Electron cyclotron absorption in Tokamak plasmas in the presence of radial transport of particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, Paulo R. da S.; Ziebell, Luiz F.
1998-01-01
We use quasilinear theory to study effects of particle radial transport on the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient by a current carrying plasma, in a tokamak modelated as a plasma slab. Our numerical results indicate significant modification in the profile of the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient when transport is taken into account relative to the situation without transport. (author)
Effects of applied dc radial electric fields on particle transport in a bumpy torus plasma
Roth, J. R.
1978-01-01
The influence of applied dc radial electric fields on particle transport in a bumpy torus plasma is studied. The plasma, magnetic field, and ion heating mechanism are operated in steady state. Ion kinetic temperature is more than a factor of ten higher than electron temperature. The electric fields raise the ions to energies on the order of kilovolts and then point radially inward or outward. Plasma number density profiles are flat or triangular across the plasma diameter. It is suggested that the radial transport processes are nondiffusional and dominated by strong radial electric fields. These characteristics are caused by the absence of a second derivative in the density profile and the flat electron temperature profiles. If the electric field acting on the minor radius of the toroidal plasma points inward, plasma number density and confinement time are increased.
van Thienen, P; Vreeburg, J H G; Blokker, E J M
2011-02-01
Various particle transport mechanisms play a role in the build-up of discoloration potential in drinking water distribution networks. In order to enhance our understanding of and ability to predict this build-up, it is essential to recognize and understand their role. Gravitational settling with drag has primarily been considered in this context. However, since flow in water distribution pipes is nearly always in the turbulent regime, turbulent processes should be considered also. In addition to these, single particle effects and forces may affect radial particle transport. In this work, we present an application of a previously published turbulent particle deposition theory to conditions relevant for drinking water distribution systems. We predict quantitatively under which conditions turbophoresis, including the virtual mass effect, the Saffman lift force, and the Magnus force may contribute significantly to sediment transport in radial direction and compare these results to experimental observations. The contribution of turbophoresis is mostly limited to large particles (>50 μm) in transport mains, and not expected to play a major role in distribution mains. The Saffman lift force may enhance this process to some degree. The Magnus force is not expected to play any significant role in drinking water distribution systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Radial transport with perturbed magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hazeltine, R. D. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2015-05-15
It is pointed out that the viscosity coefficient describing radial transport of toroidal angular momentum is proportional to the second power of the gyro-radius—like the corresponding coefficients for particle and heat transport—regardless of any geometrical symmetry. The observation is widely appreciated, but worth emphasizing because some literature gives the misleading impression that asymmetry can allow radial moment transport in first-order.
Radial transport with perturbed magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R. D.
2015-01-01
It is pointed out that the viscosity coefficient describing radial transport of toroidal angular momentum is proportional to the second power of the gyro-radius—like the corresponding coefficients for particle and heat transport—regardless of any geometrical symmetry. The observation is widely appreciated, but worth emphasizing because some literature gives the misleading impression that asymmetry can allow radial moment transport in first-order
Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Kawase, H.; Nishitani, T.; Seki, R.; Osakabe, M.; LHD Experiment Group
2018-04-01
A deuterium experiment was initiated to achieve higher-temperature and higher-density plasmas in March 2017 in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The central ion temperature notably increases compared with that in hydrogen experiments. However, an energetic particle mode called the helically-trapped energetic-ion-driven resistive interchange (EIC) mode is often excited by intensive perpendicular neutral beam injections on high ion-temperature discharges. The mode leads to significant decrease of the ion temperature or to limiting the sustainment of the high ion-temperature state. To understand the effect of EIC on the energetic ion confinement, the radial transport of energetic ions is studied by means of the neutron flux monitor and vertical neutron camera newly installed on the LHD. Decreases of the line-integrated neutron profile in core channels show that helically-trapped energetic ions are lost from the plasma.
Interactions between Radial Electric Field, Transport and Structure in Helical Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, Katsumi and others
2006-01-01
Control of the radial electric field is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. Particle and heat transport, that determines the radial structure of density and electron profiles, sensitive to the structure of radial electric field. On the other hand, the radial electric field itself is determined by the plasma parameters. In general, the sign of the radial electric field is determined by the plasma collisionality, while the magnitude of the radial electric field is determined by the temperature and/or density gradients. Therefore the structure of radial electric field and temperature and density are strongly coupled through the particle and heat transport and formation mechanism of radial electric field. Interactions between radial electric field, transport and structure in helical plasmas is discussed based on the experiments on Large Helical Device
On helicon wave induced radial plasma transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.
1993-04-01
Estimates of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented. The wave induced transport grows or decreases in dependence on the sign of the azimuthal wave number; these changes in transport may play an important role in helicon wave plasma sources. (author) 5 figs., 18 refs
O'Brien, T. P., III; Claudepierre, S. G.
2017-12-01
During geomagnetic storms, the Earth's outer radiation belt experiences enhanced radial transport. This transport occurs via phase-dependent radial displacements of particles, either by impulsive events or drift resonant waves. Because transport is phase dependent, it produces drift phase bunching, which can be observed with in situ particle detectors. We provide bounds on the radial diffusion coefficients derived from this drift phase structure as seen by NASA's Van Allen Probes. We compare these bounds to published radial diffusion coefficient models, particularly those derived independently from electromagnetic field observations.
Radial particle distributions in PARMILA simulation beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boicourt, G.P.
1984-03-01
The estimation of beam spill in particle accelerators is becoming of greater importance as higher current designs are being funded. To the present, no numerical method for predicting beam-spill has been available. In this paper, we present an approach to the loss-estimation problem that uses probability distributions fitted to particle-simulation beams. The properties of the PARMILA code's radial particle distribution are discussed, and a broad class of probability distributions are examined to check their ability to fit it. The possibility that the PARMILA distribution is a mixture is discussed, and a fitting distribution consisting of a mixture of two generalized gamma distributions is found. An efficient algorithm to accomplish the fit is presented. Examples of the relative prediction of beam spill are given. 26 references, 18 figures, 1 table
Moment approach to tandem mirror radial transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siebert, K.D.; Callen, J.D.
1986-02-01
A moment approach is proposed for the study of tandem mirror radial transport in the resonant plateau regime. The salient features of the method are described with reference to axisymmetric tokamak transport theory. In particular, the importance of momentum conservation to the establishment of the azimuthal variations in the electrostatic potential is demonstrated. Also, an ad hoc drift kinetic equation is solved to determine parallel viscosity coefficients which are required to close the moment system
Radial Transport and Meridional Circulation in Accretion Disks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philippov, Alexander A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: sashaph@princeton.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2017-03-10
Radial transport of particles, elements and fluid driven by internal stresses in three-dimensional (3D) astrophysical accretion disks is an important phenomenon, potentially relevant for the outward dust transport in protoplanetary disks, origin of the refractory particles in comets, isotopic equilibration in the Earth–Moon system, etc. To gain better insight into these processes, we explore the dependence of meridional circulation in 3D disks with shear viscosity on their thermal stratification, and demonstrate a strong effect of the latter on the radial flow. Previous locally isothermal studies have normally found a pattern of the radial outflow near the midplane, switching to inflow higher up. Here we show, both analytically and numerically, that a flow that is inward at all altitudes is possible in disks with entropy and temperature steeply increasing with height. Such thermodynamic conditions may be typical in the optically thin, viscously heated accretion disks. Disks in which these conditions do not hold should feature radial outflow near the midplane, as long as their internal stress is provided by the shear viscosity. Our results can also be used for designing hydrodynamical disk simulations with a prescribed pattern of the meridional circulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslov, V.I.; Barchuk, S.V.; Lapshin, V.I.; Volkov, E.D.; Melentsov, Yu.V.
2006-01-01
It is shown, that at development of instability due to a radial gradient of density in the crossed electric and magnetic fields in nuclear fusion installations ordering convective cells can be excited. It provides anomalous particle transport. The spatial structures of these convective cells have been constructed. The radial dimensions of these convective cells depend on their amplitudes and on a radial gradient of density. The convective-diffusion equation for radial dynamics of the electrons has been derived. At the certain value of the universal controlling parameter, the convective cell excitation and the anomalous radial transport are suppressed. (author)
Inward transport of a toroidally confined plasma subject to strong radial electric fields
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J.; Kim, Y.
1977-01-01
The paper aims at showing that the density and confinement time of a toroidal plasma can be enhanced by radial electric fields far stronger than the ambipolar values, and that, if such electric fields point into the plasma, radially inward transport can result. The investigation deals with low-frequency fluctuation-induced transport using digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques and with the role of strong applied radial electric fields and weak vertical magnetic fields on plasma density and particle confinement times in a Bumpy Torus geometry. Results indicate that application of sufficiently strong radially inward electric fields results in radially inward fluctuation-induced transport into the toroidal electrostatic potential well; this inward transport gives rise to higher average electron densities and longer particle confinement times in the toroidal plasma.
Access of energetic particles to storm time ring current through enhanced radial diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyons, L.R.; Schulz, M.
1989-01-01
Magnetic storms are distinguishable from other periods of geomagnetic activity by the injection of trapped electrons and ions to the 2 approx-lt L approx-lt 4 region. It has been proposed previously that this injection results from an inward displacement of the preexisting trapped-particle population by enhanced storm time electric fields. However, high-energy (approx-gt 40 keV) ring-current particles have drift periods that are typically shorter than the time of the main-phase development, and so the direct radial transport of these particles is restricted. The authors propose here that the transport of approx-gt 40 keV particles into the storm time ring current can result from enhanced stochastic radial transport driven by fluctuating electric fields during a storm's main phase. They estimate the effects of such electric fields by applying radial-diffusion theory, assuming a preexisting trapped-particle population as the initial conditions, and they demonstrate the feasibility of explaining observed flux increases of approx-gt 40-keV particles at L approx-lt 4 by enhanced radial diffusion. It is necessary that new particles be injected near the outer boundary of the trapping region so as to maintain the fluxes there as an outer boundary condition, and they estimate that the approx-gt 40-keV portion of the storm time ring current at L ∼ 3 consists of about 50% preexisting and about 50% new particles. They thus find that formation of the storm time ring current may be explainable via a combination of direct radial transport at energies approx-lt 40 keV and diffusive radial transport at higher energies
Radial transport of storm time ring current ions
Lui, A. T. Y.
1993-01-01
Radial transport of energetic ions for the development of the main phase of geomagnetic storms is investigated with data from the medium energy particle analyzer (MEPA) on the Charge Composition Explorer spacecraft, which monitored protons, helium ions, and the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen group, which is mostly dominated by oxygen ions. From a study of four geomagnetic storms, we show that the flux increase of these ions in the inner ring current region can be accounted for by an inward displacement of the ring current population by 0.5 to 3.5 R(E). There is a general trend that a larger inward displacement occurs at higher L shells than at lower ones. These results are in agreement with previous findings. The radially injected population consists of the prestorm population modified by substorm injections which occur on a much shorter time scale than that for a storm main phase. It is also found that the inward displacement is relatively independent of ion mass and energy, suggesting that the radial transport of these energetic ions is effected primarily by convective motion from a large electric field or by diffusion resulting from magnetic field fluctuations.
Computer simulation of radial transport in tandem mirror machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilmore, J.M.
1979-01-01
A code used for simulation of classical radial transport in the 2XIIB experiment has been modified to simulate radial transport in TMX. Results have been obtained using classical transport coefficients and also using very simple trial neoclassical resonant transport coefficients. Comparison of the results obtained with solely classical transport and with both classical and neo-classical transport indicate that neoclassical transport depresses the ion density by approximately 5%. The central cell ion temperature is increased by approximately by the neo-classical transport, as is the electron temperature
Radial Motion of Two Mutually Attracting Particles
2009-11-01
again gives ma = ma1. Then Eq. (1) is equivalent to Newton’s second law for particle 1. Alternatively one can establish that mu = Mu2 and ma = Ma2 ...identifying Eq. (1) as Newton’s second law for particle 2. Note that ma1 = Ma2 in agreement with Newton’s third law. 2. S. Van Wyk, “Problem: The
Radially sheared azimuthal flows and turbulent transport in a cylindrical helicon plasma device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tynan, G R; Burin, M J; Holland, C; Antar, G; Diamond, P H
2004-01-01
A radially sheared azimuthal flow is observed in a cylindrical helicon plasma device. The shear flow is roughly azimuthally symmetric and contains both time-stationary and slowly varying components. The turbulent radial particle flux is found to peak near the density gradient maximum and vanishes at the shear layer location. The shape of the radial plasma potential profile associated with the azimuthal E x B flow is predicted accurately by theory. The existence of the mean shear flow in a plasma with finite flow damping from ion-neutral collisions and no external momentum input implies the existence of radial angular momentum transport from the turbulent Reynolds-stress
Numerical model for radial transport in the ELMO Bumpy Torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaeger, E.F.; Hedrick, C.L.
1977-11-01
Neutral and charged particle densities and temperatures are calculated as functions of radius for the toroidal plasma in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) experiment. Energy dependent ionization and charge-exchange rates, ambipolar diffusion, and self-consistent radial electric field profiles are included. Variation in magnetic field due to finite plasma pressure, effects of energetic electron rings, and transport due to drift waves and magnetic field errors are neglected. Diffusion is assumed to be neoclassical with enhanced losses at low collisionalities. The model reproduces many of the observed features of EBT operation in the quiescent toroidal (T) mode. The self-consistently calculated electric field is everywhere positive (not as in experiments) unless enhanced electron collisionality is included. Solutions for advanced EBT's are obtained and confinement parameters predicted
On radio frequency wave induced radial transport and wave helicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.
1992-09-01
Expressions for wave induced radial transport are derived allowing simple estimates. The transport is enhanced due to the presence of poloidal magnetostatic field and in the vicinity of the ion cyclotron resonance. The direction of the wave induced transport depends also on the wave polarization. (author) 19 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helander, P.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.
1996-01-01
The orderings in the kinetic equations commonly used to study the plasma core of a tokamak do not allow a balance between parallel ion streaming and radial diffusion, and are, therefore, inappropriate in the plasma edge. Different orderings are required in the edge region where radial transport across the steep gradients associated with the scrape-off layer is large enough to balance the rapid parallel flow caused by conditions close to collecting surfaces (such as the Bohm sheath condition). In the present work, we derive and solve novel kinetic equations, allowing for such a balance, and construct distinctive transport laws for impure, collisional, edge plasmas in which the perpendicular transport is (i) due to Coulomb collisions of ions with heavy impurities, or (ii) governed by anomalous diffusion driven by electrostatic turbulence. In both the collisional and anomalous radial transport cases, we find that one single diffusion coefficient determines the radial transport of particles, momentum and heat. The parallel transport laws and parallel thermal force in the scrape-off layer assume an unconventional form, in which the relative ion-impurity flow is driven by a combination of the conventional parallel gradients, and new (i) collisional or (ii) anomalous terms involving products of radial derivatives of the temperature and density with the radial shear of the parallel velocity. Thus, in the presence of anomalous radial diffusion, the parallel ion transport cannot be entirely classical, as usually assumed in numerical edge computations. The underlying physical reason is the appearance of a novel type of parallel thermal force resulting from the combined action of anomalous diffusion and radial temperature and velocity gradients. In highly sheared flows the new terms can modify impurity penetration into the core plasma
Transport profiles induced by radially localized modes in tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beklemishev, A.D.; Horton, W.
1991-04-01
We describe a new approach to the calculation of turbulent transport coefficients for radially localized modes. The theory takes into account the nonuniformity of the distribution of rational (resonant) magnetic surfaces in minor radius. This distribution function is proportional to the density of available states of excitation. The resulting density of state correction qualitatively changes the radial profile of the transport coefficients, as compared to the usual local diffusivity formulae. The correction factor calculated for the η i -mode transport allows a much better agreement of χ i with the experimental data than previously achieved. 8 refs., 3 figs
Ion confinement and transport in a toroidal plasma with externally imposed radial electric fields
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, H. Y.
1979-01-01
Strong electric fields were imposed along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma by biasing it with electrodes maintained at kilovolt potentials. Coherent, low-frequency disturbances characteristic of various magnetohydrodynamic instabilities were absent in the high-density, well-confined regime. High, direct-current radial electric fields with magnitudes up to 135 volts per centimeter penetrated inward to at least one-half the plasma radius. When the electric field pointed radially toward, the ion transport was inward against a strong local density gradient; and the plasma density and confinement time were significantly enhanced. The radial transport along the electric field appeared to be consistent with fluctuation-induced transport. With negative electrode polarity the particle confinement was consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions, in those sectors of the plasma not containing electrodes, that resulted from the radially inward fields; and ion losses to the electrodes, each of the which acted as a sink and drew ions out of the plasma. A simple model of particle confinement was proposed in which the particle confinement time is proportional to the plasma volume. The scaling predicted by this model was consistent with experimental measurements.
The role of radial particle pinches in ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stacey, W.M.; Evans, T.E.
2011-01-01
The force balance in the plasma edge in a matched pair of DIII-D (Luxon 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 6149) tokamak discharges with and without resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is evaluated in order to investigate the effects on particle transport of RMP applied for the purpose of suppressing edge-localized modes (ELMs). Experimental data are used to evaluate the radial and toroidal force balances, which may be written as a pinch-diffusion relation for the radial ion flux to facilitate investigation of transport effects. The radial electric field in the H-mode plasma had a sharp negative dip in the steep gradient region of the edge pedestal, associated with which was a large inward pinch velocity. The main effect of RMP was to make the edge electric field less negative or more positive, reducing this strong negative dip in the radial electric field (even reversing it from negative to positive over some regions), thereby reducing the strong inward particle pinch in the edge of an H-mode discharge, thus causing a reduction in edge density below the ELM threshold.
Transport in Silicon Nanowires: Role of Radial Dopant Profile
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markussen, Troels; Rurali, Riccardo; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2008-01-01
distributions of P dopant impurities. We find that the radial distribution of the dopants influences the conductance properties significantly: surface doped wires have longer mean-free paths and smaller sample-to-sample fluctuations in the cross-over from ballistic to diffusive transport. These findings can...
Transport analysis of radial electric field in helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toda, S.; Itoh, K.
2004-01-01
A set of transport equations is analyzed which induces the radial transition of the electric field. A temperature profile which is related with the transport barrier is obtained by use of the theoretical model for the anomalous transport diffusivities. A dependence on the different initial condition is found even if the same values of the control parameters are used in calculations. A study of the temporal evolution of E r is done. We examine the test of the adopted theoretical model for the anomalous transport diffusivities compared with the experimental result in Large Helical Device (LHD). (authors)
Particle transport due to magnetic fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoneking, M.R.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.; Den Hartog, D.J.
1994-01-01
Electron current fluctuations are measured with an electrostatic energy analyzer at the edge of the MST reversed-field pinch plasma. The radial flux of fast electrons (E>T e ) due to parallel streaming along a fluctuating magnetic field is determined locally by measuring the correlated product e B r >. Particle transport is small just inside the last closed flux surface (Γ e,mag e,total ), but can account for all observed particle losses inside r/a=0.8. Electron diffusion is found to increase with parallel velocity, as expected for diffusion in a region of field stochasticity
Transport modelling including radial electric field and plasma rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuyama, A.; Fuji, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.
1994-01-01
Using a simple turbulent transport model with a constant diffusion coefficient and a fixed temperature profile, the density profile in a steady state and the transient behaviour during the co and counter neutral beam injection are studied. More consistent analysis has been initiated with a turbulent transport model based on the current diffusive high-n ballooning mode. The enhancement of the radial electric field due to ion orbit losses and the reduction of the transport due to the poloidal rotation shear are demonstrated. The preliminary calculation indicates a sensitive temperature dependence of the density profile. (author)
Particle transport in field-reversed configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.
1982-05-01
Particle transport in field-reversed configurations is investigated using a one-dimensional, nondecaying, magnetic field structure. The radial profiles are constrained to satisfy an average ..beta.. condition from two-dimensional equilibrium and a boundary condition at the separatrix to model the balance between closed and open-field-line transport. When applied to the FRX-B experimental data and to the projected performance of the FRX-C device, this model suggests that the particle confinement times obtained with anomalous lower-hybrid-drift transport are in good agreement with the available numerical and experimental data. Larger values of confinement times can be achieved by increasing the ratio of the separatrix radius to the conducting wall radius. Even larger increases in lifetimes might be obtained by improving the open-field-line confinement.
Particle transport in field-reversed configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.
1982-01-01
Particle transport in field-reversed configurations is investigated using a one-dimensional, nondecaying, magnetic field structure. The radial profiles are constrained to satisfy an average β condition from two-dimensional equilibrium and a boundary condition at the separatrix to model the balance between closed and open-field-line transport. When applied to the FRX-B experimental data and to the projected performance of the FRX-C device, this model suggests that the particle confinement times obtained with anomalous lower-hybrid-drift transport are in good agreement with the available numerical and experimental data. Larger values of confinement times can be achieved by increasing the ratio of the separatrix radius to the conducting wall radius. Even larger increases in lifetimes might be obtained by improving the open-field-line confinement
Particle confinement by a radially polarized laser Bessel beam
Laredo, Gilad; Kimura, Wayne D.; Schächter, Levi
2017-03-01
The stable trajectory of a charged particle in an external guiding field is an essential condition for its acceleration or for forcing it to generate radiation. Examples of possible guiding devices include a solenoidal magnetic field or permanent periodic magnet in klystrons, a wiggler in free-electron lasers, the lattice of any accelerator, and finally the crystal lattice for the case of channeling radiation. We demonstrate that the trajectory of a point-charge in a radially polarized laser Bessel beam may be stable similarly to the case of a positron that bounces back and forth in the potential well generated by two adjacent atomic planes. While in the case of channeling radiation, the transverse motion is controlled by a harmonic oscillator equation, for a Bessel beam the transverse motion is controlled by the Mathieu equation. Some characteristics of the motion are presented.
Neoclassical transport and radial electric fields in TJ-K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahbarnia, K.; Greiner, F.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.; Greiner, F.
2003-01-01
The neoclassical transport is investigated in the torsatron TJ-K, which is operated with a low-temperature plasma. In the low-collisionality regime neoclassical losses are not intrinsically ambipolar, leading to the formation of a radial electric field which acts on both neoclassical and turbulent transport. This electric field is measured with a combination of Langmuir and emissive probes. The data are compared with the ambipolar electric field calculated with an analytic model. The experimental fields are positive and larger than the calculated ones. Direct losses of the fast electrons might explain this discrepancy. (orig.)
Core radial electric field and transport in Wendelstein 7-X plasmas
Pablant, N. A.; Langenberg, A.; Alonso, A.; Beidler, C. D.; Bitter, M.; Bozhenkov, S.; Burhenn, R.; Beurskens, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Dinklage, A.; Fuchert, G.; Gates, D.; Geiger, J.; Hill, K. W.; Höfel, U.; Hirsch, M.; Knauer, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Landreman, M.; Lazerson, S.; Maaßberg, H.; Marchuk, O.; Massidda, S.; Neilson, G. H.; Pasch, E.; Satake, S.; Svennson, J.; Traverso, P.; Turkin, Y.; Valson, P.; Velasco, J. L.; Weir, G.; Windisch, T.; Wolf, R. C.; Yokoyama, M.; Zhang, D.; W7-X Team
2018-02-01
The results from the investigation of neoclassical core transport and the role of the radial electric field profile (Er) in the first operational phase of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator are presented. In stellarator plasmas, the details of the Er profile are expected to have a strong effect on both the particle and heat fluxes. Investigation of the radial electric field is important in understanding neoclassical transport and in validation of neoclassical calculations. The radial electric field is closely related to the perpendicular plasma flow (u⊥) through the force balance equation. This allows the radial electric field to be inferred from measurements of the perpendicular flow velocity, which can be measured using the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer and correlation reflectometry diagnostics. Large changes in the perpendicular rotation, on the order of Δu⊥˜ 5 km/s (ΔEr ˜ 12 kV/m), have been observed within a set of experiments where the heating power was stepped down from 2 MW to 0.6 MW. These experiments are examined in detail to explore the relationship between heating power temperature, and density profiles and the radial electric field. Finally, the inferred Er profiles are compared to initial neoclassical calculations based on measured plasma profiles. The results from several neoclassical codes, sfincs, fortec-3d, and dkes, are compared both with each other and the measurements. These comparisons show good agreement, giving confidence in the applicability of the neoclassical calculations to the W7-X configuration.
Radial Flow in a Multiphase Transport Model at FAIR Energies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soumya Sarkar
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Azimuthal distributions of radial velocities of charged hadrons produced in nucleus-nucleus (AB collisions are compared with the corresponding azimuthal distribution of charged hadron multiplicity in the framework of a multiphase transport (AMPT model at two different collision energies. The mean radial velocity seems to be a good probe for studying radial expansion. While the anisotropic parts of the distributions indicate a kind of collective nature in the radial expansion of the intermediate “fireball,” their isotropic parts characterize a thermal motion. The present investigation is carried out keeping the upcoming Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM experiment to be held at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR in mind. As far as high-energy heavy-ion interactions are concerned, CBM will supplement the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC and Large Hadron Collider (LHC experiments. In this context our simulation results at high baryochemical potential would be interesting, when scrutinized from the perspective of an almost baryon-free environment achieved at RHIC and LHC.
Axial SPN and radial MOC coupled whole core transport calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Jin-Young; Kim, Kang-Seog; Lee, Chung-Chan; Zee, Sung-Quun; Joo, Han-Gyu
2007-01-01
The Simplified P N (SP N ) method is applied to the axial solution of the two-dimensional (2-D) method of characteristics (MOC) solution based whole core transport calculation. A sub-plane scheme and the nodal expansion method (NEM) are employed for the solution of the one-dimensional (1-D) SP N equations involving a radial transverse leakage. The SP N solver replaces the axial diffusion solver of the DeCART direct whole core transport code to provide more accurate, transport theory based axial solutions. In the sub-plane scheme, the radial equivalent homogenization parameters generated by the local MOC for a thick plane are assigned to the multiple finer planes in the subsequent global three-dimensional (3-D) coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) calculation in which the NEM is employed for the axial solution. The sub-plane scheme induces a much less nodal error while having little impact on the axial leakage representation of the radial MOC calculation. The performance of the sub-plane scheme and SP N nodal transport solver is examined by solving a set of demonstrative problems and the C5G7MOX 3-D extension benchmark problems. It is shown in the demonstrative problems that the nodal error reaching upto 1,400 pcm in a rodded case is reduced to 10 pcm by introducing 10 sub-planes per MOC plane and the transport error is reduced from about 150 pcm to 10 pcm by using SP 3 . Also it is observed, in the C5G7MOX rodded configuration B problem, that the eigenvalues and pin power errors of 180 pcm and 2.2% of the 10 sub-planes diffusion case are reduced to 40 pcm and 1.4%, respectively, for SP 3 with only about a 15% increase in the computing time. It is shown that the SP 5 case gives very similar results to the SP 3 case. (author)
Sawtooth driven particle transport in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolas, T.
2013-01-01
The radial transport of particles in tokamaks is one of the most stringent issues faced by the magnetic confinement fusion community, because the fusion power is proportional to the square of the pressure, and also because accumulation of heavy impurities in the core leads to important power losses which can lead to a 'radiative collapse'. Sawteeth and the associated periodic redistribution of the core quantities can significantly impact the radial transport of electrons and impurities. In this thesis, we perform numerical simulations of sawteeth using a nonlinear tridimensional magnetohydrodynamic code called XTOR-2F to study the particle transport induced by sawtooth crashes. We show that the code recovers, after the crash, the fine structures of electron density that are observed with fast-sweeping reflectometry on the JET and TS tokamaks. The presence of these structure may indicate a low efficiency of the sawtooth in expelling the impurities from the core. However, applying the same code to impurity profiles, we show that the redistribution is quantitatively similar to that predicted by Kadomtsev's model, which could not be predicted a priori. Hence finally the sawtooth flushing is efficient in expelling impurities from the core. (author) [fr
Overview on the radial electric field, plasma rotation and transport in the stellarator W7-AS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldzuhn, J.; Kick, M.; Maassberg, H.; Ohlendorf, W.
