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Sample records for radiant panel tester

  1. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Flooring Radiant Panel Tester...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side...

  3. Exergy metrication of radiant panel heating and cooling with heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkis, Birol

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rational Exergy Management Model analytically relates heat pumps and radiant panels. ► Heat pumps driven by wind energy perform better with radiantpanels. ► Better CO 2 mitigation is possible with wind turbine, heat pump, radiant panel combination. ► Energy savings and thermo-mechanical performance are directly linked to CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: Radiant panels are known to be energy efficient sensible heating and cooling systems and a suitable fit for low-exergy buildings. This paper points out the little known fact that this may not necessarily be true unless their low-exergy demand is matched with low-exergy waste and alternative energy resources. In order to further investigate and metricate this condition and shed more light on this issue for different types of energy resources and energy conversion systems coupled to radiant panels, a new engineering metric was developed. Using this metric, which is based on the Rational Exergy Management Model, true potential and benefits of radiant panels coupled to ground-source heat pumps were analyzed. Results provide a new perspective in identifying the actual benefits of heat pump technology in curbing CO 2 emissions and also refer to IEA Annex 49 findings for low-exergy buildings. Case studies regarding different scenarios are compared with a base case, which comprises a radiant panel system connected to a natural gas-fired condensing boiler in heating and a grid power-driven chiller in cooling. Results show that there is a substantial CO 2 emission reduction potential if radiant panels are optimally operated with ground-source heat pumps driven by renewable energy sources, or optimally matched with combined heat and power systems, preferably running on alternative fuels.

  4. Dynamic heat transfer modeling and parametric study of thermoelectric radiant cooling and heating panel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Zhongbing; Wang, Yingzi; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic model of thermoelectric radiant panel system is established. • The internal parameters of thermoelectric module are dynamically calculated in simulation. • Both artificial neural networks model and system model are verified through experiment data. • Optimized system structure is obtained through parametric study. - Abstract: Radiant panel system can optimize indoor thermal comfort with lower energy consumption. The thermoelectric radiant panel (TERP) system is a new and effective prototype of radiant system using thermoelectric module (TEM) instead of conventional water pipes, as heat source. The TERP can realize more stable and easier system control as well as lower initial and operative cost. In this study, an improved system dynamic model was established by combining analytical system model and artificial neural networks (ANN) as well as the dynamic calculation functions of internal parameters of TEM. The double integral was used for the calculation of surface average temperature of TERP. The ANN model and system model were in good agreement with experiment data in both cooling and heating mode. In order to optimize the system design structure, parametric study was conducted in terms of the thickness of aluminum panel and insulation, as well as the arrangement of TEMs on the surface of radiant panel. It was found through simulation results that the optimum thickness of aluminum panel and insulation are respectively around 1–2 mm and 40–50 mm. In addition, TEMs should be uniformly installed on the surface of radiant panel and each TEM should stand at the central position of a square-shaped typical region with length around 0.387–0.548 m.

  5. Energy efficiency and indoor thermal perception. A comparative study between radiant panel and portable convective heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed Hamza H.; Morsy, Mahmoud Gaber [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut, 71516 (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    This study investigates experimentally the thermal perception of indoor environment for evaluating the ability of radiant panel heaters to produce thermal comfort for space occupants as well as the energy consumption in comparison with conventional portable natural convective heaters. The thermal perception results show that, compared with conventional convection heater, a radiantly heated office room maintains a lower ambient air temperature while providing equal levels of thermal perception on the thermal dummy head as the convective heater and saves up to 39.1% of the energy consumption per day. However, for human subjects' vote experiments, the results show that for an environmentally controlled test room at outdoor environment temperatures of 0C and 5C, using two radiant panel heaters with a total capacity of 580 W leads to a better comfort sensation than the conventional portable natural convective heater with a 670 W capacity, with an energy saving of about 13.4%. In addition, for an outdoor environment temperature of 10C, using one radiant panel heater with a capacity of 290 W leads to a better comfort sensation than the conventional convection heater with a 670 W capacity, with an energy saving of about 56.7%. From the analytical results, it is found that distributing the radiant panel heater inside the office room, one on the wall facing the window and the other on the wall close to the window, provides the best operative temperature distribution within the room.

  6. Numerical Model and Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Behavior of Electric Radiant Heating Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrarini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric radiant heating panels are frequently selected during the design phase of residential and industrial heating systems, especially for retrofit of existing buildings, as an alternative to other common heating systems, such as radiators or air conditioners. The possibility of saving living and working space and the ease of installation are the main advantages of electric radiant solutions. This paper investigates the thermal performance of a typical electric radiant panel. A climatic room was equipped with temperature sensors and heat flow meters to perform a steady state experimental analysis. For the dynamic behavior, a mathematical model was created and compared to a thermographic measurement procedure. The results showed for the steady state an efficiency of energy transformation close to one, while in a transient thermal regime the time constant to reach the steady state condition was slightly faster than the typical ones of hydronic systems.

  7. Integrated application of combined cooling, heating and power poly-generation PV radiant panel system of zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoquan

    2018-02-01

    A new type of combined cooling, heating and power of photovoltaic radiant panel (PV/R) module was proposed, and applied in the zero energy buildings in this paper. The energy system of this building is composed of PV/R module, low temperature difference terminal, energy storage, multi-source heat pump, energy balance control system. Radiant panel is attached on the backside of the PV module for cooling the PV, which is called PV/R module. During the daytime, the PV module was cooled down with the radiant panel, as the temperature coefficient influence, the power efficiency was increased by 8% to 14%, the radiant panel solar heat collecting efficiency was about 45%. Through the nocturnal radiant cooling, the PV/R cooling capacity could be 50 W/m2. For the multifunction energy device, the system shows the versatility during the heating, cooling and power used of building utilization all year round.

  8. A comparison of damage profiling of automated tap testers on aircraft CFRP panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Aris, K. D.; Shariff, M. F.; Abd Latif, B. R.; Mohd Haris, M. Y.; Baidzawi, I. J.

    2017-12-01

    The use of composite materials nevertheless is getting more prominent. The combination of reinforcing fibers and matrices will produce the desired strength orientation, tailorability and not to mention the complex shape that is hard to form on metallic structure. The weight percentage of composite materials used in aerospace, civil, marine etc. has increased tremendously. Since composite are stacked together, the possibility of delamination and/disbond defects are highly present either in the monolithic or sandwich structures. Tap test is the cheapest form of nondestructive test to identify the presence of this damage. However, its inconsistency and wide area of coverage can reduce its effectivity since it is carried out manually. The indigenous automated tap tester known as KETOK was used to detect the damage due to trapped voids and air pockets. The mechanism of detection is through controlling the tapping on the surface automatically at a constant rate. Another manual tap tester RD-3 from Wichitech Industries Inc. was used as reference. The acquired data was translated into damage profiling and both results were compared. The results have shown that the indigenous automated tester can profile the damage better when compared with the existing tap tester. As a conclusion, the indigenous automated tap tester has a potential to be used as an IN-SITU damage detection tool to detect delamination and disbond damage on composite panel. However, more conclusive tests need to be done in order to make the unit available to conventional users.

  9. Study of thermosiphon and radiant panel passive heating systems for metal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehl, F.A.; Schnurr, N.M.; Wray, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    A study of passive-heating systems appropriate for use on metal buildings is being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. The systems selected for study were chosen on the basis of their appropriateness for retrofit applications, although they are also suitable for new construction: simple radiant panels that communicate directly with the building interior and a backflow thermosiphon that provides heat indirectly.

  10. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarda, C.J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-08-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors

  11. The Influence of a Radiant Panel System with Integrated Phase Change Material on Energy Use and Thermal Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lin Flemming; Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effect on energy use and thermal comfort when combining microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) with radiant ceiling panels in a two-person office. The performance of the system was studied during the cooling season in the climates of Copenhagen, Denmark, and Rome...

  12. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... mattress were used to provide local heating for the patient. The effects of the methods were identified by comparing the manikin based equivalent temperatures. The optimal thermal comfort level for both patient and medical staff would obtained when two conventional cotton blankets were used with extra...... chamber resembling a single-bed patient room under convective air conditioning alone or combined with the ceiling installed radiant heating panels. Two thermal manikins simulated a patient lying in the bed and a doctor standing next to the patient. Conventional cotton blanket, electric blanket, electric...

  13. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  14. The effects of mixing air distribution and heat load arrangement on the performance of ceiling radiant panels under cooling mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    arrangement and air distribution generated in a room by linear slot diffuser, radial multi-nozzle diffuser and radial swirl induction unit on the cooling power of radiant panels was compared. The impact on the thermal environment was also studied. Measurements were carried out without and with supply air...

  15. Field evaluation of performance of radiant heating/cooling ceiling panel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo

    2015-01-01

    heating/coolingceiling panel system is used. However, no standard exists for the in situ performance evaluation of radiantheating/cooling ceiling systems; furthermore, no published database is available for comparison. Thus,this study aims to not only clarify the system performance but also to share our...... experience and our resultsfor them to serve as a reference for other similar projects. Here, the system performance in relation toits heating/cooling capacity and thermal comfort has been evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient fromwater to room was 3.7 W/(m2K) and 4.8 W/(m2K) for heating and cooling cases...

  16. High-quality 3D correction of ring and radiant artifacts in flat panel detector-based cone beam volume CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Anas, Emran Mohammad; Kim, Jae Gon; Lee, Soo Yeol; Kamrul Hasan, Md

    2011-10-01

    The use of an x-ray flat panel detector is increasingly becoming popular in 3D cone beam volume CT machines. Due to the deficient semiconductor array manufacturing process, the cone beam projection data are often corrupted by different types of abnormalities, which cause severe ring and radiant artifacts in a cone beam reconstruction image, and as a result, the diagnostic image quality is degraded. In this paper, a novel technique is presented for the correction of error in the 2D cone beam projections due to abnormalities often observed in 2D x-ray flat panel detectors. Template images are derived from the responses of the detector pixels using their statistical properties and then an effective non-causal derivative-based detection algorithm in 2D space is presented for the detection of defective and mis-calibrated detector elements separately. An image inpainting-based 3D correction scheme is proposed for the estimation of responses of defective detector elements, and the responses of the mis-calibrated detector elements are corrected using the normalization technique. For real-time implementation, a simplification of the proposed off-line method is also suggested. Finally, the proposed algorithms are tested using different real cone beam volume CT images and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively remove ring and radiant artifacts from cone beam volume CT images compared to other reported techniques in the literature.

  17. High-quality 3D correction of ring and radiant artifacts in flat panel detector-based cone beam volume CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anas, Emran Mohammad Abu; Hasan, Md Kamrul; Kim, Jae Gon; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2011-01-01

    The use of an x-ray flat panel detector is increasingly becoming popular in 3D cone beam volume CT machines. Due to the deficient semiconductor array manufacturing process, the cone beam projection data are often corrupted by different types of abnormalities, which cause severe ring and radiant artifacts in a cone beam reconstruction image, and as a result, the diagnostic image quality is degraded. In this paper, a novel technique is presented for the correction of error in the 2D cone beam projections due to abnormalities often observed in 2D x-ray flat panel detectors. Template images are derived from the responses of the detector pixels using their statistical properties and then an effective non-causal derivative-based detection algorithm in 2D space is presented for the detection of defective and mis-calibrated detector elements separately. An image inpainting-based 3D correction scheme is proposed for the estimation of responses of defective detector elements, and the responses of the mis-calibrated detector elements are corrected using the normalization technique. For real-time implementation, a simplification of the proposed off-line method is also suggested. Finally, the proposed algorithms are tested using different real cone beam volume CT images and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively remove ring and radiant artifacts from cone beam volume CT images compared to other reported techniques in the literature.

  18. Design and construction of radiant panel for cooling and heating with photovoltaic and thermoelectric element modules; Taiyo denchi to netsuden soshi module wo mochiita fukusha reidanbo panel no sekkei oyobi shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kadotani, K; Imaizumi, H [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Utilizing cooling properties and current voltage characteristics of a small cooling panel using thermoelectric elements which had been fabricated previously on a trial basis, design and prototype production were executed on a large radiant cooling and heating panel driven by photovoltaic cell modules. The panel design set the cooling area to about 0.5 m {sup 2} and the number of elements to 70 pieces, and optimum number of elements in series and parallel connection was derived. As a result of the analysis, it was made clear that the optimum number of thermoelectric module arrays in series and parallel connection varies depending on insolation intensity. It was found preferable that the number of parallel connection array be set to one to two in a region or time period in which low insolation intensity is distributed in greater amount. In the case where high insolation intensity is distributed in a greater amount, setting it to two to three is preferable. By using the structured design method and the HASP Tokyo data, thermoelectric element modules were interconnected with 35 modules in series and two in parallel on a cooling panel installed on the roof of the Science University of Tokyo. A simulation result revealed that the average temperature difference on the cooled surface in summer is 4.37 degC, and the solar cell utilization rate is 0.67. It is necessary in the future to improve heat dissipation efficiency and area ratio. 1 ref., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Use of local convective and radiant cooling at warm environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four local cooling devices (convective, radiant and combined) on SBS symptoms reported by 24 subjects at 28 ˚C and 50% RH was studied. The devices studied were: (1) desk cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing clean air, (3) two radiant panels and (4) two radiant panels...... and with radiant panel with attached fans, which also helped people to feel less fatigue. The SBS symptoms increased the most when the cooling fan, generating movement of polluted room air, was used....

  20. Nonimaging radiant energy device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Ning, Xiaohui

    1993-01-01

    A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

  1. Radiant Heat Transfer in Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T. A.; Linford, R. M. F.; Chmitt, R. J.; Christensen, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    During radiant testing of mullite panels, temperatures in the insulation and support structure exceeded those predicted on the basis of guarded hot plate thermal conductivity tests. Similar results were obtained during arc tunnel tests of mullite specimens. The differences between effective conductivity and guarded hot plate values suggested that radiant transfer through the mullite was occurring. To study the radiant transport, measurements were made of the infrared transmission through various insulating materials and fibers of interest to the shuttle program, using black body sources over the range of 780 to 2000 K. Experimental data were analyzed and scattering coefficients were derived for a variety of materials, fiber diameters, and source temperature.

  2. Poppet valve tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, G. F.

    1973-01-01

    Tester investigates fundamental factors affecting cyclic life and sealing performance of valve seats and poppets. Tester provides for varying impact loading of poppet against seat and rate of cycling, and controls amount and type of relative motion between sealing faces of seat and poppet. Relative motion between seat and poppet can be varied in three modes.

  3. Research on characteristics measurement of infrared defect tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke-jia; Zhang, Bi-feng; Xiong, Li-min; Zhou, Tao-geng; Zhang, Jun-chao; Meng, Hai-feng; Cai, Chuan; He, Ying-wei; Li, Xiao-hui; Wang, Chang-shi

    2017-10-01

    Based on a testing method of spatial frequency response(SFR), a setup for characteristics measurements of the infrared defect tester,which can also be called electroluminescence tester(EL tester), a machine examining defects of photovoltaic (PV) panel, was built. The influences of focusing plane adjustments and infrared light box arrangements on resolution measurement of EL tester in full field of view were analyzed. For different types of EL testers, portable and fixed, testing methods and procedures were presented. Especially, a novel testing method for portable EL was claimed, which could do the work well without reference background. Based on method claimed and setup built, the resolutions of different types of EL testers were obtained and stable results were achieved. This setup is portable designed to meet online measurements requirements of PV industry.

  4. UW VLSI chip tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  5. Night time cooling by ventilation or night sky radiation combined with in-room radiant cooling panels including phase change materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Grossule, Fabio

    Night sky radiative cooling technology using PhotoVoltaic/Thermal panels (PVT) and night time ventilation have been studied both by means of simulations and experiments to evaluate their potential and to validate the created simulation model used to describe it. An experimental setup has been...... depending on the sky clearness. This cooling power was enough to remove the stored heat and regenerate the ceiling panels. The validation simulation model results related to PCM were close to the corresponding results extracted from the experiment, while the results related to the production of cold water...... through the night sky radiative cooling differed significantly. The possibility of night time ventilation was studied through simulations for three different latitudes. It was concluded that for Danish climatic conditions night time ventilation would also be able to regenerate the panels while its...

  6. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  7. Advanced TCA Backplane Tester

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of 2003, the PICMG group adopted the AdvancedTCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) standard. The 10Gb/s backplane of the AdvancedTCA chassis is well specified in the standard but it remains however a high end product, which can be itself subject to printed circuit board manufacturing control problems that could greatly affect its quality control. In order to study the practical aspects of high speed Ethernet switching at 10Gb/s and to validate the signal integrity of the AdvancedTCA backplane, we developed a Backplane Tester. The tester system is able of running monitored PRBS traffic at 3.125Gb/s over every link on the AdvancedTCA backplane simultaneously and to monitor any possible connectivity failure immediately in terms of link and slot position inside the chassis. The present report presents the architectural hardware design, the control structure and software aspects of the AdvancedTCA Backplane Tester design.

  8. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  9. Advanced TCA BAckplane Tester

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana; PGNet2005

    2005-01-01

    The “Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture” (AdvancedTCA) is a modular standard chassis based system designed to support the needs of carrier class telecommunication applications. It is defined by a set of industry standards under the direction of the PICMG group. One early deployment of the standard technology has been a 10 Gigabit Ethernet switch developed in the framework of the EU funded ESTA project. In order to study the practical aspects of high speed Ethernet switching at 10 Gigabit and above and to validate the signal integrity of the AdvancedTCA backplane, we developed a Backplane Tester. This system is able to run pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) traffic at 3.125 Gbps over every link on the AdvancedTCA backplane simultaneously, and to monitor any possible connectivity failure immediately in terms of the link and slot positions inside the chassis. In this paper, we describe the design and the practical architectural hardware and software aspects of the AdvancedTCA Backplane Tester. We also pr...

  10. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  11. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Radiant Induction-Unit and the Induction Radiant Air-Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed the novel air-conditioning system which combined induction ventilation and radiant air-conditioning. The indoor terminal device is the radiant induction-unit (RIDU. The RIDU is the induction unit combined with the pore radiant panel on which the copper pipes with rigid aluminum diffusion fins are installed. The two-stage evaporator chiller with the non-azeotropic mixture refrigerant is utilized in the system to reduce the initial investment in equipment. With the performance test and the steady state heat transfer model based on the theory of radiative heat transfer, the relationship between the induction ratio of the RIDU and the characteristic of the air supply was studied. Based on this, it is verified that the RIDU has a lower dew-point temperature and better anti-condensation performance than a traditional plate-type radiant panel. The characteristics of the radiation and convection heat transfer of the RIDU were studied. The total heat exchange of the RIDU can be 16.5% greater than that of the traditional plate-type radiant terminal.

  12. Microcontroller based Integrated Circuit Tester

    OpenAIRE

    Yousif Taha Yousif Elamin; Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzubaidi

    2015-01-01

    The digital integrated circuit (IC) tester is implemented by using the ATmega32 microcontroller . The microcontroller processes the inputs and outputs and displays the results on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The basic function of the digital IC tester is to test a digital IC for correct logical functioning as described in the truth table and/or function table. The designed model can test digital ICs having 14 pins. Since it is programmable, any number of ICs can be tested . Thi...

  13. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad

    2017-05-16

    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  14. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  15. Performance of Radiant Heating Systems of Low-Energy Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbu, Ioan; Mirza, Matei; Crasmareanu, Emanuel

    2017-10-01

    After the introduction of plastic piping, the application of water-based radiant heating with pipes embedded in room surfaces (i.e., floors, walls, and ceilings), has significantly increased worldwide. Additionally, interest and growth in radiant heating and cooling systems have increased in recent years because they have been demonstrated to be energy efficient in comparison to all-air distribution systems. This paper briefly describes the heat distribution systems in buildings, focusing on the radiant panels (floor, wall, ceiling, and floor-ceiling). Main objective of this study is the performance investigation of different types of low-temperature heating systems with different methods. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the energy, environmental, and economic performances of floor, wall, ceiling, and floor-ceiling heating using numerical simulation with Transient Systems Simulation (TRNSYS) software is performed. This study showed that the floor-ceiling heating system has the best performance in terms of the lowest energy consumption, operation cost, CO2 emission, and the nominal boiler power. The comparison of the room operative air temperatures and the set-point operative air temperature indicates also that all radiant panel systems provide satisfactory results without significant deviations.

  16. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  17. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  18. Development of the tyre tester

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuduntwane, P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of the tyre tester P KUDUNTWANE1, DU PLESSIS2 AND PROF. S ELS3 1CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Central University of Technology, Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein...

  19. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant...

  20. Radiant cooling of an enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebihi, Abdeslam; Byun, Ki-Hong; Wen Jin; Smith, Theodore F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential for radiant cooling using the atmospheric sky window and to evaluate the desired characteristics of a radiant cooling material (RCM) applied to the ceiling window of a three-dimensional enclosure. The thermal characteristics of the system are governed by the geometry, ambient temperature, sky radiative temperature, amount of solar energy and its direction, heat transfer modes, wall radiative properties, and radiative properties of the RCMs. A semi-gray band analysis is utilized for the solar and infrared bands. The radiosity/irradiation method is used in each band to evaluate the radiant exchanges in the enclosure. The radiative properties for the RCM are varied in a parametric study to identify the desired properties of RCMs. For performance simulation of real RCMs, the radiative properties are calculated from spectral data. The desired solar property is a high reflectance for both opaque and semi-transparent RCMs. For a semi-transparent RCM, a low value of the solar transmittance is preferred. The desired infrared property is a high emittance for an opaque RCM. For a semi-transparent RCM, a high infrared transmittance is desired, and the emittance should be greater than zero

  1. Thermal Conditions in a Simulated Office Environment with Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2013-01-01

    velocity and turbulent intensity were measured and draft rate levels calculated in the room. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by two thermal manikins to identify the impact of the local thermal conditions generated by the studied systems on occupants’ thermal comfort. The results......The thermal conditions in a two person office room were measured with four air conditioning systems: chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...

  2. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of ''Test ampersand Measurement'' have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past

  3. Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Patricia; Johnson, Yvette; Johnson, Brian; Williams, Philip; Burton, Geoffrey; McCoy, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester (EMUT) software is a tool for development and testing of software for a master controller (MC) flight computer. The primary function of the EMUT software is to simulate interfaces between the MC computer and external analog and digital circuitry (including other computers) in a rack of equipment to be used in scientific experiments. The simulations span the range of nominal, off-nominal, and erroneous operational conditions, enabling the testing of MC software before all the equipment becomes available.

  4. Tester-assisted built in test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntheroth, Kurt

    It is noted that board makers invest considerable time and money writing extensive self-tests and that this investment can be multiplied by selecting ATE (automatic test equipment) that complements and extends the power of the self-test. The tester can diagnose boards in situations where a fault prevents the self-test from running. If the tester monitors such resources as processor, memory, and I/O, confidence in test results is improved. The tester can be used during development of the self-test and to turn on prototypes before the self-test is complete. The author argues that emulative functional testers outperform other types of ATE on boards with BIST (built-in self-test) and lists features of emulative functional testers that are most important to users of BIST.

  5. Radiant heating of petroleum reservoirs; Aquecimento radiante de reservatorios petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidrim, Fernando A.C.

    1990-12-31

    This work presents a proposal of a simplified model for the enhanced oil recovery process through radiant heating of oil reservoirs. The resulting continuity, energy and motion equations were solved analytically for the prediction of the increase in well flow rates. The heat loss to adjacent formations and the necessary for the establishment of the temperature profile,which are transient terms of energy equation, have been neglected. Also, no temperature gradient in the axial direction has been modelled as a cylindrical wave propagating in a loss medium. It is concluded that: the inclusion of a radial conduction term in the energy equation led to higher flow rates than the ones predicted by the literature existing solution; if the absorption coefficient is too large, it is profitable to dry the reservoir around the well bore; the transient terms in the energy equation are significant for extended periods of well production. 47 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Experimental and numerical analysis of air and radiant cooling systems in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corgnati, S. P.; Perino, M.; Fracastoro, G. V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses office cooling systems based on all air mixing ventilation systems alone or coupled with radiant ceiling panels. This last solution may be effectively applied to retrofit all air systems that are no longer able to maintain a suitable thermal comfort in the indoor environment, ...

  7. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  8. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  9. Isotope Fuels Impact Tester (IFIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantz, C.E.; Taylor, J.W.; Court, D.B.

    1975-07-01

    The Isotope Fuels Impact Tester (IFIT) is used for safely impacting 238 PuO 2 heat sources that have been heated to 2000 0 C. Impact velocities reach 300 m/s (1000 ft/s). A gas gun with a 178-mm (7-in.) bore is used to accelerate the heat source, which is heated by a furnace built into the projectile. Double containment of the impacted heat source is obtained by two vessels that are sealed directly to the gun muzzle. The impact occurs in the inner vessel, and parts of the projectile jam into and thereby close each vessel. The inner vessel, containing the impacted heat source, is removed from the gun and is placed inside a glovebox for disassembly and heat-source recovery. IFIT's modular structure makes it versatile and adaptable to many types of tests. Many applications have demonstrated its versatility and, more important, its capability for impacting 238 PuO 2 heat sources safely. An approximate theoretical relation is used to predict proper conditions for achieving desired impact velocities. Bore lubricants and projectile-seal design are also important for achieving proper impact velocities

  10. 24 CFR 125.107 - Testers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... perjury. (b) Testers must receive training or be experienced in testing procedures and techniques. (c...; (3) Have had any employment or other affiliation, within one year, with the person or organization to...

  11. Tester status report: April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draut, C.F.

    1979-08-31

    This report details tester status and activities in support of testing of timers, actuators, detonators, firing sets, transducers, isolators, and pyrospacers for the period of April through June 1979.

  12. Use of local convective and radiant cooling at warm environment: effect on thermal comfort and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Duszyk, Marcin; Krejcirikova, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four local cooling devices (convective, radiant and combined) on thermal comfort and perceived air quality reported by 24 subjects at 28 ˚C and 50% RH was studied. The devices studied were: (1) desk cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing clean air, (3) two radiant panels...... and (4) two radiant panels with one panel equipped with small fans. A reference condition without cooling was tested as well. The response of the subjects to the exposed conditions was collected by computerized questionnaires. The cooling devices significantly (pthermal comfort...... compared to without cooling. The acceptability of the thermal environment was similar for all cooling devices. The acceptability of air movement and PAQ increased when the local cooling methods were used. The best results were achieved with personalized ventilation and cooling fan. The improvement in PAQ...

  13. Thermal environment in simulated offices with convective and radiant cooling systems under cooling (summer) mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment in a double office room and in a six-person meeting room obtained with chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition-mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...... calculated. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by using two thermal manikins to identify the impact of the local thermal conditions generated by the studied systems on occupants' thermal perception. The results revealed that the differences in the thermal conditions achieved...

  14. Radiant recuperator modelling and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Suzana D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recuperators are frequently used in glass production and metallurgical processes to preheat combustion air by heat exchange with high temperature flue gases. Mass and energy balances of a 15 m high, concurrent radiant recuperator used in a glass fiber production process are given. The balances are used: for validation of a cell modeling method that predicts the performance of different recuperator designs, and for finding a simple solution to improve the existing recuperator. Three possible solutions are analyzed: to use the existing recuperator as a countercurrent one, to add an extra cylinder over the existing construction, and to make a system that consists of a central pipe and two concentric annular ducts. In the latter, two air streams flow in opposite directions, whereas air in the inner annular passage flows concurrently or countercurrently to flue gases. Compared with the concurrent recuperator, the countercurrent has only one drawback: the interface temperature is higher at the bottom. The advantages are: lower interface temperature at the top where the material is under maximal load, higher efficiency, and smaller pressure drop. Both concurrent and countercurrent double pipe-in-pipe systems are only slightly more efficient than pure concurrent and countercurrent recuperators, respectively. Their advantages are smaller interface temperatures whereas the disadvantages are their costs and pressure drops. To implement these solutions, the average velocities should be: for flue gas around 5 m/s, for air in the first passage less than 2 m/s, and for air in the second passage more than 25 m/s. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. EE 33027

  15. Comparative investigations of tablet crushing force testers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn; Jensen, C.G.; Poulsen, L.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of 16 tablet breaking force testers was evaluated in terms of accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability. Three tablet formulations with different plastic or brittle deformation mechanisms and with target breaking forces of 50, 100 and 150 N were tested. Statistically significant...... by the concept of components of variance was 5-7 % depending on the model tablet excipient. The standard deviation within testers (repeatability) was affected by the type of model formulation showing increasing variability with increasing brittleness of the compressed material. No specific effect of altering...

  16. Armstrong Laboratory Space Visual Function Tester Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Melvin R.; Task, H. Lee; Gleason, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space visual function tester program are presented. Many astronauts and cosmonauts have commented on apparent changes in their vision while on-orbit. Comments have included descriptions of earth features and objects that would suggest enhanced distance visual acuity. In contrast, some cosmonaut observations suggest a slight loss in their object discrimination during initial space flight. Astronauts have also mentioned a decreased near vision capability that did not recover to normal until return to earth. Duntley space vision experiment, USSR space vision experiments, and visual function testers are described.

  17. 21 CFR 870.3720 - Pacemaker electrode function tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker electrode function tester. 870.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3720 Pacemaker electrode function tester. (a) Identification. A pacemaker electrode function tester is a device which is...

  18. Two ankle joint laxity testers: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Blankevoort, Leendert; Sierevelt, Inger N.; Corvelein, Ruby; Janssen, Guido H. W.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2005-01-01

    Two test devices were manufactured to objectively measure ankle joint laxity: the dynamic anterior ankle tester (DAAT) and the quasi-static anterior ankle tester (QAAT). The primary aim was to analyse the reliability of both testers; The secondary aim was to assess validity in correlation with TELOS

  19. Comparison of radiant and convective cooling of office room: effect of workstation layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Rezgals, Lauris

    2014-01-01

    and compared. The room was furnished with two workstations, two laptops and two thermal manikins resembling occupants. Two heat load levels, design (65 W/m2) and usual (39 W/m2), were generated by adding heat from warm panels simulating solar radiation. Two set-ups were studied: occupants sitting......The impact of heat source location (room layout) on the thermal environment generated in a double office room with four cooling ventilation systems - overhead ventilation, chilled ceiling with overhead ventilation, active chilled beam and active chilled beam with radiant panels was measured...

  20. Dall-Null tester for spaceborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingler, R. L.

    1984-12-01

    This is a study to design a self correcting primary mirror system for a space telescope. The design is centered around a Dall-Null tester (a Foucault knife-edge tester with compensating lens). An indepth study of the theory of the Foucault test from Foucault's original publications to current work is presented. Also short comings of the diffraction approach are shown. The findings of a simple experiment showed the way to the correct explanation as to the workings of the test. Based on this new explanation, a computer program to find the error in the surface of the mirror from the irradiance pattern provided by the Dall-Null tester was developed. The computer program with a sample run is included in the appendixes A and B. The basic design of an adaptive optic system for a spaceborne application is also presented in the paper. This design has the desired quality of being able to correct the mirror while the telescope is in use. The equations being independent of wavelength allows for the design to be applied to systems working outside of the visible spectrum as well as the systems working in the visible.

  1. Corrosive environment tester for filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Weber, C.W.; Keinberger, C.A.; Rivers, R.D.

    1977-02-01

    Two continuous dynamic systems have been designed and fabricated for testing filter media in humid, corrosive environments--one for fluorine or fluoride exposures, and the other for nitrogen dioxide exposures. The tester using fluorine or fluoride atmospheres was constructed of nickel and the one using nitrogen dioxide was fabricated of stainless steel. Other corrosive gases could be used with the appropriate choice of system. For example, chlorine or hydrogen chloride could be used in the system fabricated of nickel, and sulfur dioxides or ammonia could be used in the stainless steel testing apparatus. Each tester is comprised of four equivalent dynamic systems designed for diluting a corrosive reagent with dry air, then with humidified air to provide a humid-corrosive environment for filter media testing. Auxiliary equipment includes a water injection system, corrosive reagent supply systems, and an automatic pressure differential (ΔP) monitoring and recording system. The testers are relatively maintenance-free and have operated continuously for periods as long as 96 h without requiring any attention, during total exposures of materials exceeding 600 h

  2. Radiant absorption characteristics of corrugated curved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of modern paraboloidal concentrators for conversion of solar radiation into heat energy requires the development and implementation of compact and efficient heat absorbers. Accurate estimation of geometry influence on absorption characteristics of receiver tubes is an important step in this process. This paper deals with absorption characteristics of heat absorber made of spirally coiled tubes with transverse circular corrugations. Detailed 3-D surface-to-surface Hemicube method was applied to compare radiation performances of corrugated and smooth curved tubes. The numerical results were obtained by varying the tube curvature ratio and incident radiant heat flux intensity. The details of absorption efficiency of corrugated tubes and the effect of curvature on absorption properties for both corrugated and smooth tubes were presented. The results may have significance to further analysis of highly efficient heat absorbers exposed to concentrated radiant heating. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 42006

  3. Radiant exchange in partially specular architectural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, C. Walter; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2003-10-01

    The radiant exchange method, also known as radiosity, was originally developed for thermal radiative heat transfer applications. Later it was used to model architectural lighting systems, and more recently it has been extended to model acoustic systems. While there are subtle differences in these applications, the basic method is based on solving a system of energy balance equations, and it is best applied to spaces with mainly diffuse reflecting surfaces. The obvious drawback to this method is that it is based around the assumption that all surfaces in the system are diffuse reflectors. Because almost all architectural systems have at least some partially specular reflecting surfaces in the system it is important to extend the radiant exchange method to deal with this type of surface reflection. [Work supported by NSF.

  4. Radiant Barriers Save Energy in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Langley Research Center needed to coat the Echo 1 satellite with a fine mist of vaporized metal, and collaborated with industry to create "radiant barrier technology." In 2010, Ryan Garrett learned about a new version of the technology resistant to oxidation and founded RadiaSource in Ogden, Utah, to provide the NASA-derived technology for applications in homes, warehouses, gymnasiums, and agricultural settings.

  5. Electric radiant heating : a hot profitable idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G. [Britech Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Due to the high cost of heating oil, natural gas and propane, floor mounted radiant heating systems are now proving to be a cost effective method of heating homes. The systems provide evenly distributed heat across the entire floor area. Unlike hydronic floor systems, radiant floor systems require no maintenance, and are easy to control because no mechanical rooms or boilers are required. The system is comprised of a series of resistant heating cables, a thermostat, and a solid state relay. The cables are installed in a poured concrete pad. Separate temperature control devices are used to heat individual areas of floorspace. Building automation systems can also control the heating system by using simple ambient air- and floor-mounted sensors in conjunction with relays to energize the heating cables. The cost of thermostats and heating cables to heat a standard 2000 square foot home are estimated at $9000.00, with an additional 64 hours of installation costs. It was noted that the systems may prove to be less costly in the long-term than hydronic systems, which require additional boilers, pumps and water treatments. Electric radiant heating can be an even more cost-effective application when used with thermal storage heating applications that use lower-cost off-peak electricity to generate and store heat in concrete floor slabs or ceramic bricks contained in insulated cabinets. It was concluded that radiant heating systems are a viable and cost-effective alternative to expensive hydronic systems, which are costly to install and maintain. 4 figs.

  6. Measurement of radiant properties of ceramic foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoornstra, J.; Turecky, M.; Maatman, D.

    1994-07-01

    An experimental facility is described for the measurement of the normal spectral and total emissivity and transmissivity of semi-transparent materials in the temperature range of 600 C to 1200 C. The set-up was used for the measurement of radiation properties of highly porous ceramic foam which is used in low NO x radiant burners. Emissivity and transmissivity data were measured and are presented for coated and uncoated ceramic foam of different thicknesses. (orig.)

  7. Development of a second generation rolling contact fatigue tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Satyam U.

    Contact fatigue failure has been in research since the early twentieth century. The need for a second generation sliding-rolling contact fatigue tester was proposed by Gregory Dvorak and Dr. Marcellin Zahui. The first generation RCF tester was used for testing super finishing processes for gear surfaces. The second generation RCF tester was funded by the Advanced Engineering Materials lab of University of North Dakota. Verification of the second generation Rolling Contact Fatigue Tester will be discussed in this thesis including the design details, assembly and testing procedure and to discuss its different parameters. The tester will have the capability of testing hollow specimens using a bobbin eddy current testing probe. This tester will allow a wide range of experiments and is not built for one specific purpose. An eddy current device is used for detecting cracks. The loading force is applied using hydraulic cylinders and a hydraulic power unit. Before testing began, the machine was run for some time at full speed. A lot of minor problems were detected and fixed. Three specimens of AISI 8620 were tested in this tester. All tests gave results matching with some of the other well-known RCF testers. These tests were performed to evaluate mechanical limits of the tester and to evaluate the software performance of the tester.

  8. Building instructions: a motorcar battery tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, K

    1975-02-01

    The circuit diagram of a motor car battery tester is given, intended for dashboard mounting. The condition of the battery is indicated by means of a light-emitting diode, which may be off (below 11 V), red (11 to 12.5 V), green (12.5 to 14.8 V) or flashing red (voltage exceeding 14.8 V). The circuit uses two transistors and a single integrated circuit (four-way comparator). Details of the layout, assembly, and testing procedures are included.

  9. Small-Bolt Torque-Tension Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    The device described here measures the torque-tension relationship for fasteners as small as #0. The small-bolt tester consists of a plate of high-strength steel into which three miniature load cells are recessed. The depth of the recess is sized so that the three load cells can be shimmed, the optimum height depending upon the test hardware. The three miniature load cells are arranged in an equilateral triangular configuration with the test bolt aligned with the centroid of the three. This is a kinematic arrangement.

