but dropped again from 1974 onwards by occasional residual house spraying with DDT or Fenitrothion, malaria surveillance and treatment of malaria cases, resulting in an API of 0.18 per thousand in 1987. At present malaria is not transmitted in Jakarta and in capitals of the provinces and kabupatens, except in Irian Jaya, Nusa Tenggara Timur and one or two other provinces, but it still exists in rural areas. The distribution of chloroquine resistant P.falciparum is patchy. Resistance is at the RI, RII and RUT levels. The main problems of malaria control are : the increasing development of resistance of the vector to insecticides, the change of An.aconitus from zoophili to anthropophili and from indoor to outdoor biting, the increasing resistance of P.falciparum to chloroquine, the shortage of skilled manpower and limitation of budget. In Indonesia many newborns with congenital

  11. Efektivitas Weblog dan Facebook Terintegrasi untuk Pembelajaran Virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Hartono

    2014-01-01

    Abstrak: Saat ini, banyak mahasiswa menghabiskan waktu mereka di internet. Mereka melakukan kegiatan seperti membuat blog, mengunduh, mengunggah, chatting, dan berinteraksi melalui facebook. Mahasiswa sekarang ini hidup dengan teknologi. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa weblog dan facebook berpotensi mendukung belajar dan mengajar. Guru dan pendidik menggunakan kegiatan tersebut untuk meningkatkan kualitas belajar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas weblog dan facebook ketika d...

  12. Paternity-parasitism trade-offs: a model and test of host-parasite cooperation in an avian conspecific brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bruce E; Hochachka, Wesley M; Eadie, John M

    2002-06-01

    Efforts to evaluate the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of conspecific brood parasitism in birds and other animals have focused on the fitness costs of parasitism to hosts and fitness benefits to parasites. However, it has been speculated recently that, in species with biparental care, host males might cooperate with parasitic females by allowing access to the host nest in exchange for copulations. We develop a cost-benefit model to explore the conditions under which such host-parasite cooperation might occur. When the brood parasite does not have a nest of her own, the only benefit to the host male is siring some of the parasitic eggs (quasi-parasitism). Cooperation with the parasite is favored when the ratio of host male paternity of his own eggs relative to his paternity of parasitic eggs exceeds the cost of parasitism. When the brood parasite has a nest of her own, a host male can gain additional, potentially more important benefits by siring the high-value, low-cost eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. Under these conditions, host males should be even more likely to accept parasitic eggs in return for copulations with the parasitic female. We tested these predictions for American coots (Fulica americana), a species with a high frequency of conspecific brood parasitism. Multilocus DNA profiling indicated that host males did not sire any of the parasitic eggs laid in host nests, nor did they sire eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. We used field estimates of the model parameters from a four-year study of coots to predict the minimum levels of paternity required for the costs of parasitism to be offset by the benefits of mating with brood parasites. Observed levels of paternity were significantly lower than those predicted under a variety of assumptions, and we reject the hypothesis that host males cooperated with parasitic females. Our model clarifies the specific costs and benefits that influence host-parasite cooperation and, more generally

  13. Lõuka tuuliku restaureerimine / Dan Lukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lukas, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Hiiumaal Pühalepa vallas Vahtrepa külas Lõuka talu maadel asuva pukktuuliku ajaloost, restaureerimise käigust. Teostus: Dan Lukas. Muinsuskaitseline järelevalve: Tõnu Sepp, tema kommentaar. Ill.:pukktuuliku lõiked ja korruste plaanid, 7 värv. fotot

  14. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  15. Asuransi Takaful: Prospek Dan Tantangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Sobirin, Achmad; Muhtar, Muchsin

    1994-01-01

    Dewasa ini perhatian terhadap nilai-nilai syariah Islam terhadap muamalah khususnya di bidang ekonomi menjadi besar. Lembaga perekonomian yang terjalin dengan pranata keagamaan makin menggejala dimana-mana dan kini sedang tumbuh mencari bentuk untuk dapat diterima di tengah-tengah masyarakat.

  16. KETENTUAN TENTANG STANDAR PELAYANAN MINIMAL BIDANG KELUARGA BERENCANA DAN KELUARGA SEJAHTERA BERDASARKAN ASAS PERIKEMANUSIAAN DAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Riyanti

    2017-01-01

    Hasil penelitian, ketentuan tentang standar pelayanan minimal bidang keluarga berencana, keluarga sejahtera dan asas perikemanusiaan dengan hak asasi manusia sangat berhubungan keterbatasan lingkup pelayanan dan standar pelaksanaan Komunikasi Informasi dan Edukasi yang tidak jelasberdampak pada tidak dipenuhinya hak asasi manusia untuk mendapatkan kesetaraan dan kebebasan dalam pelayanan keluarga berencana dan keluarga sejahtera.

  17. KINERJA DAN EFISIENSI BANK PEMERINTAH (BUMN DAN BUSN YANG GO PUBLIK DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Haryanto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menganalisis kinerja dan tingkat efisiensi bank-bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go Publik di Bursa Efek Indonesia.  Sample penelitian ini mengambil  tiga bank BUMN Bank BNI 46, Bank Mandiri dan Bank BRI  dan tiga bank BUSN (Bank BCA, Bank Niaga dan Bank Panin dengan periode analisis tahun 2005-2011. Varibael yang digunakan meliputi ROA, ROE, LAR. LDR, NPL dan BOPO. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah melihat dan menganalisis perbedaan kinerja antara Bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go public di Bursa Efek Indonesia tahun 2005-2011.  Pendekatan pengukuran kinerja yang digunakan adalah Return on Asset (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE dan Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR, Loan to Asset Ratio (LAR,  dan efisiensi bank. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 1 Bank-bank nasional, baik itu bank BUMN maupun BUSN menunjukkan kinerja yang semakin baik, 2 tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara kinerja bank BUMN dan BUSN untuk variabel ROA, ROE, LAR, LDR, dan BOPO sedangkan variabel NPL yang merupakan indikator risiko kredit menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan antara Bank BUMN dan BUSN

  18. PEMBINAAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN USAHA KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Harman Glendoh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Small business as an economic activity of society on a small scale, has a central role in the economy of Indonesia. Although the economic crisis has created a great disturbance in the live of large and middle-size business, apparently small business continues to function well in the lower levels of the economy. The main role of small business is: 1 use excess labor; 2 as a producer of goods and services at reachable prices for the lower economic levels of society; 3 as a potential producer of foreign exchange because of the success of this type of industry in producing non-oil commodities for export. Remembering that the role of small business is large and has great influence on the lower economic levels of society, it is quite necessary to pay attention to the development of this sector. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Usaha kecil sebagai kegiatan ekonomi rakyat berskala kecil memiliki peran sentral dalam perekonomian Indonesia. Walaupun krisis ekonomi telah memporakporandakan kehidupan bidang usaha besar dan menengah, ternyata usaha kecil tetap tegar dan berjalan marak dikawasan kehidupan ekonomi tingkat bawah. Peran pokok usaha kecil ini adalah: (1 sebagai penyerap tenaga kerja, (2 sebagai penghasil barang dan jasa pada tingkat harga yang terjangkau bagi kebutuhan rakyat banyak yang berpenghasilan rendah, (3 sebagai penghasil devisa negara yang potensial kerena keberhasilannya dalam meproduksi komoditi ekspor non migas. Mengingat peran usaha kecil tersebut sangat besar andilnya bagi negara dan masyarakat kecil dilapisan bawah, maka pembinaan dan pengembangannya sangat perlu diperhatikan. Kata kunci: pembinaan, pengembangan, usaha kecil.

  19. Host-Parasite Interaction: Parasite-Derived and -Induced Proteases That Degrade Human Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Piña-Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic protozoa are among the most important pathogens worldwide. Diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and trypanosomiasis affect millions of people. Humans are constantly threatened by infections caused by these pathogens. Parasites engage a plethora of surface and secreted molecules to attach to and enter mammalian cells. The secretion of lytic enzymes by parasites into host organs mediates critical interactions because of the invasion and destruction of interstitial tissues, enabling parasite migration to other sites within the hosts. Extracellular matrix is a complex, cross-linked structure that holds cells together in an organized assembly and that forms the basement membrane lining (basal lamina. The extracellular matrix represents a major barrier to parasites. Therefore, the evolution of mechanisms for connective-tissue degradation may be of great importance for parasite survival. Recent advances have been achieved in our understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of proteases from parasitic protozoa. The focus of this paper is to discuss the role of protozoan parasitic proteases in the degradation of host ECM proteins and the participation of these molecules as virulence factors. We divide the paper into two sections, extracellular and intracellular protozoa.

  20. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae I. Parasites of Spirogyra and Mougeotia

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    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations carried out on the genus Spirogyra Link and Mougeotia Agardh revealed the following species of fungi parasiting in the Spirogyra and Mougeotia cells: Olpidium endogenum, Blyttiomyces helicus, B. spinulosus, Micromyces zygogonii and Rhizophydium ampullaceum. First information on B. helicus as parasitic on algae is presented.

  1. Brood parasitism and quasi-parasitism in the European barn swallow Hirundo rustica rustica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Adéla; Michálková, R.; Albrechtová, Jana; Cepák, J.; Honza, Marcel; Kreisinger, J.; Munclinger, P.; Soudková, M.; Tomášek, Oldřich; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 9 (2015), s. 1405-1414 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Altricial birds * Colonial breeding * Conspecific brood parasitism * Egg dumping * Host fitness * Parasite fitness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.382, year: 2015

  2. AGROFORESTRI UNTUK ADAPTASI DAN MITIGASI PERUBAHAN IKLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigor Butarbutar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hilangnya tutupan lahan hutan karena konversi hutan untuk pemukiman, perkebunan, pertanian dan kebutuhan untuk pembangunan di sektor lain, telah menyebabkan perubahan pola cuaca/iklim di berbagai tempat. Perubahan iklim dapat diantisipasi dengan mitigasi dan adaptasi. Mitigasi berarti usahausaha pencegahan yang perlu dilakukan, sedangkan adaptasi merupakan kegiatan-kegiatan penyesuaian yang perlu dilakukan untuk dapat hidup dan bertahan dan meningkatkan ketahanan, kelenturan dan mengarahkemigrasikarenakondisiiklimyangberbeda.Agroforestridapatmemitigasidanmengadaptasi perubahaniklim dengan alasan-alasansebagaiberikut: aPencampuranjenis pohonpenghasilkayu,buah dan lain-lain, karena campuran jenis lebih baik dari tanaman murni; b Pencampuran jenis yang didasarkan pada sifat toleransi ( dan , sehingga akan memanfaatkan seluruh cahaya untuk fotosintesis; c Pencampuran perbedaan umur; d Pencampuran berdasarkan perbedaan waktu pemanenan; e Penggabungan nilai ekonomi, sosial dan budaya sehingga perubahan vegetasi dapat berjalan seiring dengan perubahan sosial dan budaya secara berangsur yang dapat disesuaikan dengan perubahan iklim; dan f Dapat digunakan sebagai model untuk memfasilitasi perubahan kelompok vegetasi menjadi kelompok yang baru (adaptasi, seperti teori perubahan vegetasi melalui perladangan berpindah-pindahyangteratur.

  3. INDUSTRIALISASI DAN TANTANGANNYA PADA SEKTOR PENDIDIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Unwanullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Industrialisasi dan Tantangannya pada Sektor Pendidikan. Sumbangan pendidikan dalam perubahan dan pembangunan masa lalu telah bergeser dengan kemajuan teknoekonomi dan komunikasi. Perubahan yang terjadi telah menggeser tatanan kehidupan dan pandangan masyarakat. Materialisme, kapitalisme, efisiensi, dan efektivitas telah menjadi tujuan dan semangat hidup. Pergeseran pandangan masyarakat telah mengubah pula pandangan keberhasilan dan mutu pendidikan, di mana pendidikan diukur dari keberhasilan dalam keterserapan lulusan dalam dunia kerja, oleh karenanya pendidikan dianalisis dari karakteristik sebagai investasi (capital-investment. Pergeseran makna dan tanggung jawab pendidikan mendorong dunia pendidikan melakukan pembaruan dengan alternatif: membangun pembaruan penalaran warganya menuju pemerdekaan dan pendewasaan, pendidikan dilaksanakan secara komprehensif dan bekerjasama dengan semua pihak secara kemitraan, dan membangun visi pendidikan secara komprehensif dan simultan dengan semua pihak. Kata kunci: perubahan sosial, materialistik, modernisasi dan kapitalis Abstract: Industrialization and its education Sector challenges. Contribution of education has shifted with the progress of technology, economy, and communication. The changes have shifted the society's views. Materialism, capitalism, efficiency, and effectiveness have become of interest and enthusiasm for life. The shift has changed society's view, i.e. the view of success and quality of education, in which education is measured from a rate of the absorption of graduates into labor market, therefore education is analyzed from the characteristics of an investment (capital-investment. A shift in meaning and responsibility of education encourages the education sector to create reformation through these following alternatives: creating new thoughts towards liberation and maturation, implementing education comprehensively and cooperating with all parties in partnership, and creating

  4. Parasitism and super parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Marciene D.; Torres, Jorge B.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid Trichogramma has been used worldwide as biological control agent due to its wide geographic distribution, high specialization and efficacy against many lepidopteran pests. Biological and behavioral traits of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) eggs were studied aiming to a better understanding of the Results from parasitism and super parasitism. The variables investigated were: host acceptance and contact time by T. pretiosum on parasitized host, percentage of parasitoid emergence, number of deformed individuals produced, egg-adult period, sex ratio, offspring female body size and longevity, and number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized/female. Parasitism rejection was observed on parasitized host eggs after 24, 72 and 120h of parasitism. The rejection was higher for eggs parasitized after 72h and 120h of parasitism as compared to the eggs after 24h of parasitism. T. pretiosum contact time on eggs after 24h of parasitism was greater than on 72 and 120h. The offspring produced from hosts from which a single parasitoid emerged were larger, exhibited no deformities and greater capacity of parasitism, different from those produced from eggs where two parasitoids emerged. Offspring longevity, however, was similar for females emerged from hosts from which one or two adults emerged. In Conclusion, T. pretiosum was able to recognize previously parasitized eggs and the super parasitism reduced the parasitoid.reproductive success. (author)

  5. Host-Parasite Interactions and Purifying Selection in a Microsporidian Parasite of Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Huang

    Full Text Available To clarify the mechanisms of Nosema ceranae parasitism, we deep-sequenced both honey bee host and parasite mRNAs throughout a complete 6-day infection cycle. By time-series analysis, 1122 parasite genes were significantly differently expressed during the reproduction cycle, clustering into 4 expression patterns. We found reactive mitochondrial oxygen species modulator 1 of the host to be significantly down regulated during the entire infection period. Our data support the hypothesis that apoptosis of honey bee cells was suppressed during infection. We further analyzed genome-wide genetic diversity of this parasite by comparing samples collected from the same site in 2007 and 2013. The number of SNP positions per gene and the proportion of non-synonymous substitutions per gene were significantly reduced over this time period, suggesting purifying selection on the parasite genome and supporting the hypothesis that a subset of N. ceranae strains might be dominating infection.

  6. Host-Parasite Interactions and Purifying Selection in a Microsporidian Parasite of Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Chen, Yan Ping; Wang, Rui Wu; Cheng, Shang; Evans, Jay D

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of Nosema ceranae parasitism, we deep-sequenced both honey bee host and parasite mRNAs throughout a complete 6-day infection cycle. By time-series analysis, 1122 parasite genes were significantly differently expressed during the reproduction cycle, clustering into 4 expression patterns. We found reactive mitochondrial oxygen species modulator 1 of the host to be significantly down regulated during the entire infection period. Our data support the hypothesis that apoptosis of honey bee cells was suppressed during infection. We further analyzed genome-wide genetic diversity of this parasite by comparing samples collected from the same site in 2007 and 2013. The number of SNP positions per gene and the proportion of non-synonymous substitutions per gene were significantly reduced over this time period, suggesting purifying selection on the parasite genome and supporting the hypothesis that a subset of N. ceranae strains might be dominating infection.

  7. Desain dan Uji Kinerja Fungsional Sistem Penggerak dan Kendali ROVERGARD

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    Moh Fikri Pomalingo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The high population rate has an impact on increasing of land function change from agricultural land become housing and commercial building. As a result, it is difficult to get land for planting in the urban area. Therefore, this research is aimed to design equipment that can be used for planting in the narrow land using vertical gardening. This paper will report about design and functional testing of drive and control system on ROVERGARD. Drive system is based on water pump with additional gear train and chainsprocket mechanism. Control system use was on open loop type based on timer. The performance test of drive system was focused on electrical energy consumption and rotational speed of the system that was measured by multifunctional mini ammeter and tachometer. The control system was tested during 4 days, to evaluate their performances between set point and actual timing while filling water tank and rotate the system at maximal load condition. Electrical power consumption was 208 W at average rotational speed 2703 rpm. Increasing load caused an increase of energy consumption but made the drive rotation decline. The position control performance had on position error around 50 cm. Consequently, setting time on timer must be adjusted. Abstrak Laju pertumbuhan penduduk yang tinggi, mengakibatkan tingginya alih fungsi lahan pertanian menjadi bangunan perumahan dan komersial. Masalah ini mengakibatkan sulitnya mencari lahan pertanian di daerah padat penduduk khususnya perkotaan. Oleh karena itu perlu dirancang sebuah alat yang dapat digunakan untuk bercocok tanam di lahan sempit. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendesain dan menguji sistem penggerak dan kendali pada ROVERGARD. Sistem penggerak berasal dari pompa air yang dimodifikasi. Sedangkan sistem kendali menggunakan tipe open loop berbasis waktu dimana timer sebagai komponen utamanya. Pengujian kinerja penggerak difokuskan pada konsumsi listrik dan rpm yang diukur menggunakan

  8. KONTEKS DAN KONSTRUKSI SOSIAL MENGENAI KEMATIAN ELEKTIF ( EUTHANASIA ∗

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    Helly Prajitno Soetjipto

    2015-09-01

    konteks sosial dan konstruksi sosial kematian. Euthanasia didiskusikan di dalam suatu kerangka pikir yang mencoba memberi perhatian kepada hal-hal yang kontekstual dan interpretatif fenomena sosial suatu proses kematian dan kejadian kematian

  9. Invasion of parasitic isopods in marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To carry out a detailed three-year observation study on isopod parasites infestation in fish. Methods: Fish samples were collected from different localities in various landing centers along the Tamil Nadu coastal area. The prevalence and mean intensity were calculated. The proximate composition of infestation and uninfestation were studied in different marine fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected regions of fishes were analysed. Results: Tweenty six species including 12 genera of isopods (Cymothoidae distributed in 39 species of marine fishes along the Tamil Nadu coast. The isopod parasites were attached in three different microhabitats in host fishes viz. , buccal, branchial and body surfaces. They exhibited host and site specific occurrence. Maximum prevalence 17.11% was recorded in March 2010 and minimum 0.27% in Febuary 2010. The intensity ranged from 1 to 1.7 parasites per fish during the different months from Decmber 2008 to November 2011. There was a decrease in the protein, carbohydrate and lipid content in the infested fishes compared to uninfected fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected region of fishes were analysed. It revealed that infected portions had dense bacterial load as observed in the lesions of infected fishes than uninfected fishes. Conclusion: Factors which are able to induce parasitic manifestation are stock quality, stocking density, environmental conditions, biological and physiological characteristics of parasite, zoo technical measures, food quantity, feeding strategies, etc.

  10. Fighting fish parasites with photodynamically active chlorophyllin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häder, D-P; Schmidl, J; Hilbig, R; Oberle, M; Wedekind, H; Richter, P

    2016-06-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) was used in a phototoxic reaction against a number of fish ectoparasites such as Ichtyobodo, Dactylogyrus, Trichodina, and Argulus. Chlorophyllin is applied to the water at concentrations of several micrograms per milliliter for a predefined incubation time, and afterwards, the parasites are exposed to simulated solar radiation. Application in the dark caused only little damage to the parasites; likewise, light exposure without the addition of the photosensitizer was ineffective. In Ichthyobodo, 2 μg/mL proved sufficient with subsequent simulated solar radiation to almost quantitatively kill the parasites, while in Dactylogyrus, a concentration of about 6 μg/mL was necessary. The LD50 value for this parasite was 1.02 μg/mL. Trichodina could be almost completely eliminated at 2 μg/mL. Only in the parasitic crustacean Argulus, no killing could be achieved by a photodynamic reaction using chlorophyllin. Chlorophyllin is non-toxic, biodegradable, and can be produced at low cost. Therefore, we propose that chlorophyllin (or other photodynamic substances) are a possible effective countermeasure against several ectoparasites in ponds and aquaculture since chemical remedies are either forbidden and/or ineffective.

  11. Gastrointestinal function in the parasitized host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Emphasis in this review is on (1) digestive-absorptive, secretory and smooth muscle functions altered by gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, (2) mechanisms by which parasites induce changes, and (3) the influence of parasite-induced alterations on the health of the host. Examples involving laboratory and domestic animals indicate that inflammation is an important factor in pathological alterations in epithelial and smooth muscle tissues throughout the alimentary canal. Observations on GI secretory activity reveal an influence of parasites on the host GI endocrine system. It is argued that assessments of the significance of parasite-induced changes on the host must be balanced with the adaptive potential and 'reserve capacity' of the GI system. In this regard host immunity should be considered a specific adaptation. Some tracer studies are mentioned marginally, such as the use of 14 C polyethylene glycol to estimate the direction of not fluid movement in the small intestine, and the use of 51 Cr to demonstrate the significantly faster intestinal transit in Trichinella spiralis infected animals

  12. The comparative ecology and biogeography of parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Robert; Krasnov, Boris R.; Mouillot, David; Thieltges, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative ecology uses interspecific relationships among traits, while accounting for the phylogenetic non-independence of species, to uncover general evolutionary processes. Applied to biogeographic questions, it can be a powerful tool to explain the spatial distribution of organisms. Here, we review how comparative methods can elucidate biogeographic patterns and processes, using analyses of distributional data on parasites (fleas and helminths) as case studies. Methods exist to detect phylogenetic signals, i.e. the degree of phylogenetic dependence of a given character, and either to control for these signals in statistical analyses of interspecific data, or to measure their contribution to variance. Parasite–host interactions present a special case, as a given trait may be a parasite trait, a host trait or a property of the coevolved association rather than of one participant only. For some analyses, it is therefore necessary to correct simultaneously for both parasite phylogeny and host phylogeny, or to evaluate which has the greatest influence on trait expression. Using comparative approaches, we show that two fundamental properties of parasites, their niche breadth, i.e. host specificity, and the nature of their life cycle, can explain interspecific and latitudinal variation in the sizes of their geographical ranges, or rates of distance decay in the similarity of parasite communities. These findings illustrate the ways in which phylogenetically based comparative methods can contribute to biogeographic research. PMID:21768153

  13. DIAGNOSIS DAN PENATALAKSANAAru LIMFOMA ORtsITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardizal Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Limfoma orbita merujuk pada limfoma yang terjadi di konjungtiva, kelenjar lakrimal, palpebradan otot-otot ekstraokular. Limfoma primer non-Hodgkin (NHL dari orbita dapat ditemukanpada hanya 1o/o dari semua limforna non-Hodgkin. Anaiisis mutasi somatik pada regiovariabel (V dari immunoglobulin (ig dan segmen gen rantai berat (H telah menunjukkanperan dari stimulasi antigen kronik pada patogenesis limfoma /nucosa-associated lymphoidflssue (MALT. Patogen mikroba seperti Helicobacter pylaridan Chlamydia pneumonia dapaimendasari proses inflamasi dan pada akhirnya memicu akuisisi MALT juga memainkanperan penting dalam tranformasi maligna dan ekspansi klonal lanjutan limfoma. Penentuanstadium kanker sangat penting karena akan menentukan terapi apa yang akan diberikan dankemungkinan remisi dan prognosisnya. Berdasarkan sistem stadium Ann-Arbor, limfoma yangterbatas di orbita disebut sebagai stadium l, keterlibatan struktur sekitar (sinus paranasal,tonsil, dan hidung menjadikannya stadium ll. Stadium lll adalah penyakit nodal abdominaldibawah diafragma dan stadium lV merujuk pada keterlibatan yang tersebar dari satu ataulebih lokasi ekstranodal (hepar, sum-sum tulang atau sistem saraf pusat. Mayoritas pasiendatang dengan keluhan massa konjungtiva berwarna pink (91%, diikuti hiperemis konjungtiva(32%, propiosis (27%, massa palpebra atau orbita (19"fi, penurunan visus dan ptosis (6%,dan diplopia(2%. Bilateralitas terjadi pada 10% hingga 15% kasus dimana 80 % terjadisecarasimultan sedangkan 20% merupakan kondisi yang berurutan. Penilaian lanjut untuk stagingyang akurat dan perencanaan terapitermasuk anamnesis yang lengkap dan pemeriksaan fisik,pemeriksaan laboratorium rutin, elektroforesis protein sei-um, LDH serum, Fr-mikroglobulin,rontgen thoraks, CT scan thoraks, abdornen, dan pelvis, dan biopsisum-sum tulang. Diagnosapositif harus berdasarkan pada perneriksaan histologik dari sampeltumor yang memadai yangdiperoleh dengan biopsiorbita. Beberapa kriteria

  14. TRANSFORMASI ORGANISASIONAL DAN MSDM: HAMBATAN DAN IMPLIKASINYA PADA REKRUTMEN DAN SELEKSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licen Indahwati Darsono

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid change of environment is an external force that causes the organization to transform. Fundamentally, the main purpose of the transformation is to change the organizational structure to be more flexible and competitive with fewer hierarchial levels, managers, and employees. The transformation needs to be radical, causing resistance from the organization's members. Their resistance can cause the transformation to fail, therefore organization must find ways to lessen this resistance. First, organization must learn about the diversity of its members' cultures and values. Second, organization must build its own organizational culture which can support the success of the transformation, by communicating it with the members of the organization. To support organizational culture building efforts, it needs changes in human resources practices, especially recruitment and selection. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perubahan yang cepat dalam lingkungan merupakan kekuatan eksternal yang mengakibatkan transformasi dalam sebuah organisasi. Pada dasarnya, tujuan utama dari transformasi tersebut adalah merubah struktur organisasi agar menjadi lebih fleksibel dan mampu bersaing, dengan tingkat structural yang sedikit, serta jumlah manajer dan karyawan yang lebih kecil. Transformasi tersebut harus menyeluruh, dan hal ini dapat menyebabkan resistensi dari para anggota organisasi yang memperhambat perubahan tersebut. Resistensi itu bisa menyebabkan perubahan tersebut batal, oleh karena itu organisasi harus mencari jalan untuk mengurangi hambatan-hambatan tersebut. Pertama, organisasi harus belajar keanekaragaman dari budaya dan nilai anggotanya. Kedua, organisasi harus mengembangkan budaya organisasi sendiri melalui komunikasi yang baik dengan anggotanya. Untuk mendukung usaha mengembangkan budaya organisasi, harus ada perubaban pada kebijakan sumber daya manusia, terutama dalam rekrutmen dan seleksi karyawan. Kata kunci: transformasi, resistensi, budaya

  15. Perbandingan Akurasi Pengukuran Suhu Dan Kelembaban Antara Sensor DHT11 Dan DHT22

    OpenAIRE

    Saptadi, Arief Hendra

    2014-01-01

    Suhu dan kelembaban merupakan dua objek pengukuran yang acapkali terdapat di dalam sistem akuisisi data. Terdapat banyak piranti sensor yang berfungsi untuk mengukur dua objek tersebut dan akurasi merupakan salah satu parameter yang dapat digunakan untuk memilihnya. DHT11 dan DHT22 adalah sensor seri DHT dari Aosong Electronics yang dapat melakukan pengukuran suhu dan kelembaban secara serempak dengan keluaran digital. Informasi tentang akurasi terdapat di dalam lembar data keduanya. Kendati ...