1998-01-01
In the advanced stellarator W7-AS the radial electric field E r is measured by active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy CXRS. In parallel, it is calculated by using the neoclassical DKES code. A comparison of calculated and measured solutions reveals in how far the neoclassical model is valid for the description of the radial particle transport and the formation of E r . In general good consistency is found, even for the outer radii where the neoclassical fluxes become much smaller than the experimental ones. In this paper the interplay between the particular E r roots and transport is considered. For strongly positive E r a reduction of χ e is observed in the vicinity of the magnetic axis. The typically negative ion-root in the gradient region strongly influences the local ∇ T i , thus determining the maximum attainable T i (0). (author)
Turbulent fluctuations and radial transport in the scrape-off layer of the ASDEX tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Endler, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85740 Garching (Germany); Giannone, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85740 Garching (Germany); McCormick, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85740 Garching (Germany); Niedermeyer, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85740 Garching (Germany); Rudyj, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85740 Garching (Germany); Theimer, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85740 Garching (Germany); Tsois, N [NCSR ` Demokritos` , Athens (Greece); ASDEX Team
1995-04-01
Electrostatic fluctuations have been measured in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX by Langmuir probes and by observation of H{sub {alpha}} light with high poloidal and temporal resolution. It was demonstrated that these fluctuations contribute a significant, if not dominant, fraction of the ``anomalous`` radial particle transport. A model for an instability mechanism specific to the SOL is presented including density, temperature and electric potential fluctuations. From this model mixing length estimates for the radial transport and resulting density and pressure gradients in the SOL are derived and compared to measurements in the mid-plane and in the divertor of ASDEX. In spite of several simplifications in the model a quantitative agreement up to factors of 1-3 and a qualitative agreement for variations of discharge parameters is achieved between the model predictions and the measurements. ((orig.)).
Turbulent fluctuations and radial transport in the scrape-off layer of the ASDEX tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; McCormick, K.; Niedermeyer, H.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.; Tsois, N.
1995-01-01
Electrostatic fluctuations have been measured in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX by Langmuir probes and by observation of H α light with high poloidal and temporal resolution. It was demonstrated that these fluctuations contribute a significant, if not dominant, fraction of the ''anomalous'' radial particle transport. A model for an instability mechanism specific to the SOL is presented including density, temperature and electric potential fluctuations. From this model mixing length estimates for the radial transport and resulting density and pressure gradients in the SOL are derived and compared to measurements in the mid-plane and in the divertor of ASDEX. In spite of several simplifications in the model a quantitative agreement up to factors of 1-3 and a qualitative agreement for variations of discharge parameters is achieved between the model predictions and the measurements. ((orig.))
Effects of radial electrical field on neoclassical transport in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhongtian; Le Clair, G.
1996-07-01
Neoclassical transport theory for tokamaks in presence of a radial electrical field with shear is developed using Hamiltonian formalism. Diffusion coefficients are derived in both plateau regime including a large electric field and banana regime including the squeezing factor which can greatly affect diffusion at the plasma edge. The scaling on squeezing factor is different from the one given by Shaing and Hazeltine. Rotation speeds are calculated in the scrape-off region. They are in good agreement with measurements on TdeV Tokamak. (2 figs.)
Effects of finite-β and radial electric fields on neoclassical transport in the Large Helical Device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, R.; Nakajima, N.; Sugama, H.; Okamoto, M.; Ogawa, Y.
1997-01-01
Effects of finite-β and radial electric fields on the neoclassical transport in the Large Helical Device are investigated with the DKES (Drift Kinetic Equation Solver) code. In the finite-β configuration, even orbits of deeply trapped particles deviate significantly from magnetic flux surfaces. Thus, neoclassical ripple transport coefficients in the finite-β configuration are several times larger than those in the vacuum configuration under the same condition of temperatures and radial electric fields. When the plasma temperature is several keV, a bifurcation of the electric fields appears under the ambipolarity condition, and sufficient large radial electric fields can be generated. As a result, the ExB drift rectifies orbits of particles and improves significantly the transport coefficients in the finite-β configuration. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilmore, Mark Allen
2017-01-01
Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB's)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB's] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilmore, Mark Allen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-02-05
Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB’s)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB’s] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.
Potential measurement and radial transport in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, K.; Katanuma, I.; Segawa, T.; Ohkawara, H.; Mase, A.; Miyoshi, S.
1989-01-01
GAMMA 10 is an effectively axisymmetric tandem mirror with thermal barriers. Potential information is important to investigate the plasma confinement. The barrier and central space potentials are determined by means of two gold neutral beam probes. Two-dimensional potential profiles have been measured in the barrier cell. In GAMMA 10, to assure magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stability, the nonaxisymmetric minimum-B mirror cells are contained between the central-solenoid and the plug/barrier cells at the ends of the machine. From the point of view of neoclassical resonant-plateau transport in circular equipotential contours, this effective axisymmetrization is successful. The measured potential profiles are slightly elongated during the onset of ω ce ECRH. In this paper we report the beam probe potential measurement, the neoclassical ion radial transport in the noncircular equipotential surface and the thermal barrier potential. (author) 6 refs., 5 figs
Ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tani, K.; Takizuka, T.; Azumi, M.
1986-01-01
The ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles has been studied by the newly developed Monte-Carlo code in which the motion of banana orbit in a toroidal field ripple is described by a mapping method. The existence of ripple-resonance diffusion has been confirmed numerically. We have developed another new code in which the radial displacement of banana orbit is given by the diffusion coefficients from the mapping code or the orbit following Monte-Carlo code. The ripple loss of α particles during slowing down has been estimated by the mapping model code as well as the diffusion model code. From the comparison of the results with those from the orbit-following Monte-Carlo code, it has been found that all of them agree very well. (author)
Drift Wave Test Particle Transport in Reversed Shear Profile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.; Park, H.B.; Kwon, J.M.; Stronzzi, D.; Morrison, P.J.; Choi, D.I.
1998-01-01
Drift wave maps, area preserving maps that describe the motion of charged particles in drift waves, are derived. The maps allow the integration of particle orbits on the long time scale needed to describe transport. Calculations using the drift wave maps show that dramatic improvement in the particle confinement, in the presence of a given level and spectrum of E x B turbulence, can occur for q(r)-profiles with reversed shear. A similar reduction in the transport, i.e. one that is independent of the turbulence, is observed in the presence of an equilibrium radial electric field with shear. The transport reduction, caused by the combined effects of radial electric field shear and both monotonic and reversed shear magnetic q-profiles, is also investigated
Kinetic transport properties of a bumpy torus with finite radial ambipolar field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.; Harris, E.G.; Hedrick, C.L.
1978-04-01
Bumpy torus neoclassical transport coefficients have been calculted including finite values of the radial ambipolar field. These are obtained by solving a bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation in a local approximation for perturbations in the distribution function (away from a stationary Maxwellian) caused by toroidicity and radial gradients in plasma density, temperature, and potential. Particle and energy fluxes along with the associated transport coefficients are then calculated by taking appropriate moments of the distribution function. Particle orbits are treated by breaking them up into a vertical drift component (due to toroidicity) and a theta precessional drift (as a result of Vector E x Vector B and drifts due to the bumpy toroidal field). The kinetic equation has been solved using both a functional expansion method and finite difference techniques [Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI)]. The resulting transport coefficients exhibit a strong dependence on the ambipolar electric field and plasma collisionality. In the large electric field limit, our results are in close agreement with the earlier work of Kovrizhnykh
Particle transport in urban dwellings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cannell, R.J.; Goddard, A.J.H.; ApSimon, H.M.
1988-01-01
A quantitative investigation of the potential for contamination of a dwelling by material carried in on the occupants' footwear has been completed. Data are now available on the transport capacity of different footwear for a small range of particle sizes and contamination source strengths. Additional information is also given on the rate of redistribution
Crombé, K; Andrew, Y; Brix, M; Giroud, C; Hacquin, S; Hawkes, N C; Murari, A; Nave, M F F; Ongena, J; Parail, V; Van Oost, G; Voitsekhovitch, I; Zastrow, K-D
2005-10-07
Results from the first measurements of a core plasma poloidal rotation velocity (upsilontheta) across internal transport barriers (ITB) on JET are presented. The spatial and temporal evolution of the ITB can be followed along with the upsilontheta radial profiles, providing a very clear link between the location of the steepest region of the ion temperature gradient and localized spin-up of upsilontheta. The upsilontheta measurements are an order of magnitude higher than the neoclassical predictions for thermal particles in the ITB region, contrary to the close agreement found between the determined and predicted particle and heat transport coefficients [K.-D. Zastrow, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 46, B255 (2004)]. These results have significant implications for the understanding of transport barrier dynamics due to their large impact on the measured radial electric field profile.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JOHN WILLIAM BRANCH
2007-01-01
Full Text Available La creación de modelos de objetos reales es una tarea compleja para la cual se ha visto que el uso de técnicas tradicionales de modelamiento tiene restricciones. Para resolver algunos de estos problemas, los sensores de rango basados en láser se usan con frecuencia para muestrear la superficie de un objeto desde varios puntos de vista, lo que resulta en un conjunto de imágenes de rango que son registradas e integradas en un modelo final triangulado. En la práctica, debido a las propiedades reflectivas de la superficie, las oclusiones, y limitaciones de acceso, ciertas áreas de la superficie del objeto usualmente no son muestreadas, dejando huecos que pueden crear efectos indeseables en el modelo integrado. En este trabajo, presentamos un nuevo algoritmo para el llenado de huecos a partir de modelos triangulados. El algoritmo comienza localizando la frontera de las regiones donde están los huecos. Un hueco consiste de un camino cerrado de bordes de los triángulos en la frontera que tienen al menos un borde que no es compartido con ningún otro triangulo. El borde del hueco es entonces adaptado mediante un B-Spline donde la variación promedio de la torsión del la aproximación del B-spline es calculada. Utilizando un simple umbral de la variación promedio a lo largo del borde, se puede clasificar automáticamente, entre huecos reales o generados por intervención humana. Siguiendo este proceso de clasificación, se usa entonces una versión automatizada del interpolador de funciones de base radial para llenar el interior del hueco usando los bordes vecinos.
Radial transport of poloidal momentum in ASDEX Upgrade in L-mode and H-mode
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schrittwieser, R.; Mehlmann, F.; Naulin, Volker
2012-01-01
A reciprocating probe was used for localized measurements of the radial transport of poloidal momentum in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). The probe measured poloidal and radial electric field components and density. We concentrate on three components of the momentum transport: ......: Reynolds stress, convective momentum flux and triple product of the fluctuating components of density, radial and poloidal electric field. For the evaluation we draw mainly on the probability density functions (PDFs)....
Rainbow refractometry on particles with radial refractive index gradients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saengkaew, Sawitree [CNRS/Universite et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6614/CORIA, BP12, 76 800, Saint Etienne du Rouvray CEDEX (France); Chulalongkorn University, Center of Excellence in Particle Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand); Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Vanisri, Hathaichanok; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut [Chulalongkorn University, Center of Excellence in Particle Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand); Biscos, Yves; Garcia, Nicolas; Lavergne, Gerard [ONERA/DMAE, Toulouse (France); Mees, Loic; Gouesbet, Gerard; Grehan, Gerard [CNRS/Universite et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6614/CORIA, BP12, 76 800, Saint Etienne du Rouvray CEDEX (France)
2007-10-15
The rainbow refractrometry, under its different configurations (classical and global), is an attractive technique to extract information from droplets in evaporation such as diameter and temperature. Recently a new processing strategy has been developed which increases dramatically the size and refractive index measurements accuracy for homogeneous droplets. Nevertheless, for mono component as well as for multicomponent droplets, the presence of temperature and/or of concentration gradients induce the presence of a gradient of refractive index which affects the interpretation of the recorded signals. In this publication, the effect of radial gradient on rainbow measurements with a high accuracy never reached previously is quantified. (orig.)
Radial dose distribution of 6.0 MeV/n α-particle in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soga, F.; Sato, Y.; Hirabayashi, M.; Ohsawa, D.
2003-01-01
For the study of radiation biology and its application to radiotherapy, the double differential cross section of electron emission from water vapor induced by 6.0 MeV alpha particle beam is measured. The energy spectra of electrons ranging 7- 10000 eV are detected by the electrostatic analyzer and micro channel plate. The measurements are made at angles between 20 and 160 degrees. With use of this data set, the radial dose distribution in water is calculated by using KURBUC code. It is the Monte Carlo type code of the electron transport process, where the track of the electron is simulated through each individual interactions including elastic scattering, ionization cross section and total excitation cross section in case that electrons with certain energy are put in the liquid-density water. In order to understand the effect of radiation when the particle flux is injected in the human body like radiotherapy using accelerator beam, the dose distribution in the biological substances is essential as the first step to know the effect of irradiation. From the double differential cross sections obtained, the cumulative density functions are produced concerning both energy and angle. These functions are used for the initial randomly produced rays for 3 dimensional Monte Carlo track simulations. The results show that the track of electrons emitted and slowed down is most frequent in the perpendicular direction to the initial beam direction and most of the secondary electrons are stopped within the range of 100 nanometers. The characteristic of the obtained radial dose distribution is nearly 1/r 2 dependence with broad plateau region (penumbra) and gradual decreasing tail of penumbra extending more than a few micrometers which is much longer than the theoretical prediction
Radial diffusion of toroidally trapped particles induced by lower hybrid and fast waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krlin, L.
1992-10-01
The interaction of RF field with toroidally trapped particles (bananas) can cause their intrinsic stochastically diffusion both in the configuration and velocity space. In RF heating and/or current drive regimes, RF field can interact with plasma particles and with thermonuclear alpha particles. The aim of this contribution is to give some analytical estimates of induced radial diffusion of alphas and of ions. (author)
Gyrokinetics Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, Patrick H.
2011-09-21
Progress in research during this year elucidated the physics of precession resonance and its interaction with radial scattering to form phase space density granulations. Momentum theorems for drift wave-zonal flow systems involving precession resonance were derived. These are directly generalizable to energetic particle modes. A novel nonlinear, subcritical growth mechanism was identified, which has now been verified by simulation. These results strengthen the foundation of our understanding of transport in burning plasmas
Gyrokinetics Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, Patrick H.
2011-01-01
Progress in research during this year elucidated the physics of precession resonance and its interaction with radial scattering to form phase space density granulations. Momentum theorems for drift wave-zonal flow systems involving precession resonance were derived. These are directly generalizable to energetic particle modes. A novel nonlinear, subcritical growth mechanism was identified, which has now been verified by simulation. These results strengthen the foundation of our understanding of transport in burning plasmas
Axial and radial water transport and internal water storage in tropical forest canopy trees.
Shelley A. James; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guillermo Goldstein; David Woodruff; Timothy Jones; Teresa Restom; Monica Mejia; Michael Clearwater; Paula. Campanello
2003-01-01
Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single...
Bifurcated transition of radial transport in the HIEI tandem mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, O.; Yasaka, Y.
1995-01-01
Transition to a high radial confinement mode in a mirror plasma is triggered by limiter biasing. Sheared plasma rotation is induced in the high confinement phase which is characterized by reduction of edge turbulence and a confinement enhancement factor of 2-4. Edge plasma parameters related to radial confinement show a hysteresis phenomenon as a function of bias voltage or bias current, leading to the fact that transition from low to high confinement mode occurs between the bifurcated states. A transition model based on azimuthal momentum balance is employed to clarify physics of the observed bifurcation. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Variations of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport in different experimental conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrzilka, V.
1993-08-01
Variations of the helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented in dependence on values of the plasma radius, magnetostatic field, plasma density, frequency of the helicon wave and on the ion charge. 22 refs., 14 figs
He, H.-Q.; Zhou, G.; Wan, W.
2017-06-01
A functional form {I}\\max (R)={{kR}}-α , where R is the radial distance of a spacecraft, was usually used to model the radial dependence of peak intensities {I}\\max (R) of solar energetic particles (SEPs). In this work, the five-dimensional Fokker-Planck transport equation incorporating perpendicular diffusion is numerically solved to investigate the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities. We consider two different scenarios for the distribution of a spacecraft fleet: (1) along the radial direction line and (2) along the Parker magnetic field line. We find that the index α in the above expression varies in a wide range, primarily depending on the properties (e.g., location and coverage) of SEP sources and on the longitudinal and latitudinal separations between the sources and the magnetic foot points of the observers. Particularly, whether the magnetic foot point of the observer is located inside or outside the SEP source is a crucial factor determining the values of index α. A two-phase phenomenon is found in the radial dependence of peak intensities. The “position” of the break point (transition point/critical point) is determined by the magnetic connection status of the observers. This finding suggests that a very careful examination of the magnetic connection between the SEP source and each spacecraft should be taken in the observational studies. We obtain a lower limit of {R}-1.7+/- 0.1 for empirically modeling the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities. Our findings in this work can be used to explain the majority of the previous multispacecraft survey results, and especially to reconcile the different or conflicting empirical values of the index α in the literature.
Ryu, Duchwan; Liang, Faming; Mallick, Bani K.
2013-01-01
be modeled by a dynamic system which changes with time and location. In this article, we propose a radial basis function network-based dynamic model which is able to catch the nonlinearity of the data and propose to use the dynamically weighted particle
The role of fluctuation-induced transport in a toroidal plasma with strong radial electric fields
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.
1981-01-01
Previous work employing digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques is extended to demonstrate that radial fluctuation-induced transport is the dominant ion transport mechanism in an electric field dominated toroidal plasma. Such transport can be made to occur against a density gradient, and hence may have a very beneficial effect on confinement in toroidal plasmas of fusion interest. It is shown that Bohm or classical diffusion down a density gradient, the collisional Pedersen-current mechanism, and the collisionless electric field gradient mechanism described by Cole (1976) all played a minor role, if any, in the radial transport of this plasma.
Radial electric field and transport near the rational surface and the magnetic island in LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Tamura, N.
2002-10-01
The structure of the radial electric field and heat transport at the magnetic island in the Large Helical Device is investigated by measuring the radial profile of poloidal flow with charge exchange spectroscopy. The convective poloidal flow inside the island is observed when the n/m=1/1 external perturbation field becomes large enough to increase the magnetic island width above a critical value (15-20% of minor radius) in LHD. This convective poloidal flow results in a non-flat space potential inside the magnetic island. The sign of the curvature of the space potential depends on the radial electric field at the boundary of the magnetic island. The heat transport inside the magnetic island is studied with a cold pulse propagation technique. The experimental results show the existence of the radial electric field shear at the boundary of the magnetic island and a reduction of heat transport inside the magnetic island. (author)
Feng, Yongjiu; Liu, Miaolong; Tong, Xiaohua
2007-06-01
An improved fractal measurement, the weighted radial dimension, is put forward for highway transportation networks distribution. The radial dimension (DL), originated from subway investigation in Stuttgart, is a fractal measurement for transportation systems under ideal assumption considering all the network lines to be homogeneous curves, ignoring the difference on spatial structure, quality and level, especially the highway networks. Considering these defects of radial dimension, an improved fractal measurement called weighted radial dimension (D WL) is introduced and the transportation system in Guangdong province is studied in detail using this novel method. Weighted radial dimensions are measured and calculated, and the spatial structure, intensity and connectivity of transportation networks are discussed in Guangdong province and the four sub-areas: the Pearl River Delta area, the East Costal area, the West Costal area and the Northern Guangdong area. In Guangdong province, the fractal spatial pattern characteristics of transportation system vary remarkably: it is the highest in the Pearl River Delta area, moderate in Costal area and lowest in the Northern Guangdong area. With the Pearl River Delta area as the centre, the weighted radial dimensions decrease with the distance increasing, while the decline level is smaller in the costal area and greater in the Northern Guangdong province. By analysis of the conic of highway density, it is recognized that the density decrease with the distance increasing from the calculation centre (Guangzhou), demonstrating the same trend as weighted radial dimensions shown. Evidently, the improved fractal measurement, weighted radial dimension, is an indictor describing the characteristics of highway transportation system more effectively and accurately.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motojima, Osamu; Shishkin, A.A.; Inagaki, Shigeru; Watanabe, Kiyomasa
1999-08-01
The possibility of controlling the radial electric field of toroidal plasmas by injecting high energy electrons along the reversible loss cone orbit of the helical magnetic traps is investigated. It is well known that the radial electric field plays an important role in the confinement improvement scenario especially in the low collisional regime under the physics picture of neoclassical theory. For this purpose, it is made clear that the most suitable particles are transit particles, which show a transition from helically trapped orbits to blocked ones. It is also found that a parallel AC electric field launched from outside assists this transition and makes it possible for particles to penetrate deeply into the plasma. In addition we clarify that the viscosity of the plasma coupled with the helical field configuration provide a bifurcation of plasma states and its stable solution results in confinement improvement. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuster, Eugenio
2014-05-02
The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kernbichler, W.; Heyn, M.F.; Kasilov, S.V.
2003-01-01
Convective transport of supra-thermal electrons can play a significant role in the energy balance of stellarators in case of high power electron cyclotron heating. Here, together with neoclassical thermal particle fluxes also the supra-thermal electron flux should be taken into account in the flux ambipolarity condition, which defines the self-consistent radial electric field. Since neoclassical particle fluxes are non-linear functions of the radial electric field, one needs an iterative procedure to solve the ambipolarity condition, where the supra-thermal electron flux has to be calculated for each iteration. A conventional Monte-Carlo method used earlier for evaluation of supra-thermal electron fluxes is rather slow for performing the iterations in reasonable computer time. In the present report, the Stochastic Mapping Technique (SMT), which is more effective than the conventional Monte Carlo method, is used instead. Here, the problem with a local monoenergetic supra-thermal particle source is considered and the effect of supra-thermal electron fluxes on both, the self-consistent radial electric field and the formation of different roots of the ambipolarity condition are studied
A model for radial cesium transport in a fuel pellet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imoto, Shosuke
1989-01-01
In order to explain the radial redistribution of cesium in an irradiated pellet, a two-step release model is proposed. The first step involves the migration of cesium by atomic diffusion to some channels, such as grain boundaries and cracks, and the second step assumes a thermomigration down along the temperature gradient. Distribution profiles of cesium are obtained by numerical calculation with the present model assuming a constant and spatially uniform birth rate of cesium in the pellet. The result agrees well with the profile observed by micro-gamma scanning for the LWR fuel in the outer region of the pellet but diverges from it at the inner region. Discussion is made on the steady-state model hitherto generally utilized. (orig.)
Radial transport of high-energy runaway electrons in ORMAK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zweben, S.J.; Swain, D.W.; Fleischmann, H.H.
1978-01-01
The transport of high-energy runaway electrons near the outside of a low-density ORMAK discharge is investigated by measuring the flux of runaways to the outer limiter during and after an inward shift of the plasma column. The experimental results are interpreted through a runaway confinement model which includes both the classical outward displacement of the runaway orbit with increasing energy and an additional runaway spatial diffusion coefficient which simulates an unspecified source of anomalous transport. Diffusion coefficients in the range D approximately equal to 10 2 -10 4 cms -1 are found under various discharge conditions indicating a significant non-collisional runaway transport near the outside of the discharge, particularly in the presence of MHD instability. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.
1978-05-01
A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-β micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.
1978-05-01
A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-..beta.. micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient.
Particle transport in porous media
Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz; Hunt, James R.
The migration and capture of particles (such as colloidal materials and microorganisms) through porous media occur in fields as diversified as water and wastewater treatment, well drilling, and various liquid-solid separation processes. In liquid waste disposal projects, suspended solids can cause the injection well to become clogged, and groundwater quality can be endangered by suspended clay and silt particles because of migration to the formation adjacent to the well bore. In addition to reducing the permeability of the soil, mobile particles can carry groundwater contaminants adsorbed onto their surfaces. Furthermore, as in the case of contamination from septic tanks, the particles themselves may be pathogens, i.e., bacteria and viruses.
Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sallander, J.
1999-01-01
Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities. (author)
Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch
Sallander, J.
1999-05-01
Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities.
Transient particle transport studies at the W7-AS stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koponen, J.
2000-01-01
One of the crucial problems in fusion research is the understanding of the transport of particles and heat in plasmas relevant for energy production. Extensive experimental transport studies have unraveled many details of heat transport in tokamaks and stellarators. However, due to larger experimental difficulties, the properties of particle transport have remained much less known. In particular, very few particle transport studies have been carried out in stellarators. This thesis summarises the transient particle transport experiments carried out at the Wendelstein 7-Advanced Stellarator (W7-AS). The main diagnostics tool was a 10-channel microwave interferometer. A technique for reconstructing the electron density profiles from the multichannel interferometer data was developed and implemented. The interferometer and the reconstruction software provide high quality electron density measurements with high temporal and sufficient spatial resolution. The density reconstruction is based on regularization methods studied during the development work. An extensive program of transient particle transport studies was carried out with the gas modulation method. The experiments resulted in a scaling expression for the diffusion coefficient. Transient inward convection was found in the edge plasma. The role of convection is minor in the core plasma, except at higher heating power, when an outward directed convective flux is observed. Radially peaked density profiles were found in discharges free of significant central density sources. Such density profiles are usually observed in tokamaks, but never before in W7-AS. Existence of an inward pinch is confirmed with two independent transient transport analysis methods. The density peaking is possible if the plasma is heated with extreme off-axis Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH), when the temperature gradient vanishes in the core plasma, and if the gas puffing level is relatively low. The transport of plasma particles and heat
Optimal transport of particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, C.K.; Reiser, M.
1997-01-01
The transport and matching problem for a low energy transport system is approached from a control theoretical viewpoint. We develop a model for a beam transport and matching section based on a multistage control network. To this model we apply the principles of optimal control to formulate techniques aiding in the design of the transport and matching section. Both nonlinear programming and dynamic programming techniques are used in the optimization. These techniques are implemented in a computer-aided design program called SPOT. Examples are presented to demonstrate the procedure and outline the results. (orig.)
Particle and heat transport in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatelier, M.
1984-01-01
A limitation to performances of tokamaks is heat transport through magnetic surfaces. Principles of ''classical'' or ''neoclassical'' transport -i.e. transport due to particle and heat fluxes due to Coulomb scattering of charged particle in a magnetic field- are exposed. It is shown that beside this classical effect, ''anomalous'' transport occurs; it is associated to the existence of fluctuating electric or magnetic fields which can appear in the plasma as a result of charge and current perturbations. Tearing modes and drift wave instabilities are taken as typical examples. Experimental features are presented which show that ions behave approximately in a classical way whereas electrons are strongly anomalous [fr
Root cortical aerenchyma inhibits radial nutrient transport in maize (Zea mays).
Hu, Bo; Henry, Amelia; Brown, Kathleen M; Lynch, Jonathan P
2014-01-01
Formation of root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) can be induced by nutrient deficiency. In species adapted to aerobic soil conditions, this response is adaptive by reducing root maintenance requirements, thereby permitting greater soil exploration. One trade-off of RCA formation may be reduced radial transport of nutrients due to reduction in living cortical tissue. To test this hypothesis, radial nutrient transport in intact roots of maize (Zea mays) was investigated in two radiolabelling experiments employing genotypes with contrasting RCA. In the first experiment, time-course dynamics of phosphate loading into the xylem were measured from excised nodal roots that varied in RCA formation. In the second experiment, uptake of phosphate, calcium and sulphate was measured in seminal roots of intact young plants in which variation in RCA was induced by treatments altering ethylene action or genetic differences. In each of three paired genotype comparisons, the rate of phosphate exudation of high-RCA genotypes was significantly less than that of low-RCA genotypes. In the second experiment, radial nutrient transport of phosphate and calcium was negatively correlated with the extent of RCA for some genotypes. The results support the hypothesis that RCA can reduce radial transport of some nutrients in some genotypes, which could be an important trade-off of this trait.
Stochastic transport of particles across single barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kreuter, Christian; Siems, Ullrich; Henseler, Peter; Nielaba, Peter; Leiderer, Paul; Erbe, Artur
2012-01-01
Transport phenomena of interacting particles are of high interest for many applications in biology and mesoscopic systems. Here we present measurements on colloidal particles, which are confined in narrow channels on a substrate and interact with a barrier, which impedes the motion along the channel. The substrate of the particle is tilted in order for the particles to be driven towards the barrier and, if the energy gained by the tilt is large enough, surpass the barrier by thermal activation. We therefore study the influence of this barrier as well as the influence of particle interaction on the particle transport through such systems. All experiments are supported with Brownian dynamics simulations in order to complement the experiments with tests of a large range of parameter space which cannot be accessed in experiments.
Analysis of influence of the radial electric field on turbulent transport in tandem mirror plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khvesyuk, Vladimir I.; Chirkov, Alexei Yu.; Pshenichnikov, Anton A.
2000-01-01
The model of anomalous transport in cylindrical non-uniform steady state plasma in uniform magnetic field under the influence of many mode drift wave oscillations is suggested. The effect of anomalous transport suppression due to radial electric field is studied, and physical picture of H mode in plasma of GAMMA-10 tandem mirror device is considered. Presented theoretical and numerical results agree with the experimental data obtained on GAMMA-10. (author)
Energy transport in radially accreting white dwarf stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, A.M.