  10. 7 CFR 801.4 - Tolerances for dockage testers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for dockage testers. 801.4 Section 801.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.4 Tolerances for dockage testers. The maintenance tolerances for...

  11. Development of a Portable Torque Wrench Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Gou, C.; Su, D.

    2018-03-01

    A portable torque wrench tester (PTWT) with calibration range from 0.5 Nm to 60 Nm has been developed and evaluated for periodic or on-site calibration of setting type torque wrenches, indicating type torque wrenches and hand torque screwdrivers. The PTWT is easy to carry with weight about 10 kg, simple and efficient operation and energy saving with an automatic loading and calibrating system. The relative expanded uncertainty of torque realized by the PTWT was estimated to be 0.8%, with the coverage factor k=2. A comparison experiment has been done between the PTWT and a reference torque standard at our laboratory. The consistency between these two devices under the claimed uncertainties was verified.

  12. Experimental research on the indoor temperature and humidity fields in radiant ceiling air-conditioning system under natural ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Xiang, Yutong; Wang, Yonghong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the indoor temperature and humidity fields of the air in a metal ceiling radiant panel air conditioning system with fresh air under natural ventilation were researched. The temperature and humidity distributions at different height and different position were compared. Through the computation analysis of partial pressure of water vapor, the self-recovery characteristics of humidity after the natural ventilation was discussed.

  13. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.

    2017-10-31

    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  14. Development of roller type side slip tester; Roller shiki side slip tester no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, S [Hiroshima City Industrial Technology Institute, Hiroshima (Japan); Harada, S; Harada, K

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a new development of roller type side slip tester (RTSSI). The test equipment consists of four parts, which are developed in this research. These are a roller part, a control part, a remote control part and a CRT part. In this study, we especially investigated the mechanism and performance between tire and roller. We analyzed the amount of side slip with various toe angles. The developed tester is examined under the conditions that is considered in industrial applications. We investigated the influences of toe angle, size of tire, pressure of tire, coefficient of friction between tire and roller, pushing force of tire, revolution velocity of roller, axle load and so on. The validity of the developed RTSST is confirmed under these conditions. It was found that the RTSST can be used in practical use. Some measurement results are presented in the form of parametric plots. And we also compared measurements data between the RTSST and that of flat type using several automobiles. 4 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Direct conversion of infrared radiant energy for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed technology to convert the earth radiant energy (infrared albedo) for spacecraft power is presented. The resultant system would eliminate energy storage requirements and simplify the spacecraft design. The design and performance of a infrared rectenna is discussed.

  16. Error analysis of thermocouple measurements in the Radiant Heat Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakos, J.T.; Strait, B.G.

    1980-12-01

    The measurement most frequently made in the Radiant Heat Facility is temperature, and the transducer which is used almost exclusively is the thermocouple. Other methods, such as resistance thermometers and thermistors, are used but very rarely. Since a majority of the information gathered at Radiant Heat is from thermocouples, a reasonable measure of the quality of the measurements made at the facility is the accuracy of the thermocouple temperature data

  17. Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  18. Effect of radiant heat at the birth site in farrowing crates on hypothermia and behaviour in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    It has been documented that floor heating of the farrowing area in loose housed sows improves survival of piglets significantly. However, today, the majority of farrowing pens are designed with crating of sows and slatted floor at the birth site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether...... providing radiant heat at the birth site to new-born piglets in pens with crated sows reduced hypothermia, time to first milk intake and growth of the piglets during the 1st week. Second parity Danish Landrace×Yorkshire sows (n=36) were randomly divided into two groups: Control (CG) and heat (HG......). In the area behind the sow (zone 1), two radiant heat panels were mounted above the slatted floor in the HG. The farrowings were attended, and the heaters were turned on at birth of first piglet and turned off 12 h after. Birth time, time to leave zone 1, time to first contact with udder and time to first...

  19. Elevated-Temperature Tests Under Static and Aerodynamic Conditions on Honeycomb-Core Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joseph M.; Johnson, Aldie E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Stainless-steel honeycomb-core sandwich panels which differed primarily in skin thicknesses were tested at elevated temperatures under static and aerodynamic conditions. The results of these tests were evaluated to determine the insulating effectiveness and structural integrity of the panels. The static radiant-heating tests were performed in front of a quartz-tube radiant heater at panel skin temperatures up to 1,5000 F. The aerodynamic tests were made in a Mach 1.4 heated blowdown wind tunnel. The tunnel temperature was augmented by additional heat supplied by a radiant heater which raised the panel surface temperature above 8000 F during air flow. Static radiant-heating tests of 2 minutes duration showed that all the panels protected the load-carrying structure about equally well. Thin-skin panels showed an advantage for this short-time test over thick-skin panels from a standpoint of weight against insulation. Permanent inelastic strains in the form of local buckles over each cell of the honeycomb core caused an increase in surface roughness. During the aero- dynamic tests all of the panels survived with little or no damage, and panel flutter did not occur.

  20. Colour of Tester Effects on Children's Expressed Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. C.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a study of student attitudes, preferences, and stereotyping among White Britons and West Indian students in an English secondary school. Findings indicated that factors such as the race of the tester influenced the test situation. For journal availability, see SO 506 785. (DB)

  1. Software testing an ISTQB-BCS certified tester foundation guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian; Samaroo, Angelina; Thompson, Geoff; Williams, Peter; Hambling, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This practical guide provides insight into software testing, explaining the basics of the testing process and how to perform effective tests. It provides an overview of different techniques and how to apply them. It is the best-selling official textbook of the ISTQB-BCS Certified Tester Foundation Level.

  2. Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The

  3. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  4. White balance tester with color sensor for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiasheng; Zhu, XiaoSong

    1996-12-01

    The white balance tester is an instrument that adjusts the white balance for color TVs, monitors, and PC displays. We have designed a new white balance tester for use directly at the production line. It picks up the R (Red), G (Green), and B (Blue) signals for the screen using color sensors, compares the signals with the data previously stored in the internal memory, displays their differences with LED bars in the compare mode or displays x y Y, u v Y, JND (just noticeable difference) as well as correlated color temperature in the numerical mode. A built-in TV signal generator sets the luminance of the adjusting screen to the brightness of the reference white screen automatically. A 16-bit single chip microcomputer processes the measured values and controls the output levels of the TV signal generator.

  5. Improving deposition tester to study adherent deposits in papermaking

    OpenAIRE

    Monte Lara, Concepción; Sánchez, Mónica; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles; Negro Álvarez, Carlos; Tijero Miquel, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Conventional methods used for the quantification of adherent material contained in a pulp suspension propose either filtration of the sample, which may lead to loss of sticky material in the filtrate, or dilution of the pulp, which may cause destabilization of the dissolved and colloidal material; thus, leading to unreliable results. In 1998, the Cellulose and Paper Group of University Complutense of Madrid developed a deposition tester which aimed to quantify the adherence of material (micro...

  6. Tester Detects Steady-Short Or Intermittent-Open Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bobby L.

    1990-01-01

    Momentary open circuits or steady short circuits trigger buzzer. Simple, portable, lightweight testing circuit sounds long-duration alarm when it detects steady short circuit or momentary open circuit in coaxial cable or other two-conductor transmission line. Tester sensitive to discontinuities lasting 10 microseconds or longer. Used extensively for detecting intermittent open shorts in accelerometer and extensometer cables. Also used as ordinary buzzer-type continuity checker to detect steady short or open circuits.

  7. Load calculations of radiant cooling systems for sizing the plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was, by using a building simulation software, to prove that a radiant cooling system should not be sized based on the maximum cooling load but at a lower value. For that reason six radiant cooling models were simulated with two control principles using 100%, 70% and 50......% of the maximum cooling load. It was concluded that all tested systems were able to provide an acceptable thermal environment even when the 50% of the maximum cooling load was used. From all the simulated systems the one that performed the best under both control principles was the ESCS ceiling system. Finally...... it was proved that ventilation systems should be sized based on the maximum cooling load....

  8. ''Super-radiant'' states in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.

    1994-01-01

    A ''super-radiant'' state emerges when, under certain conditions, one or a few ''internal'' states acquire a large collective decay width due to the coupling to one or a few ''external'' decay channels. The rest of the internal states are ''stripped'' of their decay width and become long lived quasistationary states. The essentials of such mechanism and its possible role in intermediate energy nuclear physics are discussed in this work

  9. Electric radiant heating: A hot item in home comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G. [Britech Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-12-01

    Electric radiant heating as a floor warming system and its growing popularity in home comfort are discussed. Price can be as low as $2.00 per square foot; cost of operation may be as little as 30 cents per square foot per year, depending on time of use and local hydro rates. The use of radiant cable heating is said to have surged in popularity; it provides the same warmth and comfort as more expensive hydronic systems. Radiant cable is simple and inexpensive to install since unlike hydronic systems, it requires no complicated mechanical system with boiler, heat exchanger, valves, pumps and extensive controls. Nevertheless, prospective end users are warned to make sure that the cable is sturdy, tough, has multiple layers of protection with a thick grounding system and conductor core. In addition to heating floors, electric heating cables can also be used for snow and ice control and for melting in driveways and gutters. In these type of installations heavy duty cables are used which are installed under asphalt, concrete or interlocking stones. Thirty watts per square foot per hour is the typical requirement for melting snow and ice. Based on average electricity prices in Ontario, melting snow on an 800 square foot driveway would cost about $2.20 per hour. Assuming five hours for the system to clear the driveway, installing a heating system under the driveway could be an economically viable solution for the home owner, providing freedom from ice, the inconvenience of shovelling snow, and saving time and money.

  10. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...... in research settings where it is not possible to distribute units of analysis randomly or where the independent variables cannot be manipulated. The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys...... points in time. In comparison with traditional cross-sectional studies, the advantage of using panel studies is that the time dimension enables us to study effects. Whereas experimental designs may have a clear advantage in regard to causal inference, the strength of panel studies is difficult to match...

  11. Sandia's severe human body Electrostatic Discharge Tester (SSET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnum, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Electromagnetic Testing Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a simulator to replicate a severe human body electrostatic discharge event. This simulator is referred to as Sandia's Severe Human Body Electrostatic Discharge Tester (SSET). The SSET is configured as a coaxial transmission line, which allows control of parasitic inductance and capacitance to achieve the desired waveform signature, and operates reliably at voltages up to 35 kV. It is constructed from off-the-shelf or easily fabricated components and costs approximately $750 for materials, not including the power supply. The output is very repeatable and provides good simulation fidelity of a severe human body discharge

  12. Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F. Jr.; Schatzel, S.J.

    1998-04-21

    A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas; a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers and a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container; and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use. 5 figs.

  13. Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleniuk, P.; Kasampalis, V.; Cosmo, M. Di; Nisbet, D.; Todd, B.; Uznański, S.

    2017-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary scan test platform and the first results from exploitation of the test system. This paper reports on the test software, hardware design and test strategy applied for a number of devices that has resulted in maximizing test coverage and minimizing test design effort.

  14. submitter Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Oleniuk, P; Kasampalis, V; Nisbet, D; Todd, B; Uznański, S

    2017-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary s...

  15. Radiant energy collection and conversion apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A.J.

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting to alternate energy forms includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past the window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  16. Radiant science, dark politics: a memoir of the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamen, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer describes Radiant Science, Dark Politics: A Memoir of the Nuclear Age in contrast to a memoir by James R. Killian, Jr., a contemporary of Kamen. Kamen, co-discoverer of carbon-14 and a valued member of the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, was fired in 1944 and blackballed as a security risk. Rehabilitated by the end of the war, his continued fight against political injustice through the McCarthy era colors the book and, for the reviewer, makes it self-serving. Kamen's later scientific work reflected his desire to work alone rather than in collaboration

  17. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    studies on RHC systems in terms of comfort, heat transfer analysis, energy simulation, control strategy, system configurations and so on. Many studies have demonstrated that the RHC system is a good solution to improve indoor environmental quality while reducing building energy consumption for heating......Radiant heating and cooling (RHC) systems are being increasingly applied not only in residential but also in non-residential buildings such as commercial buildings, education facilities, and even large scale buildings such as airport terminals. Furthermore, with the combined ventilation system used...

  18. Radiant coolers - Theory, flight histories, design comparisons and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, M. J.; Sherman, A.; Hickman, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiant coolers have been developed for application to the cooling of infrared detectors aboard NASA earth observation systems and as part of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The prime design constraints for these coolers are the location of the cooler aboard the satellite and the satellite orbit. Flight data from several coolers indicates that, in general, design temperatures are achieved. However, potential problems relative to the contamination of cold surfaces are also revealed by the data. A comparison among the various cooler designs and flight performances indicates design improvements that can minimize the contamination problem in the future.

  19. Radiant energy during infrared neural stimulation at the target structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Rajguru, Suhrud; Stafford, Ryan; Stock, Stuart R.

    2013-03-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) describes a method, by which an infrared laser is used to stimulate neurons. The major benefit of INS over stimulating neurons with electrical current is its spatial selectivity. To translate the technique into a clinical application it is important to know the energy required to stimulate the neural structure. With this study we provide measurements of the radiant exposure, at the target structure that is required to stimulate the auditory neurons. Flat polished fibers were inserted into scala tympani so that the spiral ganglion was in front of the optical fiber. Angle polished fibers were inserted along scala tympani, and rotating the beveled surface of the fiber allowed the radiation beam to be directed perpendicular to the spiral ganglion. The radiant exposure for stimulation at the modiolus for flat and angle polished fibers averaged 6.78+/-2.15 mJ/cm2. With the angle polished fibers, a 90º change in the orientation of the optical beam from an orientation that resulted in an INS-evoked maximum response, resulted in a 50% drop in the response amplitude. When the orientation of the beam was changed by 180º, such that it was directed opposite to the orientation with the maxima, minimum response amplitude was observed.

  20. Electric radiant heating or, why are plumbers getting our work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G. [Britech, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Electric radiant heating (ERH) technologies are now being installed in floors as a means of reducing heating costs. The radiant installations have seen a large increase in sales over the last decade, and are now being used in commercial applications. Sales of hydronic ERH systems have increased by 24 per cent over the last year. ERH systems are energy efficient and do not cause drafts. The systems consist of resistant heating cables installed within the floors of a room. The cables are supplied as loose cables and tracks with predetermined spacings or rugged, heavier cable that can be stapled onto wooden subfloors. Program temperature setbacks can be applied on a room-by-room basis. Electric thermal storage systems allow building owners to store heat in the floors and are ideal for use in combination with time-of-use electric metering. Some electric utilities are now promoting the use of electric thermal storage in order to reduce demand during peak times. Thermostats used with the systems should have floor sensors and ambient air sensors to control space heating in conjunction with the floor sensor. It was concluded that electrical contractors who gain knowledge in the application and installation of the systems will tap into a growing revenue stream. 5 figs.

  1. Electric radiant heating or, why are plumbers getting our work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, G.

    2009-01-01

    Electric radiant heating (ERH) technologies are now being installed in floors as a means of reducing heating costs. The radiant installations have seen a large increase in sales over the last decade, and are now being used in commercial applications. Sales of hydronic ERH systems have increased by 24 per cent over the last year. ERH systems are energy efficient and do not cause drafts. The systems consist of resistant heating cables installed within the floors of a room. The cables are supplied as loose cables and tracks with predetermined spacings or rugged, heavier cable that can be stapled onto wooden subfloors. Program temperature setbacks can be applied on a room-by-room basis. Electric thermal storage systems allow building owners to store heat in the floors and are ideal for use in combination with time-of-use electric metering. Some electric utilities are now promoting the use of electric thermal storage in order to reduce demand during peak times. Thermostats used with the systems should have floor sensors and ambient air sensors to control space heating in conjunction with the floor sensor. It was concluded that electrical contractors who gain knowledge in the application and installation of the systems will tap into a growing revenue stream. 5 figs

  2. Hand-Drawn Resistors and a Simple Tester Using a Light-Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Abe, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    A thick line drawn on a sheet of paper with a 6B pencil is electrically conductive and its resistance can be roughly estimated using a simple tester made of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a lithium coin-type cell. Using this hand-drawn resistor and the LED tester, we developed teaching materials that help students to understand how electrical…

  3. High inter-tester reliability of the new mobility score in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.T.; Bandholm, T.; Foss, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the inter-tester reliability of the New Mobility Score in patients with acute hip fracture. DESIGN: An inter-tester reliability study. SUBJECTS: Forty-eight consecutive patients with acute hip fracture at a median age of 84 (interquartile range, 76-89) years; 40 admitted from...

  4. Evaluation of dampers using a resonance adhesion tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Koláček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the diagnostics of dampers using resonant adhesion tester. This kind of test is non-invasive and evaluation is based on the EUSAMA methodology. The main goals of this method were to practically measure and evaluate technical condition of the shock absorbers. However, this method does not measure only damper properties, but the whole axle, too. During measurements, one must take into account the fact that the results can be easily influenced by external factors. These include e.g. wrong tire pressure, different kind of shock absorbers, and tires. The actual testing revealed that the measurement results are also influenced by bad condition of the vehicle axles. If we eliminate all these draw-backs, dampers testing can be very accurate.

  5. Trial of prestressed concrete cable testing by sonic integrity tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masanobu

    1997-01-01

    Highway road network of Japan is in good condition. Those roads were constructed as social infrastructures. But some damages were occurred and propagated in concrete structure which passed more than 20 years after construction. As for the damages load caring capacity of bridge was decreased due to fatigue of increasing traffics and bridge vibration. Recently many troubles happened in PC structure as cut off of the main cables by corrosion and flying the non-grouting PC-bar to roadside. Some case can be checked by hammering testing method and X-ray photo cut or not and condition of cement grouting. But another case has not checking method. Now we are testing for the PC cables by sonic integrity tester which is modified from FPDS(Foundation Pile Diagnosis System). We report in this paper on this result and scope of the future of this method.

  6. Microprocessor tester for the treat upgrade reactor trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Bucher, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The upgrading of the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility at ANL-Idaho has been designed to provide additional experimental capabilities for the study of core disruptive accident (CDA) phenomena. In addition, a programmable Automated Reactor Control System (ARCS) will permit high-power transients up to 11,000 MW having a controlled reactor period of from 15 to 0.1 sec. These modifications to the core neutronics will improve simulation of LMFBR accident conditions. Finally, a sophisticated, multiply-redundant safety system, the Reactor Trip System (RTS), will provide safe operation for both steady state and transient production operating modes. To insure that this complex safety system is functioning properly, a Dedicated Microprocessor Tester (DMT) has been implemented to perform a thorough checkout of the RTS prior to all TREAT operations

  7. A portable fracture toughness tester for biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvell, B. W.; Lee, P. K. D.; Yuen, T. D. B.; Lucas, P. W.

    1996-06-01

    A portable mechanical tester is described which is both lightweight and cheap to produce. The machine is simple and convenient to operate and requires only a minimum of personnel training. It can be used to measure the fundamental mechanical properties of pliant solids, particularly toughness (in the sense of `work of fracture') using either scissors or wedge tests. This is achieved through a novel hardware integration technique. The circuits are described. The use of the machine does not require a chart recorder but it can be linked to a personal computer, either to show force - displacement relationships or for data storage. The design allows the use of any relatively `soft' mechanical test, i.e. tests in which the deformability of the frame of the machine and its load cell do not introduce significant errors into the results. Examples of its use in measuring the toughness of biomaterials by scissors (paper, wood) and wedges (mung bean starch gels) are given.

  8. The development and application of portable speed tester for special equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Peng; Chen Ligang; Dai Sidan; Wang Huiting; Zhang Liangxu; Wang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Special equipment developed to meet the needs for research and industrial application of this stage, with the advantages of small size, high accuracy, long working hours, high reliability and intelligent portable speed tester. This paper describes the development and application of the tester. In terms of hardware, the tester use 'MCU + CPLD' to build the core of the system, and focus on high precision, low-power design, Software to increase their power electricity monitoring and filtering software anti-interference function. The tester can achieve high-precision measurement of the speed parameter, display measurement data in real time via the LCD display functions. Currently, the tester has been successfully achieved industrial application. (authors)

  9. Design, Construction, and Evaluation of Rubber Friction Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Razzaghi Kashani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coeffcient of  friction  (COF  for  rubber parts  is one of  the key parameters in their interaction with solid rough surfaces (micrometer to millimeter scales,  such  as  tire-road  interactions. COF  of  rubber  depends  on  viscoelastic properties of rubber, roughness characteristics of the counter-part surface, and process variables such as contact nominal pressure and sliding speed. Due to the need for measuring COF  for  rubber,  a  new  friction  tester, with  continuous  variation  of nominal pressure and sliding speed, was designed and constructed in order to assess the effect of above mentioned parameters. Tire tread compounds, as the most common rubber part  in  the feld of  rubber  tribology, was used  for  this purpose. Viscoelastic properties of compounds were varied by changing composition of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR and butadiene rubber (BR in the blend. Effect of surface roughness was evaluated by using silicon-carbide papers with different roughness parameters. By statistical analysis it was shown that the designed friction tester has high accuracy in measuring the coeffcient of friction of rubber and differentiating the effective parameters. Increasing the nominal pressure led to reduction of COF and increase in sliding speed forced it through a maximum. In conclusion, the loss factor of the compound and asymmetry in roughness distribution of the counter-surface are considered as the most effective parameters on COF of rubber.

  10. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  11. Human response to local convective and radiant cooling in a warm environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The response of 24 human subjects to local convective cooling, radiant cooling, and combined radiant and convective cooling was studied at 28°C and 50% relative humidity. The local cooling devices used were (1) a tabletop cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing a stream of clean air, (3...

  12. Performance evaluation of radiant cooling system application on a university building in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrio, Pujo; Sholahudin, S.; Nasruddin

    2017-03-01

    The paper describes a study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in an institutional building in Indonesia. The simulations were carried out using IESVE to evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption and temperature distribution to determine the proportional energy savings and occupant comfort under different systems. The result was radiant cooling which integrated with a Dedicated Outside Air System (DOAS) could make 41,84% energy savings compared to the installed cooling system. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation showed that a radiant system integrated with DOAS provides superior human comfort than a radiant system integrated with Variable Air Volume (VAV). Percentage People Dissatisfied was kept below 10% using the proposed system.

  13. Radiant floor cooling coupled with dehumidification systems in residential buildings: A simulation-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele; Peretti, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The floor radiant cooling in a typical apartment is analyzed. • Dehumidification devices, fan-coil and mechanical ventilation are compared. • The results are analyzed in terms of both thermal comfort and energy consumption. • The energy consumption of the dehumidifiers is higher than that of other systems. • The mechanical ventilation decreases the moisture level better than other systems. - Abstract: The development of radiant cooling has stimulated an interest in new systems based on coupling ventilation with radiant cooling. However, radiant cooling systems may cause condensation to form on an active surface under warm and humid conditions during the cooling season. This phenomenon occurs when surface temperature falls below dew point. To prevent condensation, air humidity needs to be reduced with a dehumidification device or a mechanical ventilation system. There are two main options to achieve this. The first is to use dehumidification devices that reduce humidity, but are not coupled with ventilation, i.e. devices that handle room air and leave air change to infiltrations. The second is to combine a mechanical ventilation system with dehumidifying finned coils. This study analyzes the floor radiant cooling of a typical residential apartment within a multi-storey building in three Italian climate zones by means of a detailed simulation tool. Five systems were compared in terms of both indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption: radiant cooling without dehumidification; radiant cooling with a soft dehumidification device; radiant cooling with a dehumidification device which also supplies sensible cooling; radiant cooling coupled with fan coils; and radiant cooling with a mechanical ventilation system which dehumidifies and cools

  14. Study on coal char ignition by radiant heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, A. G.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study on coal char ignition by CO2-continuous laser was carried out. The coal char samples of T-grade bituminous coal and 2B-grade lignite were studied via CO2-laser ignition setup. Ignition delay times were determined at ambient condition in heat flux density range 90-200 W/cm2. The average ignition delay time value for lignite samples were 2 times lower while this difference is larger in high heat flux region and lower in low heat flux region. The kinetic constants for overall oxidation reaction were determined using analytic solution of simplified one-dimensional heat transfer equation with radiant heat transfer boundary condition. The activation energy for lignite char was found to be less than it is for bituminous coal char by approximately 20 %.

  15. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  16. Results from radiant treatment in no Hodgkin's lymphomas of adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert, J.; Rodriguez, E.; Mesa, E.; Diaz, C.

    1982-01-01

    From 1973 to 1979, at the Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology, Havana City, 91 adults were irradiated because they underwent no Hodgkin's lymphomas at Stage I (located) and Stage II (regional extension) to whom radiant treatment was the basic therapeutic selection, with single or multiple fields and dose ranging between 3 500 and 4 000 rads-tumor, and some of them at Stage III, where primary treatment was chemotherapy. Present survival for all of them after 3 and 5 years is 55.7% and 54.7%, with 84.4% for patients at Stage I, 55.8% and 52.4% for Stage II and 33.8% for Stage III. Survival was similar for both sexes; in the same way ganglionar processes and those of extraganglionar localization presented no significant survival differences. Only to 7 patients (7.7%) modular forms were diagnosed. (author)

  17. Methods of total spectral radiant flux realization at VNIIOFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashin, Evgeniy; Lalek, Jan; Rybczyński, Andrzej; Ogarev, Sergey; Khlevnoy, Boris; Dobroserdov, Dmitry; Sapritsky, Victor

    2018-02-01

    VNIIOFI carries out works on realization of independent methods for realization of the total spectral radiant flux (TSRF) of incoherent optical radiation sources - reference high-temperature blackbodies (BB), halogen lamps, and LED with quasi-Lambert spatial distribution of radiance. The paper describes three schemes for measuring facilities using photometers, spectroradiometers and computer-controlled high class goniometer. The paper describes different approaches for TSRF realization at the VNIIOFI National radiometric standard on the basis of high-temperature BB and LED sources, and gonio-spectroradiometer. Further, they are planned to be compared, and the use of fixed-point cells (in particular, based on the high-temperature δ(MoC)-C metal-carbon eutectic with a phase transition temperature of 2583 °C corresponding to the metrological optical “source-A”) as an option instead of the BB is considered in order to enhance calibration accuracy.

  18. Panel Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  19. A RADIANT AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING SOLAR-DRIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. ABDALLA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Every air-conditioning system needs some fresh air to provide adequate ventilation air required to remove moisture, gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, disease organisms, and heat from occupied spaces. However, natural ventilation is difficult to control because urban areas outside air is often polluted and cannot be supplied to inner spaces before being filtered. Besides the high electrical demand of refrigerant compression units used by most air-conditioning systems, and fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system draw a significant amount of electrical energy in comparison with electrical energy used by the building thermal conditioning systems. Part of this electricity heats the cooled air; thereby add to the internal thermal cooling peak load. In addition, refrigerant compression has both direct and indirect negative effects on the environment on both local and global scales. In seeking for innovative air-conditioning systems that maintain and improve indoor air quality under potentially more demanding performance criteria without increasing environmental impact, this paper presents radiant air-conditioning system which uses a solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooler. The paper describes the proposed solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooling system and the method used for investigating its performance in providing cold water for a radiant air-conditioning system in Khartoum (Central Sudan. The results of the investigation show that the system can operate in humid as well as dry climates and that employing such a system reduces air-conditioning peak electrical demands as compared to vapour compression systems.

  20. Product-Improvement Test (Phase II), Jetcal Tester, Model H119A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-03-05

    Ao—A0 51 113 ARMY AVIATION ‘Cs’ BOARD FORT tUCKER ALA — P*OOUCTeII ROVEMCNT TEST ( FHAS ~ I I ) . JETCAL TESTER, MODEL M119A~~’ETC(U) MAR S9...Phase i i ) , Jetcal Tester , Model H 119A , USATECOM Project No. 4-6-5011-03 b . No fur ther consideration be given to the TEMPCAL heater probe as a...essen t i a l component of the Jetcal Tester. e. The service manual instruct ions for con t inu i ty te s t ing of EG1 thermocouples be revised to

  1. Tester of the TRT front-end electronics for the ATLAS-experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hajduk, Z; Kisielewski, B; Kotarba, A; Malecki, P; Natkaniec, Z; Olszowska, J; Ostrowicz, W; Krupinska, G

    2000-01-01

    The VME based tester for front-end electronics of the TRT (Transition Radiation Tracker) detector of the ATLAS-LHC experiment at CERN, Geneva, is described. The TRT read-out electronics for 424576 proportional tubes grouped on many thousands of cards requires stringent quality control after assembly and during installation. The tester provides all required data, pulses, timing and power supplies for tested cards. The essential part of the tester is its software that allows for device handling as well as facilitates functional and statistical tests. The prototype, present design as well as the new design for mass production tests are discussed. (17 refs).

  2. Radiometric measurements of wall temperatures in the 800 K to 1150 K range for a quartz radiant heating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, L.G.; Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Shahien, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many industrial applications require heat transfer to a load in an inert environment, which can be achieved by using gas-fired radiant tubes. A radiant tube consists of a flame confined in a cylindrical metal or ceramic chamber. The flame heats the tube wall, which in turn radiates to the load. One important characteristic of radiant heating tubes is wall temperature uniformity. Numerical models of radiant tubes have been used to predict wall temperatures, but there is a lack of experimental data for validation. Recently, Namazian et al., Singh and Gorski, and Peters et al. have measured wall temperature profiles of radiant tubes using thermocouples. 13 refs., 3 figs

  3. Subjective evaluation of different ventilation concepts combined with radiant heating and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation and radiant heating/cooling systems. Two test setups simulated a room in a low energy building with a single occupant during winter. The room was equipped either by a ventilation system...... supplying warm air space heating or by a combination of radiant floor heating and mixing ventilation system. Next two test setups simulated an office room with two occupants during summer, ventilated and cooled by a single displacement ventilation system or by a radiant floor cooling combined...

  4. The Development and Application of Simulative Insulation Resistance Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Chai, Ziqi; Wang, Bo; Ma, Hao

    2018-02-01

    The insulation state determines the performance and insulation life of electrical equipment, so it has to be judged in a timely and accurate manner. Insulation resistance test, as the simplest and most basic test of high voltage electric tests, can measure the insulation resistance and absorption ratio which are effective criterion of part or whole damp or dirty, breakdown, severe overheating aging and other insulation defects. It means that the electrical test personnel need to be familiar with the principle of insulation resistance test, and able to operate the insulation resistance tester correctly. At present, like the insulation resistance test, most of electrical tests are trained by physical devices with the real high voltage. Although this allows the students to truly experience the test process and notes on security, it also has certain limitations in terms of safety and test efficiency, especially for a large number of new staves needing induction training every year. This paper presents a new kind of electrical test training system based on the simulative device of dielectric loss measurement and simulative electrical testing devices. It can not only overcome the defects of current training methods, but also provide other advantages in economical efficiency and scalability. That makes it possible for the system to be allied in widespread.

  5. Explosive component acceptance tester using laser interferometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Richard D.; Tarbell, William W.

    1993-01-01

    Acceptance testing of explosive components requires a reliable and simple to use testing method that can discern less than optimal performance. For hot-wire detonators, traditional techniques use dent blocks or photographic diagnostic methods. More complicated approaches are avoided because of their inherent problems with setup and maintenance. A recently developed tester is based on using a laser interferometer to measure the velocity of flying plates accelerated by explosively actuated detonators. Unlike ordinary interferometers that monitor displacement of the test article, this device measures velocity directly and is commonly used with non-spectral surfaces. Most often referred to as the VISAR technique (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflecting Surface), it has become the most widely-accepted choice for accurate measurement of velocity in the range greater than 1 mm/micro-s. Traditional VISAR devices require extensive setup and adjustment and therefore are unacceptable in a production-testing environment. This paper describes a new VISAR approach which requires virtually no adjustments, yet provides data with accuracy comparable to the more complicated systems. The device, termed the Fixed-Cavity VISAR, is currently being developed to serve as a product verification tool for hot-wire detonators and slappers. An extensive data acquisition and analysis computer code was also created to automate the manipulation of raw data into final results.

  6. NPS-SCAT (Solar Cell Array Tester), The Construction of NPS' First Prototype CubeSat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Alexander L

    2008-01-01

    .... This Master's Thesis describes the NPS-SCAT (solar cell array tester) project, including the author's experience as program manager of the project, responsible for budget, schedule and technical deliverables...

  7. Interference of apex locator, pulp tester and diathermy on pacemaker function

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan Sriman; V Prabhakar; J S Bhuvaneswaran; N Subha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three electronic apex locators (EAL), electric pulp tester (EPT) and diathermy on pacemaker function in vitro. Materials and Methods: Three EALs: Root ZX (J. Morita Co., Tustin, CA, U.S.A.), Propex (Dentsply), Mini Apex locator (SybronEndo, Anaheim, CA, USA), EPT (Parkell pulp vitality tester Farmingdale, NY, USA) and Diathermy (Neomed 250 B) were tested for any interference with one pacemaker (A medtronic kappa KVDD901-serial ...

  8. Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2 . A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more ...

  9. Evaluation of disintegration properties of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets using a novel disintegration tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a new disintegration tester that can determine not only the disintegration time of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets (ODT), but also the disintegration behavior and mechanism. Using the tester, the disintegration properties of the tablets prepared in a previous study were examined. The purpose of this study is to confirm the utility of the tester as an instrument for evaluating the disintegration properties of ODT and determine relations among time, behavior and mechanism of the disintegration. Results demonstrated that in vitro disintegration time in the tester is similar to that in the commercial disintegration tester for ODT and is highly correlated with oral disintegration time. Observations of disintegration process revealed that a difference in disintegration behavior between tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa; the disintegration behavior of the tablets were designated immediate disintegrating type and gradual disintegrating type, respectively. The dynamic swelling profile and water absorption profile indicated that the disintegration mechanism of the tablets involved wicking action induced by swelling of the disintegrant; the disintegration time was closely related to the initial rates of swelling and water absorption. Furthermore, the mechanism of water absorption of tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa shows anomalous diffusion and case-II transport, respectively. The shift in this mechanism is consistent with differences in disintegration time and behavior between the tablets. These findings suggest that information on disintegration properties obtained by our tester is useful for understanding of disintegration phenomena of ODT.

  10. An experimental study of thermal comfort at different combinations of air and mean radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    It is often discussed if a person prefers a low air temperature (ta) and a high mean radiant temperature (tr), vice-versa or it does not matter as long as the operative temperature is acceptable. One of the hypotheses is that it does not matter for thermal comfort but for perceived air quality......, a lower air temperature is preferred. This paper presents an experimental study with 30 human subjects exposed to three different combinations of air- and mean radiant temperature with an operative temperature around 23 °C. The subjects gave subjective evaluations of thermal comfort and perceived air...... quality during the experiments. The PMV-index gave a good estimation of thermal sensation vote (TSV) when the air and mean radiant temperature were the same. In the environment with different air- and mean radiant temperatures, a thermal comfort evaluation shows an error up to 1 scale unit on the 7-point...

  11. Prediction of radiant heat flux from horizontal propane jet fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kuibin; Liu, Jiaoyan; Jiang, Juncheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Line source model for the radiant heat flux from horizontal jet fire is proposed. • A review on the difference between horizontal and vertical jet fires is conducted. • Effects of lift-off distance and flame shape are discussed for the line source model. • Line source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system. - Abstract: Jet fires are often reported to occur in process industry with lots of hazardous heat energy released. A line source model describing the flame emissive power and subsequent heat flux radiated from a horizontal propane jet fire is evaluated through a testing against experimental fire data and comparison against other models. By a review on the jet flame behavior, the correlations of the lift-off distance, flame length and radiative fraction are proposed to close the line source model in theory. It is found that the fuel jet direction holds a considerable effect on the flame behavior by comparison between horizontal and vertical jet fires. Results indicate that the lift-off distance and the flame shape influence the model prediction to some extent. Comparison of model predictions against data collected in the near field and predictions from the point source model and multipoint source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system.

  12. Ignition of Cellulosic Paper at Low Radiant Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. Alan

    1996-01-01

    The ignition of cellulosic paper by low level thermal radiation is investigated. Past work on radiative ignition of paper is briefly reviewed. No experimental study has been reported for radiative ignition of paper at irradiances below 10 Watts/sq.cm. An experimental study of radiative ignition of paper at these low irradiances is reported. Experimental parameters investigated and discussed include radiant power levels incident on the sample, the method of applying the radiation (focussed vs. diffuse Gaussian source), the presence and relative position of a separate pilot ignition source, and the effects of natural convection (buoyancy) on the ignition process in a normal gravity environment. It is observed that the incident radiative flux (in W/sq.cm) has the greatest influence on ignition time. For a given flux level, a focussed Gaussian source is found to be advantageous to a more diffuse, lower amplitude, thermal source. The precise positioning of a pilot igniter relative to gravity and to the fuel sample affects the ignition process, but the precise effects are not fully understood. Ignition was more readily achieved and sustained with a horizontal fuel sample, indicating the buoyancy plays a role in the ignition process of cellulosic paper. Smoldering combustion of doped paper samples was briefly investigated, and results are discussed.

  13. Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-16

    RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

  14. Design and construction of a regenerative radiant tube burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao, Diego Alberto; Cano C, Carlos Andres; Amell Arrieta, Andres A.