  16. Pertumbuhan dan Mutu Fisik Bibit Jabon (Anthocephalus Cadamba Miq.) di Polibag dan Politub

    OpenAIRE

    Junaedi, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Informasi pertumbuhan dan mutu fisik bibit jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) di wadah bibit dengan volume yang berbeda diperlukan sebagai bagian yang akan diperhitungkan dalam pemilihan wadah bibit yang akan digunakan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan mutu fisik bibit jabon yang disapih pada wadah bibit polibag (volume 300 cm3) dan politub (volume 60 cm3). Tahapan penelitian meliputi : pembibitan serta pengamatan pertumbuhan dan penilaian mutu fisik bibit jabon yang ...

  17. Dampak belanja irigasi dan jaringan terhadap output PDRB sektor pertanian dan pertumbuhan ekonomi Kota Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    Aminah, Siti; Parmadi, Parmadi

    2018-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perkembangan Belanja irigasi dan jaringan serta perkembangan output GDP sektor pertanian Kota Jambi selama periode tahun 2005-2015 dan menganalisis pengaruh belanja irigasi dan jaringan terhadap  GDP Output sektor pertanian dan pertumbuhan ekonomi Kota Jambi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Selama periode penelitian tahun 2005-2015 dengan rata-rata pertumbuhan 61,98%, nilai rata-rata PDRB harga berlaku Kota Jambi sebesar 157.601,68 dalam juta rupi...

  18. Wacana Penjarahan Dan Kekerasan Simbolik Terhadap Petani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sudibyo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Perlawanan kaum petani sudah lama terjadi dalam konteks sejarah hubungan antara si kaya dan si miskin dan antara kaum petani dan negara. Persoralannya selalu bahwa negara, aparat keamanan dan pemilik modal telah mengambil alih secara paksa surplus ekonomi dari petani. Mereka bekerja sama dalam aksi penyerobotan tanah petani, pendirian perkebunan-perkebunan dan dalam menghadapi gerakan protes petani. Negara bukan hanya menghadapi gerakan perlawanan petani dengan represi-represi fisik. Secara sistematis negara juga melakukan propaganda dengan menciptakan gambaran-gambaran yang unfavourable tentang petani pelaku penjarahan dalam berbagai representasi wacana. Dalam batas tertentu, media massa justru memperkuat kecenderungan ini dengan menonjolkan dimensi kekerasan, pemberontakan dan anarkisme dalam mewacanakan aksi-aksi penjarahan petani.

  19. Motivasi, Kebiasaan, dan Keamanan Penggunaan Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinggara Hidayat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study investigates motivation, habits, and security of internet use by high schools and universities students in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi. This descriptive and quantitative reasearch uses survey method. The findings of the study show that the strongest motivation is to show self existence, entertainment, and academic purposes. At some points, the habit of using the internet also makes the students face some risks such as verbal and nonverbal abuses, bullying, pornoghrapy, account hacking, and the risk of interaction with unknown parties. Abstrak: Penelitian ini menyelidiki motivasi, kebiasaan, dan keamanan penggunaan internet di antara siswa sekolah menengah atas dan universitas di Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, dan Bekasi. Penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif ini menggunakan metode survei. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa motivasi paling kuat adalah untuk memperlihatkan eksistensi diri, pencarian hiburan, dan penyelesaian tugas akademis. Kebiasaan penggunaan internet oleh pelajar dan mahasiswa menghadapi beberapa risiko, seperti kekerasan verbal dan nonverbal,

  20. SOSIAL MEDIA DAN PERUBAHAN INDEKS PRESTASI MAHASISWA

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    Risnah Risnah

    2015-12-01

    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui jumlah mahasiswa semester II, IV, dan VI Jurusan Keperawatan yang menggunakan internet secara aktif dan karak-teristiknya, membandingkan hasil belajar mahasiswa semester II-III, IV-V, dan VI-VII Jurusan Keperawatan, dan mengetahui pengaruh sosial media (facebook dan twitter terhadap perubahan indeks prestasi mahasiswa, dengan jumlah res-ponden sebanyak 150 orang. Penelitian ini adalah deskriptif dengan desain pene-litian kausal. Pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan instrumen berupa kuesio-ner, dengan jumlah responden sebanyak 150 orang. Adapun hasil penelitian me-nunjukkan bahwa indeks prestasi mahasiswa dengan penggunaan sosial media umumnya responden menyatakan sosial media tidak mempengaruhi indeks prestasi. Dari hasil analisis uji statistik diperoleh terdapat pengaruh antara sosial media (facebook dan twitter dengan indeks prestasi. Dengan begitu, penggunaan sosial media harus digunakan sebagaimana mestinya, agar mahasiswa/i yang ak-tif pengunaan sosial media tidak mempengaruhi indeks prestasinya.

  1. Persepsi Santri dan Kiai terhadap Pluralisme Agama di Pendidikan Ulama Tarjih Muhammadiyah (PUTM dan Aswaja Nusantara Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin

    2017-05-01

    Abstrak: Perdebatan pluralisme agama masih mengemuka dalam konteks masyarakat majemuk di Nusantara. Bahkan, tidak jarang menimbulkan konflik dan perang pemikiran. Menarik melihat perspektif kiai dan santri Muhammadiyah dan NU terhadap isu pluralisme melalui praktik pendidikan di Ulama Tarjih Muhammadiyah (PUTM Yogyakarta dan Pondok Pesantren Aswaja Nusantara Yogyakarta yang dianggap representatif karena membawa muatan konsep, ide dan paradigma dari Muhammadiyah dan NU. Penelitian ini bersifat kualitatif,  data diperoleh dari wawancara dan studi kepustakaan dengan saling memberikan verifikasi, koreksi dan pelengkap. Hasil penelitian ini, PUTM dan Pesantren Aswaja Nusantara memiliki konsep yang sama dalam memegang teguh akidah, yakni sikap eksklusif dan menolak pluralisme secara teologis namun menerimanya secara sosiologis. Sehingga, paradigma dari dua lembaga tersebut merepresentasikan dari paradigma Muhammadiyah dan NU dalam merespon fenomena pluralisme agama dan budaya.

  2. VAKSIN DENGUE DAN PERKEMBANGANNYA SAAT INI DAN DI MASA MENDATANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwibowo Ambar Garjito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus merupakan salah satu virus anggota dari famili Flaviviridae yang sejak tahun 1956 telah dikenal dapat menimbulkan demam dengue maupun demam berdarah dengue (DBD. Penyakit yang ditularkan oleh nyamuk Aedes aegypti ini diperkirakan telah menjangkiti pada selatar 50-100 juta manusia dengan 500.000 kasus di antaranya dalam manifestasi yang ganas yang dikenal sebagai dengue haemorrhagic fever dan dengue shock syndrome dan 25.000 di antaranya berakibat fatal (meninggal. Saat ini pengembangan vaksin merupakan salah satu solusi yang diharapkan dapat menekan penyebaran penyakit tersebut. E (envelope merupakan salah satu bagian dari protein struktural virus yang sangat penting dalam pengembangan vaksin, yaitu sebagai badan yang memproduksi antibodi netralisasi untuk protein. Non-struktural protein l juga telah diketahui sebagai salah satu komponen penting dalam pengembangan vaksin oleh karena kemampuannya untuk dapat diekspresi pada permukaan sel yang diinfeksi yang dapat menjadi target untuk immune cytolisis. Ada dua pendekatan yang digunakan dalam memproduksi suatu vaksin dengue, yaitu: a. Vaksin hidup yang telah dilemahkan (live attenuated vaccine: b. Vaksin hasil rekayasa (engineered vaccine. Penelitian terhadap vaksin DENV baik rekombinan maupun non-rekombinan yang didasarkan pada uji virus telah dilakukan secara terus-menerus baik pada monyet dan manusia. Sampai saat ini telah dikembangkan sejumlah kandidat vaksin DENV yang berdasar pada tetravalent virus dengue, yaitu a. vaksin konvensional, b. vaksin dengue rekombinan berdasar pada flavivirus, c. vaksin intertypic chimeric, d. vaksin chimerivac, e. vaksin dengue rekombinan menggunakan vector non-ftavivirus dan f. vector adenovirus. Namun demikian, sampai sekarang belum ada vaksin yang siap digunakan untuk menangkal infeksi ke empat serotype virus dengue, sehingga masih diharapkan untuk pengembangan virus lebih lanjut.   Kata kunci: Aedes aegypti, dengue virus, vaksin dengue.

  3. BAHAYA LATEN INFEKSI GONORE DAN KLAMIDIA DI ASIA SELATAN & ASIA TENGGARA, DI INDONESIA DAN KOTA MANADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Pirade

    2014-04-01

    menempati urutan tertinggi. Wilayah Asia Selatan dan Asia Timur-Selatan (juga disebut Asia Tenggara adalah wilayah dengan prevalensi Gonore dan Klamidia terbesar. Prevalensi Gonore di tahun 1995 dan 1999 yaitu 29.11 dan 27.2 juta penduduk wilayah Asia Selatan dan Asia Tenggara. Klamidia, di tahun 1995 dan tahun 1999 yaitu 40.48 dan 42.89 juta penduduk wilayah Asia Selatan dan Asia Tenggara. Di Indonesia sendiri, pada 11 area penelitian menunjukkan bahwa prevalensi Gonore dalam wilayah Indonesia menunjukkan rata-rata prosentasenya 20%-40% dari keseluruhan STI pada wanita beresiko tinggi terkena STI. Sedangkan infeksi oleh Klamidia prosentasenya 15%- 45% dari keseluruhan STI pada wanita beresiko tinggi terkena penyakit kelamin. Prosentase Gonore dan Klamidia di Kota Manado rata-rata 15-30%. Tingginya prevalensi infeksi Gonore dan Klamidia di Asia Tenggara, ternyata diikuti juga dengan tingginya perkembangan infeksi Gonore dan Klamidia di Indonesia dan Kota Manado.

  4. Biliary parasites: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Niraj; Shaw, Joanna; Jain, Mamta K

    2008-04-01

    Parasitic infections of the biliary tract are a common cause of biliary obstruction in endemic areas. This article focuses on primary biliary parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica. Tropical and subtropical countries have the highest incidence and prevalence of these infections. Diagnosis is made primarily through direct microscopic examination of eggs in the stool, duodenal, or bile contents. Radiologic imaging may show intrahepatic ductal dilatation, whereas endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography can be used diagnostically and therapeutically. However, oral treatment is inexpensive and effective for most of these parasites and can prevent untoward consequences. Primary and alternative treatments are available and are reviewed in this article.

  5. Interactions between parasites and insects vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Hurd

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This review stresses the importance of studies that will provide a basic understanding of the pathology of parasite-infected vector insects. This knowledge should be a vital component of the very focussed initiatives currently being funded in the areas of vector control. Vector fecundity reduction is discussed as an example of such pathology. Underlying mechanisms are being investigated in a model system, Hymenolepis diminuta-infected Tenebrio molitor and in Onchocerca-infected blackflies and Plasmodium-infected Anopheles stephensi. In all cases, host vitellogenesis is disrupted by the parasite and, in the tapeworm/beetle model, interaction between the parasite and the endocrine control of the insect's reproductive physiology has been demonstrated.

  6. Non-specific immunization against parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1981-01-01

    Non-specific resistance to tumours can be induced by pretreating animals with micro-organisms, microbial extracts or various synthetic substances. Mycobacterium bovis, Corynebacterium parvum and a number of other micro-organisms also protect mice against rodent piroplasms and there is evidence that they are also protective against other parasites including Schistosoma mansoni. The actual mechanisms of non-specific immunity are still unclear but it is influenced by both the genetic make-up of the host and the nature of the parasite. Non-specific immunization may be a possible alternative to specific immunization and may avoid many of the potential immunopathological changes induced during parasite infections. Irradiated vaccines (Dictyocaulus viviparus, schistomiasis) are mentioned marginally only

  7. Serine protease inhibitors of parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2012-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of structurally conserved proteins that inhibit serine proteases and play key physiological roles in numerous biological systems such as blood coagulation, complement activation and inflammation. A number of serpins have now been identified in parasitic helminths with putative involvement in immune regulation and in parasite survival through interference with the host immune response. This review describes the serpins and smapins (small serine protease inhibitors) that have been identified in Ascaris spp., Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum Onchocerca volvulus, Haemonchus contortus, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Anisakis simplex, Trichuris suis, Schistosoma spp., Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Echinococcus spp. and discusses their possible biological functions, including roles in host-parasite interplay and their evolutionary relationships.

  8. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang van Tong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity.

  9. Susceptibility Testing of Medically Important Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetu Bayih, Abebe; Debnath, Anjan; Mitre, Edward; Huston, Christopher D; Laleu, Benoît; Leroy, Didier; Blasco, Benjamin; Campo, Brice; Wells, Timothy N C; Willis, Paul A; Sjö, Peter; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Pillai, Dylan R

    2017-07-01

    In the last 2 decades, renewed attention to neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has spurred the development of antiparasitic agents, especially in light of emerging drug resistance. The need for new drugs has required in vitro screening methods using parasite culture. Furthermore, clinical laboratories sought to correlate in vitro susceptibility methods with treatment outcomes, most notably with malaria. Parasites with their various life cycles present greater complexity than bacteria, for which standardized susceptibility methods exist. This review catalogs the state-of-the-art methodologies used to evaluate the effects of drugs on key human parasites from the point of view of drug discovery as well as the need for laboratory methods that correlate with clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. NCEP ATP III dan Framingham score

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Refli; Fahila, Reny

    2016-01-01

    Laporan ini merupakan Program Pendidikan Kolesterol National yang diperbaharui yaitu pedoman klinis untuk melakukan pengujian kolesterol dan manajemen. ATP III dibuat berdasarkan bukti dan laporan ekstensif yang akan menjadi referensi dan rekomendasi ilmiah. Laporan ATP III dapat dijadikan pedoman untuk pemberian terapi penurun kolesterol yang intensif dalam praktek. Pedoman ini hanya sebagai informasi , tidak dapat mempengaruhi secara mutlak dalam penilaian klinis dokter yang akhirnya menent...

  11. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25185005

  12. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission.

  13. Diagnostic moléculaire de la présence de mildiou (Plasmopara halstedii dans les semences de tournesol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Says-Lesage Véronique

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Le mildiou du tournesol, causé par l’oomycète Plasmopara halstedii, est une maladie potentiellement dévastatrice et économiquement importante. Du fait du risque de propagation de la maladie par les semences infectées et de l’observation croissante de l’apparition d’isolats résistants au métalaxyl, il est apparu nécessaire de mettre au point une méthode de détection du parasite dans les graines ou les tissus de la plante. Nous avons donc développé un test moléculaire pour le diagnostic de la présence du mildiou dans les semences. Plusieurs méthodes d’extraction ont été comparées pour améliorer le rendement et la qualité de l’ADN du parasite présent en faible quantité. Des échantillons de graines contaminées entières et décortiquées ont été analysés par PCR, avec des amorces spécifiques de Plasmopara halstedii. L’ADN de l’agent pathogène est toujours détecté, notamment dans les coques. Ces données sont importantes pour le développement d’un kit de diagnostic.

  14. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID: Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Kumar Biswal

    Full Text Available Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species, or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php.

  15. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS) data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species), or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php.

  16. Host and parasite morphology influence congruence between host and parasite phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Andrew D; Bush, Sarah E; Gustafsson, Daniel R; Allen, Julie M; DiBlasi, Emily; Skeen, Heather R; Weckstein, Jason D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2018-03-23

    Comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies often show varying degrees of phylogenetic congruence. However, few studies have rigorously explored the factors driving this variation. Multiple factors such as host or parasite morphology may govern the degree of phylogenetic congruence. An ideal analysis for understanding the factors correlated with congruence would focus on a diverse host-parasite system for increased variation and statistical power. In this study, we focused on the Brueelia-complex, a diverse and widespread group of feather lice that primarily parasitise songbirds. We generated a molecular phylogeny of the lice and compared this tree with a phylogeny of their avian hosts. We also tested for the contribution of each host-parasite association to the overall congruence. The two trees overall were significantly congruent, but the contribution of individual associations to this congruence varied. To understand this variation, we developed a novel approach to test whether host, parasite or biogeographic factors were statistically associated with patterns of congruence. Both host plumage dimorphism and parasite ecomorphology were associated with patterns of congruence, whereas host body size, other plumage traits and biogeography were not. Our results lay the framework for future studies to further elucidate how these factors influence the process of host-parasite coevolution. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS) data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species), or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php PMID:27285615

  18. Parasitism shaping host life-history evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2006-01-01

    1. Variation in life-history strategies among conspecific populations indicates the action of local selective pressures; recently, parasitism has been suggested as one of these local forces. 2. Effects of trematode infections on reproductive effort, juvenile growth, size at maturity and susceptib......1. Variation in life-history strategies among conspecific populations indicates the action of local selective pressures; recently, parasitism has been suggested as one of these local forces. 2. Effects of trematode infections on reproductive effort, juvenile growth, size at maturity...

  19. DESAIN, TATA LETAK, DAN KONSTRUKSI TAMBAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Mustafa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Komoditas yang umum dibudidayakan di tambak Indonesia adalah udang dan ikan bandeng yang menjadi komoditas unggulan untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu faktor penting yang sangat menentukan keberhasilan usaha budidaya tambak adalah rekayasa tambak yang mencakup disain, tata letak, dan konstruksi tambak. Secara umum, desain petakan tambak merupakan perencanaan bentuk tambak yang meliputi: ukuran panjang dan lebar petakan, kedalaman, ukuran pematang, ukuran berm, dan ukuran saluran keliling, serta ukuran dan letak pintu air. Tata letak suatu unit tambak harus memenuhi tujuan seperti: menjamin kelancaran mobilitas operasional sehari-hari, menjamin kelancaran dan keamanan pasok air, serta pembuangannya, dapat menekan biaya konstruksi tanpa mengurangi fungsi teknis dari unit tambak yang dibangun dan mempertahankan kelestarian lingkungan. Konstruksi tambak yang menggambarkan proses pengerjaan tambak harus disesuaikan dengan desain dan tata letak yang telah ada. Rekayasa tambak diarahkan pada kemampuan untuk menciptakan kondisi yang sesuai dengan keadaan alami yang dituntut oleh organisme akuatik yang dibudidayakan sehingga produktivitas tambak meningkat, efisien secara ekonomis, dan berkelanjutan.

  20. KONTEKTUALISASI DAN (KEMUNGKINAN KONSEKUENSINYA BAGI PSIKOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Supratiknya

    2015-09-01

    jaran di perguruan tinggi seperti kita kenal sekarang (selanjutnya disebut psikologi, lahir di Jerman pada penghujung abad ke‐19. Selanjutnya psikologi berkembang pesat di Amerika Utara khususnya Amerika Serikat dan negara‐negara lain di Eropa yang lebih dulu mengalami industrialisasi khususnya di Eropa Barat. 1 Alhasil, paling tidak sampai dasawarsa 1980‐an perkembangan dan persebaran psikologi di tingkat global ditandai oleh ketimpangan di antara apa yang oleh Moghaddam (1987 disebut tiga dunia tempat psikologi dikembangkan dan dipraktekkan, disimak antara lain berdasarkan besarnya produksi pengetahuan psikologis yang disebarluaskan melalui penyelenggaraan pendidikan tinggi psikologi maupun lewat publikasi ilmiah berupa baik berkala maupun buku rujukan dan buku teks.

  1. Viruses of parasites as actors in the parasite-host relationship: A "ménage à trois".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arreaza, Amaranta; Haenni, Anne-Lise; Dunia, Irene; Avilán, Luisana

    2017-02-01

    The complex parasite-host relationship involves multiple mechanisms. Moreover, parasites infected by viruses modify this relationship adding more complexity to the system that now comprises three partners. Viruses infecting parasites were described several decades ago. However, until recently little was known about the viruses involved and their impact on the resulting disease caused to the hosts. To clarify this situation, we have concentrated on parasitic diseases caused to humans and on how virus-infected parasites could alter the symptoms inflicted on the human host. It is clear that the effect caused to the human host depends on the virus and on the parasite it has infected. Consequently, the review is divided as follows: Viruses with a possible effect on the virulence of the parasite. This section reviews pertinent articles showing that infection of parasites by viruses might increase the detrimental effect of the tandem virus-parasite on the human host (hypervirulence) or decrease virulence of the parasite (hypovirulence). Parasites as vectors affecting the transmission of viruses. In some cases, the virus-infected parasite might facilitate the transfer of the virus to the human host. Parasites harboring viruses with unidentified effects on their host. In spite of recently renewed interest in parasites in connection with their viruses, there still remains a number of cases in which the effect of the virus of a given parasite on the human host remains ambiguous. The triangular relationship between the virus, the parasite and the host, and the modulation of the pathogenicity and virulence of the parasites by viruses should be taken into account in the rationale of fighting against parasites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrition and metabolism of parasitized and non-parasitized ruminants. Some approaches for studying the mode of action of parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of helminth infections on ruminant digestive function and metabolism are discussed against the background of current information on the mechanisms controlling feed intake and utilization in normal animals. Although parasites reduce productivity by impairing appetite and utilization of nutrients, few studies have been conducted on the function of the digestive tract and the metabolism of parasitized animals. Those areas which warrant further investigation are described, and the techniques which could be usefully applied are outlined. It is concluded that more emphasis should be given to the diet available to parasitized animals, and that by using diets of different digestibility and protein content, valuable information could be obtained as to the relative importance of reduced appetite and reduced efficiency of feed utilization. Central to all studies is a proper delineation of the fate of proteins in the small intestine of parasitized animals, and characterization of the types of bacteria in the gut and their effects on endogenous protein losses. The application of 15 N is mentioned. The potential usefulness of 14 C (eg. to measure the flow of digesta, to the lower digestive tract; clearance of 14 C-propionate from blood; etc.) is described

  3. A life cycle database for parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Daniel P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand

    2017-01-01

    Parasitologists have worked out many complex life cycles over the last ~150 years, yet there have been few efforts to synthesize this information to facilitate comparisons among taxa. Most existing host-parasite databases focus on particular host taxa, do not distinguish final from intermediate hosts, and lack parasite life-history information. We summarized the known life cycles of trophically transmitted parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes. For 973 parasite species, we gathered information from the literature on the hosts infected at each stage of the parasite life cycle (8510 host-parasite species associations), what parasite stage is in each host, and whether parasites need to infect certain hosts to complete the life cycle. We also collected life-history data for these parasites at each life cycle stage, including 2313 development time measurements and 7660 body size measurements. The result is the most comprehensive data summary available for these parasite taxa. In addition to identifying gaps in our knowledge of parasite life cycles, these data can be used to test hypotheses about life cycle evolution, host specificity, parasite life-history strategies, and the roles of parasites in food webs.

  4. TASAWUF DAN TANTANGAN PERUBAHAN SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusno Abdullah Otta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sufism in the eras of globalization and information often faces considerable challenges. The function and role of religion in modern life have in some aspects diminished, including sufism because it is claimed to have played no or less role in resolving problems nor stimulating social change. As one of Islamic traditions, sufism makes ihsan as its essential teaching. By this concept, sufism encourages humans to pray to God wholeheartedly. Sufism is now required to show its own existence and function by making fundamental contribution for modern life, an era which differ socio-culturally from the one when sufism firstly emerged. Sufism thus needs to adapt itself to the changes in the era of information and globalization so that it will remain relevant and suitable for human progress. Sufism needs to release itself from its exclusivism and to avoid being trapped in its own logic, namely speculative-trancendentalism Abstrak: Tasawuf di era globalisasi dan informasi seperti saat ini tengah menghadapi tantangan yang sangat berat. Kehidupan modern sudah sampai pada taraf tidak lagi mempercayai fungsi dan peran agama, termasuk di dalamnya tasawuf, sebagai ‘sesuatu’ yang dapat memberikan solusi bagi perubahan sosial. Sebagai manifestasi paripurna dari ajaran Islam, tasawuf berintikan pada konsep Ihsān yang mengajarkan untuk beribadah kepada Sang Pencipta secara ikhlas. Untuk menunjukkan eksistensinya, tasawuf dituntut peran aktifnya secara konstruktif-solutif terhadap berbagai kebutuhan manusia modern yang amat berbeda dengan setting maupun struktur masyarakat pada saat tasawuf “dilahirkan” pada zamannya. Tasawuf dituntut untuk memerlukan “baju” baru di era informasi yang kerap berubah ini, agar tetap realible dan suitable dengan kemajuan zaman. Hal itu dapat dilakukan dengan berusaha “keluar” dari eksklusifismenya dengan meminjam tradisi filsafat analitik pasca positivisme dan tradisi eksistensialis serta dinamika filsafat

  5. HOSPES PERANTARA DAN HOSPES RESERVOIR FASCIOLOPSIS BUSKI DI INDONESIA Studi Epidemiologi F. buski di Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara, Kalimantan Selatan Tahun 2002 dan 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital -

    2013-12-01

    . Bahkan dalam beberapa periode terkesan naik, meskipun upaya penanggulangannya terus dilaksanakan melalui berbagai survei yang diakhiri dengan pemberian obat. Tidak diketahuinya dengan pasti hospesperantara I, II dan hospes reservoir; merupakan salah satu kendala dalam pengendalian penyakit. Untuk mengetahui siklus epidemiologi F. buski, telah dilakukan dua studi oleh dua institusi penelitian yang berada di bawah Badan Litbangkes pada tahun 2002  oleh Anorital, dkk dan 2010 oleh Annida. Hasil dari kedua studi tersebut diketahui bahwa terdapat 3 jenis tanaman air (hospes perantara II yang dikonsumsi masyarakat yaitu teratai (Nymphea alba, teratai burung (Nymphea lotus dan kangkung (Ipomea aquatica yang positif serkaria dan metaserkaria. Dari spesimen 4 jenis siput/keong air tawar (hospes perantara I yang diperiksa  diperoleh 2 jenis siput/keong yang positif redia dan serkaria yaitu siput kalambuai (Lymnea sp dan siput pipih (Indoplanorbis sp. Dari 4 jenis spesimen kotoran hewan yang diperiksa, diperoleh 1 spesimen positif  telur F. buski yang ditemukan pada kotoran kerbau. Selain itu ditemukan  juga 2 spesimen dari kotoran ayam dan itik alabio telur yang dari segi bentuk mirip F. buski.  Namun dari segi ukuran, telur parasit yang ditemukan ini jauh lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan telur F. buski yang sebenarnya. Meski adanya temuan positif tersebut, perlu adanya konfirmasi dari institusi penelitian lainnya yang berpengalaman dalam melakukan identifikasi F. buski. Dengan mulai terkuaknya gambaran siklus epidemiologi F. buski ini, diharapkan upayapenanggulangan dan pengendalian penyakit kecacingan buski (fasciolopsiosis dapat dilakukan dengan lebih terfokus dan efektif. Agar siklus epidemiologi F. buski dapat memberikan gambaran yang lebih jelas lagi, diperlukan suatu studi yang lebih mendalam dengan jumlah sampel/spesimen yang lebih banyak.  Kata kunci: Fasciolopsis buski, fasciolopsiosis