1986-10-01
Some of the non-thermal energy transport processes which may be present in a white dwarf accretion column are examined and it is determined whether these could in any way contribute to a resolution of the soft X-ray puzzle. The first two Chapters of this Thesis constitute a review of the observations and proposed models for white dwarf accretion columns. In Chapter 3 we show that in Kuijpers and Pringle's original bombardment model of white dwarf accretion columns, in which the energy of the accreting material is deposited uniformly into a static atmosphere which then radiates the energy away as optically thin bremsstrahlung/line radiation, an incorrect Coulomb collisional timescale was used. In Chapter 4 we extend the calculations of Chapter 3 to include the effect of cyclotron radiation. It is concluded that a cyclotron cooled bombardment solution for a white dwarf accretion column may exist. We extend this calculation to derive a simple piecewise uniform temperature structure for such an accretion column, incorporating the effect of thermal conduction. In Chaper 5 we examine two of the non thermal emission mechanisms that might be present in white dwarf accretion columns:- non thermal Lyman-{alpha} emission and non thermal inverse bremsstrahlung emission. It is shown that neither would actually be sufficiently large to be detectable. In Chapter 6 some possible extensions to the work presented are suggested. (author).
Density Dependence of Particle Transport in ECH Plasmas of the TJ-II Stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vargas, V. I.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Guasp, J.; Herranz, J.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Ochando, M.A.; Velasco, J.L.; Reynolds, J.M.; Ferreira, J.A.; Tafalla, D.; Castejon, F.; Salas, A.
2009-05-21
We present the experimental dependence of particle transport on average density in electron cyclotron heated (ECH) hydrogen plasmas of the TJ-II stellarator. The results are based on: (I) electron density and temperature data from Thomson Scattering and reflectometry diagnostics; (II) a transport model that reproduces the particle density profiles in steady state; and (III) Eirene, a code for neutrals transport that calculates the particle source in the plasma from the particle confinement time and the appropriate geometry of the machine/plasma. After estimating an effective particle diffusivity and the particle confinement time, a threshold density separating qualitatively and quantitatively different plasma transport regimes is found. The poor confinement times found below the threshold are coincident with the presence of ECH-induced fast electron losses and a positive radial electric field all over the plasma. (Author) 40 refs.
Radial rescaling approach for the eigenvalue problem of a particle in an arbitrarily shaped box.
Lijnen, Erwin; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Ceulemans, Arnout
2008-01-01
In the present work we introduce a methodology for solving a quantum billiard with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The procedure starts from the exactly known solutions for the particle in a circular disk, which are subsequently radially rescaled in such a way that they obey the new boundary conditions. In this way one constructs a complete basis set which can be used to obtain the eigenstates and eigenenergies of the corresponding quantum billiard to a high level of precision. Test calculations for several regular polygons show the efficiency of the method which often requires one or two basis functions to describe the lowest eigenstates with high accuracy.
Particle-transport simulation with the Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, L.L.; Cashwell, E.D.
1975-01-01
Attention is focused on the application of the Monte Carlo method to particle transport problems, with emphasis on neutron and photon transport. Topics covered include sampling methods, mathematical prescriptions for simulating particle transport, mechanics of simulating particle transport, neutron transport, and photon transport. A literature survey of 204 references is included. (GMT)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Shi
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Determination of the radial profile of phase space density of relativistic electrons at constant adiabatic invariants is crucial for identifying the source for them within the outer radiation belt. The commonly used method is to convert flux observed at fixed energy to phase space density at constant first, second and third adiabatic invariants, which requires an empirical global magnetic field model and thus might produce some uncertainties in the final results. From a different perspective, in this paper we indirectly infer the shape of the radial profile of phase space density of relativistic electrons near the geosynchronous region by statistically examining the geosynchronous energetic flux response to 128 solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements during the years 2000 to 2003. We thus avoid the disadvantage of using empirical magnetic field models. Our results show that the flux response is species and energy dependent. For protons and low-energy electrons, the primary response to magnetospheric compression is an increase in flux at geosynchronous orbit. For relativistic electrons, the dominant response is a decrease in flux, which implies that the phase space density decreases toward increasing radial distance at geosynchronous orbit and leads to a local peak inside of geosynchronous orbit. The flux response of protons and non-relativistic electrons could result from a phase density that increases toward increasing radial distance, but this cannot be determined for sure due to the particle energization associated with pressure enhancements. Our results for relativistic electrons are consistent with previous results obtained using magnetic field models, thus providing additional confirmation that these results are correct and indicating that they are not the result of errors in their selected magnetic field model.
Radial transport in the Elmo Bumpy Torus in collisionless electron regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaeger, E.F.; Hedrick, C.L.; Spong, D.A.
1979-01-01
One important area of disagreement between radial transport theory and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) experiment has been the degree of collisionality of the toroidal plasma electrons. Experiment shows relatively warm electrons (kTsub(e) approximately 300-600eV) and collisionless scaling, i.e. energy confinement increasing with temperature. But results of early one-dimensional (1-D), neoclassical transport models with radially inward pointing electric fields are limited to relatively cool electrons (kTsub(e) approximately 100-200eV) and collisional scaling. In this paper these early results are extended to include lowest-order effects of ion diffusion in regions where poloidal drift frequencies are small. The effects of direct, or non-diffusive, losses in such regions are neglected along with the effects of finite radial electric fields on electron transport coefficients and of self-consistent poloidal electric fields on ion transport coefficients. Results show that solutions in the collisionless electron regime do exist. Furthermore, when the effects of finite electron ring beta on magnetic fields near the plasma edge are included, these solutions occur at power levels consistent with experiment. (author)
Finite-orbit-width effect and the radial electric field in neoclassical transport phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satake, S.; Okamoto, M.; Nakajima, N.; Sugama, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Beidler, C.D.
2005-01-01
Modeling and detailed simulation of neoclassical transport phenomena both in 2D and 3D toroidal configurations are shown. The emphasis is put on the effect of finiteness of the drift-orbit width, which brings a non-local nature to neoclassical transport phenomena. Evolution of the self-consistent radial electric field in the framework of neoclassical transport is also investigated. The combination of Monte-Carlo calculation for ion transport and numerical solver of ripple-averaged kinetic equation for electrons makes it possible to calculate neoclassical fluxes and the time evolution of the radial electric field in the whole plasma region, including the finite-orbit-width (FOW) effects and global evolution of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM). The simulation results show that the heat conductivity around the magnetic axis is smaller than that obtained from standard neoclassical theory and that the evolution of GAM oscillation on each flux surface is coupled with other surfaces if the FOW effect is significant. A global simulation of radial electric field evolution in a non-axisymmetric plasma is also shown. (author)
An axially averaged-radial transport model of tokamak edge plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prinja, A.K.; Conn, R.W.
1984-01-01
A two-zone axially averaged-radial transport model for edge plasmas is described that incorporates parallel electron and ion conduction, localized recycling, parallel electron pressure gradient effects and sheath losses. Results for high recycling show that the radial electron temperature profile is determined by parallel electron conduction over short radial distances (proportional 3 cm). At larger radius where Tsub(e) has fallen appreciably, convective transport becomes equally important. The downstream density and ion temperature profiles are very flat over the region where electron conduction dominates. This is seen to result from a sharply decaying velocity profile that follows the radial electron temperature. A one-dimensional analytical recycling model shows that at high neutral pumping rates, the plasma density at the plate, nsub(ia), scales linearly with the unperturbed background density, nsub(io). When ionization dominates nsub(ia)/nsub(io) proportional exp(nsub(io)) while in the intermediate regime nsub(ia)/nsub(io) proportional exp(proportional nsub(io)). Such behavior is qualitatively in accord with experimental observations. (orig.)
Particle transport in inclined annuli
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurtzhals, Erik
1993-12-31
A new model for the formation and behaviour of deposits in inclined wellbores is formulated. The annular space is divided into two layers, separated by a distinct plane boundary. While the lower layer is taken to consist of closely packed cuttings, the upper layer is presumed to behave as a pure fluid. A force balance for the lower layer decides whether it is stationary or slides in the upwards- or downwards direction. The position of the deposit surface is governed by the fluid shear stress at the deposit surface. The proposed model represents a major improvement compared to an earlier model. The predictions from the SCSB-model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results obtained by the author, and results published by research groups in the U.S.A., United Kingdom and Germany. The quantitative agreement is variable, presumably because the SCSB-model is a somewhat simplified description of particle behaviour in inclined annuli. However, the model provides a clearer understanding of the physical background for previously published experimental results. In order to couple the theoretical work with experimental observations, an annular flow loop has been constructed. A characteristic feature in the flow loop design is the application of load cells, which permits determination of the annular particle content at steady state as well as under transient conditions. Due to delays in the constructional work, it has only been possible to perform a limited number of investigations in the loop. However, the results produced are in agreement with results published by other research groups. (au)
Particle transport in inclined annuli
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurtzhals, Erik
1994-12-31
A new model for the formation and behaviour of deposits in inclined wellbores is formulated. The annular space is divided into two layers, separated by a distinct plane boundary. While the lower layer is taken to consist of closely packed cuttings, the upper layer is presumed to behave as a pure fluid. A force balance for the lower layer decides whether it is stationary or slides in the upwards- or downwards direction. The position of the deposit surface is governed by the fluid shear stress at the deposit surface. The proposed model represents a major improvement compared to an earlier model. The predictions from the SCSB-model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results obtained by the author, and results published by research groups in the U.S.A., United Kingdom and Germany. The quantitative agreement is variable, presumably because the SCSB-model is a somewhat simplified description of particle behaviour in inclined annuli. However, the model provides a clearer understanding of the physical background for previously published experimental results. In order to couple the theoretical work with experimental observations, an annular flow loop has been constructed. A characteristic feature in the flow loop design is the application of load cells, which permits determination of the annular particle content at steady state as well as under transient conditions. Due to delays in the constructional work, it has only been possible to perform a limited number of investigations in the loop. However, the results produced are in agreement with results published by other research groups. (au)
General particle transport equation. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lafi, A.Y.; Reyes, J.N. Jr.
1994-12-01
The general objectives of this research are as follows: (1) To develop fundamental models for fluid particle coalescence and breakage rates for incorporation into statistically based (Population Balance Approach or Monte Carlo Approach) two-phase thermal hydraulics codes. (2) To develop fundamental models for flow structure transitions based on stability theory and fluid particle interaction rates. This report details the derivation of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for a distribution of spherical, chemically non-reacting fluid particles of variable size and velocity. To study the effects of fluid particle interactions on interfacial transfer and flow structure requires detailed particulate flow conservation equations. The equations are derived using a particle continuity equation analogous to Boltzmann's transport equation. When coupled with the appropriate closure equations, the conservation equations can be used to model nonequilibrium, two-phase, dispersed, fluid flow behavior. Unlike the Eulerian volume and time averaged conservation equations, the statistically averaged conservation equations contain additional terms that take into account the change due to fluid particle interfacial acceleration and fluid particle dynamics. Two types of particle dynamics are considered; coalescence and breakage. Therefore, the rate of change due to particle dynamics will consider the gain and loss involved in these processes and implement phenomenological models for fluid particle breakage and coalescence
The energetic alpha particle transport method EATM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirkpatrick, R.C.
1998-02-01
The EATM method is an evolving attempt to find an efficient method of treating the transport of energetic charged particles in a dynamic magnetized (MHD) plasma for which the mean free path of the particles and the Larmor radius may be long compared to the gradient lengths in the plasma. The intent is to span the range of parameter space with the efficiency and accuracy thought necessary for experimental analysis and design of magnetized fusion targets
Neoclassical transport, poloidal rotation and radial electric field at the L-H transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minardi, E.; Gervasini, G.; Lazzaro, E.
1993-01-01
The transition to a high confinement regime in tokamaks operating with a magnetic divertor configuration is accompanied by the strong steepening of the edge temperature profile and the onset of a large positive poloidal mass rotation associated with a negative radial electric field. The latter phenomena are signatures of a neoclassical transport mechanism. We address the question of establishing whether neoclassical transport is indeed sufficient to establish high edge gradients and drive poloidal rotation under strong auxiliary heating. The heat transport equation is solved numerically in a narrow edge layer interfaced to the plasma body through heat flux continuity, but allowing for heat conductivity discontinuity. The results compared with recent experimental measurements support the assumption that a highly sheared neoclassical poloidal velocity profile can suppress the anomalous part of the heat transport, and that the neoclassical residual transport, characterizes the plasma behaviour at the edge during H modes. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs
Kouznetsov, Igor; Lotko, William
1995-01-01
The 'radial' transport of energy by internal ULF waves, stimulated by dayside magnetospheric boundary oscillations, is analyzed in the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. (the term radial is used here to denote the direction orthogonal to geomagnetic flux surfaces.) The model for the inhomogeneous magnetospheric plasma and background magnetic field is axisymmetric and includes radial and parallel variations in the magnetic field, magnetic curvature, plasma density, and low but finite plasma pressure. The radial mode structure of the coupled fast and intermediate MHD waves is determined by numerical solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation; the parallel mode structure is characterized by a Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Ionospheric dissipation is modeled by allowing the parallel wave number to be complex. For boudnary oscillations with frequencies in the range from 10 to 48 mHz, and using a dipole model for the background magnetic field, the combined effects of magnetic curvature and finite plasma pressure are shown to (1) enhance the amplitude of field line resonances by as much as a factor of 2 relative to values obtained in a cold plasma or box-model approximation for the dayside magnetosphere; (2) increase the energy flux delivered to a given resonance by a factor of 2-4; and (3) broaden the spectral width of the resonance by a factor of 2-3. The effects are attributed to the existence of an 'Alfven buoyancy oscillation,' which approaches the usual shear mode Alfven wave at resonance, but unlike the shear Alfven mode, it is dispersive at short perpendicular wavelengths. The form of dispersion is analogous to that of an internal atmospheric gravity wave, with the magnetic tension of the curved background field providing the restoring force and allowing radial propagation of the mode. For nominal dayside parameters, the propagation band of the Alfven buoyancy wave occurs between the location of its (field line) resonance and that of the
Turbulence induced radial transport of toroidal momentum in boundary plasma of EAST tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, N.; Yan, N.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wang, L.; Ding, S. Y.; Chen, R.; Chen, L.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Shao, L. M.; Wang, Z. X.
2016-01-01
Turbulence induced toroidal momentum transport in boundary plasma is investigated in H-mode discharge using Langmuir-Mach probes on EAST. The Reynolds stress is found to drive an inward toroidal momentum transport, while the outflow of particles convects the toroidal momentum outwards in the edge plasma. The Reynolds stress driven momentum transport dominates over the passive momentum transport carried by particle flux, which potentially provides a momentum source for the edge plasma. The outflow of particles delivers a momentum flux into the scrape-off layer (SOL) region, contributing as a momentum source for the SOL flows. At the L-H transitions, the outward momentum transport suddenly decreases due to the suppression of edge turbulence and associated particle transport. The SOL flows start to decelerate as plasma entering into H-mode. The contributions from turbulent Reynolds stress and particle transport for the toroidal momentum transport are identified. These results shed lights on the understanding of edge plasma accelerating at L-H transitions.
Theoretical transport analysis of density limit with radial electric field in helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toda, S.; Itoh, K.
2010-11-01
The confinement property in helical toroidal plasmas is clarified. The analysis is performed by use of the one-dimensional transport equations with the effect of the radiative loss and the radial profile of the electric field. The analytical results in the edge region show the steep gradient in the electron temperature, which indicates the transport barrier formation. Because of the rapid increase of the radiative loss at the low electron temperature, the anomalous heat diffusivity is reduced near the edge. Next, the efficiency of the heating power input in the presence of the radiative loss is studied. The scaling of the critical density in helical devices is also derived. (author)
FLUKA: A Multi-Particle Transport Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrari, A.; Sala, P.R.; /CERN /INFN, Milan; Fasso, A.; /SLAC; Ranft, J.; /Siegen U.
2005-12-14
This report describes the 2005 version of the Fluka particle transport code. The first part introduces the basic notions, describes the modular structure of the system, and contains an installation and beginner's guide. The second part complements this initial information with details about the various components of Fluka and how to use them. It concludes with a detailed history and bibliography.
Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Brien, Matthew Joseph [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
2013-12-05
In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.
Environmental efficiency analysis of transportation system in China: A non-radial DEA approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Young-Tae; Zhang, Ning; Danao, Denise; Zhang, Nan
2013-01-01
Many countries are worried about reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution while increasing the productivity and efficiency of their industries. This study intends to contribute to the literature by proposing a non-radial DEA model with the slacks-based measure (SBM) to analyze the environmental efficiency of China's transportation sector. The results show that most of the provinces in China do not have an eco-efficient transportation industry. The environmental efficiency levels in most of the provinces are lower than 50% of the ideal or target level. Therefore, China's transportation industry is environmentally very inefficient. China can reduce a great deal of carbon emissions in each province ranging from at least 1.6 million TOEs in Qinghai and at most 33 million TOEs in Guangdong and Shanghai. - Highlights: • Propose a non-radial DEA model with the slacks-based measure. • Analyze the environmental efficiency of China's transportation sector. • China's transportation industry is environmentally very inefficient. • Millions of TOE carbon emissions can be reduced in most of the provinces
Heavy particle transport in sputtering systems
Trieschmann, Jan
2015-09-01
This contribution aims to discuss the theoretical background of heavy particle transport in plasma sputtering systems such as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS), high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), or multi frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (MFCCP). Due to inherently low process pressures below one Pa only kinetic simulation models are suitable. In this work a model appropriate for the description of the transport of film forming particles sputtered of a target material has been devised within the frame of the OpenFOAM software (specifically dsmcFoam). The three dimensional model comprises of ejection of sputtered particles into the reactor chamber, their collisional transport through the volume, as well as deposition of the latter onto the surrounding surfaces (i.e. substrates, walls). An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution fitted to results from Monte-Carlo simulations is assumed initially. Binary collisions are treated via the M1 collision model, a modified variable hard sphere (VHS) model. The dynamics of sputtered and background gas species can be resolved self-consistently following the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach or, whenever possible, simplified based on the test particle method (TPM) with the assumption of a constant, non-stationary background at a given temperature. At the example of an MFCCP research reactor the transport of sputtered aluminum is specifically discussed. For the peculiar configuration and under typical process conditions with argon as process gas the transport of aluminum sputtered of a circular target is shown to be governed by a one dimensional interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. The results are analyzed and discussed on the basis of the obtained velocity distribution functions (VDF). This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 87.
Ryu, Duchwan
2013-03-01
The sea surface temperature (SST) is an important factor of the earth climate system. A deep understanding of SST is essential for climate monitoring and prediction. In general, SST follows a nonlinear pattern in both time and location and can be modeled by a dynamic system which changes with time and location. In this article, we propose a radial basis function network-based dynamic model which is able to catch the nonlinearity of the data and propose to use the dynamically weighted particle filter to estimate the parameters of the dynamic model. We analyze the SST observed in the Caribbean Islands area after a hurricane using the proposed dynamic model. Comparing to the traditional grid-based approach that requires a supercomputer due to its high computational demand, our approach requires much less CPU time and makes real-time forecasting of SST doable on a personal computer. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toi, Kazuo
2002-01-01
Experimental evidence and underlying physical processes of nonlocal characters and structural formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas are reviewed. Radial profiles of the plasmas exhibit characteristic structures, depending on the various confinement regimes. Profile stiffness subjected to some global constraint and rapid plasma responses to applied plasma perturbation result from nonlocal transport. Once the plasma is free from the constraint, the plasma state can be changed to a new state exhibiting various types of prominent structural formation such as an internal transport barrier. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.
1992-01-01
Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He 2+ and Fe 24+ transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He 2+ studies. By examining the electron and He 2+ responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed
Transport with three-particle interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morawetz, K.
2000-01-01
Starting from a point - like two - and three - particle interaction the kinetic equation is derived. While the drift term of the kinetic equation turns out to be determined by the known Skyrme mean field the collision integral appears in two - and three - particle parts. The cross section results from the same microscopic footing and is naturally density dependent due to the three - particle force. By this way no hybrid model for drift and cross section is needed for nuclear transport. The resulting equation of state has besides the mean field correlation energy also a two - and three - particle correlation energy which both are calculated analytically for the ground state. These energies contribute to the equation of state and lead to an occurrence of a maximum at 3 times nuclear density in the total energy. (author)
On the Langevin approach to particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bringuier, Eric
2006-01-01
In the Langevin description of Brownian motion, the action of the surrounding medium upon the Brownian particle is split up into a systematic friction force of Stokes type and a randomly fluctuating force, alternatively termed noise. That simple description accounts for several basic features of particle transport in a medium, making it attractive to teach at the undergraduate level, but its range of applicability is limited. The limitation is illustrated here by showing that the Langevin description fails to account realistically for the transport of a charged particle in a medium under crossed electric and magnetic fields and the ensuing Hall effect. That particular failure is rooted in the concept of the friction force rather than in the accompanying random force. It is then shown that the framework of kinetic theory offers a better account of the Hall effect. It is concluded that the Langevin description is nothing but an extension of Drude's transport model subsuming diffusion, and so it inherits basic limitations from that model. This paper thus describes the interrelationship of the Langevin approach, the Drude model and kinetic theory, in a specific transport problem of physical interest
Empirical particle transport model for tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petravic, M.; Kuo-Petravic, G.
1986-08-01
A simple empirical particle transport model has been constructed with the purpose of gaining insight into the L- to H-mode transition in tokamaks. The aim was to construct the simplest possible model which would reproduce the measured density profiles in the L-regime, and also produce a qualitatively correct transition to the H-regime without having to assume a completely different transport mode for the bulk of the plasma. Rather than using completely ad hoc constructions for the particle diffusion coefficient, we assume D = 1/5 chi/sub total/, where chi/sub total/ ≅ chi/sub e/ is the thermal diffusivity, and then use the κ/sub e/ = n/sub e/chi/sub e/ values derived from experiments. The observed temperature profiles are then automatically reproduced, but nontrivially, the correct density profiles are also obtained, for realistic fueling rates and profiles. Our conclusion is that it is sufficient to reduce the transport coefficients within a few centimeters of the surface to produce the H-mode behavior. An additional simple assumption, concerning the particle mean-free path, leads to a convective transport term which reverses sign a few centimeters inside the surface, as required by the H-mode density profiles
Control of alpha-particle transport by ion cyclotron resonance heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P.
1990-01-01
In this paper control of radial alpha-particle transport by using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. Spatially inhomogeneous ICRF wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transports of alpha particles at the speed of order v α ∼ (P RF /n α ε 0 )ρ p , where R RF is the ICRF wave power density, n α is the alpha-particle density, ε 0 is the alpha-particle birth energy, and ρ p is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha-particle flux are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Chin-Chun, E-mail: chin-chun.wu@nrl.navy.mil; Plunkett, Simon, E-mail: simon.plunkett@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Liou, Kan, E-mail: kan.liou@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland (United States); Wu, S. T., E-mail: wus@uah.edu [CSPAR, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Dryer, Murray, E-mail: murraydryer@msn.com [Emeritus, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)
2016-03-25
We study an unusual solar energetic particle (SEP) event that was associated with the coronal mass ejection (CME) on March 15, 2013. Enhancements of the SEP fluxes were first detected by the ACE spacecraft at 14:00 UT, ∼7 hours after the onset of the CME (07:00 UT), and the SEP’s peak intensities were recorded ∼36 hours after the onset of the CME. Our recent study showed that the CME-driven shock Mach number, based on a global three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, is well correlated with the time-intensity of 10-30 MeV and 30-80 MeV protons. Here we focus on the radial dependence (r{sup −α}) of {sup 4}He (3.43-41.2 MeV/n) and O (7.30-89.8 MeV/n) energetic particles from ACE/SIS. It is found that the scaling factor (α) ranges between 2 and 4 for most of the energy channels. We also found that the correlation coefficients tend to increase with SEP energies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Aran, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany)
2013-04-10
Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ - ({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}], where {phi} is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, {phi}{sub 0} is the distribution centroid, and {sigma} determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R < 1 AU, allows us to determine a lower limit to the radial dependence of the 71-112 keV electron peak intensities measured along IMF lines. We find five events for which the nominal magnetic footpoint of MESSENGER was less than 20 Degree-Sign apart from the nominal footpoint of a spacecraft near 1 AU. Although the expected theoretical radial dependence for the peak intensity of the events observed along the same field line can be approximated by a functional form R {sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} < 3, we find two events for which {alpha} > 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.
Helium, iron and electron particle transport and energy transport studies on the TFTR tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Redi, M.H.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.
1993-03-01
Results from helium, iron, and electron transport on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal transport analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the electron channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the electron heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to electron heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal transport is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor
Helium, Iron and Electron Particle Transport and Energy Transport Studies on the TFTR Tokamak
Synakowski, E. J.; Efthimion, P. C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B. C.; Tang, W. M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Johnson, D .W.; Mansfield, D. K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Park, H. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M. C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kissick, M. W. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States))
1993-03-01
Results from helium, iron, and electron transport on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal transport analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the electron channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the electron heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to electron heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal transport is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.
Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leske, R. A., E-mail: ral@srl.caltech.edu; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wiedenbeck, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2016-03-25
As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.
Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport
Leske, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von
2016-03-01
As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.
Gyrokinetic particle simulation of neoclassical transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.
1995-01-01
A time varying weighting (δf ) scheme for gyrokinetic particle simulation is applied to a steady-state, multispecies simulation of neoclassical transport. Accurate collision operators conserving momentum and energy are developed and implemented. Simulation results using these operators are found to agree very well with neoclassical theory. For example, it is dynamically demonstrated that like-particle collisions produce no particle flux and that the neoclassical fluxes are ambipolar for an ion--electron plasma. An important physics feature of the present scheme is the introduction of toroidal flow to the simulations. Simulation results are in agreement with the existing analytical neoclassical theory. The poloidal electric field associated with toroidal mass flow is found to enhance density gradient-driven electron particle flux and the bootstrap current while reducing temperature gradient-driven flux and current. Finally, neoclassical theory in steep gradient profile relevant to the edge regime is examined by taking into account finite banana width effects. In general, in the present work a valuable new capability for studying important aspects of neoclassical transport inaccessible by conventional analytical calculation processes is demonstrated. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peeler, Christopher R; Titt, Uwe
2012-01-01
In spot-scanning intensity-modulated proton therapy, numerous unmodulated proton beam spots are delivered over a target volume to produce a prescribed dose distribution. To accurately model field size-dependent output factors for beam spots, the energy deposition at positions radial to the central axis of the beam must be characterized. In this study, we determined the difference in the central axis dose for spot-scanned fields that results from secondary particle doses by investigating energy deposition radial to the proton beam central axis resulting from primary protons and secondary particles for mathematical point source and distributed source models. The largest difference in the central axis dose from secondary particles resulting from the use of a mathematical point source and a distributed source model was approximately 0.43%. Thus, we conclude that the central axis dose for a spot-scanned field is effectively independent of the source model used to calculate the secondary particle dose. (paper)
Hubbard, R.
1974-01-01
The radially-streaming particle model for broad quasar and Seyfert galaxy emission features is modified to include sources of time dependence. The results are suggestive of reported observations of multiple components, variability, and transient features in the wings of Seyfert and quasi-stellar emission lines.