    2002-01-01

    The technological development of the gas industry in Colombia, aiming at efficient and safe use of the natural gas, requires the assimilation and adaptation of new generation, technologies for this purpose in this article results are presented on the design, construction and characterization of a prototype of a burner of regenerative radiant robe with a thermal power of 9,94 kW and a factor of air 1,05. This system takes advantage of the high exit temperature of the combustion smokes, after they go trough a metallic robe where they transfer the heat by radiation, to heat a ceramic channel that has the capacity to absorbing a part of the heat of the smokes and then transferring them to a current of cold air. The benefits of air heating are a saving in fuel, compared with other processes that don't incorporate the recovery of heat from the combustion gases. In this work it was possible to probe a methodology for the design of this type of burners and to reach maximum temperatures of heating of combustion air of 377,9 centigrade degrees, using a material available in the national market, whose regenerative properties should be studied in depth

  15. Automatic drawing and CAD actualization in processing data of radiant sampling in physics prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper discussed a method of processing radiant sampling data with computer. By this method can get expain the curve of radiant sampling data, and we can combine mineral masses and analyse and calculate them, then record the result on Notebook. There are many merites of this method: easy to learn, simple to use, high efficient. It adapts to all sorts of mines. (authors)

  16. Automatic drawing and cad actualiztion in processing data of radiant sampling in physics prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper discussed a method of processing radiant sampling data with computer. By this method can get explain the curve of radiant sampling data, and we can combine mineral masses and analyses and calculate them, then record the result on Notebook. There are many merites of this method: easy to learn, simple to use, high efficient. It adapts to all sorts of mines. (authors)

  17. Radiant heat increases piglets’ use of the heated creep area on the critical days after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Thodberg, Karen; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how piglets’ use of a creep area is affected by using radiant heat compared to an incandescent light bulb. It was hypothesised that radiant heat would increase the use of the creep area. Twenty litters were randomly assigned to one of two heat sources...... in the creep area: (1) an incandescent light bulb (STANDARD, n=10) or (2) a radiant heat source (RADIANT, n=10) with five of each type of heat source in each of two batches. Observations on piglets’ position in the pen were made by scan sampling every ten minutes in a 4-hour period from 1100 to 1500 h on day 1......–7, 14 and 21 post partum. A higher percentage of piglets in the creep area was seen for RADIANT litters compared to STANDARD litters on day 2 (P=0.002) and day 3 (P=0.005), and percentage of piglets in the creep area increased for RADIANT litters from day 1 to 2 (P

  18. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  19. The reliability of the newly developed bending tester for the measurement of flexural rigidity of textile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Musa, A. Binti; Malengier, B.; Van Langenhove, L.; Stevens, C.

    2017-10-01

    A new automated bending tester was developed in Ghent University, Belgium to reduce the human interference in the bending measurement. This paper reports the investigations made on the tester in order to confirm the reliability of its measurement. For that, 11 types of fabrics with different construction parameters were tested for their bending length and flexural rigidity using the new bending tester and the results were compared with that of the standard or manual bending tester, which were conducted in accordance with BS 3356:1990 standard method. Statistical analysis confirms that both measurements are strongly correlated with Pearson’s R≥ 0.90 for all the measurements made. It means that the results from the new automated tester show good correlations with the standard measurement. Nevertheless, this prototype version of the new tester still needs to be adjusted to optimise the functionality of it and further investigations should be done to justify the robustness of the results.

  20. HIV impact on women: gender difference among late testers and advanced HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukmawati, N. M. D. D.; Merati, T. P.; Somia, A.; Utama, S.; Gayatri, Y.

    2018-03-01

    This study reported the effect of gender difference on HIV seropositive late testers or advanced infection. A retrospective cohort study of newly diagnosed HIV seropositive based on adatabase in the main referral hospital in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia from 2004 – 2016. Women and man were categorized as late testers (CD4 ≤ 200 cells/uL and/or AIDS diagnosis ≤ 12 months from first HIV test date). Non-late testers (CD4 > 200 cells/uL and/or no AIDS diagnosis during study period or diagnosis of AIDS >12 months from HIV diagnosis), of reproductive age (13 – 49 years old), and not of reproductive age (>49 years old). Logistic regression was used to estimate risk and its statistical significance. The model consists of gender and age correctly classified 83.5% of cases. Women were almost two times more likely to present as non-late testers compared to men, and reproductive age of 15 – 49 years were 1.5 times more likely to present as non-late testers compared to those with age > 49 years. Women affected by HIV almost in equal as for men. Women and those within reproductive age were more likely to present before the advanced stage compared to men and those aged > 49 years.

  1. Panel surveys

    OpenAIRE

    MADRE, JL; ZUMKELLER, D; CHLOND, B; ARMOOGUM, J

    2004-01-01

    l'analyse du comportement humain constitue un enjeu important dans le domaine des transports, lequel se transforme radicalement sous la pression des évolutions économique, écologique et démographique. les premières grandes études ont commence il y a plus d'une dizaine d'années : parc auto sofres en france, puget sound panel a seattle. cet article fait le bilan de ces expériences et met en évidence les principaux problèmes méthodologiques rencontres tout en proposant de nouvelles directions d'...

  2. Airflow and Heat Transfer in the Slot-Vented Room with Radiant Floor Heating Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Long Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiant floor heating has received increasing attention due to its diverse advantages, especially the energy saving as compared to the conventional dwelling heating system. This paper presents a numerical investigation of airflow and heat transfer in the slot-vented room with the radiant floor heating unit. Combination of fluid convection and thermal radiation has been implemented through the thermal boundary conditions. Spatial distributions of indoor air temperature and velocity, as well as the heat transfer rates along the radiant floor and the outer wall, have been presented and analyzed covering the domains from complete natural convection to forced convection dominated flows. The numerical results demonstrate that the levels of average temperature in the room with lateral slot-ventilation are higher than those without slot-ventilation, but lower than those in the room with ceiling slot-ventilation. Overall, the slot-ventilation room with radiant floor heating unit could offer better indoor air quality through increasing the indoor air temperature and fresh air exchanging rate simultaneously. Concerning the airborne pollutant transports and moisture condensations, the performance of radiant floor heating unit will be further optimized in our future researches.

  3. Microprocessor-controlled tester for evaluation of the Self-Energized Credential System (SECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-03-01

    The Self-Energized Credential System (SECS) was developed for use in the Plutonium Protection System (PPS) installed at Hanford, Washington. Evaluation and development of the SECS system was enhanced by the use of a microprocessor-controlled portal tester. This tester used infrared (ir) beam sensors to provide information on the direction of travel of the credential wearer and to detect inoperative credentials. A printed record of the portal number, actual code read, time, and direction of the credential passage provided information essential to an assessment of the operability of the SECS

  4. FPGA-based Bit-Error-Rate Tester for SEU-hardened Optical Links

    CERN Document Server

    Detraz, S; Moreira, P; Papadopoulos, S; Papakonstantinou, I; Seif El Nasr, S; Sigaud, C; Soos, C; Stejskal, P; Troska, J; Versmissen, H

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of optical links for future High-Energy Physics experiments will require components qualified for use in radiation-hard environments. To cope with radiation induced single-event upsets, the physical layer protocol will include Forward Error Correction (FEC). Bit-Error-Rate (BER) testing is a widely used method to characterize digital transmission systems. In order to measure the BER with and without the proposed FEC, simultaneously on several devices, a multi-channel BER tester has been developed. This paper describes the architecture of the tester, its implementation in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA device and discusses the experimental results.

  5. Linearization of the interaction principle: Analytic Jacobians in the 'Radiant' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurr, R.J.D.; Christi, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new linearization of the Radiant radiative transfer model. Radiant uses discrete ordinates for solving the radiative transfer equation in a multiply-scattering anisotropic medium with solar and thermal sources, but employs the adding method (interaction principle) for the stacking of reflection and transmission matrices in a multilayer atmosphere. For the linearization, we show that the entire radiation field is analytically differentiable with respect to any surface or atmospheric parameter for which we require Jacobians (derivatives of the radiance field). Derivatives of the discrete ordinate solutions are based on existing methods developed for the LIDORT radiative transfer models. Linearization of the interaction principle is completely new and constitutes the major theme of the paper. We discuss the application of the Radiant model and its linearization in the Level 2 algorithm for the retrieval of columns of carbon dioxide as the main target of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission

  6. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal State of an Isothermal Element with Account of the Radiant Heat Transfer Between Parts of a Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifanov, O. M.; Paleshkin, A. V.; Terent‧ev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    A methodological approach to determination of the thermal state at a point on the surface of an isothermal element of a small spacecraft has been developed. A mathematical model of heat transfer between surfaces of intricate geometric configuration has been described. In this model, account was taken of the external field of radiant fluxes and of the differentiated mutual influence of the surfaces. An algorithm for calculation of the distribution of the density of the radiation absorbed by surface elements of the object under study has been proposed. The temperature field on the lateral surface of the spacecraft exposed to sunlight and on its shady side has been calculated. By determining the thermal state of magnetic controls of the orientation system as an example, the authors have assessed the contribution of the radiation coming from the solar-cell panels and from the spacecraft surface.

  7. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... of occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation...

  8. Three-dimensional simulation of super-radiant Smith-Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Imasaki, K.; Yang, Z.; Park, Gun-Sik

    2006-01-01

    A simulation of coherent and super-radiant Smith-Purcell radiation is performed in the gigahertz regime using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell code. The simulation model supposes a rectangular grating to be driven by a single electron bunch and a train of periodic bunches, respectively. The true Smith-Purcell radiation is distinguished from the evanescent wave, which has an angle independent frequency lower than the minimum allowed Smith-Purcell frequency. We also find that the super-radiant radiations excited by periodic bunches are emitted at higher harmonics of the bunching frequency and at the corresponding Smith-Purcell angles

  9. Cooling load calculations of radiant and all-air systems for commercial buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    The authors simulated in TRNSYS three radiant systems coupled with a 50% sized variable air volume (VAV) system and a 50% sized all-air VAV system with night ventilation. The objective of this study was to identify the differences in the cooling load profiles of the examined systems when they are......The authors simulated in TRNSYS three radiant systems coupled with a 50% sized variable air volume (VAV) system and a 50% sized all-air VAV system with night ventilation. The objective of this study was to identify the differences in the cooling load profiles of the examined systems when...

  10. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer

    2010-01-01

    : The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...

  11. Relating the octane numbers of fuels to ignition delay times measured in an ignition quality tester (IQT)

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal; Yang, Seung Yeon; Kalghatgi, Gautam; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    an ignition quality tester. A baseline data of ignition delay times were determined using an ignition quality tester at a charge pressure of 21.3 bar between 770 and 850 K and an equivalence ratio of 0.7 for various primary reference fuels (PRFs, mixtures

  12. Fixed, low radiant exposure vs. incremental radiant exposure approach for diode laser hair reduction: a randomized, split axilla, comparative single-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, M D; Adamič, M; Nenadić, D

    2015-12-01

    Diode lasers are the most commonly used treatment modalities for unwanted hair reduction. Only a few controlled clinical trials but not a single randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared the impact of various laser parameters, especially radiant exposure, onto efficacy, tolerability and safety of laser hair reduction. To compare the safety, tolerability and mid-term efficacy of fixed, low and incremental radiant exposures of diode lasers (800 nm) for axillary hair removal, we conducted an intrapatient, left-to-right, patient- and assessor-blinded and controlled trial. Diode laser (800 nm) treatments were evaluated in 39 study participants (skin type II-III) with unwanted axillary hairs. Randomization and allocation to split axilla treatments were carried out by a web-based randomization tool. Six treatments were performed at 4- to 6-week intervals with study subjects blinded to the type of treatment. Final assessment of hair reduction was conducted 6 months after the last treatment by means of blinded 4-point clinical scale using photographs. The primary endpoint was reduction in hair growth, and secondary endpoints were patient-rated tolerability and satisfaction with the treatment, treatment-related pain and adverse effects. Excellent reduction in axillary hairs (≥ 76%) at 6-month follow-up visit after receiving fixed, low and incremental radiant exposure diode laser treatments was obtained in 59% and 67% of study participants respectively (Z value: 1.342, P = 0.180). Patients reported lower visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score on the fixed (4.26) than on the incremental radiant exposure side (5.64) (P diode laser treatments were less painful and better tolerated. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Usefulness of new wetness tester for diagnosis of dry mouth in disabled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinoki, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Arita, Masahiro; Shibuya, Koji; Ishikawa, Masao

    2004-12-01

    The condition of dry mouth is an influential factor in the incidence of caries, periodontal disease, fungal infections, masticatory dysfunctions and denture function. Bedridden elderly and disabled persons often suffer from oral dryness and the aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the amount of moisture in the oral mucosa for clinical diagnosis of dry mouth in this group. The subjects were 20 elderly bedridden individuals, age range 65-89 years old, living in a nursing home and six healthy laboratory researchers, aged 20-46 years old, used as controls. Tongue dorsum moisture measurements were performed using a newly developed wetness tester (L-SALIVO), in which the wet portion was measured after 10 s. Further, clinical diagnosis of dry mouth was carried out using a clinical classification scale of the tongue mucosa (grade range, 0-3). It was possible to measure tongue dorsum moisture in all subjects with the wetness tester. The average moisture value was 0.1+/-0.2 mm in elderly subjects with a dry mouth grade of 2 (n = 8) or 3 (n = 12), while the average moisture value in the control subjects was 3.67+/-1.75 mm with a dry mouth grade of 0 (n = 4) or 1 (n = 2). Tester values and cliniical classification showed a positive co-relationship (r = 0.31, p < 0.05). Our results show that this new tester could be useful for evaluating oral dryness and diagnosing dry mouth.

  14. Evaluation of Next-Generation Vision Testers for Aeromedical Certification of Aviation Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    measure distant, intermediate, and near acuity. The slides are essentially abbreviated versions of the Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study...over, requiring intermediate vision testing and 12 were color deficient. Analysis was designed to detect statistically significant differences between...Vertical Phoria (Right & Left Hyperphoria) Test scores from each of the vision testers were collated and analyzed. Analysis was designed to detect

  15. Development of new design mechanical seal tester for Primary Loop Recirculation Pump (PLR Pump)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Naoki; Koshiba, Koremutsu

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical seal for a Primary Loop Recirculation Pump (PLR Pump) is an important part of a BWR plant. This study describes a new mechanical seal tester developed to certify mechanical seal performance before installation in a PLR Pump on site. (author)

  16. Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, James

    1997-03-01

    Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

  17. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  18. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  19. Calculation codes for radiant heat transfers; Les codes de calcul de rayonnement thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This document reports on 12 papers about computerized simulation and modeling of radiant heat transfers and fluid flows in various industrial and domestic situations: space heating, metal industry (furnaces, boilers..), aerospace industry (turbojet engines, combustion chambers) etc.. This workshop was organized by the ``radiation`` section of the French society of thermal engineers. (J.S.)

  20. Surface radiant flux densities inferred from LAC and GAC AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, F.; Klaes, D.

    To infer surface radiant flux densities from current (NOAA-AVHRR, ERS-1/2 ATSR) and future meteorological (Envisat AATSR, MSG, METOP) satellite data, the complex, modular analysis scheme SESAT (Strahlungs- und Energieflüsse aus Satellitendaten) could be developed (Berger, 2001). This scheme allows the determination of cloud types, optical and microphysical cloud properties as well as surface and TOA radiant flux densities. After testing of SESAT in Central Europe and the Baltic Sea catchment (more than 400scenes U including a detailed validation with various surface measurements) it could be applied to a large number of NOAA-16 AVHRR overpasses covering the globe.For the analysis, two different spatial resolutions U local area coverage (LAC) andwere considered. Therefore, all inferred results, like global area coverage (GAC) U cloud cover, cloud properties and radiant properties, could be intercompared. Specific emphasis could be made to the surface radiant flux densities (all radiative balance compoments), where results for different regions, like Southern America, Southern Africa, Northern America, Europe, and Indonesia, will be presented. Applying SESAT, energy flux densities, like latent and sensible heat flux densities could also be determined additionally. A statistical analysis of all results including a detailed discussion for the two spatial resolutions will close this study.

  1. Present and projected future mean radiant temperature for three European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David; Lindberg, Fredrik; Monteiro, Ana; Katzschner, Lutz; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Campe, Sabrina; Katzschner, Antje; Konarska, Janina; Onomura, Shiho; Velho, Sara; Holmer, Björn

    2017-09-01

    Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt. The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto. The use of street trees to reduce daytime radiant heat load was analyzed using hot spots to identify where trees could be most beneficial. Hot spots, although varying in intensity and frequency, were generally confined to near sunlit southeast-southwest facing walls, in northeast corner of courtyards, and in open spaces in all three cities. By adding trees in these spaces, the radiant heat load can be reduced, especially in spaces with no or few trees. A set of design principles for reducing the radiant heat load is outlined based on these findings and existing literature.

  2. Calculation codes for radiant heat transfers; Les codes de calcul de rayonnement thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document reports on 12 papers about computerized simulation and modeling of radiant heat transfers and fluid flows in various industrial and domestic situations: space heating, metal industry (furnaces, boilers..), aerospace industry (turbojet engines, combustion chambers) etc.. This workshop was organized by the ``radiation`` section of the French society of thermal engineers. (J.S.)

  3. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. I. High-eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.

    1993-07-01

    It is evident that there is no uniform method of calculating meteor radiants which would yield reliable results for all types of cometary orbits. In the present paper an analysis of this problem is presented, together with recommended methods for various types of orbits. Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, we applied the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys 7, 261). D0.2 the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal methods with the smallest values of D for given types of orbits are shown in two series of six plots. The new method of rotation around the line of apsides we propose is very appropriate in the region of small inclinations. There is no doubt that Hasegawa's omega-adjustment method (Hasegawa, I.: 1990, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 42, 175) has the widest application. A comparison of the theoretical radiants with the observed radiants of seven known meteor showers is also presented.

  4. Theoretical Analysis of Interferometer Wave Front Tilt and Fringe Radiant Flux on a Rectangular Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Konstantin Fuss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical analysis of mirror tilt in a Michelson interferometer and its effect on the radiant flux over the active area of a rectangular photodetector or image sensor pixel. It is relevant to sensor applications using homodyne interferometry where these opto-electronic devices are employed for partial fringe counting. Formulas are derived for radiant flux across the detector for variable location within the fringe pattern and with varying wave front angle. The results indicate that the flux is a damped sine function of the wave front angle, with a decay constant of the ratio of wavelength to detector width. The modulation amplitude of the dynamic fringe pattern reduces to zero at wave front angles that are an integer multiple of this ratio and the results show that the polarity of the radiant flux changes exclusively at these multiples. Varying tilt angle causes radiant flux oscillations under an envelope curve, the frequency of which is dependent on the location of the detector with the fringe pattern. It is also shown that a fringe count of zero can be obtained for specific photodetector locations and wave front angles where the combined effect of fringe contraction and fringe tilt can have equal and opposite effects. Fringe tilt as a result of a wave front angle of 0.05° can introduce a phase measurement difference of 16° between a photodetector/pixel located 20 mm and one located 100 mm from the optical origin.

  5. Characteristics of infrared thermometers manufactured in Japan and calibration methods for sky radiant emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Horiguchi, I.; Machimura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared thermometers to measure surface temperature have been increasingly adopted in recent years. The characteristics of the IR thermometer, however, are not well known.IR thermometers manufactured in Japan systematically adjust for ambient radiation based on the internal temperature of the thermometer. If, therefore, there is a large difference between the internal temperature of the IR thermometer and the apparent temperature associated with the surrounding radiation, a large error will be induced into the measured surface temperature.The purpose of our research was to determine the characteristics and measurement errors of IR thermometers. Experiments were performed with regard to the following items: (1) Measurement errors related to the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. (2) Linearity of the output signal of the IR thermometer. (3) Response of the output signal to changes in the emissivity setting. (4) Effect of sky radiant emittance on the measured surface temperature. (5) Calibration method for the terrestrial surface.The following is a summary of the results: Measurement error is affected by the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. Measurement accuracy is improved with a controlled internal temperature of 20-30°C. The measurement error becomes larger at emissivity settings under 0.7.The measurement error outdoors was not proportional to the downward longwave radiation, but to the sky radiant temperature measured by the IR thermometer. Calibration for sky radiant emittance was improved by using the difference between sky radiant temperature and air temperature.When the surface temperature measured by the infrared thermometer is plotted against the surface temperature measured by thermocouple, the sky radiant emittance error is obtained from the Y intercept. Additionally, the difference between true temperature and output of the IR thermometer for a reference plate was compared to that obtained for vegetation, and the RMS obtained was

  6. The relationship between radiant heat, air temperature and thermal comfort at rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéritée, Julien; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present work were to investigate the relationships between radiant heat load, air velocity and body temperatures with or without coincidental exercise to determine the physiological mechanisms that drive thermal comfort and thermoregulatory behaviour. Seven male volunteers wearing swimming trunks in 18°C, 22°C or 26°C air were exposed to increasing air velocities up to 3 m s(-1) and self-adjusted the intensity of the direct radiant heat received on the front of the body to just maintain overall thermal comfort, at rest or when cycling (60 W, 60 rpm). During the 30 min of the experiments, skin and rectal temperatures were continuously recorded. We hypothesized that mean body temperature should be maintained stable and the intensity of the radiant heat and the mean skin temperatures would be lower when cycling. In all conditions, mean body temperature was lower when facing winds of 3 m s(-1) than during the first 5 min, without wind. When facing winds, in all but the 26°C air, the radiant heat was statistically higher at rest than when exercising. In 26°C air mean skin temperature was lower at rest than when exercising. No other significant difference was observed. In all air temperatures, high correlation coefficients were observed between the air velocity and the radiant heat load. Other factors that we did not measure may have contributed to the constant overall thermal comfort status despite dropping mean skin and body temperatures. It is suggested that the allowance to behaviourally adjust the thermal environment increases the tolerance of cold discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. User manual for SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood

    2006-02-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool to determine optimal configurations for radiant heat experiments was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly, Windows-based program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as number of lamps, power, position, and separation distance. This document is a user manual for that software. Any incidental descriptions of theory are only for the purpose of defining the model inputs. The theory for the underlying model is described in SAND2005-2947 (Ref. [1]). SPLASH provides a graphical user interface to define lamp panel and shroud designs parametrically, solves the resulting radiation enclosure problem for up to 2500 surfaces, and provides post-processing to facilitate understanding and documentation of analyzed designs.

  8. Parametric analysis of the operation of nocturnal radiative cooling panels coupled with in room PCM ceiling panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Péan, T.Q.

    2017-01-01

    03:00 and get activated when the temperature in the storage tank was below 21°C, 69.8°F, activate the heat pump no earlier than 05:00 and get activated when the temperature in the storage tank was below 15°C, 59°F, and lastly have a temperature difference between the output of the solar panels......The scope of this parametric simulation study was to identify the optimal combination of set-points for different parameters of a radiant PCM ceiling panels cooling system that will result in the best indoor thermal environment with the least possible energy use. The results showed that for each...

  9. High inter-tester reliability of the new mobility score in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.T.; Bandholm, T.; Foss, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the inter-tester reliability of the New Mobility Score in patients with acute hip fracture. DESIGN: An inter-tester reliability study. SUBJECTS: Forty-eight consecutive patients with acute hip fracture at a median age of 84 (interquartile range, 76-89) years; 40 admitted from...... their own home and 8 from nursing homes to an acute orthopaedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. METHODS: The New Mobility Score, which evaluates the prefracture functional level with a score from 0 (not able to walk at all) to 9 (fully independent), was assessed by 2 independent physiotherapists...... the prefracture functional level in patients with acute hip fracture Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  10. Infant Physical Attractiveness, Affect, Temperament, and Gender in Relation to Tester Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Andrea D.

    1996-01-01

    Easily observable infant characteristics have been shown to influence others; perceptions of infant competence. This study examined the relation between infant characteristics and a tester's willingness to repeat opportunities for the infant to pass items during administration of a cognitive test. Results showed that infant physical attractiveness was related to lower elicited infant performance (the ratio of items initially failed). Positive affect was related to higher test scores. Because ...

  11. Evaluation of bearing configurations using the single bearing tester in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, T.; Hall, P.; Thom, R.

    1991-01-01

    Various bearing configurations were tested using the Marshall Space Flight Center single bearing tester with LN2 as the cryogenic coolant. The baseline was one Rocketdyne phase one high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) pump end 45-mm bore bearing. The bearing configurations that were tested included a Salox/M cage configuration, a silicon nitride ball configuration, an elongated cage configuration, and a Bray 601 grease configuration.

  12. THE SOFTWARE OF THE ADVANCED MIL-STD-1553B MULTIPLEX DATA BUS TESTER AND INTERFACE MODULE: FEATURES AND IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry E. Gouriev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The UEM-MK is a new module of universal device and parametric tester of multiplex data bus, which meets all requirements for testing equipment for use in validation of devices against requirements of GOST R 52070-2003 (the same as MIL-STD-1553B Notice 4. The module can handle work of bus controller, up to 32 remote terminals and bus monitor/analyser simultaneously, can inject errors of all necessary types. In the article the software of the module is described. The software consist of: the driver, the control panel, the self-test program, the program for validation testing of remote terminals (PTOU, the extended function library, integrated environment (program BPOUEM. The latter three components are top-level components for users and software developments. The driver provides a connection with the module. Control panel provides module identification, self-testing and simplest actions on the bus in interactive mode. The PTOU program provides validation testing of remote terminals in accordance with the GOST R 51765-2001 test plan. The BPOUEM program lets users to create their own scenarios for testing and network environment imitation in interactive mode, whereas the extended function library lets the same in a form of application programs. Both these components also let to record and analyse bus traffic. The purpose, features and implementation details of all mentioned software components are described in the article, however, especial attention is paid to extended function library and the BPOUEM program.

  13. Trial manufacture of rotary friction tester and frictional force measurement of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Kanari, M; Tanzawa, S

    2002-01-01

    In the plasma confinement type fusion reactor, in-vessel structures such as a blanket module slide at the joints each other when plasma disruption occurs, and then frictional heat is generated there. Therefore, for the selection of material and the use as the design data, it is important to understand the frictional characteristics of metals and ceramic films in the vacuum. In the present study, we have manufactured a prototype of rotary friction tester and examined the performances of the tester. The frictional characteristics of metals in the room air was measured using the friction tester, and the results obtained are as follows. A drifting friction force for a constant time and a friction force during the idling were 98 mN and 225 mN, respectively. These values were sufficiently small as compared to pressing load (9.8 - 57.8 N) used in the friction test. In a friction force measurement of stainless steel, dynamic friction force obeyed Amontons' law which indicated that dynamic friction force is not depend...

  14. Tester og testtilbakemeldinger som direkte bidragsytere til dypere læring blant studenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Herrebrøden

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen diskuterer forskning som tilsier at tester og testtilbakemeldinger kan bidra til dypere læring blant studenter. Testing har vist seg å forbedre langtidshukommelsen av innlært kunnskap sammenlignet med repetert lesing, noe som kalles for testeffekten. For at testeffekten skal optimaliseres, bør tester utformes med mål om å bidra til dyp prosessering av innlært kunnskap. Testtilbakemeldingers rolle i utdanning kan være å bidra til økt metakognitiv selvregulering blant studenter. For at selvregulering skal promoteres best mulig, bør testtilbakemeldinger inneholde utdypende informasjon. Samlet ser tester og testtilbakemeldinger ut til å være nyttige læringsverktøy og potensielle bidragsytere til dypere læring blant studenter.AbstractThis article discusses research supporting that tests and test feedback are learning tools that may promote deeper learning among students. Testing improves long-term retention of knowledge compared to repeated study, a phenomenon known as the testing effect. In order to promote the testing effect, tests should facilitate deep processing of knowledge among students. Test feedback has the potential to increase students’ metacognitive self-regulation. For this type of metacognition to be enhanced, feedback should contain elaborate information. Conclusively, tests and test feedback appear to be valuable learning tools and potential promoters of deeper learning.

  15. Requirement analysis of testers qualified for aircraft compatibility test x-ray diagnostic and interventional radiology in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diah Astuti Indarwati; Haendra Subekti

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the need of Qualified Tester by calculating the number of test team to perform conformance test of diagnostic and interventional X-ray equipment has been done. This analysis was conducted in order to map the needs of Qualified Testers in Indonesia. As the conformance test certificate will be used in the licensing process, the availability of Tester will greatly affect the continuity and smoothness of the licensing process. The result shows the number of required test team is currently as much as 49 teams, while the availability of the test team is 7 test team. Thus there is still a large gap between the need and availability of the test team to perform conformance test. For the central and eastern of Indonesia on the scope of CT Scan, Mammography, Fluoroscopy and can only be met by tester in Java. (author)

  16. Effects of Floor Covering Resistance of a Radiant Floor on System Energy and Exergy Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Floor covering resistance (material and thickness) can be influenced by subjective choices (architectural design, interior design, texture, etc.) with significant effects on the performance of a radiant heating and cooling system. To study the effects of floor covering resistance on system...... performance, a water-based radiant floor heating and cooling system (dry, wooden construction) was considered to be coupled to an air-to-water heat pump, and the effects of varying floor covering resistances (0.05 m2K/W, 0.09 m2K/W and 0.15 m2K/W) on system performance were analyzed in terms of energy...... and exergy. In order to achieve the same heating and cooling outputs, higher average water temperatures are required in the heating mode (and lower temperatures in the cooling mode) with increasing floor covering resistance. These temperature requirements decrease the heat pump’s performance (lower...

  17. Super-radiant Smith–Purcell radiation from periodic line charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Hangyo, M.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Yang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Miyamoto, S; Asakawa, M.R.; Imasaki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Smith–Purcell radiation occurs when an electron passes close to the surface of a metallic grating. The radiation becomes coherent when the length of the electron bunch is smaller than the wavelength of the radiation. A train of periodic bunches can enhance the spectral intensity by changing the angular and spectral distribution of the radiation. This is called super-radiant Smith–Purcell radiation, and has been observed in experiments and particle-in-cell simulations. In this paper, we introduce a new method to study this effect by calculating the reflected waves of an incident evanescent wave from periodic line charges. The reflection coefficients are numerically computed, and the spectral distributions of the super-radiant radiation are demonstrated. These analytical results are in agreement with those obtained through part-in-cell simulations.

  18. Free of pollution gas - an utopia or attainable goal? Gas radiant burner with a small capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofbauer, P.; Bornscheuer, W.

    1993-01-01

    The firm Viessmann has developed a gas radiant burner for boiler capacities up to 100 kN combusting gas with extremely low pollutant emissions. This is possible since from the reaction zone a considerable part of the combustion heat is delivered through radiation by means of a glowing special steel structure. The theoretical fundamentals are explained by means of considerations regarding the equilibrium and a reaction kinetic numerical model. (orig.) [de

  19. Analysis of excimer laser radiant exposure effect toward corneal ablation volume at LASIK procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiati, Rima Fitria; Rini Rizki, Artha Bona; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Rahmadiansah, Andi

    2016-11-01

    LASIK (Laser Asissted In Situ Interlamelar Keratomilieusis) is a technique for correcting refractive disorders of the eye such as myopia and astigmatism using an excimer laser. This procedure use photoablation technique to decompose corneal tissues. Although preferred due to its efficiency, permanency, and accuracy, the inappropriate amount radiant exposure often cause side effects like under-over correction, irregular astigmatism and problems on surrounding tissues. In this study, the radiant exposure effect toward corneal ablation volume has been modelled through several processes. Data collecting results is laser data specifications with 193 nm wavelength, beam diameter of 0.065 - 0.65 cm, and fluence of 160 mJ/cm2. For the medical data, the myopia-astigmatism value, cornea size, corneal ablation thickness, and flap data are taken. The first modelling step is determining the laser diameter between 0.065 - 0.65 cm with 0.45 cm increment. The energy, power, and intensity of laser determined from laser beam area. Number of pulse and total energy is calculated before the radiant exposure of laser is obtained. Next is to determine the parameters influence the ablation volume. Regression method used to create the equation, and then the spot size is substituted to the model. The validation used is statistic correlation method to both experimental data and theory. By the model created, it is expected that any potential complications can be prevented during LASIK procedures. The recommendations can give the users clearer picture to determine the appropriate amount of radiant exposure with the corneal ablation volume necessary.

  20. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-01-01

    A novel system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and radiant ceiling was proposed recently, with the aim of providing energy efficient and comfort environment to office buildings. Designing of such a system is challenging because of complex interactions between the two subsystems and a large ......-uniformity air distribution and further led to the draught problem in the occupied zone. This system was recommended to apply in the small offices instead of large, open spaces....

  1. Patient perceptions and expectations of an anticoagulation service: a quantitative comparison study of clinic-based testers and patient self-testers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Arthur G; Barnett, Julie; Kuljis, Jasna; Duffin, Debbie

    2015-12-01

    Government initiatives see the provision of technology-assisted self-care as one of the key areas in which there is capacity for improving quality of care whilst reducing costs. However, levels of patient engagement in self-testing and management (STM) remain low. Little emphasis has been placed on understanding the patients' perspectives of the reasons for this limited engagement. Typically, patient engagement in STM is achieved via the provision of patient education programmes, which aim to enable patients to make the changes necessary to become competent self-carers. However, placing the onus to change on the individual patient is unrealistic. If levels of patient engagement are to be improved, patient needs and expectations of clinical services must be better understood and service provision must be adapted accordingly. Explore patient perceptions and expectations of clinical service provision and their views of having and making choices about care. Participants [N = 191, 103 patient self-tester managers (PSTMs) and 87 clinic-based testers (CBTs)] completed the SERVQUAL and ChQ instruments to capture perspectives on service quality and choice, respectively. A comparative statistical analysis explored the similarities and differences between PSTMs' and CBTs' responses. Clinic-based testers' perceptions of service quality were significantly more positive than PSTMs', as were their expectations of the 'tangible' aspects of service delivery. PSTMs' expectations of service quality were significantly higher than their perceptions. PSTMs attributed significantly more value to making choices compared with CBTs. To close the gap between PSTMs expectations and perceptions of service quality and better cater for their choice preferences, service providers may benefit from taking into account the following practice considerations: maintain frequent, timely, personalised and direct interactions with PSTMs; prioritise investment in resources to facilitate patient

  2. Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnell, James W; Chang, David W; Johnston, Carol; Torres, Jorge H; Patrick, Charles W; Miller, Michael J; Thomsen, Sharon L; Anvari, Bahman

    2003-06-01

    Increasing radiant exposure offers a means to increase treatment efficacy during laser-mediated treatment of vascular lesions, such as port-wine stains; however, excessive radiant exposure decreases selective vascular injury due to increased heat generation within the epidermis and collateral damage to perivascular collagen. To determine if cryogen spray cooling could be used to maintain selective vascular injury (ie, prevent epidermal and perivascular collagen damage) when using high radiant exposures (16-30 J/cm2). Observational study. Academic hospital and research laboratory. Twenty women with normal abdominal skin (skin phototypes I-VI). Skin was irradiated with a pulsed dye laser (wavelength = 585 nm; pulse duration = 1.5 milliseconds; 5-mm-diameter spot) using various radiant exposures (8-30 J/cm2) without and with cryogen spray cooling (50- to 300-millisecond cryogen spurts). Hematoxylin-eosin-stained histologic sections from each irradiated site were examined for the degree of epidermal damage, maximum depth of red blood cell coagulation, and percentage of vessels containing perivascular collagen coagulation. Long cryogen spurt durations (>200 milliseconds) protected the epidermis in light-skinned individuals (skin phototypes I-IV) at the highest radiant exposure (30 J/cm2); however, epidermal protection could not be achieved in dark-skinned individuals (skin phototypes V-VI) even at the lowest radiant exposure (8 J/cm2). The red blood cell coagulation depth increased with increasing radiant exposure (to >2.5 mm for skin phototypes I-IV and to approximately 1.2 mm for skin phototypes V-VI). In addition, long cryogen spurt durations (>200 milliseconds) prevented perivascular collagen coagulation in all skin types. Cryogen spurt durations much longer than those currently used in therapy (>200 milliseconds) may be clinically useful for protecting the epidermis and perivascular tissues when using high radiant exposures during cutaneous laser therapies

  3. Influence of increment thickness on radiant energy and microhardness of bulk-fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacolak, Gamze; Turkun, L Sebnem; Boyacioglu, Hayal; Ferracane, Jack L

    2018-03-30

    Determining the energy transferred at the bottom of eleven bulk-fill resin composites, comparing top and bottom microhardness's and evaluating the correlation between microhardness and radiant energy were aimed. Samples were placed over the bottom sensor of a visible light transmission spectrophotometer and polymerized for 20 s. The bottom and top Knoop microhardness were measured. Paired t-test and correlation analysis were used for statistics (p≤0.05). In all groups, the bottom radiant energy decreased significantly with increasing thickness. For groups of Aura 2 mm, X-tra Fil 2 and 4 mm, SDR 2 and 4 mm, X-tra Base 2 mm no significant difference was found between top and bottom microhardness. For the bottom levels of Aura, X-tra Fil, Filtek Bulk-Fill Posterior, SDR, X-tra Base groups no significant difference was found between the microhardness's of 2 and 4 mm thicknesses. For X-tra Fil, Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk-Fill, Filtek Bulk-Fill Flowable and Z100 groups radiant energy affected positively the microhardness.

  4. Simplified Building Thermal Model Used for Optimal Control of Radiant Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MPC has the ability to optimize the system operation parameters for energy conservation. Recently, it has been used in HVAC systems for saving energy, but there are very few applications in radiant cooling systems. To implement MPC in buildings with radiant terminals, the predictions of cooling load and thermal environment are indispensable. In this paper, a simplified thermal model is proposed for predicting cooling load and thermal environment in buildings with radiant floor. In this thermal model, the black-box model is introduced to derive the incident solar radiation, while the genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the parameters of the thermal model. In order to further validate this simplified thermal model, simulated results from TRNSYS are compared with those from this model and the deviation is evaluated based on coefficient of variation of root mean square (CV. The results show that the simplified model can predict the operative temperature with a CV lower than 1% and predict cooling loads with a CV lower than 10%. For the purpose of supervisory control in HVAC systems, this simplified RC thermal model has an acceptable accuracy and can be used for further MPC in buildings with radiation terminals.