  6. Analisis Kinerja EIGRP dan OSPF pada Topologi Ring dan Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol dan OSPF (Open Shortest Path Fisrt adalah routing protokol yang banyak digunakan pada suatu jaringan komputer. EIGRP hanya dapat digunakan pada perangkat Merk CISCO, sedangkan OSPF dapat digunakan pada semua merk jaringan. Pada penelitian ini dibandingkan delay dan rute dari kedua routing protokol yang diimplementasikan pada topologi Ring dan Mesh. Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 digunakan untuk mensimulasikan kedua routing protokol ini. Skenario pertama adalah perancangan jaringan kemudian dilakukan pengujian waktu delay 100 kali dalam 5 kasus. Skenario kedua dilakukan pengujian trace route untuk mengetahui jalur yang dilewati paket data lalu memutus link utama. Pada skenario kedua juga dilakukan perbandingan nilai metric dan cost hasil simulasi dengan perhitungan rumus. Skenario ketiga dilakukan pengujian waktu konvergensi untuk setiap routing protokol pada setiap topologi. Hasilnya EIGRP lebih cepat 386 µs daripada OSPF untuk topologi Ring sedangkan OSPF lebih cepat 453 µs daripada EIGRP untuk topologi Mesh. Hasil trace route menunjukan rute yang dipilih oleh routing protokol yaitu nilai metric dan cost yang terkecil. Waktu konvergensi rata-rata topologi Ring pada EIGRP sebesar 12,75 detik dan 34,5 detik pada OSPF sedangkan topologi Mesh di EIGRP sebesar 13 detik dan 35,25 detik di OSPF. Kata Kunci: EIGRP, OSPF, Packet Tracer 5.3, Ring, Mesh, Konvergensi ABSTRACT EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol and OSPF (Open Shortest Path Fisrt is the routing protocol that is widely used in a computer network. EIGRP can only be used on devices Brand CISCO, while OSPF can be used on all brands of network. In this study comparison of both the delay and the routing protocol implemented on Ring and Mesh topology. Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 is used to simulate both the routing protocol. The first scenario is the design of the network and then do the test of time delay 100 times in 5 cases. The

  7. Analisis Kinerja EIGRP dan OSPF pada Topologi Ring dan Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol dan OSPF (Open Shortest Path Fisrt adalah routing protokol yang banyak digunakan pada suatu jaringan komputer. EIGRP hanya dapat digunakan pada perangkat Merk CISCO, sedangkan OSPF dapat digunakan pada semua merk jaringan. Pada penelitian ini dibandingkan delay dan rute dari kedua routing protokol yang diimplementasikan pada topologi Ring dan Mesh. Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 digunakan untuk mensimulasikan kedua routing protokol ini. Skenario pertama adalah perancangan jaringan kemudian dilakukan pengujian waktu delay 100 kali dalam 5 kasus. Skenario kedua dilakukan pengujian trace route untuk mengetahui jalur yang dilewati paket data lalu memutus link utama. Pada skenario kedua juga dilakukan perbandingan nilai metric dan cost hasil simulasi dengan perhitungan rumus. Skenario ketiga dilakukan pengujian waktu konvergensi untuk setiap routing protokol pada setiap topologi. Hasilnya EIGRP lebih cepat 386 µs daripada OSPF untuk topologi Ring sedangkan OSPF lebih cepat 453 µs daripada EIGRP untuk topologi Mesh. Hasil trace route menunjukan rute yang dipilih oleh routing protokol yaitu nilai metric dan cost yang terkecil. Waktu konvergensi rata-rata topologi Ring pada EIGRP sebesar 12,75 detik dan 34,5 detik pada OSPF sedangkan topologi Mesh di EIGRP sebesar 13 detik dan 35,25 detik di OSPF. Kata Kunci : EIGRP, OSPF, Packet Tracer 5.3, Ring, Mesh, Konvergensi ABSTRACT EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol and OSPF (Open Shortest Path Fisrt is the routing protocol that is widely used in a computer network. EIGRP can only be used on devices Brand CISCO, while OSPF can be used on all brands of network. In this study comparison of both the delay and the routing protocol implemented on Ring and Mesh topology. Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 is used to simulate both the routing protocol. The first scenario is the design of the network and then do the test of time delay 100 times in 5 cases. The

  8. GAMBARAN PENGGUNAAN RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TEST PARASIT MALARIA DI DESA PASIRMUKTI KECAMATAN CINEAM KABUPATEN TASIKMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubullah Fuadzy

    2013-12-01

    dilakukan kajian yang sistematis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran penggunaan RDT sebagai upaya diagnosa dini  pada keluarga yang memiliki anggota keluarga yang bekerja sebagai pekerja tambang di daerah endemis malaria. Kriteria inklusi pada penelitian ini adalah keluarga yang memiliki dan tidak memiliki anggota keluarga yang pernah atau sedang bekerja sebagai pekerja di daerah endemis malaria di tahun 2011 dan atau tahun 2012. Responden yang bersedia berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini diambil darahnya untuk pemeriksaan RDT. Responden yang bersedia berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 256 orang dan 5 orang diantaranya positif Plasmodium melalui pemeriksaan RDT  malaria. Responden yang dinyatakan positif malaria hasil pemeriksaan RDT adalah empat orang wanita dengan latar belakang pendidikan sekolah dasar dan berprofesi sebagai ibu rumah tangga, kemudian satu orang laki-laki dengan latar belakang pendidikan sekolah menengah pertama dan saat ini masih sekolah. RDT merupakan  salah satu alat pemeriksaan dini parasit malaria yang digunakan di Desa Pasirmukti Kec. Cineam Kab. Tasikmalaya. Namun perlu diperhatikan cara penyimpanan dan penggunaannya agar tidak terjadi kesalahan hasil pemeriksaan baik positif palsu maupun negatif palsu. Kata Kunci: rapid diagnostic tests, malaria, Tasikmalaya

  9. KEJAHATAN PORNOGRAFI Upaya Pencegahan dan Penanggulangannya di Kabupaten Ponorogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Rumtianing Uswatul Hanifah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pemerintah telah mengeluarkan undang-undang No 44 Tahun 2008 tentang pornografi. Tujuan dari undang-undang tersebut salah satunya mewujudkan dan memelihara tatanan kehidupan masyarakat yang beretika, berkepribadian luhur, menjungjung tinggi nilai-nilai Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa, serta menghormati harkat dan martabat kemanusiaan. Dalam perkembangannya, materi pornografi mengalami pertumbuhan dan penyebaran yang pesat seiring dengan perkembangan dan kemajuan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi. Peredaran dan penyebaran film porno kini semakin pesat karena ditopang dengan kecanggihan sarana informasi dan komunikasi salah satunya media internet yang bisa diakses oleh masyarakat pada setiap saat. Tulisan berikut akan mengkaji bagaimana upaya dan trategi yang dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Ponorogo dalam mencegah dan menanggulangi kejahatan pornografi di Kabupaten Ponorogo, apa hambatan dan bagaimana solusi dalam pencegahan serta penanggulangan kejahatan pornografi di Kabupaten Ponorogo serta bagaimana formulasi kebijakan untuk pencegahan dan penanggulangan kejahatan pornografi di Kabupaten Ponorogo. Kata kunci: Pornografi, Polres, KP3A

  10. KANDUNGAN ASAM AMINO, TAURIN, MINERAL MAKRO-MIKRO, DAN VITAMIN B12 UBUR-UBUR (Aurelia aurita SEGAR DAN KERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - - Nurjanah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan komposisi gizi, asam amino, taurin, mineral makro dan mikro,dan vitamin B12 pada ubur-ubur (Aurelia aurita segar dan kering. Asam amino esensial pada ubur-uburyaitu arginina, leusina, valina, treonina, lisina, isoleusina, fenilalanina, metionina, dan histidina, sedangkanasam amino non esensial yaitu asam glutamat, glisina, asam aspartat, serina, alanina, dan tirosina. Asamamino esensial tertinggi segar dan kering adalah arginina sebesar 1,72% (bk dan 1,44% (bk dan terendahhistidina yaitu sebesar 0,19% (bk dan 0,13% (bk. Asam amino non esensial segar dan kering tertinggiadalah asam glutamat dan glisina yaitu sebesar 3,26% (bk dan 2,62% (bk dan terkecil tirosina sebesar0,38% (bk dan 0,41% (bk. Taurin segar sebesar 2,68% (bk dan kering sebesar 0,67% (bk. Mineral makrotertinggi segar dan kering adalah natrium yaitu 180.092,1 ppm (bk dan 111.209,4 ppm (bk, terkecil adalahkalsium yaitu 5.750,2 ppm (bk dan 11,1 ppm (bk. Mineral mikro tertinggi segar dan kering adalah iodium yaitu8.291,5 ppm (bk dan 1.800 ppm (bk dan yang terkecil adalah tembaga yaitu 1,1 ppm (bk dan 0,6 ppm (bk.Vitamin B12 segar adalah 396,6 μm/100 g (bk dan kering 63,5 μm/100 g (bk.Kata kunci: asam amino, mineral, taurin, ubur-ubur (Aurelia aurita, vitamin B12

  11. New mechanisms of disease and parasite-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Tiago Alves Jorge; de Carli, Gabriel Jose; Pereira, Tiago Campos

    2016-09-01

    An unconventional interaction between a patient and parasites was recently reported, in which parasitic cells invaded host's tissues, establishing several tumors. This finding raises various intriguing hypotheses on unpredicted forms of interplay between a patient and infecting parasites. Here we present four unusual hypothetical host-parasite scenarios with intriguing medical consequences. Relatively simple experimental designs are described in order to evaluate such hypotheses. The first one refers to the possibility of metabolic disorders in parasites intoxicating the host. The second one is on possibility of patients with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) being more resistant to parasites (due to accumulation of toxic compounds in the bloodstream). The third one refers to a mirrored scenario: development of tumors in parasites due to ingestion of host's circulating cancer cells. The last one describes a complex relationship between parasites accumulating a metabolite and supplying it to a patient with an IEM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. seasonal variation of intestinal parasitic infections among hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...

  13. Exploitation Strategies in Social Parasites of Fungus Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Janni Dolby

    One of the most remarkable and complex parasitic interactions is social parasitism, where a parasite exploits a complete society, rather than an individual organism. By integrating into a society the parasite gains protection against predators and diseases, and can redirect resources from the host...... to increase its own fitness. The host will use a sophisticated recognition system in order to accept nestmates and expel intruders from their societies. However this defence barrier can be overcome by parasites. Among the most specialized social parasites are the inquilines that exploit social insect colonies...... to this are Acromyrmex insinuator and Acromyrmex ameliae, parasites of fungus-growing ants. By still producing a worker caste both species offers a rare opportunity to study adaptive features in parasite worker behaviour. Furthermore can closely related inquiline-host combinations give us an insight in the trade...

  14. Does moving up a food chain increase aggregation in parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, R J G; McVinish, R

    2016-05-01

    General laws in ecological parasitology are scarce. Here, we evaluate data on numbers of fish parasites published by over 200 authors to determine whether acquiring parasites via prey is associated with an increase in parasite aggregation. Parasite species were grouped taxonomically to produce 20 or more data points per group as far as possible. Most parasites that remained at one trophic level were less aggregated than those that had passed up a food chain. We use a stochastic model to show that high parasite aggregation in predators can be solely the result of the accumulation of parasites in their prey. The model is further developed to show that a change in the predators feeding behaviour with age may further increase parasite aggregation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Parasitic infections in African pangolin ( Manis temminckii ) from Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amblyomma sp.). Oochoristica sp. (100%) and Amblyomma sp. (75%) were the most prevalent parasites. Both male and female pangolins recorded equal prevalence (100%) of infection, however, mean intensity of parasites was higher in males ...

  16. Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Warthogs (Phacochoerus Africanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Warthogs (Phacochoerus Africanus) from the Nazinga Game Ranch of Burkina Faso. ... the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in warthogs from the Nazinga Game Ranch of ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Kemampuan Penalaran Dan Komunikasi Matematis : Apa, Mengapa, Dan Bagaimana Ditingkatkan Pada Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cita Dwi Rosita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Matematika diberikan kepada semua siswa tanpa terkecuali agar terlatih berpikir secara logis, analitis, sistematis, dan kreatif. Dengan kompetensi-kompetensi tersebut diharapkan siswa dapat memiliki kemampuan menerima, mengelola, dan memanfaatkan pengetahuan yang diperolehnya untuk bertahan hidup dalam keadaan yang selalu berubah dan kompetitif. Latihan berpikir, merumuskan dan memecahkan masalah serta mengambil kesimpulan akan membantu siswa untuk mengembangkan pemikirannya atau intelegensinya. Dengan demikian, semakin banyak siswa berlatih memecahkan masalah matematis maka akan semakin mengerti dan berkembang cara berpikirnya. Kemahiran siswa dalam memecahkan masalah matematis, dipengaruhi oleh kemampuannya dalam memahami matematika. Kemampuan bernalar berperan penting dalam memahami matematika. Bernalar secara matematis merupakan suatu kebiasaan berpikir, dan layaknya suatu kebiasaan, maka penalaran semestinya menjadi bagian yang konsisten dalam setiap pengalaman-pengalaman matematis siswa. Dari pengalaman-pengalaman awal siswa belajar materi matematika, penting bagi guru untuk membantu siswa memahami bahwa penegasan-penegasan harus selalu mempunyai alasan. Komunikasi matematis berperan penting pada proses pemecahan masalah. Melalui komunikasi ide bisa menjadi objek yang dihasilkan dari sebuah refleksi, penghalusan, diskusi, dan pengembangan. Proses komunikasi juga membantu dalam proses pembangunan makna dan pempublikasian ide. Ketika para siswa ditantang untuk berpikir dan bernalar tentang matematika dan mengomunikasikan hasil pikiran mereka secara lisan atau dalam bentuk tulisan, sebenarnya mereka sedang belajar menjelaskan dan meyakinkan. Mendengarkan penjelasan lain, berarti sedang memberi kesempatan kepada siswa untuk mengembangkan pemahaman mereka.

  18. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the world and specific country. Many infectious diseases transmitted in food and water can also be acquired directly through the fecal-oral route. Parasitic Illnesses That Can Be Acquired During Travel* From Contaminated Food and Water More ... filariasis African sleeping sickness Onchoceriasis *This list ...

  19. Quantifying Transmission Investment in Malaria Parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Greischar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many microparasites infect new hosts with specialized life stages, requiring a subset of the parasite population to forgo proliferation and develop into transmission forms. Transmission stage production influences infectivity, host exploitation, and the impact of medical interventions like drug treatment. Predicting how parasites will respond to public health efforts on both epidemiological and evolutionary timescales requires understanding transmission strategies. These strategies can rarely be observed directly and must typically be inferred from infection dynamics. Using malaria as a case study, we test previously described methods for inferring transmission stage investment against simulated data generated with a model of within-host infection dynamics, where the true transmission investment is known. We show that existing methods are inadequate and potentially very misleading. The key difficulty lies in separating transmission stages produced by different generations of parasites. We develop a new approach that performs much better on simulated data. Applying this approach to real data from mice infected with a single Plasmodium chabaudi strain, we estimate that transmission investment varies from zero to 20%, with evidence for variable investment over time in some hosts, but not others. These patterns suggest that, even in experimental infections where host genetics and other environmental factors are controlled, parasites may exhibit remarkably different patterns of transmission investment.

  20. Plant-parasitic nematodes in Hawaiian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii’s diverse and mild climate allows for the cultivation of many crops. The introduction of each crop plant brought along its associated nematode pests. These plant-parasitic nematodes became established and are now endemic to the islands. Plantation agriculture determined the major nematode ...

  1. Oxidative Stress Control by Apicomplexan Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S. Bosch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites cause infectious diseases that are either a severe public health problem or an economic burden. In this paper we will shed light on how oxidative stress can influence the host-pathogen relationship by focusing on three major diseases: babesiosis, coccidiosis, and toxoplasmosis.

  2. Impact of the invasive parasitic copepod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Bedolfe; Drent, J.; van der Meer, J.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive species can indirectly affect native species by modifying parasite–host dynamics and disease occurrence. This scenario applies to European coastal waters where the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) co-introduced the parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis that spills

  3. THE PARASITIC DISEASES OF MAN IN AFRICA *

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wind, and Cd) the existence of forests. ... its incidence seems to vary almost from town to town. It is possible, of ... land and in some parts of Bechuanaland, but in Southern ... In a small survey in ... new dam, and the establishment of irrigation projects spreads ... have been linked with a poor diet, the possibility of a parasitic.

  4. Prevalence of potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites detected in dog faeces from Ibadan metropolis showed that infected stray dogs roam the streets and constitute potential risk to human health. This study suggests the need for enforcement of laws restraining roaming or straying dogs and proper veterinary care of dogs.

  5. Knowledge based assessment of intestinal parasitic Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an apparent lack of information on the risk and clinical symptoms of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) among students attending boarding secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This questionnaire-based survey attempts to assess some behavioural habits, possible risk factor(s) as well as clinical symptoms ...

  6. Gastrointestinal parasites and Trypanosoma evansi in buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, R.A.; Chandrawathani, P.; Rosli, M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitism is common in buffalo calves. The effect of helminths on growth was studied by administration of an anthelmintic to buffalo calves following natural infections with gastrointestinal parasites. In studies conducted on calves belonging to an institute and a smallholder farmer, the treated calves showed improved weight gains. Serial parasitic examinations showed these animals had moderate to high faecal counts with Strongyloides, Toxocara vitulorum and Haemonchus eggs and Eimeria oocytes. In another study, there was no live weight advantage in treated over untreated calves. Few animals in this study had evidence of parasites and even those which were infested had low faecal egg counts. Hence, in general, helminths at certain levels of infection do affect the live weight gains of young buffalo calves. The prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi, as assessed parasitologically using the haematocrit centrifugation technique and mice inoculation, was 2.7 and 1%, respectively, in cattle and buffaloes. The serological prevalence using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was 35 and 2% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  7. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  8. Impacts of globalization on foodborne parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010 an estimated 3% of the world’s population lived outside their country of origin. Among immigrants, tourists, and business travellers worldwide several foodborne parasites are frequently found including Ascaris, Trichiuris, hookworms, Enterobius, Fasciola, Hymenolepis, and several protozoa. T...

  9. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite - Discovery of its Route - From Man to Mosquito and Back. Shobhona Sharma. General Article Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 4-13 ...

  10. Dealing with Parasites in Group Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Judy H.

    While it is generally accepted that people working in groups can accomplish more than people working individually, it is equally accepted that parasites will attempt to feed on the other group members. Group work has been called by several names--group learning, cooperative learning, collaborative learning--all of which carry slightly different…

  11. O&P (Ova and Parasite) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unwisely or accidentally drink untreated water or contaminated food. Those who travel outside the U.S., especially to developing nations, may ... parasitic infection? The best way is to avoid food and water ... This is especially true if you travel to emerging nations, where ice in a drink ...

  12. Metamorphosis in balanomorphan, pedunculated, and parasitic barnacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Maruzzo, Diego; Okano, Keiju

    2012-01-01

    Cypris metamorphosis was followed using video microscopy in four species of cirripeds representing the suspension-feeding pedunculated and sessile Thoracica and the parasitic Rhizocephala. Cirripede metamorphosis involves one or more highly complex molts that mark the change from a free cypris...

  13. Evolution of parasitism in kinetoplastid flagellates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Julius; Skalický, Tomáš; Týč, Jiří; Votýpka, Jan; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 2 (2014), s. 115-122 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Evolution * Phylogeny * Vectors * Diversity * Parasitism * Trypanosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.787, year: 2014

  14. Daphnia can protect diatoms from fungal parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagami, M.; Van Donk, E.; De Bruin, A.; Rijkeboer, M.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Many phytoplankton species are susceptible to chytrid fungal parasitism. Much attention has been paid to abiotic factors that determine whether fungal infections become epidemic. It is still unknown, however, how biotic factors, such as interactions with zooplankton, affect the fungal infection

  15. 4 Parasitism of Plutella xylostella.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Plutellidae) Populations on Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. ... Agricultural Research Centers, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana ... production of cabbage, 26.2% of the variation in parasitism was due to the ... Fertiliser use included a split application of 450 kg/ha of 15:15:15 NPK at 7 ... and of no economic impact.

  16. Reprint of "Fish immunity to scuticociliate parasites"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzon de Haro, M.C.; Leiro, J.; Lamas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Some species of scuticociliates (Ciliophora) behave as facultative parasites and produce severe mortalities in cultured fish. Pathogenic scuticociliates can cause surface lesions and can also penetrate inside the body, where they feed on tissue and proliferate in the blood and most internal organs,

  17. Chemotherapeutic targets in parasites: contemporary strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mansour, Tag E; Mansour, Joan MacKinnon

    2002-01-01

    ... identify effective antiparasitic agents. An introduction to the early development of parasite chemotherapy is followed by an overview of biophysical techniques and genomic and proteomic analyses. Several chapters are devoted to specific types of chemotherapeutic agents and their targets in malaria, trypanosomes, leishmania, and amitochondrial...

  18. A Feast of Malaria Parasite Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Jane M; Sullivan, Steven A

    2017-03-08

    The Plasmodium genus has evolved over time and across hosts, complexifying our understanding of malaria. In a recent Nature paper, Rutledge et al. (2017) describe the genome sequences of three major human malaria parasite species, providing insight into Plasmodium evolution and raising the question of how many species there are. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cultivation of Parasitic Leptospires: Effect of Pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. C.; Walby, J.; Henry, R. A.; Auran, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Sodium pyruvate (100 μg/ml) is a useful addition to the Tween 80-albumin medium for the cultivation of parasitic serotypes. It is most effective in promoting growth from small inocula and growth of the nutritionally fastidious serotypes. Images PMID:4580191

  20. Lipids of Parasitic and Saprophytic Leptospires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. C.; Livermore, B. P.; Walby, Judith K.; Jenkin, H. M.

    1970-01-01

    The lipid composition of five parasitic and six saprophytic leptospires was compared. Lipids comprise 18 to 26% of the dry weight of the cells after chloroform-methanol extraction. No residual (bound) lipid was found after acid or alkaline hydrolysis of the extracted residue. The total lipid was composed of 60 to 70% phospholipid, and the remaining lipid was free fatty acids. The phospholipid fraction contained phosphatidylethanolamine as the major component, and phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol were minor components with traces of lysophatidylethanolamine sometimes found. The major fatty acids of leptospires were hexadecanoic, hexadecenoic, and octadecenoic acids. Both the unusual cis-11-hexadecenoic acid and the more common cis-9-hexadecenoic acid were synthesized by the leptospires. Neither the parasitic nor the saprophytic leptospires can chain elongate fatty acids. However, they were capable of β-oxidation of fatty acids. Both groups of leptospires desaturate fatty acids by an aerobic pathway. When the parasite canicola was cultivated on octadecanoic acid, 87% of the hexadecenoic acid was the 11 isomer, whereas the saprophyte semeranga consisted of 10% of this isomer. In addition, the saprophytic leptospires contained more tetradecanoic acid than the parasites. No differences were observed in the lipid composition of virulent and avirulent strains of canicola. PMID:16557833

  1. Blood parasites in North American waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1968-01-01

    One thing seems to stand out in the overall knowledge we have of the blood parasites of waterfowl, as previously noted by Herman and Wehr, (1954): the greatest potential of losses is in the younger age groups, usually those birds 5-10 weeks old. In Leucocytozoon infections, death occurs as early as the first or second week of the bird's life. As a conclusion to this presentation, I wish to emphasize that there are many gaps in our knowledge of these parasites and that the answers are to be obtained by further studies in the young birds. Data obtained from studies of birds shot by hunters or from specimens taken during fall or winter banding operations can be expected to be far less rewarding and significanf than studies of goslings and ducklings. We need much more knowledge of these parasites and their vectors and other relationships before we can develop management procedures to combat or contain them. It will require many more studies in depth to achieve this goal, but the facts are there waiting to be uncovered. These parasites will have to be regulated along with breeding habitat, hunter take, and other factors that all add up to maintenance and management of waterfowl.

  2. The Health Problems, Gastrointestinal and Blood Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The report on the disease conditions in donkeys in most West African countries is scanty in literature. This study was conducted to identify the health related problems including gastrointestinal and blood parasites of donkeys at the Bolgatanga livestock market in the Upper East region of Ghana from July to December, 2012.

  3. KEADILAN ORGANISASIONAL DAN KONSEKUENSINYA TERHADAP ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR GURU SMA DAN SMK KOTA MADIUN*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Agustini Srimulyani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Keadilan organisasional memiliki potensi untuk menciptakan manfaat besar bagi organisasi dan karyawan, dan salah satu manfaatnya adalah menumbuhkan extra-role behavior (ERB atau organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk menganalisis konsekuensi keadilan organisasional (keadilan distributif, keadilan prosedural, dan keadilan interaksional pada organizational citizenship behavior guru SMA dan guru SMK di Kota Madiun. OCB dibagi menjadi dua jenis yaitu citizenship behaviors directed toward individuals (OCB-I dan citizenship behaviors directed towards the organisation (OCB-O. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan metode survei. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 409 guru, yang dipilih secara non-acak. Data diperoleh dengan menyebarkan kuesioner. Analisis data menggunakan analisis regresi. Hasil penelitian disimpulkan: keadilan distributif dan keadilan interaksional berpengaruh positif signifikan terhadap OCB-I dan OCB-O; keadilan prosedural tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap OCB-I tetapi keadilan prosedural berpengaruh positif signifikan terhadap OCB-O.

  4. [Research progress on cathepsin F of parasitic helminths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zi-Gang; Fu, Bao-Quan

    2013-10-01

    Cathepsin F is an important member of papain-like subfamily in cysteine protease family. Cathepsin F of helminth parasites can hydrolyze the specific substrate, degrade host protein such as hemoglobin for nutrition, and be involved in invasion into host tissue. Therefore, cathepsin F serves as a potential target for parasitic disease immunodiagnosis, vaccine design and anti-parasite drug screening. This article reviews the structural characteristics and mechanisms of cathepsin F, and research advances on cathepsin F of parasitic helminths.

  5. ANALISIS TINGKAT KEPUASAN DAN HARAPAN PASEN TERHADAP PELAYANAN PUSKESMAS DAN RUMAH SAKIT DAERAH PROVINSI DIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarto Sunarto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Kepuasan merupakan perasaan seseorang mengenai kesenangan atau kekecewaan sebagai hasil membandingkan antara kinerja dan harapan. Jumlah kunjungan Puskesmas tahun 2007 sebesar 3.094.027 pasien yang terdiri dari 3.076442 rawat jalan dan 17.585 rawat inap. Penelitian untuk mengentahui gambaran tingkat kepuasan dan untuk mengetahui perbedaan tingkat kepuasan dan harapan pasien yang mendapatkan pelayanan Puskemas dan rumah sakit menurut wilayah Kabupatet / Kota di Propinsi DIY Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif analitik dengan menggunakan rancangan cros sectional. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuisioner dengan 35 item pernyataan yang diambil dari atribut-atribut SERVQUAL dalam 5 dimensi. Total sampel untuk lima Kabupaten Kota sebanyak 1000, masing-masing Kabupaten Kota 200. Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap pasien yang menerima pelayanan kesehatan di Puskesmas dan Rumah Sakit Daerah di Kabupaten-Kota Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Penilaian tingkat kepuasan pasien ketika mereka berobat ke Puskesmas dan Rumah Sakit di Propinsi DIY, dengan menggunakan skala O sampai 4. Hasilnya adalah dimensi tangibles, rata-rata kepuasan pasien (2,96 cukup dan harapan pasien (3,38 pada dimensi reliability, rata-rata kepuasan pasien (3,01 bagus dan harapan pasien (3,40. Pada dimensi responsiveness, rata-rata kepuasan pa-sien (3,07 bagus dan harapan pasien (3,42. Dimensi assurance, rata-rata kepuasan pasien (3, 1 0 bagus dan harapan pasien (3 ,42. pada dimensi emphaty, rata-rata kepuasan pasien (3,02 bagus dan harapan pasien (3,35. Hasil uji statistik didapatkan nilai p > 0.05, berarti pada alpha 5%, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan tingkat kepuasan diantara kelima wilayah kabupaten/kota di DIY. Penilaian tingkat kepuasan pasien, ketika mereka berkunjung ke Puskesmas dan Rumah Sakit di DIY secara rata-rata bagus dan tidak ada perbedaan tingkat kepuasan menurut wilayah Kabupaten-Kota di Propinsi DIY. Kata Kunci : Kepuasan, harapan

  6. Trichinella inflammatory myopathy: host or parasite strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiumiento Lorena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The parasitic nematode Trichinella has a special relation with muscle, because of its unique intracellular localization in the skeletal muscle cell, completely devoted in morphology and biochemistry to become the parasite protective niche, otherwise called the nurse cell. The long-lasting muscle infection of Trichinella exhibits a strong interplay with the host immune response, mainly characterized by a Th2 phenotype. The aim of this review is to illustrate the role of the Th2 host immune response at the muscle level during trichinellosis in different experimental models, such as knock-out or immuno-modulated mice. In particular, in knock-out mice a crucial role of IL-10 is evident for the regulation of inflammation intensity. The muscular host immune response to Trichinella is partially regulated by the intestinal phase of the parasite which emphasizes the intensity of the following muscle inflammation compared with animals infected by synchronized injections of newborn larvae. In eosinophil-ablated mice such as PHIL and GATA-- animals it was observed that there was an increased NOS2 expression in macrophages, driven by higher IFN-γ release, thus responsible for muscle larva damage. Besides modulation of the intestinal stage of the infection, using recombinant IL-12, increases the muscular parasite burden delaying adult worm expulsion from the intestine. Furthermore, a Th1 adjuvant of bacterial origin called Helicobacter pylori neutrophil activating protein (HP-NAP, administered during the intestinal phase of trichinellosis, alters the Th2 dependent response at muscle level. All these data from the literature delineate then a mutual adaptation between parasite and host immune response in order to achieve a strategic compromise between two evolutionary forces pointed towards the survival of both species.