Large plasma pressure perturbations and radial convective transport in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Yu, Guanghui; Ryutov, Dmitri
2004-01-01
Strongly localized plasma structures with large pressure inhomogeneities (such as plasma blobs in the scrape-off-layer (SOL)/shadow regions, pellet clouds, Edge localized Modes (ELMs)) observed in the tokamaks, stellarators and linear plasma devices. Experimental studies of these phenomena reveal striking similarities including more convective rather than diffusive radial plasma transport. We suggest that rather simple models can describe many essentials of blobs, ELMs, and pellet clouds dynamics. The main ingredient of these models is the effective plasma gravity caused by magnetic curvature, centrifugal or friction forces effects. As a result, the equations governing plasma transport in such localized structures appear to be rather similar to that used to describe nonlinear evolution of thermal convection in the Boussinesq approximation (directly related to the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability). (author)
Transport of Particle Swarms Through Fractures
Boomsma, E.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2011-12-01
The transport of engineered micro- and nano-scale particles through fractured rock is often assumed to occur as dispersions or emulsions. Another potential transport mechanism is the release of particle swarms from natural or industrial processes where small liquid drops, containing thousands to millions of colloidal-size particles, are released over time from seepage or leaks. Swarms have higher velocities than any individual colloid because the interactions among the particles maintain the cohesiveness of the swarm as it falls under gravity. Thus particle swarms give rise to the possibility that engineered particles may be transported farther and faster in fractures than predicted by traditional dispersion models. In this study, the effect of fractures on colloidal swarm cohesiveness and evolution was studied as a swarm falls under gravity and interacts with fracture walls. Transparent acrylic was used to fabricate synthetic fracture samples with either (1) a uniform aperture or (2) a converging aperture followed by a uniform aperture (funnel-shaped). The samples consisted of two blocks that measured 100 x 100 x 50 mm. The separation between these blocks determined the aperture (0.5 mm to 50 mm). During experiments, a fracture was fully submerged in water and swarms were released into it. The swarms consisted of dilute suspensions of either 25 micron soda-lime glass beads (2% by mass) or 3 micron polystyrene fluorescent beads (1% by mass) with an initial volume of 5μL. The swarms were illuminated with a green (525 nm) LED array and imaged optically with a CCD camera. In the uniform aperture fracture, the speed of the swarm prior to bifurcation increased with aperture up to a maximum at a fracture width of approximately 10 mm. For apertures greater than ~15 mm, the velocity was essentially constant with fracture width (but less than at 10 mm). This peak suggests that two competing mechanisms affect swarm velocity in fractures. The wall provides both drag, which
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casa, L D C; Krueger, P S
2013-01-01
Unstructured three-dimensional fluid velocity data were interpolated using Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) interpolation. Data were generated to imitate the spatial resolution and experimental uncertainty of a typical implementation of defocusing digital particle image velocimetry. The velocity field associated with a steadily rotating infinite plate was simulated to provide a bounded, fully three-dimensional analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations, allowing for robust analysis of the interpolation accuracy. The spatial resolution of the data (i.e. particle density) and the number of RBFs were varied in order to assess the requirements for accurate interpolation. Interpolation constraints, including boundary conditions and continuity, were included in the error metric used for the least-squares minimization that determines the interpolation parameters to explore methods for improving RBF interpolation results. Even spacing and logarithmic spacing of RBF locations were also investigated. Interpolation accuracy was assessed using the velocity field, divergence of the velocity field, and viscous torque on the rotating boundary. The results suggest that for the present implementation, RBF spacing of 0.28 times the boundary layer thickness is sufficient for accurate interpolation, though theoretical error analysis suggests that improved RBF positioning may yield more accurate results. All RBF interpolation results were compared to standard Gaussian weighting and Taylor expansion interpolation methods. Results showed that RBF interpolation improves interpolation results compared to the Taylor expansion method by 60% to 90% based on the average squared velocity error and provides comparable velocity results to Gaussian weighted interpolation in terms of velocity error. RMS accuracy of the flow field divergence was one to two orders of magnitude better for the RBF interpolation compared to the other two methods. RBF interpolation that was applied to
Du, Xin; Qiao, Shi Zhang
2015-01-27
Dendritic silica micro-/nanoparticles with center-radial pore structures, a kind of newly created porous material, have attracted considerable attention owing to their unique open three-dimensional dendritic superstructures with large pore channels and highly accessible internal surface areas compared with conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). They are very promising platforms for a variety of applications in catalysis and nanomedicine. In this review, their unique structural characteristics and properties are first analyzed, then novel and interesting synthesis methods associated with the possible formation mechanisms are summarized to provide material scientists some inspiration for the preparation of this kind of dendritic particles. Subsequently, a few examples of interesting applications are presented, mainly in catalysis, biomedicine, and other important fields such as for sacrificial templates and functional coatings. The review is concluded with an outlook on the prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and potential applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuoka, Seikichi; Satake, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Ido, Takeshi; Shimizu, Akihiro; Shimozuma, Takashi; Wakasa, Arimitsu; Murakami, Sadayoshi
2013-01-01
Neoclassical transport analyses have been performed for a high electron temperature LHD plasma with steep temperature gradient using a neoclassical transport simulation code, FORTEC-3D. It is shown that the large positive radial electric field is spontaneously formed at the core along with the increase in the electron temperature, while the neoclassical heat diffusivity remains almost unchanged. This indicates that the 1/ν-type increase expected in the neoclassical transport in helical plasmas can be avoided by the spontaneous formation of the radial electric field. At the same time, it is found that the experimentally estimated heat diffusivity is significantly reduced. This suggests that the formation process of the transport barrier in the high electron temperature plasma can be caused by the spontaneous formation of the radial electric field. (author)
Particle transport in breathing quantum graph
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matrasulov, D.U.; Yusupov, J.R.; Sabirov, K.K.; Sobirov, Z.A.
2012-01-01
Full text: Particle transport in nanoscale networks and discrete structures is of fundamental and practical importance. Usually such systems are modeled by so-called quantum graphs, the systems attracting much attention in physics and mathematics during past two decades [1-5]. During last two decades quantum graphs found numerous applications in modeling different discrete structures and networks in nanoscale and mesoscopic physics (e.g., see reviews [1-3]). Despite considerable progress made in the study of particle dynamics most of the problems deal with unperturbed case and the case of time-dependent perturbation has not yet be explored. In this work we treat particle dynamics for quantum star graph with time-dependent bonds. In particular, we consider harmonically breathing quantum star graphs, the cases of monotonically contracting and expanding graphs. The latter can be solved exactly analytically. Edge boundaries are considered to be time-dependent, while branching point is assumed to be fixed. Quantum dynamics of a particle in such graphs is studied by solving Schrodinger equation with time-dependent boundary conditions given on a star graph. Time-dependence of the average kinetic energy is analyzed. Space-time evolution of the Gaussian wave packet is treated for harmonically breathing star graph. It is found that for certain frequencies energy is a periodic function of time, while for others it can be non-monotonically growing function of time. Such a feature can be caused by possible synchronization of the particles motion and the motions of the moving edges of graph bonds. (authors) References: [1] Tsampikos Kottos and Uzy Smilansky, Ann. Phys., 76, 274 (1999). [2] Sven Gnutzmann and Uzy Smilansky, Adv. Phys. 55, 527 (2006). [3] S. GnutzmannJ.P. Keating, F. Piotet, Ann. Phys., 325, 2595 (2010). [4] P.Exner, P.Seba, P.Stovicek, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21, 4009 (1988). [5] J. Boman, P. Kurasov, Adv. Appl. Math., 35, 58 (2005)
Control of alpha particle transport by spatially inhomogeneous ion cyclotron resonance heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P.
1990-02-01
Control of the radial alpha particle transport by using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. It is shown that spatially inhomogeneous ICRF-wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transport of alpha particles at the speed of order υ alpha ∼ (P RF /n α ε 0 ) ρ p , where P RF is the ICRF-wave power density, n α is the alpha density, ε 0 is the alpha birth energy, and ρ p is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to ITER plasmas is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha particle flux are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmero, F; Archilla, J F R; Hennig, D; Romero, F R
2004-01-01
Some recent results for a three-dimensional, semi-classical, tight-binding model for DNA show that there are two types of polarons, namely radial and twist polarons, which can transport charge along the DNA molecule. However, the existence of two types of base pairs in real DNA makes it crucial to find out if charge transport also exists in DNA chains with different base pairs. In this paper, we address this problem in its simple case, a homogeneous chain except for a single different base pair, which we call a base-pair inhomogeneity, and its effect on charge transport. Radial polarons experience either reflection or trapping. However, twist polarons are good candidates for charge transport along real DNA. This transport is also very robust with respect to weak parametric and diagonal disorder
Modeling pollutant transport using a meshless-lagrangian particle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrington, D.B.; Pepper, D.W.
2002-01-01
A combined meshless-Lagrangian particle transport model is used to predict pollutant transport over irregular terrain. The numerical model for initializing the velocity field is based on a meshless approach utilizing multiquadrics established by Kansa. The Lagrangian particle transport technique uses a random walk procedure to depict the advection and dispersion of pollutants over any type of surface, including street and city canyons
Computer codes in particle transport physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesic, M.
2004-01-01
Simulation of transport and interaction of various particles in complex media and wide energy range (from 1 MeV up to 1 TeV) is very complicated problem that requires valid model of a real process in nature and appropriate solving tool - computer code and data library. A brief overview of computer codes based on Monte Carlo techniques for simulation of transport and interaction of hadrons and ions in wide energy range in three dimensional (3D) geometry is shown. Firstly, a short attention is paid to underline the approach to the solution of the problem - process in nature - by selection of the appropriate 3D model and corresponding tools - computer codes and cross sections data libraries. Process of data collection and evaluation from experimental measurements and theoretical approach to establishing reliable libraries of evaluated cross sections data is Ion g, difficult and not straightforward activity. For this reason, world reference data centers and specialized ones are acknowledged, together with the currently available, state of art evaluated nuclear data libraries, as the ENDF/B-VI, JEF, JENDL, CENDL, BROND, etc. Codes for experimental and theoretical data evaluations (e.g., SAMMY and GNASH) together with the codes for data processing (e.g., NJOY, PREPRO and GRUCON) are briefly described. Examples of data evaluation and data processing to generate computer usable data libraries are shown. Among numerous and various computer codes developed in transport physics of particles, the most general ones are described only: MCNPX, FLUKA and SHIELD. A short overview of basic application of these codes, physical models implemented with their limitations, energy ranges of particles and types of interactions, is given. General information about the codes covers also programming language, operation system, calculation speed and the code availability. An example of increasing computation speed of running MCNPX code using a MPI cluster compared to the code sequential option
Mitani, K.; Seki, K.; Keika, K.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Kletzing, C.
2017-12-01
It is known that proton is main contributor of the ring current and oxygen ions can make significant contribution during major magnetic storms. Ions are supplied to the ring current by radial transport from the plasma sheet. Convective transport of lower-energy protons and diffusive transport of higher-energy protons were reported to contribute to the storm-time and quiet-time ring current respectively [e.g., Gkioulidou et al., 2016]. However, supply mechanisms of the oxygen ions are not clear. To characterize the supply of oxygen ions to the ring current during magnetic storms, we studied the properties of energetic proton and oxygen ion phase space densities (PSDs) for specific magnetic moment (μ) during the April 23-25, 2013, geomagnetic storm observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. We here report on radial transport of high-energy (μ ≥ 0.5 keV/nT) oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere during the late main phase of the magnetic storm. Since protons show little change during this period, this oxygen radial transport is inferred to cause the development of the late main phase. Enhancement of poloidal magnetic fluctuations is simultaneously observed. We estimated azimuthal mode number ≤5 by using cross wavelet analysis with ground-based observation of IMAGE ground magnetometers. The fluctuations can resonate with drift and bounce motions of the oxygen ions. The results suggest that combination of the drift and drift-bounce resonances is responsible for the radial transport of high-energy oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere. We also report on the radial transport of the high-energy oxygen ions into the deep inner magnetosphere during other magnetic storms.
SU-E-T-259: Particle Swarm Optimization in Radial Dose Function Fitting for a Novel Iodine-125 Seed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, X [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Al (United States); Duan, J; Popple, R; Huang, M; Shen, S; Brezovich, I [University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Cardan, R [UAB University of Alabama, Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Benhabib, S [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To determine the coefficients of bi- and tri-exponential functions for the best fit of radial dose functions of the new iodine brachytherapy source: Iodine-125 Seed AgX-100. Methods: The particle swarm optimization (PSO) method was used to search for the coefficients of the biand tri-exponential functions that yield the best fit to data published for a few selected radial distances from the source. The coefficients were encoded into particles, and these particles move through the search space by following their local and global best-known positions. In each generation, particles were evaluated through their fitness function and their positions were changed through their velocities. This procedure was repeated until the convergence criterion was met or the maximum generation was reached. All best particles were found in less than 1,500 generations. Results: For the I-125 seed AgX-100 considered as a point source, the maximum deviation from the published data is less than 2.9% for bi-exponential fitting function and 0.2% for tri-exponential fitting function. For its line source, the maximum deviation is less than 1.1% for bi-exponential fitting function and 0.08% for tri-exponential fitting function. Conclusion: PSO is a powerful method in searching coefficients for bi-exponential and tri-exponential fitting functions. The bi- and tri-exponential models of Iodine-125 seed AgX-100 point and line sources obtained with PSO optimization provide accurate analytical forms of the radial dose function. The tri-exponential fitting function is more accurate than the bi-exponential function.
High performance stream computing for particle beam transport simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appleby, R; Bailey, D; Higham, J; Salt, M
2008-01-01
Understanding modern particle accelerators requires simulating charged particle transport through the machine elements. These simulations can be very time consuming due to the large number of particles and the need to consider many turns of a circular machine. Stream computing offers an attractive way to dramatically improve the performance of such simulations by calculating the simultaneous transport of many particles using dedicated hardware. Modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are powerful and affordable stream computing devices. The results of simulations of particle transport through the booster-to-storage-ring transfer line of the DIAMOND synchrotron light source using an NVidia GeForce 7900 GPU are compared to the standard transport code MAD. It is found that particle transport calculations are suitable for stream processing and large performance increases are possible. The accuracy and potential speed gains are compared and the prospects for future work in the area are discussed
Mechanism of travelling-wave transport of particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamoto, Hiroyuki; Seki, Kyogo; Kuromiya, Naoyuki
2006-01-01
Numerical and experimental investigations have been carried out on transport of particles in an electrostatic travelling field. A three-dimensional hard-sphere model of the distinct element method was developed to simulate the dynamics of particles. Forces applied to particles in the model were the Coulomb force, the dielectrophoresis force on polarized dipole particles in a non-uniform field, the image force, gravity and the air drag. Friction and repulsion between particle-particle and particle-conveyer were included in the model to replace initial conditions after mechanical contacts. Two kinds of experiments were performed to confirm the model. One was the measurement of charge of particles that is indispensable to determine the Coulomb force. Charge distribution was measured from the locus of free-fallen particles in a parallel electrostatic field. The averaged charge of the bulk particle was confirmed by measurement with a Faraday cage. The other experiment was measurements of the differential dynamics of particles on a conveyer consisting of parallel electrodes to which a four-phase travelling electrostatic wave was applied. Calculated results agreed with measurements, and the following characteristics were clarified. (1) The Coulomb force is the predominant force to drive particles compared with the other kinds of forces, (2) the direction of particle transport did not always coincide with that of the travelling wave but changed partially. It depended on the frequency of the travelling wave, the particle diameter and the electric field, (3) although some particles overtook the travelling wave at a very low frequency, the motion of particles was almost synchronized with the wave at the low frequency and (4) the transport of some particles was delayed to the wave at medium frequency; the majority of particles were transported backwards at high frequency and particles were not transported but only vibrated at very high frequency
Effects of fuel particle size distributions on neutron transport in stochastic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, Chao; Pavlou, Andrew T.; Ji, Wei
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Effects of fuel particle size distributions on neutron transport are evaluated. • Neutron channeling is identified as the fundamental reason for the effects. • The effects are noticeable at low packing and low optical thickness systems. • Unit cells of realistic reactor designs are studied for different size particles. • Fuel particle size distribution effects are not negligible in realistic designs. - Abstract: This paper presents a study of the fuel particle size distribution effects on neutron transport in three-dimensional stochastic media. Particle fuel is used in gas-cooled nuclear reactor designs and innovative light water reactor designs loaded with accident tolerant fuel. Due to the design requirements and fuel fabrication limits, the size of fuel particles may not be perfectly constant but instead follows a certain distribution. This brings a fundamental question to the radiation transport computation community: how does the fuel particle size distribution affect the neutron transport in particle fuel systems? To answer this question, size distribution effects and their physical interpretations are investigated by performing a series of neutron transport simulations at different fuel particle size distributions. An eigenvalue problem is simulated in a cylindrical container consisting of fissile fuel particles with five different size distributions: constant, uniform, power, exponential and Gaussian. A total of 15 parametric cases are constructed by altering the fissile particle volume packing fraction and its optical thickness, but keeping the mean chord length of the spherical fuel particle the same at different size distributions. The tallied effective multiplication factor (k eff ) and the spatial distribution of fission power density along axial and radial directions are compared between different size distributions. At low packing fraction and low optical thickness, the size distribution shows a noticeable effect on neutron
Analysis of radial electric field bifurcation in LHD based on neoclassical transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoyama, Masayuki; Ida, Katsumi; Shimozuma, Takashi
2003-01-01
Radial electric field (E r ) properties in LHD have been investigated based on the neoclassical transport theory and have also applied to LHD experimental results. The effects of the helicity of the magnetic configuration on the condition required to realize the electron root are examined. The larger helicity makes the threshold temperature lower for the same electron density. A higher threshold temperature is anticipated to be required in the plasma core region based on this fact and also due to the larger density there. This high electron temperature (T e ) has been successfully obtained with a center-focused ECH. There is a threshold for the ECH power to achieve a steep gradient of T e , and it seems to be qualitatively consistent with the transition of E r , at least in the sense that the abrupt increase of T e occurs after entering the anticipated electron root regime. These experimental results, consistent with those of analysis of the neoclassical ambipolar E r , indicate that the transition phenomena of E r in LHD are predominantly governed by neoclassical features. (author)
Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.
2006-09-01
Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4×1010cm-3 for a central electron density of 1×1013cm-3. Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20m2 s-1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ˜2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.
2006-01-01
Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4x10 10 cm -3 for a central electron density of 1x10 13 cm -3 . Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20 m 2 s -1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ∼2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge
Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ai, Bao-Quan; He, Ya-Feng; Zhong, Wei-Rong
2014-01-01
Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction
Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ai, Bao-Quan, E-mail: aibq@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China); He, Ya-Feng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China); Zhong, Wei-Rong, E-mail: wrzhong@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Siyuan Laboratory, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China)
2014-11-21
Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction.
Transport of the moving barrier driven by chiral active particles
Liao, Jing-jing; Huang, Xiao-qun; Ai, Bao-quan
2018-03-01
Transport of a moving V-shaped barrier exposed to a bath of chiral active particles is investigated in a two-dimensional channel. Due to the chirality of active particles and the transversal asymmetry of the barrier position, active particles can power and steer the directed transport of the barrier in the longitudinal direction. The transport of the barrier is determined by the chirality of active particles. The moving barrier and active particles move in the opposite directions. The average velocity of the barrier is much larger than that of active particles. There exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, the packing fraction, and the channel width) at which the average velocity of the barrier takes its maximal value. In particular, tailoring the geometry of the barrier and the active concentration provides novel strategies to control the transport properties of micro-objects or cargoes in an active medium.
Radial electric fields for improved tokamak performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downum, W.B.
1981-01-01
The influence of externally-imposed radial electric fields on the fusion energy output, energy multiplication, and alpha-particle ash build-up in a TFTR-sized, fusing tokamak plasma is explored. In an idealized tokamak plasma, an externally-imposed radial electric field leads to plasma rotation, but no charge current flows across the magnetic fields. However, a realistically-low neutral density profile generates a non-zero cross-field conductivity and the species dependence of this conductivity allows the electric field to selectively alter radial particle transport
Effects of the radial electric field resonances on the particle orbits and loss cones in TJ-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.
1997-07-01
The effects of the radial electric field resonances on the trapping and confinement of low and intermediate energy ions (0.1-1 keV) for the Reference configuration of TJ-II have been analysed. In TJ-II these resonances appear for electric potentials that grow with pitch and with the square root of the initial kinetic energy and are placed inside strips whose width increases with the initial radius and with the absolute value of initial pitch. The 0-Resonance is the most important one for particle trapping, it appears for high electric potential (between 1000 and 3000 V for 0.5 keV ions) with the same sign than pitch, inside very wide strips (several thousands of V). Along these band periphery, for potential intensities below the central resonant values, there exists a very strong increase of particle trapping. Instead, around the resonance center, the trapping is inhibited and a very strong increase of the passing particle population appears. This increase is higher for the torus external side (Theta approximately 0 degree centigree) and for small initial radius. For peripherical particles wide loss strips appear along the border of the resonant band corresponding to more positive potential. The 2-Resonance has small effect on trapping but affects strongly to the of peripherical passing particles. It appears for moderate electric potential (between 400 and 1000 V for 0.5 keV ions) with sign opposite than pitch and inside narrow bands than the 0-Resonance. In this case a loss of peripherical passing particles appears, placed also along the more positive potential band side. The other Resonances (except the -4) have much less effect on particle trapping and confinement. All these phenomena have been explained by the action of magnetic barriers and different mechanisms for particle orbit modification. (Author) 8 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nocente, Massimo; Tardocchi, Marco; Barnsley, Robin
2017-01-01
We here present the principles and main physics capabilities behind the design of the radial gamma ray spectrometers (RGRS) system for alpha particle and runaway electron measurements at ITER. The diagnostic benefits from recent advances in gamma-ray spectrometry for tokamak plasmas and combines...... the measurements sensitive to α particles at characteristic resonant energies and to possible anisotropies of their slowing down distribution function. An independent assessment of the neutron rate by gamma-ray emission is also feasible. In case of runaway electrons born in disruptions with a typical duration...... of 100ms, a time resolution of at least 10ms for runaway electron studies can be achieved depending on the scenario and down to a current of 40 kA by use of external gas injection. We find that the bremsstrahlung spectrum in the MeV range from confined runaways is sensitive to the electron velocity space...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Wakatani, M.
1990-07-01
L = 2 torsatrons are studied to improve the high energy trapped particle confinement with additional l = 1 and/or l = 3 helical coils. The winding laws are selected in two ways. One is to realize 'σ - optimization' by the additional helical coils, but this approach loses magnetic well region. The other selection is to produce or deepen the magnetic well by the additional helical coils. L=3 helical coils are usable to this end. In this case the improvement of the trapped particle confinement depends on magnetic axis position. Radial electric field producing sheared rotational motion is also considered to improve the trapped particle confinement in a standard l = 2 torsatron. By excluding cancellation between E x B and ΔB drift motion occurred for the parabolic potential profiles, all deeply trapped particles can be confined in the central region. Degradation of the trapped particle confinement by the Shafranov shift is mitigated by shifting the magnetic axis inside in the vacuum configuration. (author)
Hybrid simulations of radial transport driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Delamere, P. A.; Stauffer, B. H.; Ma, X.
2017-12-01
Plasma transport in the rapidly rotating giant magnetospheres is thought to involve a centrifugally-driven flux tube interchange instability, similar to the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. In three dimensions, the convective flow patterns associated with the RT instability can produce strong guide field reconnection, allowing plasma mass to move radially outward while conserving magnetic flux (Ma et al., 2016). We present a set of hybrid (kinetic ion / fluid electron) plasma simulations of the RT instability using high plasma beta conditions appropriate for Jupiter's inner and middle magnetosphere. A density gradient, combined with a centrifugal force, provide appropriate RT onset conditions. Pressure balance is achieved by initializing two ion populations: one with fixed temperature, but varying density, and the other with fixed density, but a temperature gradient that offsets the density gradient from the first population and the centrifugal force (effective gravity). We first analyze two-dimensional results for the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field by comparing growth rates as a function of wave vector following Huba et al. (1998). Prescribed perpendicular wave modes are seeded with an initial velocity perturbation. We then extend the model to three dimensions, introducing a stabilizing parallel wave vector. Boundary conditions in the parallel direction prohibit motion of the magnetic field line footprints to model the eigenmodes of the magnetodisc's resonant cavity. We again compare growth rates based on perpendicular wave number, but also on the parallel extent of the resonant cavity, which fixes the size of the largest parallel wavelength. Finally, we search for evidence of strong guide field magnetic reconnection within the domain by identifying areas with large parallel electric fields or changes in magnetic field topology.
Energy and particle core transport in tokamaks and stellarators compared
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beurskens, Marc; Angioni, Clemente; Beidler, Craig; Dinklage, Andreas; Fuchert, Golo; Hirsch, Matthias; Puetterich, Thomas; Wolf, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald/Garching (Germany)
2016-07-01
The paper discusses expectations for core transport in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X) and presents a comparison to tokamaks. In tokamaks, the neoclassical trapped-particle-driven losses are small and turbulence dominates the energy and particle transport. At reactor relevant low collisionality, the heat transport is limited by ion temperature gradient limited turbulence, clamping the temperature gradient. The particle transport is set by an anomalous inward pinch, yielding peaked profiles. A strong edge pedestal adds to the good confinement properties. In traditional stellarators the 3D geometry cause increased trapped orbit losses. At reactor relevant low collisionality and high temperatures, these neoclassical losses would be well above the turbulent transport losses. The W7-X design minimizes neoclassical losses and turbulent transport can become dominant. Moreover, the separation of regions of bad curvature and that of trapped particle orbits in W7-X may have favourable implications on the turbulent electron heat transport. The neoclassical particle thermodiffusion is outward. Without core particle sources the density profile is flat or even hollow. The presence of a turbulence driven inward anomalous particle pinch in W7-X (like in tokamaks) is an open topic of research.
Particle-in-cell simulations of anomalous transport in a Penning discharge
Carlsson, Johan; Kaganovich, Igor; Powis, Andrew; Raitses, Yevgeny; Romadanov, Ivan; Smolyakov, Andrei
2018-06-01
Electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations of a Penning discharge are performed in order to investigate azimuthally asymmetric, spoke-like structures previously observed in experiments. Two-dimensional simulations show that for Penning-discharge conditions, a persistent nonlinear spoke-like structure forms readily and rotates in the direction of E × B and electron diamagnetic drifts. The azimuthal velocity is within about a factor of 2 of the ion acoustic speed. The spoke frequency follows the experimentally observed scaling with ion mass, which indicates the importance of ion inertia in spoke formation. The spoke provides enhanced (anomalous) radial electron transport, and the effective cross-field conductivity is several times larger than the classical (collisional) value. The level of anomalous current obtained in the simulations is in good agreement with the experimental data. The rotating spoke channels most of the radial current, observable by an edge probe as short pulses.
Observations of giant recombination edges on PLT tokamak induced by particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brau, K.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Cowan, R.D.; Eames, D.; Hill, K.; Sauthoff, N.; Silver, E.; Stodiek, W.
1980-03-01
Characteristic steps in the continum spectrum of high temperature tokamak plasmas associated with recombination radiation from impurity ions were observed. During special argon-seeded discharges on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak the x-ray spectrum exhibited large enhancements over the bremsstrahlung continuum beginning with energies of 4.1 keV. This corresponds to the radiative capture of free electrons by hydrogen-like argon into the ground state of helium-like argon. A simple particle diffusion model is proposed, with the Ar XVIII radial profiles evaluated from the size of the recombination edges. For the case of moderate density ( approx. 3 x 10 13 cm -3 ) and temperature [T/sub e/(0) approx. 1.5 keV] discharges the outward radial transport velocity is found to be approximately 10 m/sec
Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misguich, J.H.; Reuss, J.D. [Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, CEA/DSM/DRFC, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Constantinescu, D.; Steinbrecher, G. [Association Euratom-N.A.S.T.I., Dept. of Physics, University of Craiova (Romania); Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F. [Association Euratom-N.A.S.T.I., National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Weyssow, B.; Balescu, R. [Association Euratom-Etat Belge sur la Fusion, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)
2002-02-01
Internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks are described by a purely magnetic approach. Magnetic line motion in toroidal geometry with broken magnetic surfaces is studied from a previously derived Hamiltonian map in situation of incomplete chaos. This appears to reproduce in a realistic way the main features of a tokamak, for a given safety factor profile and in terms of a single parameter L representing the amplitude of the magnetic perturbation. New results are given concerning the Shafranov shift as function of L. For small values of L, closed magnetic surfaces exist (KAM tori) and island chains begin to appear on rational surfaces for higher values of L, with chaotic zones around hyperbolic points, as expected. Single trajectories of magnetic line motion indicate the persistence of a central protected plasma core, surrounded by a chaotic shell enclosed in a double-sided transport barrier. Magnetic lines which succeed to escape across this barrier begin to wander in a wide chaotic sea extending up to a very robust barrier (as long as L{<=}1). For values of L{>=}1, above the escape threshold, most magnetic lines succeed to escape out of the external barrier which has become a permeable Cantorus. Statistical analysis of a large number of trajectories, representing the evolution of a bunch of magnetic lines, indicate that the flux variable {psi} asymptotically grows in a diffuse manner as (L{sup 2}t) with a L{sup 2} scaling as expected, but that the average radial position r{sub m}(t) asymptotically grows as (L{sup 2}t){sup 1/4} while the mean square displacement around this average radius asymptotically grows in a sub-diffusive manner as (L{sup 2}t){sup 1/2}. This result shows the slower dispersion in the present incomplete chaotic regime, which is different from the usual quasilinear diffusion in completely chaotic situations. For physical times t{sub {phi}} of the order of the escape time defined by x{sub m}(t{sub {phi}}) {approx}1, the motion
Noble internal transport barriers and radial subdiffusion of toroidal magnetic lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.; Reuss, J.D.; Constantinescu, D.; Steinbrecher, G.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Weyssow, B.; Balescu, R.