  5. Inverse optimal design of the radiant heating in materials processing and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. G.; Lee, K. H.; Viskanta, R.

    1998-12-01

    Combined convective, conductive, and radiative heat transfer is analyzed during heating of a continuously moving load in the industrial radiant oven. A transient, quasi-three-dimensional model of heat transfer between a continuous load of parts moving inside an oven on a conveyor belt at a constant speed and an array of radiant heaters/burners placed inside the furnace enclosure is developed. The model accounts for radiative exchange between the heaters and the load, heat conduction in the load, and convective heat transfer between the moving load and oven environment. The thermal model developed has been used to construct a general framework for an inverse optimal design of an industrial oven as an example. In particular, the procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least squares optimization algorithm has been developed to obtain the optimal temperatures of the heaters/burners that need to be specified to achieve a prescribed temperature distribution of the surface of a load. The results of calculations for several sample cases are reported to illustrate the capabilities of the procedure developed for the optimal inverse design of an industrial radiant oven.

  6. Radiant heat testing of the H1224A shipping/storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, D.C.; Bobbe, J.G.; Stenberg, D.R.; Arviso, M.

    1994-05-01

    H1224A weapons containers have been used for years by the Departments of Energy and Defense to transport and store W78 warhead midsections. Although designed to protect the midsections only from low-energy impacts, a recent transportation risk assessment effort has identified a need to evaluate the container`s ability to protect weapons in more severe accident environments. Four radiant heat tests were performed: two each on an H1224A container (with a Mk12a Mod 6c mass mock-up midsection inside) and two on a low-cost simulated H1224A container (with a hollow Mk12 aeroshell midsections inside). For each unit tested, temperatures were recorded at numerous points throughout the container and midsection during a 4-hour 121{degrees}C (250{degrees}F) and 30-minute 1010{degrees}C (1850{degrees}F) radiant environment. Measured peak temperatures experienced by the inner walls of the midsections as a result of exposure to the high-temperature radiant environment ranged from 650{degrees} C to 980{degrees} C (1200{degrees} F to 1800{degrees}F) for the H1224A container and 770 {degrees} to 990 {degrees}C (1420{degrees} F to 1810{degrees}F) for the simulated container. The majority of both containers were completely destroyed during the high-temperature test. Temperature profiles will be used to benchmark analytical models and predict warhead midsection temperatures over a wide range of the thermal accident conditions.

  7. Optimum pulse duration and radiant exposure for vascular laser therapy of dark port-wine skin: a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, James W.; Anvari, Bahman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2003-01-01

    Laser therapy for cutaneous hypervascular malformations such as port-wine stain birthmarks is currently not feasible for dark-skinned individuals. We study the effects of pulse duration, radiant exposure, and cryogen spray cooling (CSC) on the thermal response of skin, using a Monte Carlo based optical-thermal model. Thermal injury to the epidermis decreases with increasing pulse duration during irradiation at a constant radiant exposure; however, maintaining vascular injury requires that the radiant exposure also increase. At short pulse durations, only a minimal increase in radiant exposure is necessary for a therapeutic effect to be achieved because thermal diffusion from the vessels is minimal. However, at longer pulse durations the radiant exposure must be greatly increased. There exists an optimum pulse duration at which minimal damage to the epidermis and significant injury within the targeted vasculature occur. For example, the model predicts optimum pulse durations of approximately 1.5, 6, and 20 ms for vessel diameters of 40, 80, and 120 μm, respectively. Optimization of laser pulse duration and radiant exposure in combination with CSC may offer a means to treat cutaneous lesions in dark-skinned individuals

  8. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  9. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  10. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication

  11. Radiant heat loss, an unexploited path for heat stress reduction in shaded cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A; Horovitz, T

    2012-06-01

    Reducing thermal radiation on shaded animals reduces heat stress independently of other means of stress relief. Radiant heat exchange was estimated as a function of climate, shade structure, and animal density. Body surface portion exposed to radiant sources in shaded environments was determined by geometrical relations to determine angles of view of radiation sources (roof underside, sky, sun-exposed ground, shaded ground) on the animal's surface. The relative representation of environment radiation sources on the body surface was determined. Animal thermal radiation balance was derived from radiant heat gained from radiation sources (including surrounding animals) and that lost from the animal surface. The animal environment was assumed to have different shade dimensions and temperatures. These were summed to the radiant heat balance of the cow. The data formed served to estimate the effect of changes in intensity of radiation sources, roof and shaded surface dimensions, and animal density on radiant heat balance (Rbal) of cattle. Roof height effect was expressed by effect of roof temperature on Rbal. Roof underside temperature (35 to 75°C) effect on Rbal was reduced by roof height. If roof height were 4m, an increase in its underside temperature from 35 to 75°C would increase mean Rbal from -63 to -2 W·m⁻², whereas if roof height were 10 m, Rbal would only increase from -99 to -88 W·m⁻². A hot ground temperature increase from 35 to 65°C reduced mean Rbal heat loss from -45 to 3 W·m⁻². Increasing the surface of the shaded area had only a minor effect on Rbal and on the effect of hot ground on Rbal. Increasing shade roof height reduced the effect of roof temperature on Rbal to minor levels when height was > 8m. Increasing the roof height from 4 to 10 m decreased Rbal from -32 to -94 W·m⁻². Increasing indirect radiation from 100 to 500 W·m⁻² was associated with an increase in Rbal from -135 to +23 W·m⁻². Their combined effects were lower

  12. MorphoTester: An Open Source Application for Morphological Topographic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Winchester

    Full Text Available The increased prevalence and affordability of 3D scanning technology is beginning to have significant effects on the research questions and approaches available for studies of morphology. As the current trend of larger and more precise 3D datasets is unlikely to slow in the future, there is a need for efficient and capable tools for high-throughput quantitative analysis of biological shape. The promise and the challenge of implementing relatively automated methods for characterizing surface shape can be seen in the example of dental topographic analysis. Dental topographic analysis comprises a suite of techniques for quantifying tooth surfaces and component features. Topographic techniques have provided insight on mammalian molar form-function relationships and these methods could be applied to address other topics and questions. At the same time implementing multiple complementary topographic methods can have high time and labor costs, and comparability of data formats and approaches is difficult to predict. To address these challenges I present MorphoTester, an open source application for visualizing and quantifying topography from 3D triangulated polygon meshes. This application is Python-based and is free to use. MorphoTester implements three commonly used dental topographic metrics-Dirichlet normal energy, relief index, and orientation patch count rotated (OPCR. Previous OPCR algorithms have used raster-based grid data, which is not directly interchangeable with vector-based triangulated polygon meshes. A 3D-OPCR algorithm is provided here for quantifying complexity from polygon meshes. The efficacy of this metric is tested in a sample of mandibular second molars belonging to four species of cercopithecoid primates. Results suggest that 3D-OPCR is at least as effective for quantifying complexity as previous approaches, and may be more effective due to finer resolution of surface data considered here. MorphoTester represents an advancement

  13. Line tester analysis of yield and yield related attributed in different sunflower genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, S.U.; Khan, M.A.; Usman, K.; Sayal, O.U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses the study of line * tester analysis to chalk out genetic implications regarding yield and yield relating components in different genotypes of sunflower. Eight parents (four CMS lines and four restorers) along with their sixteen F1 hybrids were considered and planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated thrice at experimental area of Oilseed Research Program, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan in 2011. Combining ability for some important morphological traits included days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter and seed yield plant-1. In this concern general combining ability (GCA), reciprocals combining ability (RCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all traits were studied. The GCA and SCA variances due to lines and testers interaction were significant for all the characters. However, the magnitude of GCAs from CMS lines (females) and restorers (pollinators) were higher than the SCA indicating preponderance of additive genes in the expression of all the traits. Among the lines, CMS-HA-54 whereas in testers, RHP-71, by manifesting maximum GCA effects were considered as the best general combiners for almost all the traits indicating the presence of more additive gene effects in these parents, therefore may serve as potential parents for hybridization and to improve the characters studied. Among the F1 hybrids, CMS HA-99 * RHP-76 (1.54, 212.65) and CMS HA-101 * RHP-73 (0.91, 432.73) were found as the best specific combiners for head or capitulum and seed yield. Hence, if farming community and researchers include these hybrids in their selection and hybridization program for the trait under study optimum result may be obtained. (author)

  14. LVDS tester: a systematic test of cable signal transmission at the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barnby, L; Bombara, M; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanović, P; Jusko, A; Kour, R; Králik, I; Krivda, M; Lazzeroni, C; Lietava, R; Matthews, Z L; Navin, S; Palaha, A; Petrov, P; Platt, R; Šándor, L; Scott, P; Urbán, J; Villalobos Baillie, O; Tapia Takaki, J D

    2010-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment, the Low-Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) format is used for the transmission of trigger inputs from the detectors to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the L0 trigger outputs from Local Trigger Units (LTU) boards back to the detectors and the BUSY inputs from the sub-detectors to the CTP. ALICE has designed a set-up, called the LVDS transmission tester, that aims to measure various transmission quality parameters and the bit-error rate (BER) for long period runs in an automatic way. In this paper, this method is described and the conclusions from these tests for the ALICE LVDS cables are discussed

  15. LVDS tester: a systematic test of cable signal transmission at the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnby, L; Bhasin, A; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Kour, R; Krivda, M; Lazzeroni, C; Lietava, R; Matthews, Z L; Navin, S; Palaha, A; Petrov, P; Platt, R; Scott, P; Bombara, M; Kralik, I; Sandor, L

    2010-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment, the Low-Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) format is used for the transmission of trigger inputs from the detectors to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the L0 trigger outputs from Local Trigger Units (LTU) boards back to the detectors and the BUSY inputs from the sub-detectors to the CTP. ALICE has designed a set-up, called the LVDS transmission tester, that aims to measure various transmission quality parameters and the bit-error rate (BER) for long period runs in an automatic way. In this paper, this method is described and the conclusions from these tests for the ALICE LVDS cables are discussed.

  16. An investigation of the composition of gases sampled by formation testers during drilling and well development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamkina, L.S.; Snezhko, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    The experience of studying samples taken by formation testers during the drilling and development of wells that penetrate Foraminifera, Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits at the fields of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is correlated. The compositions of gases taken from oil bearing, water bearing and gas bearing deposits in exploratory and operating wells are compared. Recommendations are given for determining (estimating) the phase state of hydrocarbons in the cross section based on results from an investigation of the composition of gas taken during the drilling process. A corresponding interpretation method is proposed.

  17. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-26

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.

  18. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-25

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.

  19. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  20. Application of roof radiant burners in large pusher-type furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Varga

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of roof flat-flame burners in the pusher-type steel slab reheating furnaces, after furnace reconstruction and replacement of conventional torch burners, with the objective to increase the efficiency of radiative heat transfer from the refractory roof to the charge. Based on observations and on measurements of the construction and process parameters under operating conditions, the advantages and disadvantages of indirectly oriented radiant heat transfer are analysed in relation to the heat transfer in classically fired furnaces.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the thermal performance of radiant and convective terminals for cooling buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, J.; Heiselberg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Heating and cooling terminals can be classified in two main categories: convective terminals (e.g. active chilled beam, air conditioning) and radiant terminals. The mode of heat transfer of the two emitters is different: the first one is mainly based on convection, whereas the second one is based...... conducted to determine the parameters influencing their thermal performance the most. The air change rate, the outdoor temperature and the air temperature stratification have the largest effect on the cooling need (maintaining a constant operative temperature). For air change rates higher than 0.5 ACH...

  2. Three dimensional modelling and numerical analysis of super-radiant harmonic emission in FEL (optical klystron)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, A.; Friedman, A.; Luccio, A.

    1986-09-01

    A full 3-D Analysis of super-radiant (bunched electron) free electron harmonic radiation is presented. A generalized form of the FEL pendulum equation was derived and numerically solved. Both spectral and phasor formulation were developed to treat the radiation in the time domain. In space the radiation field is expanded in terms of either a set of free space discrete modes or plane waves. The numerical solutions reveal some new distinctly 3-D effects to which we provide a physical explanation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Perceived air quality, thermal comfort, and SBS symptoms at low air temperature and increased radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Foldbjerg, P.

    2002-01-01

    source present at the low temperature. To maintain overall thermal neutrality, the low air temperature was partly compensated for by individually controlled radiant heating, and partly by allowing subjects to modify clothing insulation. A reduction of the air temperature from 23 deg.C to 18 deg.......C suggested an improvement of the perceived air quality, while no systematic effect on symptom intensity was observed. The overall indoor environment was evaluated equally acceptable at both temperatures due to local thermal discomfort at the low air temperature....

  4. Cooling load calculation by the radiant time series method - effect of solar radiation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alexandre M.S. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], E-mail: amscosta@uem.br

    2010-07-01

    In this work was analyzed numerically the effect of three different models for solar radiation on the cooling load calculated by the radiant time series' method. The solar radiation models implemented were clear sky, isotropic sky and anisotropic sky. The radiant time series' method (RTS) was proposed by ASHRAE (2001) for replacing the classical methods of cooling load calculation, such as TETD/TA. The method is based on computing the effect of space thermal energy storage on the instantaneous cooling load. The computing is carried out by splitting the heat gain components in convective and radiant parts. Following the radiant part is transformed using time series, which coefficients are a function of the construction type and heat gain (solar or non-solar). The transformed result is added to the convective part, giving the instantaneous cooling load. The method was applied for investigate the influence for an example room. The location used was - 23 degree S and 51 degree W and the day was 21 of January, a typical summer day in the southern hemisphere. The room was composed of two vertical walls with windows exposed to outdoors with azimuth angles equals to west and east directions. The output of the different models of solar radiation for the two walls in terms of direct and diffuse components as well heat gains were investigated. It was verified that the clear sky exhibited the less conservative (higher values) for the direct component of solar radiation, with the opposite trend for the diffuse component. For the heat gain, the clear sky gives the higher values, three times higher for the peek hours than the other models. Both isotropic and anisotropic models predicted similar magnitude for the heat gain. The same behavior was also verified for the cooling load. The effect of room thermal inertia was decreasing the cooling load during the peak hours. On the other hand the higher thermal inertia values are the greater for the non peak hours. The effect

  5. Failure Investigation of Radiant Platen Superheater Tube of Thermal Power Plant Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Mandal, A.; Roy, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper highlights a case study of typical premature failure of a radiant platen superheater tube of 210 MW thermal power plant boiler. Visual examination, dimensional measurement and chemical analysis, are conducted as part of the investigations. Apart from these, metallographic analysis and fractography are also conducted to ascertain the probable cause of failure. Finally it has been concluded that the premature failure of the super heater tube can be attributed to localized creep at high temperature. The corrective actions has also been suggested to avoid this type of failure in near future.

  6. Validation of the uncertainty budget for soft X-ray radiant power measurement using a cryogenic radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabus, H.; Klein, R.; Scholze, F.; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, G.

    2002-01-01

    The cryogenic radiometer SYRES, a thermal detector based on the electrical substitution principle, has been used as the primary detector standard for radiant power measurement in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral ranges. In order to investigate the possibility of radiant energy being deposited in its absorber cavity without being transformed into heat when detecting soft X-rays, SYRES has been directly compared with the electron storage ring BESSY 1, a primary radiometric source standard of calculable spectral radiant power. To this end, the integral radiant power emitted by the storage ring,into a solid angle defined by a high-precision aperture was measured with SYRES. The experiments were conducted at two nominal energies of the circulating electrons, 800 MeV and 340 MeV, to study the influence of the different spectral distributions of the synchrotron radiation. For the original graphite-coated cavity absorber, significant discrepancies were found which could be traced back to the ablation of the graphite coating from the copper cavity body. In the case of the new gold-coated cavity absorber, the calculated and measured values of the radiant power agreed in all experiments within the combined relative uncertainties of typically 2.5 x 10 -3 (k = 1). (author)

  7. Combining Ability in Wheat for Seedling Traits by Line X Tester Analysis Under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Osaf

    Full Text Available A line × tester analysis involving five varieties SQ-26, SQ-77, GH-10, 8670, PARC-N2 (lines and three varieties 8721, SARC-5 and DN-4 (testers were crossed to study some hydroponics growing characters. In controlled conditions SQ-26 exhibited the highest positive GCA effects on Shoot length, Shoot fresh weight, Na+ and K+ concentrations, while SQ-77 showed maximum GCA effects on Root length, Root fresh weight and Shoot dry weight in females and in males and both DN-4 and SARC-5 showed the highest GCA effects. Under high saline concentration female SQ-77 showed the maximum positive effects on all characters but on shoot length and Na concentration while male SARC-5 exhibited the highest positive GCA effects on all characters. Under high saline level, the cross combination SQ-26 × 8721 showed SCA effects for shoot length, whereas 8670 x 8721 showed the same effects for shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight and root dry weight. For Na+ and K+ concentrations, the cross combination GH-10 × DN-4 showed then highest SCA effects, whereas for shoot dry weight and root length, the cross combinations GH-10 × SARC-5 and PARC-N2 × 8721 showed the highest SCA effects, respectively.

  8. Interference of apex locator, pulp tester and diathermy on pacemaker function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriman, Narayanan; Prabhakar, V; Bhuvaneswaran, J S; Subha, N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three electronic apex locators (EAL), electric pulp tester (EPT) and diathermy on pacemaker function in vitro. Three EALs: Root ZX (J. Morita Co., Tustin, CA, U.S.A.), Propex (Dentsply), Mini Apex locator (SybronEndo, Anaheim, CA, USA), EPT (Parkell pulp vitality tester Farmingdale, NY, USA) and Diathermy (Neomed 250 B) were tested for any interference with one pacemaker (A medtronic kappa KVDD901-serial number: PLE734632S). Directly connecting the pacemaker lead with the EAL/EPT/diathermy operating on a flat bench top, the telemetry wand was held directly over the pacemaker to monitor the pacing pattern for a period of 30 s. Pacemaker activity was continuously recorded on the telemetric programmer and electro gram (EGM) readings examined for pacer inhibition, noise reversion or inappropriate pacemaker pulses. All the three apex locators showed no pacing interference or background noise during its function or at rest. The EGM readings of EPT showed varying levels of background noise in between pacing however, this did not affect the normal pacing pattern and the pacing interval remained constant. EGM readings of diathermy showed an increase in the pacing interval (irregular pacing pattern) followed by complete inhibition of the pacing system. The tested EALs do not interfere with cardiac pacemaker function. The tested EPT showed varying levels of background noise but does not interfere with cardiac pacemaker function. Use of Diathermy interfered with the normal pacing, leading to complete inhibition of the pacing system.

  9. Influence of wearing latex gloves on electric pulp tester readings in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, G

    1993-12-01

    Electric pulp testers operated by completing an electric circuit. Latex examination gloves have been claimed to interrupt this circuit and lead to false-negative results. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of wearing latex gloves on electric pulp tester (EPT) readings. The pulps of 80 maxillary permanent incisors of 22 children 10-13 1/2 years old were tested using the Pelton & Crane 'Vitapulp' instrument. Each tooth was tested twice: with gloves and with bare hands. Teeth failing to respond to the EPT without gloves were excluded from the study. All EPT readings ranged between 1 and 9.5. Five teeth gave the same responses with gloved and ungloved hands. Only five teeth did not respond when gloves were worn, and all of these gave readings near the top of the EPT scale when tested without gloves. The other 70 teeth presented significantly higher readings with gloves than without gloves. It is concluded that removal of examination gloves during the operation of the EPT is necessary only if no response is obtained.

  10. Results of the new eddy current tester for steam generator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribes, B.; Hernandez, J.; Barcenilla, V.

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the recent developing line of eddy current data acquisition systems a new product comes to the market named Teddy+. With only 4 kg of weight constitutes a great advance with regards to the equipments used for this type of inspections available in the market. This advances, have enabled, among others, to increase considerably the S/N ratio, avoid typical saturation problems in the eddy current signal, increase the inspection speed, eliminate the reference probe, detect the air/tube signal in real time, together with the possibility to integrate the tester inside the pusher thanks to its reduced size and to have integrated the mechanical systems control board as part of the tester. The software application in charge of data acquisition and analysis has been optimized making it possible a faster and efficient data access, incorporating a new tool to allow a data quality control on-line, which has accelerated the detection process of non-valid registers. The processes related with the supervision of different analysis have been automated enabling a simultaneous comparison of up to four different analysis types. At the same time the necessary tools to make the successive passes of the resolution process have been included in the analysis software according to EPRI guidelines. These innovations and improvements place the new SG inspection system from TECNATOM, as one of the most powerful and reliable existing in the market (orig.)

  11. Literarily -radiant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses radiation emissions from various every day appliances such as mobile telephones, wireless technologic aids, networks, radios and television sets. The health risks are mentioned (tk)

  12. Hip strength assessment using handheld dynamometry is subject to intertester bias when testers are of different sex and strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, K; Bandholm, T; Schick, M

    2013-01-01

    Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a promising tool for obtaining reliable hip strength measurements in the clinical setting, but intertester reliability has been questioned, especially in situations where testers exhibit differences in upper-extremity muscle strength (male vs female). The purpose...... of this study was to examine the intertester reliability concerning strength assessments of hip abduction, adduction, external and internal rotation, flexion and extension using HHD, and to test whether systematic differences in test values exist between testers of different upper-extremity strength. Fifty...... healthy individuals (29 women), aged 25 ± 5 years were included. Two physiotherapist students (one female, one male) of different upper-extremity strength performed the measurements. The tester order and strength test order were randomized. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to quantify...

  13. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  14. Solar reflection panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Reshetnik, Michael [Boulder, CO

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  15. Estimates of genetic parameters from line x tester mating design for some quantitative traits in upload cotton, gossypium hirsutum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.H.; Kumbher, M.B.; Jatoi, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Combining abilities of cotton varieties were evaluated using a line x tester design with eight lines and 4 testers. Good performance combination was found between the varieties CRIS-134 and BH-147. The former was a good candidate for fibre length improvement and the latter, a good parent for yield improvement. The specific combining ability suggested that both additive and dominant genes controlled the characters. Hybrid performance per se may be used to predict the parental performance for specific combining ability and thus for hybrid crop development. (author)

  16. Solar radiation and cooling load calculation for radiant systems: Definition and evaluation of the Direct Solar Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The study of the influence of solar radiation on the built environment is a basic issue in building physics and currently it is extremely important because glazed envelopes are widely used in contemporary architecture. In the present study, the removal of solar heat gains by radiant cooling systems...... is investigated. Particular attention is given to the portion of solar radiation converted to cooling load, without taking part in thermal absorption phenomena due to the thermal mass of the room. This specific component of the cooling load is defined as the Direct Solar Load. A simplified procedure to correctly...... calculate the magnitude of the Direct Solar Load in cooling load calculations is proposed and it is implemented with the Heat Balance method and the Radiant Time Series method. The F ratio of the solar heat gains directly converted to cooling load, in the case of a low thermal mass radiant ceiling...

  17. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings: Comparison of radiant and air-based heating & cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, Jérôme

    is based on both radiation and convection. This thesis focuses on characterizing the heat transfer from the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam...... losses, and an air-based terminal might be more energy-efficient than a radiant terminal (in terms of delivered energy). Regarding comfort, a similar global level has been observed for the radiant and air-based terminals in both numerical and experimental investigations. But the different terminals did...... not achieve the same uniformity in space. The active chilled beam theoretically achieves the most uniform comfort conditions (when disregarding the risk of draught), followed by the radiant ceiling. The least uniform conditions were obtained with the cooled floor due to large differences between the sitting...

  18. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings: Comparison of radiant and air-based heating & cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, Jérôme

    Heating and cooling terminals can be classified in two main categories: convective terminals (e.g air conditioning, active chilled beam, fan coil) and radiant terminals. The two terminals have different modes of heat transfer: the first one is mainly based on convection, whereas the second one...... is based on both radiation and convection. This thesis focuses on characterizing the heat transfer from the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam...... losses, and an air-based terminal might be more energy-efficient than a radiant terminal (in terms of delivered energy). Regarding comfort, a similar global level has been observed for the radiant and air-based terminals in both numerical and experimental investigations. But the different terminals did...

  19. Dynamic behavior of radiant cooling system based on capillary tubes in walls made of high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    elements made of high performance concrete. The influence of the radiant cooling system on the indoor climate of the test room in terms of the air, surface and operative temperatures and velocities was investigated.The results show that the temperature of the room air can be kept in a comfortable range...... using cooling water for the radiant cooling system with a temperature only about 4K lower than the temperature of the room air. The relatively high speed reaction of the designed system is a result of the slim construction of the sandwich wall elements made of high performance concrete. (C) 2015...... the small amount of fresh air required by standards to provide a healthy indoor environment.This paper reports on experimental analyses evaluating the dynamic behavior of a test room equipped with a radiant cooling system composed of plastic capillary tubes integrated into the inner layer of sandwich wall...

  20. Effect of radiant heat transfer on the performance of high temperature heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yasuo; Hijikata, Kunio; Yamada, Yukio

    1975-01-01

    The development of high temperature gas-cooled reactors is motivated by the consideration of the application of nuclear heat for industrial uses or direct steelmaking and chemical processes. For these purposes, reliable and efficient heat exchangers should be developed. This report analyzes the effect of radiant heat transfer on the performance of high temperature heat exchangers. The heat transfer model is as follows: the channel composed with two parallel adiabatic walls is divided with one parallel plate between the walls. Non-radiative fluid flows in the two separated channels in opposite direction. Heat transfer equations for this system were obtained, and these equations were solved by some approximate method and numerical analysis. The effect of radiation on heat transfer became larger as the radiant heat transfer between two walls was larger. In the heat exchangers of counter flow type, the thermal efficiency is controlled with three parameters, namely radiation-convection parameter, Stanton number and temperature difference. The thermal efficiency was larger with the increase of these parameters. (Iwase, T.)

  1. Numerical Simulation of the Thermal Process in a W-Shape Radiant Tube Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Jiyong; Zhang, Lifeng; Ling, Haitao; Li, Yanlong

    2014-07-01

    In the current work, three-dimensional mathematical models were developed for the heat transfer and combustion in a W-shape radiant tube burner (RTB) and were solved using Fluent software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The standard k- ɛ model, nonpremixed combustion model, and the discrete ordinate model were used for the modeling of turbulence, combustion, and radiant heat transfer, respectively. In addition, the NO x postprocessor was used for the prediction of the NO emission. A corresponding experiment was performed for the validation of mathematical models. The details of fluid flow, heat transfer, and combustion in the RTB were investigated. Moreover, the effect of the air/fuel ratio (A/F) and air staging on the performance of RTB was studied with the reference indexes including heat efficiency, maximum temperature difference on shell wall, and NO emission at the outlet. The results indicated that a low speed zone formed in the vicinity of the combustion chamber outlet, and there were two relative high-temperature zones in the RTB, one in combustion chamber that favored the flame stability and the other from the main flame in the RTB. The maximum temperature difference was 95.48 K. As the A/F increased, the temperature increased first and then decreased. As the ratio of the primary to secondary air increased, the recirculation zone at the outlet of combustion chamber shrank gradually to disappear, and the flame length was longer and the temperature in flame decreased correspondingly.

  2. Radiative heat exchange of a meteor body in the approximation of radiant heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyugin, N.N.; Chernova, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of the thermal and dynamic destruction of large meteor bodies moving in planetary atmospheres is fundamental for the clarification of optical observations and anomalous phenomena in the atmosphere, the determination of the physicochemical properties of meteoroids, and the explanation of the fall of remnants of large meteorites. Therefore, it is important to calculate the coefficient of radiant heat exchange (which is the determining factor under these conditions) for large meteor bodies as they move with hypersonic velocities in an atmosphere. The solution of this problem enables one to find the ablation of a meteorite during its aerodynamic heating and to determine the initial conditions for the solution of problems of the breakup of large bodies and their subsequent motion and ablation. Hypersonic flow of an inviscid gas stream over an axisymmetric blunt body is analyzed with allowance for radiative transfer in a thick-thin approximation. The gas-dynamic problem of the flow of an optically thick gas over a large body is solved by the method of asymptotic joined expansions, using a hypersonic approximation and local self-similarity. An equation is obtained for the coefficient of radiant heat exchange and the peculiarities of such heat exchange for meteor bodies of large size are noted

  3. Non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapan, R.C.; Costa, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Oliveira, A.A.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Professor Joao David Ferreira Lima, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Industrial processes where the heating of large surfaces is required lead to the possibility of using large surface porous radiant burners. This causes additional temperature uniformity problems, since it is increasingly difficult to evenly distribute the reactant mixture over a large burner surface while retaining its stability and keeping low pollutant emissions. In order to allow for larger surface area burners, a non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner using a single large injection hole is proposed and analyzed for a double-layered burner operating in open and closed hot (laboratory-scale furnace, with temperature-controlled, isothermal walls) environments. In both environments, local mean temperatures within the porous medium have been measured. For lower reactant flow rate and ambient temperature the flame shape is conical and anchored at the rim of the injection hole. As the volumetric flow rate or furnace temperature is raised, the flame undergoes a transition to a plane flame stabilized near the external burner surface. However, the stability range envelope remains the same in both regimes. (author)

  4. High-temperature process heat reactor with solid coolant and radiant heat exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.M.; Bulkin, Yu.M.; Vasil'ev, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    The high temperature graphite reactor with the solid coolant in which heat transfer is realized by radiant heat exchange is described. Neutron-physical and thermal-technological features of the reactor are considered. The reactor vessel is made of sheet carbon steel in the form of a sealed rectangular annular box. The moderator is a set of graphite blocks mounted as rows of arched laying Between the moderator rows the solid coolant annular layings made of graphite blocks with high temperature nuclear fuel in the form of coated microparticles are placed. The coolant layings are mounted onto ring movable platforms, the continuous rotation of which is realizod by special electric drives. Each part of the graphite coolant laying consecutively passes through the reactor core neutron cut-off zones and technological zone. In the core the graphite is heated up to the temperature of 1350 deg C sufficient for effective radiant heat transfer. In the neutron cut-off zone the chain reaction and further graphite heating are stopped. In the technological zone the graphite transfers the accumulated heat to the walls of technological channels in which the working medium moves. The described reactor is supposed to be used in nuclear-chemical complex for ammonia production by the method of methane steam catalytic conversion

  5. Stressed skin panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-07-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of stressed skin panels, also known as structural insulated panels (SIPs), are discussed as material and labour-saving alternatives to traditional stick framing. Stressed skin panels are manufactured 'sandwich' assemblies with a rigid insulating polystyrene foam core, whose interior and exterior surfaces are bonded into panels. The skins distribute and carry the structural loading while the bonded foam core provides insulation and keeps the two skins aligned. Since there are fewer framing members, there is little thermal bridging and the R-value remains high. SIPs are usually manufactured in four feet by eight feet panels, although some manufacturers can produce panels up to eight feet by forty feet. SIPs are resource efficient as they use less wood than conventional framing (about 25 per cent less); can structurally cover large spans, requiring less supplementary framing. Use of SIPs eliminate the need for headers over small openings; provide the ability to nail anywhere; create less scrap and waste; lessen vulnerability to unfavourable weather and other job-site hazards, can reduce delays, and often can produce significant savings in material and labour costs. Limitations include the more complex approaches to plumbing and electrical systems, although this can be minimized by designers by incorporating much of the plumbing and electrical work on interior (non-panel) walls. Most stressed skin panels require one-half inch interior gypsum drywall. If become wet, stressed skin panels take a long time to dry out and may harbour mold growth. Larger stressed-skin panels used in floors and roofs, may require cranes or other machinery for handling because of their weight. Although not without some environmental impact, overall, stressed skin panels are judged to be a resource-efficient building technology with significant energy-efficiency benefits and distinct advantages over stick framing. 3 photos.

  6. Morteros acumuladores con parafinas microencapsuladas para el aprovechamiento de la energía solar en suelos radiantes

    OpenAIRE

    Zetola Vargas, Vicente Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Esta Tesis plantea la pregunta de si el uso de morteros con parafinas microencapsuladas combinado con colectores solares térmicos puede reducir el consumo de energías convencionales, en un sistema tradicional de suelo radiante. Se pretende contribuir al conocimiento acerca del efecto que produce en el edificio, el calor latente acumulado en suelos radiantes, utilizando morteros de cemento Portland con material de cambio de fase (PCM), en conjunto con la energía solar. Para cumplir con este pr...

  7. Control characteristics and heating performance analysis of automatic thermostatic valves for radiant slab heating system in residential apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byung-Cheon [Department of Building Equipment System Engineering, Kyungwon University, Seongnam City (Korea); Song, Jae-Yeob [Graduate School, Building Equipment System Engineering, Kyungwon University, Seongnam City (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    Computer simulations and experiments are carried out to research the control characteristics and heating performances for a radiant slab heating system with automatic thermostatic valves in residential apartments. An electrical equivalent R-C circuit is applied to analyze the unsteady heat transfer in the house. In addition, the radiant heat transfer between slabs, ceilings and walls in the room is evaluated by enclosure analysis method. Results of heating performance and control characteristics were determined from control methods such as automatic thermostatic valves, room air temperature-sensing method, water-temperature-sensing method, proportional control method, and On-Off control method. (author)

  8. Solar panel foundation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1983-03-29

    A transportable solar panel foundation device which has a bottom member, at least one upstanding side member, and an essentially open top. The side members are angled to permit nesting of a plurality of the foundation devices, and reinforcement pads are carried by the foundation device to support legs for one or more solar panels.

  9. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  10. RECIPANEL: RECYCLED PAPER PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁN CAÑOLA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia la fabricación y el comportamiento mecánico de paneles a base de papel reciclado. El objetivo principal del proyecto es producir un prototipo de panel que emplee elementos provenientes de residuos sólidos (papel periódico y de un material conglomerante (cemento Portland blanco. El panel debe ser económico, debe tener buenas propiedades mecánicas y debe tener dimensiones comerciales para su uso en muros tabiques y en cielos falsos en la industria de la construcción. El Recipanel es un panel no estructural a base de papel reciclado. El Recipanel cumple las normas colombianas en lo relativo a los paneles de uso no estructural y presenta además unas excelentes características mecánicas.

  11. Puncture panel optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; Longenbaugh, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT) to transport defense contact-handled transuranic wastes. The package has been designed to meet the normal and hypothetical accident conditions in 10CFR71 which includes the demonstrated ability to survive a 1-meter drop onto a mild steel pin. The puncture protection is provided by puncture resistant panels. In conjunction with the development of TRUPACT, a series of experiments has been conducted to reduce the weight of the puncture resistant panels. The initial scoping tests resulted in a preliminary design incorporating 30 layers of Kevlar. This design has been shown to meet the regulatory puncture test. To reduce the weight of this panel, subscale tests were conducted on panels utilizing Kevlar yarns with varying mass per unit length (denier) as well as different resins. This paper reviews the testing undertaken in the original panel development and discusses the results obtained from the recent subscale and full-scale optimization tests

  12. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  13. Towards a uniform specification of light therapy devices for the treatment of affective disorders and use for non-image forming effects: Radiant flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, M P J; Rosemann, A L P

    2018-08-01

    For treating affective disorders like SAD, light therapy is used although the underlying mechanism explaining this success remains unclear. To accelerate the research on defining the light characteristics responsible for inducing a specific effect a uniform manner for specifying the irradiance at the eye should be defined. This allows a genuine comparison between light-affect studies. An important factor impacting the irradiance at the eye are the radiant characteristics of the used light therapy device. In this study the radiant fluxes of five different light therapy devices were measured. The values were weighted against the spectral sensitivity of the five photopigments present in the human eye. A measurement was taken every five minutes to control for a potential stabilizing effect. The results show that all five devices show large differences in radiant flux. The devices equipped with blue LED lights have a much lower spectral radiant flux than the devices equipped with a fluorescent light source or a white LED. The devices with fluorescent lamps needed 30 min to stabilize to a constant radiant flux. In this study only five devices were measured. Radiant flux is just the first step to identify uniform specifications for light therapy devices. It is recommended to provide all five α-opic radiant fluxes. Preferably, the devices should come with a spectral power distribution of the radiant flux. For the devices equipped with a fluorescent lamp it is recommended to provide information on the stabilization time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical exercise and demonstration of the spent fuel attribute tester at the TVO NPS in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.

    1991-01-01

    A piece of new safeguards equipment, the Spent Fuel Attribute Tester (SFAT), is being developed for the verification of spent nuclear fuel in a standard storage geometry. Lifting of fuel assemblies from the storage position is not required for the verification. The SFAT can be handled like a fresh fuel assembly in the storage basin by the fuel handling machine. The feasibility of the SFAT-equipment for the verification of spent BWR fuel was demonstrated. A comparison of various types of gamma detectors, such as the Geiger-Mueller counter, NaI- and CdTe detectors was made for SFAT use. Measurements for optimizing the lead shielding, filtering, collimation and other geometrical parameters of SFAT were made. The precision of movements of the SFAT in the pond by the fuel handling machine and safety margins for these operations were estimated. (orig.)

  15. Analysis and Comparison of Thickness and Bending Measurements from Fabric Touch Tester (FTT and Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Atiyyah Binti Haji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabric Touch Tester (FTT is a relatively new device from SDL Atlas to determine touch properties of fabrics. It simultaneously measures 13 touch-related fabric physical properties in four modules that include bending and thickness measurements. This study aims to comparatively analyze the thickness and bending measurements made by the FTT and the common standard methods used in the textile industry. The results obtained with the FTT for 11 different fabrics were compared with that of standard methods. Despite the different measurement principle, a good correlation was found between the two methods used for the assessment of thickness and bending. As FTT is a new tool for textile comfort measurement and no standard yet exists, these findings are essential to determine the reliability of the measurements and how they relate to the well-established standard methods.