  7. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. II. Parasites of Desmidiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations carried out on the Desmidiaceae revealed the following species of fungi parasitizing on desmids: Myzocytium megastomum, Lagenidium closterii, Ancylistes closterii and Rhizophydium globosum. Legenidium closterii is new in Poland. It is the first information of this species as a parasite on the algae from the genus Tetmemorus. Figures of sporangia of Rhizophydium globosum on Euastrum ansatum, Cosmarium botrytis, C. pseudamoenum and a resting spore on Staurastrum punctulatum are the first graphic documentation of this species.

  8. Nematode parasites of animals are more prone to develop xenobiotic resistance than nematode parasites of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we concentrate on a comparison of plant and animal-parasitic nematodes, to gain insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of the drug resistance by nematodes. Comparing nematode parasite of domestic animals and cultivated plants, it appears that drug resistance threatens only domestic animal production. Does the paucity of report on nematicide field resistance reflect reality or, is nematicide resistance bypassed by other management practices, specific to cultivated plants (i.e. agricultural control ? First, it seems that selection pressure by treatments in plants is not as efficient as selection pressure in ruminants. Agronomic practices (i.e. sanitation, early planting, usage of nematodes resistant cultivar and crop rotation are frequently used to control parasitic-plant nematodes. Although the efficiency of such measures is generally moderate to high, integrated approaches are developing successfully in parasitic-plant nematode models. Secondly, the majority of anthelmintic resistance cases recorded in animal-parasitic nematodes concern drug families that are not used in plant-parasitic nematodes control (i.e. benzimidazoles, avermectines and levamisole. Thirdly, particular life traits of parasitic-plant nematodes (low to moderate fecundity and reproductive strategy are expected to reduce probability of appearance and transmission of drug resistance genes. It has been demonstrated that, for a large number of nematodes such as Meloidogyne spp., the mode of reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis reduced genetic diversity of populations which may prevent a rapid drug resistance development. In conclusion, anthelmintic resistance develops in nematode parasite of animals as a consequence of an efficient selection pressure. Early detection of anthelmintic resistance is then crucial : it is not possible to avoid it, but only to delay its development in farm animal industry.

  9. Produksi Panel Dinding Bangunan Tahan Gempa dan Ramah Lingkungan dari Limbah Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun Industri Minyak dan Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Hakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan hasil uji karakteristik fisik terhadap panel dinding dari komposit limbah industry migas berupa activated alumina, sandblasting dan glasswall yang telah dilakukan pada tahun pertama diketahui bahwa kuat lentur tertinggi diperoleh dari sampel B4 yaitu sebesar 67,8 Kg/Cm2 dengan standar DIN 1101 17 Kg/cm2, kuat desak sampel B 2 68,31 N/mm2 dengan standar bata merah 25 N/mm2 dan batako 20 N/mm2 dan tingkat keausan terendah diperoleh dari sampel 37 streap. Dari hasil tersebut diketahui bahwa uji telah memiliki kemampuan lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan standar yang berlaku. Maka pada penelitian lanjutan yang akan dilakukan bertujuan untuk mempelajari apakah produk panel dinding ini ramah lingkungan sehingga aman bagi kesehatan manusia dan lingkungan sekitarnya.Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode uji toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP dan LC50 terhadap produk panel dinding terbaik. Uji TCLP yang akan dilakukan yaitu dengan cara mendestruksi dan ekstraksi produk panel dinding dengan menggunakan rotating agitator selama 24 jam kemudian diuji dengan menggunakan AAS untuk mengetahui konsentrasi logam berat yang terdapat dalam produl panel dinding. Adapun untuk uji LC50 dilakukan dengan menggunakan hewan uji larva udang atau tikus.Berdasarkan hasil uji TCLP dan LC50 diketahui bahwa: a Kadar kandungan logam berat yang terdapat di dalam wall panel setelah dilakukan uji TCLP ternyata berada dibawah baku mutu seperti yang telah ditetapkan dalam PP No.85 Tahun 1999. Jadi ini artinya produk wall panel dalam penelitian ini ramah lingkungan, b pengujian terhadap bahan baku wall panel, Limbah Activated Alumina, Sandblasting dan Glasswoll sebelum di solidifikasi dapat mematikan sebesar 50% hewan uji pada konsentrasi 116.667 ppm dalam waktu 96 jam, dan c hasil uji LC50 terhadap produk wall panel selama 96 jam tidak menunjukkan adanya kematian hewan uji. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa produk wall panel dari

  10. UPAYA MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR, AKTIVITAS DAN SIKAP PADA MATERI GETARAN, GELOMBANG DAN BUNYI, MELALUI METODE DISKUSI, OBSERVASI, DAN EKSPERIMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Lestari Purnomowati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metodePenelitian Tindaan Kelas (PTK. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di  SMKN 3 Metro pada siswa Kelas XI-TKJa semester genapTahun Pelajaran 2012/2013 berjumlah 31 siswa.Sasaran perubahan dalam penelitian ini yaitu peningkatan hasil, aktivitas dan sikap siswa terhadap pelajaran Fisika. Peneliti dapat menyimpulkan bahwa peningkatan hasil belajargetaran, gelombang dan bunyi terjadi karena kerjasama siswa selama proses pembelajaran menumbuhkan suasana yang nyaman sekaligus kompetitif. Perubahan sikap siswa terhadap pelajaran Fisika semakin baik. Ketika pembelajaran fisika mampu memberikan apa yang diharapkan oleh siswa, yaitu siswa merasa nyaman, tidak terintimidasi oleh guru dan teman karena keterbatasan yang dimilikinya, terlibat dengan teman sejawat pada saat menyelesaikan tugas-tugas yang diberikan dengan diskusi, melakukan observasi, dan bereksperimen, maka persepsi terhadap fisika sebagai objek menjadi berubah lebih baik. Adanya interaksi siswa dengan media pembelajaran karena kegiatan mendiskusikan, mengobservasi, dan melakukan eksperimen mendorong siswa menjadi aktif selama proses pembelajaran. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metodePenelitian Tindaan Kelas (PTK. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di  SMKN 3 Metro pada siswa Kelas XI-TKJa semester genapTahun Pelajaran 2012/2013 berjumlah 31 siswa.Sasaran perubahan dalam penelitian ini yaitu peningkatan hasil, aktivitas dan sikap siswa terhadap pelajaran Fisika. Peneliti dapat menyimpulkan bahwa peningkatan hasil belajargetaran, gelombang dan bunyi terjadi karena kerjasama siswa selama proses pembelajaran menumbuhkan suasana yang nyaman sekaligus kompetitif. Perubahan sikap siswa terhadap pelajaran Fisika semakin baik. Ketika pembelajaran fisika mampu memberikan apa yang diharapkan oleh siswa, yaitu siswa merasa nyaman, tidak terintimidasi oleh guru dan teman karena keterbatasan yang dimilikinya, terlibat dengan teman sejawat pada saat menyelesaikan tugas-tugas yang

  11. From Fossil Parasitoids to Vectors: Insects as Parasites and Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Christina; Haug, Joachim T

    2015-01-01

    Within Metazoa, it has been proposed that as many as two-thirds of all species are parasitic. This propensity towards parasitism is also reflected within insects, where several lineages independently evolved a parasitic lifestyle. Parasitic behaviour ranges from parasitic habits in the strict sense, but also includes parasitoid, phoretic or kleptoparasitic behaviour. Numerous insects are also the host for other parasitic insects or metazoans. Insects can also serve as vectors for numerous metazoan, protistan, bacterial and viral diseases. The fossil record can report this behaviour with direct (parasite associated with its host) or indirect evidence (insect with parasitic larva, isolated parasitic insect, pathological changes of host). The high abundance of parasitism in the fossil record of insects can reveal important aspects of parasitic lifestyles in various evolutionary lineages. For a comprehensive view on fossil parasitic insects, we discuss here different aspects, including phylogenetic systematics, functional morphology and a direct comparison of fossil and extant species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intestinal Parasites in Children Attending Day Care Centers in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and twenty-one children (57.8%) of the 384 children studied had intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Trichuris trichura were the commonest parasites found. The relationship between intestinal parasite infestation and diarrhea in past 2 months (X =19.5, df = 1, p< 0.001 ...

  13. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of rams brought into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an effort to gain a better understanding into the role played by food animals in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites, we assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different breeds of rams brought into Abeokuta during a festive season by ... The only protozoan parasite identified was Eimeria spp.

  14. Innate lymphoid cells and parasites: Ancient foes with shared history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, D R; Fallon, P G

    2018-02-01

    This special issue of Parasite Immunology charts the rapid advances made in our understanding of the myriad interactions between innate lymphoid cells and parasites and how these interactions have shaped our evolutionary history. Here, we provide an overview of the issue and highlight key findings from studies in mice and man. © 2017 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Begging and cowbirds : brood parasites make hosts scream louder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Saino, Nicola; Garamszegi, Laszlo Z.

    2009-01-01

    Avian brood parasites have evolved striking begging ability that often allows them to prevail over the host progeny in competition for parental resources. Host young are therefore selected by brood parasites to evolve behavioral strategies that reduce the cost of parasitism. We tested the prediction

  16. Anuran parasites from three biotopes in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for Nigeria and a multi-host parasite. We suspect Hyperolius concolor to be a paratenic rather than a definitive host for the immature Camallanus sp. recovered from the frog. Other parasites using anurans as paratenic hosts were also encountered. Keywords: Anurans, parasites, ecological biotopes, Rivers State, Nigeria ...

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV seropositive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opportunistic parasites such as Cryptosporidium,. Cyclospora and Isospora species. It is also important to note that this report will be the first documentation on HIV/AIDS and intestinal parasites from this center. And it aims to determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation, including protozoan species ...

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-29

    Oct 29, 2010 ... Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in. HIV-positive patients is advocated. Keywords: intestinal parasites; HIV; CD4 count; Demographics; Benin City. Received: 2 August 2010; Revised: 25 September 2010; ...

  19. Will Climate Change Affect Parasite- Host Relationship? | Okolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research examining the causal relationships between climate, climate change and parasite ecology is the focus of increased attention. Understanding how parasites are likely to be affected by climate change requires an examination of the interactions between climate and parasite ecology and transmission.

  20. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  1. Phenolic acid changes during Orobanche parasitism on faba bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work is intended to provide further information on broomrape parasitism based on phenolic acid changes in either the host plant(s) or in each of the host and the parasite in the host-parasite system. Detection of phenolic acids was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the host ...

  2. Parasites and associated packed cell volume changes of captive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that out of the 126 captive wild birds examined during the period, 98 (77.8%) were infected with at least one parasite species. Arthropod parasites were encountered in 63 (34.1%) birds and the parasites recovered were Echidnophaga gallinacea (27.0%), Argas persicus (18.2%) and Ctnemidocoptes ...

  3. Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of our findings provide evidence that soil may play an important role in transmission of zoonotic parasite diseases to human. In addition, control of high population of animals such as stray dogs and cats is necessary to reduce the distribution of parasites. Key words: Prevalence, parasites, flotation method, Tehran.

  4. Parasitic Infections In A Developing Country: The Vermiform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vermiform appendix may become a yielding target and an innocent victim of intestinal parasitism. This is likely to occur more readily in those parts of the developing world in which the parasitic load in the community is high. This high parasitic load more commonly afflicts people of low socio-economic class. This report is ...

  5. burden of intestinal parasites amongst hiv/aids patients attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ABSTRACT. Background: Intestinal parasitic infections cause severe diarrhea especially in debilitated subjects with clinical ... Regional Hospital, Entamoeba histolytica and other intestinal parasites represented a common burden. .... Attempt was made to go through all the fields of ..... Control of Intestinal parasite Infections.

  6. Dhenggung Asmarandana dan Dhegung Banten: Sebuah Komparasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh -

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Comparation of Dhenggung Asmarandana and Dhegung Banten. Penelitian ini membahas perbandinganantara gending Dhenggung Asmaradana gaya Surakarta dengan gending Dhegung Banten gaya Yogyakarta.Berdasarkan penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kedua gending memiliki persamaan dan perbedaan. Persamaankeduanya terletak pada laras, pathet, bentuk gendhing, struktur gendhing, serta balungan gending. Sedangkanperbedaannya hanya pada nama dan garap tabuhan bonang.

  7. PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI DAN KEBUTUHAN PANGAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rusdiana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pertumbuhan ekonomi berpengaruh terhadap kebutuhan pangan, sesuai dengan pertambahan jumah penduduk. Kebutuhan pangan di Indonesia hampir dapat dipenuhi semua, dari potensi domestik, kecuali untuk komoditas pangan asal daging impor dan kedelai yang masih mengalami defisit, sedangkan untuk beras, jagung, kacang maupun ubi, telor, daging ayam, dan susu mengalami surplus yang tinggi. Tujuan tulisan ini untuk mengetahui petumbuhan ekonomi dan kebutuhan pangan di Indonesia, sehingga dapat diatasi dengan penyediaan pangan asal pertanian dan peternakan sesuai kebutuhan. Pemerintah dapat mempertahankan dan berupaya terus memacu pembangunan ketahanan pangan, melalui program yang benar-benar mampu memperkokoh untuk ketahanan pangan, sekaligus dapat meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat. Kebijakan pembangunan nasional dalam rangka mewujudkan kedaulatan pangan yang diarahkan pada peningkatan produksi pangan asal daging sapi dan tanamanm pangan beras. Tingkat pendapatan rumah tangga dapat mencerminkanmenjadi salah satu ukuran kemampuan dalam mengakses konsumsi pangan yang dibutuhkan beserta keragamannya.Pertumbuhan komoditi pangan yang paling tinggi setiap tahun adalah komoditi beras, sedangkan kontribusi daging sapi dalam memenuhi kebutuhan protein hewani menduduki urutan yang kedua setelah daging unggas. Dalam pencapaian swasembada pangan perlu difokuskan pada terwujudnya ketahanan pangan dan pengembangan teknologi pangan, diharapkan mampu memfasilitasi program pasca panen dan pengolahan hasil pertanian, secara efektif, serta mendukung kebijakan pemerintah, lebih memperhatikan masalah ketahanan pangan yang ada di Indonesia.

  8. (Crustacés, Amphipodes) dans la

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enseignant1

    Fadil, 2006 (Crustacés, Amphipodes) dans la source Tataw (Moyen Atlas, Maroc) ... sous-espèces ou des formes locales multiples dans toute l'Europe centrale [3 - 10]. .... le pH, et la conductivité électrique ont été réalisées sur le terrain à l'aide ...

  9. Host-parasite interactions and ecology of the malaria parasite-a bioinformatics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izak, Dariusz; Klim, Joanna; Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2018-04-25

    Malaria remains one of the highest mortality infectious diseases. Malaria is caused by parasites from the genus Plasmodium. Most deaths are caused by infections involving Plasmodium falciparum, which has a complex life cycle. Malaria parasites are extremely well adapted for interactions with their host and their host's immune system and are able to suppress the human immune system, erase immunological memory and rapidly alter exposed antigens. Owing to this rapid evolution, parasites develop drug resistance and express novel forms of antigenic proteins that are not recognized by the host immune system. There is an emerging need for novel interventions, including novel drugs and vaccines. Designing novel therapies requires knowledge about host-parasite interactions, which is still limited. However, significant progress has recently been achieved in this field through the application of bioinformatics analysis of parasite genome sequences. In this review, we describe the main achievements in 'malarial' bioinformatics and provide examples of successful applications of protein sequence analysis. These examples include the prediction of protein functions based on homology and the prediction of protein surface localization via domain and motif analysis. Additionally, we describe PlasmoDB, a database that stores accumulated experimental data. This tool allows data mining of the stored information and will play an important role in the development of malaria science. Finally, we illustrate the application of bioinformatics in the development of population genetics research on malaria parasites, an approach referred to as reverse ecology.

  10. Maternal androgens in avian brood parasites and their hosts: responses to parasitism and competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Caldwell; Wingfield, John C.; Fox, David M.; Walker, Brian G.; Thomley, Jill E

    2017-01-01

    In the coevolutionary dynamic of avian brood parasites and their hosts, maternal (or transgenerational) effects have rarely been investigated. We examined the potential role of elevated yolk testosterone in eggs of the principal brood parasite in North America, the brown-headed cowbird, and three of its frequent host species. Elevated maternal androgens in eggs are a common maternal effect observed in many avian species when breeding conditions are unfavorable. These steroids accelerate embryo development, shorten incubation period, increase nestling growth rate, and enhance begging vigor, all traits that can increase the survival of offspring. We hypothesized that elevated maternal androgens in host eggs are a defense against brood parasitism. Our second hypothesis was that elevated maternal androgens in cowbird eggs are a defense against intra-specific competition. For host species, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with parasitized nests of small species, those whose nest success is most reduced by cowbird parasitism. For cowbirds, we found that elevated yolk testosterone was correlated with eggs in multiply-parasitized nests, which indicate intra-specific competition for nests due to high cowbird density. We propose experimental work to further examine the use of maternal effects by cowbirds and their hosts.

  11. Penerapan Sistem Remunerasi dan Kinerja Pelayanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wisesa Soetisna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Remunerasi dapat memengaruhi motivasi pegawai sekaligus meningkatkan kinerjanya. Demikian halnya di rumah sakit sebagai institusi pelayanan kesehatan yang padat modal, sumber daya manusia serta padat ilmu dan teknologi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis persepsi pegawai terhadap implementasi sistem remunerasi dan kinerja unit pelayanan bedah jantung dewasa (UPBJD di rumah sakit. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan mixed methods (kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Desain penelitian kuantitatif adalah potong lintang menggunakan instrumen kuesioner self-assessment. Sedangkan desain penelitian kualitatif adalah deskriptif, dilakukan melalui focus group discussion dan telaah dokumen pada data berupa buku jadwal, buku registrasi, catatan keperawatan, dan rekam medis. Pengambilan data dilakukan pada tahun 2013 di salah satu rumah sakit di Jakarta. Responden/informan adalah staf medis fungsional, perawat, dan petugas administrasi berjumlah 29 orang. Data dianalisis secara univariat (metode kuantitatif, dan content analysis (metode kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar staf medis fungsional dan perawat tidak puas (71,2% dengan beberapa hal dalam penerapan sistem remunerasi, seperti pada sistem penggajian dan penentuan grading. Terlihat kinerja unit pelayanan bedah jantung dewasa mengalami kenaikan setiap tahun sebelum dan setelah penerapan sistem remunerasi. Diharapkan agar rumah sakit ini dapat memperbaiki sistem remunerasi yang sesuai ketentuan kebijakan dan menyusun formulasi insentif dan bonus yang lebih sesuai dengan kondisi saat ini serta perlu dilakukan sosialisasi yang tepat dan evaluasi secara berkala. Implementation of Remuneration System and Service Performance Remuneration can influence worker`s motivation, and improve their performance. Likewise in hospital as capital-intensive, human resources-intensive as well as knowledge and technology-intensive health care institution. This study aimed to analyze employee

  12. HUBUNGAN NONMONOTONIK ANTARA KONTROL DAN KINERJA PERUSAHAAN

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    Gede Juliarsa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Dalam rerangka agency theory, manajemen perusahaan merupakan agent yang harus bertanggung jawab kepada pemegang saham sebagai principal. Agent diberikan tanggung jawab untuk mengelola aset principal untuk dapat dikelola secara ekonomis. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kinerja perusahaan dengan kepemilikan manajemen dan ukuran perusahaan. Studi ini menguji 46 kinerja perusahaan tahun 2001 terhadap perusahaan go public yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Jakarta.  Data diperoleh dari Indonesian Capital Market Directory 2002. Pengujian hubungan antara kinerja perusahaan menggunakan Economic Value Added, kepemilikan manajemen, dan ukuran perusahaan dilakukan dengan analisis regresi berganda dan korelasi. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa hubungan antara kinerja perusahaan, ukuran perusahaan, dan kepemilikan manajemen adalah tidak monotonik, tetapi secara signifikan curvilinear. Temuan ini sesuai dengan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Fogelberg dan Griffth (2000.   Kata kunci: economic value added, kepemilikan manajemen, kinerja,ukuran perusahaan, teori agensi

  13. Seminar dan Wokshop Jurnalistik Anak SMA “Yournalism”

    OpenAIRE

    T.R, Amal Gamasi; Nugroho, Adi; Setyabudi, Djoko

    2013-01-01

    PENDAHULUANMasyarakat Indonesia saat ini merupakan masyarakat informasi yangmenghabiskan sebagian besar waktunya dengan media komunikasi dan menggunakanteknologi informasi seperti ponsel dan komputer maupun laptop. Mereka akan mudahmelakukan pertukaran data informasi karena saat ini,mengingat konvergensi mediatidak hanya mengubah basis data dan medium yang menyalurkannya, tetapi jugasecara keseluruhan mengubah proses produksi, pengolahan, dan distribusi informasisehingga media-media seperti k...

  14. Genetics of simple and complex host-parasite interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, G.S.; Webster, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    In nature a host plant can be viewed as a miniature replica of an ecological system where true and incidental parasites share the same habitat. Consequently, they influence each other's presence directly by interspecific interaction, and indirectly by inducing changes in the host's physiology and so form disease complexes. Since all physiological phenomena have their counterpart in the respective genetic systems of interacting organisms, valuable genetic information can be derived from the analysis of complex parasitic systems. Disease complexes may be classified according to the nature of interaction between various parasites on the same host. One parasite may nullify the host's resistance to another (e.g. Tomato - Meloidogyne incognita + Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici system). Conversely, a parasite may invoke resistance in the host against another parasite (e.g. Tomato - Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici + Verticillium albo atrum system). From the study of simple parasitic systems we know that resistance versus susceptibility against a single parasite is normally monogenically controlled. However, when more than one parasite interacts to invoke or nullify each other's responses on the same host plant, the genetic results suggest epistatic ratios. Nevertheless, epistatic ratios have been obtained also from simple parasitic systems owing to gene interaction. The epistatic ratios obtained from complex and simple parasitic systems are contrasted and compared. It is suggested that epistatic ratios obtained from simple parasitic systems may, in fact, be artifacts resulting from complex parasitic associations that often occur in nature. Polygenic inheritance and the longevity of a cultivar is also discussed briefly in relation to complex parasitic associations. Induced mutations can play a significant role in the study of complex parasitic associations, and thus can be very useful in controlling plant diseases

  15. The bigger, the better? Volume measurements of parasites and hosts: Parasitic barnacles (Cirripedia, Rhizocephala and their decapod hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Nagler

    Full Text Available Rhizocephala, a group of parasitic castrators of other crustaceans, shows remarkable morphological adaptations to their lifestyle. The adult female parasite consists of a body that can be differentiated into two distinct regions: a sac-like structure containing the reproductive organs (the externa, and a trophic, root like system situated inside the hosts body (the interna. Parasitism results in the castration of their hosts, achieved by absorbing the entire reproductive energy of the host. Thus, the ratio of the host and parasite sizes is crucial for the understanding of the parasite's energetic cost. Using advanced imaging methods (micro-CT in conjunction with 3D modeling, we measured the volume of parasitic structures (externa, interna, egg mass, egg number, visceral mass and the volume of the entire host. Our results show positive correlations between the volume of (1 entire rhizocephalan (externa + interna and host body, (2 rhizocephalan externa and host body, (3 rhizocephalan visceral mass and rhizocephalan body, (4 egg mass and rhizocephalan externa, (5 rhizocephalan egg mass and their egg number. Comparing the rhizocephalan Sylon hippolytes, a parasite of caridean shrimps, and representatives of Peltogaster, parasites of hermit crabs, we could match their different traits on a reconstructed relationship. With this study we add new and significant information to our global understanding of the evolution of parasitic castrators, of interactions between a parasitic castrator and its host and of different parasitic strategies within parasitic castrators exemplified by rhizocephalans.

  16. TUGAS DAN WEWENANG PUSAT PELAPORAN DAN ANALISIS TRANSAKSI KEUANGAN (PPATK DALAM PEMBERANTASAN TINDAK PIDANA PENCUCIAN UANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johari Johari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tugas dan wewenang Pusat Pelaporan dan Analisis Transaksi Keuangan (PPATK terdapat di dalam Pasal 26 dan Pasal 27 Undang-Undang No. 25 Tahun 2003 tentang Tindak Pencucian Uang. Berdasarkan ketentuan tersebut, tugas dan wewenang PPATK tersebut bertujuan untuk mendeteksi terjadinya tindak pidana pencucian uang, dan membantu penegakan hukum yang berkaitan dengan pencucian uang, termasuk tindak pidana asal yang melahirkannya (predicate offences. Namun, Peranan PPATK akan berjalan secara efektif apabila aparat penegak hukum seperti Kepolisian, Kejaksaan, Pengadilan, Bea dan Cukai, para regulator seperti Bank Indonesia, Departemen Keuangan, Badan Pengawas Pasar Modal serta Penyedia Jasa Keuangan, industri perbankan, asuransi, perusahaan pembiayaan, dana pensiun, perusahaan efek, pengelola reksadana, media massa, masyarakat bekerjasama secara terorganisir dan terpadu dalam pemberantasan tindak pencucian uang di Indonesia. Dengan kewenangan yang dimilikinya, PPATK dapat mengejar hasil dari kejahatan, apabila hasil kejahatan tersebut dapat dikejar dan disita maka negara dengan sendirinya akan mengurangi tindak kejahatan itu sendiri. Kata kunci : Pencucian uang, tindak pidana pencucian uang (money laundering, kejahatan terorganisir, dan Pusat Pelaporan dan Analisis Transaksi Keuangan (PPATK.