2002-02-01
Internal transport barriers (ITB's) observed in tokamaks are described by a purely magnetic approach. Magnetic line motion in toroidal geometry with broken magnetic surfaces is studied from a previously derived Hamiltonian map in situation of incomplete chaos. This appears to reproduce in a realistic way the main features of a tokamak, for a given safety factor profile and in terms of a single parameter L representing the amplitude of the magnetic perturbation. New results are given concerning the Shafranov shift as function of L. For small values of L, closed magnetic surfaces exist (KAM tori) and island chains begin to appear on rational surfaces for higher values of L, with chaotic zones around hyperbolic points, as expected. Single trajectories of magnetic line motion indicate the persistence of a central protected plasma core, surrounded by a chaotic shell enclosed in a double-sided transport barrier. Magnetic lines which succeed to escape across this barrier begin to wander in a wide chaotic sea extending up to a very robust barrier (as long as L≤1). For values of L≥1, above the escape threshold, most magnetic lines succeed to escape out of the external barrier which has become a permeable Cantorus. Statistical analysis of a large number of trajectories, representing the evolution of a bunch of magnetic lines, indicate that the flux variable ψ asymptotically grows in a diffuse manner as (L 2 t) with a L 2 scaling as expected, but that the average radial position r m (t) asymptotically grows as (L 2 t) 1/4 while the mean square displacement around this average radius asymptotically grows in a sub-diffusive manner as (L 2 t) 1/2 . This result shows the slower dispersion in the present incomplete chaotic regime, which is different from the usual quasilinear diffusion in completely chaotic situations. For physical times t φ of the order of the escape time defined by x m (t φ ) ∼1, the motion appears to be super-diffusive, however, but less dangerous than
Radial electric field and rotation of the ensemble of plasma particles in tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorokina, E. A.; Ilgisonis, V. I.
2012-01-01
The velocity of macroscopic rotation of an ensemble of charged particles in a tokamak in the presence of an electric field has been calculated in a collisionless approximation. It is shown that the velocity of toroidal rotation does not reduce to a local velocity of electric drift and has opposite directions on the inner and outer sides of the torus. This result is supplemented by an analysis of the trajectories of motion of individual particles in the ensemble, which shows that the passing and trapped particles of the ensemble acquire in the electric field, on the average, different toroidal velocities. For the trapped particles, this velocity is equal to that of electric drift in the poloidal magnetic field, while the velocity of passing particles is significantly different. It is shown that, although the electric-field-induced shift of the boundaries between trapped and passing particles in the phase space depends on the particle mass and charge and is, in the general case, asymmetric, this does not lead to current generation.
Liu, Jian-li; Lu, Shi-cai; Ai, Bao-quan
2018-06-01
Due to the chirality of active particles, the transversal asymmetry can induce the the longitudinal directed transport. The transport of chiral active particles in a periodic channel is investigated in the presence of two types of the transversal asymmetry, the transverse force and the transverse rigid half-circle obstacles. For all cases, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions. For the case of the only transverse force, the chiral active particles can reverse their directions when increasing the transverse force. When the transverse rigid half-circle obstacles are introduced, the transport behavior of particles becomes more complex and multiple current reversals occur. The direction of the transport is determined by the competition between two types of the transversal asymmetry. For a given chirality, by suitably tailoring parameters, particles with different self-propulsion speed can move in different directions and can be separated.
Microstripes for transport and separation of magnetic particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Donolato, Marco; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt
2012-01-01
We present a simple technique for creating an on-chip magnetic particle conveyor based on exchange-biased permalloy microstripes. The particle transportation relies on an array of stripes with a spacing smaller than their width in conjunction with a periodic sequence of four different externally...... applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate the controlled transportation of a large population of particles over several millimeters of distance as well as the spatial separation of two populations of magnetic particles with different magnetophoretic mobilities. The technique can be used for the controlled...... selective manipulation and separation of magnetically labelled species. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics....
Dynamical theory of anomalous particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meiss, J.D.; Cary, J.R.; Escande, D.F.; MacKay, R.S.; Percival, I.C.; Tennyson, J.L.
1985-01-01
The quasi-linear theory of transport applies only in a restricted parameter range, which does not necessarily correspond to experimental conditions. Theories are developed which extend transport calculations to the regimes of marginal stochasticity and strong turbulence. Near the stochastic threshold the description of transport involves the leakage through destroyed invariant surfaces, and the dynamical scaling theory is used to obtain a universal form for transport coefficients. In the strong-turbulence regime, there is an adiabatic invariant which is preserved except near separatrices. Breakdown of this invariant leads to a new form for the diffusion coefficient. (author)
Turbulent transport of large particles in the atmospheric boundary layer
Richter, D. H.; Chamecki, M.
2017-12-01
To describe the transport of heavy dust particles in the atmosphere, assumptions must typically be made in order to connect the micro-scale emission processes with the larger-scale atmospheric motions. In the context of numerical models, this can be thought of as the transport process which occurs between the domain bottom and the first vertical grid point. For example, in the limit of small particles (both low inertia and low settling velocity), theory built upon Monin-Obukhov similarity has proven effective in relating mean dust concentration profiles to surface emission fluxes. For increasing particle mass, however, it becomes more difficult to represent dust transport as a simple extension of the transport of a passive scalar due to issues such as the crossing trajectories effect. This study focuses specifically on the problem of large particle transport and dispersion in the turbulent boundary layer by utilizing direct numerical simulations with Lagrangian point-particle tracking to determine under what, if any, conditions the large dust particles (larger than 10 micron in diameter) can be accurately described in a simplified Eulerian framework. In particular, results will be presented detailing the independent contributions of both particle inertia and particle settling velocity relative to the strength of the surrounding turbulent flow, and consequences of overestimating surface fluxes via traditional parameterizations will be demonstrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Potsane
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The transport of chemicals through soils to the groundwater or precipitation at the soils surfaces leads to degradation of these resources. Serious consequences may be suffered in the long run. In this paper, we consider macroscopic deterministic models describing contaminant transport in saturated soils under uniform radial water flow backgrounds. The arising convection-dispersion equation given in terms of the stream functions is analyzed using classical Lie point symmetries. A number of exotic Lie point symmetries are admitted. Group invariant solutions are classified according to the elements of the one-dimensional optimal systems. We analyzed the group invariant solutions which satisfy the physical boundary conditions.
ASYMPTOTICS OF a PARTICLES TRANSPORT PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuzmina Ludmila Ivanovna
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Subject: a groundwater filtration affects the strength and stability of underground and hydro-technical constructions. Research objectives: the study of one-dimensional problem of displacement of suspension by the flow of pure water in a porous medium. Materials and methods: when filtering a suspension some particles pass through the porous medium, and some of them are stuck in the pores. It is assumed that size distributions of the solid particles and the pores overlap. In this case, the main mechanism of particle retention is a size-exclusion: the particles pass freely through the large pores and get stuck at the inlet of the tiny pores that are smaller than the particle diameter. The concentrations of suspended and retained particles satisfy two quasi-linear differential equations of the first order. To solve the filtration problem, methods of nonlinear asymptotic analysis are used. Results: in a mathematical model of filtration of suspensions, which takes into account the dependence of the porosity and permeability of the porous medium on concentration of retained particles, the boundary between two phases is moving with variable velocity. The asymptotic solution to the problem is constructed for a small filtration coefficient. The theorem of existence of the asymptotics is proved. Analytical expressions for the principal asymptotic terms are presented for the case of linear coefficients and initial conditions. The asymptotics of the boundary of two phases is given in explicit form. Conclusions: the filtration problem under study can be solved analytically.
Directed Transport of Brownian Particles in a Periodic Channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Jie; Ai Bao-Quan; Wu Jian-Chun
2015-01-01
The transport of Brownian particles in the infinite channel within an external force along the axis of the channel has been studied. In this paper, we study the transport of Brownian particle in the infinite channel within an external force along the axis of the channel and an external force in the transversal direction. In this more sophisticated situation, some property is similar to the simple situation, but some interesting property also appears. (paper)
Modeling Solar Energetic Particle Transport near a Wavy Heliospheric Current Sheet
Battarbee, Markus; Dalla, Silvia; Marsh, Mike S.
2018-02-01
Understanding the transport of solar energetic particles (SEPs) from acceleration sites at the Sun into interplanetary space and to the Earth is an important question for forecasting space weather. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), with two distinct polarities and a complex structure, governs energetic particle transport and drifts. We analyze for the first time the effect of a wavy heliospheric current sheet (HCS) on the propagation of SEPs. We inject protons close to the Sun and propagate them by integrating fully 3D trajectories within the inner heliosphere in the presence of weak scattering. We model the HCS position using fits based on neutral lines of magnetic field source surface maps (SSMs). We map 1 au proton crossings, which show efficient transport in longitude via HCS, depending on the location of the injection region with respect to the HCS. For HCS tilt angles around 30°–40°, we find significant qualitative differences between A+ and A‑ configurations of the IMF, with stronger fluences along the HCS in the former case but with a distribution of particles across a wider range of longitudes and latitudes in the latter. We show how a wavy current sheet leads to longitudinally periodic enhancements in particle fluence. We show that for an A+ IMF configuration, a wavy HCS allows for more proton deceleration than a flat HCS. We find that A‑ IMF configurations result in larger average fluences than A+ IMF configurations, due to a radial drift component at the current sheet.
Time-dependent 2-stream particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corngold, Noel
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We consider time-dependent transport in the 2-stream or “rod” model via an attractive matrix formalism. • After reviewing some classical problems in homogeneous media we discuss transport in materials with whose density may vary. • There we achieve a significant contraction of the underlying Telegrapher’s equation. • We conclude with a discussion of stochastics, treated by the “first-order smoothing approximation.” - Abstract: We consider time-dependent transport in the 2-stream or “rod” model via an attractive matrix formalism. After reviewing some classical problems in homogeneous media we discuss transport in materials whose density may vary. There we achieve a significant contraction of the underlying Telegrapher’s equation. We conclude with a discussion of stochastics, treated by the “first-order smoothing approximation.”
Spatiotemporal Structure of Aeolian Particle Transport on Flat Surface
Niiya, Hirofumi; Nishimura, Kouichi
2017-05-01
We conduct numerical simulations based on a model of blowing snow to reveal the long-term properties and equilibrium state of aeolian particle transport from 10-5 to 10 m above the flat surface. The numerical results are as follows. (i) Time-series data of particle transport are divided into development, relaxation, and equilibrium phases, which are formed by rapid wind response below 10 cm and gradual wind response above 10 cm. (ii) The particle transport rate at equilibrium is expressed as a power function of friction velocity, and the index of 2.35 implies that most particles are transported by saltation. (iii) The friction velocity below 100 µm remains roughly constant and lower than the fluid threshold at equilibrium. (iv) The mean particle speed above 300 µm is less than the wind speed, whereas that below 300 µm exceeds the wind speed because of descending particles. (v) The particle diameter increases with height in the saltation layer, and the relationship is expressed as a power function. Through comparisons with the previously reported random-flight model, we find a crucial problem that empirical splash functions cannot reproduce particle dynamics at a relatively high wind speed.
Relativity primer for particle transport. A LASL monograph
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Everett, C.J.; Cashwell, E.D.
1979-04-01
The basic principles of special relativity involved in Monte Carlo transport problems are developed with emphasis on the possible transmutations of particles, and on computational methods. Charged particle ballistics and polarized scattering are included, as well as a discussion of colliding beams
Effects of the radial electrical field on the drifts, trapping and particle orbits in TJ-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.
1997-01-01
In this study a detailed analysis of the effect of radial electric fields on drifts, trapping and trajectories for ions of low and intermediate energy (0.1-1 keV) in the helical axis stellarator TJ-II has been performed. In TJ-II the drift velocities have the same rotation direction than the Hard Core (HC, the same than the plasma) with predominance of the vertical downwards component. The intensity is higher near the HC and in the outwards direction. These trends create strong asymmetries in losses even in the absence of electric field. When an electric field is present the poloidal components of the drift velocity predominates modifying deeply the orbit behaviour. Positive electric fields produce internal radial trapping barriers and have a tendency to eliminate the external ones. The opposite happens for negative fields. These facts alterate deeply the tapping and confinement properties of the particles. All these analysis will be used as a basis for the understanding of the modifications on the loss distribution, trapping regions and loss cones for TJ-II that will be addressed in forthcoming studies. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goharzadeh, A; Rodgers, P
2009-01-01
This paper presents an experimental study of gas-liquid slug flow on solid particle transport inside a horizontal pipe with two types of experiments conducted. The influence of slug length on solid particle transportation is characterized using high speed photography. Using combined Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with Refractive Index Matching (RIM) and fluorescent tracers (two-phase oil-air loop) the velocity distribution inside the slug body is measured. Combining these experimental analyses, an insight is provided into the physical mechanism of solid particle transportation due to slug flow. It was observed that the slug body significantly influences solid particle mobility. The physical mechanism of solid particle transportation was found to be discontinuous. The inactive region (in terms of solid particle transport) upstream of the slug nose was quantified as a function of gas-liquid composition and solid particle size. Measured velocity distributions showed a significant drop in velocity magnitude immediately upstream of the slug nose and therefore the critical velocity for solid particle lifting is reached further upstream.
Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Brichard, B.; Croci, G.; Brolatti, G.; Di Pace, L.; Fernandes, A.; Giacomelli, L.; Lengar, I.; Moszynski, M.; Krasilnikov, V.; Muraro, A.; Pereira, R. C.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rigamonti, D.; Rebai, M.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Salewski, M.; Santosh, P.; Sousa, J.; Zychor, I.; Gorini, G.
2017-07-01
We here present the principles and main physics capabilities behind the design of the radial gamma ray spectrometers (RGRS) system for alpha particle and runaway electron measurements at ITER. The diagnostic benefits from recent advances in gamma-ray spectrometry for tokamak plasmas and combines space and high energy resolution in a single device. The RGRS system as designed can provide information on α ~ particles on a time scale of 1/10 of the slowing down time for the ITER 500 MW full power DT scenario. Spectral observations of the 3.21 and 4.44 MeV peaks from the 9\\text{Be}≤ft(α,nγ \\right){{}12}\\text{C} reaction make the measurements sensitive to α ~ particles at characteristic resonant energies and to possible anisotropies of their slowing down distribution function. An independent assessment of the neutron rate by gamma-ray emission is also feasible. In case of runaway electrons born in disruptions with a typical duration of 100 ms, a time resolution of at least 10 ms for runaway electron studies can be achieved depending on the scenario and down to a current of 40 kA by use of external gas injection. We find that the bremsstrahlung spectrum in the MeV range from confined runaways is sensitive to the electron velocity space up to E≈ 30 -40 MeV, which allows for measurements of the energy distribution of the runaway electrons at ITER.
Advective isotope transport by mixing cell and particle tracking algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tezcan, L.; Meric, T.
1999-01-01
The 'mixing cell' algorithm of the environmental isotope data evaluation is integrated with the three dimensional finite difference ground water flow model (MODFLOW) to simulate the advective isotope transport and the approach is compared with the 'particle tracking' algorithm of the MOC3D, that simulates three-dimensional solute transport with the method of characteristics technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gils, H.J.
1984-12-01
The radial size and shape of the distribution of nucleons - i.e. the sum of protons and neutrons - in atomic nuclei of the 1fsub(7/2) shell is investigated in the present work. The experimental basis of the studies are differential cross sections of elastic α particle scattering by sup(40,42,43,44,48)Ca, 50 Ti, 51 V, 52 Cr precisely measured over a wide angular range at the 104 MeV α particle beam from the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron. The experimental cross sections are analyzed using so-called 'model independent' optical potentials by which the data are very well reproduced. The error bands of these potentials are determined in a well-defined form from the analyses. The high sensitivity of the data to the radial form of the real optical potential justifies, in principle, that the experiments are a suitable tool for investigating nuclear density distributions. Some pre-informations on this question are obtained from the optical potential analyses. For a more direct access to the nuclear matter distributions - in particular to differences between neighbouring nuclei - a semimicroscopic reaction model is presented which on the one hand is based on a fully microscopic many body approach. On the other hand all quantities being not of particular interest for the results are treated in a phenomenological way. Thereby, it is possible to reproduce the experimental cross sections as well as by the 'model independent' potentials and to obtain full consistency between the two approaches. This has not been achieved by any other microscopic reaction model. (orig./HSI) [de
Aerosol and particle transport in biomass furnaces
Kemenade, van H.P.; Obernberger, G.
2005-01-01
The particulate emissions of solid fuel fired furnaces typically exhibit a bimodal distribution: a small peak in the range of 0.1 mm and a larger one above 10 mm. The particles with sizes above 10 mm are formed by a mechanical process like disintegration of the fuel after combustion, or erosion,
PHITS-a particle and heavy ion transport code system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niita, Koji; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nose, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sihver, Lembit
2006-01-01
The paper presents a summary of the recent development of the multi-purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS. In particular, we discuss in detail the development of two new models, JAM and JQMD, for high energy particle interactions, incorporated in PHITS, and show comparisons between model calculations and experiments for the validations of these models. The paper presents three applications of the code including spallation neutron source, heavy ion therapy and space radiation. The results and examples shown indicate PHITS has great ability of carrying out the radiation transport analysis of almost all particles including heavy ions within a wide energy range
Fueling profile sensitivities of trapped particle mode transport to TNS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.
1977-01-01
A key factor in the plasma thermal behavior is the anticipated existence of dissipative trapped particle modes. A possible scheme for controlling the strength of these modes was found. The scheme involves varying the cold fueling profile. A one dimensional multifluid transport code was used to simulate plasma behavior. A multiregime model for particle and energy transport was incorporated based on pseudoclassical, trapped electron, and trapped ion regimes used elsewhere in simulation of large tokamaks. Fueling profiles peaked toward the plasma edge may provide a means for reducing density-gradient-driven trapped particle modes, thus reducing diffusion and conduction losses
Charged-particle calculations using Boltzmann transport methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, T.J.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.; Robinson, M.T.; Holmes, D.K.
1981-01-01
Several aspects of radiation damage effects in fusion reactor neutron and ion irradiation environments are amenable to treatment by transport theory methods. In this paper, multigroup transport techniques are developed for the calculation of charged particle range distributions, reflection coefficients, and sputtering yields. The Boltzmann transport approach can be implemented, with minor changes, in standard neutral particle computer codes. With the multigroup discrete ordinates code, ANISN, determination of ion and target atom distributions as functions of position, energy, and direction can be obtained without the stochastic error associated with atomistic computer codes such as MARLOWE and TRIM. With the multigroup Monte Carlo code, MORSE, charged particle effects can be obtained for problems associated with very complex geometries. Results are presented for several charged particle problems. Good agreement is obtained between quantities calculated with the multigroup approach and those obtained experimentally or by atomistic computer codes
Non deterministic methods for charged particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besnard, D.C.; Buresi, E.; Hermeline, F.; Wagon, F.
1985-04-01
The coupling of Monte-Carlo methods for solving Fokker Planck equation with ICF inertial confinement fusion codes requires them to be economical and to preserve gross conservation properties. Besides, the presence in FPE Fokker-Planck equation of diffusion terms due to collisions between test particles and the background plasma challenges standard M.C. (Monte-Carlo) techniques if this phenomenon is dominant. We address these problems through the use of a fixed mesh in phase space which allows us to handle highly variable sources, avoiding any Russian Roulette for lowering the size of the sample. Also on this mesh are solved diffusion equations obtained from a splitting of FPE. Any non linear diffusion terms of FPE can be handled in this manner. Another method, also presented here is to use a direct particle method for solving the full FPE
Transport of large particles released in a nuclear accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poellaenen, R.; Toivonen, H.; Lahtinen, J.; Ilander, T.
1995-10-01
Highly radioactive particulate material may be released in a nuclear accident or sometimes during normal operation of a nuclear power plant. However, consequence analyses related to radioactive releases are often performed neglecting the particle nature of the release. The properties of the particles have an important role in the radiological hazard. A particle deposited on the skin may cause a large and highly non-uniform skin beta dose. Skin dose limits may be exceeded although the overall activity concentration in air is below the level of countermeasures. For sheltering purposes it is crucial to find out the transport range, i.e. the travel distance of the particles. A method for estimating the transport range of large particles (aerodynamic diameter d a > 20 μm) in simplified meteorological conditions is presented. A user-friendly computer code, known as TROP, is developed for fast range calculations in a nuclear emergency. (orig.) (23 refs., 13 figs.)
Transport of large particles released in a nuclear accident
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poellaenen, R; Toivonen, H; Lahtinen, J; Ilander, T
1995-10-01
Highly radioactive particulate material may be released in a nuclear accident or sometimes during normal operation of a nuclear power plant. However, consequence analyses related to radioactive releases are often performed neglecting the particle nature of the release. The properties of the particles have an important role in the radiological hazard. A particle deposited on the skin may cause a large and highly non-uniform skin beta dose. Skin dose limits may be exceeded although the overall activity concentration in air is below the level of countermeasures. For sheltering purposes it is crucial to find out the transport range, i.e. the travel distance of the particles. A method for estimating the transport range of large particles (aerodynamic diameter d{sub a} > 20 {mu}m) in simplified meteorological conditions is presented. A user-friendly computer code, known as TROP, is developed for fast range calculations in a nuclear emergency. (orig.) (23 refs., 13 figs.).
Semi-analytic modeling of tokamak particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Bingren; Long Yongxing; Li Jiquan
2000-01-01
The linear particle transport equation of tokamak plasma is analyzed. Particle flow consists of an outward diffusion and an inward convection. General solution is expressed in terms of a Green function constituted by eigen-functions of corresponding Sturm-Liouville problem. For a particle source near the plasma edge (shadow fueling), a well-behaved solution in terms of Fourier series can be constituted by using the complementarity relation. It can be seen from the lowest eigen-function that the particle density becomes peaked when the wall recycling reduced. For a transient point source in the inner region, a well-behaved solution can be obtained by the complementarity as well
Bosman, Arthur D.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.
2018-04-01
Context. Radial transport of icy solid material from the cold outer disk to the warm inner disk is thought to be important for planet formation. However, the efficiency at which this happens is currently unconstrained. Efficient radial transport of icy dust grains could significantly alter the composition of the gas in the inner disk, enhancing the gas-phase abundances of the major ice constituents such as H2O and CO2. Aim. Our aim is to model the gaseous CO2 abundance in the inner disk and use this to probe the efficiency of icy dust transport in a viscous disk. From the model predictions, infrared CO2 spectra are simulated and features that could be tracers of icy CO2, and thus dust, radial transport efficiency are investigated. Methods: We have developed a 1D viscous disk model that includes gas accretion and gas diffusion as well as a description for grain growth and grain transport. Sublimation and freeze-out of CO2 and H2O has been included as well as a parametrisation of the CO2 chemistry. The thermo-chemical code DALI was used to model the mid-infrared spectrum of CO2, as can be observed with JWST-MIRI. Results: CO2 ice sublimating at the iceline increases the gaseous CO2 abundance to levels equal to the CO2 ice abundance of 10-5, which is three orders of magnitude more than the gaseous CO2 abundances of 10-8 observed by Spitzer. Grain growth and radial drift increase the rate at which CO2 is transported over the iceline and thus the gaseous CO2 abundance, further exacerbating the problem. In the case without radial drift, a CO2 destruction rate of at least 10-11 s-1 or a destruction timescale of at most 1000 yr is needed to reconcile model prediction with observations. This rate is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the fastest destruction rate included in chemical databases. A range of potential physical mechanisms to explain the low observed CO2 abundances are discussed. Conclusions: We conclude that transport processes in disks can have
Gyrokinetic theory for particle and energy transport in fusion plasmas
Falessi, Matteo Valerio; Zonca, Fulvio
2018-03-01
A set of equations is derived describing the macroscopic transport of particles and energy in a thermonuclear plasma on the energy confinement time. The equations thus derived allow studying collisional and turbulent transport self-consistently, retaining the effect of magnetic field geometry without postulating any scale separation between the reference state and fluctuations. Previously, assuming scale separation, transport equations have been derived from kinetic equations by means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis and spatio-temporal averaging. In this work, the evolution equations for the moments of the distribution function are obtained following the standard approach; meanwhile, gyrokinetic theory has been used to explicitly express the fluctuation induced fluxes. In this way, equations for the transport of particles and energy up to the transport time scale can be derived using standard first order gyrokinetics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, Katsumi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Itoh, Sanae
1994-10-01
Radial structures of plasma rotation and radial electric field are experimentally studied in tokamak, heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices. The perpendicular and parallel viscosities are measured. The parallel viscosity, which is dominant in determining the toroidal velocity in heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices, is found to be neoclassical. On the other hand, the perpendicular viscosity, which is dominant in dictating the toroidal rotation in tokamaks, is anomalous. Even without external momentum input, both a plasma rotation and a radial electric field exist in tokamaks and heliotrons/torsatrons. The observed profiles of the radial electric field do not agree with the theoretical prediction based on neoclassical transport. This is mainly due to the existence of anomalous perpendicular viscosity. The shear of the radial electric field improves particle and heat transport both in bulk and edge plasma regimes of tokamaks. (author) 95 refs
ENERGETIC PARTICLE TRANSPORT ACROSS THE MEAN MAGNETIC FIELD: BEFORE DIFFUSION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.
2017-01-01
Current particle transport models describe the propagation of charged particles across the mean field direction in turbulent plasmas as diffusion. However, recent studies suggest that at short timescales, such as soon after solar energetic particle (SEP) injection, particles remain on turbulently meandering field lines, which results in nondiffusive initial propagation across the mean magnetic field. In this work, we use a new technique to investigate how the particles are displaced from their original field lines, and we quantify the parameters of the transition from field-aligned particle propagation along meandering field lines to particle diffusion across the mean magnetic field. We show that the initial decoupling of the particles from the field lines is slow, and particles remain within a Larmor radius from their initial meandering field lines for tens to hundreds of Larmor periods, for 0.1–10 MeV protons in turbulence conditions typical of the solar wind at 1 au. Subsequently, particles decouple from their initial field lines and after hundreds to thousands of Larmor periods reach time-asymptotic diffusive behavior consistent with particle diffusion across the mean field caused by the meandering of the field lines. We show that the typical duration of the prediffusive phase, hours to tens of hours for 10 MeV protons in 1 au solar wind turbulence conditions, is significant for SEP propagation to 1 au and must be taken into account when modeling SEP propagation in the interplanetary space.
ENERGETIC PARTICLE TRANSPORT ACROSS THE MEAN MAGNETIC FIELD: BEFORE DIFFUSION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S., E-mail: tlmlaitinen@uclan.ac.uk [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston (United Kingdom)
2017-01-10
Current particle transport models describe the propagation of charged particles across the mean field direction in turbulent plasmas as diffusion. However, recent studies suggest that at short timescales, such as soon after solar energetic particle (SEP) injection, particles remain on turbulently meandering field lines, which results in nondiffusive initial propagation across the mean magnetic field. In this work, we use a new technique to investigate how the particles are displaced from their original field lines, and we quantify the parameters of the transition from field-aligned particle propagation along meandering field lines to particle diffusion across the mean magnetic field. We show that the initial decoupling of the particles from the field lines is slow, and particles remain within a Larmor radius from their initial meandering field lines for tens to hundreds of Larmor periods, for 0.1–10 MeV protons in turbulence conditions typical of the solar wind at 1 au. Subsequently, particles decouple from their initial field lines and after hundreds to thousands of Larmor periods reach time-asymptotic diffusive behavior consistent with particle diffusion across the mean field caused by the meandering of the field lines. We show that the typical duration of the prediffusive phase, hours to tens of hours for 10 MeV protons in 1 au solar wind turbulence conditions, is significant for SEP propagation to 1 au and must be taken into account when modeling SEP propagation in the interplanetary space.
Cui, Z. Y.; Zhang, K.; Morita, S.; Ji, X. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Xu, Y.; Sun, P.; Gao, J. M.; Dong, C. F.; Zheng, D. L.; Li, Y. G.; Jiang, M.; Li, D.; Zhong, W. L.; Liu, Yi; Dong, Y. B.; Song, S. D.; Yu, L. M.; Shi, Z. B.; Fu, B. Z.; Lu, P.; Huang, M.; Yuan, B. S.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.