  16. Magnetic properties measurement of soft magnetic composite material (SOMALOY 700) by using 3-D tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Ashraf; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-08-01

    Core losses of rotating electrical machine can be predicted by identifying the magnetic properties of the magnetic material. The magnetic properties should be properly measured since there are some variations of vector flux density in the rotating machine. In this paper, the SOMALOY 700 material has been measured under x, y and z- axes flux density penetration by using the 3-D tester. The calibrated sensing coils are used in detecting the flux densities which have been generated by the Labview software. The measured sensing voltages are used in obtaining the magnetic properties of the sample such as magnetic flux density B, magnetic field strength H, hysteresis loop which can be used to calculate the total core loss of the sample. The results of the measurement are analyzed by using the Mathcad software before being compared to another material.

  17. Suitability of Torrent Permeability Tester to measure air-permeability of covercrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.; Gonzales-Gasca, C. [Institute of Construction Sciences ' Eduardo Torroja' , Madrid (Spain); Torrent, R. [Portland Cement Institute, (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    Suitability of the Torrent Permeability Tester (TPT) to measure the permeability of covercrete to air, both in the laboratory and the field, is investigated, and test results obtained in laboratory studies are discussed. The tests performed included the determination of air permeability (TPT method), oxygen permeability (Cembureau method) and capillary suction, rapid chloride permeability test (ASTM C 1202), as well as a one-year carbonation depth test. Concrete specimens of various compositions and curing regimes were used in the tests; the gas-permeability tests were repeated on the same specimens after 28 days, than again at 6 months and 12 months. Test results confirmed the suitability of the TPT as a useful tool in the characterization of the quality the of concrete cover. It was found to be sensitive to changes in concrete quality; repeatable for sensitive properties such as gas permeability ; also, it was found to correlate well with other durability-related properties. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  18. Testing parameters of TMR heads affected by dynamic-tester induced EMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruesubthaworn, A.; Sivaratana, R.; Ungvichian, V.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2007-01-01

    A variety of expected electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources of both radiated and conducted EMI emissions produced by a dynamic tester is studied. It is determined that the power cable connector of the robot arm radiates a significant electric field (E-field) of about 197 V/m at 1 foot away and an estimated calculation of the E-field of about 212 mV/m is at the spindle motor. These fields can be attenuated by about 20-30 dB when using a copper lined Faraday's cage. Furthermore, the study has revealed that the radiated EMI plays a more significant role than the conducted EMI. In addition, it is determined that out of seven selected testing parameters, the SGAW is rather more sensitive to EMI than conventional failure parameters, especially static glitche during the write cycle

  19. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science

  20. Inter-tester reliability of selected clinical tests for long-lasting temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julsvoll, Elisabeth Heggem; Vøllestad, Nina Køpke; Opseth, Gro; Robinson, Hilde Stendal

    2017-09-01

    Clinical tests used to examine patients with temporomandibular disorders vary in methodological quality, and some are not tested for reliability. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate inter-tester reliability of clinical tests and a cluster of tests used to examine patients with long-lasting temporomandibular disorders. Forty patients with pain in the temporomandibular area treated by health-professionals were included. They were between 18-70 years, had 65 symptomatic (33 right/32 left) and 15 asymptomatic joints. Two manual therapists examined all participants with selected tests. Percentage agreement and the kappa coefficient ( k ) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the tests with categorical outcomes. For tests with continuous outcomes, the relative inter-tester reliability was assessed by the intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC 3,1 , 95% CI) and the absolute reliability was calculated by the smallest detectable change (SDC). The best reliability among single tests was found for the dental stick test, the joint-sound test ( k  = 0.80-1.0) and range of mouth-opening (ICC 3,1 (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.95-0.98) and SDC = 4 mm). The reliability of cluster of tests was excellent with both four and five positive tests out of seven. The reliability was good to excellent for the clinical tests and the cluster of tests when performed by experienced therapists. The tests are feasible for use in the clinical setting. They require no advanced equipment and are easy to perform.

  1. Radiant heat transfers in turbojet engines. Two applications, three levels of modeling; Transferts radiatifs dans les foyers de turboreacteurs. Deux applications, trois niveaux de modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J L; Desaulty, M [SNECMA, Centre de Villaroche, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France); Taine, J [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1997-12-31

    Several applications linked with the dimensioning of turbojet engines require the use of modeling of radiant heat transfers. Two different applications are presented in this study: the modeling of heat transfers in the main combustion chamber, and modeling of the infrared signature of the post-combustion chamber of a military engine. In the first application, two types of radiant heat transfer modeling are presented: a global modeling based on empirical considerations and used in rapid pre-dimensioning methods, and a modeling based on a grey gases concept and combined to a ray shooting type technique allowing the determination of local radiant heat flux values. In the second application, a specific modeling of the radiant heat flux is used in the framework of a ray shooting method. Each model represents a different level of successive approximations of the radiant heat transfer adapted to flow specificities and to the performance requested. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  2. Radiant heat transfers in turbojet engines. Two applications, three levels of modeling; Transferts radiatifs dans les foyers de turboreacteurs. Deux applications, trois niveaux de modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.L.; Desaulty, M. [SNECMA, Centre de Villaroche, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France); Taine, J. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1996-12-31

    Several applications linked with the dimensioning of turbojet engines require the use of modeling of radiant heat transfers. Two different applications are presented in this study: the modeling of heat transfers in the main combustion chamber, and modeling of the infrared signature of the post-combustion chamber of a military engine. In the first application, two types of radiant heat transfer modeling are presented: a global modeling based on empirical considerations and used in rapid pre-dimensioning methods, and a modeling based on a grey gases concept and combined to a ray shooting type technique allowing the determination of local radiant heat flux values. In the second application, a specific modeling of the radiant heat flux is used in the framework of a ray shooting method. Each model represents a different level of successive approximations of the radiant heat transfer adapted to flow specificities and to the performance requested. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  3. The validity and intra-tester reliability of markerless motion capture to analyse kinematics of the BMX Supercross gate start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Josephine; Haakonssen, Eric; Rathbone, Evelyne; Orr, Robin; Keogh, Justin W L

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to quantify the validity and intra-tester reliability of a novel method of kinematic measurement. The measurement target was the joint angles of an athlete performing a BMX Supercross (SX) gate start action through the first 1.2 s of movement in situ on a BMX SX ramp using a standard gate start procedure. The method employed GoPro® Hero 4 Silver (GoPro Inc., USA) cameras capturing data at 120 fps 720 p on a 'normal' lens setting. Kinovea 0.8.15 (Kinovea.org, France) was used for analysis. Tracking data was exported and angles computed in Matlab (Mathworks®, USA). The gold standard 3D method for joint angle measurement could not safely be employed in this environment, so a rigid angle was used. Validity was measured to be within 2°. Intra-tester reliability was measured by the same tester performing the analysis twice with an average of 55 days between analyses. Intra-tester reliability was high, with an absolute error <6° and <9 frames (0.075 s) across all angles and time points for key positions, respectively. The methodology is valid within 2° and reliable within 6° for the calculation of joint angles in the first ~1.25 s.

  4. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu; Kuti, Olawole Abiola; Naser, Nimal; Chung, Suk-Ho; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate

  5. Smart Control of Air Climatization System in Function on the Values of Mean Local Radiant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannistraro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hygrothermal comfort indoor conditions are defined as: those environmental conditions in which an individual exposed, expresses a state of satisfaction. These conditions cannot always be achieved anywhere in an optimal way and economically; in some cases they can be obtained only in work environments specific areas. This could be explained because of air conditioning systems designing is generally performed both on the basis of the fundamental parameters’ average values, such as temperature, velocity and relative humidity (Ta, va e φa and derived parameters such as operating temperature and mean radiant one (Top eTmr. However, in some specific cases - large open-spaces or in case of radiating surfaces - the descriptors defining indoor comfort conditions, based on average values, do not provide the optimum values required during the air conditioning systems design phase. This is largely due to the variability of real environmental parameters values compared to the average ones taken as input in the calculation. The results obtained in previous scientific papers on the thermal comfort have been the driving element of this work. It offers a simple, original and clever way of thinking about the new domotic systems for air conditioning, based on the “local mean radiant temperature.” This is a very important parameter when one wants to analyze comfort in environments characterized by the presence of radiating surfaces, as will be seen hereinafter. In order to take into account the effects of radiative exchanges in the open-space workplace, where any occupant may find themselves in different temperature and humidity conditions, this paper proposes an action on the domotic climate control, with ducts and vents air distribution placed in different zones. Comparisons were performed between the parameters values representing the punctual thermal comfort, with the Predicted Mean Vote PMV, in an environment marked by radiating surfaces (i

  6. Solar–terrestrial radiant-energy regimes and temperature anomalies of natural and artificial turfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar and terrestrial radian energy regimes affect temperature response of sports turfs. • Adjacent natural and artificial turfs were monitored with replications on sunny days. • Artificial turf has meager albedo, low specific heat and moisture to augment warming. • Artificial turf surface and substrate reach 70 °C but cool down effectively at night. • Artificial turf may induce heat stress on athletes in hot summer afternoon. - Abstract: Artificial turf can develop unusually high surface temperature on hot sunny days. Solar and terrestrial radiant energy regimes as key determinants of thermal performance deserve detailed investigation. This study evaluated six components of the radiant-energy environment of a natural turf (NT) and a contiguous artificial turf (AT) sports fields in Hong Kong: direct solar, reflected solar, net solar, sky thermal, ground thermal, and net thermal. Temperature was monitored at five positions: air at 150 cm, 50 cm and 15 cm height, turf surface, and substrate. The experiment included four replications, namely two summer sunny days, and two duplicated instrument sets at each turf site. The two sites reacted very differently to the same intense daily sum of solar radiation input of 23.70 MW m −2 with 9 h of bright sunshine (>120 W m −2 ), and daily sum of sky thermal radiation input of 38.59 MW m −2 . The maximum direct solar radiation reached 976.1 W m −2 at 1245 h. NT albedo of 0.23 vis-à-vis AT of merely 0.073, and higher moisture content and specific heat of NT materials, presented critical differences. The hydrophobic and generally dry plastic (polyethylene) pile-fibers and black rubber-granule infill materials have low specific heat. Intense incoming shortwave and longwave radiation absorbed readily by AT materials raised turf surface temperature to 70.2 °C and substrate 69.3 °C, in comparison with <40 °C at NT. A cascading warming effect was triggered, beginning with low albedo, high net solar

  7. Open-source micro-tensile testers via additive manufacturing for the mechanical characterization of thin films and papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Krishanu; Collinson, David W; Scheftic, Charlie M; Brinson, L Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The cost of specialized scientific equipment can be high and with limited funding resources, researchers and students are often unable to access or purchase the ideal equipment for their projects. In the fields of materials science and mechanical engineering, fundamental equipment such as tensile testing devices can cost tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars. While a research lab often has access to a large-scale testing machine suitable for conventional samples, loading devices for meso- and micro-scale samples for in-situ testing with the myriad of microscopy tools are often hard to source and cost prohibitive. Open-source software has allowed for great strides in the reduction of costs associated with software development and open-source hardware and additive manufacturing have the potential to similarly reduce the costs of scientific equipment and increase the accessibility of scientific research. To investigate the feasibility of open-source hardware, a micro-tensile tester was designed with a freely accessible computer-aided design package and manufactured with a desktop 3D-printer and off-the-shelf components. To our knowledge this is one of the first demonstrations of a tensile tester with additively manufactured components for scientific research. The capabilities of the tensile tester were demonstrated by investigating the mechanical properties of Graphene Oxide (GO) paper and thin films. A 3D printed tensile tester was successfully used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to provide one of the first quantitative measurements of GO thin film buckling under compression. The tensile tester was also used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to observe the change in surface topology of a GO paper in response to increasing tensile strain. No significant change in surface topology was observed in contrast to prior hypotheses from the literature. Based on this result obtained with the new open source tensile stage we propose an

  8. Open-source micro-tensile testers via additive manufacturing for the mechanical characterization of thin films and papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishanu Nandy

    Full Text Available The cost of specialized scientific equipment can be high and with limited funding resources, researchers and students are often unable to access or purchase the ideal equipment for their projects. In the fields of materials science and mechanical engineering, fundamental equipment such as tensile testing devices can cost tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars. While a research lab often has access to a large-scale testing machine suitable for conventional samples, loading devices for meso- and micro-scale samples for in-situ testing with the myriad of microscopy tools are often hard to source and cost prohibitive. Open-source software has allowed for great strides in the reduction of costs associated with software development and open-source hardware and additive manufacturing have the potential to similarly reduce the costs of scientific equipment and increase the accessibility of scientific research. To investigate the feasibility of open-source hardware, a micro-tensile tester was designed with a freely accessible computer-aided design package and manufactured with a desktop 3D-printer and off-the-shelf components. To our knowledge this is one of the first demonstrations of a tensile tester with additively manufactured components for scientific research. The capabilities of the tensile tester were demonstrated by investigating the mechanical properties of Graphene Oxide (GO paper and thin films. A 3D printed tensile tester was successfully used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to provide one of the first quantitative measurements of GO thin film buckling under compression. The tensile tester was also used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to observe the change in surface topology of a GO paper in response to increasing tensile strain. No significant change in surface topology was observed in contrast to prior hypotheses from the literature. Based on this result obtained with the new open source tensile stage we

  9. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  10. Where the Solar system meets the solar neighbourhood: patterns in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic minor bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos; de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl; Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2018-05-01

    Observed hyperbolic minor bodies might have an interstellar origin, but they can be natives of the Solar system as well. Fly-bys with the known planets or the Sun may result in the hyperbolic ejection of an originally bound minor body; in addition, members of the Oort cloud could be forced to follow inbound hyperbolic paths as a result of secular perturbations induced by the Galactic disc or, less frequently, due to impulsive interactions with passing stars. These four processes must leave distinctive signatures in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic objects, both in terms of coordinates and velocity. Here, we perform a systematic numerical exploration of the past orbital evolution of known hyperbolic minor bodies using a full N-body approach and statistical analyses to study their radiants. Our results confirm the theoretical expectations that strong anisotropies are present in the data. We also identify a statistically significant overdensity of high-speed radiants towards the constellation of Gemini that could be due to the closest and most recent known fly-by of a star to the Solar system, that of the so-called Scholz's star. In addition to and besides 1I/2017 U1 (`Oumuamua), we single out eight candidate interstellar comets based on their radiants' velocities.

  11. Validation of the uncertainty budget for soft X-ray radiant power measurement using a cryogenic radiometer

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Scholze, F; Thornagel, R; Ulm, G

    2002-01-01

    The cryogenic radiometer SYRES, a thermal detector based on the electrical substitution principle, has been used as the primary detector standard for radiant power measurement in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral ranges. In order to investigate the possibility of radiant energy being deposited in its absorber cavity without being transformed into heat when detecting soft X-rays, SYRES has been directly compared with the electron storage ring BESSY 1, a primary radiometric source standard of calculable spectral radiant power. To this end, the integral radiant power emitted by the storage ring,into a solid angle defined by a high-precision aperture was measured with SYRES. The experiments were conducted at two nominal energies of the circulating electrons, 800 MeV and 340 MeV, to study the influence of the different spectral distributions of the synchrotron radiation. For the original graphite-coated cavity absorber, significant discrepancies were found which could be traced back to th...

  12. A METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF NON-UNIFORM RADIANT-CONVECTIVE LOAD ON HUMAN BODY DURING MENTAL WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Prokšová Zuská

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a documentation for the amendment of the microclimatic part of the Czech Government Regulation, particularly in a non-uniform radiant-convective load evaluation. Changes in regulation were made based on experimental data obtained on a group of experimental individuals in a climatic chamber. One of the objectives of the climatic chamber experiments was to evaluate whether there was a possibility to use an alternative method, which utilizes a new value – stereotemperature, for the assessment. A group of 24 women was exposed to a non-uniform radiant-convective load in a climatic chamber for 1 hour during their computer work. Measurements were divided according to the globe temperature into 3 stages. The physical parameters of air were continuously measured: the air temperature, globe temperature, air velocity, radiant temperature, relative humidity, stereotemperature and physiological parameters. Thermal sensations of experimental subjects were expressed in the seven-point scale according to EN ISO 7730. The thermal sensation correlated very well with the difference of stereotemperature and the globe temperature. The stereotemperature correlated very well with the radiant temperature. In this work, the composed equations were used to develop the limit values for the thermal stress evaluation in the uniform and non-uniform thermal environment at workplaces. It is possible to determine how the body of an exposed person perceives the non-uniform climatic conditions in the indoor environment, by adding the stereotemperature to government regulations.

  13. Experimental study including subjective evaluations of mixing and displacement ventilation combined with radiant floor heating/cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation systems and radiant heating/cooling systems. In the first two tests, the simulated residential room was equipped either by a mixing ventilation system supplying warm air for space heat...

  14. IM-135-648-00 IDIM tester instruction manual for the TESTER for (135 to 562) Isolated Digital Input Module for SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieffer, J.

    1983-01-01

    This unit is designed to provide all of the input levels and channels needed to perform complete production and maintenance testing of the SLC Isolated Digital Input Module (SLAC 135 to 562). The manual includes the following sections: specifications; front panel, lights and connectors; reference list; functional description; 82S100 logic equations; test and checkout procedures; appendix A, SLAC 82S100 programming data; and appendix B, JXK-FORTH 135 to 648 program listing

  15. An experimental study about effect of far infrared radiant ceramics on efficient methane fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, A.; Yamazaki, M.; Oida, A.

    2003-01-01

    Methane fermentation, well known as one of the methods for organic wastes treatment, has been used as an energy production process in order to produce a gaseous fuel. But methane fermentation has some problems to be solved about gas production rate and volatile solids reduction efficiency. Simple methods to improve these problems are needed. In this study, we focused on far infrared radiant ceramics as a stimulating substance to activate methanogenic bacteria. Firstly, through the experiment of one batch fermentation, it was confirmed that the ceramics in the fermenter caused increase of total gas production. Next, even through the experiment of continuous fermentation, same stimulating effect was confirmed. It was considered that this effect was caused not only by a function of bio-contactor of the ceramics but also by far infrared radiation from ceramics. (author)

  16. The Super-Radiant Mechanism and the Widths of Compound Nuclear States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N

    2012-01-01

    In the introduction I will present the theory of the super-radiant mechanism as applied to various phenomena. I will then discuss the statistics of resonance widths in a many-body Fermi system with open decay channels. Depending on the strength of the coupling to the continuum such systems show deviations from the standard Porter-Thomas distribution. The deviations result from the process of increasing interaction of the intrinsic states through the common decay channels. In the limit of very strong coupling this leads to super-radiance. The results I will present are important for the understanding of recent experimental data concerning the width distribution of compound neutron resonances in nuclei.

  17. A critical examination of the validity of simplified models for radiant heat transfer analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, J. S.; Viskanta, R.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the directional effects of the simplified models by comparing the experimental data with the predictions based on simple and more detailed models for the radiation characteristics of surfaces. Analytical results indicate that the constant property diffuse and specular models do not yield the upper and lower bounds on local radiant heat flux. In general, the constant property specular analysis yields higher values of irradiation than the constant property diffuse analysis. A diffuse surface in the enclosure appears to destroy the effect of specularity of the other surfaces. Semigray and gray analyses predict the irradiation reasonably well provided that the directional properties and the specularity of the surfaces are taken into account. The uniform and nonuniform radiosity diffuse models are in satisfactory agreement with each other.

  18. Thermal Texture Selection and Correction for Building Facade Inspection Based on Thermal Radiant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D.; Jarzabek-Rychard, M.; Schneider, D.; Maas, H.-G.

    2018-05-01

    An automatic building façade thermal texture mapping approach, using uncooled thermal camera data, is proposed in this paper. First, a shutter-less radiometric thermal camera calibration method is implemented to remove the large offset deviations caused by changing ambient environment. Then, a 3D façade model is generated from a RGB image sequence using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. Subsequently, for each triangle in the 3D model, the optimal texture is selected by taking into consideration local image scale, object incident angle, image viewing angle as well as occlusions. Afterwards, the selected textures can be further corrected using thermal radiant characteristics. Finally, the Gauss filter outperforms the voted texture strategy at the seams smoothing and thus for instance helping to reduce the false alarm rate in façade thermal leakages detection. Our approach is evaluated on a building row façade located at Dresden, Germany.

  19. Radiant thinking and the use of the mind map in nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julie R; Anderson, Kelley M; Ellis, Kathryn K

    2013-05-01

    The concept of radiant thinking, which led to the concept of mind mapping, promotes all aspects of the brain working in synergy, with thought beginning from a central point. The mind map, which is a graphical technique to improve creative thinking and knowledge attainment, utilizes colors, images, codes, and dimensions to amplify and enhance key ideas. This technique augments the visualization of relationships and links between concepts, which aids in information acquisition, data retention, and overall comprehension. Faculty can promote students' use of the technique for brainstorming, organizing ideas, taking notes, learning collaboratively, presenting, and studying. These applications can be used in problem-based learning, developing plans of care, health promotion activities, synthesizing disease processes, and forming differential diagnoses. Mind mapping is a creative way for students to engage in a unique method of learning that can expand memory recall and help create a new environment for processing information. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Products for Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project integrates CERES, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and geostationary satellite observations to provide top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances derived from broadband radiance observations by CERES instruments. It also uses snow cover and sea ice extent retrieved from microwave instruments as well as thermodynamic variables from reanalysis. In addition, these variables are used for surface and atmospheric irradiance computations. The CERES project provides TOA, surface, and atmospheric irradiances in various spatial and temporal resolutions. These data sets are for climate research and evaluation of climate models. Long-term observations are required to understand how the Earth system responds to radiative forcing. A simple model is used to estimate the time to detect trends in TOA reflected shortwave and emitted longwave irradiances.

  1. Numerical study of influence of different dispersed components of crystal cloud on transmission of radiant energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The calculated results of the transmission of visible and infrared radiation by an atmosphere layer involving ensembles of large preferentially oriented crystals and spherical particles are presented. To calculate extinction characteristics, the physical optics method and the Mie theory are applied. Among all atmospheric particles, both the small particles that are commensurable with the wavelength of the incident radiation and the large plates and the columns are distinguished by the most pronounced dependence of the transmission on spectra of radiant energy. The work illustrates features of influence of parameters of the particle size distribution, particle aspect ratios, orientation and particle refractive index, also polarization state of the incident radiation on the transmission. The predominant effect of the plates on the wavelength dependence of the transmission is shown. A separated and cooperative contributes of the large plates and the small volume shape particles to the common transmission by medium are considered.

  2. Newborns' temperature submitted to radiant heat and to the Top Maternal device at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Rosemeire Sartori de; Mariani, Corintio; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Dias, Vanessa Macedo; Silva, Maria Izabel Mota da

    2016-08-08

    to compare the axillar temperatures of newborns that are put immediately after birth in skin-to-skin contact under the Top Maternal device, as compared to those in a radiant heat crib. comparatives observational study of the case-control type about temperature of 60 babies born at the Obstetric Center and Normal Delivery Center of a public hospital of the municipality of Sao Paulo, being them: 29 receiving assistance in heated crib and 31 in skin-to skin contact, shielded by a cotton tissue placed on mother's thorax, called Top Maternal. the temperature of the babies of the skin-to-skin contact group presented higher values in a larger share of the time measures verified, as compared to those that were placed in radiant heat crib, independently from the place of birth. Differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. the study contributes to generate new knowledge, supporting the idea of keeping babies with their mothers immediately after birth protected with the Maternal Top, without harming their wellbeing, as it keeps the axillar temperature in recommendable levels. comparar a temperatura axilar dos recém-nascidos acomodados - imediatamente após o nascimento - em contato pele a pele, sob o Top Maternal, em berço de calor radiante. estudo comparativo observacional do tipo Caso-Controle sobre a temperatura de 60 bebês nascidos no Centro Obstétrico e Centro de Parto Normal de um hospital público do município de São Paulo, sendo: 29 assistidos em berço aquecido e 31 em contato pele a pele, protegidos por uma malha de algodão colocada sobre o tórax da mãe, denominada Top Maternal. a temperatura dos bebês do grupo de contato pele a pele teve maior valor na maioria dos tempos verificados comparada à dos que foram colocados em berço de calor radiante, independentemente do local de nascimento. A diferença entre os grupos não foi estatisticamente significante. o estudo contribui com a geração de um novo conhecimento que sustenta a

  3. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  4. Panel acoustic contribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.

  5. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  6. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  7. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V

    2016-05-01

    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hexagon solar power panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  9. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  10. Honeycomb metal panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Product constituted by a honeycomb metal panel that can be employed to advantage for manufacturing lagging by sandwiching it between two plane sheets, utilized in particular in the nuclear industry where lagging has to have a very long life strength. The honeycomb metal panel is made of an expanded metal extrusion previously cut so as to form, after additional drawing, a honeycomb structure with square or rectangular cells with a plane surface [fr

  11. Reflecting variable opening insulating panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nungesser, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a reflecting variable opening insulating panel assembly, comprising a static panel assembly of reflecting insulation sheets forming a cavity along one side of the panel and a movable panel opening out by sliding from the cavity of the static panel, and a locking device for holding the movable panel in a position extending from the cavity of the static panel. This can apply to a nuclear reactor of which the base might require maintenance and periodical checking and for which it is desirable to have available certain processes for the partial dismantling of the insulation [fr

  12. Rational Design of Composite Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    A non-linear structural model for composite panels is presented. The non-linear terms in the lateral displacements are modelled as an additional set of lateral loads acting on the panel. Hence the solution is reduced to that of an equivalent panel with small displacements In order to treat sandwich...... Norske Veritas', DNV, building rules concerning high-speed light craft, in which the panel scantlings are often restricted by a maximum lateral deflection connected with the panel span....

  13. Compaction comparison testing using a modified impact soil tester and nuclear density gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erchul, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare test results of a modified Impact Soil Tester (IST) on compacted soil with data obtained from the same soil using a nuclear density gauge at the US Army Corp of Engineer's Buena Vista Flood Wall project in Buena Vista, Virginia. The tests were run during construction of the earth flood wall during the summer of 1996. This comparison testing demonstrated the credibility of the procedure developed for the IST as a compacting testing device. The comparison data was obtained on a variety of soils ranging from silty sands to clays. The Flood Wall comparison compaction data for 90% Standard Proctor shows that the results of the IST as modified are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 89% of the time for all types of soil tested. However, if the soils are more cohesive than the results are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 97% of the time. In addition these comparison tests are in general agreement with comparison compaction testing using the same testing techniques and methods of compacted backfill in utility trenches conducted earlier for the Public Works Department, Chesterfield County, Virginia.

  14. Compaction comparison testing using a modified impact soil tester and nuclear density gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erchul, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare test results of a modified Impact Soil Tester (IST) on compacted soil with data obtained from the same soil using a nuclear density gauge at the US Army Corp of Engineer's Buena Vista Flood Wall project in Buena Vista, Virginia. The tests were run during construction of the earth flood wall during the summer of 1996. This comparison testing demonstrated the credibility of the procedure developed for the IST as a compacting testing device. The comparison data was obtained on a variety of soils ranging from silty sands to clays. The Flood Wall comparison compaction data for 90% Standard Proctor shows that the results of the IST as modified are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 89% of the time for all types of soil tested. However, if the soils are more cohesive than the results are consistent with the nuclear density gauge 97% of the time. In addition these comparison tests are in general agreement with comparison compaction testing using the same testing techniques and methods of compacted backfill in utility trenches conducted earlier for the Public Works Department, Chesterfield County, Virginia

  15. Ignition delay times of Gasoline Distillation Cuts measured with Ignition Quality Tester

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2017-04-21

    Tailoring fuel properties to maximize the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a way towards achieving cleaner combustion systems. In this work, the ignition properties of various gasoline fuel distillation cuts are analyzed to better understand fuel properties of the full boiling range fuel. An advanced distillation column (ADC) provides a more realistic representation of volatility characteristics, which can be modeled using equilibrium thermodynamic methods. The temperature reported is that of the liquid, as opposed to the vapor temperature in conventional ASTM D86 distillation standard. Various FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasolines were distilled and various cuts were obtained. The separated fractions were then tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) to see the effect of chemical composition of different fractions on their ignition delay time. Fuels with lower aromatic content showed decreasing ignition delay time with increasing boiling point (i.e., molecular weight). However, fuels with higher aromatic content showed an initial decrease in ignition delay time with increasing boiling point, followed by drastic increase in ignition delay time due to fractions containing aromatics. This study also provides an understanding on contribution of different fractions to the ignition delay time of the fuel, which provides insights into fuel stratification utilized in gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines to tailor heat release rates.

  16. Patch testers' opinions regarding diagnostic criteria for metal hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Peter C; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    Metal hypersensitivity reactions to implanted devices remain a challenging and controversial topic. Diagnostic criteria and methods are not well delineated. Diagnostic criteria for hypersensitivity reactions after metallic device implantation are evaluated in this study by a multinational group of patch testers using Thyssen's previously published criteria. A total of 119 dermatologists at the 2012 European Contact Dermatitis Society and 2013 American Contact Dermatitis Society meetings answered a survey regarding their opinions on topics relating to metal hypersensitivity. Four major and 5 minor diagnostic criteria emerged. Approximately 80% of respondents found the following criteria useful (major criteria): chronic dermatitis beginning weeks to months after metallic implantation, eruption overlying the metal implant, positive patch test to a metal component of the implant, and complete clearing after removal of the potentially allergenic implant. Minor criteria (metals (eg, lymphocyte transformation test). In the challenging situation such as a symptomatic or failing orthopedic device, applying these 4 major criteria and the 5 supportive minor criteria may be useful for guiding decision making.

  17. Optimization of the Spent Fuel Attribute Tester using radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laub, T.W.; Dupree, S.A.; Arlt, R.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency uses the Spent Fuel Attribute Tester (SFAT) to measure gamma signatures from fuel assemblies stored in spent fuel pools. It consists of a shielded, collimated NaI(Tl) detector attached to an air-filled pipe. The purpose of the present study was to define design changes, within operational constraints, that would improve the target assembly 137 Cs signal relative to the background signals from adjacent assemblies. This improvement is essential to reducing to an acceptable level the measurement time during an inspection. Monte Carlo calculations of the entire geometry were impractical, therefore, a hybrid method was developed that combined one-dimensional discrete ordinates models of the spent fuel pool, three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations of the SFAT, and detector response calculations. The method compared well with measurements taken with the existing baseline SFAT. Calculations predicted significant improvements in signal-to-noise ratio. Recommended changes included shortening the pipe and increasing its wall thickness, placing low-Z filters in the crystal line of sight, reducing the thickness of shielding around the collimator aperture and adding shielding around the crystal, and reducing the diameter of the crystal. An instrument incorporating these design changes is being fabricated in Finland and will be tested this year

  18. Calibrators measurement system for headlamp tester of motor vehicle base on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xi-ping; Zheng, Zhe

    2014-09-01

    With the development of photoelectric detection technology, machine vision has a wider use in the field of industry. The paper mainly introduces auto lamps tester calibrator measuring system, of which CCD image sampling system is the core. Also, it shows the measuring principle of optical axial angle and light intensity, and proves the linear relationship between calibrator's facula illumination and image plane illumination. The paper provides an important specification of CCD imaging system. Image processing by MATLAB can get flare's geometric midpoint and average gray level. By fitting the statistics via the method of the least square, we can get regression equation of illumination and gray level. It analyzes the error of experimental result of measurement system, and gives the standard uncertainty of synthesis and the resource of optical axial angle. Optical axial angle's average measuring accuracy is controlled within 40''. The whole testing process uses digital means instead of artificial factors, which has higher accuracy, more repeatability and better mentality than any other measuring systems.

  19. Bearing tester data compilation analysis, and reporting and bearing math modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Integration of heat transfer coefficients, modified to account for local vapor quality, into the 45 mm bearing model has been completed. The model has been evaluated with two flow rates and subcooled and saturated coolant. The evaluation showed that by increasing the flow from 3.6 to 7.0 lbs/sec the average ball temperature was decreased by 102 F, using a coolant temperature of -230 F. The average ball temperature was decreased by 63 F by decreasing the inlet coolant temperature from saturated to -230 F at a flow rate of 7.0 lbs/sec. Since other factors such as friction, cage heating, etc., affect bearing temperatures, the above bearing temperature effects should be considered as trends and not absolute values. The two phase heat transfer modification has been installed in the 57 mm bearing model and the effects on bearing temperatures have been evaluated. The average ball temperature was decreased by 60 F by increasing the flow rate from 4.6 to 9.0 lbs/sec for the subcooled case. By decreasing the inlet coolant temperature from saturation to -24 F, the average ball temperature was decreased 57 F for a flow rate of 9.0 lbs/sec. The technique of relating the two phase heat transfer coefficient to local vapor quality will be applied to the tester model and compared with test data.

  20. Radioprotective action of glycerol and cysteamine on inactivation and mutagenesis in Salmonella tester strains after gamma and heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.

    1991-01-01

    Inactivation and mutagenesis were studied in Salmonella tester strains after γ-irradiation and after heavy ion irradiation in the presence of glycerol and cysteamine. Bacterial cells were irradiated at Dubna, JINR. Ions from deuterons to carbon were used with residual energies 2-9 MeV/u. The protective effect of glycerol was found both for γ-radiation and for heavy ions up to 50 keV/μm for both cell inactivation and mutagenesis in Salmonella tester strains with different mutation events. Cell sensitivity slightly increased with LET before falling down. The maximum was shifted in the presence of glycerol to the left and was less pronounced. The radioprotective effect of glycerol diminished gradually with LET from 2.0 for γ-radiation to 1.1 for carbon ions. Mutagenesis increases with LET in TA100 strain; in TA98 strain no marked increase could be detected. 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  1. Panels of microporous insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, J.A.; Morgan, D.E.; Jackson, J.D.J.

    1990-08-07

    Microporous thermal insulation materials have a lattice structure in which the average interstitial dimension is less than the mean free path of the molecules of air or other gas in which the material is arranged. This results in a heat flow which is less than that attributable to the molecular heat diffusion of the gas. According to this invention, a method is provided for manufacturing panels of microporous thermal insulation, in particular such panels in which the insulation material is bonded to a substrate. The method comprises the steps of applying a film of polyvinyl acetate emulsion to a non-porous substrate, and compacting powdery microporous thermal insulation material against the film so as to cause the consolidated insulation material to bond to the substrate and form a panel. The polyvinyl acetate may be applied by brushing or spraying, and is preferably allowed to dry prior to compacting the insulation material. 1 fig.

  2. Advanced solar panel designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  3. Ceramics and healthy heating and cooling systems: thermal ceramic panels in buildings. Conditions of comfort and energy demand versus convective systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Echarri Iribarren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcelain stoneware is a widely used building material. In recent years, its range of uses has expanded to encompass a new spectrum of innovative and inventive applications in architecture. In this research, we analysed the patented Thermal Ceramic Panel. This consists of a thin porcelain stoneware panel that incorporates a capillary system of polypropylene tubes measuring 3.5 mm in diameter embedded in a conductive ceramic interface. The system works with hot or cold water, producing healthy heating and cooling by means of radiant surfaces. Following an initial prototype test in which panels were placed on the walls of an office, we conducted simulations at the University of Alicante Museum using wall, ceiling and baffle panels, having previously monitored the state of the building. Thermal behaviour parameters were analysed and compared with those of other standard finishing materials, obtaining results for thermal comfort and energy savings in comparison with all-air systems.

  4. Panel 3 - characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, R.A.; Erdemir, A.; Janghsing Hsieh; Lee, R.H.; Xian Zheng Pan; Deming Shu [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Feldman, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States); Kleimer, R. [Coors Ceramics Co., Golden, CO (United States); Lawton, E.A. [JPL/Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States); McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The task of this panel was to identify and prioritize needs in the area of characterization of diamond and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use in the transportation industry. Until recent advances in production of inexpensive films of diamonds and DLC, it was not feasible that these materials could be mass produced. The Characterization Panel is restricting itself to identifying needs in areas that would be most useful to manufacturers and users in producing and utilizing diamond and DLC coatings in industry. These characterization needs include in-situ monitoring during growth, relation of structure to performance, and standards and definitions.

  5. Analysis of Panel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Cheng

    2003-02-01

    Panel data models have become increasingly popular among applied researchers due to their heightened capacity for capturing the complexity of human behavior, as compared to cross-sectional or time series data models. This second edition represents a substantial revision of the highly successful first edition (1986). Recent advances in panel data research are presented in an accessible manner and are carefully integrated with the older material. The thorough discussion of theory and the judicious use of empirical examples make this book useful to graduate students and advanced researchers in economics, business, sociology and political science.

  6. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel,n-Heptane, andiso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon; Naser, Nimal; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Junepyo

    2015-01-01

    -octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel

  7. Blinded Comparison between an In-Air Reverberation Method and an Electronic Probe Tester in the Detection of Ultrasound Probe Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nicholas J; Woolley, Darren J

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a blinded trial, comparing the results of a visual inspection of the in-air reverberation pattern with the results of an electronic probe tester in detecting ultrasound probe faults. Sixty-two probes were tested. A total of 28 faults were found, 3 only by in-air reverberation assessment and 2 only by the electronic probe tester. The electronic probe tester provided additional information regarding the location of the fault in 74% of the cases in which both methods detected a fault. It is possible to detect the majority of probe faults by visual inspection and in-air reverberation assessment. The latter provides an excellent first-line test, easily performed on a daily basis by equipment users. An electronic probe tester is required if detailed evaluation of faults is necessary. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced Solar Panel Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1995-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual-junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg.