  17. PENGARUH VARIETAS DAN SISTEM BUDIDAYA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, PRODUKSI, DAN KANDUNGAN GIZI JAGUNG (ZEA MAYS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukarie Ayu Wulandari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jagung merupakan bahan pangan yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai pangan lokal, pakan, dan bahan baku industri. Mengingat pentingnya jagung, maka perlu adanya upaya untuk peningkatan produktivitasnya. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh varietas dan sistem budidaya terhadap pertumbuhan, produksi, dan kandungan gizi jagung. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Petak Terbagi dengan petak utama varietas (Srikandi Putih-1 dan Srikandi Kuning-1 dan anak petak sistem budidaya (organik dan inorganik yang diulang lima kali. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa varietas Srikandi Putih-1 memberikan hasil tertinggi pada tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, luas daun, lingkar batang, pati, dan vitamin A. Varietas Srikandi Kuning-1 memberikan hasil tertinggi pada produksi, protein dan lemak. Sistem budidaya inorganik memberikan hasil tertinggi pada tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, panjang tongkol, bobot bersih tongkol, bobot pipilan kering, bobot 100 butir, konversihasil/ha, patidan protein. Interaksi varietas Srikandi Putih-1 dengan sistem budidaya organik memberikan hasil tertinggi terhadap jumlah daun, lingkar batang dan kandungan vitamin A. Varietas Srikandi Kuning-1 yang dibudidayakan secara inorganik memberikan hasil tertinggi terhadap bobot bersih tongkol, bobot pipilan kering, bobot 100 butir, konversi hasil ha-1 dan kandungan protein. Kandungan pati tertinggi pada varietas Srikandi Putih-1 yang dibudidayakan secara inorganik, sedangkan kandungan lemak tertinggi pada varietas Srikandi Kuning-1 yang dibudidayakan secara organik.

  18. Peran Mitra Strategis dan Agen Perubahan dalam Manajemen Talenta dan Kinerja Manajer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ketut Kusumawijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  The purposes of the study are to analyze: (1 characteristic of strategic partner and change agent roles, talent management and managers performance, (2 influence of strategic partner and change agent roles to talent management and its impact to managers performance. Four hundred hotel managers in Bali were participated in this study by using proportional random sampling. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and SEM. The result shows that: (1 strategic partner and change agent role, talent management and managers performance are in enough category, (2 positive and significant effect between strategic partner and change agent roles to talent management and its impact to managers performance. Keywords:Strategic Partner Role, Change Agent Role, Talent Management, Managers Performance.AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis: (1 karakteristik dari mitra strategis dan peran agen perubahan, manajemen bakat dan kinerja manajer, (2 pengaruh mitra strategis dan peran agen perubahan untuk manajemen bakat dan dampaknya terhadap kinerja manajer. Sebanyak empat ratus manajer hotel di Bali berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini dengan menggunakan proporsional random sampling. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan SEM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 mitra strategis dan peran agen perubahan, manajemen bakat dan kinerja manajer termasuk dalam kategori cukup, (2 pengaruh positif dan signifikan antara mitra strategis dan peran agen perubahan untuk manajemen bakat dan dampaknya terhadap kinerja manajer.Keywords: Peran Mitra Strategis, Peran Agen Perubahan, Manajemen Talenta, kinerja Manajer.

  19. Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Calogero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  20. Inca expansion and parasitism in the lluta valley: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Calogero; Vinton, Sheila Dorsey; Reinhard, Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  1. PENGARUH CARA PENGAWETAN TERHADAP KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN EFISIENSI DALAM BENTUK HAY DAN SILASE PADA DAUN 16 PROVENAN GAMAL (GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Puger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available RINGKASAN Percobaan yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh cara pengawetan terhadap kandungan zat-zat makanan dan efisiensinya pada daun 16 provenan gamal telah dilaksanakan selama 3 bulan. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap yang terdiri atas 3 perlakuan pengawetan (gamal segar, gamal hay, dan gamal silase dan 3 blok sebagai ulangan. Setiap perlakuan terdiri atas 16 provenan, yaitu 6 dari Mexico (M, 4 dari Guatemala (G, dan satu provenan masing-masing dari Colombia (C, Indonesia (I, Nicaragua (N, Panama (P, Costa Rica (R, dan Venezuela (V. Sampel setiap daun (helai dan tangkai provenan sebelum dan setelah diawetkan dianalisis kandungan zat-zat makanannya dan dihitung efisiensinya setelah dibuat hay dan silase. Kandungan DM dan CP dari hay adalah tertinggi (P0,05 setelah diawetkan menjadi hay dan silase, sedangkan efisiensi DM, OM, dan CP dari hay lebih tinggi (P<0,05 daripada silase. Provenan P13, R12, dan M34 mengandung zat-zat makanan lebih tinggi; sementara provenan G14 dan G17 lebih efisien bila diawetkan dalam bentuk hay dan silase. Pada pertanian lahan kering pengawetan gamal dalam bentuk hay lebih efektif dan efisien jika dibandingkan dengan dalam bentuk silase.

  2. Polyamine uptake by the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemand, J; Louw, A I; Birkholtz, L; Kirk, K

    2012-09-01

    Polyamines and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis are present at high levels in rapidly proliferating cells, including cancer cells and protozoan parasites. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis in asexual blood-stage malaria parasites causes cytostatic arrest of parasite development under in vitro conditions, but does not cure infections in vivo. This may be due to replenishment of the parasite's intracellular polyamine pool via salvage of exogenous polyamines from the host. However, the mechanism(s) of polyamine uptake by the intraerythrocytic parasite are not well understood. In this study, the uptake of the polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, into Plasmodium falciparum parasites functionally isolated from their host erythrocyte was investigated using radioisotope flux techniques. Both putrescine and spermidine were taken up into isolated parasites via a temperature-dependent process that showed cross-competition between different polyamines. There was also some inhibition of polyamine uptake by basic amino acids. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis led to an increase in the total amount of putrescine and spermidine taken up from the extracellular medium. The uptake of putrescine and spermidine by isolated parasites was independent of extracellular Na(+) but increased with increasing external pH. Uptake also showed a marked dependence on the parasite's membrane potential, decreasing with membrane depolarization and increasing with membrane hyperpolarization. The data are consistent with polyamines being taken up into the parasite via an electrogenic uptake process, energised by the parasite's inwardly negative membrane potential. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Richness patterns in the parasite communities of exotic poeciliid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, A D

    2000-06-01

    Three species of poeciliids (Gambusia holbrooki, Xiphophorus helleri and X. maculatus) and 15 species of ecologically similar native freshwater fishes (mainly eleotrids, ambassids, melanotaeniids and retropinnids) were examined for parasite richness to investigate parasite flux, qualitative differences, quantitative differences and the structuring factors in parasite communities in the 2 fish types in Queensland, Australia. Theory suggests that poeciliids would harbour depauperate parasite communities. Results supported this hypothesis; poeciliids harboured more species-poor parasite infracommunities and regional faunas than natives (P analysis of presence/absence data for poeciliids and the 6 most-sampled native fishes revealed that parasite communities of the 2 fish groups are qualitatively distinct; the proportion of parasite species with complex life-cycles was lower in poeciliids than in native species, and Myxosporea, Microspora, Coccidia and parasitic Crustacea were all absent from poeciliids. Limited exchange of parasite species has occurred between natives and poeciliids. Logistic ordinal regression analysis revealed that fish origin (exotic or native), environmental disturbance and host sex were all significant determinants of parasite community richness (P competitive advantage over native fishes because of their lack of parasites.

  4. Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J.; De Leo, Giulio A.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Dunne, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Kuris, Armand M.; Marcogliese, David J.; Martinez, Neo D.; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mordecai, Eerin A.; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists.

  5. Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andy; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Jetz, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the total number of species that inhabit the Earth have increased significantly since Linnaeus's initial catalog of 20,000 species. The best recent estimates suggest that there are ≈6 million species. More emphasis has been placed on counts of free-living species than on parasitic species. We rectify this by quantifying the numbers and proportion of parasitic species. We estimate that there are between 75,000 and 300,000 helminth species parasitizing the vertebrates. We have no credible way of estimating how many parasitic protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses exist. We estimate that between 3% and 5% of parasitic helminths are threatened with extinction in the next 50 to 100 years. Because patterns of parasite diversity do not clearly map onto patterns of host diversity, we can make very little prediction about geographical patterns of threat to parasites. If the threats reflect those experienced by avian hosts, then we expect climate change to be a major threat to the relatively small proportion of parasite diversity that lives in the polar and temperate regions, whereas habitat destruction will be the major threat to tropical parasite diversity. Recent studies of food webs suggest that ≈75% of the links in food webs involve a parasitic species; these links are vital for regulation of host abundance and potentially for reducing the impact of toxic pollutants. This implies that parasite extinctions may have unforeseen costs that impact the health and abundance of a large number of free-living species.

  6. Parasite Removal, but Not Herbivory, Deters Future Parasite Attachment on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjiurutue, Muvari Connie; Palmer-Young, Evan C.; Adler, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Plants face many antagonistic interactions that occur sequentially. Often, plants employ defense strategies in response to the initial damage that are highly specific and can affect interactions with subsequent antagonists. In addition to herbivores and pathogens, plants face attacks by parasitic plants, but we know little about how prior herbivory compared to prior parasite attachment affects subsequent host interactions. If host plants can respond adaptively to these different damage types, we predict that prior parasitism would have a greater deterrent effect on subsequent parasites than would prior herbivory. To test the effects of prior parasitism and prior herbivory on subsequent parasitic dodder (Cuscuta spp.) preference, we conducted two separate greenhouse studies with tomato hosts (Solanum lycopersicum). In the first experiment, we tested the effects of previous dodder attachment on subsequent dodder preference on tomato hosts using three treatments: control plants that had no previous dodder attachment; dodder-removed plants that had an initial dodder seedling attached, removed and left in the same pot to simulate parasite death; and dodder-continuous plants with an initial dodder seedling that remained attached. In the second experiment, we tested the effects of previous caterpillar damage (Spodoptera exigua) and mechanical damage on future dodder attachment on tomato hosts. Dodder attached most slowly to tomato hosts that had dodder plants previously attached and then removed, compared to control plants or plants with continuous dodder attachment. In contrast, herbivory did not affect subsequent dodder attachment rate. These results indicate that dodder preference depended on the identity and the outcome of the initial attack, suggesting that early-season interactions have the potential for profound impacts on subsequent community dynamics. PMID:27529694

  7. Parasite Removal, but Not Herbivory, Deters Future Parasite Attachment on Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muvari Connie Tjiurutue

    Full Text Available Plants face many antagonistic interactions that occur sequentially. Often, plants employ defense strategies in response to the initial damage that are highly specific and can affect interactions with subsequent antagonists. In addition to herbivores and pathogens, plants face attacks by parasitic plants, but we know little about how prior herbivory compared to prior parasite attachment affects subsequent host interactions. If host plants can respond adaptively to these different damage types, we predict that prior parasitism would have a greater deterrent effect on subsequent parasites than would prior herbivory. To test the effects of prior parasitism and prior herbivory on subsequent parasitic dodder (Cuscuta spp. preference, we conducted two separate greenhouse studies with tomato hosts (Solanum lycopersicum. In the first experiment, we tested the effects of previous dodder attachment on subsequent dodder preference on tomato hosts using three treatments: control plants that had no previous dodder attachment; dodder-removed plants that had an initial dodder seedling attached, removed and left in the same pot to simulate parasite death; and dodder-continuous plants with an initial dodder seedling that remained attached. In the second experiment, we tested the effects of previous caterpillar damage (Spodoptera exigua and mechanical damage on future dodder attachment on tomato hosts. Dodder attached most slowly to tomato hosts that had dodder plants previously attached and then removed, compared to control plants or plants with continuous dodder attachment. In contrast, herbivory did not affect subsequent dodder attachment rate. These results indicate that dodder preference depended on the identity and the outcome of the initial attack, suggesting that early-season interactions have the potential for profound impacts on subsequent community dynamics.

  8. THE EVOLUTION OF PARASITES FROM THEIR HOSTS: A CASE STUDY IN THE PARASITIC RED ALGAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Lynda J; Ashen, Jon; Moon, Debra

    1997-08-01

    Morphological similarities of many parasites and their hosts have led to speculation that some groups of plant, animal, fungal, and algal parasites may have evolved directly from their hosts. These parasites, which have been termed adelphoparasites in the botanical literature, and more recently, agastoparasites in the insect literature, may evolve monophyletically from one host and radiate secondarily to other hosts or, these parasites may arise polyphyletically, each arising from its own host. In this study we compare the internal transcribed spacer regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeats of species and formae specialis (host races) included in the red algal parasite genus Asterocolax with its hosts, which all belong to the Phycodrys group of the Delesseriaceae and with closely related nonhost taxa of the Delesseriaceae. These analyses reveal that species of Asterocolax have evolved polyphyletically. Asterocolax erythroglossi from the North Atlantic host Erythroglossum laciniatum appears to have evolved from its host, whereas taxa included in the north Pacific species Asterocolax gardneri have had two independent origins. Asterocolax gardneri from the host Polyneura latissima probably arose directly from this host. In contrast, all other A. gardneri formae specialis appear to have originated from either Phycodrys setchellii or P. isabelliae and radiated secondarily onto other closely related taxa of the Phycodrys group, including Nienburgia andersoniana and Anisocladella pacifica. Gamete crossing experiments confirm that A. gardneri from each host is genetically isolated from both its host, and from other A. gardneri and their hosts. Cross-infection experiments reveal that A. gardneri develops normally only on its natural host, although some abberrant growth may occur on alternate hosts. The ability of red algal parasites to radiate secondarily to other red algal taxa, where they may become isolated genetically and speciate, suggests that this process of

  9. Profil Gangguan Kognitif pada Tumor Intrakranial Primer dan Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika Maharani; Andira Larasari; Tiara Aninditha; Yetty Ramli

    2015-01-01

    Gangguan kognitif sering menyertai pasien tumor intrakranial dan menjadi penyebab utama disabilitas. Perbedaan patofisiologi tumor intrakranial primer (TIP) dan metastasis (TM) menyebabkan perbedaan gambaran klinis dan derajat  gangguan kognitif. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui prevalensi dan profil gangguan kognitif pasien TIP dan TM. Disain penelitian potong-lintang retrospektif menggunakan data sekunder dari Poliklinik Saraf RSCM pada bulan Januari 2011-Desember 2013. Subjek b...

  10. Isolasi, Karakterisasi dan Potensi Bakteri Aerob sebagai Pendegradasi Limbah Organik

    OpenAIRE

    Zahidah, Dinda; Shovitri, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengisolasi dan mengkarakterisasi bakteri aerob yang mampu mendegradasi amilum, protein dan selulosa. Penelitian ini berhasil memurnikan dan mengkarakterisasi isolat bakteri C5 yang cenderung masuk ke genus Bacillus. Berdasarkan uji kualitatif amilolitik, selulolitik dan proteolitik, diketahui bahwa isolat C5 memiliki indeks amilolitik (IA) sebesar 0.93, indeks selulolitik (IS) sebesar 1.95 dan indeks proteolitik (IP) sebesar 1.39

  11. Sex steroids, immune system, and parasitic infections: facts and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Castro, Karen; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    It has been widely reported that the incidence and the severity of natural parasitic infections are different between males and females of several species, including humans. This sexual dimorphism involves a distinct exposure of males and females to various parasite infective stages, differential effects of sex steroids on immune cells, and direct effects of these steroids on parasites, among others. Typically, for a large number of parasitic diseases, the prevalence and intensity is higher in males than females; however, in several parasitic infections, males are more resistant than females. In the present work, we review the effects of sex hormones on immunity to protozoa and helminth parasites, which are the causal agents of several diseases in humans, and discuss the most recent research related to the role of sex steroids in the complex host-parasite relationship. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Big bang in the evolution of extant malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Toshiyuki; Culleton, Richard; Otani, Hiroto; Horii, Toshihiro; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2008-10-01

    Malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) infect all classes of terrestrial vertebrates and display host specificity in their infections. It is therefore assumed that malaria parasites coevolved intimately with their hosts. Here, we propose a novel scenario of malaria parasite-host coevolution. A phylogenetic tree constructed using the malaria parasite mitochondrial genome reveals that the extant primate, rodent, bird, and reptile parasite lineages rapidly diverged from a common ancestor during an evolutionary short time period. This rapid diversification occurred long after the establishment of the primate, rodent, bird, and reptile host lineages, which implies that host-switch events contributed to the rapid diversification of extant malaria parasite lineages. Interestingly, the rapid diversification coincides with the radiation of the mammalian genera, suggesting that adaptive radiation to new mammalian hosts triggered the rapid diversification of extant malaria parasite lineages.

  13. Within- and among-family variation in parasite load and parasite-induced mortality in the land snail Arianta arbustorum, a host of parasitic mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüpbach, Hans Ulrich; Baur, Bruno

    2010-08-01

    Variation in host susceptibility and parasite-induced mortality are preconditions for parasite-related selection on host populations. In terrestrial gastropods, variation in resistance against ectoparasite infection is poorly understood. We examined the within- and among-family variation in parasite load in full-siblings of the land snail Arianta arbustorum experimentally infected with Riccardoella limacum , a mite living in the mantle cavity of helicid land snails. We also quantified the influence of family origin and host size on parasite load and calculated its heritability (h(2)). Furthermore, we examined the influence of parasite load, snail size, and family origin on host winter mortality, an important life-history trait of A. arbustorum . Parasite load was heritable (h(2) = 0.63). In infected snails, parasite load was affected by family origin and increased with increasing shell size. Host mortality during hibernation increased with increasing parasite load and differed among families, but was not affected by snail size. Our results show high among-family variation both in resistance against ectoparasite infection and in host winter mortality. Furthermore, we show that parasite load is linked to snail size, which suggests that the proliferation of R. limacum is limited by resources provided by A. arbustorum .

  14. Metazoan parasites of dogs in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAdam, I; Gudan, D; Timbs, D V; Urquhart, H R; Sewell, M M

    1984-02-01

    The parasites which occurred most frequently in 175 owned or stray dogs in Sabah were Ancylostoma spp. present in 68% of the animals. Dirofilaria immitis occurred in 70% of the adult dogs but neither D. immitis nor Spirocerca lupi were present in puppies under four months of age. The latter attained a prevalence of 30% in the adults. In contrast Toxocara canis occurred in 81% of the puppies but infrequently in older dogs. Dipylidium caninum was moderately prevalent (15 to 25%) in dogs of all ages. Ticks were the most common arthropod parasite being present on 26% of the dogs and were mainly Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Demodectic and sarcoptic mange were confirmed and fleas and lice were also recovered.

  15. Cytopathology of parasitic dermatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, N K; Mekkib, Berhanu; Singla, L D; Gupta, K

    2012-04-01

    Out of 44 cases of dermatitis in dogs, 11 cases of parasitic origin were analyzed by cytopathology. Histopathologic examination of punch biopsies was also done for correlation with cytologic findings. Sarcoptic dermatitis was recorded in six cases, wherein, besides sarcoptic mites, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells and keratinizing epithelial cells were also seen. Hematology revealed a relative neutrophilia and mild eosinophilia. Four cases of severe and generalized demodicosis complicated with bacteria and/or Malassezia sp. infection were also recorded. Histopathologically numerous Demodex sp. mites in varying stage of maturation were found damaging the hair follicles along with associated pathological changes and foreign body granulomas in one case. In addition, flea allergy dermatitis was also observed in one dog. In nutshell, cytology was found to be unequivocally effective in diagnosing parasitic dermatitis.

  16. Anthelmintic metabolism in parasitic helminths: proteomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Peter M; MacKintosh, Neil; Morphew, Russell M

    2012-08-01

    Anthelmintics are the cornerstone of parasitic helminth control. Surprisingly, understanding of the biochemical pathways used by parasitic helminths to detoxify anthelmintics is fragmented, despite the increasing global threat of anthelmintic resistance within the ruminant and equine industries. Reductionist biochemistry has likely over-estimated the enzymatic role of glutathione transferases in anthelmintic metabolism and neglected the potential role of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily (CYPs). Proteomic technologies offers the opportunity to support genomics, reverse genetics and pharmacokinetics, and provide an integrated insight into both the cellular mechanisms underpinning response to anthelmintics and also the identification of biomarker panels for monitoring the development of anthelmintic resistance. To date, there have been limited attempts to include proteomics in anthelmintic metabolism studies. Optimisations of membrane, post-translational modification and interaction proteomic technologies in helminths are needed to especially study Phase I CYPs and Phase III ABC transporter pumps for anthelmintics and their metabolites.

  17. Impacts of globalisation on foodborne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lucy J; Sprong, Hein; Ortega, Ynes R; van der Giessen, Joke W B; Fayer, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Globalisation is a manmade phenomenon encompassing the spread and movement of everything, animate and inanimate, material and intangible, around the planet. The intentions of globalisation may be worthy--but may also have unintended consequences. Pathogens may also be spread, enabling their establishment in new niches and exposing new human and animal populations to infection. The plethora of foodborne parasites that could be distributed by globalisation has only recently been acknowledged and will provide challenges for clinicians, veterinarians, diagnosticians, and everyone concerned with food safety. Globalisation may also provide the resources to overcome some of these challenges. It will facilitate sharing of methods and approaches, and establishment of systems and databases that enable control of parasites entering the global food chain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Are all red algal parasites cut from the same cloth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Salomaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is a common life strategy throughout the eukaryotic tree of life. Many devastating human pathogens, including the causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, have evolved from a photosynthetic ancestor. However, how an organism transitions from a photosynthetic to a parasitic life history strategy remains mostly unknown. This is largely because few systems present the opportunity to make meaningful comparisons between a parasite and a close free-living relative. Parasites have independently evolved dozens of times throughout the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta, and often infect close relatives. The accepted evolutionary paradigm proposes that red algal parasites arise by first infecting a close relative and over time diversify and infect more distantly related species. This provides a natural evolutionary gradient of relationships between hosts and parasites that share a photosynthetic common ancestor. Elegant microscopic work in the late 20th century provided detailed insight into the infection cycle of red algal parasites and the cellular interactions between parasites and their hosts. Those studies led to the use of molecular work to further investigate the origins of the parasite organelles and reveal the evolutionary relationships between hosts and their parasites. Here we synthesize the research detailing the infection methods and cellular interactions between red algal parasites and their hosts. We offer an alternative hypothesis to the current dogma of red algal parasite evolution and propose that red algae can adopt a parasitic life strategy through multiple evolutionary pathways, including direct infection of distant relatives. Furthermore, we highlight potential directions for future research to further evaluate parasite evolution in red algae.

  19. The Incidence of Helminth Parasites in Donkeys

    OpenAIRE

    G.B. Shrikhande; S.G. Rewatkar; S.S. Deshmukh; D.K. Maske and Y.M. Raghorte

    2009-01-01

    The faeces of 82 donkeys irrespective of sex and age were collected and examined for any parasitic ova. The faecal sample of68 donkeys were infected with: Strongylus sp. (54.87%), Parascaris sp. (29.26%), Strongyloides sp. (24.39%), Trichonema sp. (15.85%),Oxyuris sp. (8.53%), Gastrodiscus sp. (8.53%), Entamoeba sp. (8.53%), Dictyocaulus sp. (3.65%), and Triodontophorus sp. (2.43%). [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000): 224-224

  20. Parasitic Helminths: New Weapons against Immunological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Osada, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Tamotsu

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases is increasing in developed countries, possibly due to reduced exposure to microorganisms in childhood (hygiene hypothesis). Epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating. In this context, parasitic helminths are now important candidates for antiallergic/anti-inflammatory agents. Here we summarize antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects of helminths together along with our own study of the effects of Sc...

  1. Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral Myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2008-01-01

    Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyo...

  2. Subversion of complement by hematophagous parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Hélène; Skelly, Patrick; Zipfel, Peter F.; Losson, Bertrand; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The complement system is a crucial part of innate and adaptive immunity which exerts a significant evolutionary pressure on pathogens. It has selected for those pathogens, mainly micro-organisms but also parasites, that have evolved countermeasures. The characterization of how pathogens evade complement attack is a rapidly developing field of current research. In recent years, multiple complement evasion strategies have been characterized. In this review, we focus on complement escape mechani...

  3. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  4. Translational Control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Bradley R.; Sullivan, William J.; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis. PMID:23243065

  5. Translational control in Plasmodium and toxoplasma parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Joyce, Bradley R; Sullivan, William J; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis.

  6. Helminths parasitizing larval fish from Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, A C F; Santin, M; Takemoto, R M; Pavanelli, G C; Bialetzki, A; Tavernari, F C

    2009-03-01

    Fish larvae of 'corvinas' (Pachyurus bonariensis and Plagioscion ternetzi) from Sinhá Mariana Lagoon, Mato Grosso State, were collected from March 2000 to March 2004, in order to determine the parasitic fauna of fishes. Larvae from the two species were parasitized by the same endoparasites: Contracaecum sp. Type 2 (larvae) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the mesentery and Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) paraguayensis (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in the stomach and the terminal portion of the intestine. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the standard length of hosts and the abundance of acanthocephalans and nematodes, and that the prevalence of nematodes presented a significant positive correlation with the standard length of the two species of hosts, indicating the presence of a cumulative process of infection. The present study constitutes the first record of nematodes and acanthocephalans parasitizing larval fish, as well as the first record of endoparasites in fish larvae in Brazil. In addition, it lists a new locality and two species of hosts for Contracaecum sp. Type 2 (larva) and N. (N.) paraguayensis.

  7. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  8. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Brindley, Paul J; Meyer, Christian G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2017-02-01

    Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural metabolites for parasitic weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Maurizio; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Zermane, Nadjia

    2009-05-01

    Compounds of natural origin, such as phytotoxins produced by fungi or natural amino acids, could be used in parasitic weed management strategies by interfering with the early growth stages of the parasites. These metabolites could inhibit seed germination or germ tube elongation, so preventing attachment to the host plant, or, conversely, stimulate seed germination in the absence of the host, contributing to a reduction in the parasite seed bank. Some of the fungal metabolites assayed were very active even at very low concentrations, such as some macrocyclic trichothecenes, which at 0.1 microM strongly suppressed the germination of Orobanche ramosa L. seeds. Interesting results were also obtained with some novel toxins, such as phyllostictine A, highly active in reducing germ tube elongation and seed germination both of O. ramosa and of Cuscuta campestris Yuncker. Among the amino acids tested, methionine and arginine were particularly interesting, as they were able to suppress seed germination at concentrations lower than 1 mM. Some of the fungal metabolites tested were also able to stimulate the germination of O. ramosa seeds. The major findings in this research field are described and discussed.

  10. Drug target identification in protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Hemphill, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that diseases caused by protozoan parasites represent serious challenges for public health, animal production and welfare, only a limited panel of drugs has been marketed for clinical applications. Herein, the authors investigate two strategies, namely whole organism screening and target-based drug design. The present pharmacopoeia has resulted from whole organism screening, and the mode of action and targets of selected drugs are discussed. However, the more recent extensive genome sequencing efforts and the development of dry and wet lab genomics and proteomics that allow high-throughput screening of interactions between micromolecules and recombinant proteins has resulted in target-based drug design as the predominant focus in anti-parasitic drug development. Selected examples of target-based drug design studies are presented, and calcium-dependent protein kinases, important drug targets in apicomplexan parasites, are discussed in more detail. Despite the enormous efforts in target-based drug development, this approach has not yet generated market-ready antiprotozoal drugs. However, whole-organism screening approaches, comprising of both in vitro and in vivo investigations, should not be disregarded. The repurposing of already approved and marketed drugs could be a suitable strategy to avoid fastidious approval procedures, especially in the case of neglected or veterinary parasitoses.

  11. RESPON DAN KOPING PASIEN DM POST AMPUTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Kusuma Negara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit DM merupakan masalah kesehatan yang sangat penting karena berkaitan dengan tingginya kejadian komplikasi dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Bagi kebanyakan orang penyakit DM adalah suatu penyakit yang sangat mengkhawatirkan dan masyarakat sadar akan besarnya potensi bahaya yang ditimbulkannya. Bagi individu yang menderita DM dengan pasca amputasi, kehidupan selanjutnya merupakan babak baru yang penuh tantangan dan perubahan serta akan melalui proses koping terhadap proses perubahan tersebut. Secara umum penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi berbagai pengalaman pasien DM pasca amputasi tentang respon dan koping yang dialaminya. Penelitian ini menggunakan studi fenomenologi. Pengambilan data menggunakan indepth interview pada empat orang partisipan yang dirawat jalan di Poli kaki diabetic RSUD Ulin Banjarmasin yang dilengkapi dengan pedoman wawancara dan informed consent. Metode analisis yang terstruktur dari Creswell menjadi 6 langkah. Terdapat 2 Tema yang ditemukan dalam penelitian ini yaitu berbagai respon post amputasi dan Berbagai koping pasien DM post amputasi. Berbagai respon post amputasi terdiri dari tiga Sub-Tema yaitu: (1 Mengalami hambatan fisik, (2 Mengalami perubahan peran, (3 Mengalami proses berduka, dan Terdapat empat Sub-Tema yang menggambarkan berbagai koping pasien DM post amputasi yaitu: (1 Lebih banyak beribadah, (2 Menerima keadaan, (3 Motivasi yang kuat, (4 Mencari dukungan sosial.