2018-05-01
In HL-2A, an inverse sawtooth oscillation is observed with a long-lasting m/n = 1/1 mode during ECRH phase with power deposition inside sawtooth inversion radius (inner-deposited ECRH), while a normal sawtooth instead appears when the ECRH power is deposited outside sawtooth inversion radius (outer-deposited ECRH). Aluminum is then injected as a trace impurity with laser blow-off (LBO) method into the inner- and outer-deposited ECRH phases of HL-2A discharges to investigate the effect of ECRH on impurity transport. Temporal behavior of soft x-ray (SXR) array signals is analyzed with a 1D impurity transport code, and radial structures of impurity transport coefficients are obtained. The result shows that the radial transport of Al ions is strongly enhanced during the inner-deposited ECRH phase. In particular, an outward convection velocity is developed with positive values of 0 ⩽ V(ρ) ⩽ 3.8 m s-1 in ρ ⩽ 0.5, while the convection velocity is inward in ρ ⩾ 0.6. In the outer-deposited ECRH discharge, on the other hand, the convection velocity takes a big negative value in ρ ⩽ 0.4 and close to zero at ρ ~ 0.6. In ohmic discharges, an inward V(ρ) always appears in the whole plasma radii and gradually increases toward the plasma edge (-3.2 m s-1 at ρ = 1). The simulation result also indicates that centrally-peaked Al ion density profiles presented in the outer-deposited ECRH discharge can be flattened by the inner-deposited ECRH. Modification of impurity transport is discussed in the presence of long-lasting m/n = 1/1 MHD mode.
Modeling airflow and particle transport/deposition in pulmonary airways.
Kleinstreuer, Clement; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Zheng
2008-11-30
A review of research papers is presented, pertinent to computer modeling of airflow as well as nano- and micron-size particle deposition in pulmonary airway replicas. The key modeling steps are outlined, including construction of suitable airway geometries, mathematical description of the air-particle transport phenomena and computer simulation of micron and nanoparticle depositions. Specifically, diffusion-dominated nanomaterial deposits on airway surfaces much more uniformly than micron particles of the same material. This may imply different toxicity effects. Due to impaction and secondary flows, micron particles tend to accumulate around the carinal ridges and to form "hot spots", i.e., locally high concentrations which may lead to tumor developments. Inhaled particles in the size range of 20nm< or =dp< or =3microm may readily reach the deeper lung region. Concerning inhaled therapeutic particles, optimal parameters for mechanical drug-aerosol targeting of predetermined lung areas can be computed, given representative pulmonary airways.
Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Nguyen, Trinh-Trung-Duong; Ou, Yu-Yen
2017-05-01
The electron transport proteins have an important role in storing and transferring electrons in cellular respiration, which is the most proficient process through which cells gather energy from consumed food. According to the molecular functions, the electron transport chain components could be formed with five complexes with several different electron carriers and functions. Therefore, identifying the molecular functions in the electron transport chain is vital for helping biologists understand the electron transport chain process and energy production in cells. This work includes two phases for discriminating electron transport proteins from transport proteins and classifying categories of five complexes in electron transport proteins. In the first phase, the performances from PSSM with AAIndex feature set were successful in identifying electron transport proteins in transport proteins with achieved sensitivity of 73.2%, specificity of 94.1%, and accuracy of 91.3%, with MCC of 0.64 for independent data set. With the second phase, our method can approach a precise model for identifying of five complexes with different molecular functions in electron transport proteins. The PSSM with AAIndex properties in five complexes achieved MCC of 0.51, 0.47, 0.42, 0.74, and 1.00 for independent data set, respectively. We suggest that our study could be a power model for determining new proteins that belongs into which molecular function of electron transport proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.
2003-01-01
In this paper, we consider the gravitational radiation generated by the collision of highly relativistic particles with rotating Kerr black holes. We use the Sasaki-Nakamura formalism to compute the waveform, energy spectra, and total energy radiated during this process. We show that the gravitational spectrum for high-energy collisions has definite characteristic universal features, which are independent of the spin of the colliding objects. We also discuss the possible connections between these results and black-hole-black-hole collisions at the speed of light. Our results show that during the high-speed collision of a nonrotating hole with a rotating one, at most 35% of the total energy can get converted into gravitational waves. This 35% efficiency occurs only in the most optimistic situation, that of a zero impact parameter collision, along the equatorial plane, with an almost extreme Kerr black hole. In the general situation, the total gravitational energy radiated is expected to be much less, especially if the impact parameter increases. Thus, if one is able to produce black holes at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, at most 35% of the partons' energy should be emitted during the so-called balding phase. This energy will be missing, since we do not have gravitational wave detectors able to measure such amplitudes. The collision at the speed of light between one rotating black hole and a nonrotating one or two rotating black holes turns out to be the most efficient gravitational wave generator in the Universe
Optimization of magnetic switches for single particle and cell transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Box 90300 Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Joint Institute, University of Michigan—Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Murdoch, David M. [Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kim, CheolGi [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-28
The ability to manipulate an ensemble of single particles and cells is a key aim of lab-on-a-chip research; however, the control mechanisms must be optimized for minimal power consumption to enable future large-scale implementation. Recently, we demonstrated a matter transport platform, which uses overlaid patterns of magnetic films and metallic current lines to control magnetic particles and magnetic-nanoparticle-labeled cells; however, we have made no prior attempts to optimize the device geometry and power consumption. Here, we provide an optimization analysis of particle-switching devices based on stochastic variation in the particle's size and magnetic content. These results are immediately applicable to the design of robust, multiplexed platforms capable of transporting, sorting, and storing single cells in large arrays with low power and high efficiency.
Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathews, K.A.
1983-01-01
A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method
Vectorization of Monte Carlo particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burns, P.J.; Christon, M.; Schweitzer, R.; Lubeck, O.M.; Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Pryor, D.V.
1989-01-01
This paper reports that fully vectorized versions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory benchmark code Gamteb, a Monte Carlo photon transport algorithm, were developed for the Cyber 205/ETA-10 and Cray X-MP/Y-MP architectures. Single-processor performance measurements of the vector and scalar implementations were modeled in a modified Amdahl's Law that accounts for additional data motion in the vector code. The performance and implementation strategy of the vector codes are related to architectural features of each machine. Speedups between fifteen and eighteen for Cyber 205/ETA-10 architectures, and about nine for CRAY X-MP/Y-MP architectures are observed. The best single processor execution time for the problem was 0.33 seconds on the ETA-10G, and 0.42 seconds on the CRAY Y-MP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moribayashi, Kengo, E-mail: moribayashi.kengo@jaea.go.jp
2015-12-15
A radial dose simulation model has been proposed in order to advance the treatment planning system for heavy particle cancer therapy. Here, the radial dose is the dose due to the irradiation of a heavy ion as a function of distances from this ion path. The model proposed here may overcome weak points of paradigms that are employed to produce the conventional radial dose distributions. To provide the radial dose with higher accuracy, this paper has discussed the relationship between the emission angles of secondary electrons and the radial dose. It is found that the effect of emission angles becomes stronger on the radial dose with increasing energies of the secondary electrons.
Computational methods for two-phase flow and particle transport
Lee, Wen Ho
2013-01-01
This book describes mathematical formulations and computational methods for solving two-phase flow problems with a computer code that calculates thermal hydraulic problems related to light water and fast breeder reactors. The physical model also handles the particle and gas flow problems that arise from coal gasification and fluidized beds. The second part of this book deals with the computational methods for particle transport.
Solitary Model of the Charge Particle Transport in Collisionless Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonchik, L.V.; Trukhachev, F.M.
2006-01-01
The one-dimensional MHD solitary model of charged particle transport in plasma is developed. It is shown that self-consistent electric field of ion-acoustic solitons can displace charged particles in space, which can be a reason of local electric current generation. The displacement amount is order of a few Debye lengths. It is shown that the current associated with soliton cascade has pulsating nature with DC component. Methods of built theory verification in dusty plasma are proposed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunn, J.P.; Boucher, C.; Dionne, M.; Duran, I.; Fuchs, V.; Loarer, T.; Nanobashvili, I.; Panek, R.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Stoeckel, J.; Rompuy, T. van; Zagorski, R.; Adamek, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Devynck, P.; Hertout, P.; Hron, M.; Lebrun, G.; Moreau, P.; Rimini, F.; Sarkissian, A.; Oost, G. van
2007-01-01
Near-sonic parallel flows are systematically observed in the far scrape-off layer (SOL) of the limiter tokamak Tore Supra, as in many L-mode X-point divertor tokamak plasmas. The poloidal variation of the parallel flow has been measured by moving the contact point of a small circular plasma onto limiters at different poloidal angles. The resulting variations of flow are consistent with the existence of a poloidally localized enhancement of radial transport concentrated in a 30 deg. sector near the outboard midplane. If the plasma contact point is placed on the inboard limiters, then the SOL expands to fill all the space between the plasma and the outboard limiters, with density decay lengths between 10 and 20 cm. On the other hand, if the contact point lies on the outboard limiters, the localized plasma outflux is scraped off and the SOL is very thin with decay lengths around 2-3 cm. The outboard radial transport would have to be about two orders of magnitude stronger than inboard to explain these results
Particle Acceleration and Fractional Transport in Turbulent Reconnection
Isliker, Heinz; Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Anastasiadis, Anastasios
2017-11-01
We consider a large-scale environment of turbulent reconnection that is fragmented into a number of randomly distributed unstable current sheets (UCSs), and we statistically analyze the acceleration of particles within this environment. We address two important cases of acceleration mechanisms when particles interact with the UCS: (a) electric field acceleration and (b) acceleration by reflection at contracting islands. Electrons and ions are accelerated very efficiently, attaining an energy distribution of power-law shape with an index 1-2, depending on the acceleration mechanism. The transport coefficients in energy space are estimated from test-particle simulation data, and we show that the classical Fokker-Planck (FP) equation fails to reproduce the simulation results when the transport coefficients are inserted into it and it is solved numerically. The cause for this failure is that the particles perform Levy flights in energy space, while the distributions of the energy increments exhibit power-law tails. We then use the fractional transport equation (FTE) derived by Isliker et al., whose parameters and the order of the fractional derivatives are inferred from the simulation data, and solving the FTE numerically, we show that the FTE successfully reproduces the kinetic energy distribution of the test particles. We discuss in detail the analysis of the simulation data and the criteria that allow one to judge the appropriateness of either an FTE or a classical FP equation as a transport model.
Particle Acceleration and Fractional Transport in Turbulent Reconnection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isliker, Heinz; Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-52124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Anastasiadis, Anastasios [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)
2017-11-01
We consider a large-scale environment of turbulent reconnection that is fragmented into a number of randomly distributed unstable current sheets (UCSs), and we statistically analyze the acceleration of particles within this environment. We address two important cases of acceleration mechanisms when particles interact with the UCS: (a) electric field acceleration and (b) acceleration by reflection at contracting islands. Electrons and ions are accelerated very efficiently, attaining an energy distribution of power-law shape with an index 1–2, depending on the acceleration mechanism. The transport coefficients in energy space are estimated from test-particle simulation data, and we show that the classical Fokker–Planck (FP) equation fails to reproduce the simulation results when the transport coefficients are inserted into it and it is solved numerically. The cause for this failure is that the particles perform Levy flights in energy space, while the distributions of the energy increments exhibit power-law tails. We then use the fractional transport equation (FTE) derived by Isliker et al., whose parameters and the order of the fractional derivatives are inferred from the simulation data, and solving the FTE numerically, we show that the FTE successfully reproduces the kinetic energy distribution of the test particles. We discuss in detail the analysis of the simulation data and the criteria that allow one to judge the appropriateness of either an FTE or a classical FP equation as a transport model.
Particle swarm optimization - Genetic algorithm (PSOGA) on linear transportation problem
Rahmalia, Dinita
2017-08-01
Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) is the case of constrained optimization where we want to minimize cost subject to the balance of the number of supply and the number of demand. The exact method such as northwest corner, vogel, russel, minimal cost have been applied at approaching optimal solution. In this paper, we use heurisitic like Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for solving linear transportation problem at any size of decision variable. In addition, we combine mutation operator of Genetic Algorithm (GA) at PSO to improve optimal solution. This method is called Particle Swarm Optimization - Genetic Algorithm (PSOGA). The simulations show that PSOGA can improve optimal solution resulted by PSO.
Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, B.
2000-01-01
The purpose of the transport methodology and component analysis is to provide the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport and model setup for transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated into the FEHM computer code and the resulting changes in the FEHM code are to be submitted to the software configuration management system. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining colloid-facilitated transport parameters are outlined for use in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses. Concurrently, process-level flow model calculations are being carrier out in a PMR for the unsaturated zone. The computer code TOUGH2 is being used to generate three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields, that are supplied to the Performance Assessment group for subsequent transport simulations. These flow fields are converted to input files compatible with the FEHM code, which for this application simulates radionuclide transport using the particle-tracking algorithm outlined in this AMR. Therefore, this AMR establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model, but the specific breakthrough curves presented do not necessarily represent the behavior of the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone
Quasilinear Line Broadened Model for Energetic Particle Transport
Ghantous, Katy; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Berk, Herbert
2011-10-01
We present a self-consistent quasi-linear model that describes wave-particle interaction in toroidal geometry and computes fast ion transport during TAE mode evolution. The model bridges the gap between single mode resonances, where it predicts the analytically expected saturation levels, and the case of multiple modes overlapping, where particles diffuse across phase space. Results are presented in the large aspect ratio limit where analytic expressions are used for Fourier harmonics of the power exchange between waves and particles, . Implemention of a more realistic mode structure calculated by NOVAK code are also presented. This work is funded by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Peeters, A.G.; Westerhof, E.
1996-01-01
Numerical simulations using a three-dimensional Fokker-Planck code show that for small tokamaks the transport of electrons across the magnetic surfaces at a level consistent with anomalous transport has a large influence on the formation of the quasilinear plateau during electron cyclotron resonant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaing, K.C.; Hsu, C.T.
2014-01-01
A transport theory for energetic fusion born alpha particles in tokamaks with broken symmetry has been developed. The theory is a generalization of the theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity for thermal particles in tokamaks. It is shown that the radial energy transport rate can be comparable to the slowing down rate for energetic alpha particles when the ratio of the typical magnitude of the perturbed magnetic field strength to that of the equilibrium magnetic field strength is of the order of 10 −4 or larger. This imposes a constraint on the magnitude of the error fields in thermonuclear fusion reactors. The implications on stellarators as potential fusion reactors are also discussed. (paper)
FLUKA A multi-particle transport code (program version 2005)
Ferrari, A; Fassò, A; Ranft, Johannes
2005-01-01
This report describes the 2005 version of the Fluka particle transport code. The first part introduces the basic notions, describes the modular structure of the system, and contains an installation and beginner’s guide. The second part complements this initial information with details about the various components of Fluka and how to use them. It concludes with a detailed history and bibliography.
Linear kinetic theory and particle transport in stochastic mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pomraning, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
We consider the formulation of linear transport and kinetic theory describing energy and particle flow in a random mixture of two or more immiscible materials. Following an introduction, we summarize early and fundamental work in this area, and we conclude with a brief discussion of recent results.
Transient fluctuation relations for time-dependent particle transport
Altland, Alexander; de Martino, Alessandro; Egger, Reinhold; Narozhny, Boris
2010-09-01
We consider particle transport under the influence of time-varying driving forces, where fluctuation relations connect the statistics of pairs of time-reversed evolutions of physical observables. In many “mesoscopic” transport processes, the effective many-particle dynamics is dominantly classical while the microscopic rates governing particle motion are of quantum-mechanical origin. We here employ the stochastic path-integral approach as an optimal tool to probe the fluctuation statistics in such applications. Describing the classical limit of the Keldysh quantum nonequilibrium field theory, the stochastic path integral encapsulates the quantum origin of microscopic particle exchange rates. Dynamically, it is equivalent to a transport master equation which is a formalism general enough to describe many applications of practical interest. We apply the stochastic path integral to derive general functional fluctuation relations for current flow induced by time-varying forces. We show that the successive measurement processes implied by this setup do not put the derivation of quantum fluctuation relations in jeopardy. While in many cases the fluctuation relation for a full time-dependent current profile may contain excessive information, we formulate a number of reduced relations, and demonstrate their application to mesoscopic transport. Examples include the distribution of transmitted charge, where we show that the derivation of a fluctuation relation requires the combined monitoring of the statistics of charge and work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buffa, A.
1967-06-01
The effect of a circularly polarized wave on a cylindrical plasma in a axial magnetostatic field and a radial space-charge field proportional to r is studied. Single particle motion is considered. The electrostatic field produces a shift in the cyclotron resonance frequency and,in case of high charge density, a radial movement of the off-resonance particles. In these conditions a radio-frequency-particle resonance is also possible called 'drift-resonance'. The drift resonance can be produced, with whistler mode, and may be employed in ion acceleration. Afterwards parametrical resonances produced by space-charge field oscillations and collisional limits of theory are studied. Cases in which ion acceleration is possible are considered on the basis of a quantitative analysis of results. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliseev, Yu.N.; Stepanov, K.N.
1983-01-01
In the drift motion approximation solution of the problem is obtained on the motion of a nonrelativistic charged particle in the crossed axial magnetic and radial electric fields, and the electric field of a rotating potential wave under cherenkov and modified cyclotron resonances. The static radial electric field potential is supposed to be close to the parabolic one. The drift motion equations and their integrals are preseOted. The experimentally obtained effect of plasma ionic component division in the crossed fields under the excitation of ion cyclotron oscillations is explained with the help of the theory developed in the paper
Los Alamos neutral particle transport codes: New and enhanced capabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.; Brinkley, F.W.; Clark, B.A.; Koch, K.R.; Marr, D.R.
1992-01-01
We present new developments in Los Alamos discrete-ordinates transport codes and introduce THREEDANT, the latest in the series of Los Alamos discrete ordinates transport codes. THREEDANT solves the multigroup, neutral-particle transport equation in X-Y-Z and R-Θ-Z geometries. THREEDANT uses computationally efficient algorithms: Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) is used to accelerate the convergence of transport iterations, the DSA solution is accelerated using the multigrid technique. THREEDANT runs on a wide range of computers, from scientific workstations to CRAY supercomputers. The algorithms are highly vectorized on CRAY computers. Recently, the THREEDANT transport algorithm was implemented on the massively parallel CM-2 computer, with performance that is comparable to a single-processor CRAY-YMP We present the results of THREEDANT analysis of test problems
Adaptive multilevel splitting for Monte Carlo particle transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louvin Henri
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport, and especially for shielding applications, variance reduction techniques are widely used to help simulate realisations of rare events and reduce the relative errors on the estimated scores for a given computation time. Adaptive Multilevel Splitting (AMS is one of these variance reduction techniques that has recently appeared in the literature. In the present paper, we propose an alternative version of the AMS algorithm, adapted for the first time to the field of particle transport. Within this context, it can be used to build an unbiased estimator of any quantity associated with particle tracks, such as flux, reaction rates or even non-Boltzmann tallies like pulse-height tallies and other spectra. Furthermore, the efficiency of the AMS algorithm is shown not to be very sensitive to variations of its input parameters, which makes it capable of significant variance reduction without requiring extended user effort.
Development of particle and heavy ion transport code system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niita, Koji
2004-01-01
Particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS) is 3 dimension general purpose Monte Carlo simulation codes for description of transport and reaction of particle and heavy ion in materials. It is developed on the basis of NMTC/JAM for design and safety of J-PARC. What is PHITS, it's physical process, physical models and development process of PHITC code are described. For examples of application, evaluation of neutron optics, cancer treatment by heavy particle ray and cosmic radiation are stated. JAM and JQMD model are used as the physical model. Neutron motion in six polar magnetic field and gravitational field, PHITC simulation of trace of C 12 beam and secondary neutron track of small model of cancer treatment device in HIMAC and neutron flux in Space Shuttle are explained. (S.Y.)
A generalized transport-velocity formulation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xiangyu Y., E-mail: xiangyu.hu@tum.de; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2017-05-15
The standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method suffers from tensile instability. In fluid-dynamics simulations this instability leads to particle clumping and void regions when negative pressure occurs. In solid-dynamics simulations, it results in unphysical structure fragmentation. In this work the transport-velocity formulation of Adami et al. (2013) is generalized for providing a solution of this long-standing problem. Other than imposing a global background pressure, a variable background pressure is used to modify the particle transport velocity and eliminate the tensile instability completely. Furthermore, such a modification is localized by defining a shortened smoothing length. The generalized formulation is suitable for fluid and solid materials with and without free surfaces. The results of extensive numerical tests on both fluid and solid dynamics problems indicate that the new method provides a unified approach for multi-physics SPH simulations.
Directed transport of confined Brownian particles with torque
Radtke, Paul K.; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz
2012-05-01
We investigate the influence of an additional torque on the motion of Brownian particles confined in a channel geometry with varying width. The particles are driven by random fluctuations modeled by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with given correlation time τc. The latter causes persistent motion and is implemented as (i) thermal noise in equilibrium and (ii) noisy propulsion in nonequilibrium. In the nonthermal process a directed transport emerges; its properties are studied in detail with respect to the correlation time, the torque, and the channel geometry. Eventually, the transport mechanism is traced back to a persistent sliding of particles along the even boundaries in contrast to scattered motion at uneven or rough ones.
van den Bremer, Ton S.; Taylor, Paul H.
2014-11-01
Although the literature has examined Stokes drift, the net Lagrangian transport by particles due to of surface gravity waves, in great detail, the motion of fluid particles transported by surface gravity wave groups has received considerably less attention. In practice nevertheless, the wave field on the open sea often has a group-like structure. The motion of particles is different, as particles at sufficient depth are transported backwards by the Eulerian return current that was first described by Longuet-Higgins & Stewart (1962) and forms an inseparable counterpart of Stokes drift for wave groups ensuring the (irrotational) mass balance holds. We use WKB theory to study the variation of the Lagrangian transport by the return current with depth distinguishing two-dimensional seas, three-dimensional seas, infinite depth and finite depth. We then provide dimensional estimates of the net horizontal Lagrangian transport by the Stokes drift on the one hand and the return flow on the other hand for realistic sea states in all four cases. Finally we propose a simple scaling relationship for the transition depth: the depth above which Lagrangian particles are transported forwards by the Stokes drift and below which such particles are transported backwards by the return current.
Particle transport methods for LWR dosimetry developed by the Penn State transport theory group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haghighat, A.; Petrovic, B.
1997-01-01
This paper reviews advanced particle transport theory methods developed by the Penn State Transport Theory Group (PSTTG) over the past several years. These methods have been developed in response to increasing needs for accuracy of results and for three-dimensional modeling of nuclear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canobbio, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Services de Physique Appliquee, Service d' Ionique Generale, Section d' Etudes des Interactions Ondes Plasmas; Finzi, U [Institut de Physique Theorique de Milan (Italy)
1966-07-01
The motion of a charged particle in an axial uniform steady magnetic field, under the action of a radial space charge is calculated. A cylindrical symmetric charge distribution similar to the one which is observed in HF plasma accelerators is assumed. The particle motion is discussed with the method of effective potentials. A radial acceleration of ions is shown to be possible if the space charge density is sufficiently high. The displacement of the turning points of the trajectories due to the electrostatic field is calculated in the low plasma density approximation. Finally a HF circularly polarized electric field is introduced, the shift in cyclotron resonance is calculated and a low frequency resonance is found to be possible. (authors) [French] On etudie le mouvement d'une particule dans un champ magnetique axial uniforme et constant en presence d'un champ de charge d'espace radial. On considere une distribution de charge a symetrie cylindrique, semblable a celle qu'on observe dans les accelerateurs de plasma a H.F. On se sert des potentiels effectifs pour discuter les caracteristiques du mouvement. Une acceleration radiale des ions est possible lorsque la densite de charge est assez elevee. On calcule aussi les deplacements des points de rebroussement des trajectoires produits par un champ electrostatique faible. On introduit enfin un champ electrique HF polarise circulairement et on calcule le deplacement de la resonance de cyclotron du au champ de charge d'espace. En meme temps on voit apparaitre dans l'energie cinetique de la particule une resonance a basse frequence. (auteurs)
Applying Dispersive Changes to Lagrangian Particles in Groundwater Transport Models
Konikow, Leonard F.
2010-01-01
Method-of-characteristics groundwater transport models require that changes in concentrations computed within an Eulerian framework to account for dispersion be transferred to moving particles used to simulate advective transport. A new algorithm was developed to accomplish this transfer between nodal values and advecting particles more precisely and realistically compared to currently used methods. The new method scales the changes and adjustments of particle concentrations relative to limiting bounds of concentration values determined from the population of adjacent nodal values. The method precludes unrealistic undershoot or overshoot for concentrations of individual particles. In the new method, if dispersion causes cell concentrations to decrease during a time step, those particles in the cell having the highest concentration will decrease the most, and those with the lowest concentration will decrease the least. The converse is true if dispersion is causing concentrations to increase. Furthermore, if the initial concentration on a particle is outside the range of the adjacent nodal values, it will automatically be adjusted in the direction of the acceptable range of values. The new method is inherently mass conservative. ?? US Government 2010.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneller, Mirjam Simone
2013-08-02
In thermonuclear plasmas, a population of super-thermal particles generated by external heating methods or fusion reactions can lead to the excitation of global instabilities. The transport processes due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions and the consequential particle losses reduce the plasma heating and the efficiency of the fusion reaction rate. Furthermore, these energetic or fast particles may cause severe damages to the wall of the device. This thesis addresses the resonance mechanisms between these energetic particles and global MHD and kinetic MHD waves, employing the hybrid code HAGIS. A systematic investigation of energetic particles resonant with multiple modes (double-resonance) is presented for the first time. The double-resonant mode coupling is modeled for waves with different frequencies in various overlapping scenarios. It is found that, depending on the radial mode distance, double-resonance is able to significantly enhance, both the growth rates and the saturation amplitudes. Small radial mode distances, however can lead to strong nonlinear mode stabilization of a linear dominant mode. For the first time, simulations of experimental conditions in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are performed for different plasma equilibria (particularly for different q profiles). An understanding of fast particle behavior for non-monotonic q profiles is important for the development of advanced fusion scenarios. The numerical tool is the extended version of the HAGIS code, which computes the particle motion in the vacuum region between vessel wall in addition to the internal plasma volume. For this thesis, a consistent fast particle distribution function was implemented, to represent the fast particle population generated by the particular heating method (ICRH). Furthermore, HAGIS was extended to use more realistic eigenfunctions, calculated by the gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver LIGKA. One important aim of these simulations is to allow fast ion loss
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneller, Mirjam Simone
2013-01-01
In thermonuclear plasmas, a population of super-thermal particles generated by external heating methods or fusion reactions can lead to the excitation of global instabilities. The transport processes due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions and the consequential particle losses reduce the plasma heating and the efficiency of the fusion reaction rate. Furthermore, these energetic or fast particles may cause severe damages to the wall of the device. This thesis addresses the resonance mechanisms between these energetic particles and global MHD and kinetic MHD waves, employing the hybrid code HAGIS. A systematic investigation of energetic particles resonant with multiple modes (double-resonance) is presented for the first time. The double-resonant mode coupling is modeled for waves with different frequencies in various overlapping scenarios. It is found that, depending on the radial mode distance, double-resonance is able to significantly enhance, both the growth rates and the saturation amplitudes. Small radial mode distances, however can lead to strong nonlinear mode stabilization of a linear dominant mode. For the first time, simulations of experimental conditions in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are performed for different plasma equilibria (particularly for different q profiles). An understanding of fast particle behavior for non-monotonic q profiles is important for the development of advanced fusion scenarios. The numerical tool is the extended version of the HAGIS code, which computes the particle motion in the vacuum region between vessel wall in addition to the internal plasma volume. For this thesis, a consistent fast particle distribution function was implemented, to represent the fast particle population generated by the particular heating method (ICRH). Furthermore, HAGIS was extended to use more realistic eigenfunctions, calculated by the gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver LIGKA. One important aim of these simulations is to allow fast ion loss
Modeling reactive transport with particle tracking and kernel estimators
Rahbaralam, Maryam; Fernandez-Garcia, Daniel; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier
2015-04-01
Groundwater reactive transport models are useful to assess and quantify the fate and transport of contaminants in subsurface media and are an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth Systems. Particle Tracking Method (PTM) provides a computationally efficient and adaptable approach to solve the solute transport partial differential equation. On a molecular level, chemical reactions are the result of collisions, combinations, and/or decay of different species. For a well-mixed system, the chem- ical reactions are controlled by the classical thermodynamic rate coefficient. Each of these actions occurs with some probability that is a function of solute concentrations. PTM is based on considering that each particle actually represents a group of molecules. To properly simulate this system, an infinite number of particles is required, which is computationally unfeasible. On the other hand, a finite number of particles lead to a poor-mixed system which is limited by diffusion. Recent works have used this effect to actually model incomplete mix- ing in naturally occurring porous media. In this work, we demonstrate that this effect in most cases should be attributed to a defficient estimation of the concentrations and not to the occurrence of true incomplete mixing processes in porous media. To illustrate this, we show that a Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) of the concentrations can approach the well-mixed solution with a limited number of particles. KDEs provide weighting functions of each particle mass that expands its region of influence, hence providing a wider region for chemical reactions with time. Simulation results show that KDEs are powerful tools to improve state-of-the-art simulations of chemical reactions and indicates that incomplete mixing in diluted systems should be modeled based on alternative conceptual models and not on a limited number of particles.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taasti, Vicki Trier; Knudsen, Helge; Holzscheiter, Michael
2015-01-01
The Monte Carlo particle transport code SHIELD-HIT12A is designed to simulate therapeutic beams for cancer radiotherapy with fast ions. SHIELD-HIT12A allows creation of antiproton beam kernels for the treatment planning system TRiP98, but first it must be benchmarked against experimental data. An...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciesla, F. J.