  9. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION: Panelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At the meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), in Geneva in July, Chairman A.N. Skrinsky of Novosibirsk reviewed ICFA progress, particularly the activities of the specialist Panels which pursue specific Committee objectives in guiding worldwide collaboration in high energy physics

  10. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION: Panelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-10-15

    At the meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), in Geneva in July, Chairman A.N. Skrinsky of Novosibirsk reviewed ICFA progress, particularly the activities of the specialist Panels which pursue specific Committee objectives in guiding worldwide collaboration in high energy physics.

  11. Law Panel in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odulana, J

    In September 1976 the Africa Regional Council (ARC) of IPPF created a Law Panel to 1) advise the ARC on the emphasis of laws and parenthood programs in the region, 2) investigate legal obstacles to family planning and ways of removing them, 3) institute a monitoring service on laws and court decisions affecting planned parenthood, and 4) prepare a list of lawyers and legal reformers by country. The panel has 1) recommended adoption of an IPPF Central Medical Committee and Central Law Panel statement on sterilization, adolescent fertility control, and the use of medical and auxiliary personnel in family planning services with guidelines for Africa; 2) appointed National Legal Correspondents to carry on the monitoring service mentioned above in 18 countries; and 3) discussed solutions to problems in delivering family planning services with family planning associations in Tanzania, Zambia, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Kenya. Laws governing family planning education and services, marriage, divorce, and maternity benefits in these countries are summarized. In 1978 the panel will hold 2 workshops on law and the status of women.

  12. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a

  13. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  14. Dynamic panel data models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.; Sarafidis, V.

    2013-01-01

    This Chapter reviews the recent literature on dynamic panel data models with a short time span and a large cross-section. Throughout the discussion we considerlinear models with additional endogenous covariates. First we give a broad overview of available inference methods placing emphasis on GMM.

  15. Solar radiation, phytoplankton pigments and the radiant heating of the equatorial Pacific warm pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A.; Ohlmann, J. Carter; Washburn, Libe; Bidigare, Robert R.; Nosse, Craig T.; Fields, Erik; Zhou, Yimei

    1995-01-01

    Recent optical, physical, and biological oceanographic observations are used to assess the magnitude and variability of the penetrating flux of solar radiation through the mixed layer of the warm water pool (WWP) of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Typical values for the penetrative solar flux at the climatological mean mixed layer depth for the WWP (30 m) are approx. 23 W/sq m and are a large fraction of the climatological mean net air-sea heat flux (approx. 40 W/sq m). The penetrating solar flux can vary significantly on synoptic timescales. Following a sustained westerly wind burst in situ solar fluxes were reduced in response to a near tripling of mixed layer phytoplankton pigment concentrations. This results in a reduction in the penetrative flux at depth (5.6 W/sq m at 30 m) and corresponds to a biogeochemically mediated increase in the mixed layer radiant heating rate of 0.13 C per month. These observations demonstrate a significant role of biogeochemical processes on WWP thermal climate. We speculate that this biogeochemically mediated feedback process may play an important role in enhancing the rate at which the WWP climate system returns to normal conditions following a westerly wind burst event.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN A SPIRALLY COILED CORRUGATED TUBE WITH RADIANT HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Đorđević

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Archimedean spiral coil made of a transversely corrugated tube was exposed to radiant heating in order to represent a heat absorber of the parabolic dish solar concentrator. The main advantage of the considered innovative design solution is a coupling effect of the two passive methods for heat transfer enhancement - coiling of the flow channel and changes in surface roughness. The curvature ratio of the spiral coil varies from 0.029 to 0.234, while water and a mixture of propylene glycol and water are used as heat transfer fluids. The unique focus of this study is on specific boundary conditions since the heat flux upon the tube external surfaces varies not only in the circumferential direction, but in the axial direction as well. Instrumentation of the laboratory model of the heat absorber mounted in the radiation field includes measurement of inlet fluid flow rate, pressure drop, inlet and outlet fluid temperature and 35 type K thermocouples welded to the coil surface. A thermal analysis of the experimentally obtained data implies taking into consideration the externally applied radiation field, convective and radiative heat losses, conduction through the tube wall and convection to the internal fluid. The experimental results have shown significant enhancement of the heat transfer rate compared to spirally coiled smooth tubes, up to 240% in the turbulent flow regime.

  17. Analysis of directional radiative behavior and heating efficiency for a gas-fired radiant burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.X.; Lu, Y.P.; Liu, L.H.; Kudo, K.; Tan, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of energy conservation and uniform heating of object surface, a gas-fired porous radiant burner with a bundle of reflecting tubes is developed. A physical model is developed to simulate the directional radiative behavior of this heating device, in which the Monte Carlo method based on the concept of radiation distribution factor is used to compute the directional radiative behavior. The effects of relating parameters on the directional behavior of radiative heating and the heating efficiency are analyzed. With the increase of the length-to-radius ratio of tube, the radiation heating efficiency decreases, but the radiation energy incident on the object surface is more collimated. The radiation heating efficiency increases with the specular reflectivity. With the increase in length of tube segment with specular reflective surface, the radiation heating efficiency increases, but the extent of concentration and collimation of radiative energy decreases. For real design of the heating device, some trade-offs are needed to balance the radiation heating efficiency and the uniformity of radiative heating of object surface

  18. Evolution of arbitrary moments of radiant intensity distribution for partially coherent general beams in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Youquan; Xu, Yonggen

    2018-04-01

    The evolution law of arbitrary order moments of the Wigner distribution function, which can be applied to the different spatial power spectra, is obtained for partially coherent general beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. A coupling coefficient of radiant intensity distribution (RID) in turbulence is introduced. Analytical expressions of the evolution of the first five-order moments, kurtosis parameter, coupling coefficient of RID for general beams in turbulence are derived, and the formulas are applied to Airy beams. Results show that there exist two types for general beams in turbulence. A larger value of kurtosis parameter for Airy beams also reveals that coupling effect due to turbulence is stronger. Both theoretical analysis and numerical results show that the maximum value of kurtosis parameter for an Airy beam in turbulence is independent of turbulence strength parameter and is only determined by inner scale of turbulence. Relative angular spread, kurtosis and coupling coefficient are less influenced by turbulence for Airy beams with a smaller decay factor and a smaller initial width of the first lobe.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Radiant Heat Transfer in Mirror Systems Considering Deep Reflecting Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Leonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing large-sized mirror concentrating systems (MCS for high-temperature solar power plants, one must have at disposal reasonably reliable and economical methods and tools, making it possible to analyze its characteristics, to predict them depending on the operation conditions and accordingly to choose the most suitable system for the solution of particular task.Experimental determination of MCS characteristics requires complicated and expensive experimentation, having significant limitations on interpretation of the results, as well as limitations imposed due to the size of the structure. Therefore it is of particular interest to develop a mathematical model capable of estimating power characteristics of MCS considering the influence of operating conditions, design features, roughness and other surface defects.For efficient solution of the tasks the model must ensure simulation of solar radiant flux as well as simulation of geometrical and optical characteristics of reflection surface and their interaction. In this connection a statistical mathematical model of radiation heat exchange based on use of Monte Carlo methods and Finite Element Method was developed and realized in the software complex, making it possible to determine main characteristics of the MCS.In this paper the main attention is given to definition of MCS radiation characteristics with account for deep reflecting surface defects (cavities, craters. Deep cavities are not typical for MCS, but their occurrence is possible during operation as a result of erosion or any physical damage. For example, for space technology it is primarily micrometeorite erosion.

  20. Extinction of radiant energy by large atmospheric crystals with different shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefer, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The calculated results of extinction characteristics of visible and infrared radiation for large semi-transparent crystals are obtained by hybrid technique, which is a combination of the geometric optics method and the physical optics method. Energy and polarization characteristics of the radiation extinction in terms of the elements of the extinction matrix for individual large crystals and ensemble of crystals are discussed. Influences of particle shapes, aspect ratios, parameters of size distribution, complex refractive index, orientation of crystals, wavelength, and the polarization state of an incident radiation on the extinction are illustrated. It is shown that the most expressive and stable features of energy and polarization characteristics of the extinction are observed in the midinfrared region, despite the fact that the ice particles significantly absorb the radiant energy of this spectrum. It is demonstrated that the polarized extinction characteristics can reach several tens of percent at IR wavelengths. For the large crystals, the conditions of occurrence of the spectral behavior of the extinction coefficient in the visible, near-IR, and mid-IR wavelength ranges are determined. - Highlights: • Method of physical optics is used at coherent sum of diffracted and refracted fields. • The extinction characteristics in terms of elements of extinction matrix are obtained. • Influence of shapes and sizes of large particles on the extinction is evaluated. • Conditions of occurrence of extinction features are determined.

  1. Numerical investigation on the convective heat transfer in a spiral coil with radiant heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to numerically investigate the heat transfer in spiral coil tube in the laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes. The Archimedean spiral coil was exposed to radiant heating and should represent heat absorber of parabolic dish solar concentrator. Specific boundary conditions represent the uniqueness of this study, since the heat flux upon the tube external surfaces varies not only in the circumferential direction, but also in the axial direction. The curvature ratio of spiral coil varies from 0.029 at the flow inlet to 0.234 at the flow outlet, while the heat transfer fluid is water. The 3-D steady-state transport equations were solved using the Reynolds stress turbulence model. Results showed that secondary flows strongly affect the flow and that the heat transfer is strongly asymmetric, with higher values near the outer wall of spiral. Although overall turbulence levels were lower than in a straight pipe, heat transfer rates were larger due to the curvature-induced modifications of the mean flow and temperature fields. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 42006

  2. Dependence of calculus retropulsion dynamics on fiber size and radiant exposure during Ho:YAG lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho; Ryan, Robert T; Kim, Jeehyun; Choi, Bernard; Arakeri, Navanit V; Teichman, Joel M H; Welch, A J

    2004-08-01

    During pulsed laser lithotripsy, the calculus is subject to a strong recoil momentum which moves the calculus away from laser delivery and prolongs the operation. This study was designed to quantify the recoil momentum during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy. The correlation among crater shape, debris trajectory, laser-induced bubble and recoil momentum was investigated. Calculus phantoms made from plaster of Paris were ablated with free running Ho:YAG lasers. The dynamics of recoil action of a calculus phantom was monitored by a high-speed video camera and the laser ablation craters were examined with Optical Coherent Tomography (OCT). Higher radiant exposure resulted in larger ablation volume (mass) which increased the recoil momentum. Smaller fibers produced narrow craters with a steep contoured geometry and decreased recoil momentum compared to larger fibers. In the presence of water, recoil motion of the phantom deviated from that of phantom in air. Under certain conditions, we observed the phantom rocking towards the fiber after the laser pulse. The shape of the crater is one of the major contributing factors to the diminished recoil momentum of smaller fibers. The re-entrance flow of water induced by the bubble collapse is considered to be the cause of the rocking of the phantom.

  3. Influence on living body by radiant rays produced in low power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Isao; Nakamura, Katsuichi; Usuyama, Hideo; Usui, Akinori; Hosomi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yoshinao; Nakai, Takahide; Egashira, Masamichi

    1984-01-01

    There is possibility of a risk that a living body is irradiated by those for slightly indifference to radiant rays, radiation source or devices of low level dose or dose rate. Accordingly, a low power reactor (UTR-KINKI) was utilized for a observation of influence by radiation of low level dose or dose rate, the rabbits were irradiated in it at output 1 w. The large influence was not expected for the low level dose rate of 1.313 Rad/hr even if they were irradiated for the several hours, but in a part of blood components a slight change was recognized. The change of M pattern in white blood corpuscle number was indicated likewise as irradiation of 500R X-ray, reported from Jacobson and others, by irradiation to about 13 Rads. In addition, lymphocyte number was increased considerably in an early stage. This fact will be useful for a recovery of an injury as mentioned by Lucky. The rabbits of alloxan diabetes mellitus and hepatitis were irradiated in the same way as above, but they scarcely showed the alterations. However, numerous rabbits can't be used in this experiment for the equipment and others. (author)

  4. General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H, Jorge A Rueda [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Nunez, L A [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico, Universidad de Los Andes, CeCalCULA, Corporacion Parque Tecnologico de Merida, Merida 5101, Venezuela (Venezuela)

    2007-05-15

    An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure.

  5. General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Jorge A Rueda; Nunez, L A

    2007-01-01

    An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure

  6. A new integrating sphere design for spectral radiant flux determination of light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselaer, P.; Keppens, A.; Forment, S.; Ryckaert, W. R.; Deconinck, G.

    2009-09-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is developing very quickly and may be considered an alternative for traditional light sources. However, at this moment, manufacturers and end users of LEDs are facing a rather basic but major problem. The lack of standardization regarding optical and electrical characterization of LEDs appears to compromise a successful implementation. In particular, numbers quoted for the luminous flux, and consequently for the efficacy of LEDs, are very sensitive data because they are used to impress and push the LED market. In this paper, the most was made of the typical hemispherical radiation of high-power LEDs to increase the accuracy of the flux determination using a custom-made integrating sphere. Recently developed measurement techniques such as the use of an external spectral irradiance standard and an optimized spectral irradiance detection head are combined with a very particular port geometry and a minimized baffle area. This results in a uniform spatial response distribution function (SRDF), which guarantees an accurate radiant and luminous flux determination, irrespective of the spatial intensity distribution of the LED package or luminaire. The effect of the directional response of the detector head on the SRDF has been explored. Measurements on LED devices with and without external optics are presented, illustrating the possibilities of the measurement setup.

  7. A new integrating sphere design for spectral radiant flux determination of light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanselaer, P; Keppens, A; Forment, S; Ryckaert, W R; Deconinck, G

    2009-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is developing very quickly and may be considered an alternative for traditional light sources. However, at this moment, manufacturers and end users of LEDs are facing a rather basic but major problem. The lack of standardization regarding optical and electrical characterization of LEDs appears to compromise a successful implementation. In particular, numbers quoted for the luminous flux, and consequently for the efficacy of LEDs, are very sensitive data because they are used to impress and push the LED market. In this paper, the most was made of the typical hemispherical radiation of high-power LEDs to increase the accuracy of the flux determination using a custom-made integrating sphere. Recently developed measurement techniques such as the use of an external spectral irradiance standard and an optimized spectral irradiance detection head are combined with a very particular port geometry and a minimized baffle area. This results in a uniform spatial response distribution function (SRDF), which guarantees an accurate radiant and luminous flux determination, irrespective of the spatial intensity distribution of the LED package or luminaire. The effect of the directional response of the detector head on the SRDF has been explored. Measurements on LED devices with and without external optics are presented, illustrating the possibilities of the measurement setup

  8. Composite panel development at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, Paul; Helms, Rich

    1988-01-01

    Parametric computer studies can be use in a cost effective manner to determine optimized composite mirror panel designs. An InterDisciplinary computer Model (IDM) was created to aid in the development of high precision reflector panels for LDR. The materials properties, thermal responses, structural geometries, and radio/optical precision are synergistically analyzed for specific panel designs. Promising panels designs are fabricated and tested so that comparison with panel test results can be used to verify performance prediction models and accommodate design refinement. The iterative approach of computer design and model refinement with performance testing and materials optimization has shown good results for LDR panels.

  9. Assessing the accuracy of globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrit, N. G.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Lahimer, A. A.; Elayeb, O. K.

    2017-11-01

    Assessing outdoor human thermal comfort and urban climate quality require experimental investigation of microclimatic conditions and their variations in open urban spaces. For this, it is essential to provide quantitative information on air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and mean radiant temperature. These parameters can be quantified directly except mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). The most accurate method to quantify Tmrt is integral radiation measurements (3-D shortwave and long-wave) which require using expensive radiometer instruments. To overcome this limitation the well-known globe thermometer method was suggested to calculate Tmrt. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using indoor globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate. Globe thermometer method using small and large sizes of black-painted copper globes (50mm, 150mm) were used to estimate Tmrt and compare it with the reference Tmrt estimated by integral radiation method. The results revealed that the globe thermometer method considerably overestimated Tmrt during the middle of the day and slightly underestimated it in the morning and late evening. The difference between the two methods was obvious when the amount of incoming solar radiation was high. The results also showed that the effect of globe size on the estimated Tmrt is mostly small. Though, the estimated Tmrt by the small globe showed a relatively large amount of scattering caused by rapid changes in radiation and wind speed.

  10. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical Comfort (OTC model was used for simulation in this study. The model output is comfort scale that refers on ASHRAE definition. The model consists of two regression equations with variables of air temperature, globe temperature, wind speed, humidity and body posture, for two types of activity: walking and seated. From the results it can be stated that there is significant role of wind speed to reduce mean radiant temperature and globe temperature, when the velocity is elevated from 0.5 m/s to 2 m/s. However, the wind has not play significant role when the speed is changed from 2 m/s to 3.5 m/s. The results of the study may inspire us to implement effectiveness of electrical-fan equipment for outdoor space in order to get optimum wind speed, coupled with optimum design of shading devices to minimize radiant temperature for thermal comfort.

  11. Effects of radiant exposure and wavelength spectrum of light-curing units on chemical and physical properties of resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Fonseca Lima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives In this study, we evaluated the influence of different radiant exposures provided by single-peak and polywave light-curing units (LCUs on the degree of conversion (DC and the mechanical properties of resin cements. Materials and Methods Six experimental groups were established for each cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE; LuxaCore Dual, Ivoclar Vivadent; Variolink, DMG, according to the different radiant exposures (5, 10, and 20 J/cm2 and two LCUs (single-peak and polywave. The specimens were made (7 mm in length × 2 mm in width × 1 mm in height using silicone molds. After 24 hours of preparation, DC measurement was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The same specimens were used for the evaluation of mechanical properties (flexural strength, FS; elastic modulus, E by a three-point bending test. Data were assessed for normality, after which two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were performed. Results No properties of the Variolink cement were influenced by any of the considered experimental conditions. In the case of the RelyX ARC cement, DC was higher when polywave LCU was used; FS and E were not influenced by the conditions evaluated. The LuxaCore cement showed greater sensitivity to the different protocols. Conclusions On the basis of these results, both the spectrum of light emitted and the radiant exposure used could affect the properties of resin cements. However, the influence was material-dependent.

  12. The efficacy of radiant heat controls on workers' heat stress around the blast furnace of a steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giahi, Omid; Darvishi, Ebrahim; Aliabadi, Mohsen; Khoubi, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Workers' exposure to excessive heat in molten industries is mainly due to radiant heat from hot sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiant heat controls on workers heat stress around a typical blast furnace. Two main interventions were applied for reducing radiant heat around the blast furnace of a steel industry located in western Iran. These included using a heat absorbing system in the furnace body and installing reflective aluminum barrier in the main workstation. Heat stress indexes were measured before and after each intervention using the digital WBGT-meter. The results showed MRT and WBGT indexes decreased by 20 °C and 3.9 °C, respectively after using heat absorbing system and also decreased by 18.6 °C and 2.5 °C, respectively after installing a reflective barrier. These indexes decrease by 26.5 °C and 5.2 °C, respectively due to the simultaneous application of the two interventions which were statistically significant (p steel industries.

  13. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  14. Intra-tester Reliability and Construct Validity of a Hip Abductor Eccentric Strength Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Richard A; Ebaugh, D David; Milner, Clare E

    2017-11-15

    Side-lying hip abductor strength tests are commonly used to evaluate muscle strength. In a 'break' test the tester applies sufficient force to lower the limb to the table while the patient resists. The peak force is postulated to occur while the leg is lowering, thus representing the participant's eccentric muscle strength. However, it is unclear whether peak force occurs before or after the leg begins to lower. To determine intra-rater reliability and construct validity of a hip abductor eccentric strength test. Intra-rater reliability and construct validity study. Twenty healthy adults (26 ±6 years; 1.66 ±0.06 m; 62.2 ±8.0 kg) made two visits to the laboratory at least one week apart. During the hip abductor eccentric strength test, a hand-held dynamometer recorded peak force and time to peak force and limb position was recorded via a motion capture system. Intra-rater reliability was determined using intra-class correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable difference (MDD). Construct validity was assessed by determining if peak force occurred after the start of the lowering phase using a one-sample t-test. The hip abductor eccentric strength test had substantial intra-rater reliability (ICC( 3,3 ) = 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.95), SEM of 0.9%BWh, and a MDD of 2.5%BWh. Construct validity was established as peak force occurred 2.1s (±0.6s; range 0.7s to 3.7s) after the start of the lowering phase of the test (p ≤ 0.001). The hip abductor eccentric strength test is a valid and reliable measure of eccentric muscle strength. This test may be used clinically to assess changes in eccentric muscle strength over time.

  15. A circulating loop tester for liquid alloyed metal of lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Teruaki; Ono, Mikinori; Kamata, Kinya

    2002-01-01

    Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) had focused to merits of this lead-bismuth alloy, to actively carry out many works on this field such as an experience of development of heat exchanger at industrial level of intercourse with IPPE (Institute of Physics and Power Engineering) in Russia with an experience of using results for 80 years on coolant for nuclear reactor. Before about 20 years, MES developed a heat exchanger for installation at a lead-zinc separation process in a refinery in Japan under cooperation of the Mitsui Metal and Mine Co., Ltd., to deliver it for a power generation system at the Hachinohe refinery. As the heat exchanger aims at control of cooling in the separation process, it also contributes to power generation of about 4,300 kW, and now it continues to separate and contribute to self-power generation in the refinery. The heat exchanger is filled with the liquid alloyed metal of lead-bismuth for an intermediate thermal medium in its casing. The metal has some merits such as inactivity to air and water, high boiling point (1,700 centigrade), almost no volume change at its coagulation, and its minus reactivity coefficient. However, the metal has some problems to be solved, such as its steel corrosion, its purification, and control technology. To grow up lead-bismuth technology to a nuclear energy technology in Japan, the lead-bismuth circulating loop tester was produced on May, 2001, to establish application technology on this system to nuclear energy technology in Japan. (G.K.)

  16. Spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletions: mechanistic studies in Salmonella tester strain TA102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.E.; Marnett, L.J.; Ames, B.N.

    1984-01-01

    Salmonella tester strain TA102 carries the hisG428 ochre mutation on the multicopy plasmid pAQ1. DNA sequence analysis of 45 spontaneous revertants of hisG428 on the chromosome in the presence of pKM101 (strain TA103) indicates that hisG428 revertants fall into three major categories: (i) small, in-frame deletions (3 or 6 base pairs) that remove part or all of the ochre triplet; (ii) base substitution mutations at the ochre site; (iii) extragenic ochre suppressors. Deletion revertants are identified in a simple phenotypic screen by their resistance to the inhibitory histidine analog thiazolealanine, which feedback inhibits the wild-type hisG enzyme but not the enzyme resulting from the deletions. The effect of various genetic backgrounds on the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants was examined. The presence of a uvrB mutation or a recA mutation suppressed the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants to approximately 1/2.5. When hisG428 was in multiple copies on pAQ1, the frequency of spontaneous deletion revertants increased by 40-fold, which is the approximate copy number of pAQ1. Mutagenic agents that induce single-strand breaks in DNA (e.g., x-rays, bleomycin, and nalidixic acid) induced deletion revertants in TA102. These agents induced deletion revertants only in hisG428 on pAQ1 and only in the presence of pKM101. Deletion revertants were not induced by frameshift mutagens (i.e., ICR-191 and 9aminoacridine). These results indicate that different pathways exist for the generation of spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletion revertants of hisG428. 41 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  17. Panel and planar experimental shear behavior of wood panels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panel shear strength along the thickness and planar shear along the length of wood panels laminated softwood oriented OSB 10 mm thick, conditioned at different moisture contents (anhydrous medium, ambient temperature and humid medium) was measured on standardized test specimens, cut in half lengthwise panel ...

  18. FEMA DFIRM Panel Scheme Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer contains information about the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) panel areas. The spatial entities representing FIRM panels are polygons. The polygon for...

  19. Report of Industry Panel Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Simon; Gier, Jochen; Heitland, Greg; Povinelli, Louis; Sharma, Om; VandeWall, Allen

    2006-01-01

    A final report is presented from the industry panel group. The contents include: 1) General comments; 2) Positive progress since Minnowbrook IV; 3) Industry panel outcome; 4) Prioritized turbine projects; 5) Prioritized compressor projects; and 6) Miscellaneous.

  20. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph

    2017-07-11

    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  1. Experience with citizens panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwyn, J.

    2002-01-01

    In May 1999, 200 delegates attended a four-day UK Consensus Conference on radioactive waste management, which was organised by the UK Centre for Economic and Environmental Development (UK CEED) and supported by the government, industry and environmental groups. The event brought together a Citizens' Panel of fifteen people, randomly selected to represent a cross section of the British public, together with the major players in the debate. The four-day conference saw the panel cross-examine expert witnesses from organisations such as NIREX, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, the Ministry of Defence, Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth. The findings of their investigations were put together in a report containing detailed recommendations for government and industry and presented to the Minister on the final day. (author)

  2. Highly Controlled Synthesis and Super-Radiant Photoluminescence of Plasmonic Cube-in-Cube Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Sungi; Son, Jiwoong; Lee, Yeonhee; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-12-14

    The plasmonic properties of metal nanostructures have been heavily utilized for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), but the direct photoluminescence (PL) from plasmonic metal nanostructures, especially with plasmonic coupling, has not been widely used as much as SERS and MEF due to the lack of understanding of the PL mechanism, relatively weak signals, and the poor availability of the synthetic methods for the nanostructures with strong PL signals. The direct PL from metal nanostructures is beneficial if these issues can be addressed because it does not exhibit photoblinking or photobleaching, does not require dye-labeling, and can be employed as a highly reliable optical signal that directly depends on nanostructure morphology. Herein, we designed and synthesized plasmonic cube-in-cube (CiC) nanoparticles (NPs) with a controllable interior nanogap in a high yield from Au nanocubes (AuNCs). In synthesizing the CiC NPs, we developed a galvanic void formation (GVF) process, composed of replacement/reduction and void formation steps. We unraveled the super-radiant character of the plasmonic coupling-induced plasmon mode which can result in highly enhanced PL intensity and long-lasting PL, and the PL mechanisms of these structures were analyzed and matched with the plasmon hybridization model. Importantly, the PL intensity and quantum yield (QY) of CiC NPs are 31 times and 16 times higher than those of AuNCs, respectively, which have shown the highest PL intensity and QY reported for metallic nanostructures. Finally, we confirmed the long-term photostability of the PL signal, and the signal remained stable for at least 1 h under continuous illumination.

  3. Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant emissions. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant emissions at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant emissions ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} emissions at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)

  4. Modeling of hydronic radiant cooling of a thermally homeostatic building using a parametric cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Peizheng; Wang, Lin-Shu; Guo, Nianhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigated cooling of thermally homeostatic buildings in 7 U.S. cities by modeling. • Natural energy is harnessed by cooling tower to extract heat for building cooling. • Systematically studied possibility and conditions of using cooling tower in buildings. • Diurnal ambient temperature amplitude is taken into account in cooling tower cooling. • Homeostatic building cooling is possible in locations with large ambient T amplitude. - Abstract: A case is made that while it is important to mitigate dissipative losses associated with heat dissipation and mechanical/electrical resistance for engineering efficiency gain, the “architect” of energy efficiency is the conception of best heat extraction frameworks—which determine the realm of possible efficiency. This precept is applied to building energy efficiency here. Following a proposed process assumption-based design method, which was used for determining the required thermal qualities of building thermal autonomy, this paper continues this line of investigation and applies heat extraction approach investigating the extent of building partial homeostasis and the possibility of full homeostasis by using cooling tower in one summer in seven selected U.S. cities. Cooling tower heat extraction is applied parametrically to hydronically activated radiant-surfaces model-buildings. Instead of sizing equipment as a function of design peak hourly temperature as it is done in heat balance design-approach of selecting HVAC equipment, it is shown that the conditions of using cooling tower depend on both “design-peak” daily-mean temperature and the distribution of diurnal range in hourly temperature (i.e., diurnal temperature amplitude). Our study indicates that homeostatic building with natural cooling (by cooling tower alone) is possible only in locations of special meso-scale climatic condition such as Sacramento, CA. In other locations the use of cooling tower alone can only achieve homeostasis

  5. Panel data analysis using EViews

    CERN Document Server

    Agung, I Gusti Ngurah

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive and accessible guide to panel data analysis using EViews software This book explores the use of EViews software in creating panel data analysis using appropriate empirical models and real datasets. Guidance is given on developing alternative descriptive statistical summaries for evaluation and providing policy analysis based on pool panel data. Various alternative models based on panel data are explored, including univariate general linear models, fixed effect models and causal models, and guidance on the advantages and disadvantages of each one is given. Panel Data Analysis

  6. Lightweight, Thermally Insulating Structural Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Howard J.; Hickey, Gregory; Wen, Liang-Chi; Layman, William E.; Rainen, Richard A.; Birur, Gajanana C.

    1996-01-01

    Lightweight, thermally insulating panels that also serve as structural members developed. Honeycomb-core panel filled with low-thermal-conductivity, opacified silica aerogel preventing convection and minimizes internal radiation. Copper coating on face sheets reduces radiation. Overall thermal conductivities of panels smaller than state-of-art commercial non-structurally-supporting foam and fibrous insulations. On Earth, panels suitable for use in low-air-pressure environments in which lightweight, compact, structurally supporting insulation needed; for example, aboard high-altitude aircraft or in partially evacuated panels in refrigerators.

  7. Modeling the rate of HIV testing from repeated binary data amidst potential never-testers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John D; Johnson, Brent A; Strawderman, Robert L

    2018-01-04

    competitors. Applying the PVF as well as a Gaussian random intercept model and a corresponding discrete mixture model to our motivating data set, we conclude that the group assigned to receive follow-up messages via SMS was self-testing at a significantly lower rate than the control group, but that there is no evidence to support the existence of a group of never-testers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Best estimate probabilistic safety assessment results for the Westinghouse Advanced Loop Tester (WALT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Xu, Yiban; Oelrich, Robert L. Jr.; Byers, William A.; Young, Michael Y.; Karoutas, Zeses E.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear industry uses the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technique to improve safety decision making and operation. The methodology evaluates the system reliability, which is defined as the probability of system success, and the postulated accident/problematic scenarios of systems for the nuclear power plants or other facilities. The best estimate probabilistic safety assessment (BE-PSA) method of evaluating system reliability and postulated problematic scenarios will produce more detailed results of interest, such as best estimated reliability analysis and detailed thermal hydraulic calculations using a sub-channel or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code. The methodology is typically applied to reactors, but can also be applied to any system such as a test facility. In this paper, a BE-PSA method is introduced and used for evaluating the Westinghouse Advanced Loop Tester (WALT). The WALT test loop at the George Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (STC), which was completed in October 2005, is designed to be utilized to model the top grid span of a hot rod in a fuel assembly under the Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) normal operating conditions. In order to safely and successfully operate the WALT test loop and correctly use the WALT experimental data, it is beneficial to perform a probabilistic safety assessment and analyze the thermal hydraulic results for the WALT loop in detail. Since October 2005, a number of test runs have been performed on the WALT test facility designed and fabricated by Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. This paper briefly describes the BE-PSA method and performs BE-PSA for the WALT loop. Event trees linked with fault trees embedding thermal hydraulic analysis models, such as sub-channel and/or CFD models, were utilized in the analyses. Consequently, some selected useful experimental data and analysis results are presented for future guidance on WALT and/or other similar test facilities. For example, finding and

  9. Toots, tastes and tester shots: user accounts of drug sampling methods for gauging heroin potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ondocsin, Jeff; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2018-05-16

    Internationally, overdose is the primary cause of death among people injecting drugs. However, since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States (US) have risen sixfold, paralleled by a rise in the death rate attributed to synthetic opioids, particularly the fentanyls. This paper considers the adaptations some US heroin injectors are making to protect themselves from these risks. Between 2015 and 2016, a team of ethnographers collected data through semi-structured interviews and observation captured in field notes and video recording of heroin preparation/consumption. Ninety-one current heroin injectors were interviewed (Baltimore, n = 22; Chicago, n = 24; Massachusetts and New Hampshire, n = 36; San Francisco, n = 9). Experience injecting heroin ranged from methods of sampling "heroin" were identified, sometimes used in combination, ranging from non-injecting routes (snorting, smoking or tasting a small amount prior to injection) to injecting a partial dose and waiting. Partial injection took different forms: a "slow shot" where the user injected a portion of the solution in the syringe, keeping the needle in the injection site, and continuing or withdrawing the syringe or a "tester shot" where the solution was divided into separate injections. Other techniques included getting feedback from others using heroin of the same batch or observing those with higher tolerance injecting heroin from the same batch before judging how much to inject themselves. Although a minority of those interviewed described using these drug sampling techniques, there is clearly receptivity among some users to protecting themselves by using a variety of methods. The use of drug sampling as a means of preventing an overdose from injection drug use reduces the quantity absorbed at any one time allowing users to monitor drug strength and titrate their dose accordingly. Given the highly unpredictable potency of the drugs currently being sold as heroin in the US

  10. Large thermal protection system panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  11. Perancangan Dan Pengujian Radiator Tester Skala Laboratorium Yang Terintegrasi Pengatur Putaran Mesin Dan Hembusan Angin (Regulator Wind Blower )

    OpenAIRE

    Suudi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Cooling system in the engine functions as the protector of the machine by absorbing the heat. Heat engine is produced by fuel in the cylinder. The heat is deliberately created to generate energy, but it will cause excessive heat if it is left unchecked (over heating effect). In order to prevent overheating and keep the machine temperature, then it uses radiator. How effective radiator is used can be seen by using a tool called a radiator tester. Therefore, this research was Designed a Trial R...

  12. Radiant heat transfer during the natural evaporation from free surfaces exposed to solar radiation; Transferencia de calor radiante durante a evaporacao natural em superficies livres expostas a radiacao solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, C O.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Hackenberg, C M [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    1985-12-31

    In this work a conductive-convective-radiant model which includes phase change behavior, is developed in order to determine the rate of evaporation from free surface exposed to solar radiation and consequently the most important parameters, and their effects, on the design of salt solutions concentrating natural evaporation reservoirs may be analysed. The numerical solutions of the resulting of system of equations are shown to represent very well the experimental results measured on evaporation chambers specially built for daily operations. The thermal effect of spectrally selective surfaces as coating agents for the reservoir is also analysed. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs

  13. Thermal insulating panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.T.

    1985-09-11

    A panel of thermal insulation material has at least one main portion which comprises a dry particulate insulation material compressed within a porous envelope so that it is rigid or substantially rigid and at least one auxiliary portion which is secured to and extends along at least one of the edges of the main portions. The auxiliary portions comprise a substantially uncompressed dry particulate insulation material contained within an envelope. The insulation material of the auxiliary portion may be the same as or may be different from the insulation material of the main portion. The envelope of the auxiliary portion may be made of a porous or a non-porous material. (author).

  14. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  15. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Brown, Malcolm P [San Francisco, CA; Stancel, Robert [Loss Altos Hills, CA

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  16. Everolimus in advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, non-functional neuroendocrine tumors: RADIANT-4 lung subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Nicola; Buzzoni, Roberto; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Tesselaar, Margot E; Wolin, Edward; Van Cutsem, Eric; Tomassetti, Paola; Strosberg, Jonathan; Voi, Maurizio; Bubuteishvili-Pacaud, Lida; Ridolfi, Antonia; Herbst, Fabian; Tomasek, Jiri; Singh, Simron; Pavel, Marianne; Kulke, Matthew H; Valle, Juan W; Yao, James C

    2018-01-01

    In the phase III RADIANT-4 study, everolimus improved median progression-free survival (PFS) by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated (grade 1 or grade 2), non-functional lung or gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) vs placebo (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.67; P < .00001). This exploratory analysis reports the outcomes of the subgroup of patients with lung NETs. In RADIANT-4, patients were randomized (2:1) to everolimus 10 mg/d or placebo, both with best supportive care. This is a post hoc analysis of the lung subgroup with PFS, by central radiology review, as the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints included objective response rate and safety measures. Ninety of the 302 patients enrolled in the study had primary lung NET (everolimus, n = 63; placebo, n = 27). Median PFS (95% CI) by central review was 9.2 (6.8-10.9) months in the everolimus arm vs 3.6 (1.9-5.1) months in the placebo arm (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.88). More patients who received everolimus (58%) experienced tumor shrinkage compared with placebo (13%). Most frequently reported (≥5% incidence) grade 3-4 drug-related adverse events (everolimus vs. placebo) included stomatitis (11% vs. 0%), hyperglycemia (10% vs. 0%), and any infections (8% vs. 0%). In patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, non-functional lung NET, treatment with everolimus was associated with a median PFS improvement of 5.6 months, with a safety profile similar to that of the overall RADIANT-4 cohort. These results support the use of everolimus in patients with advanced, non-functional lung NET. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT01524783). © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Direct evaluation of reflector effects on radiant flux from InGaN-based light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Hisashi; Fellows, Natalie N.; Sato, Hitoshi; Asamizu, Hirokuni; Nakamura, Shuji; Denbaars, Steven P.

    2007-08-01

    A metal layer formed on the backside of InGaN/sapphire-based light-emitting diodes deteriorates the inherent optical power output. An experimental approach of a suspended die is employed to study the effects of such metal layers via a direct comparison in radiant flux from a discrete die with and without a reflector. A sphere package that employs no reflector is proposed and fabricated. Light extraction of the sphere design is discussed; a light source in the sphere package would not have to be either an ideal point or placed at the center of the sphere, due to a finite critical angle at the sphere/air interface.