  12. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman dan Jenis Minuman Beralkohol Bir dan Tuak terhadap Kekerasan Email Gigi Manusia (In Vitro)

    OpenAIRE

    Magista, Malida; Nuryanti, Archadian; Wahyudi, Ivan Arie

    2014-01-01

    Erosi gigi merupakan hilangnya lapisan email gigi karena asam. Jenis asam, pH rendah, serta kandungan kalsium, fosfat, dan fluoride pada bir dan tuak diduga merupakan faktor kimiawi penyebab erosi gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama perendaman dan jenis minuman beralkohol bir dan tuak terhadap kekerasan email gigi manusia (in vitro). Penelitian ini menggunakan 14 sampel gigi premolar pertama atas. Setiap gigi dibagi menjadi 2 bagian, bukal dan palatal. kemudian dibagi m...

  13. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman Dan Jenis Minuman Beralkohol Bir Dan Tuak Terhadap Kekerasan Email Gigi Manusia (in Vitro)

    OpenAIRE

    Magista, Malida; Nuryanti, Archadian; Wahyudi, Ivan Arie

    2014-01-01

    Erosi gigi merupakan hilangnya lapisan email gigi karena asam. Jenis asam, pH rendah, serta kandungan kalsium, fosfat, dan fluoride pada bir dan tuak diduga merupakan faktor kimiawi penyebab erosi gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama perendaman dan jenis minuman beralkohol bir dan tuak terhadap kekerasan email gigi manusia (in vitro). Penelitian ini menggunakan 14 sampel gigi premolar pertama atas. Setiap gigi dibagi menjadi 2 bagian, bukal dan palatal. kemudian dibagi m...

  14. Pengaruh Perbedaan Jenis Asam dan Waktu Demineralisasi pada Nilai Rendemen dan Sifat Fisiko Kimia Gelatin Tulang Sapi Bali.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadani, Dewi

    2014-01-01

    2014 Dewi Ramadani (I 411 10 267). Pengaruh Perbedaan Jenis Asam dan Waktu Demineralisasi pada Nilai Rendemen dan Sifat Fisiko Kimia Gelatin Tulang Sapi Bali. Muhammad Irfan Said Sebagai Pembimbing Utama dan Farida Nur Yuliati Sebagai Pembimbing Anggota. Gelatin merupakan senyawa hasil hidrolisis serabut kolagen secara persial. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat pengaruh jenis larutan dan waktu demineralisasi pada nilai rendemen dan sif...

  15. Epistaksis dan Hipertensi : Adakah Hubungannya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestari J. Budiman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar Belakang: Epistaksis merupakan suatu kondisi klinis yang sering ditemui dan dapat terjadi pada semua umur dengan banyak variasi penyebabnya. Salah satu faktor risiko yang diduga ikut berperan dalam terjadinya epistaksis adalah hipertensi. Tujuan: Menjelaskan hubungan antara epistaksis dengan hipertensi. Tinjauan Pustaka: Hipertensi diduga tidak menyebabkan epistaksis secara langsung, tapi memperberat episode epistaksis. Mengendalikan tekanan darah sebagai salah satu faktor risiko, akan menurunkan insiden terjadinya epistaksis. Di ruang gawat darurat, pemberian obat anti hipertensi diberikan sebelum atau bersamaan dengan manajemen epistaksis itu sendiri. Kesimpulan: Terdapat hubungan antara epistaksis dengan hipertensi yang berlangsung lama dan adanya hipertrofi ventrikel kiri. Kata kunci : Hipertensi, kegawatdaruratan, penatalaksanaan epistaksis. Abstract Background: Epistaxis is a common clinical problem in all age groups with varied etiological factors. Hypertension has been suggested as a risk factor in epistaxis case. Purpose: To explain relationship between epistaxis and hypertension. Review: It has been suggested that hypertension does not cause epistaxis directly, but hypertension prolongs the episode of epistaxis when it does occur. The controlling for blood pressure as a risk factor will be decreased the incidencies of epistaxis. In emergency rooms, high blood pressure is usually treated before or in parallel with the management of epistaxis. Conclusion: There was an association between epistaxis and long duration of hypertension in adult and left ventricle hypertrophy. Key words : Hypertension, emergency case, management of epistaxis.

  16. Perbedaan konsumsi buah dan sayur pada anak sekolah dasar yang obes dan tidak obes di Kota Yogyakarta dan Kabupaten Bantul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nuraeni

    2016-03-01

    gender and energy intake, showed that obese  children who rarely consuming fruits (<7 times/week (OR=2,24, 95%CI: 1.53-3.28, rarely consuming vegetables (<7 times/week (OR=2,52, 95%CI: 1,70-3,73, and consuming fruits and vegetables less than 5 servings/day (equivalent to 400 g/day (OR= 4,59, 95%CI:2,11-10,00 were greater risk for being obesity.Conclusion:Obese children had rarely and less consume of fruits and vegetables than that did in non-obese children at Yogyakarta Municipality and District of Bantul. The children rarely and less consuming fruits and vegetables increased the risk of obesity.KEYWORDS: children obesity, vegetable, fruitABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Indonesia saat ini mengalami masalah gizi ganda, yaitu masalah gizi kurang dan gizi lebih. Kelebihan  gizi atau obesitas pada anak dan remaja apabila tidak diatasi maka berdampak menjadi obesitas pada masa dewasa yang berpotensi mengalami penyakit tidak menular, seperti jantung, hipertensi dan diabetes mellitus. Prevalensi obesitas pada anak di Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta mengalami peningkatan dari tahun ke tahun (1; 2. Obesitas disebabkan ketidakseimbangan antara masukan dengan keluaran energi. Anak cenderung mengkonsumsi padat energi yang berasa manis dan berlemak tinggi serta makanan kurang serat dari buah dan sayur. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan peningkatan risiko obesitas pada orang yang kurang konsumsi buah dan sayur.Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui perbedaan frekuensi dan jumlah konsumsi buah dan sayur pada anak SD obes dan tidak obes di Kota Yogyakarta dan Kabupaten Bantul serta peran konsumsi buah dan sayur terhadap kejadian obesitas. Metode: Rancangan penelitian ini adalah case-control, 244 kasus (anak obes dan 244 kontrol (anak tidak obes. Subjek penelitian adalah anak usia 6-12 tahun yang duduk di kelas 1 hingga kelas 5 sekolah dasar di Kota Yogyakarta dan di Kabupaten Bantul. Data identitas diperoleh dari kuesioner terstruktur, sedangkan data frekuensi dan jumlah konsumsi buah dan sayur diperoleh

  17. ANEMIA DAN LAMA KONSUMSI OBAT ANTI TUBERCULOSIS

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    Anny Thuraidah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberkulosis adalah penyakit infeksi akibat kuman Mycobacterium tuberculosis yang dapat menginfeksi beberapa organ tubuh, diantaranya paru-paru, ginjal, dan tulang.Tujuan pengobatan tuberkulosis adalah memusnahkan basil tuberkulosis dengan cepat dan mencegah kekambuhan. Obat anti tuberkulosis (OAT dapat diterima dalam terapi, namun mempunyai efek toksik seperti agranulositosis, eosinofilia, trombositopenia dan anemia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan lama konsumsi OAT pada pasien TB paru terhadap anemia. Penelitian ini bersifat Survey Analitic dengan rancangan Cross Sectional. Hasil penelitian rata-rata hitung sel darah merah 0 bulan 5,16 106/uL, 2 bulan 4,39 106/uL dan 6 bulan 4,61 106/uL, rata-rata kadar hemoglobin 0 bulan 15,17 g/dL, 2 bulan 12,73 g/dL dan 6 bulan 13,28 g/dL serta ratarata nilai hematokrit 0 bulan 44,26 %, 2 bulan 38,24 % dan 6 bulan 39,04 %. Dari hasil uji Spearman diperoleh nilai signifikan sebesar hitung sel darah merah 0,004 < α (0,05, kadar hemoglobin 0,007 < α (0,05 dan nilai hematokrit 0,015 < α (0,05 sehingga dapat disimpulkan ada hubungan antara lama konsumsi obat anti tuberkulosis pada pasien TB paru terhadap anemia dan nilai correlation coefficient hitung sel darah merah -0,531, kadar hemoglobin -0,479 serta nilai hematokrit -0,440 berarti memiliki kekuatan hubungan yang sedang. Disarankan untuk penelitian selanjutnya menggunakan parameter yang berbeda seperti jumlah trombosit, kadar AST/ALT dan sebaiknya menggunakan sampel atau pasien yang sama dari 0 bulan sampai 6 bulan.

  18. Identifikasi Fusarium dan Nematoda Parasitik yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Kuning Lada di Kalimantan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanti Suryanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Piper nigrum, known as the “King of Spices” is one of the most important spices. In the international market, Indonesian pepper has high selling value, due to its flavor characteristics. Pepper yellowing disease is one of the most important disease that caused the decrease of pepper production and become the main problem in the cultivation of pepper in West Kalimantan. This research was conducted to determine the major causal agent of leaf yellowing disease of pepper. The Fusarium associated with diseased plant were isolated from the symptomatic plant and nematodes were isolated from the root with leaf yellowing symptom. The Fusarium isolates were cultured on agar medium, and the nematode was cultured on tomato plant. From diseased pepper in West Kalimantan, it was isolated 4 Fusarium isolates and plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne. The result showed that H isolate of Fusarium was the most virulent isolate and identified asFusarium solani. The Meloidogyne was identified by the female perenial patern.The nematode was identified as Meloidogyne incognita. INTISARI Lada (Piper nigrum L. merupakan salah satu jenis rempah penting yang telah dikenal sebagai “King of Spices”. Di pasar internasional, lada Indonesia mempunyai daya jual tinggi karena cita rasanya yang khas. Salah satu kendala dalam budidaya lada adalah adanya penyakit kuning lada dan sampai saat ini menjadi masalah utama pada pertanaman lada di Kalimantan Barat. Informasi tentang patogen utama yang berinteraksi dengan penyakit kuning lada masih sangat terbatas, sehingga penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi patogen utama yang berasosiasi dengan penyakit kuning lada. Isolasi Fusarium dilakukan dari batang lada dan isolasi nematoda dilakukan dari akar lada yang bergejala penyakit kuning di Kalimantan Barat. Fusarium hasil isolasi dikulturkan dalam medium agar, sedangkan nematoda hasil isolasi dikulturkan dalam akar tomat. Dari hasil isolasi berhasil didapatkan

  19. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI KOMPONEN KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI DAUN LEGUNDI (Vitex trifolia L.) DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBANYA

    OpenAIRE

    Mufidah, S.Si., M.Si., Apt.

    2004-01-01

    Dalam rangka pengembangan obat tradisional, telah dilakukan isolasi dan uji aktivitas antimikroba minyak atsiri daun legundi (Vitex trifolia, L.) familia Verbenaceae. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi, menganalisis dan menguji aktivitas antimikroba minyak atsiri daun legundi. Isolasi dilakan dengan alat destilasi Stahl, diperoleh minyak atsiri sebanyak 0,02% v/b daun segar dan 0,08% v/b daun kering. Dari interpretasi data GC-MS tampak adanya 1,8 ???Cineole (17,83%), ???-terpiny...

  20. Status Oral Higiene Dan Periodontal Pada Pasien Diabetes Melitus Dan Non- Diabetes Di RSUD Dr. Pirngadi

    OpenAIRE

    Butar-Butar, Mardiah Rizqo

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes melitus adalah penyakit gangguan metabolisme ditandai dengan meningkatnya kadar gula darah yang terjadi karena kelainan sekresi insulin, kerja insulin, atau kedua-duanya. Diabetes melitus merupakan salah satu penyakit sistemik yang berperan sebagai faktor risiko penyakit periodontal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui status oral higiene dan periodontal dan odd rasio periodontitis pada pasien Diabetes melitus dan non-Diabetes. Rancangan penelitian adalah case-control. Popul...

  1. Penskalaan Butir Format Respons Pilihan dan Respons Bebas Berdasarkan Model Rasch dan Partial Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hariadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian melihat pengaruh jumlah parameter butir, kategori respons bebas (RB, pengaruh sampel terhadap akurasi estimasi parameter kemampuan untuk menghasilkan estimasi yang stabil dan pengaruh pembobotan butir RP dan butir RB terhadap kesalahan baku. Penelitian dalam dua tahap, simulasi menggunakan 30 kondisi dengan replikasi 50 dengan variabel panjang tes, jumlah kategori, dan jumlah parameter butir, dan analisis deskriptif, dilanjutkan penerapan penskalaan gabungan butir tipe respons pilihan (rp dan butir respons bebas (rb pada konstruksi tes elektronika yang terdiri 40 butir pilihan ganda dan 4 butir jawaban tersusun, 3 butir memiliki lima kategori jawaban dan 1 butir dengan 4 kategori jawaban, melibatkan 355 siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: ukuran sampel kurang berpengaruh pada root mean square error atau (RSME> dan korelasi antara 9 dengan 0, namun berpengaruh terhadap akurasi estimasi parameter butir pilihan ganda (/>/y,dan parameter butir respons tersusun (3^- Jumlah parameter butir berpengaruh terhadap parameter kemampuan, tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap akurasi dari b^, dan S„,. Estimasi dari parameter tingkat kesulitan butir jawaban tersusun tiga kategori lebih akurat daripada butir jawaban tersusun lima kategori. Estimasi tahan {robust untuk parameter kesulitan butir jawaban tersusun 5 kategori memerlukan sampel minimal 250 responden, sedangkan untuk butir respons tersusun 3 kategori memerlukan sampel minimal 100 responden. Estimasi parameter kemampuan dari skor total (0^^ tidak sama dengan rata-rata jumlah tbeta dari masing-masing subtes (0^ + 0CR. Theta dari tes yang dikalibrasi bersama-sama berbeda dengan theta dari total subtes yang dikalibrasi secara terpisah. Korelasi kemampuan yang mengunakan pembobotan dan kemampuan tanpa pembobotan mempunyai suatu rentang dari 0,988 sampai 0,948. Kata kunci: penyekaiaan, model rash dan partial credit.

  2. Prinsip Transparansi dalam Perjanjian TBT dan SPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Widyaputri Kariodimedjo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Transparency principle in the TBT and SPS Agreement is implemented by notification. Its application is prepared by related agencies through the making of regulations, establishment of enquiry points, building capacity and infrastructure. It guarantees certainty, predictability and credibility of Indonesia in international trade, and its application should not undermine national trade policy. Prinsip transparansi dalam Perjanjian TBT dan SPS diterapkan melalui notifikasi. Penerapan prinsip ini dilakukan oleh instansi-instansi terkait melalui pembuatan peraturan, upaya terkait kelembagaan, SDM dan infrastruktur. Prinsip yang bertujuan menciptakan kepastian, konsistensi bagi perdagangan dan kredibilitas Indonesia dalam perdagangan internasional, harus dilakukan tanpa mengorbankan kepentingan untuk mengamankan kebijakan impor nasional.

  3. SPIRITUALITAS MURIA: AKOMODASI TRADISI DAN WISATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Falah

    2012-12-01

    Tradisi “nyekar” sangat dikenal oleh orang Jawa, khususnya di makam Muria Kudus Jawa Tengah. Penelitian ini mengungkap bahwa kebanyakan peziarah makam ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan keberkahan (tabarrukan, keamanan dan kemudahan dalam hidup, menguasai ilmu linuwih, disembuhkan dari penyakit, dan mengharapkan kebaikan dari nenek moyang. Kunjungan mereka ke makam itu memberikan dampak yang besar bagi kehidupan masyarakat, baik secara ekonomi maupun sosial. Dalam perspektif ekonomi, lebih dari 1.500 tenaga kerja tergantung pada keberadaan makam Muria. Dampak yang lain adalah slidaritas setempat, kompetisi sosial, dan kesempatan kerja yang mengakibatkan munculnya tumbuhnya pragmatisme di kalangan anggota masyarakat Muria.

  4. Media Sosial dan Perkembangan Komunikasi Korporat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Juwita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kehadiran media sosial telah mengubah aktivitas komunikasi korporat dan dengan cepat merevolusi bagaimana kampanye atau program public relations berjalan. Jika dibandingkan dengan cara tradisional yang mengandalkan pada output murni, media sosial memaksa komunikasi korporat beralih pada proses dialog dimana para pemangku kepentingan, dan bukan hanya perusahaan sama-sama memiliki kekuasaan terhadap pesan yang beredar. Media sosial merupakan alat komunikasi revolusioner yang mengubah secara cepat bagaimana praktik PR menjadi bagian integral dari komunikasi korporat bagi sejumlah perusahaan dan menawarkan pilihan baru bagi para praktisi PR pada setiap aspek proses komunikasi yang dilakukan.

  5. Inovasi Desain, Teknologi, dan Pemasaran Lewat Website Usaha Kecil Menengah Batik dan Lutik (Lurik Batik di Kecamatan Laweyan Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Riani Suprapti

    2016-12-01

      Tujuan penelitian terapan ini adalah untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan mengembangkan produk batik dan lutik yang ada di wilayah Kecamatan Laweyan Surakarta dengan inovasi desain dan teknologi baru. Program ini bekerja sama dengan mitra UKM Batik Dewi (UKM 1 dan Batik Sinung Rejeki (UKM2 yang terletak di Kecamatan Laweyan. Pengusaha batik Laweyan dengan produknya berupa batik dan tekstil bermotif batik (printing dan cap dalam era globalisasi sekarang ini ternyata memiliki daya tahan yang baik, ditengah persaingan dengan produk sejenis dari daerah lain maupun dari luar negeri. Secara garis besar pola yang digunakan dalam implementasi penelitian ini meliputi: diskusi (FGD, kerja bengkel, operasional pabrik, pelatihan dan pendampingan (kelompok dan individu. Seperti halnya Usaha Kecil Menengah pada umumnya, pengusaha batik di Laweyan juga menghadapi masalah Internal meliputi  permodalan, inovasi desain, pemasaran, dan manajemen keuangan, yang meliputi administrasi keuangan/pembukuan. Beberapa solusi yang ditawarkan untuk mengatasi permasalahan yang dihadapi diantaranya adalah melakukan Inovasi desain dan teknologi, pengaturan layout pabrik, dan pemasaran lewat web. Selain itu mengembangkan desain motif batik yang lebih diminati pasar diberikan juga untuk pengembangan teknik kombinasi batik-lurik ikat dengan cara lukis dan pengelantangan. Penggunaan media teknologi informasi dan komunikasi untuk promosi lewat website. Adapun untuk usaha pengembangan manajemen pemasaran,  diusahakan media promosi dan menjalin kerjasama pemasaran  dengan instansi terkait, misalnya dengan mengikuti pameran-pameran di Solo dan Jakarta.

  6. Linking parasite populations in hosts to parasite populations in space through Taylor's law and the negative binomial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

    2017-01-03

    The spatial distribution of individuals of any species is a basic concern of ecology. The spatial distribution of parasites matters to control and conservation of parasites that affect human and nonhuman populations. This paper develops a quantitative theory to predict the spatial distribution of parasites based on the distribution of parasites in hosts and the spatial distribution of hosts. Four models are tested against observations of metazoan hosts and their parasites in littoral zones of four lakes in Otago, New Zealand. These models differ in two dichotomous assumptions, constituting a 2 × 2 theoretical design. One assumption specifies whether the variance function of the number of parasites per host individual is described by Taylor's law (TL) or the negative binomial distribution (NBD). The other assumption specifies whether the numbers of parasite individuals within each host in a square meter of habitat are independent or perfectly correlated among host individuals. We find empirically that the variance-mean relationship of the numbers of parasites per square meter is very well described by TL but is not well described by NBD. Two models that posit perfect correlation of the parasite loads of hosts in a square meter of habitat approximate observations much better than two models that posit independence of parasite loads of hosts in a square meter, regardless of whether the variance-mean relationship of parasites per host individual obeys TL or NBD. We infer that high local interhost correlations in parasite load strongly influence the spatial distribution of parasites. Local hotspots could influence control and conservation of parasites.

  7. Pengembangan Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Dan Pengelolaan Keuangan Modul Bendahara Menggunakan Teknologi Java dan PostgreSQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfie Satria Hidayat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan sistem informasi saat ini sudah menjadi kebutuhan yang krusial bagi proses bisnis instansi pemerintah. Direktorat Jenderal Perbendaharaan adalah salah satu instansi pemerintah di bawah Kementerian Keuangan yang memiliki tugas pokok dan fungsi terkait dengan siklus anggaran (budget cycle mulai dari perencanaan, pelaksanaan, sampai pertanggungjawaban anggaran. Saat ini terdapat banyak aplikasi yang dikembangkan oleh Direktorat Jenderal Perbendaharaan untuk membantu satuan kerja sebagai mitra kerja dalam pengelolaan Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara. Namun, aplikasi-aplikasi tersebut belum terintegrasi padahal dalam proses bisnisnya semuanya saling terkait dan berurutan. Selain itu, beberapa aplikasi menggunakan database yang sama sehingga dimungkinkan terjadi duplikasi data dan memerlukan sinkronisasi jika terjadi perubahan. Diantara aplikasi yang ada, salah satunya terdapat aplikasi pembukuan bendahara. Melalui penelitian ini, penulis akan membuat Sistem Informasi Akuntansi dan Pengelolaan Keuangan (SIAPKAN  khususnya modul bendahara sebagai solusi untuk menjawab permasalahan dengan mengintegrasikan semua aplikasi yang terkait dalam proses siklus anggaran. Aplikasi ini merupakan aplikasi berbasis web yang akan dikembangkan dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Java (Servlet dan JSP. Aplikasi ini akan menggunakan single database yaitu dengan database PostgreSQL sehingga data yang diolah dan disajikan lebih akurat dan proses bisnis akan berjalan lebih efektif dan efisien.

  8. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroba Lipolitik dari Limbah Cair Surimi dan Rajungan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Ambarwati Oktavia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Industri pengolahan hasil perikanan di sepanjang pantai Utara Jawa seperti pengalengan rajungan di Cirebon (Jawa Barat dan pengolahan surimi di Kendal (Jawa Tengah, menghasilkan air limbah yang mengandung banyak protein dan lemak. Bakteri yang hidup di limbah yang banyak mengandung protein dan lemak tersebut diperkirakan memiliki kemampuan untuk menghidrolisis lemak menjadi asam lemak dan gliserol sehingga berpotensi untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai bioremedian alami bagi penanganan air limbah hasil perikanan di tempat lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan penapisan dan identifikasi bakteri lipolitik potensial sebagai bioremedian air limbah perikanan. Penapisan dilakukan terhadap 11 isolat bakteri lipolitik dari air limbah yang diambil dari industri pengalengan rajungan di Cirebon dan pengolahan surimi di Kendal dengan menggunakan media spesifik agar tributirin. Isolat bakteri lipolitik potensial ditentukan berdasarkan zona bening yang terbentuk di sekitar koloni, yaitu sekurang-kurangnya 6 mm. Isolat bakteri potensial ini selanjutnya diidentifikasi secara molekuler berdasarkan analisis sekuen 16S-rDNA. Dari penapisan diperoleh empat isolat bakteri potensial, yaitu isolat SPB, SHj, SOr dan SKn. Identifikasi molekuler menunjukkan bahwa isolat SPB dan SHj masing-masing adalah Serratia fonticola 10AdanBacillus cereus strain 103.2.2dengan kemiripan 97%, isolat SOr memiliki kemiripan 96% dengan Bacillus pumilus strain vit bac1 dan isolat SKn adalah Enterococcus pseudoavium strain L3C21K2dengan kemiripan 87%. Keempat isolat tersebut berpotensi untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai bioremedian pada air limbah dari industri pengolahan hasil perikanan di Indonesia.

  9. EKSISTENSI DAN SEBARAN NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI DAN AEDES ALBOPICTUS DI KAMPUS UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosefina Dota T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui eksistensi dan sebaran nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus telah dilakukan di Kampus Universitas Hasanuddin, Kec. Tamalanrea, Makassar. Penelitian bersifat eksploratif dengan melakukan sampling terhadap lima lokasi yaitu : a Fak. Peternakan (Utara, b Fak. Hukum (Timur, c Pusat Kegiatan Penelitian/PKP (Selatan, d Workshop/Dekat Pondokan mahasiswa (Barat dan e Fak. MIPA (Tengah. Sampling nyamuk menggunakan metode ovitrap (menggunakan attraktan Eluisine Indica L. dan survei terhadap berbagai tempat penampungan air. Sampel telur dan larva nyamuk yang diperoleh disimpan dalam microtube berisi alkohol 70% kemudian diidentifikasi berdasarkan Rueda (2004. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Ae. albopictus ditemukan hidup dan berkembang biak di kampus Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar. Eksistensi dan sebaran kedua jenis nyamuk tersebut dipengaruhi oleh faktor adanya manusia/masyarakat kampus yang beraktivitas baik di dalam ruangan (indoor maupun di luar ruangan (outdoor, adanya berbagai tempat penampungan air baik buatan (bak mandi, ember maupun barang bekas (botol/kaleng bekas, tempurung kelapa, vegetasi/tanaman dan berbagai macam hewan yang berada di sekitaran kampus. Hasil penelitian dalam ruangan (indoor menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk Ae. aegypti lebih banyak ditemukan hidup di dalam ruangan gedung PKP sedangkan Ae.albopictus lebih banyak di Fak. Hukum. Hasil penelitian di luar ruangan (outdoor menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk Ae. aegypti lebih banyak ditemukan hidup di area Workshop sedangkan Ae.albopictus lebih banyak di area PKP.