2011-01-01
The origin of crystalline grains in comets and the outer regions of protoplanetary disks remains a mystery. It has been suggested that such grains form via annealing of amorphous precursors in the hot, inner region of a protoplanetary disk, where the temperatures needed for such transformations were found, and were then transported outward by some dynamical means. Here we develop a means of tracking the paths that dust grains would have taken through a diffusive protoplanetary disk and examine the types and ranges of environments that particles would have seen over a 10 6 yr time period in the dynamic disk. We then combine this model with three annealing laws to examine how the dynamic evolution of amorphous grains would have led to their physical restructuring and their delivery to various regions of the disk. It is found that 'sibling particles' - those particles that reside at the same location at a given period of time-take a wide range of unique and independent paths through the disk to arrive there. While high temperatures can persist in the disk for very long time periods, we find that those grains that are delivered to the cold outer regions of the disk are largely annealed in the first few x10 5 yr of disk history. This suggests that the crystallinity of grains in the outer disk would be determined early and remain unchanged for much of disk history, in agreement with recent astronomical observations.
Nano-colloid electrophoretic transport: Fully explicit modelling via dissipative particle dynamics
Hassanzadeh Afrouzi, Hamid; Farhadi, Mousa; Sedighi, Kurosh; Moshfegh, Abouzar
2018-02-01
In present study, a novel fully explicit approach using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method is introduced for modelling electrophoretic transport of nano-colloids in an electrolyte solution. Slater type charge smearing function included in 3D Ewald summation method is employed to treat electrostatic interaction. Moreover, capability of different thermostats are challenged to control the system temperature and study the dynamic response of colloidal electrophoretic mobility under practical ranges of external electric field in nano scale application (0.072 600 in DPD units regardless of electric field intensity. Nosé-Hoover-Lowe-Andersen and Lowe-Andersen thermostats are found to function more effectively under high electric fields (E > 0.145 [ v / nm ]) while thermal equilibrium is maintained. Reasonable agreements are achieved by benchmarking the radial distribution function with available electrolyte structure modellings, as well as comparing reduced mobility against conventional Smoluchowski and Hückel theories, and numerical solution of Poisson-Boltzmann equation.
Numerical investigations for insulation particle transport phenomena in water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krepper, E.; Grahn, A.; Alt, S.; Kaestner, W.; Kratzsch, A.; Seeliger, A.
2005-01-01
The investigation of insulation debris generation, transport and sedimentation gains importance regarding the reactor safety research for PWR and BWR considering the long term behaviour of emergency core coolant systems during all types of LOCA. The insulation debris released near the break during LOCA consists of a mixture of very different particles concerning size, shape, consistence and other properties. Some fraction of the released insulation debris will be transported into the reactor sump where it may affect emergency core cooling. Open questions of generic interest are e.g. the sedimentation of the insulation debris in a water pool, possible re-suspension, transport in the sump water flow, particle load on strainers and corresponding difference pressure. A joint research project in cooperation with Institute of Process Technology, Process Automation and Measuring Technology (IPM) Zittau deals with the experimental investigation and the development of CFD models for the description of particle transport phenomena in coolant flow. While experiments are performed at the IPM-Zittau, theoretical work is concentrated at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. In the present paper the basic concepts for CFD modelling are described and first results including feasibility studies are shown. During the ongoing work further results are expected. (author)
Experimental and theoretical study of particle transport in the TCV Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fable, E.
2009-06-01
The main scope of this thesis work is to compare theoretical models with experimental observations on particle transport in particular regimes of plasma operation from the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) located at CRPP–EPFL in Lausanne. We introduce the main topics in Tokamak fusion research and the challenging problems in the first Chapter. A particular attention is devoted to the modelling of heat and particle transport. In the second Chapter the experimental part is presented, including an overview of TCV capabilities, a brief review of the relevant diagnostic systems, and a discussion of the numerical tools used to analyze the experimental data. In addition, the numerical codes that are used to interpret the experimental data and to compare them with theoretical predictions are introduced. The third Chapter deals with the problem of understanding the mechanisms that regulate the transport of energy in TCV plasmas, in particular in the electron Internal Transport Barrier (eITB) scenario. A radial transport code, integrated with an external module for the calculation of the turbulence-induced transport coefficients, is employed to reproduce the experimental scenario and to understand the physics at play. It is shown how the sustainment of an improved confinement regime is linked to the presence of a reversed safety factor profile. The improvement of confinement in the eITB regime is visible in the energy channel and in the particle channel as well. The density profile shows strong correlation with the temperature profile and has a large local logarithmic gradient. This is an important result obtained from the TCV eITB scenario analysis and is presented in the fourth Chapter. In the same chapter we present the estimate of the particle diffusion and convection coefficients obtained from density transient experiments performed in the eITB scenario. The theoretical understanding of the strong correlation between density and temperature observed in the e
Particle and heavy ion transport code system; PHITS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niita, Koji
2004-01-01
Intermediate and high energy nuclear data are strongly required in design study of many facilities such as accelerator-driven systems, intense pulse spallation neutron sources, and also in medical and space technology. There is, however, few evaluated nuclear data of intermediate and high energy nuclear reactions. Therefore, we have to use some models or systematics for the cross sections, which are essential ingredients of high energy particle and heavy ion transport code to estimate neutron yield, heat deposition and many other quantities of the transport phenomena in materials. We have developed general purpose particle and heavy ion transport Monte Carlo code system, PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System), based on the NMTC/JAM code by the collaboration of Tohoku University, JAERI and RIST. The PHITS has three important ingredients which enable us to calculate (1) high energy nuclear reactions up to 200 GeV, (2) heavy ion collision and its transport in material, (3) low energy neutron transport based on the evaluated nuclear data. In the PHITS, the cross sections of high energy nuclear reactions are obtained by JAM model. JAM (Jet AA Microscopic Transport Model) is a hadronic cascade model, which explicitly treats all established hadronic states including resonances and all hadron-hadron cross sections parametrized based on the resonance model and string model by fitting the available experimental data. The PHITS can describe the transport of heavy ions and their collisions by making use of JQMD and SPAR code. The JQMD (JAERI Quantum Molecular Dynamics) is a simulation code for nucleus nucleus collisions based on the molecular dynamics. The SPAR code is widely used to calculate the stopping powers and ranges for charged particles and heavy ions. The PHITS has included some part of MCNP4C code, by which the transport of low energy neutron, photon and electron based on the evaluated nuclear data can be described. Furthermore, the high energy nuclear
A study on the particle penetration in RMS Right Single Quotation Marks particle transport system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, S. M.; Oh, S. H.; Choi, C. R.
2014-01-01
In nuclear facilities, a radiation monitoring system (RMS) monitors the exhaust gas containing the radioactive material. Samples of exhaust gas are collected in the downstream region of air cleaning units (ACUs) in order to examine radioactive materials. It is possible to predict an amount of radioactive material by analyzing the corrected samples. Representation of the collected samples should be assured in order to accurately sense and measure of radioactive materials. The radius of curvature is mainly 5 times of tube diameter. Sometimes, a booster fan is additionally added to enhance particle penetration rate... In this study, particle penetrations are calculated to evaluate particle penetration rate with various design parameters (tube lengths, tube declined angles, radius of curvatures, etc). The particle penetration rates have been calculated for several elements in the particle transport system. In general, the horizontal length of tube and the number of bending tube have a big impact on the penetration rate in the particle transport system. If the sampling location is far from the radiation monitoring system, additional installation of booster fans could be considered in case of large diameter tubes, but is not recommended in case of small diameter tube. In order to enhance particle penetration rate, the following works are recommended by priority. 1) to reduce the interval between sampling location and radiation monitoring system 2) to reduce the number of the bending tube
Modelling of neutral particle transport in divertor plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kakizuka, Tomonori; Shimizu, Katsuhiro
1995-01-01
An outline of the modelling of neutral particle transport in the diverter plasma was described in the paper. The characteristic properties of divertor plasma were largely affected by interaction between neutral particles and divertor plasma. Accordingly, the behavior of neutral particle should be investigated quantitatively. Moreover, plasma and neutral gas should be traced consistently in the plasma simulation. There are Monte Carlo modelling and the neutral gas fluid modelling as the transport modelling. The former need long calculation time, but it is able to make the physical process modelling. A ultra-large parallel computer is good for the former. In spite of proposing some kinds of models, the latter has not been established. At the view point of reducing calculation time, a work station is good for the simulation of the latter, although some physical problems have not been solved. On the Monte Carlo method particle modelling, reducing the calculation time and introducing the interaction of particles are important subjects to develop 'the evolutional Monte Carlo Method'. To reduce the calculation time, two new methods: 'Implicit Monte Carlo method' and 'Free-and Diffusive-Motion Hybrid Monte-Carlo method' have been developing. (S.Y.)
DRIFT-INDUCED PERPENDICULAR TRANSPORT OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marsh, M. S.; Dalla, S.; Kelly, J.; Laitinen, T.
2013-01-01
Drifts are known to play a role in galactic cosmic ray transport within the heliosphere and are a standard component of cosmic ray propagation models. However, the current paradigm of solar energetic particle (SEP) propagation holds the effects of drifts to be negligible, and they are not accounted for in most current SEP modeling efforts. We present full-orbit test particle simulations of SEP propagation in a Parker spiral interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), which demonstrate that high-energy particle drifts cause significant asymmetric propagation perpendicular to the IMF. Thus in many cases the assumption of field-aligned propagation of SEPs may not be valid. We show that SEP drifts have dependencies on energy, heliographic latitude, and charge-to-mass ratio that are capable of transporting energetic particles perpendicular to the field over significant distances within interplanetary space, e.g., protons of initial energy 100 MeV propagate distances across the field on the order of 1 AU, over timescales typical of a gradual SEP event. Our results demonstrate the need for current models of SEP events to include the effects of particle drift. We show that the drift is considerably stronger for heavy ion SEPs due to their larger mass-to-charge ratio. This paradigm shift has important consequences for the modeling of SEP events and is crucial to the understanding and interpretation of in situ observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie, Zhongquan; Shi, Guang; Li, Dongyu; Zhang, Xueru; Wang, Yuxiao; Song, Yinglin
2015-01-01
The intensity distributions near the focus for radially polarized Laguerre–Bessel–Gaussian beams by a high numerical aperture objective in the immersion liquid are computed based on the vector diffraction theory. We compare the focusing properties of the radially polarized Laguerre–Bessel–Gaussian beams with those of Laguerre–Gaussian and Bessel–Gaussian modes. Furthermore, the effects of the optimally designed concentric three-zone phase filters on the intensity profiles in the focal region are examined. We further analyze the radiation forces on Rayleigh particles produced by the highly focused radially polarized Laguerre–Bessel–Gaussian beams using the specially engineered three-zone phase filters. - Highlights: • The tightly focusing of radially polarized LBG beams is examined. • The focusing performances of LBG beams are preferable over that of LG and BG modes. • A bright spot and an optical cage can be formed by special phase modulation. • These special focusing patterns can stably manipulate two types of particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lasuik, J.; Shalchi, A., E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)
2017-09-20
Recently, a new theory for the transport of energetic particles across a mean magnetic field was presented. Compared to other nonlinear theories the new approach has the advantage that it provides a full time-dependent description of the transport. Furthermore, a diffusion approximation is no longer part of that theory. The purpose of this paper is to combine this new approach with a time-dependent model for parallel transport and different turbulence configurations in order to explore the parameter regimes for which we get ballistic transport, compound subdiffusion, and normal Markovian diffusion.
Recent advances in neutral particle transport methods and codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azmy, Y.Y.
1996-01-01
An overview of ORNL's three-dimensional neutral particle transport code, TORT, is presented. Special features of the code that make it invaluable for large applications are summarized for the prospective user. Advanced capabilities currently under development and installation in the production release of TORT are discussed; they include: multitasking on Cray platforms running the UNICOS operating system; Adjacent cell Preconditioning acceleration scheme; and graphics codes for displaying computed quantities such as the flux. Further developments for TORT and its companion codes to enhance its present capabilities, as well as expand its range of applications are disucssed. Speculation on the next generation of neutron particle transport codes at ORNL, especially regarding unstructured grids and high order spatial approximations, are also mentioned
Dust particle diffusion in ion beam transport region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyamoto, N.; Okajima, Y.; Romero, C. F.; Kuwata, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Graduate school of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)
2016-02-15
Dust particles of μm size produced by a monoplasmatron ion source are observed by a laser light scattering. The scattered light signal from an incident laser at 532 nm wavelength indicates when and where a particle passes through the ion beam transport region. As the result, dusts with the size more than 10 μm are found to be distributed in the center of the ion beam, while dusts with the size less than 10 μm size are distributed along the edge of the ion beam. Floating potential and electron temperature at beam transport region are measured by an electrostatic probe. This observation can be explained by a charge up model of the dust in the plasma boundary region.
Particle transport in JET and TCV-H mode plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslov, M.
2009-10-01
Understanding particle transport physics is of great importance for magnetically confined plasma devices and for the development of thermonuclear fusion power for energy production. From the beginnings of fusion research, more than half a century ago, the problem of heat transport in tokamaks attracted the attention of researchers, but the particle transport phenomena were largely neglected until fairly recently. As tokamak physics advanced to its present level, the physics community realized that there are many hurdles to the development of fusion power beyond the energy confinement. Particle transport is one of the outstanding issues. The aim of this thesis work is to study the anomalous (turbulence driven) particle transport in tokamaks on the basis of experiments on two different devices: JET (Joint European Torus) and TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable). In particular the physics of particle inward convection (pinch), which causes formation of peaked density profiles, is addressed in this work. Density profile peaking has a direct, favorable effect on fusion power in a reactor, we therefore also propose an extrapolation to the international experimental reactor ITER, which is currently under construction. To complete the thesis research, a comprehensive experimental database was created on the basis of data collected on JET and TCV during the duration of the thesis. Improvements of the density profile measurements techniques and careful analysis of the experimental data allowed us to derive the dependencies of density profile shape on the relevant plasma parameters. These improved techniques also allowed us to dispel any doubts that had been voiced about previous results. The major conclusions from previous work on JET and other tokamaks were generally confirmed, with some minor supplements. The main novelty of the thesis resides in systematic tests of the predictions of linear gyrokinetic simulations of the ITG (Ion Temperature Gradient) mode against the
Self-consistent quasi-static radial transport during the substorm growth phase
Le Contel, O.; Pellat, R.; Roux, A.
2000-06-01
We develop a self-consistent description of the slowly changing magnetic configuration of the near-Earth plasma sheet (NEPS) during substorm growth phase. This new approach is valid for quasi-static fluctuations ωcurrent. The quasi-neutrality condition (QNC) is solved via an expansion in the small parameter Te/Ti (Te/Ti is the ratio between the electronic and ionic temperatures). To the lowest order in Te/Ti, we find that the enforcement of QNC implies the presence of a global electrostatic potential which is constant for a given magnetic field line but varies across the magnetic field. The corresponding electric field shields the effect of the inductive component of the electric field, thereby producing a partial reduction of the motion that would correspond to the inductive electric field. Furthermore, we show that enforcing the QNC implies a field-aligned potential drop which is computed to the next order in Te/Ti in a companion paper [Le Contel et al., this issue]. In the present paper, we show that the direction of the azimuthal electric field varies along the field line, thus the equatorial electric field cannot be mapped onto the ionosphere. Furthermore during the growth phase, the (total) azimuthal electric field is directed eastward, close to the equator, and westward, off-equator. Thus large equatorial pitch angle particles drift tailward, whereas small pitch angle particles drift earthward.
Radial transport in the far scrape-off layer of ASDEX upgrade during L-mode and ELMy H-mode
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ionita, C.; Naulin, Volker; Mehlmann, F.
2013-01-01
The radial turbulent particle flux and the Reynolds stress in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade were investigated for two limited L-mode (low confinement) and one ELMy H-mode (high confinement) discharge. A fast reciprocating probe was used with a probe head containing five Langmuir...
Fluid description of particle transport in hf heated magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klima, R.
1980-01-01
Particle fluxes averaged over high-frequency oscillations are analyzed. The collisional effects and the kinetic mechanisms of energy absorption are included. Spatial dependences of both the high-frequency and the (quasi-)steady electromagnetic fields are arbitrary. The equations governing the fluxes are deduced from the moments of the averaged kinetic equation. Explicit expressions for steady state fluxes are given in terms of electromagnetic field quantities. The results can also be applied to anomalous transport phenomena in weakly turbulent plasmas. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Landreman, M., E-mail: mattland@umd.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Smith, H. M.; Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Mollén, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden)
2014-04-15
In this work, we examine the validity of several common simplifying assumptions used in numerical neoclassical calculations for nonaxisymmetric plasmas, both by using a new continuum drift-kinetic code and by considering analytic properties of the kinetic equation. First, neoclassical phenomena are computed for the LHD and W7-X stellarators using several versions of the drift-kinetic equation, including the commonly used incompressible-E × B-drift approximation and two other variants, corresponding to different effective particle trajectories. It is found that for electric fields below roughly one third of the resonant value, the different formulations give nearly identical results, demonstrating the incompressible E × B-drift approximation is quite accurate in this regime. However, near the electric field resonance, the models yield substantially different results. We also compare results for various collision operators, including the full linearized Fokker-Planck operator. At low collisionality, the radial transport driven by radial gradients is nearly identical for the different operators; while in other cases, it is found to be important that collisions conserve momentum.
Soc dynamics in a 2D model of turbulent particle transport in the sol
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y.
1998-01-01
Interchange turbulence in two-dimensions is investigated in the Scrape-Off Layer of fusion devices, when driven by a constant core particle influx. Contrary to the standard gradient driven approach, density is allowed to fluctuate around its average profile. Transverse transport exhibits some of the features of Self-organised Critical systems, namely, inward and outward avalanches, together with a frequency spectrum decrease in 1 / f and f -2 at intermediate and high frequencies respectively. An avalanches occurs when follows the large radial structures of the electric potential. As experimentally, the radial profile of density relative fluctuations decreases from the wall into the core plasma, while that of density relative fluctuations peaks inside the SOL. Equilibrium density exhibits the experimental exponential decrease. An analytical expression of the SOL width Δ SOL is obtained, which maximizes the linear growth rate, when the poloidal modulation of electric potential equilibrium is taken into account. The parametric dependence of Δ SOL well agrees with experimental data. (authors)
Weighted-delta-tracking for Monte Carlo particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgan, L.W.G.; Kotlyar, D.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • This paper presents an alteration to the Monte Carlo Woodcock tracking technique. • The alteration improves computational efficiency within regions of high absorbers. • The rejection technique is replaced by a statistical weighting mechanism. • The modified Woodcock method is shown to be faster than standard Woodcock tracking. • The modified Woodcock method achieves a lower variance, given a specified accuracy. - Abstract: Monte Carlo particle transport (MCPT) codes are incredibly powerful and versatile tools to simulate particle behavior in a multitude of scenarios, such as core/criticality studies, radiation protection, shielding, medicine and fusion research to name just a small subset applications. However, MCPT codes can be very computationally expensive to run when the model geometry contains large attenuation depths and/or contains many components. This paper proposes a simple modification to the Woodcock tracking method used by some Monte Carlo particle transport codes. The Woodcock method utilizes the rejection method for sampling virtual collisions as a method to remove collision distance sampling at material boundaries. However, it suffers from poor computational efficiency when the sample acceptance rate is low. The proposed method removes rejection sampling from the Woodcock method in favor of a statistical weighting scheme, which improves the computational efficiency of a Monte Carlo particle tracking code. It is shown that the modified Woodcock method is less computationally expensive than standard ray-tracing and rejection-based Woodcock tracking methods and achieves a lower variance, given a specified accuracy
Transport of Particle Swarms Through Variable Aperture Fractures
Boomsma, E.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2012-12-01
Particle transport through fractured rock is a key concern with the increased use of micro- and nano-size particles in consumer products as well as from other activities in the sub- and near surface (e.g. mining, industrial waste, hydraulic fracturing, etc.). While particle transport is often studied as the transport of emulsions or dispersions, particles may also enter the subsurface from leaks or seepage that lead to particle swarms. Swarms are drop-like collections of millions of colloidal-sized particles that exhibit a number of unique characteristics when compared to dispersions and emulsions. Any contaminant or engineered particle that forms a swarm can be transported farther, faster, and more cohesively in fractures than would be expected from a traditional dispersion model. In this study, the effects of several variable aperture fractures on colloidal swarm cohesiveness and evolution were studied as a swarm fell under gravity and interacted with the fracture walls. Transparent acrylic was used to fabricate synthetic fracture samples with (1) a uniform aperture, (2) a converging region followed by a uniform region (funnel shaped), (3) a uniform region followed by a diverging region (inverted funnel), and (4) a cast of a an induced fracture from a carbonate rock. All of the samples consisted of two blocks that measured 100 x 100 x 50 mm. The minimum separation between these blocks determined the nominal aperture (0.5 mm to 20 mm). During experiments a fracture was fully submerged in water and swarms were released into it. The swarms consisted of a dilute suspension of 3 micron polystyrene fluorescent beads (1% by mass) with an initial volume of 5μL. The swarms were illuminated with a green (525 nm) LED array and imaged optically with a CCD camera. The variation in fracture aperture controlled swarm behavior. Diverging apertures caused a sudden loss of confinement that resulted in a rapid change in the swarm's shape as well as a sharp increase in its velocity
Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B. Robinson
2004-10-21
The purpose of this report is to document the abstraction model being used in total system performance assessment (TSPA) model calculations for radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ). The UZ transport abstraction model uses the particle-tracking method that is incorporated into the finite element heat and mass model (FEHM) computer code (Zyvoloski et al. 1997 [DIRS 100615]) to simulate radionuclide transport in the UZ. This report outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining and inputting transport parameters are outlined for use in the TSPA for license application (LA) analyses. Process-level transport model calculations are documented in another report for the UZ (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). Three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields generated to characterize UZ flow (documented by BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]; DTN: LB03023DSSCP9I.001 [DIRS 163044]) are converted to make them compatible with the FEHM code for use in this abstraction model. This report establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model that is intended to represent UZ transport in the TSPA-LA. Capability of the UZ barrier for retarding the transport is demonstrated in this report, and by the underlying process model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). The technical scope, content, and management of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Transport Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171282]). Deviations from the technical work plan (TWP) are noted within the text of this report, as appropriate. The latest version of this document is being prepared principally to correct parameter values found to be in error due to transcription errors, changes in source data that were not captured in the report, calculation errors, and errors in interpretation of source data.
Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, B.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this report is to document the abstraction model being used in total system performance assessment (TSPA) model calculations for radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ). The UZ transport abstraction model uses the particle-tracking method that is incorporated into the finite element heat and mass model (FEHM) computer code (Zyvoloski et al. 1997 [DIRS 100615]) to simulate radionuclide transport in the UZ. This report outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining and inputting transport parameters are outlined for use in the TSPA for license application (LA) analyses. Process-level transport model calculations are documented in another report for the UZ (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). Three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields generated to characterize UZ flow (documented by BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]; DTN: LB03023DSSCP9I.001 [DIRS 163044]) are converted to make them compatible with the FEHM code for use in this abstraction model. This report establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model that is intended to represent UZ transport in the TSPA-LA. Capability of the UZ barrier for retarding the transport is demonstrated in this report, and by the underlying process model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). The technical scope, content, and management of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Transport Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171282]). Deviations from the technical work plan (TWP) are noted within the text of this report, as appropriate. The latest version of this document is being prepared principally to correct parameter values found to be in error due to transcription errors, changes in source data that were not captured in the report, calculation errors, and errors in interpretation of source data
Characterization of molecule and particle transport through nanoscale conduits
Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin
Nanofluidic devices have been of great interest due to their applications in variety of fields, including energy conversion and storage, water desalination, biological and chemical separations, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Although these applications cross the boundaries of many different disciplines, they all share the demand for understanding transport in nanoscale conduits. In this thesis, different elusive aspects of molecule and particle transport through nanofluidic conduits are investigated, including liquid and ion transport in nanochannels, diffusion- and reaction-governed enzyme transport in nanofluidic channels, and finally translocation of nanobeads through nanopores. Liquid or solvent transport through nanoconfinements is an essential yet barely characterized component of any nanofluidic systems. In the first chapter, water transport through single hydrophilic nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm is experimentally investigated using a new measurement technique. This technique has been developed based on the capillary flow and a novel hybrid nanochannel design and is capable of characterizing flow in both single nanoconduits as well as nanoporous media. The presence of a 0.7 nm thick hydration layer on hydrophilic surfaces and its effect on increasing the hydraulic resistance of the nanochannels is verified. Next, ion transport in a new class of nanofluidic rectifiers is theoretically and experimentally investigated. These so called nanofluidic diodes are nanochannels with asymmetric geometries which preferentially allow ion transport in one direction. A nondimensional number as a function of electrolyte concentration, nanochannel dimensions, and surface charge is derived that summarizes the rectification behavior of this system. In the fourth chapter, diffusion- and reaction-governed enzyme transport in nanofluidic channels is studied and the theoretical background necessary for understanding enzymatic activity in nanofluidic channels is presented. A
Measurement of particle transport coefficients on Alcator C-Mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luke, T.C.T.
1994-10-01
The goal of this thesis was to study the behavior of the plasma transport during the divertor detachment in order to explain the central electron density rise. The measurement of particle transport coefficients requires sophisticated diagnostic tools. A two color interferometer system was developed and installed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the electron density with high spatial (∼ 2 cm) and high temporal (≤ 1.0 ms) resolution. The system consists of 10 CO 2 (10.6 μm) and 4 HeNe (.6328 μm) chords that are used to measure the line integrated density to within 0.08 CO 2 degrees or 2.3 x 10 16 m -2 theoretically. Using the two color interferometer, a series of gas puffing experiments were conducted. The density was varied above and below the threshold density for detachment at a constant magnetic field and plasma current. Using a gas modulation technique, the particle diffusion, D, and the convective velocity, V, were determined. Profiles were inverted using a SVD inversion and the transport coefficients were extracted with a time regression analysis and a transport simulation analysis. Results from each analysis were in good agreement. Measured profiles of the coefficients increased with the radius and the values were consistent with measurements from other experiments. The values exceeded neoclassical predictions by a factor of 10. The profiles also exhibited an inverse dependence with plasma density. The scaling of both attached and detached plasmas agreed well with this inverse scaling. This result and the lack of change in the energy and impurity transport indicate that there was no change in the underlying transport processes after detachment
Measurement of particle transport coefficients on Alcator C-Mod
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luke, T.C.T.