  18. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and Structure-from-Motion photogrametry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron; George Hilley,; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 oC and 450 W m-2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  19. Impact of prior therapies on everolimus activity: an exploratory analysis of RADIANT-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Roberto; Carnaghi, Carlo; Strosberg, Jonathan; Fazio, Nicola; Singh, Simron; Herbst, Fabian; Ridolfi, Antonia; Pavel, Marianne E; Wolin, Edward M; Valle, Juan W; Oh, Do-Youn; Yao, James C; Pommier, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Recently, everolimus was shown to improve median progression-free survival (PFS) by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of lung or gastrointestinal (GI) tract compared with placebo (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35-0.67; P <0.00001) in the Phase III, RADIANT-4 study. This post hoc analysis evaluates the impact of prior therapies (somatostatin analogs [SSA], chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) on everolimus activity. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01524783. Patients were randomized (2:1) to everolimus 10 mg/day or placebo, both with best supportive care. Subgroups of patients who received prior SSA, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy (including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) were analyzed and reported. A total of 302 patients were enrolled, of whom, 163 (54%) had any prior SSA use (mostly for tumor control), 77 (25%) received chemotherapy, and 63 (21%) were previously exposed to radiotherapy. Patients who received everolimus had longer median PFS compared with placebo, regardless of previous SSA (with SSA: 11.1 vs 4.5 months [HR, 0.56 {95% CI, 0.37-0.85}]; without SSA: 9.5 vs 3.7 months [0.57 {0.36-0.89}]), chemotherapy (with chemotherapy: 9.2 vs 2.1 months [0.35 {0.19-0.64}]; without chemotherapy: 11.2 vs 5.4 months [0.60 {0.42-0.86}]), or radiotherapy (with radiotherapy: 9.2 vs 3.0 months [0.47 {0.24-0.94}]; without radiotherapy: 11 vs 5.1 months [0.59 {0.42-0.83}]) exposure. The most frequent drug-related adverse events included stomatitis (59%-65%), fatigue (27%-35%), and diarrhea (24%-34%) among the subgroups. These results suggest that everolimus improves PFS in patients with advanced, progressive lung or GI NET, regardless of prior therapies. Safety findings were consistent with the known safety profile of everolimus in NET.

  20. Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation

  1. Relating the octane numbers of fuels to ignition delay times measured in an ignition quality tester (IQT)

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2016-09-21

    A methodology for estimating the octane index (OI), the research octane number (RON) and the motor octane number (MON) using ignition delay times from a constant volume combustion chamber with liquid fuel injection is proposed by adopting an ignition quality tester. A baseline data of ignition delay times were determined using an ignition quality tester at a charge pressure of 21.3 bar between 770 and 850 K and an equivalence ratio of 0.7 for various primary reference fuels (PRFs, mixtures of isooctane and n-heptane). Our methodology was developed using ignition delay times for toluene reference fuels (mixtures of toluene and n-heptane). A correlation between the OI and the ignition delay time at the initial charge temperature enabled the OI of non-PRFs to be predicted at specified temperatures. The methodology was validated using ignition delay times for toluene primary reference fuels (ternary mixtures of toluene, iso-octane, and n-heptane), fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) gasolines, and certification gasolines. Using this methodology, the RON, the MON, and the octane sensitivity were estimated in agreement with values obtained from standard test methods. A correlation between derived cetane number and RON is also provided. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  3. Reliability Study in Solar Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Español Lifante, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Crystalline silicon Modules are formed by single silicon photovoltaic cells. Since each one of these cells individually contributes to the overall electric power of the panel, the failure of one of them directly affects to its benefits and performance. To Minimize these negative effects, junction boxes with few bypass diodes are usually included in Photovoltaic Solar panels. A still experimental way to built solar panels is to integrate bypass diodes in every single cell, which would in...

  4. ALDS 1978 panel review. [PNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D.L. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is examining the analysis of large data sets (ALDS). After one year's work, a panel was convened to evaluate the project. This document is the permanent record of that panel review. It consists of edited transcripts of presentations made to the panel by the PNL staff, a summary of the responses of the panel to these presentations, and PNL's plans for the development of the ALDS project. The representations of the PNL staff described various aspects of the project and/or the philosophy surrounding the project. Supporting materials appear in appendixes. 20 figures, 4 tables. (RWR)

  5. Optimal design approach for heating irregular-shaped objects in three-dimensional radiant furnaces using a hybrid genetic algorithm-artificial neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishvand, Leila; Kamkari, Babak; Kowsary, Farshad

    2018-03-01

    In this article, a new hybrid method based on the combination of the genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) is developed to optimize the design of three-dimensional (3-D) radiant furnaces. A 3-D irregular shape design body (DB) heated inside a 3-D radiant furnace is considered as a case study. The uniform thermal conditions on the DB surfaces are obtained by minimizing an objective function. An ANN is developed to predict the objective function value which is trained through the data produced by applying the Monte Carlo method. The trained ANN is used in conjunction with the GA to find the optimal design variables. The results show that the computational time using the GA-ANN approach is significantly less than that of the conventional method. It is concluded that the integration of the ANN with GA is an efficient technique for optimization of the radiant furnaces.

  6. The effects of radiant cooling versus convective cooling on human eye tear film stability and blinking rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2014-01-01

    The effect of indoor temperature, radiant and convective cooling on tear film stability and eye blink frequency was examined. 24 human subjects were exposed to the non-uniform environment generated by localised chilled beam and a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation. The subj......The effect of indoor temperature, radiant and convective cooling on tear film stability and eye blink frequency was examined. 24 human subjects were exposed to the non-uniform environment generated by localised chilled beam and a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation....... The subjects participated in four two-hour experiments. The room air temperature was kept at 26 °C or 28 °C. Tear film samples were collected after 30 min of acclimatisation and at the end of the exposures. Eye blinking frequency was analysed for the first and last 15 min of each exposure. The tear film...... stability decreased as the temperature increased. The highest number of subjects with unchanged or improved tear film quality was observed with the localised chilled beam at 26 °C. A trend was found between subjects who reported eye irritation and had a bad tear film quality....

  7. Comparison of indoor air distribution and thermal environment for different combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2018-01-01

    A hybrid system with a radiant heating system and a mechanical ventilation system, which is regarded as an advanced heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, has been applied in many modern buildings worldwide. To date, almost no studies focused on comparative analysis of the indoor...... air distribution and the thermal environment for all combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems. Therefore, in this article, the indoor air distribution and the thermal environment were comparatively analyzed in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH......) and mixing ventilation (MV) or displacement ventilation (DV) when the supply air temperature ranged from 15.0°C to 19.0°C. The results showed that the temperature effectiveness values were 1.05–1.16 and 0.95–1.02 for MV+ FH and MV+ CH, respectively, and they were 0.78–0.91 and 0.51–0.67 for DV + FH and DV...

  8. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  9. Panel summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Previous Advisory Group Meetings have led to IAEA Technical Reports No.15=5 (1974) on thermal discharge, 118 (1970) and 169 (1975) on sampling, storage and analysis methods for marine radioactivity studies, 167 (1975) on design of marine biological studies permitting comparative evaluation, and 172 (1976) on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquative organisms and eco-systems. The aim of the present report was a bringing into perspective not only problems designing radioecological experiments but to describe reliable experimental methodology suitable for a successful evaluation of radioactivity cycling, and of the effects of such radioactive additions to aquatic environments, as a result of nuclear activities. Specific examples are described. Individual studies presented to the Panel have been treated in detail, and constitute 19 separate INIS entries

  10. Impact of prior therapies on everolimus activity: an exploratory analysis of RADIANT-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzzoni R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Buzzoni,1 Carlo Carnaghi,2 Jonathan Strosberg,3 Nicola Fazio,4 Simron Singh,5 Fabian Herbst,6 Antonia Ridolfi,7 Marianne E Pavel,8 Edward M Wolin,9 Juan W Valle,10 Do-Youn Oh,11 James C Yao,12 Rodney Pommier13 1IRCCS Foundation, National Institute of Tumors, Milan, Italy; 2Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy; 3Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; 4European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; 5Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; 6Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland; 7Novartis Pharma S.A.S., Rueil-Malmaison, France; 8Medizinische Klinik 1, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 9Montefiore Einstein Center for Cancer Care, Bronx, NY, USA; 10Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, The Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK; 11Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 12University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 13Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA Background: Recently, everolimus was shown to improve median progression-free survival (PFS by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors (NET of lung or gastrointestinal (GI tract compared with placebo (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35–0.67; P<0.00001 in the Phase III, RADIANT-4 study. This post hoc analysis evaluates the impact of prior therapies (somatostatin analogs [SSA], chemotherapy, and radiotherapy on everolimus activity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01524783. Patients and methods: Patients were randomized (2:1 to everolimus 10 mg/day or placebo, both with best supportive care. Subgroups of patients who received prior SSA, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy (including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy were analyzed and reported. Results: A total of 302 patients were enrolled, of whom, 163 (54% had any prior SSA use (mostly for tumor control, 77 (25% received

  11. Climate Model Evaluation using New Datasets from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.

    2008-01-01

    There are some in the science community who believe that the response of the climate system to anthropogenic radiative forcing is unpredictable and we should therefore call off the quest . The key limitation in climate predictability is associated with cloud feedback. Narrowing the uncertainty in cloud feedback (and therefore climate sensitivity) requires optimal use of the best available observations to evaluate and improve climate model processes and constrain climate model simulations over longer time scales. The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a satellite-based program that provides global cloud, aerosol and radiative flux observations for improving our understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation feedbacks in the Earth s climate system. CERES is the successor to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which has widely been used to evaluate climate models both at short time scales (e.g., process studies) and at decadal time scales. A CERES instrument flew on the TRMM satellite and captured the dramatic 1998 El Nino, and four other CERES instruments are currently flying aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms. Plans are underway to fly the remaining copy of CERES on the upcoming NPP spacecraft (mid-2010 launch date). Every aspect of CERES represents a significant improvement over ERBE. While both CERES and ERBE measure broadband radiation, CERES calibration is a factor of 2 better than ERBE. In order to improve the characterization of clouds and aerosols within a CERES footprint, we use coincident higher-resolution imager observations (VIRS, MODIS or VIIRS) to provide a consistent cloud-aerosol-radiation dataset at climate accuracy. Improved radiative fluxes are obtained by using new CERES-derived Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) for converting measured radiances to fluxes. CERES radiative fluxes are a factor of 2 more accurate than ERBE overall, but the improvement by cloud type and at high latitudes can be as high as a factor of 5

  12. NPS-SCAT (Solar Cell Array Tester), The Construction of NPS’ First Prototype CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    71 Figure 26. Pumpkin Solar Panel Clip Set on the Left and Clips Holding Solar...Panels on the Right......................................................................................................71 Figure 27. Pumpkin ...1998. The satellite provided a global, digital messaging system using spread spectrum techniques in the amateur radio 70 cm band. Most importantly

  13. Strong increase of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.; Janssen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of installed solar panels in 2011 has increased again. 40 megawatt of new panels have been installed. This increase is twice as high as the year before. The production of solar power increased to 90 million kWh in 2011 as a result of this expansion. However, the share of solar power in total energy use is still very limited. [nl

  14. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  15. Matlab Software for Spatial Panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J.Paul

    2014-01-01

    Elhorst provides Matlab routines to estimate spatial panel data models at his website. This article extends these routines to include the bias correction procedure proposed by Lee and Yu if the spatial panel data model contains spatial and/or time-period fixed effects, the direct and indirect

  16. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  17. Radioprotective action of glycerol and cysteamine on inactivation and mutagenesis in Salmonella tester strains after γ- and heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.

    1992-01-01

    Inactivation and mutagenesis were studied in Salmonella tester strains after γ-irradiation and after heavy ion irradiation in the presence of glycerol and cysteamine. Ions from deuteron to carbon with residual energies of 2-9 MeV/n were used. Cell sensitivity slightly increased with LET before decreasing. In the presence of glycerol the maximum was shifted to higher values of LET. The radioprotective effect of glycerol for cell killing diminished gradually with increasing LET from 2.0 for γ-radiation to 1.1 for carbon ions. Mutagenic effectiveness increased slightly for deuterium and helium ions. The radioprotective effect of cysteamine on mutagenesis was found to be very small in the case of γ-radiation for the three strains examined. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  18. Comparative mutability of the Ames tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium by ultraviolet radiation and by 4-nitroquinoline I-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, E.; Ichikawa-Ryo, H.; Kondo, S.

    1982-01-01

    A standard method for determining mutant frequencies per survivor was used to study the detailed kinetics of reverse mutations of Ames tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium induced by UV and by 4NQO. After UV irradiation, strain TA1538 was non-mutable, but its plasmid-containing derivative TA98 was mutable, whereas TA1535 was mutable and its plasmid-bearing derivative TA100 was about 10-fold more mutable. After treatment with 4NQO, TA98 was less mutable than TA1538, whereas TA100 was more mutable than TA1535 by a factor of 10-50. TA1537 was slightly less mutable than TA1535 by either UV or 4NQO. The differential mutabilities of these strains are briefly discussed in relation to the 'hot spot' base sequences for reversion and the nature of DNA damage caused by UV and 4NQO. (orig.)

  19. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatawneh, Natheer, E-mail: natheer80@yahoo.com [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0E9 (Canada); Chromik, Richard [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Develop a toroidal tester for magnetic measurements under compressive axial stress. • The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. • The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out. • Physical explanations for the core loss trend due to stress are provided. - Abstract: Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  20. Solar hybrid cooling system for high-tech offices in subtropical climate - Radiant cooling by absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A solar hybrid cooling system is proposed for high-tech offices in subtropical climate. → An integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification. → Year-round cooling and energy performances were evaluated through dynamic simulation. → Its annual primary energy consumption was lower than conventional system up to 36.5%. → The passive chilled beams were more energy-efficient than the active chilled beams. - Abstract: A solar hybrid cooling design is proposed for high cooling load demand in hot and humid climate. For the typical building cooling load, the system can handle the zone cooling load (mainly sensible) by radiant cooling with the chilled water from absorption refrigeration, while the ventilation load (largely latent) by desiccant dehumidification. This hybrid system utilizes solar energy for driving the absorption chiller and regenerating the desiccant wheel. Since a high chilled water temperature generated from the absorption chiller is not effective to handle the required latent load, desiccant dehumidification is therefore involved. It is an integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification, which are powered up by solar energy. In this study, the application potential of the solar hybrid cooling system was evaluated for the high-tech offices in the subtropical climate through dynamic simulation. The high-tech offices are featured with relatively high internal sensible heat gains due to the intensive office electric equipment. The key performance indicators included the solar fraction and the primary energy consumption. Comparative study was also carried out for the solar hybrid cooling system using two common types of chilled ceilings, the passive chilled beams and active chilled beams. It was found that the solar hybrid cooling system was technically feasible for the applications of relatively higher cooling load demand. The annual primary energy

  1. Field tests on human tolerance to (LNG) fire radiant heat exposure, and attenuation effects of clothing and other objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Phani K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of field tests exposing mannequins clothed with civilian clothing to a 3 m x 3 m square liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire was conducted. Both single layer clothing and double layer clothing were used. The radiant heat flux incident outside the clothing and incident on the skin covered by clothing were measured using wide-angle radiometers, for durations of 100-200 s (per test). The levels of heat flux incident on the clothing were close to 5 kW/m 2 . The magnitude of the radiant heat attenuation factor (AF) across the thickness was determined. AF varies between 2 and higher for cotton and polyester clothing (thickness 0.286-1.347 mm); AF value of 6 was measured for 1.347 mm thickness. Single sheet newspaper held about 5 cm in front of mannequins and exposed to incident flux of 5 kW/m 2 resulted in AF of 5, and AF of 8 with double sheets. AF decreases linearly with increasing heat flux values and linearly increases with thickness. The author exposed himself, in normal civilian clothing (of full sleeve cotton/polyester shirt and jean pants), to radiant heat from a LNG fire. The exposure was for several tens of seconds to heat flux levels ranging from 3.5 kW/m 2 to 5 + kW/m 2 (exposure times from 25 s to 97 s at average heat flux values in the 4 kW/m 2 and 5 kW/m 2 range). Occasionally, he was exposed to (as high as) 7 kW/m 2 for durations of several seconds. He did not suffer any unbearable or even severe pain nor did he experience blisters or burns or any other injury on the unprotected skin of his body. The incident heat fluxes on the author were measured by a hand-held radiometer (with digital display) as well as by strapped on wide-angle radiometers connected to a computer. He could withstand the US regulatory criterion of 5 kW/m 2 (for 30 s) without suffering any damage or burns. Temperature measured on author's skin covered by clothing did not rise above the normal body temperature even after 200 s of exposure to 4 kW/m 2 average heat flux

  2. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  3. Hip- and knee-strength assessments using a hand-held dynamometer with external belt-fixation are inter-tester reliable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: In football, ice-hockey, and track and field, injuries have been predicted, and hip- and knee-strength deficits quantified using hand-held dynamometry (HHD). However, systematic bias exists when testers of different sex and strength perform the measurements. Belt-fixation of the dynamome...

  4. Determining the fertility status of Setaria infecting Magnaporthe grisea isolates with standard testers and identification of tolerant cultivar of Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Veluswamy; Gnanamanickam, S S

    2008-10-01

    A total of 128 isolates of Setaria-infecting Magnaporthe grisea strains were obtained from different states of South India which includes sampling sites from Tamil Nadu, two from Karnataka, one from Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. Out of the selected 128 isolates 30 strains were tested with MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 fertile standard testers to determine their mating type. None of the 30 Setaria isolates produced perithecia with fertile testers. However, when monoconidial isolates were mated among themselves, isolates from the same field produced only barren perithecia and the tester isolates were able to mate readily with finger millet isolates. This is the first report of the mating-type studies on Setaria infecting Magnaporthe grisea with standard testers. This result indicates that the Setaria infecting population is infertile. In pathogenicity assay, it was found that 9 out of the 22 Setaria accessions were highly susceptible to Setaria strains of the blast fungus and seven cultivars/accessions were resistant to blast pathogen. Various virulence reactions were scored according to Standard Evaluation System.

  5. A measuring system for mechanical characterization of thin films based on a compact in situ micro-tensile tester and SEM moiré method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjie; Tang, Minjin; Xie, Huimin; Zhu, Ronghua; Luo, Qiang; Gu, Changzhi

    2013-01-01

    A measuring system for mechanical characterization of thin films based on a compact in situ micro-tensile tester and scanning electron microscope (SEM) moiré method is proposed. The load is exerted by the tensile tester and the full field strain is measured by SEM moiré method. The configuration of the tensile tester and the principle of SEM moiré method are introduced. In the tensile tester, a lever structure is designed to amplify the displacement imposed by lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) actuator. The SEM moiré method is applied to measure the strain of the thin film, including both the average strain in the gage section and the local strain distribution at a specific region. As an application, the measuring system is applied to characterize the mechanical property of the free-standing aluminum thin film. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the system and its good application potential for mechanical behavior analysis of film-like materials. (paper)

  6. 1994 Panel 1 Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is intended to receive, handle, and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this mission, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed a full-scale facility to demonstrate both technical and operational principles of the permanent isolation of TRU waste. The WIPP consists of surface and underground facilities. Panel 1 is situated in the underground facility horizon which is located approximately 2,150 feet below the surface in the predominantly halite Salado Formation. The Panel 1 Utilization Plan provides a strategy for the optimum use of Panel 1 which is consistent with the priorities established by the DOE to accomplish the WIPP mission. These priorities, which include maintaining personnel safety, conducting performance assessment, and continued operational enhancements, are the guiding premise for the decisions on the planned usage of the WIPP underground facility. The continuation of ongoing investigations along with the planned testing and training to be carried out in Panel 1 will enhance the current knowledge and understanding of the operational and geotechnical aspects of the panel configuration. This enhancement will ultimately lead to safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective methods of operation. Excavation of the waste storage area began in May 1986 with the mining of entries to Panel 1. The original design for the waste storage rooms at the WIPP provided a limited period of time during which to mine the openings and to emplace waste. Each panel, consisting of seven storage rooms, was scheduled to be mined and filled in less than 5 years. Panel 1 was developed to receive waste for a demonstration phase that was scheduled to start in October 1988. The demonstration phase was deferred, and the experimental test program was modified to use contact-handled (CH) transuranic waste in bin-scale tests, planned for Room 1, Panel 1

  7. Disseny de calefacció amb terra radiant d'una casa a l'horta de Lleida mitjançant energia geotèrmica

    OpenAIRE

    Fillat Sobrino, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    S'ha realitzat el disseny de calefacció d'una vivenda mitjançant energia geotèrmica de baixa temperatura, amb un bescanviador vertical de 80 m de profunditat. El sistema de calefacció és de terra radiant en forma d'espiral.

  8. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Investigations of a Wall Radiant Cooling System Based on Plastic Capillary Tubes in Thin Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Densely occupied spaces such as classrooms can very often have problems with overheating. It can be difficult to cool such spaces by means of a ventilation system without creating draughts and causing discomfort for occupants. The use of a wall radiant cooling system is a suitable option for spaces...

  9. Thermal Analysis of Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Nicolas; de Correia, João Pedro Magalhães; Ahzi, Saïd; Khaleel, Mohammad Ahmed

    In this work, we propose to analyze the thermal behavior of PV panels using finite element simulations (FEM). We applied this analysis to compute the temperature distribution in a PV panel BP 350 subjected to different atmospheric conditions. This analysis takes into account existing formulations in the literature and, based on NOCT conditions, meteorological data was used to validate our approach for different wind speed and solar irradiance. The electrical performance of the PV panel was also studied. The proposed 2D FEM analysis is applied to different region's climates and was also used to consider the role of thermal inertia on the optimization of the PV device efficiency.

  10. Radiant Energy Measurements from a Scaled Jet Engine Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle for a Baseline Code Validation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    A non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was developed to verify computer codes that calculate radiant energy propagation from nozzle geometries that represent aircraft propulsion nozzle systems. Since there are a variety of analysis tools used to evaluate thermal radiation propagation from partially enclosed nozzle surfaces, an experimental benchmark test case was developed for code comparison. This paper briefly describes the nozzle test rig and the developed analytical nozzle geometry used to compare the experimental and predicted thermal radiation results. A major objective of this effort was to make available the experimental results and the analytical model in a format to facilitate conversion to existing computer code formats. For code validation purposes this nozzle geometry represents one validation case for one set of analysis conditions. Since each computer code has advantages and disadvantages based on scope, requirements, and desired accuracy, the usefulness of this single nozzle baseline validation case can be limited for some code comparisons.

  11. A Simulation Study on the Performance of Radiant Ceilings Combined with Free-Hanging Horizontal Sound Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Domínguez, L. Marcos; Rage, Niels

    2018-01-01

    using TABS, most building simulation models assume an uncovered ceiling; however, this might not be the case in practice, due to the use of free-hanging horizontal (or vertical) sound absorbers for the control of room acoustic conditions. The use of sound absorbers will decrease the performance...... of radiant ceiling cooling systems. Therefore, the quantification of the effects during the design phase is important for predicting the resulting thermal indoor environment and for system dimensioning. In this study, a two-person office room equipped with TABS was simulated using a commercially available...... simulation software with a recently developed plug-in that allows simulating the effects of horizontal sound absorbers on the performance of TABS and on the thermal indoor environment. The change in thermal indoor environment and in performance of TABS were quantified, and the simulation results were...

  12. Process evaluation of the RaDIANT community study: a dialysis facility-level intervention to increase referral for kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoda, Reem E; Gander, Jennifer C; McPherson, Laura J; Arriola, Kimberly J; Cobb, Loren; Pastan, Stephen O; Plantinga, Laura; Browne, Teri; Hartmann, Erica; Mulloy, Laura; Zayas, Carlos; Krisher, Jenna; Patzer, Rachel E

    2018-01-15

    The Reducing Disparities in Access to kidNey Transplantation Community Study (RaDIANT) was an End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Network 6-developed, dialysis facility-level randomized trial testing the effectiveness of a 1-year multicomponent education and quality improvement intervention in increasing referral for kidney transplant evaluation among selected Georgia dialysis facilities. To assess implementation of the RaDIANT intervention, we conducted a process evaluation at the conclusion of the intervention period (January-December 2014). We administered a 20-item survey to the staff involved with transplant education in 67 dialysis facilities randomized to participate in intervention activities. Survey items assessed facility participation in the intervention (fidelity and reach), helpfulness and willingness to continue intervention activities (sustainability), suggestions for improving intervention components (sustainability), and factors that may have influenced participation and study outcomes (context). We defined high fidelity to the intervention as completing 11 or more activities, and high participation in an activity as having at least 75% participation across intervention facilities. Staff from 65 of the 67 dialysis facilities completed the questionnaire, and more than half (50.8%) reported high adherence (fidelity) to RaDIANT intervention requirements. Nearly two-thirds (63.1%) of facilities reported that RaDIANT intervention activities were helpful or very helpful, with 90.8% of facilities willing to continue at least one intervention component beyond the study period. Intervention components with high participation emphasized staff and patient-level education, including in-service staff orientations, patient and family education programs, and patient educational materials. Suggested improvements for intervention activities emphasized addressing financial barriers to transplantation, with financial education materials perceived as most helpful among RaDIANT

  13. Everolimus for Advanced Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours: A Subgroup Analysis Evaluating Japanese Patients in the RADIANT-3 Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Okusaka, Takuji; Ikeda, Masafumi; Igarashi, Hisato; Morizane, Chigusa; Nakachi, Kohei; Tajima, Takeshi; Kasuga, Akio; Fujita, Yoshie; Furuse, Junji

    2012-01-01

    Objective Everolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, has recently demonstrated efficacy and safety in a Phase III, double-blind, randomized trial (RADIANT-3) in 410 patients with low- or intermediate-grade advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Everolimus 10 mg/day provided a 2.4-fold improvement compared with placebo in progression-free survival, representing a 65% risk reduction for progression. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the efficacy and safety of everolimus in the Japanese subgroup enrolled in the RADIANT-3 study. Methods Subgroup analysis of the Japanese patients was performed comparing efficacy and safety between everolimus 10 mg/day orally (n = 23) and matching placebo (n = 17). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Safety was evaluated on the basis of the incidence of adverse drug reactions. Results Progression-free survival was significantly prolonged with everolimus compared with placebo. The median progression-free survival was 19.45 months (95% confidence interval, 8.31–not available) with everolimus vs 2.83 months (95% confidence interval, 2.46–8.34) with placebo, resulting in an 81% risk reduction in progression (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.08–0.48; P< 0.001). Adverse drug reactions occurred in all 23 (100%) Japanese patients receiving everolimus and in 13 (77%) patients receiving placebo; most were grade 1/2 in severity. The most common adverse drug reactions in the everolimus group were rash (n = 20; 87%), stomatitis (n = 17; 74%), infections (n = 15; 65%), nail disorders (n = 12; 52%), epistaxis (n = 10; 44%) and pneumonitis (n = 10; 44%). Conclusions These results support the use of everolimus as a valuable treatment option for Japanese patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. PMID:22859827

  14. Development and demonstration of a gas-fired recuperative confined radiant burner (deliverable 42/43). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate an innovative, efficient, low-pollutant, recuperative gas-fired IR-system (infrared radiation) for industrial processes (hereafter referred to as the CONRAD-system). The CONRAD-system is confined, so flue gases from the combustion can be kept separated from the product. The gas/air mixture to the burner is preheated by means of the flue gas, which increases the radiant efficiency of the CONRAD-system significantly over traditional gas-fired IR burners. During the first phase of the project, the CONRAD-system was designed and developed. The conducted work included a survey on suitable burner materials, modelling of the burner system, basic design of burner construction, control etc., experimental characterisation of several preprototypes and detailed design of the internal heat exchanger in the burner. The result is a cost effective burner system with a documented radiant efficiency up to 66% and low emissions (NO{sub x} and CO) all in accordance with the criteria of success set up at the start of the project. In the second phase of the project, the burner system was established and tested in laboratory and in four selected industrial applications: 1) Drying of coatings on sand cores in the automotive industry. 2) Baking of bread/cake. 3) General purpose painting/powder curing process 4. Curing of powder paint on wood components. The results from the preliminary tests Overe used to optimise the CONRAD-system, before it was applied in the industrial processes and demonstrated. However, the optimised burners manufactured for demonstration suffered from different 'infant failures', which made the installation in an industrial environment very cumbersome, and even impossible in the food industry and the automotive industry. In the latter cases realistic laboratory tests Overe carried out and the established know how reported for use when the burner problems are overcome.(au)

  15. Prediction of liquid metal alloy radiant properties from measurements of the Hall coefficient and the direct current resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havstad, M.A.; Qiu, T.

    1995-04-01

    The thermal radiative properties of high temperature solid and liquid metal alloys are particularly useful to research and development efforts in laser cladding and machining, electron beam welding and laser isotope separation. However the cost, complexity, and difficulty of measuring these properties have forced the use of crude estimates from the Hagen-Rubens relation, the Drude relations, or extrapolation from low temperature or otherwise flawed data (e.g., oxidized). The authors have found in this work that published values for the Hall coefficient and the electrical resistivity of liquid metal alloys can provide useful estimates of the reflectance and emittance of some groups of binary liquid metal and high temperature solid alloys. The estimation method computes the Drude free electron parameters, and thence the optical constants and the radiant properties from the dependence of the Hall coefficient and direct current resistivity on alloy composition (the Hall coefficient gives the free electron density and the resistivity gives the average time between collisions). They find that predictions of the radiant properties of molten cerium-copper alloy, which use the measured variations in the Hall coefficient and resistivity (both highly nonlinear) as a function of alloy fraction (rather than linear combinations of the values of the pure elements) yield a good comparison to published measurements of the variation of the normal spectral emittance (a different but also nonlinear function) of cerium-copper alloy at the single wavelength available for comparison, 0.645 μm. The success of the approach in the visible range is particularly notable because one expects a Drude based approach to improve with increasing wavelength from the visible into the infrared. Details of the estimation method, the comparison between the calculation and the measured emittance, and a discussion of what groups of elements may also provide agreement is given

  16. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J V; Cadene, V; Occelli, R [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  17. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J.V.; Cadene, V.; Occelli, R. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  18. Exascale Workshop Panel Report Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-07-01

    The Exascale Review Panel consists of 12 scientists and engineers with experience in various aspects of high-performance computing and its application, development, and management. The Panel hear presentations by several representatives of the workshops and town meetings convened over the past few years to examine the need for exascale computation capability and the justification for a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program to develop such capability. This report summarizes information provided by the presenters and substantial written reports to the Panel in advance of the meeting in Washington D.C. on January 19-20, 2010. The report also summarizes the Panel's conclusions with regard to the justification of a DOE-led exascale initiative.

  19. Analysis of 3-panel and 4-panel microscale ionization sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Srividya; Parker, Charles B.; Glass, Jeffrey T.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.; Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Stoner, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Two designs of a microscale electron ionization (EI) source are analyzed herein: a 3-panel design and a 4-panel design. Devices were fabricated using microelectromechanical systems technology. Field emission from carbon nanotube provided the electrons for the EI source. Ion currents were measured for helium, nitrogen, and xenon at pressures ranging from 10 -4 to 0.1 Torr. A comparison of the performance of both designs is presented. The 4-panel microion source showed a 10x improvement in performance compared to the 3-panel device. An analysis of the various factors affecting the performance of the microion sources is also presented. SIMION, an electron and ion optics software, was coupled with experimental measurements to analyze the ion current results. The electron current contributing to ionization and the ion collection efficiency are believed to be the primary factors responsible for the higher efficiency of the 4-panel microion source. Other improvements in device design that could lead to higher ion source efficiency in the future are also discussed. These microscale ion sources are expected to find application as stand alone ion sources as well as in miniature mass spectrometers.

  20. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  1. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawneh, Natheer; Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A.; Chromik, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  2. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  3. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  4. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  5. Applying Fibre-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing to Near-surface Temperature Dynamics of Broadacre Cereals During Radiant Frost Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutsel, B.; Callow, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Radiant frost events, particularly those during the reproductive stage of winter cereal growth, cost growers millions of dollars in lost yield. Whilst synoptic drivers of frost and factors influencing temperature variation at the landscape scale are relatively well understood, there is a lack of knowledge surrounding small-scale temperature dynamics within paddocks and plot trials. Other work has also suggested a potential significant temperature gradient (several degrees) vertically from ground to canopy, but this is poorly constrained experimentally. Subtle changes in temperature are important as frost damage generally occurs in a very narrow temperature range (-2 to -5°C). Once a variety's damage threshold is reached, a 1°C difference in minimum temperature can increase damage from 10 to 90%. This study applies Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) using fibre optics to understand how minimum temperature evolves during a radiant frost. DTS assesses the difference in attenuation of Raman scattering of a light pulse travelling along a fibre optic cable to measure temperature. A bend insensitive multimode fibre was deployed in a double ended duplex configuration as a "fence" run through four times of sowing at a trial site in the Western Australian Wheatbelt. The fibre optic fence was 160m long and 800mm tall with the fibre optic cable spaced 100mm apart vertically, and calibrated in ambient water ( 10 to 15oC) and a chilled glycol ( -8 to-10 oC) baths. The temperature measurements had a spatial resolution of 0.65m and temporal resolution of 60s, providing 2,215 measurements every minute. The results of this study inform our understanding of the subtle temperature changes from the soil to canopy, providing new insight into how to place traditional temperature loggers to monitor frost damage. It also addresses questions of within-trial temperature variability, and provides an example of how novel techniques such as DTS can be used to improve the way temperature

  6. Prophage induction, mutagenesis, and cell survival of Ames' mutagen tester strains after 8-methoxypsoralen plus ultraviolet light-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, L.A.; DeMeo, M. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)); Lowe, N. (Combined UCLA-WADSWORTH Dermatology Program, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1983-10-01

    8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is not detected as a mutagen in the standard Ames test either in the presence or absence of S9-mix and/or ultraviolet light-A (320-400 nm). The Ames strains have been shown to harbor bacteriophages that are inducible by carcinogens and mutagens. Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) was found to be a potent prophage inducing treatment. Induction was observed in TA1535, TA1538, TA98, TA100, TA1978 and TA1975 with 8-MOP and UVA. PUVA is a potent bactericidal treatment at concentrations of 8-MOP above 0.5 ..mu..g/ml and 2.5 kJ/m/sup 2/ in tester strains TA1535, TA1538, TA98 and TA100. PUVA is known to be bactericidal, but the cytotoxicity observed in the present study was unique in that the frameshift tester strains (TA1538 and TA98) were more sensitive to the lethal effects of PUVA than the base pair tester strains (TA1535 and TA100). The differential cytotoxicity in such closely related strains led to the examination of some of the strains from which the Ames strains were derived. It is postulated that TA1535 retains a DNA repair function that is lost by TA1538 during the selection for uvrB deficient strains.

  7. Experimental investigation of the influence of the air jet trajectory on convective heat transfer in buildings equipped with air-based and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    -state and dynamic conditions. With the air-based cooling system, a dependency of the convective heat transfer on the air jet trajectory has been observed. New correlations have been developed, introducing a modified Archimedes number to account for the air flow pattern. The accuracy of the new correlations has been...... evaluated to±15%. Besides the study with an air-based cooling system, the convective heat transfer with a radiant cooling system has also been investigated. The convective flow at the activated surface is mainly driven by natural convection. For other surfaces, the complexity of the flow and the large......The complexity and diversity of airflow in buildings make the accurate definition of convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) difficult. In a full-scale test facility, the convective heat transfer of two cooling systems (active chilled beam and radiant wall) has been investigated under steady...

  8. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.

  9. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  10. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2018-01-30

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  11. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  12. Modeling of mean radiant temperature based on comparison of airborne remote sensing data with surface measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Yu; Matzarakis, Andreas; Liu, Jin-King; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of outdoor thermal comfort is becoming increasingly important due to the urban heat island effect, which strongly affects the urban thermal environment. The mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) quantifies the effect of the radiation environment on humans, but it can only be estimated based on influencing parameters and factors. Knowledge of Tmrt is important for quantifying the heat load on human beings, especially during heat waves. This study estimates Tmrt using several methods, which are based on climatic data from a traditional weather station, microscale ground surface measurements, land surface temperature (LST) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data measured using airborne devices. Analytical results reveal that the best means of estimating Tmrt combines information about LST and surface elevation information with meteorological data from the closest weather station. The application in this method can eliminate the inconvenience of executing a wide range ground surface measurement, the insufficient resolution of satellite data and the incomplete data of current urban built environments. This method can be used to map a whole city to identify hot spots, and can be contributed to understanding human biometeorological conditions quickly and accurately.

  13. Modelling and Simulation of the Radiant Field in an Annular Heterogeneous Photoreactor Using a Four-Flux Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Alvarado-Rolon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on modeling and simulating the absorption and scattering of radiation in a photocatalytic annular reactor. To achieve so, a model based on four fluxes (FFM of radiation in cylindrical coordinates to describe the radiant field is assessed. This model allows calculating the local volumetric rate energy absorption (LVREA profiles when the reaction space of the reactors is not a thin film. The obtained results were compared to radiation experimental data from other authors and with the results obtained by discrete ordinate method (DOM carried out with the Heat Transfer Module of Comsol Multiphysics® 4.4. The FFM showed a good agreement with the results of Monte Carlo method (MC and the six-flux model (SFM. Through this model, the LVREA is obtained, which is an important parameter to establish the reaction rate equation. In this study, the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde was carried out, and the kinetic equation for this process was obtained. To perform the simulation, the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics v. 4.4 was employed.