  10. Parasite transmission in a natural multihost–multiparasite community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the transmission and dynamics of infectious diseases in natural communities requires understanding the extent to which the ecology, evolution and epidemiology of those diseases are shaped by alternative hosts. We performed laboratory experiments to test how parasite spillover affected traits associated with transmission in two co-occurring parasites: the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa and the fungus Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Both parasites were capable of transmission from the reservoir host (Daphnia dentifera) to the spillover host (Ceriodaphnia dubia), but this occurred at a much higher rate for the fungus than the bacterium. We quantified transmission potential by combining information on parasite transmission and growth rate, and used this to compare parasite fitness in the two host species. For both parasites, transmission potential was lower in the spillover host. For the bacterium, virulence was higher in the spillover host. Transmission back to the original host was high for both parasites, with spillover influencing transmission rate of the fungus but not the bacterium. Thus, while inferior, the spillover host is not a dead-end for either parasite. Overall, our results demonstrate that the presence of multiple hosts in a community can have important consequences for disease transmission, and host and parasite fitness. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289264

  11. Parasite transmission in a natural multihost-multiparasite community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Stuart K J R; Searle, Catherine L; Duffy, Meghan A

    2017-05-05

    Understanding the transmission and dynamics of infectious diseases in natural communities requires understanding the extent to which the ecology, evolution and epidemiology of those diseases are shaped by alternative hosts. We performed laboratory experiments to test how parasite spillover affected traits associated with transmission in two co-occurring parasites: the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa and the fungus Metschnikowia bicuspidata Both parasites were capable of transmission from the reservoir host ( Daphnia dentifera ) to the spillover host ( Ceriodaphnia dubia ), but this occurred at a much higher rate for the fungus than the bacterium. We quantified transmission potential by combining information on parasite transmission and growth rate, and used this to compare parasite fitness in the two host species. For both parasites, transmission potential was lower in the spillover host. For the bacterium, virulence was higher in the spillover host. Transmission back to the original host was high for both parasites, with spillover influencing transmission rate of the fungus but not the bacterium. Thus, while inferior, the spillover host is not a dead-end for either parasite. Overall, our results demonstrate that the presence of multiple hosts in a community can have important consequences for disease transmission, and host and parasite fitness.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Mechanisms of CNS invasion and damage by parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensson, Krister; Masocha, Willias; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) is a most devastating complication of a parasitic infection. Several physical and immunological barriers provide obstacles to such an invasion. In this broad overview focus is given to the physical barriers to neuroinvasion of parasites provided at the portal of entry of the parasites, i.e., the skin and epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, and between the blood and the brain parenchyma, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A description is given on how human pathogenic parasites can reach the CNS via the bloodstream either as free-living or extracellular parasites, by embolization of eggs, or within red or white blood cells when adapted to intracellular life. Molecular mechanisms are discussed by which parasites can interact with or pass across the BBB. The possible targeting of the circumventricular organs by parasites, as well as the parasites' direct entry to the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory nerve pathway, is also highlighted. Finally, examples are given which illustrate different mechanisms by which parasites can cause dysfunction or damage in the CNS related to toxic effects of parasite-derived molecules or to immune responses to the infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Overview on the effects of parasites on fish health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, D.D.; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    It is believed by many that parasites are only as important as the fish they infect. Parasites are ubiquitous, primarily surviving in a dynamic equilibrium with their host(s) and they are often overlooked in fish health assessments. Changes in the environment, both anthropogenic and environmental, can alter the parasite/host equilibrium and cause disease or mortality in fish. Therefore it is imperative that we have knowledge of both parasites and parasitic communities within a given population. When fish kills occur, it can often be associated with changes in parasite density and community composition. Often the damage associated with these fish is relative to the rate of infestation with the parasite; a fish that is lightly infected will show few signs of the parasite, while a heavily infected fish may become physiologically impaired and even die. Parasites can cause mechanical damage (fusion of gill lamellae, tissue replacement), physiological damage (cell proliferation, immunomodulation, detrimental behavioral responses, altered growth) and reproductive damage. As parasitism is the most common lifestyle on the planet, understanding its role in the environment may help researchers understand changes in a given fish population or stream ecosystem.

  14. Evaluation of MSCTA for parasitic blood supply in hepatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weihong; Liu Pengcheng; Liang Shanhu; Yuan Zhidong; Yu Hongjian; Deng Qianhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the multi-slice spiral computer tomography for hepatocarcinoma parasitic blood supply, and analyze the mechanism of the parasitic angiogenesis. Methods: Forty cases confirmed by DSA and confirmed with the existence of parasitic blood supply through manifestations of MSCTA were retrospectively analized. Comparing the coincidence of different reconstruction modalities of MSCTA and DSA in displaying the parasitic blood supply and then to assess the characteristics of MSCTA of the cases with existing parasitic blood supply. Results: DSA displayed parasitic blood supply in 50 arterial rami and MSCTA displayed only 40 rami, with positive rate of 80%. The best display could be reached by the reconstruction of combining MIP and VRT. This kind of reconstruction revealed not only the parasitic blood supply but also the peripheral sites of the primary focci with average length of diameter of 6.9 cm. Conclusions: MSCTA possesses nearly the same capability with DSA in demonstrating the parasitic blood supply to primary hepatic carcinoma, therefore it could be utilized in evaluation of intervention therapy and surgical, operation and transplantation. The primary hepatic carcinoma with this kind of parasitic blood supply is always located at the bare were of liver and ligmentarn suspensoram together with direct invasion of nearby organs with adhesions may contribute the main factor of parasitic blood supply, furthermore the repetition of TACE inducing the decrease of collateral circulation may also be the another major factor. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of MSCTA for parasitic blood supply in hepatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weihong, Yang; Pengcheng, Liu; Shanhu, Liang; Zhidong, Yuan; Hongjian, Yu; Qianhua, Deng [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Hospital of Beijing College, Guangdong, Shenzhen (China)

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the multi-slice spiral computer tomography for hepatocarcinoma parasitic blood supply, and analyze the mechanism of the parasitic angiogenesis. Methods: Forty cases confirmed by DSA and confirmed with the existence of parasitic blood supply through manifestations of MSCTA were retrospectively analized. Comparing the coincidence of different reconstruction modalities of MSCTA and DSA in displaying the parasitic blood supply and then to assess the characteristics of MSCTA of the cases with existing parasitic blood supply. Results: DSA displayed parasitic blood supply in 50 arterial rami and MSCTA displayed only 40 rami, with positive rate of 80%. The best display could be reached by the reconstruction of combining MIP and VRT. This kind of reconstruction revealed not only the parasitic blood supply but also the peripheral sites of the primary focci with average length of diameter of 6.9 cm. Conclusions: MSCTA possesses nearly the same capability with DSA in demonstrating the parasitic blood supply to primary hepatic carcinoma, therefore it could be utilized in evaluation of intervention therapy and surgical, operation and transplantation. The primary hepatic carcinoma with this kind of parasitic blood supply is always located at the bare were of liver and ligmentarn suspensoram together with direct invasion of nearby organs with adhesions may contribute the main factor of parasitic blood supply, furthermore the repetition of TACE inducing the decrease of collateral circulation may also be the another major factor. (authors)

  16. SIMBOL RAMA DAN EPOS RAMAYANA BAGI RAJA DAN MASYARAKAT JAWA

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    Wachid Eko Purwanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epos Ramayana merupakan epos kuno yang ditulis dalam tujuh kanda terdiri atas 24.000 sloka. Di Jawa epos Ramayana pertama kali muncul secara lengkap dalam bentuk relief di Candi Lara Jonggrang yang dibangun sekitar tahun 782 hingga 872 M. Epos tua yang hidup di masyarakat Jawa ini pastilah mempunyai ajaran. Tokoh Rama sebagai tokoh utama merupakan simbol paling utama dalam epos ini. Berkait dengan simbol ajaran, tokoh Rama dalam epos Ramayana Jawa mempunyai fungsi bagi Raja Jawa dan masyarakat Jawa. Bagi raja simbol tokoh Rama memiliki tiga fungsi utama. Pertama sebagai fungsi spiritual. Kedua adalah fungsi legitimasi kekuasaan. Ketiga adalah fungsi pencitraan. Adapun bagi masyarakat Jawa, simbol tokoh Rama memiliki dua fungsi utama. Pertama adalah fungsi spiritual. Kedua adalah fungsi filosofis.

  17. Host-Parasite Interactions from the Inside: Plant Reproductive Ontogeny Drives Specialization in Parasitic Insects.

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    Thomas Boivin

    Full Text Available Host plant interactions are likely key drivers of evolutionary processes involved in the diversification of phytophagous insects. Granivory has received substantial attention for its crucial role in shaping the interaction between plants and their seed parasites, but fine-scale mechanisms explaining the role of host plant reproductive biology on specialization of seed parasites remain poorly described. In a comparative approach using plant histological techniques, we tested the hypotheses that different seed parasite species synchronize their life cycles to specific stages in seed development, and that the stage they target depends on major differences in seed development programs. In a pinaceous system, seed storage products are initiated before ovule fertilization and the wasps target the ovule's nucellus during megagametogenesis, a stage at which larvae may benefit from the by-products derived from both secreting cells and dying nucellar cells. In a cupressaceous system, oviposition activity peaks later, during embryogenesis, and the wasps target the ovule's megagametophyte where larvae may benefit from cell disintegration during embryogenesis. Our cytohistological approach shows for the first time how, despite divergent oviposition targets, different parasite species share a common strategy that consists of first competing for nutrients with developing plant structures, and then consuming these developed structures to complete their development. Our results support the prediction that seed developmental program is an axis for specialization in seed parasites, and that it could be an important parameter in models of their ecological and taxonomic divergence. This study provides the basis for further investigating the possibility of the link between plant ontogeny and pre-dispersal seed parasitism.

  18. Keberlanjutan dan Perubahan Pakarena Paolle

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    Fifie Febryanti Sukman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kehadiran Tarian Paolle dalam masyarakat Bantaeng merupakan latar belakangkebiasaan yang mengikuti tradisi leluhur mereka yang dilakukan sejak zaman dahulumelalui upacara adat yang memiliki Paolle Dance di dalamnya. Perubahan dari segibentuk Tarian Paolle terletak pada seorang penari, tempat, dan kostum. Para penariPaolle hari ini juga berbeda dari penari pertama pada zaman Kerajaan Paolle. Sepertipada hari-hari tertentu, para penari Raya Paolle adalah gadis remaja yang masihdalam keadaan suci atau tidak menstruasi, di saat para penari menjadi orang tua,mereka memiliki banyak pengalaman hidup dalam menari, sebuah praktik yangpada awalnya merupakan milik kerajaan, yang dapat dipilih dan dilihat oleh publikdi lapangan. Kostum atau pakaian yang digunakan para penari adalah irisan hitambodo yang sangat tipis dan sekarang hal itu berubah menjadi merah. KeberlanjutanTarian Paolle di masa sekarang harus dilihat dalam pernikahan atau baby shower.Masyarakat Bantaeng masih menunjukkan tarian ini dalam siklus hidup, misalnya,dalam acara pernikahan, sunat atau hanya berfungsi sebagai hiburan Tarian Paolle. Continuities and Changes of Pakarena Paolle. The background presence of PaolleDance in Bantaeng societies is a habit that follows the customs of their ancestors whohave practiced them since the time immemorial through the traditional ceremony that hasPaolle Dance in it. Changes in terms of the shape of Paolle Dance depend on a dancer,a venue, and costumes. Today’s Paolle Dancers are also different from the first dancers inKingdom era of Paolle. On the days of the Kingdom Paolle, dancers were teenage girls whowere still in a state of purity or not menstruation, but now dancers are the parents becausethey have a lot of life experiences in dancing, a practice that was originally familiarizedin the kingdom can be seen by the public in the field. Costume outfit that used a very thinblack wedge of bodo now turns into red. Paolle Dance sustainability in the

  19. Perubahan Eksternal, Soft Skills Dan Kurikulum Kesehatan

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    Elfindri Elfindri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini menyoroti begitu pentingnya tingkah laku kesehatan rumah tangga ‘household health behavior’1 didorong dan direkayasa untuk meminimumkan efek dari persebaran virus. Sekiranya pengetahuan dan kesadaran akan hal ini rendah, maka untuk kasus negara berkembang seperti Indonesia, perkembangan berbagai jenis penyakit degeneratif akan semakin sulit dicegah. Meluasnya persoalan ini kemudian akan berdampak kepada semakin besarnya biaya pencegahannya, dan dampak dari kecepatan virus bisa berbahaya lebih besar lagi. Salah satu implikasi adalah pencegahan dapat dilakukan melalui perbaikan kurikulum pendidikan akan bahaya dari persebaran virus. AIDS, FLU Burung, Flu Babi, Demam Berdarah, dan sebagainya cukup memusingkan pelayanan kesehatan, termasuk insektisida. Pemutakhiran kurikulum tentunya bermanfaat untuk memajukan pendidikan kesehatan, khususnya pendidikan keperawatan, unsur soft skills sangat penting, selain dari perubahan kognitif.

  20. Kreativitas Desain Kuliner dan Sistem Inovasi Lokal

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    Yasraf Amir Pialang

    2016-02-01

    ABSTRAK   Pengembangan kreativitas pada sebuah kelompok, kelas sosial atau komunitas sangat ditentukan oleh modal yang diinvestasikan dalam ranah kreativitas: ekonomi, budaya, sim- bolik dan sosial. Penelitian ini adalah upaya untuk memahami kreativitas sebagai bagian dari ranah khusus sosial-budaya, yaitu ‘ranah kreativitas’. Dengan menggunakan metode etnografi, penelitian ini adalah upaya untuk menganalisis relasi antara ide-ide kreatif dan konteks sosial-budaya di mana ide-ide itu diproduksi. Melalui penelitian lapangan yang intensif terhadap komunitas kreatif lokal, penelitian ini menyimpulkan, bahwa produksi ide-ide kreatif sangat ditentukan oleh kelengkapan sub-sub ranah yang membangun ranah kreatif: ekspresi, produksi, diseminasi dan apresiasi. Berdasarkan ranah-ranah kreatif ini, tiga model sistem inovasi dapat diajukan: sistem terbuka, sistem liminal dan sistem tertu- tup.   Kata kunci: ide kreatif, ranah, inovasi, modal

  1. RADIKALISME DI INDONESIA: Antara Historisitas dan Antropisitas

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    Ahmad Asrori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini mencoba menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mendorong munculnya radikalisme di Indonesia. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ditemukan sekurang-kurangnya ada 3 faktor, yakni pertama, perkembangan di tingkat global, Kedua, penyebaran paham Wahabisme dan yang ketiga adalah kemiskinan. Situasi yang kacau di negara-negara Timur Tengah khususnya di Afghanistan, Palestina, Irak, Yaman, Mesir, Syiria, dan Turki, dipandang oleh kelompok-radikal sebagai akibat dari campur tangan Amerika, Israel, dan sekutunya. Pada saat yang sama, Masuknya faham Wahabisme yang mengagungkan budaya Islam ala Arab yang konservatif ke Indonesia telah ikut mendorong timbulnya kelompok eksklusif yang sering menuduh orang lain yang berada di luar kelompok mereka sebagai musuh, kafir dan boleh diperangi. Faktor ketiga adalah kemiskinan. Meski faktor ini tidak secara langsung berpengaruh terhadap merebaknya aksi radikalisme, namun perasaan sebagai elemen masyarakat yang termarjinalkan dapat menjadi faktor pendorong bagi seseorang untuk terjebak dalam proganda radikalisme.

  2. Kedudukan Musyawarah dan Demokrasi di Indonesia

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    Muhammad Hanafi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Kedudukan Musyawarah dan Demokrasi di Indonesia. Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia (NKRI berdasarkan lintasan sejarah perjuangan, memiliki konstruksi kenegaraan satu-satunya di dunia yang bangsa terlahir dahulu, kemudian baru membentuk negara. Presiden pertama Republik Indonesia Ir. Soekarno menegaskan, bahwa Negara Kesatuan ialah Negara Kebangsaan. Tujuan Bangsa Indonesia terlahir, merdeka, dan membentuk negara memiliki satu cita-cita, Kehendak Untuk Mengangkat Harkat dan Martabat Hidup Rakyat Indonesia (Kedaulatan Rakyat Indonesia. Melalui analisis atas realitas kehidupan saat ini, Bangsa Indonesia telah hidup pada kondisi tatanan kehidupan seolah-olah sama dengan Negara Demokrasi, ialah negara dulu terbentuk baru bangsanya dilahirkan kemudian. Sehingga kedaulatan rakyat Indonesia yang berdasarkan prinsip musyawara-mufakat dan perwakilan belum mampu terealisasi. Sementara pelaksanaan demokrasi voting yang memiliki dasar liberalisme terus bergulir, sehingga kehidupan bangsa Indonesia semakin jauh dari cita-cita awal. DOI: 10.15408/jch.v1i2.2657

  3. DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL DAN PERILAKU KONSUMEN

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    Bagus Limandoko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The word design is a word with different meanings. In the visual communication context it has became part of the team in the communication industry - the world of advertising%2C magazine and newspaper publishing%2C marketing and public relations%2C and%2C indeed%2C it has became one of the influential aspects to shape the behavior of a society and its economic development. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Desain merupakan sebuah kata dengan banyak makna. Dalam konteks komunikasi visual%2C desain sudah menjadi bagian dari tim dalam industri komunikasi. Dunia advertising%2C publikasi majalah dan suratkabar%2C pemasaran dan public relations%2C dan yang pasti desain juga sudah menjadi salah satu aspek yang berpengaruh dalam membentuk perilaku suatu masyarakat dan perkembangan ekonominya. design%2C designer%2C visual communication design%2C behavior%2C consumer

  4. PERMASALAHAN DAN POTENSI PESISIR DI KABUPATEN SAMPANG

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    Aries Dwi Siswanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available SAMPANG’S COASTAL PROBLEMS AND POTENTIALS One area that has progressive economic value and environmental degradation possibility is a dynamic areas of coastal areas. These characteristics is interesting in the perspective of management and utilization of marine resources and fisheries. The rapid development of the Sampang regency required the government to focus and provide greater attention to minimize the ecological pressures that affect the carrying capacity of the environment, particularly in coastal areas. This study aims to gather information about the problem and the potential that exists in coastal areas of Sampang. Data taken by interviewing respondents lived in coastal communities during April 2015 and the results of the questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. The problems identified include land requirement, the overlapping use, the threat of pollution and environmental degradation, and zoning; whereas the potential that exists include salt, marine tourism, mariculture, and the development of industrial areas and ports. The potential problems identified in coastal areas and beaches in Sampang relatively identical to the Bangkalan. It needs a comprehensive solution to minimize the existing impact as well as efforts to optimize utilization to achieve integrated coastal zone management.Keywords: coastal, CZM, problem, potential, Sampang ABSTRAKSalah satu wilayah yang memiliki nilai ekonomi progresif sekaligus peluang degradasi lingkungan sehingga disebut daerah dinamis adalah wilayah pantai dan pesisir. Karakteristik ini menjadi sesuatu yang menarik dalam perspektif pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan sumberdaya kelautan dan perikanan. Pesatnya perkembangan tersebut menuntut pemerintah kabupaten Sampang untuk focus dan memberikan perhatian lebih besar sebagai upaya untuk meminimalkan tekanan ekologis yang berpengaruh terhadap daya dukung lingkungan, khususnya di wilayah pesisir. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengumpulkan informasi

  5. KEPRIBADIAN SISWA DAN DISIPLIN BELAJAR SEBAGAI INTERVENING PENGARUH LINGKUNGAN KELUARGA DAN LINGKUNGAN SEKOLAH TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR

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    Ajeng Febriyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis pengaruh langsung lingkungan keluarga dan lingkungan sekolah terhadap hasil belajar ekonomi maupun pengaruh tidak langsung melalui kepribadian siswa dan disiplin belajar. Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh siswa kelas XI IPS SMA Muhammadiyah sejumlah 152 siswa. Sampel yang diambil menggunakan rumus Slovin sebanyak 110 siswa. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan angket dan dokumentasi. Metode analisis data adalah analisis deskriptif, analisis jalur, dan sobel test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 terdapat pengaruh positif dan signifikan lingkungan keluarga, lingkungan sekolah, kepribadian siswa serta disiplin belajar terhadap hasil belajar ekonomi, (2 terdapat pengaruh positif dan signifikan lingkungan keluarga dan lingkungan sekolah terhadap kepribadian siswa, (3 terdapat pengaruh positif dan signifikan lingkungan keluarga, lingkungan sekolah dan kepribadian siswa terhadap disiplin belajar, (4 kepribadian siswa secara signifikan memediasi pengaruh lingkungan keluarga dan lingkungan sekolah terhadap hasil belajar ekonomi, (5 disiplin belajar secara signifikan memediasi pengaruh lingkungan keluarga, lingkungan sekolah dan kepribadian siswa terhadap hasil belajar ekonomi. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kepribadian siswa dan disiplin belajar memediasi pengaruh lingkungan keluarga dan lingkungan sekolah terhadap hasil belajar ekonom. Saran yang dapat diberikan adalah pihak keluarga dan pihak sekolah mampu melakukan perbaikan kualitas lingkungan keluarga dan lingkungan sekolah untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar ekonomi. The purposes of this study were to analyze the direct effect of family and school environment for towards economics study result or or indirect effect through students’ personality and study discipline. The population in this research is The research \\ XI social grade in SMA Muhammadiyah Wonosobo with a total of 152 students. It used 110 students as the sample by

  6. Hubungan Antara Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Perilaku Karyawan dengan Penerapan Manajemen Budaya Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja

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    Endang Purnawati Rahayu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Budaya K3 dipengaruhi oleh organisasi, individu, dan lingkungan kerja. Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis hubungan pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku karyawan dengan penerapan Budaya Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan (K3 di Bagian Produksi PT. Mustika Ratu. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif jumlah sampel sebanyak 170 orang yang diambil secara simple random sampling. Hasil penelitian:  85,9% responden memiliki pengetahuan yang baik mengenai penerapan manajemen budaya K3, 80.6% bersikap baik dan 84.7% berperilaku baik pada penerapan budaya K3.  Penerapan manajemen budaya K3 memberikan hasil baik : 89,4 % sudah menerapkan manejemen budaya K3. Mengenai hubungan pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku terhadap penerapan manajemen budaya K3, sub variabel yang diteliti memberikan hasil yang sama yaitu adanya hubungan yang bermakna. Hubungan pengetahuan terhadap penerapan manajemen budaya K3 (pValue < 0,001 dan Odd Ratio 9,133 (95% CI=3,143-26,539. Hubungan  sikap terhadap penerapan manajemen budaya K3 (Pvalue < 0,001 dan Odd Ratio= 9,286 (95% CI = 3,250 - 26,531, sedangkan hubungan perilaku terhadap penerapan manajemen budaya K3 (p value < 0,001 dan Odd Ratio=  5,956 (95% CI = 2,080 - 17,051. Temuan lainnya adalah tidak ada hubungan yang bermakna antara karakteristik responden dengan penerapan budaya K3. Saran: pihak manajemen harus melakukan monitoring dan harus memiliki komunikasi yang baik dengan karyawan, melatih dan melibatkan karyawan untuk meningkatkan upaya perusahaan pada pelaksanaan K3 dengan penerapan OSHAS 18001 sesuai Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1970 dan PP (peraturan pemerintah nomor 50 pada tahun 2012.

  7. Komposisi Kimia, Kadar Albumin Dan Bioaktivitas Ekstrak Protein Ikan Gabus (Channa Striata Alam Dan Hasil Budidaya

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    Ekowati Chasanah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Khasiat kesehatan ikan gabus (C. striata telah dikenal secara luas dan saat ini C. striata telah digunakan sebagai bahan baku industri produk suplemen. Tingginya permintaan akan produk suplemen tersebut menimbulkan masalah pada ketersediaan C. striata yang sebagian besar ditangkap dari sungai dan danau sebagai tempat hidupnya. Ikan gabus budidaya dipercaya memiliki kualitas tidak sebaik ikan gabus alam.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai komposisi kimia, termasuk albumin dan potensi ekstrak protein kasar ikan gabus alam dan hasil budidaya sebagai antioksidan dan anti hipertensi. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa ikan gabus alam dan hasil budidaya memiliki kadar protein yang tidak berbeda secara nyata, tetapi berbeda pada kadar air, abu, dan lemak. Ikan gabus alam memiliki kadar lemak dan abu lebih rendah tetapi kadar air lebih tinggi dibanding ikan gabus budidaya. Ikan dari kedua sumber memiliki bagian yang dapat dimakan atau edible portion (EP sebesar 36%,dengan kadar mineral makro (Na, K, Ca dan mikro (Zn, Fe pada ikan hasil budidaya lebih tinggi dibanding kedua kelompok mineral pada ikan gabus alam. Kadar albumin ikan gabus alam lebih tinggi daripada kadar albumin ikan gabus budidaya. Namun demikian, hasil analisis asam amino menunjukkan bahwa ikan gabus hasil budidaya memiliki kuantitas asam amino yang lebih tinggi daripada ikan gabus alam. Asam amino non essensial dominan adalah alanin, asam aspartat, glisin, alloisoleusin, prolin, dan glutamin, sedangkan asam amino esensial didominasi oleh leusin, lisin, dan fenilalanin. Kedua ikan gabus yang diperoleh dari tempat yang berbeda tersebut memiliki bioaktivitas sebagai antioksidan yang lemah, namun berpotensi sebagai antihipertensi (penghambat Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE dengan kekuatan 1/10 kekuatan kontrol obat hipertensi captopril.

  8. Komposisi Kimia, Kadar Albumin dan Bioaktivitas Ekstrak Protein Ikan Gabus (Channa striata Alam dan Hasil Budidaya

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    Ekowati Chasanah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Khasiat kesehatan ikan gabus (C. striata telah dikenal secara luas dan saat ini C. striata telah digunakan sebagai bahan baku industri produk suplemen. Tingginya permintaan akan produk suplemen tersebut menimbulkan masalah pada ketersediaan C. striata yang sebagian besar ditangkap dari sungai dan danau sebagai tempat hidupnya. Ikan gabus budidaya dipercaya memiliki kualitas tidak sebaik ikan gabus alam.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai komposisi kimia, termasuk albumin dan potensi ekstrak protein kasar ikan gabus alam dan hasil budidaya sebagai antioksidan dan anti hipertensi. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa ikan gabus alam dan hasil budidaya memiliki kadar protein yang tidak berbeda secara nyata, tetapi berbeda pada kadar air, abu, dan lemak. Ikan gabus alam memiliki kadar lemak dan abu lebih rendah tetapi kadar air lebih tinggi dibanding ikan gabus budidaya. Ikan dari kedua sumber memiliki bagian yang dapat dimakan atau edible portion (EP sebesar 36%,dengan kadar mineral makro (Na, K, Ca dan mikro (Zn, Fe pada ikan hasil budidaya lebih tinggi dibanding kedua kelompok mineral pada ikan gabus alam. Kadar albumin ikan gabus alam lebih tinggi daripada kadar albumin ikan gabus budidaya. Namun demikian, hasil analisis asam amino menunjukkan bahwa ikan gabus hasil budidaya memiliki kuantitas asam amino yang lebih tinggi daripada ikan gabus alam. Asam amino non essensial dominan adalah alanin, asam aspartat, glisin, alloisoleusin, prolin, dan glutamin, sedangkan asam amino esensial didominasi oleh leusin, lisin, dan fenilalanin. Kedua ikan gabus yang diperoleh dari tempat yang berbeda tersebut memiliki bioaktivitas sebagai antioksidan yang lemah, namun berpotensi sebagai antihipertensi (penghambat Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE dengan kekuatan 1/10 kekuatan kontrol obat hipertensi captopril.

  9. Berpikir Rasional-Ilmiah dan Pendekatan Interdisipliner dan Multidisipliner dalam Studi Hukum Keluarga Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruddin Nasution

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This short article tries to explain how important it is to think rationally and scientifically, place the position of approachment in the Study of Islamic Family Law, also describe the use of Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach to understand and practice the Islamic Family Law. In conclusion, there are three conclutions. First, students need to get used to think, write, speak and act rationallly and scientifically. The process can be carried out by integrating with the entire subjecy. Second,  needs a good and comprehensive understanding of approachment positions in the study of Islamic Family Law, both in relation to habituation of thinking, writing, speaking and acting rational and scientific as well as in effort to integrate and interconnect Islam and science. Third, it is necessary to habituate using an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach to understand and observe all matters  that related to the Islamic Family Law.   [Tulisan singkat ini mencoba menjelaskan bagaimana pentingnya berpikir rasional dan ilmiah, meletakkan dimana posisi pendekatan dalam Studi Hukum Keluarga Islam, sekaligus menggambarkan penggunaan Pendekatan Interdisipliner dan Multidisipliner dalam memahami dan mengamalkan Hukum Keluarga Islam. Kesimpulannya ada tiga. Pertama, mahasiswa perlu dibiasakan berpikir, menulis, berbicara dan bentindak rasional dan ilmiah. Proses pembiasaannya dapat dilakukan secara terintegrasi dengan seluruh mata kuliah. Kedua, perlu pemahaman yang baik dan konprehensif bagaimana posisi pendekatan dalam studi Hukum Keluarga Islam, baik dalam kaitannya dengan pembiasaan berpikir, menulis, berbicara dan bentindak rasional dan ilmiah maupun dalam upaya integrasi dan/atau interkoneksi keilmuan. Ketiga, perlu pembiasaan menggunakan pendekatan interdisipliner dan multidisipliner dalam memahami dan mengamalkan segala persoalan yang berkaitan dengan Hukum Keluarga Islam.