  14. Blanchability and sensory quality of large runner peanuts blanched in a radiant wall oven using infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Katrina; Adhikari, Koushik; Singh, Rakesh K

    2017-10-01

    The main factors behind the growing popularity of infrared radiation heating in food processing include its energy efficiency, food quality retention and process speed, as well as the simplicity of equipment. Infrared radiation was employed as an alternative heat treatment to the conventional hot air method used in peanut blanching. The present study aimed to investigate the application of infrared heating for blanching peanuts and determine their blanchability and sensory quality under various processing conditions. The total blanchabilities (expressed as a percentage of total blanched) of the infrared radiation trials (radiant wall oven) at 343 °C for 1.5 min, 316 °C for 1.5 min, 288 °C for 1.5 min and 343 °C for 1 min did not differ significantly compared to the hot air control trials (impingement oven) at 100 °C for 30 and 20 min. All infrared trials had significantly lower (P infrared samples demonstrated the possible initiation of oxidation for the conventionally blanched sample at 18 weeks of storage at 24 °C (room temperature), with no indication of oxidation in the infrared samples stored at the same temperature. Infrared radiation peanut blanching is a viable alternative to conventional hot air blanching because of the shorter process time and longer shelf-life, as evident from the sensory storage study. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of blue diode laser (445 nm) and LED (430-480 nm) radiant heat treatments on dental glass ionomer restoratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Strakas, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two radiant heat treatments on water sorption, solubility and surface roughness of three conventional glass ionomer cements by using a blue diode laser (445 nm) and a light emitting diode (LED) unit (430-480 nm). Thirty disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each tested GIC (Equia Fil, Ketac Universal Aplicap and Riva Self Cure). The experimental groups (n = 10) of the study were as follows: Group 1 was the control group, in Group 2 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit and in Group 3 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a blue light diode laser. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Radiant heat treatments with both laser and LED devices significantly decreased water sorption and solubility (p tested GICs. Blue diode laser treatment was seemed to be more effective compared to LED treatment for some of the tested materials. There were no changes in surface roughness of the GICs after the treatments (p > 0.05). Among the tested materials there were differences in water sorption and solubility (p 0.05). The use of the blue diode laser for this radiant heat treatment was harmless for the surface of the tested GICs and may be advantageous for the longevity of their restorations.

  16. Mobile response in web panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijne, M.A.; Wijnant, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates unintended mobile access to surveys in online, probability-based panels. We find that spontaneous tablet usage is drastically increasing in web surveys, while smartphone usage remains low. Further, we analyze the bias of respondent profiles using smartphones and tablets

  17. Keuringspanele ("Screening Panels") as Gepaste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this particular article attention is paid to screening panels as pre-trial mechanism with the exclusive purpose to select malpractice disputes, discourage unfounded disputes and to encourage an early settlement in case of a prima facie case. Several objections have been raised by critics in this regard, for instance, ...

  18. ASIST 2003: Part II: Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Forty-six panels address topics including women in information science; users and usability; information studies; reference services; information policies; standards; interface design; information retrieval; information networks; metadata; shared access; e-commerce in libraries; knowledge organization; information science theories; digitization;…

  19. Risk-based decisionmaking (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    By means of a panel discussion and extensive audience interaction, explore the current challenges and progress to date in applying risk considerations to decisionmaking related to low-level waste. This topic is especially timely because of the proposed legislation pertaining to risk-based decisionmaking and because of the increased emphasis placed on radiological performance assessments of low-level waste disposal.

  20. Application specific Tester-On-a-Resident-Chip (TORCH{trademark}) - innovation in the area of semiconductor testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, M. [L& M Technologies, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, T. [New Mexico Highlands Univ., Las Vegas, NM (United States); Savignon, D.; Campbell, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Manufacturers widely recognize testing as a major factor in the cost, producability, and delivery of product in the $100 billion integrated circuit business: {open_quotes}The rapid development of VLSI using sub-micron CMOS technology has suddenly exposed traditional test techniques as a major cost factor that could restrict the development of VLSI devices exceeding 512 pins an operating frequencies above 200 MHz.{close_quotes} -- 1994 Semiconductor Industry Association Roadmap, Design and Test, Summary, pg. 43. This problem increases dramatically for stockpile electronics, where small production quantities make it difficult to amortize the cost of increasingly expensive testers. Application of multiple ICs in Multi-Chip Modules (MCM) greatly multiplies testing problems for commercial and defense users alike. By traditional test methods, each new design requires custom test hardware and software and often dedicated testing equipment costing millions of dollars. Also, physical properties of traditional test systems often dedicated testing equipment costing millions of dollars. Also, physical properties of traditional test systems limit capabilities in testing at-speed (>200 MHz), high-impedance, and high-accuracy analog signals. This project proposed a revolutionary approach to these problems: replace the multi-million dollar external test system with an inexpensive test system integrated onto the product wafer. Such a methodology enables testing functions otherwise unachievable by conventional means, particularly in the areas of high-frequency, at-speed testing, high impedance analog circuits, and known good die assessment. The techniques apply specifically to low volume applications, typical of Defense Programs, where testing costs represent an unusually high proportional of product costs, not easily amortized.

  1. Use of Internet panels to conduct surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ron D; Liu, Honghu; Kapteyn, Arie

    2015-09-01

    The use of Internet panels to collect survey data is increasing because it is cost-effective, enables access to large and diverse samples quickly, takes less time than traditional methods to obtain data for analysis, and the standardization of the data collection process makes studies easy to replicate. A variety of probability-based panels have been created, including Telepanel/CentERpanel, Knowledge Networks (now GFK KnowledgePanel), the American Life Panel, the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel, and the Understanding America Study panel. Despite the advantage of having a known denominator (sampling frame), the probability-based Internet panels often have low recruitment participation rates, and some have argued that there is little practical difference between opting out of a probability sample and opting into a nonprobability (convenience) Internet panel. This article provides an overview of both probability-based and convenience panels, discussing potential benefits and cautions for each method, and summarizing the approaches used to weight panel respondents in order to better represent the underlying population. Challenges of using Internet panel data are discussed, including false answers, careless responses, giving the same answer repeatedly, getting multiple surveys from the same respondent, and panelists being members of multiple panels. More is to be learned about Internet panels generally and about Web-based data collection, as well as how to evaluate data collected using mobile devices and social-media platforms.

  2. El Salvador - Rural Electrification - Solar Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is a summative qualitative performance evaluation (PE) of the solar panel component of the solar panel component of the RE Sub-Activity. The final report will...

  3. Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The concentrating solar collector panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel prismatic lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ratio, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, and unassembled components for field erection.

  4. Retaining Ring Fastener for Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Simple articulating linkage secures solar panels into supporting framework. Five element linkage collapses into W-shape for easy placement into framework, then expands to form rectangle of same dimensions as those of panel.

  5. PV panel model based on datasheet values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the construction of a model for a PV panel using the single-diode five-parameters model, based exclusively on data-sheet parameters. The model takes into account the series and parallel (shunt) resistance of the panel. The equivalent circuit and the basic equations of the PV cell....... Based on these equations, a PV panel model, which is able to predict the panel behavior in different temperature and irradiance conditions, is built and tested....

  6. Grounds of two positions photovoltaic panels

    OpenAIRE

    Castán Fortuño, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this Master Thesis is to find the optimum positioning for a two positions photovoltaic panel. Hence, it will be implemented a model in order to optimize the energy of the sun that the photovoltaic panel is receiving by its positioning. Likewise this project will include the comparison with other photovoltaic panel systems as the single position photovoltaics panels. Ultimately, it is also going to be designed a system array for the optimized model of two positions photovoltai...

  7. Control panel for CMC 8080 crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Inokuchi

    1978-01-01

    The main features of Control Panel for CAMAC Crate Controller CMC 8080 are described. The control panel can be directly connected with CRATE CONTROLLER's front panel connector with a 50 lines cable without any changes in CMC 8080 system circuits. (author)

  8. 78 FR 63501 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the... Humanities Panel will be held during November, 2013 as follows. The purpose of the meetings is for panel...

  9. 78 FR 74175 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the... Humanities Panel will be held during January 2014 as follows. The purpose of the meetings is for panel review...

  10. Solar panel assembly and support pad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1980-10-07

    A solar panel assembly is described comprising at least one solar panel, support means for carrying said panel, and at least one support pad having a base plate, upstanding longitudinal sides, and spaced apart flange means for connection to said support means, said upstanding sides and opposed flange means defining an interior volume for receiving and holding weighting material.

  11. Solar heating by radiant floor: Experimental results and emission reduction obtained with a micro photovoltaic–heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Agustín-Camacho, P. de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work presents a PVT multicrystalline solar heating system for buildings. • The PV DC electricity generated was converted to AC to drive an air–water heat pump. • Experimental results obtained from December 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 are detailed. • An environmental study is also presented. - Abstract: An experimental research with a solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) micro grid feeding a reversible air–water, 6 kW heating capacity heat pump, has been carried out from December 2012 to April 2013. Its purpose is to heat a laboratory that is used as a house prototype for the study of heating/cooling systems. It was built in accordance with the 2013 Spanish CTE, and has an area of 35 m 2 divided into two internal rooms: one of them housing the storage system, the solar controller, the inverter and the control system; the other one is occupied by three people. Its main thermal characteristics are: UA = 125 W/°C and a maximum thermal load about 6.0 kW at the initial time. The PVT field consists of 12 modules, with a total area of 15.7 m 2 and useful area of 14 m 2 . Each module is composed of 48 polycrystalline silicon cells of 243.4 cm 2 , which with a nominal efficiency 14% can generate a power of 180 W, being the total nominal power installed 2.16 kW. The PV system stores electricity in 250 Ah batteries from where is converted from DC to AC through a 3.0 kW inverter that feeds the heat pump. This works supplying 840 l/h of hot water at 35–45 °C to the radiant floor. The data storing system is recording variables such as solar radiation; temperatures; input power to batteries; heat produced; heat transferred by the radiant floor; heat pump’s COP; isolated ratio; and solar fraction. The objective of this work is to present and discuss the experimental results and the emission reduction of CO 2 obtained during the period from 01/12/2012 to 30/04/2013, including the detailed results of two representative days of Madrid’s climate: 28

  12. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  13. Panel 4 - applications to transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Au, J. [Sundstrand Aerospace, Rockford, IL (United States); Bhattacharya, R. [Universal Energy Systems, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Blunier, D. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Boardman, B. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Brombolich, L. [Compu-Tec Engineering, Chesterfield, MO (United States); Davidson, J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Graham, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Hakim, N. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Harris, K. [Dubbeldee Harris Diamond Corp., Mt. Arlington, NJ (United States); Hay, R. [Norton Diamond Film, Northboro, MA (United States); Herk, L. [Southwest Research Inst., Southfield, MI (United States); Hojnacki, H.; Rourk, D. [Intelligent Structures Incorporated, Canton, MI (United States); Kamo, R. [Adiabatics, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Nieman, B. [Allied-Signal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); O`Neill, D. [3M, St. Paul, MN (United States); Peterson, M.B. [Wear Sciences, Arnold, MD (United States); Pfaffenberger, G. [Allison Gas Turbine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Pryor, R.W. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Russell, J. [Superconductivity Publications, Inc., Somerset, NJ (United States); Syniuta, W. [Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Newton, MA (United States); Tamor, M. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Vojnovich, T. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Yarbrough, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Yust, C.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this group was to compile a listing of current and anticipated future problem areas in the transportation industry where the properties of diamond and DLC films make them especially attractive and where the panel could strongly endorse the establishment of DOE/Transportation Industry cooperative research efforts. This section identifies the problem areas for possible applications of diamond/DLC technology and presents indications of current approaches to these problems.

  14. Daytime relapse of the mean radiant temperature based on the six-directional method under unobstructed solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the knowledge about the capabilities of the popular "six-directional method" describing the radiation fields outdoors. In Taiwan, measurements were carried out with three orthogonally placed net radiometers to determine the mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). The short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the six perpendicular directions were recorded in the daylight hours of 12 days. During unobstructed direct irradiation, a specific daytime relapse was found in the temporal course of the T(mrt) values referring to the reference shapes of a standing man and also of a sphere. This relapse can be related to the short-wave fluxes reaching the body from the lateral directions. Through deeper analysis, an instrumental shortcoming of the six-directional technique was discovered. The pyranometer pairs of the same net radiometer have a 10-15-min long "blind spot" when the sun beams are nearly perpendicular to them. The blind-spot period is supposed to be shorter with steeper solar azimuth curve on the daylight period. This means that the locations with lower geographical latitude, and the summertime measurements, are affected less by this instrumental problem. A methodological shortcoming of the six-directional technique was also demonstrated. Namely, the sum of the short-wave flux densities from the lateral directions is sensitive to the orientation of the radiometers, and therefore by deviating from the original directions, the T(mrt) decrease on clear sunny days will occur in different times and will be different in extent.

  15. Comparisons between various cavity and panel noise reduction control in double-panel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.H.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents comparisons between various panel and cavity resonance control methods to reduce the transmitted sound in a double-panel structure. The double-panel, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, has the advantages of low weight and effective transmission-loss at high

  16. Panel Resonance Control and Cavity Control in Double-Panel Structures for Active Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation of panel resonance control and cavity control in a double-panel structure is presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its low

  17. Noise Reduction in Double‿Panel Structures by Cavity and Panel Resonance Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‿panel structure. The double‿panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective

  18. Noise reduction in double-panel structures by cavity and panel resonance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.-H.; Berkhoff, A.P

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‐panel structure. The double‐panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective

  19. Cavity Control and Panel Control Strategies in Double-Panel Structures for Transmitted Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation and comparisons of the cavity control and the panel control in a double-panel structure are presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which comprises two panels with air in the gap, provides the advantages of low sound-transmission at high frequency, low heat-transmission

  20. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-08-10

    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate the ignition delay of n-dodecane and n-heptane in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), which is archived in the engine combustion network (ECN) library (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ecn). A detailed chemical kinetic model for gasoline surrogates from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was utilized for the simulation of n-heptane and isooctane. Additional simulations were performed using an optimized gasoline surrogate mechanism from RWTH Aachen University. Validations of the simulated data were also performed with experimental results from an IQT at KAUST. For simulation of n-dodecane in the CVCC, two n-dodecane kinetic models from the literature were utilized. The primary aim of this study is to test the ability of TSL to replicate ignition timings in the IQT and the CVCC. The agreement between the model and the experiment is acceptable except for isooctane in the IQT and n-heptane and n-dodecane in the CVCC. The ability of the simulations to replicate observable trends in ignition delay times with regard to changes in ambient temperature and pressure allows the model to provide insights into the reactions contributing towards ignition. Thus, the TSL model was further employed to investigate the physical and chemical processes responsible for controlling the overall ignition under various conditions. The effects of exothermicity, ambient pressure, and ambient oxygen concentration on first stage ignition were also studied. Increasing ambient pressure and oxygen concentration was found to shorten the overall ignition delay time, but does not affect the timing of the first stage ignition. Additionally, the temperature at the end of the first stage ignition was found to increase at higher ambient pressure

  1. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Late HAART Initiation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Late Testers and Late Presenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Wehbe, Firas; Cesar, Carina; Cortés, Claudia; Padgett, Denis; Koenig, Serena; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine; Masys, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI) in this region. Methodology Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico) from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4+ count ≤200cells/mm3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT) were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP) initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. Principal Findings Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817) who had baseline CD4+ available (n = 8515), 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52–59]), Chile (80%[95%CI:77–82]), Haiti (76%[95%CI:74–77]), Honduras (91%[95%CI:87–94]), Mexico (79%[95%CI:75–83]), Peru (86%[95%CI:84–88]). The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras) (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7), with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA). Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02–1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02–1.43; respectively), but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94–1.21). Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87–0.98) (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA). LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. Conclusion LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation

  2. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC): Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kuo, Margot; Chong, Mei; Yu, Amanda; Alvarez, Maria; Cook, Darrel; Armour, Rosemary; Aiken, Ciaran; Li, Karen; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed Ali; Woods, Ryan; Godfrey, David; Wong, Jason; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W; Krajden, Mel

    2016-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV) epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV), HIV or active tuberculosis (TB) in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992) of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54%) were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90-100%). Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV.

  3. Behavioral intention to take up different types of HIV testing among men who have sex with men who were never-testers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; She, Rui; Ip, Mary; Jiang, Hui; Ho, Shara P Y; Yang, XueYing

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is an important global prevention strategy but underutilized by local men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV testing (specific or any type), in the next six months among MSM who had not been tested for HIV in the last three years (never-testers) in Hong Kong. The data was based on 141 never-testers of 430 MSM who completed the anonymous baseline telephone survey of an ongoing randomized controlled trial from January 2015 to August 2015. Only 17.7% of them showed strong intention to take up any type of HIV testing in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that perceived benefit of HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.66), perceived psychological barriers of HIV testing (AOR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.73, 1.00), and perceived self-efficacy in taking up HIV testing (AOR: 1.28, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.52) were significantly associated with behavioral intention to take up any HIV testing. Perceived cue to action from non-governmental organization staff was positively associated with a marginal p-value of 0.077 (AOR: 2.37, 95%CI: 0.97, 5.77). It is warranted to strengthen perceived benefit, remove psychological barriers, and increase perceived self-efficacy related to HIV testing. Innovative and effective health promotions are greatly needed to increase HIV testing coverage among never-testers.

  4. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC: Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Zafar Janjua

    Full Text Available The British Columbia (BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV, HIV or active tuberculosis (TB in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992 of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54% were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90-100%.Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV.

  5. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC): Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kuo, Margot; Chong, Mei; Yu, Amanda; Alvarez, Maria; Cook, Darrel; Armour, Rosemary; Aiken, Ciaran; Li, Karen; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed Ali; Woods, Ryan; Godfrey, David; Wong, Jason; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W.; Krajden, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Background The British Columbia (BC) Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV) epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Methods The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV), HIV or active tuberculosis (TB) in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992) of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Results Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54%) were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90–100%). Conclusion Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV

  6. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  7. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified

  8. High Efficiency, High Density Terrestrial Panel. [for solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Wihl, M.; Rosenfield, T.

    1979-01-01

    Terrestrial panels were fabricated using rectangular cells. Packing densities in excess of 90% with panel conversion efficiencies greater than 13% were obtained. Higher density panels can be produced on a cost competitive basis with the standard salami panels.

  9. Direct measurement of the field from a magnetic recording head using an InAs Hall sensor on a contact write/read tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokemeijer, N.J.; Clinton, T.W.; Crawford, T.M.; Johnson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    At 1 Tbit/in 2 areal density magnetic recording dimensions, reliable magnetic field metrology does not exist. One technique to map the spatial profile of the magnetic field of a write head is to use a contact read/write tester. A magnetic recording head is brought into contact with a Hall sensor, and is subsequently scanned with nm resolution. For a 300 nm track width longitudinal recording head, the magnetic field of the head was mapped. Measurements include the down track field gradient and cross-track field profile and the current-field transfer curve. These results suggest this technique offers a viable write field metrology

  10. Laboratory panel and radiometer calibration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deadman, AJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Griffith1_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16659 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Griffith1_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 LABORATORY PANEL... of Land surface imaging through a ground reference standard test site?, on http://qa4eo.org/documentation.html, 2009. [2] K. J. Thome, D. L. Helder, D. Aaron, and J. D. Dewald, ?Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ Absolute Radiometric Calibration Using...

  11. A full-scale experimental set-up for assessing the energy performance of radiant wall and active chilled beam for cooling buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    in decreasing the cooling need of the radiant wall compared to the active chilled beam. It has also been observed that the type and repartition of heat load have an influence on the cooling demand. Regarding the comfort level, both terminals met the general requirements, except at high solar heat gains......: overheating has been observed due to the absence of solar shading and the limited cooling capacity of the terminals. No local discomfort has been observed although some segments of the thermal manikin were slightly colder....

  12. Thermal inertia and radiating average Temperature. A brief analysis of some causes of discomfort; Inercia Termica y Temperatura media radiante. Un breve analisis de algunas causas de disconfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroba, M.

    2008-07-01

    Radiant average temperature in walls is as important as dry air temperature to achieve thermal comfort of users of a local. An excessive discrepancy between these levels, or an asymmetric distribution of the surface temperature of fences, may cause localized thermal discomfort, an effect impossible to compensate by rising dry air temperature. Thermal inertia and its concentration must be properly studied in order to handle this parameters, inside or outside the building, on both sides of the cladding or none depending on the weather, the bio climatic strategies used, heating and air conditioning systems and planned use of the building. (Author)

  13. Mathematical modelling, variational formulation and numerical simulation of the energy transfer process in a gray plate in the presence of a thermal radiant source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1992-05-01

    The energy transfer process in a gray, opaque and rigid plate, heated by an external thermal radiant source, is considered. The source is regarded as a spherical black body, with radius a (a → 0) and uniform heat generation, placed above the plate. A mathematical model is constructed, assuming that the heat transfer from/to the plate takes place by thermal radiation. The obtained mathematical model is nonlinear. Is presented a suitable variational principle which is employed for simulating some particular cases. (author)

  14. Radiant and convective heat transfer for flow of a transparent gas in a short tube with prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lemos, M.J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The present analysis accounts for radiant and convective heat transfer for a transparent fluid flowing in a short tube with prescribed wall heat flux. The heat flux distribution used was of sine shape with maximum at the middle of the tube. Such a solution is the approximate one for axial power in a nuclear reactor. The solutions for the tube wall and gas bulk temperatures were obtained by successive substitutions for the wall and gas balance energy equations. The results show a decrease of 30% for the maximum wall temperature using black surface (e = 1). In this same case, the increasing in the gas temperature shows a decrease of 58%

  15. Parameter optimization through performance analysis of model based control of a batch heat treatment furnace with low NO x radiant tube burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Sanyal, Dipankar

    2005-01-01

    A model based control structure for heat treating a 0.5% C steel slab in a batch furnace with low NO x radiant tube burner is designed and tested for performance to yield optimal parameter values using the model developed in the companion paper. Combustion is considered in a highly preheated and product gas diluted mode. Controlled combustion with a proposed arrangement for preheating and diluting the air by recirculating the exhaust gas that can be retrofitted with an existing burner yields satisfactory performance and emission characteristics. Finally, the effect of variable property considerations are presented and critically analyzed

  16. Optimum design of composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module. Absorbing effect of cooling panel; Hikari netsu fukugo panel no saiteki sekkei. Reikyaku panel no kyunetsu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M; Kikuchi, S; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kadotani, K; Imaizumi, H [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module becomes higher in energy-saving than the conventional air-conditioning system by the independent radiational heating and cooling effect obtained when the generating panel using a solar cell module is combined with the heating and cooling panel using a thermo-element module. The output of a solar cell module can be directly used because the solar cell module operates in AC. This paper reports the relation between the absorbed value and power consumption of the cooling panel, while paying attention to the cooling panel. The performance coefficient of the maximum absorbed value from an non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 2 to 3. Assume that the cooling panel during non-adiabatic operation is operated using a solar cell module of 800 W/m{sup 2} in solar intensity and 15% in conversion efficiency. The cooling-surface temperature difference is 12.12 K, and the maximum absorbed value of a non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 39.12 W/m{sup 2}. The absorbed value of the outer temperature to the cooling panel is 74.4 W/m{sup 2}, and each performance coefficient is 3.26 and 0.62. The absorbed value must be calculated for evaluation from the cooling-surface temperature difference measured directly from the cooling panel. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  18. A radiant black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1993-01-01

    On the 13 October the Bavarian police seized 2.2kg of uranium and arrested a group of seven people who had offered to sell it for $500.000. The existence of a black market for uranium may be a proliferation risk but it is not a serious health hazard - even if the material is negligently packed, as it seems to have been in all the recent cases. The situation is quite different when it comes to dealing with highly radioactive materials such as fission productions. Two such cases have been reported this summer involving Cs-137 and Sr-90, both emitters of hard beta rays. Little is known about the provenance of the radioactive and fissile material discovered. Obviously it originates from the ex-USSR, and the absence of highly enriched material suggests a civil rather than a military source. The governments of ex-Soviet states have apparently tried to intercept smugglers at their western frontiers, but have so far been unable to pinpoint the breaches in their security. It is also uncertain whether the occurrences discovered and reported are merely the tip of an iceberg. (author)

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Stresses in the PhEur/USP Disintegration Tester Under Fed and Fasted Fluid Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen, Sarah; Wachtel, Herbert; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Disintegration of oral solid dosage forms is a prerequisite for drug dissolution and absorption and is to a large extent dependent on the pressures and hydrodynamic conditions in the solution that the dosage form is exposed to. In this work, the hydrodynamics in the PhEur/USP disintegration tester were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particle image velocimetry was used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD simulations were performed with different Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, representing fasted and fed states. The results indicate that the current design and operating conditions of the disintegration test device, given by the pharmacopoeias, are not reproducing the in vivo situation. This holds true for the hydrodynamics in the disintegration tester that generates Reynolds numbers dissimilar to the reported in vivo situation. Also, when using homogenized US FDA meal, representing the fed state, too high viscosities and relative pressures are generated. The forces acting on the dosage form are too small for all fluids compared to the in vivo situation. The lack of peristaltic contractions, which generate hydrodynamics and shear stress in vivo, might be the major drawback of the compendial device resulting in the observed differences between predicted and in vivo measured hydrodynamics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Theory and experimental validation of SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Porter, Jason M.

    2005-06-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as lamp number, power, position, and separation distance. Thermal radiation is the dominant mechanism of heat transfer and the SPLASH model solves a radiation enclosure problem to estimate temperature distributions in a shroud providing the boundary condition of interest. Irradiance distribution on a specified viewing plane is also estimated. This document provides the theoretical development for the underlying model. A series of tests were conducted to characterize SPLASH's ability to analyze lamp and shroud systems. The comparison suggests that SPLASH succeeds as a design tool. Simplifications made to keep the model tractable are demonstrated to result in estimates that are only approximately as uncertain as many of the properties and characteristics of the operating environment.

  1. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  2. Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim D. Sass; Pe; Leed

    2013-01-01

    The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops. Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The structural desig...

  3. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  4. Sound transmission loss of composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran

    Light composite sandwich panels are increasingly used in automobiles, ships and aircraft, because of the advantages they offer of high strength-to-weight ratios. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can be less desirable than those of equivalent metal panels. These undesirable properties can lead to high interior noise levels. A number of researchers have studied the acoustical properties of honeycomb and foam sandwich panels. Not much work, however, has been carried out on foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels. In this dissertation, governing equations for the forced vibration of asymmetric sandwich panels are developed. An analytical expression for modal densities of symmetric sandwich panels is derived from a sixth-order governing equation. A boundary element analysis model for the sound transmission loss of symmetric sandwich panels is proposed. Measurements of the modal density, total loss factor, radiation loss factor, and sound transmission loss of foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels with different configurations and thicknesses are presented. Comparisons between the predicted sound transmission loss values obtained from wave impedance analysis, statistical energy analysis, boundary element analysis, and experimental values are presented. The wave impedance analysis model provides accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thin foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels at frequencies above their first resonance frequencies. The predictions from the statistical energy analysis model are in better agreement with the experimental transmission loss values of the sandwich panels when the measured radiation loss factor values near coincidence are used instead of the theoretical values for single-layer panels. The proposed boundary element analysis model provides more accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thick foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels than either the wave impedance analysis model or the

  5. Case Study - Monitoring the Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    PACURAR Ana Talida; TOADER Dumitru; PACURAR Cristian

    2014-01-01

    The photovoltaic cell represents one of the most dynamic and attractive way to converts renewable energy sources in electricity production. That means to convert solar energy into electricity. In this paper is presented a analogy between two types of photovoltaic panels installed, with educational role for students. Also the objective of this paper is to estimate the performance of photovoltaic panels and to provide the best solution for industry. These two types of photovoltaic panels wer...

  6. Noise levels in neonatal intensive care unit and use of sound absorbing panel in the isolette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuncu, E; Akman, I; Kulekci, S; Akdas, F; Bilgen, H; Ozek, E

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure the noise level of a busy neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to determine the effect of sound absorbing panel (SAP) on the level of noise inside the isolette. The sound pressure levels (SPL) of background noise, baby crying, alarms and closing of isolette's door/portholes were measured by a 2235-Brüel&Kjaer Sound Level Meter. Readings were repeated after applying SAP (3D pyramidal shaped open cell polyurethane foam) to the three lateral walls and ceiling of the isolette. The median SPL of background noise inside the NICU was 56dBA and it decreased to 47dBA inside the isolette. The median SPL of monitor alarms and baby crying inside the isolette were not different than SPL measured under radiant warmer (p>0.05). With SAP, the median SPL of temperature alarm inside the isolette decreased significantly from 82 to 72dBA, monitor alarm from 64 to 56dBA, porthole closing from 81 to 74dBA, and isolette door closing from 80 to 68dBA (pnoise produced by baby crying when SAP was used in the isolette (79dBA vs 69dBA, respectively) (pnoise. The noise level in our NICU is significantly above the universally recommended levels. Being inside the isolette protects infants from noise sources produced outside the isolette. However, very high noises are produced inside the isolette as well. Sound absorbing panel can be a simple solution and it attenuated the noise levels inside the isolette.

  7. Coupling of a discrete ordinate 3-D radiant heat transfer model with the PHOENICS fluid mechanics software; Couplage d`un modele radiatif tridimensionnel aux ordonnees discretes au logiciel de mecanique des fluides phoenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, J [IRSID, Institut de Recherches Siderurgie, 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

    1997-12-31

    Radiant heat transfer is the main solution retained in many iron and steel metallurgy installations (re-heating and annealing furnaces etc..). Today, it has become important to dispose of performing radiant heat transfer models in heat transfer and fluid mechanics simulation softwares, and well adapted to multidimensional industrial problems. This work presents the discrete ordinate radiant heat transfer model developed at the IRSID (the French institute of research in iron and steel metallurgy) and coupled with the PHOENICS heat transfer-fluid mechanics software. Three modeling approaches are presented concerning the radiative properties of gases (H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}). A ``weighted grey gases sum`` model gives satisfactory results for several 1-D validation cases. (J.S.) 20 refs.

  8. Coupling of a discrete ordinate 3-D radiant heat transfer model with the PHOENICS fluid mechanics software; Couplage d`un modele radiatif tridimensionnel aux ordonnees discretes au logiciel de mecanique des fluides phoenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, J. [IRSID, Institut de Recherches Siderurgie, 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

    1996-12-31

    Radiant heat transfer is the main solution retained in many iron and steel metallurgy installations (re-heating and annealing furnaces etc..). Today, it has become important to dispose of performing radiant heat transfer models in heat transfer and fluid mechanics simulation softwares, and well adapted to multidimensional industrial problems. This work presents the discrete ordinate radiant heat transfer model developed at the IRSID (the French institute of research in iron and steel metallurgy) and coupled with the PHOENICS heat transfer-fluid mechanics software. Three modeling approaches are presented concerning the radiative properties of gases (H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}). A ``weighted grey gases sum`` model gives satisfactory results for several 1-D validation cases. (J.S.) 20 refs.

  9. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  10. Orbiter radiator panel solar focusing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, H. R.; Rankin, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Test data are presented which define the area around the Orbiter radiator panels for which the solar reflections are concentrated to one-sun or more. The concave shape of the panels and their specular silver/Teflon coating causes focusing of the reflected solar energy which could have adverse heating effects on equipment or astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) in the vicinity of the radiator panels. A room ambient test method was utilized with a one-tenth scale model of the radiator panels.

  11. Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This online collection includes documents decided upon by the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) starting in Fiscal Year 2012. The documents...

  12. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  13. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  14. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  15. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  16. Improvement on life and NO{sub x} discharge of radiant heat transfer tube heating system by the elasto-plasticity creep analysis; Dansosei kuripukaiseki ni yoru hosha dennetsukan kanetsu shisutemu no jumyo to NO{sub x} haishutsuryo no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Futahiko; Ikaruda, Kunihiro; Abe, Yoshio; Arai, Norio

    1999-06-05

    Combustion thermal process using the radiant heat transfer tube has widely been applied as a heating method which separates the combustion atmosphere from the heating-e atmosphere in various heating furnace such as iron and steel industry. In this thermal process, in order to burn the fuel in tight space in radiant heat transfer service area, radiant heat transfer tube and burner life were short under high temperature and high-load combustion, and there was a problem that that and, burning characteristic such as NO{sub x} generation rate are improved was difficult. In this study, large temperature distribution by the combustion in the radiant heat transfer tube clarified that the life of the radiant heat transfer tube was shortened by elasto-plasticity creep analysis of the radiant heat transfer tube. Then, two steps combustion burner of the exhaust gas self recycling type was developed as a method for reducing the NO{sub x} generation rate, while the temperature distribution of the radiant heat transfer tube was equalized. As the result, it was possible to reduce over 20% in comparison with conventional two steps combustion burner, while radiant heat transfer tube and life of the burner are extended over the conventional double, in respect of the NO{sub x} generation rate. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Touch panel system for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.; Johnson, R.

    1976-12-01

    The use of finger-sensitive touch panels in association with computer-generated displays for control and monitoring of the Stanford linear accelerator is discussed. This control concept has proven to be very effective. The hardware and software aspects of the Touch Panel portion of the control system are described

  18. Electronic unit for fotovoltaic solar panelling validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, J.; Valverde, J.; Garcia, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A low cost and easy to use electronic system for photovoltaic solar panelling validation is described. It measures, with a certain periodicity, voltage and current given by the panel, determines the supplied power, and every so often, its maximum valves. The unit is fitted with a data storage system which allows data recording for later analysis. (Author)

  19. Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.

  20. 49 CFR 845.22 - Technical panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical panel. 845.22 Section 845.22... Technical panel. The Director, Bureau of Accident Investigation, or the Director, Bureau of Field Operations, shall designate members of the Board's technical staff to participate in the hearing and initially...

  1. Dynamic spatial panels : models, methods, and inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    This paper provides a survey of the existing literature on the specification and estimation of dynamic spatial panel data models, a collection of models for spatial panels extended to include one or more of the following variables and/or error terms: a dependent variable lagged in time, a dependent

  2. 78 FR 74174 - Humanities Panel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Humanities Panel Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Charter Renewal for Humanities Panel Advisory... its implementing regulations, 41 CFR 102-3.65, the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) gives...

  3. 76 FR 6828 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  4. 75 FR 18906 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  5. 76 FR 14434 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION: Notice...-463, as amended), notice is hereby given that the following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held...

  6. 75 FR 50007 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  7. 75 FR 26285 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  8. 76 FR 77559 - Meeting of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meeting of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington...

  9. 77 FR 22359 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW...

  10. 76 FR 20375 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities ACTION: Notice of additional meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... the following meeting of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania...

  11. 76 FR 70168 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of additional meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... the following meeting of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania...

  12. 76 FR 41826 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of additional meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... the following meeting of the Humanities Panel will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania...

  13. 76 FR 52697 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  14. 76 FR 56242 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, The National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION... Humanities Panel at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20506 which was...

  15. 76 FR 70765 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION: Notice...-463, as amended), notice is hereby given that the following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held...

  16. 76 FR 63664 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of... following meetings of Humanities Panels will be held at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW...

  17. 77 FR 17102 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities ACTION... Humanities Panel at the Old Post Office, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20506, which was...

  18. An intersection test for panel unit roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanck, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a new panel unit root test based on Simes' ( 1986) classical intersection test. The test is robust to general patterns of cross-sectional dependence and yet is straightforward to implement, only requiring p-values of time series unit root tests of the series in the panel, and

  19. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood ... de sangre: panel metabólico ampliado What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  20. Documentation Panels Enhance Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warash, Bobbie Gibson

    2005-01-01

    Documentation of children's projects is advantageous to their learning process and is also a good method for student teachers to observe the process of learning. Documentation panels are a unique way to help student teachers understand how children learn. Completing a panel requires a student teacher to think through a process. Teachers must learn…

  1. Delamination tolerance studies in laminated composite panels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Determination of levels of tolerance in delaminated composite panels is an important issue in composite structures technology. The primary intention is to analyse delaminated composite panels and estimate Strain. Energy Release Rate (SERR) parameters at the delamination front to feed into acceptability criteria.

  2. Response problems in a vacation panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; Susan I. Stewart

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates response problems encountered in a panel study of travel behavior. Though the overall response rate to the three-wave panel study was acceptable (over 60%), three types of response problems were encountered: refusal, non-response, and attrition. In a follow-up phone survey, a sample of individuals from each problem response group was questioned...

  3. 78 FR 42982 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings SUMMARY... hereby given one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at...

  4. 77 FR 61643 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that sixteen meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  5. 78 FR 17942 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY... hereby given that five meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  6. 78 FR 59978 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  7. 77 FR 49026 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  8. 78 FR 21978 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... is hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will...

  9. 78 FR 26399 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  10. 77 FR 13154 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice--meeting. Pursuant to... given that a meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held by...

  11. 77 FR 67836 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that fifteen meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  12. 78 FR 5213 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  13. 77 FR 75672 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that seven meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  14. 77 FR 41808 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that two meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  15. 78 FR 68099 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that twenty- one meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts...

  16. 78 FR 50451 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY... hereby given that one meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  17. 77 FR 56875 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that two meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be...

  18. 77 FR 13367 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... hereby given that a meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held...

  19. Research challenges for energy data management (panel)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lehner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    This panel paper aims at initiating discussion at the Second International Workshop on Energy Data Management (EnDM 2013) about the important research challenges within Energy Data Management. The authors are the panel organizers, extra panelists will be recruited before the workshop...

  20. Robust block bootstrap panel predictability tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerlund, J.; Smeekes, S.

    2013-01-01

    Most panel data studies of the predictability of returns presume that the cross-sectional units are independent, an assumption that is not realistic. As a response to this, the current paper develops block bootstrap-based panel predictability tests that are valid under very general conditions. Some