  10. By Product Ternak Teknologi dan Aplikasinya

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Muhammad Irfan

    2015-01-01

    DAFTAR PUSTAKA Adventini, N., Muhayatun, D. D. Lestiani dan W.Y.N. Syahfitri. 2012. Analisis Mikronutrien dalam Daging, Limpa, dan Hati Sapi. Jurnal Medika. 38 (8), 580???586. Angelidaki, I., and B. K. Ahring. 2000. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure. Water Science Technology. 41 (3), 189-194. Anonim. 1974. Gelita-Instant-Gelatins Type 800 A Type 800 B. Gelatine-Information-Service. Deutsche Gelatine-Febrike...

  11. Diapers Bagi Kesehatan Bayi dan Lingkungan

    OpenAIRE

    Noriko, Nita

    2013-01-01

    Bayi yang berusia 0 sampai hingga 1 tahun termasuk golongan rentan, karena memiliki sistem kekebalan tubuh yang belum sempurna. Kekebalan tubuh yang dimiliki bayi adalah kekebalan pasif . Terpaparnya bayi terhadap antigen dapat terjadi melalui udara, air, makanan maupun perlengkapan yang digunakan seperti alas perlindungan (diapers) terhadap enupresis dan enkopresis. Diapers dikenal di Indonesia sejak tahun 1980 karena penggunaannya yang praktis dan mudah Penggunaan diapers menimbulkan ...

  12. Peut-on voyager dans le temps ?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    La possibilité de voyager dans le temps est régulièrement évoquée par les magazines scientifiques (et parfois même par les scientifiques). Elle est également le sujet de nombreux romans de science-fiction. Nous discuterons d’abord du sens qu’on peut donner à l’expression « voyager dans le temps », puis nous expliciterons ce que la physique contemporaine dit à ce propos.

  13. Bahasa Bali dan Pemertahanan Kearifan Lokal

    OpenAIRE

    Suardiana, I Wayan

    2012-01-01

    Bahasa Bali sebagai salah satu bahasa dan perekam budaya Bali sangat penting untuk dipelihara. Pemeliharaan bahasa Bali juga diharapkan untuk mempertahankan taksu Bali. Di Bali ada tingkatan(anggah-ungguhin basa) berbahasa yang menyebabkan terdapatnya klasifikasi sosial dalam masyarakat Bali. Kemampuan seseorang dalam menggunakan bahasa Bali memperlihatkan kedudukan sosial dan etika orang tersebut dalam berbahasa. Kemudian muncul pertanyaan ketika orang Bali berbicara dalam bahasa Bali tanp...

  14. Corak Etnik dan Dinamika Batik Pekalongan

    OpenAIRE

    Irfa'ina Rohana Salma

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAKBatik Pekalongan mempunyai ciri khas atau karakter yang berbeda dengan batik dari daerah pesisir lainnya. Corak yang berbeda ini karena adanya pengaruh budaya dari etnis-etnis pembuat batik yang berdomisili di Pekalongan, yaitu etnis Jawa, etnis Cina dan etnis Belanda. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk melakukan tinjauan dan mengkritisi lebih dalam ciri khas atau karakter corak dari batik yang dihasilkan para pembatik dari etnis yang berbeda di Pekalongan. Metode pendekatan yang dipakai yait...

  15. Strategi Pembelajaran Biologi Berbasis Kompetensi dan Konservasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Ridlo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPembelajaran melibatkan interaksi dosen, mahasiswa, dan sumber belajar. Interaksi antara ketiganya membutuhkan strategi pembelajaran. Penelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan strategi pembelajaran biologi di Jurusan Biologi Unnes yang telah berkomitmen mengaplikasikan kurikulum berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan ciri pendekatan jelajah alam sekitar (JAS. Metodologi penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Informannya dosen dan mahasiswa yang mengajar dan belajar biologi umum, mikrobiologi, dan taksonomi hewan. Data yang diperoleh berupa deskripsi kegiatan belajar mengajar dan lesson study.  Data-data dianalisis kemudian dinarasikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pembelajaran biologi dengan pendekatan berpusat pada siswa yang dikhususkan pada kegiatan penjelajahan alam sekitar dapat dilakukan menggunakan strategi yang berbasis pada cara belajar siswa aktif dan kooperatif. Strategi-strategi tersebut adalah pembelajaran kontekstual, pembelajaran partisipatif, dan pembelajaran inkuiri. AbstractLearning involves the interaction of lecturer, students, and learning resources. The interaction between them requires a learning strategy. This research aims to generate learning strategies of biology in the Department of Biology Unnes which has committed to apply the competence- and conservation-based curriculum of features the environmental exploration (JAS approach. The research methodology uses a qualitative approach. The informants are the faculty members and the students who, respectively, teach and learn biology, microbiology, and animal taxonomy subjects. The data obtained were in the form of description of learning activities and lesson studies. The data were then analyzed narratively. The results showed that the student-centered learning of environmental exploration may be conducted using active- and cooperative-based strategies. Examples of these strategies are contextual learning, participatory learning, and inquiry learning.

  16. KONSTRUKSI GENDER, HEGEMONI KEKUASAAN, DAN LEMBAGA PENDIDIKAN

    OpenAIRE

    Marhumah Marhumah

    2012-01-01

    AbstrakIsu gender adalah bagian dari persoalan sosial kemasyarakatan di Indonesia, yang persoalan utamanya  adalah kesenjangan mencolok antara laki-laki dan perempuan. Selama ini, sosialisasi gender adalah dengan cara mengedarkan pesan-pesan, wacana, nilai-nilai, norma-norma, kepercayaan dan model-model yang merepresentasikan kontruksi gender tertentu, yang dalam konsep Foucault sebagai diskursus (discourse). Dengan konsep wacana tersebut, sosialisasi gender mengandaikan adanya relasi pengeta...

  17. Desain Premi dan Manfaat Asuransi Deposito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Kelana Asnawi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper ini memuat desain penentuan premi asuransi deposito dengan mempertimbangkan pinalti bagi perilaku moral hazard dan memberikan sanggahan teoritis terhadap pendapat yang meragukan kebaikan asuransi deposito. Sanggahan ini didasarkan pada desain premi jika mempertimbangkan pinalti bagi perilaku moral hazard. Sanggahan ini merujuk pada manfaat asuransi berupa penurunan penarikan serta laba bank yang positip dan manfaat sosial yang diperoleh pemerintah. Key Word: asuransi deposito, incentive compatible plan, moral hazard, camel rating, Option Theory-Jump Process, Benefit Sosial Pemerintah

  18. PRINSIP DAN KRITERIA PERIKLANAN DARI PERSPEKTIF ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuku Meldi Kesuma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Advertising in marketing Islamic products must be believed and understood as an important part of marketing based on Islam which should not be separated. This paper examines the principles and criteria of the advertising in the perspective of Islam. It is caused by the increasing of the companies and institutions which are based on Islamic values such as Islamic financial institutions that promote its products the consumers. The important issues discussed in this paper is how the real of concepts, principles, and criteria of Islamic advertising? Therefore this paper is developing an advertising concept from the perspective of Islam and to know for sure whether the principles and criteria that should exist in advertising Islam. The methodology applied in this paper is through literature review by using content analysis. Hopefully, this study could develop an Islamic perspective advertisement concept in terms of principles and criteria. =========================================== Periklanan dalam memasarkan produk-produk Islam harus diyakini dan di pahami merupakan bahagian penting dalam pemasaran yang berdasarkan Islam yang tidak boleh dipisahkan. Tulisan ini mengkaji prinsip-prinsip dan kriteria periklanan dalam perspektif Islam. Hal ini disebabkan semakin ramai dan tingginya pertumbuhan perusahaan dan institusi yang berlandaskan nilai-nilai Islam seperti institusi keuangan Islam yang mempromosikan produk dan perkhidmatannya kepada orang ramai. Persoalan penting yang dibahas dalam kertas kerja ini adalah bagaimanakah bentuk konsep, prinsip dan kriteria periklanan Islam yang sebenarnya? Oleh karena itu tujuan kertas kerja ini adalah untuk membangun satu konsep periklanan dari perspektif Islam dan untuk mengenal pasti apakah prinsip-prinsip serta kriteria yang seharusnya ada dalam periklanan Islam. Metodologi kajian yang digunakan dalam kertas kerja ini adalah metode kepustakaan dengan menggunakan analisis isi. Kajian ini diharapkan dapat

  19. Highly rearranged mitochondrial genome in Nycteria parasites (Haemosporidia) from bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadjian, Gregory; Hassanin, Alexandre; Saintpierre, Benjamin; Gembu Tungaluna, Guy-Crispin; Ariey, Frederic; Ayala, Francisco J; Landau, Irene; Duval, Linda

    2016-08-30

    Haemosporidia parasites have mostly and abundantly been described using mitochondrial genes, and in particular cytochrome b (cytb). Failure to amplify the mitochondrial cytb gene of Nycteria parasites isolated from Nycteridae bats has been recently reported. Bats are hosts to a diverse and profuse array of Haemosporidia parasites that remain largely unstudied. There is a need to obtain more molecular data from chiropteran parasites. Such data would help to better understand the evolutionary history of Haemosporidia, which notably include the Plasmodium parasites, malaria's agents. We use next-generation sequencing to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome of Nycteria parasites from African Nycteris grandis (Nycteridae) and Rhinolophus alcyone (Rhinolophidae) and Asian Megaderma spasma (Megadermatidae). We report four complete mitochondrial genomes, including two rearranged mitochondrial genomes within Haemosporidia. Our results open outlooks into potentially undiscovered Haemosporidian diversity.

  20. Disease dynamics in a specialized parasite of ant societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B Andersen

    Full Text Available Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests and that hyperparasites often castrate Ophiocordyceps. However, once fruiting bodies become sexually mature they appear robust. Such parasite life-history traits are consistent with iteroparity--a reproductive strategy rarely considered in fungi. We discuss how tropical habitats with high biodiversity of hyperparasites and high spore mortality has likely been crucial for the evolution and maintenance of iteroparity in parasites with low dispersal potential.

  1. The bigger, the better? Volume measurements of parasites and hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagler, Christina; Hörnig, Marie K.; Haug, Joachim T.

    2017-01-01

    ), and a trophic, root like system situated inside the hosts body (the interna). Parasitism results in the castration of their hosts, achieved by absorbing the entire reproductive energy of the host. Thus, the ratio of the host and parasite sizes is crucial for the understanding of the parasite's energetic cost......Rhizocephala, a group of parasitic castrators of other crustaceans, shows remarkable morphological adaptations to their lifestyle. The adult female parasite consists of a body that can be differentiated into two distinct regions: a sac-like structure containing the reproductive organs (the externa....... Using advanced imaging methods (micro-CT in conjunction with 3D modeling), we measured the volume of parasitic structures (externa, interna, egg mass, egg number, visceral mass) and the volume of the entire host. Our results show positive correlations between the volume of (1) entire rhizocephalan...

  2. Enforcing host cell polarity: an apicomplexan parasite strategy towards dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The propagation of apicomplexan parasites through transmitting vectors is dependent on effective dissemination of parasites inside the mammalian host. Intracellular Toxoplasma and Theileria parasites face the challenge that their spread inside the host depends in part on the motile capacities of their host cells. In response, these parasites influence the efficiency of dissemination by altering adhesive and/or motile properties of their host cells. Theileria parasites do so by targeting signalling pathways that control host cell actin dynamics. The resulting enforced polar host cell morphology facilitates motility and invasiveness, by establishing focal adhesion and invasion structures at the leading edge of the infected cell. This parasite strategy highlights mechanisms of motility regulation that are also likely relevant for immune or cancer cell motility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lysine Deacetylase Inhibitors in Parasites: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Gebremedhin S; Robaa, Dina; Forgione, Mariantonietta; Sippl, Wolfgang; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello

    2017-06-22

    Current therapies for human parasite infections rely on a few drugs, most of which have severe side effects, and their helpfulness is being seriously compromised by the drug resistance problem. Globally, this is pushing discovery research of antiparasitic drugs toward new agents endowed with new mechanisms of action. By using a "drug repurposing" strategy, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), which are presently clinically approved for cancer use, are now under investigation for various parasite infections. Because parasitic Zn 2+ - and NAD + -dependent HDACs play crucial roles in the modulation of parasite gene expression and many of them are pro-survival for several parasites under various conditions, they are now emerging as novel potential antiparasitic targets. This Perspective summarizes the state of knowledge of HDACi (both class I/II HDACi and sirtuin inhibitors) targeted to the main human parasitic diseases (schistosomiasis, malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and toxoplasmosis) and provides visions into the main issues that challenge their development as antiparasitic agents.

  4. Tracer techniques for the study of host-parasite relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendgen, K.

    1975-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques have been used to study the interaction of many facultative and obligate parasites, including viruses. After feeding the host plant with labelled substrates, labelled material accumulates in the infected cells and seems to penetrate into structures of the parasite. After labelling the parasite, its influence on the host may be studied. We use this technique to study the interaction of host (bean) and parasite (bean rust) during the infection process. After infection with uredospores labelled with tritiated orotic acid, the radioactivity is retained almost completely within the young haustorium at 22 h after inoculation. This may indicate a very small influence of the parasite on its compatible host. In incompatible host-parasite combinations, the infection process proceeds in a different way. The use of autoradiographic techniques to compare combinations of varying compatibilities will be discussed. (author)

  5. Parasites of skipjack, Katsuwonus pelamis, from Madeira, Eastern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida; Cavaleiro, Bárbara; Gouveia, Lídia; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2018-04-01

    Skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a tropical species of economic importance for fisheries around the world. It occurs seasonally in subtropical waters around Madeira archipelago, in the warmer months. In this study, a parasitological analysis was carried out on a sample of 30 skipjack caught near Madeira Island. A total of 24 parasite taxa were found in this sample. The skipjack parasite community detected was characterized by a wide diversity of parasites, with a predominance of adult didymozoid trematodes, and high prevalences of Tentacularia coryphaenae cestode larvae and Anisakis sp. larvae. Microhabitat distribution of gill parasites was assessed for the most prevalent species, and correlations between parasite abundance and various host features such as size, condition, and fat content were investigated. Parasite taxa which might be useful as biological tags in future studies of skipjack migrations in the Eastern Atlantic were selected.

  6. Entrer dans les squats ouverts

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Au cœur des métropoles françaises émergent ici et là des squats, lieux d’habitation et de création affranchis, tournés vers la ville et ses habitants. Vivre en squat constitue un mode de vie, un choix subversif, une forme de résistance au système, autant qu’un recours face aux difficultés sociales. Ce livre nous plonge dans les squats « ouverts » et saisit, par la sociologie, le quotidien de ces populations mouvantes et fortement hétérogènes. Il répond à des questions simples. Qui sont ces sq...

  7. INTERRELASI BAHASA, MATEMATIKA DAN STATISTIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rofiatul Andawiyah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini berupaya mengungkap keterkaitan antara bahasa, matematika, serta statistika dimana dalam konsep berpikir ilmiah bahasa menjadi core dalam praktik keduanya baik matematika maupun statistika. Terlebih bahasa menjadi sesuatu yang amat penting untuk membahasakan matematika serta statistika itu sendiri selanjutnya Matematika merupakan bahasa yang melambangkan serangkaian makna dari pernyataan yang ingin kita sampaikan. Matematika memberikan kemudahan kepada kita di dalam memberi simbol akan makna sesuatu. Sehingga apa yang sulit menjadi mudah dipahami. Sementara statistika pengembangan lebih lanjut dari matematika. Penggunaan statistika dalam kehidupan dewasa ini sangat membantu untuk melakukan penarikan kesimpulan dari permasalahan yang dihadapi atau untuk merencanakan masa depan yang baik. Peradaban yang dibangun manusia, disebabkan dia mampu melakukan penalaran. Penalaran menggunakan kecakapan penggunaan bahasa, matematika dan statistika sebagai pembantu mengambil kesimpulan.

  8. Agir dans l'espace

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Frédéric; Allain, Sonia; Amalberti, René; Anderson, David I.; Aurnague, Michel; Baccino, Thierry; Baratgin, Jean; Barbu-Roth, Marianne; Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel; Beauvillain, Cécile; Berthoz, Alain; Beugnon, Guy; Bui, Marc; Bullier, Jean; Bullot, Nicolas J.

    2017-01-01

    Le traitement cognitif de l'espace par un être vivant se décompose en différentes phases : il perçoit l'espace – ce qui implique certains mécanismes de catégorisation et d'abstraction –, se le représente, conserve en mémoire cette représentation qu'il peut rappeler et utiliser pour conduire des actions adaptées et interagir de façon optimale avec l'environnement. Ce traitement ainsi défini a déjà fait l'objet d'un grand nombre de travaux dans le domaine des sciences de la vie et de la psychol...

  9. PENGATURAN SISTEM PENGAMAN RUMAH DAN PENGATURAN BEBAN LAMPU BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Firmansyah

    2015-09-01

    Penelitian ini menghasilkan suatu instrumen pengaman rumah dan pengaturan beban lampu yang memiliki menu open dan menu Set RTC sebagai menu pengatur sistem. Menu Open digunakan untuk mengatur akses pintu maupun lampu seperti saklar on/ off, sedangkan Menu Set RTC dapat digunakan untuk mengatur akses pintu maupun lampu sesuai keinginan pengguna dengan cara menseting nilai start dan nilai stop. Akses yang dapat diatur adalah akses pintu dan lampu dengan mode 24 jam. Pengaturan pada sistem ini belum dilengkapi dengan setting berdasarkan tanggal dan hari. Memori flash yang dibutuhkan untuk membentuk instrumen ini adalah 99,1% dari 16KByte dan memori eeprom sebesar 8,6% dari 512Byte

  10. DIALEKTIKA RADIKALISME DAN ANTI RADIKALISME DI PESANTREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thohir Yuli Kusmanto

    2015-06-01

    Upaya menentang segala bentuk radikalisme merupakan bagian dari reaksi anti radikalisme. Semangat anti radikalisme muncul sebagai bagian dari resistensi masyarakat. Radikalisme dan anti radikalisme saling berkaitan secara dialektis. Meski­pun keduanya merupakan sesuatu yang paradoks, namun selalu menyatu. Dialektika radikalisme dan anti radikalisme menarik ketika dilihat dalam kehidupan pesantren. Fenomena radikalisme Islam seringkali dihubungkan dengan masya­ra­kat pesantren di Indonesia. Beberapa kelompok masyarakat memahami radikal­isme tumbuh dari pesantren. Pandangan tersebut didasari oleh banyaknya pelaku radikalisme Islam dalam bentuk kekerasan alumni pesantren. Realitas tersebut bisa jadi benar dalam kasus tertentu, tetapi tidak bisa digeneralisasi. Penelitian ini ber­upaya menggali data pandangan pesantren tentang wacana dan praksis radikalisme dan anti radikalisme serta pola resistensinya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa masyarakat pesantren menolak, menentang dan aktif membangun spirit anti radikalisme yang diwujud­kan dalam beberapa pola. Temuan penelitian tersebut merupakan sintesis dari tesis yang selama ini menjadi wacana masyarakat tentang radikalisme dan pesantren.

  11. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.

  12. INTERVENSI KOGNITIF DAN PENDEKATAN RANTAI NILAI DALAM PENINGKATAN PEMANFAATAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DAN KOMUNIKASI DI USAHA KECIL DAN MENENGAH DI BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Widyanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (TIK di usaha kecil dan menengah (UKM di Indonesia masih pada tingkat yang belum sesuai harapan. Mempertimbangkan bahwa UKM di Indonesia banyak menyerap tenaga kerja dan menyumbang pendapatan nasional yang cukup besar, serta melihat bahwa pemanfaatan TIK di banyak industri besar telah membawa peningkatan performansi yang cukup signifikan,  peningkatan pemanfaatan TIK di UKM merupakan hal yang penting untuk dilakukan. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk memetakan tingkat pemanfaatan TIK di UKM dan mengaplikasikan intervensi kognitif dan pendekatan rantai nilai dalam meningkatkan pemanfaatan TIK di UKM. Pemetaan pemanfaatan TIK dilakukan melalui survey dengan menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur dan wawancara yang melibatkan 61 UKM di berbagai bidang di Bandung. Hasil pemetaan pemanfaatan TIK di UKM menunjukkan bahwa pemanfaatan TIK di UKM sebatas pada tujuan pemasaran produk dan sebatas pada penggunaan website. Kendala utama pemanfaatan TIK di UKM adalah faktor SDM terutama berkaitan dengan keterbatasan pengetahuan dan informasi. Berdasarkan hasil pemetaan, selanjutnya, intervensi dilakukan melalui edukasi/kampanye dengan materi mengenai rantai nilai pada 30 UKM yang bergerak di bidang fashion. Hasil intervensi menunjukkan bahwa level pengetahuan dan intensi/kemauan untuk menerapkan TIK di UKM selain untuk kepentingan pemasaran (misalnya untuk perancangan produk dan hubungan dengan pemasok semakin meningkat. Implikasi dari hasil penelitian ini dibahas lebih lanjut.       Abstract The use of information and communication technology (ICT in small and medium enterprise (SME in Indonesia is at low level. Considering that SME in Indonesia employ a lot of people and contribute to Gross Domestic Product (GDP as well as improve performance of industries,  coupled with low level of ICT use in Indonesian SME, ICT’ used in SME must be increased. Therefore, this study aims to map the use of ICT in

  13. Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contri...

  14. Parasites of fish larvae: do they follow metabolic energetic laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Gabriela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Eumetazoan parasites in fish larvae normally exhibit large body sizes relative to their hosts. This observation raises a question about the potential effects that parasites might have on small fish. We indirectly evaluated this question using energetic metabolic laws based on body volume and the parasite densities. We compared the biovolume as well as the numeric and volumetric densities of parasites over the host body volume of larval and juvenile-adult fish and the average of these parasitological descriptors for castrator parasites and the parasites found in the fish studied here. We collected 5266 fish larvae using nearshore zooplankton sampling and 1556 juveniles and adult fish from intertidal rocky pools in central Chile. We considered only the parasitized hosts: 482 fish larvae and 629 juvenile-adult fish. We obtained 31 fish species; 14 species were in both plankton and intertidal zones. Fish larvae exhibited a significantly smaller biovolume but larger numeric and volumetric densities of parasites than juvenile-adult fish. Therefore, fish larvae showed a large proportion of parasite biovolume per unit of body host (cm(3)). However, the general scaling of parasitological descriptors and host body volume were similar between larvae and juvenile-adult fish. The ratio between the biovolume of parasites and the host body volume in fish larvae was similar to the proportion observed in castrator parasites. Furthermore, the ratios were different from those of juvenile-adult fish, which suggests that the presence of parasites implies a high energetic cost for fish larvae that would diminish the fitness of these small hosts.

  15. PENGEMBANGAN VARIATIF RANCANGAN ANTENA PANEL MICROSTRIP TAPERED PATCH DALAM SISTEM KOMUNIKASI WI-FI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Artawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pengembangan rancangan antena microstrip tapered patch untuk dilakukan pengukuran parameternya sebagai karakteristik dari antena Microstrip. Penelitian ini sebagai pengembangan variatif rancangan untuk memperoleh hasil yang lebih optimal. Metode eksperiment dilakukan dalam penelitian ini. Tahap pengerjaanya yaitu membuat desain rancangan antena sesuai persamaan yang ada yang kemudian dirancang dengan metode UV Photoresist laminate. Hasil rancangan antena diukur untuk mendapatkan karakteristik sebagai parameter antena meliputi frekuensi (bandwidth, SWR, VSWR, koofesien refleksi, pola radiasi dan penguatan (gain serta nilai HPBW. Nilai-nilai tersebut mencerminkan karakter dari sebuah antena sebagai parameter antena yang layak diimplementasikan dalam sistem komunikasi internet dengan sistem wi-fi. Hasil penelitian ini meliputi: nilai lebar pita (bandwidth = 0.21 GHz, VSWR = 1,23, SWR = 1,79,  return loss = -20,00 dB, koofesien refleksi = 0,10 dan grafik pola radiasi dengan penguatan (gain = 17 dB (polarisasi vertikal, 20 dB (polarisasi horizontal. Nilai Half Power Beamwidth (HPBW 820 untuk pola radiasi vertikal dan pola radiasi horizontal. Kesalahan (error hasil pengukuran 0,12% dengan keseksamaan 99,88%. Hasil ini memberikan indikasi sebagai rancangan antena yang layak untuk sistem komunikasi wi-fi. Penelitian ini sebagai salah satu aplikasi ilmu Fisika dalam dunia teknologi informasi dan diharapkan dapat bermanfaat sebagai dinamika wahana salah satu produk penerapan ilmu Fisika dalam bidang Teknologi Informasi.

  16. The Incidence of Helminth Parasites in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Shrikhande

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The faeces of 82 donkeys irrespective of sex and age were collected and examined for any parasitic ova. The faecal sample of68 donkeys were infected with: Strongylus sp. (54.87%, Parascaris sp. (29.26%, Strongyloides sp. (24.39%, Trichonema sp. (15.85%,Oxyuris sp. (8.53%, Gastrodiscus sp. (8.53%, Entamoeba sp. (8.53%, Dictyocaulus sp. (3.65%, and Triodontophorus sp. (2.43%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 224-224

  17. Parasitic Helminths: New Weapons against Immunological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Osada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases is increasing in developed countries, possibly due to reduced exposure to microorganisms in childhood (hygiene hypothesis. Epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating. In this context, parasitic helminths are now important candidates for antiallergic/anti-inflammatory agents. Here we summarize antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects of helminths together along with our own study of the effects of Schistosoma mansoni on Th17-dependent experimental arthritis. We also discuss possible mechanisms of helminth-induced suppression according to the recent advances of immunology.

  18. Some diseases and parasites of captive woodcocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Stickel, W.H.; Geis, S.A.

    1965-01-01

    Observations were made concerning the diseases and parasites of a group of woodcocks (Philohela minor) caught in Massachusetts in the summer of 1960 and kept in captivity in Maryland, and of another group caught and kept in Louisiana in the winter of 1960-61. Bumblefoot, a granulomatous swelling of the foot caused by Micrococcus sp., is reported for woodcocks for the first time. Six of 31 woodcocks were infected with a renal coccidium of an undetermined species. Tetrameres sp. was found in 4 of 31 birds examined. Sarcocystis was found in one bird. Aerosaculitis was found in several.

  19. Parasitic helminths: new weapons against immunological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Tamotsu

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases is increasing in developed countries, possibly due to reduced exposure to microorganisms in childhood (hygiene hypothesis). Epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating. In this context, parasitic helminths are now important candidates for antiallergic/anti-inflammatory agents. Here we summarize antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects of helminths together along with our own study of the effects of Schistosoma mansoni on Th17-dependent experimental arthritis. We also discuss possible mechanisms of helminth-induced suppression according to the recent advances of immunology.

  20. Helminth parasites in some Spanish bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, F; Rey, J; Quinteiro, P; Iglesias, R; Santos, M; Sanmartin, M L

    1991-01-01

    Nineteen bats of the species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. nattereri, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Barbastella barbastellus, Eptesicus serotinus and Plecotus auritus captured in N. W. Spain in 1983-85 were found to contain the following helminth parasites: Mesotretes peregrinus (found in 4 host species and making up 31% of all helminths); Plagiorchis vespertilionis (10.5%, in 2 host species); Strongylacantha glycirrhiza, Molinostrongylus alatus, Molineidae gen. sp., Capillariidae gen. sp., Hymenolepis acuta, Cestoda gen. sp. and Trematoda gen. sp. I and II (5.2% in 1 host species).