1994-10-01
The goal of this thesis was to study the behavior of the plasma transport during the divertor detachment in order to explain the central electron density rise. The measurement of particle transport coefficients requires sophisticated diagnostic tools. A two color interferometer system was developed and installed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the electron density with high spatial ({approx} 2 cm) and high temporal ({le} 1.0 ms) resolution. The system consists of 10 CO{sub 2} (10.6 {mu}m) and 4 HeNe (.6328 {mu}m) chords that are used to measure the line integrated density to within 0.08 CO{sub 2} degrees or 2.3 {times} 10{sup 16}m{sup {minus}2} theoretically. Using the two color interferometer, a series of gas puffing experiments were conducted. The density was varied above and below the threshold density for detachment at a constant magnetic field and plasma current. Using a gas modulation technique, the particle diffusion, D, and the convective velocity, V, were determined. Profiles were inverted using a SVD inversion and the transport coefficients were extracted with a time regression analysis and a transport simulation analysis. Results from each analysis were in good agreement. Measured profiles of the coefficients increased with the radius and the values were consistent with measurements from other experiments. The values exceeded neoclassical predictions by a factor of 10. The profiles also exhibited an inverse dependence with plasma density. The scaling of both attached and detached plasmas agreed well with this inverse scaling. This result and the lack of change in the energy and impurity transport indicate that there was no change in the underlying transport processes after detachment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Belov
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Ulysses, launched in October 1990, began its second out-of-ecliptic orbit in September 1997. In 2000/2001 the spacecraft passed from the south to the north polar regions of the Sun in the inner heliosphere. In contrast to the first rapid pole to pole passage in 1994/1995 close to solar minimum, Ulysses experiences now solar maximum conditions. The Kiel Electron Telescope (KET measures also protons and alpha-particles in the energy range from 5 MeV/n to >2 GeV/n. To derive radial and latitudinal gradients for >2 GeV/n protons and alpha-particles, data from the Chicago instrument on board IMP-8 and the neutron monitor network have been used to determine the corresponding time profiles at Earth. We obtain a spatial distribution at solar maximum which differs greatly from the solar minimum distribution. A steady-state approximation, which was characterized by a small radial and significant latitudinal gradient at solar minimum, was interchanged with a highly variable one with a large radial and a small – consistent with zero – latitudinal gradient. A significant deviation from a spherically symmetric cosmic ray distribution following the reversal of the solar magnetic field in 2000/2001 has not been observed yet. A small deviation has only been observed at northern polar regions, showing an excess of particles instead of the expected depression. This indicates that the reconfiguration of the heliospheric magnetic field, caused by the reappearance of the northern polar coronal hole, starts dominating the modulation of galactic cosmic rays already at solar maximum.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; energetic particles – Space plasma physics (charged particle motion and acceleration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. T. Tsurutani
2002-04-01
Full Text Available Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths lW - P are calculated using the measured wave intensities, polarizations, and k directions. The values of lW - P are found to be ~ 5 times less than the value of lHe , the latter derived from He intensity and anisotropy time profiles. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that scattering rates through a 90° pitch angle are lower than that of other pitch angles, and that this is a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the lW - P and lHe values. At this time the scattering mechanism(s is unknown. We suggest a means where a direct comparison between the two l values could be made. Computer simulations indicate that although scattering through 90° is lower, it still occurs. Possibilities are either large pitch angle scattering through resonant interactions, or particle mirroring off of field compression regions. The largest solar proton events are analyzed to investigate the possibilities of local wave generation at 1 AU. In accordance with the results of a previous calculation (Gary et al., 1985 of beam stability, proton beams at 1 AU are found to be marginally stable. No evidence for substantial wave amplitude was found. Locally generated waves, if present, were less than 10-3 nT 2 Hz-1 at the leading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hada
Full Text Available Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths lW - P are calculated using the measured wave intensities, polarizations, and k directions. The values of lW - P are found to be ~ 5 times less than the value of lHe , the latter derived from He intensity and anisotropy time profiles. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that scattering rates through a 90° pitch angle are lower than that of other pitch angles, and that this is a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the lW - P and lHe values. At this time the scattering mechanism(s is unknown. We suggest a means where a direct comparison between the two l values could be made. Computer simulations indicate that although scattering through 90° is lower, it still occurs. Possibilities are either large pitch angle scattering through resonant interactions, or particle mirroring off of field compression regions. The largest solar proton events are analyzed to investigate the possibilities of local wave generation at 1 AU. In accordance with the results of a previous calculation (Gary et al., 1985 of beam stability, proton beams at 1 AU are found to be marginally stable. No evidence for substantial wave amplitude was found. Locally generated waves, if present, were less than 10-3 nT 2 Hz-1 at the leading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Brien, M. J.; Brantley, P. S.
2015-01-20
In order to run Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on new supercomputers with hundreds of thousands or millions of processors, care must be taken to implement scalable algorithms. This means that the algorithms must continue to perform well as the processor count increases. In this paper, we examine the scalability of:(1) globally resolving the particle locations on the correct processor, (2) deciding that particle streaming communication has finished, and (3) efficiently coupling neighbor domains together with different replication levels. We have run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on up to 2^{21} = 2,097,152 MPI processes on the IBM BG/Q Sequoia supercomputer and observed scalable results that agree with our theoretical predictions. These calculations were carefully constructed to have the same amount of work on every processor, i.e. the calculation is already load balanced. We also examine load imbalanced calculations where each domain’s replication level is proportional to its particle workload. In this case we show how to efficiently couple together adjacent domains to maintain within workgroup load balance and minimize memory usage.
Experimental study of particle transport and density fluctuation in LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, K.; Morita, S.; Sanin, A.; Michael, C.; Kawahata, K.; Yamada, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Goto, M.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Yokoyama, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Funaba, H.; Komori, A.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Murakami, S.; Wakasa, A.
2005-01-01
A variety of electron density (n e ) profiles have been observed in Large Helical Device (LHD). The density profiles change dramatically with heating power and toroidal magnetic field (B t ) under the same line averaged density. The particle transport coefficients, i.e., diffusion coefficient (D) and convection velocity (V) are experimentally obtained from density modulation experiments in the standard configuration. The values of D and V are estimated separately at the core and edge. The diffusion coefficients are strong function of electron temperature (T e ) and are proportional to T e 1.7±0.9 in core and T e 1.1±0.14 in edge. And edge diffusion coefficients are proportional to B t -2.08 . It is found that the scaling of D in edge is close to gyro-Bohm-like in nature. The existence of non-zero V is observed. It is observed that the electron temperature (T e ) gradient can drive particle convection. This is particularly clear in the core region. The convection velocity in the core region reverses direction from inward to outward as the T e gradient increases. In the edge, the convection is inward directed in the most of the case of the present data set. And it shows modest tendency, whose value is proportional to T e gradient keeping inward direction. However, the toroidal magnetic field also significantly affects value and direction of V. The spectrum of density fluctuation changes at different heating power suggesting that it has an influence on particle transport. The peak wavenumber is around 0.1 times the inversed ion Larmor radius, as is expected from gyro-Bohm diffusion. The peaks of fluctuation intensity are localized at the plasma edge, where density gradient becomes negative and diffusion contributes most to the particle flux. These results suggest a qualitative correlation of fluctuations with particle diffusion. (author)
A ballistic transport model for electronic excitation following particle impact
Hanke, S.; Heuser, C.; Weidtmann, B.; Wucher, A.
2018-01-01
We present a ballistic model for the transport of electronic excitation energy induced by keV particle bombardment onto a solid surface. Starting from a free electron gas model, the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is employed to follow the evolution of the temporal and spatial distribution function f (r → , k → , t) describing the occupation probability of an electronic state k → at position r → and time t. Three different initializations of the distribution function are considered: i) a thermal distribution function with a locally and temporally elevated electron temperature, ii) a peak excitation at a specific energy above the Fermi level with a quasi-isotropic distribution in k-space and iii) an anisotropic peak excitation with k-vectors oriented in a specific transport direction. While the first initialization resembles a distribution function which may, for instance, result from electronic friction of moving atoms within an ion induced collision cascade, the peak excitation can in principle result from an autoionization process after excitation in close binary collisions. By numerically solving the BTE, we study the electronic energy exchange along a one dimensional transport direction to obtain a time and space resolved excitation energy distribution function, which is then analyzed in view of general transport characteristics of the chosen model system.
Parallelization of a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code
Hadjidoukas, P.; Bousis, C.; Emfietzoglou, D.
2010-05-01
We have developed a high performance version of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code MC4. The original application code, developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) for Microsoft Excel, was first rewritten in the C programming language for improving code portability. Several pseudo-random number generators have been also integrated and studied. The new MC4 version was then parallelized for shared and distributed-memory multiprocessor systems using the Message Passing Interface. Two parallel pseudo-random number generator libraries (SPRNG and DCMT) have been seamlessly integrated. The performance speedup of parallel MC4 has been studied on a variety of parallel computing architectures including an Intel Xeon server with 4 dual-core processors, a Sun cluster consisting of 16 nodes of 2 dual-core AMD Opteron processors and a 200 dual-processor HP cluster. For large problem size, which is limited only by the physical memory of the multiprocessor server, the speedup results are almost linear on all systems. We have validated the parallel implementation against the serial VBA and C implementations using the same random number generator. Our experimental results on the transport and energy loss of electrons in a water medium show that the serial and parallel codes are equivalent in accuracy. The present improvements allow for studying of higher particle energies with the use of more accurate physical models, and improve statistics as more particles tracks can be simulated in low response time.
Modeling Dynamic Objects in Monte Carlo Particle Transport Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yegin, G.
2008-01-01
In this study, the Multi-Geometry geometry modeling technique was improved in order to handle moving objects in a Monte Carlo particle transport calculation. In the Multi-Geometry technique, the geometry is a superposition of objects not surfaces. By using this feature, we developed a new algorithm which allows a user to make enable or disable geometry elements during particle transport. A disabled object can be ignored at a certain stage of a calculation and switching among identical copies of the same object located adjacent poins during a particle simulation corresponds to the movement of that object in space. We called this powerfull feature as Dynamic Multi-Geometry technique (DMG) which is used for the first time in Brachy Dose Monte Carlo code to simulate HDR brachytherapy treatment systems. Our results showed that having disabled objects in a geometry does not effect calculated dose values. This technique is also suitable to be used in other areas such as IMRT treatment planning systems
Simulations of reactive transport and precipitation with smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Eichler West, Rogene M.
2007-03-01
A numerical model based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) was developed for reactive transport and mineral precipitation in fractured and porous materials. Because of its Lagrangian particle nature, SPH has several advantages for modeling Navier-Stokes flow and reactive transport including: (1) in a Lagrangian framework there is no non-linear term in the momentum conservation equation, so that accurate solutions can be obtained for momentum dominated flows and; (2) complicated physical and chemical processes such as surface growth due to precipitation/dissolution and chemical reactions are easy to implement. In addition, SPH simulations explicitly conserve mass and linear momentum. The SPH solution of the diffusion equation with fixed and moving reactive solid-fluid boundaries was compared with analytical solutions, Lattice Boltzmann [Q. Kang, D. Zhang, P. Lichtner, I. Tsimpanogiannis, Lattice Boltzmann model for crystal growth from supersaturated solution, Geophysical Research Letters, 31 (2004) L21604] simulations and diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) [P. Meakin, Fractals, scaling and far from equilibrium. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998] model simulations. To illustrate the capabilities of the model, coupled three-dimensional flow, reactive transport and precipitation in a fracture aperture with a complex geometry were simulated.
High energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niita, Koji; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro
2001-03-01
We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgraded version of NMTC/JAERI97. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM is extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation and fission process, we have also implemented a new model, GEM, by which the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus can be described. According to the extension of the applicable energy, we have upgraded the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data by employing new systematics. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field has been implemented for the beam transport calculations. In this upgrade, some new tally functions are added and the format of input of data has been improved very much in a user friendly manner. Due to the implementation of these new calculation functions and utilities, consequently, NMTC/JAM enables us to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than before. This report serves as a user manual of the code. (author)
Recently developed methods in neutral-particle transport calculations: overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcouffe, R.E.
1982-01-01
It has become increasingly apparent that successful, general methods for the solution of the neutral particle transport equation involve a close connection between the spatial-discretization method used and the source-acceleration method chosen. The first form of the transport equation, angular discretization which is discrete ordinates is considered as well as spatial discretization based upon a mesh arrangement. Characteristic methods are considered briefly in the context of future, desirable developments. The ideal spatial-discretization method is described as having the following attributes: (1) positive-positive boundary data yields a positive angular flux within the mesh including its boundaries; (2) satisfies the particle balance equation over the mesh, that is, the method is conservative; (3) possesses the diffusion limit independent of spatial mesh size, that is, for a linearly isotropic flux assumption, the transport differencing reduces to a suitable diffusion equation differencing; (4) the method is unconditionally acceleratable, i.e., for each mesh size, the method is unconditionally convergent with a source iteration acceleration. It is doubtful that a single method possesses all these attributes for a general problem. Some commonly used methods are outlined and their computational performance and usefulness are compared; recommendations for future development are detailed, which include practical computational considerations
Production and global transport of Titan's sand particles
Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; Arnold, Karl; Chandler, Clayton
2015-06-01
Previous authors have suggested that Titan's individual sand particles form by either sintering or by lithification and erosion. We suggest two new mechanisms for the production of Titan's organic sand particles that would occur within bodies of liquid: flocculation and evaporitic precipitation. Such production mechanisms would suggest discrete sand sources in dry lakebeds. We search for such sources, but find no convincing candidates with the present Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer coverage. As a result we propose that Titan's equatorial dunes may represent a single, global sand sea with west-to-east transport providing sources and sinks for sand in each interconnected basin. The sand might then be transported around Xanadu by fast-moving Barchan dune chains and/or fluvial transport in transient riverbeds. A river at the Xanadu/Shangri-La border could explain the sharp edge of the sand sea there, much like the Kuiseb River stops the Namib Sand Sea in southwest Africa on Earth. Future missions could use the composition of Titan's sands to constrain the global hydrocarbon cycle.
Particle Transport in ECRH Plasmas of the TJ-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vargas, V. I.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Estrada, T.; Guasp, J.; Reynolds, J. M.; Velasco, J. L.; Herranz, J.
2007-01-01
We present a systematic study of particle transport in ECRH plasmas of TJ-II with different densities. The goal is to fi nd particle confinement time and electron diffusivity dependence with line-averaged density. The experimental information consists of electron temperature profiles, T e (Thomson Scattering TS) and electron density, n e , (TS and reflectometry) and measured puffing data in stationary discharges. The profile of the electron source, Se, was obtained by the 3D Monte-Carlo code EIRENE. The analysis of particle balance has been done by linking the results of the code EIRENE with the results of a model that reproduces ECRH plasmas in stationary conditions. In the range of densities studied (0.58 ≤n e > (10 1 9m - 3) ≤0.80) there are two regions of confinement separated by a threshold density, e > ∼0.65 10 1 9m - 3. Below this threshold density the particle confinement time is low, and vice versa. This is reflected in the effective diffusivity, D e , which in the range of validity of this study, 0.5 e are flat for ≥0,63(10 1 9m - 3). (Author) 35 refs
Approximate models for neutral particle transport calculations in ducts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, Shizuca
2000-01-01
The problem of neutral particle transport in evacuated ducts of arbitrary, but axially uniform, cross-sectional geometry and isotropic reflection at the wall is studied. The model makes use of basis functions to represent the transverse and azimuthal dependences of the particle angular flux in the duct. For the approximation in terms of two basis functions, an improvement in the method is implemented by decomposing the problem into uncollided and collided components. A new quadrature set, more suitable to the problem, is developed and generated by one of the techniques of the constructive theory of orthogonal polynomials. The approximation in terms of three basis functions is developed and implemented to improve the precision of the results. For both models of two and three basis functions, the energy dependence of the problem is introduced through the multigroup formalism. The results of sample problems are compared to literature results and to results of the Monte Carlo code, MCNP. (author)
On the use of antithetic variates in particle transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milgram, M.S.
2001-01-01
The possible use of antithetic variates as a method of variance reduction in particle transport problems is investigated, by performing some numerical experiments. It is found that if variance reduction is not very carefully defined, it is possible, with antithetic variates, to spuriously detect reduction, or not detect true reduction. Once such subtleties are overcome, it is shown that antithetic variates can reduce variance in multidimensional integration up to a point. The phenomenon of spontaneous correlation is defined and identified as the cause of failure. The surprising result that it sometimes pays to track non-contributing particle histories is demonstrated by means of a zero variance integration analogue. The principles developed in the investigation of multi-variable integration are then employed in a simple calculation of energy deposition using the EGS4 computer code. Promising results are obtained for the total energy deposition problem, but the depth/dose problem remains unsolved. Possible means of overcoming the difficulties are suggested
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Aran, A.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B.
2013-01-01
Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ – (φ – φ 0 ) 2 /2σ 2 ], where φ is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, φ 0 is the distribution centroid, and σ determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R –α with α 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.
Transport and containment of plasma, particles and energy within flares
Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E. C.; Haisch, B. M.; Strong, K. T.
1983-01-01
Results from the analysis of flares observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and a recent rocket experiment are discussed. Evidence for primary energy release in the corona through the interaction of magnetic structures, particle and plasma transport into more than a single magnetic structure at the time of a flare and a complex and changing magnetic topology during the course of a flare is found. The rocket data are examined for constraints on flare cooling, within the context of simple loop models. These results form a basis for comments on the limitations of simple loop models for flares.
Development of a Coupled Fluid and Colloidall Particle Transport Model
Ripplinger, Scott
2013-01-01
A colloidal system usually refers to when very small particles are suspended within a solution. The study of these systems encompasses a variety of cases including bacteria in ground water, blood cells and platelets in blood plasma, and river silt transport. Taking a look at these kinds of systems using computer simulation can provide a great deal of insight into how they work. Most approaches to date do not look at the details of the system, however, and are specific to given system. In this...
Computational transport phenomena of fluid-particle systems
Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasi, Emad
2017-01-01
This book concerns the most up-to-date advances in computational transport phenomena (CTP), an emerging tool for the design of gas-solid processes such as fluidized bed systems. The authors examine recent work in kinetic theory and CTP and illustrate gas-solid processes’ many applications in the energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. They also discuss the kinetic theory approach in developing constitutive equations for gas-solid flow systems and how it has advanced over the last decade as well as the possibility of obtaining innovative designs for multiphase reactors, such as those needed to capture CO2 from flue gases. Suitable as a concise reference and a textbook supplement for graduate courses, Computational Transport Phenomena of Gas-Solid Systems is ideal for practitioners in industries involved with the design and operation of processes based on fluid/particle mixtures, such as the energy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. Explains how to couple the population balance e...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foord, M.E.
1986-12-01
A spatially resolving visible light detector system is used to measure continuum radiation near 5360A on the Alcator C Tokamak. For the typically hot plasmas studied, the continuum emission is found to be dominated by bremsstrahlung radiation near this wavelength region. Accurate determinations of Z/sub eff/ are obtained from continuum measurements using independently determined temperature and density measurements. Density profiles during high density, clean pellet fueled discharges, are also determined and are used to study the changes in particle transport after injection. For discharges with sufficiently large pellet density increases, density profiles are found to become more peaked following the injection. In these cases, the profiles are found to remain peaked for the remainder of the discharge, or until a ''giant'' sawtooth or minor disruption abruptly returns the profiles to a flatter pre-pellet condition. Analysis of density profiles after pellet injection yields information about the radial diffusion and convection velocity of the plasma particles. The peakedness in the density profiles, observed after pellet injection, is attributable mostly to increases in inward convection. It is concluded that neoclassical fluxes are too small to account for these changes. 70 refs., 55 figs
Stress, Flow and Particle Transport in Rock Fractures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koyama, Tomofumi
2007-09-15
The fluid flow and tracer transport in a single rock fracture during shear processes has been an important issue in rock mechanics and is investigated in this thesis using Finite Element Method (FEM) and streamline particle tracking method, considering evolutions of aperture and transmissivity with shear displacement histories under different normal stresses, based on laboratory tests. The distributions of fracture aperture and its evolution during shear were calculated from the initial aperture fields, based on the laser-scanned surface roughness features of replicas of rock fracture specimens, and shear dilations measured during the coupled shear-flow-tracer tests in laboratory performed using a newly developed testing apparatus in Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan. Three rock fractures of granite with different roughness characteristics were used as parent samples from which nine plaster replicas were made and coupled shear-flow tests was performed under three normal loading conditions (two levels of constant normal loading (CNL) and one constant normal stiffness (CNS) conditions). In order to visualize the tracer transport, transparent acrylic upper parts and plaster lower parts of the fracture specimens were manufactured from an artificially created tensile fracture of sandstone and the coupled shear-flow tests with fluid visualization was performed using a dye tracer injected from upstream and a CCD camera to record the dye movement. A special algorithm for treating the contact areas as zero-aperture elements was used to produce more accurate flow field simulations by using FEM, which is important for continued simulations of particle transport, but was often not properly treated in literature. The simulation results agreed well with the flow rate data obtained from the laboratory tests, showing that complex histories of fracture aperture and tortuous flow channels with changing normal stresses and increasing shear displacements, which were also captured
Particle Swarm Transport through Immiscible Fluid Layers in a Fracture
Teasdale, N. D.; Boomsma, E.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2011-12-01
Immiscible fluids occur either naturally (e.g. oil & water) or from anthropogenic processes (e.g. liquid CO2 & water) in the subsurface and complicate the transport of natural or engineered micro- or nano-scale particles. In this study, we examined the effect of immiscible fluids on the formation and evolution of particle swarms in a fracture. A particle swarm is a collection of colloidal-size particles in a dilute suspension that exhibits cohesive behavior. Swarms fall under gravity with a velocity that is greater than the settling velocity of a single particle. Thus a particle swarm of colloidal contaminants can potentially travel farther and faster in a fracture than expected for a dispersion or emulsion of colloidal particles. We investigated the formation, evolution, and break-up of colloidal swarms under gravity in a uniform aperture fracture as hydrophobic/hydrophyllic particle swarms move across an oil-water interface. A uniform aperture fracture was fabricated from two transparent acrylic rectangular prisms (100 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm) that are separated by 1, 2.5, 5, 10 or 50 mm. The fracture was placed, vertically, inside a glass tank containing a layer of pure silicone oil (polydimethylsiloxane) on distilled water. Along the length of the fracture, 30 mm was filled with oil and 70 mm with water. Experiments were conducted using silicone oils with viscosities of 5, 10, 100, or 1000 cSt. Particle swarms (5 μl) were comprised of a 1% concentration (by mass) of 25 micron glass beads (hydrophilic) suspended in a water drop, or a 1% concentration (by mass) of 3 micron polystyrene fluorescent beads (hydrophobic) suspended in a water drop. The swarm behavior was imaged using an optical fluorescent imaging system composed of a CCD camera and by green (525 nm) LED arrays for illumination. Swarms were spherical and remained coherent as they fell through the oil because of the immiscibility of oil and water. However, as a swarm approached the oil-water interface, it
Evidence for particle transport between alveolar macrophages in vivo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benson, J.M.; Nikula, K.J.; Guilmette, R.A.
1995-12-01
Recent studies at this Institute have focused on determining the role of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in the transport of particles within and form the lung. For those studies, AMs previously labeled using the nuclear stain Hoechst 33342 and polychromatic Fluoresbrite microspheres (1 {mu}m diameter, Polysciences, Inc., Warrington, PA) were instilled into lungs of recipient F344 rats. The fate of the donor particles and the doubly labeled AMs within recipient lungs was followed for 32 d. Within 2-4 d after instillation, the polychromatic microspheres were found in both donor and resident AMs, suggesting that particle transfer occurred between the donor and resident AMs. However, this may also have been an artifact resulting from phagocytosis of the microspheres form dead donor cells or from the fading or degradation of Hoechst 33342 within the donor cells leading to their misidentification as resident AMs. The results support the earlier findings that microspheres in donor AMs can be transferred to resident AMs within 2 d after instillation.
Semiclassical transport of particles with dynamical spectral functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cassing, W.; Juchem, S.
2000-01-01
The conventional transport of particles in the on-shell quasiparticle limit is extended to particles of finite life time by means of a spectral function A(X,P,M 2 ) for a particle moving in an area of complex self-energy Σ ret X =Re Σ ret X -iΓ X /2. Starting from the Kadanoff--Baym equations we derive in first-order gradient expansion equations of motion for testparticles with respect to their time evolution in X,P and M 2 . The off-shell propagation is demonstrated for a couple of model cases that simulate hadron-nucleus collisions. In case of nucleus-nucleus collisions the imaginary part of the hadron self-energy Γ X is determined by the local space-time dependent collision rate dynamically. A first application is presented for A+A reactions up to 95 A MeV, where the effects from the off-shell propagation of nucleons are discussed with respect to high energy proton spectra, high energy photon production as well as kaon yields in comparison to the available data from GANIL
Adaptive sampling method in deep-penetration particle transport problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Ruihong; Ji Zhicheng; Pei Lucheng
2012-01-01
Deep-penetration problem has been one of the difficult problems in shielding calculation with Monte Carlo method for several decades. In this paper, a kind of particle transport random walking system under the emission point as a sampling station is built. Then, an adaptive sampling scheme is derived for better solution with the achieved information. The main advantage of the adaptive scheme is to choose the most suitable sampling number from the emission point station to obtain the minimum value of the total cost in the process of the random walk. Further, the related importance sampling method is introduced. Its main principle is to define the importance function due to the particle state and to ensure the sampling number of the emission particle is proportional to the importance function. The numerical results show that the adaptive scheme under the emission point as a station could overcome the difficulty of underestimation of the result in some degree, and the adaptive importance sampling method gets satisfied results as well. (authors)
Behavior of the particle transport coefficients near the density limit in MTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinak, M.M.
1993-04-01
The perturbed particle transport coefficients were determined for a range of plasma conditions in the Alcator C tokamak, a component of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX), from analysis of density perturbations created in gas modulation experiments. Density measurements from a 15 chord far-infrared interferometer were sufficiently detailed to allow radial profiles of the transport coefficients to be resolved. Gas modulation experiments were carried out on plasmas over a range of relatively low currents and a wide variety of line-averaged densities, including values near the Greenwald density limit. With this technique the perturbed diffusion coefficient D and the perturbed convection velocity V can be determined simultaneously. Measured profiles of D rise toward the outside of the plasma column in a manner generally similar to those determined previously for χ e,HP from sawtooth heat pulse propagation. Values of D are typically smaller than those of χ e,HP given for the same line-averaged densities by a factor of 2-5. Diffusion coefficients from a series of discharges at constant current showed little variation with density through most of the saturated ohmic confinement regime. At the Greenwald density limit threshold a dramatic increase occurred in both the perturbed convective and diffusive transport coefficients in the outer region of the plasma. The increases were most pronounced at the outermost range of the radii where coefficients were determined (r/a = 0.8), but were apparent over a region which extended well into the plasma interior. Density profiles maintained a similar shape near the density limit, congruous with the similar behavior of the transport coefficients. No dramatic deterioration was evident in the global energy confinement
Particle transport model sensitivity on wave-induced processes
Staneva, Joanna; Ricker, Marcel; Krüger, Oliver; Breivik, Oyvind; Stanev, Emil; Schrum, Corinna
2017-04-01
Different effects of wind waves on the hydrodynamics in the North Sea are investigated using a coupled wave (WAM) and circulation (NEMO) model system. The terms accounting for the wave-current interaction are: the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state dependent momentum and energy flux. The role of the different Stokes drift parameterizations is investigated using a particle-drift model. Those particles can be considered as simple representations of either oil fractions, or fish larvae. In the ocean circulation models the momentum flux from the atmosphere, which is related to the wind speed, is passed directly to the ocean and this is controlled by the drag coefficient. However, in the real ocean, the waves play also the role of a reservoir for momentum and energy because different amounts of the momentum flux from the atmosphere is taken up by the waves. In the coupled model system the momentum transferred into the ocean model is estimated as the fraction of the total flux that goes directly to the currents plus the momentum lost from wave dissipation. Additionally, we demonstrate that the wave-induced Stokes-Coriolis force leads to a deflection of the current. During the extreme events the Stokes velocity is comparable in magnitude to the current velocity. The resulting wave-induced drift is crucial for the transport of particles in the upper ocean. The performed sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the model skill depends on the chosen processes. The results are validated using surface drifters, ADCP, HF radar data and other in-situ measurements in different regions of the North Sea with a focus on the coastal areas. The using of a coupled model system reveals that the newly introduced wave effects are important for the drift-model performance, especially during extremes. Those effects cannot be neglected by search and rescue, oil-spill, transport of biological material, or larva drift modelling.
High energy electromagnetic particle transportation on the GPU
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canal, P. [Fermilab; Elvira, D. [Fermilab; Jun, S. Y. [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, J. [Fermilab; Paterno, M. [Fermilab; Apostolakis, J. [CERN
2014-01-01
We present massively parallel high energy electromagnetic particle transportation through a finely segmented detector on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Simulating events of energetic particle decay in a general-purpose high energy physics (HEP) detector requires intensive computing resources, due to the complexity of the geometry as well as physics processes applied to particles copiously produced by primary collisions and secondary interactions. The recent advent of hardware architectures of many-core or accelerated processors provides the variety of concurrent programming models applicable not only for the high performance parallel computing, but also for the conventional computing intensive application such as the HEP detector simulation. The components of our prototype are a transportation process under a non-uniform magnetic field, geometry navigation with a set of solid shapes and materials, electromagnetic physics processes for electrons and photons, and an interface to a framework that dispatches bundles of tracks in a highly vectorized manner optimizing for spatial locality and throughput. Core algorithms and methods are excerpted from the Geant4 toolkit, and are modified and optimized for the GPU application. Program kernels written in C/C++ are designed to be compatible with CUDA and OpenCL and with the aim to be generic enough for easy porting to future programming models and hardware architectures. To improve throughput by overlapping data transfers with kernel execution, multiple CUDA streams are used. Issues with floating point accuracy, random numbers generation, data structure, kernel divergences and register spills are also considered. Performance evaluation for the relative speedup compared to the corresponding sequential execution on CPU is presented as well.
Experimental study of particle transport and density fluctuation in LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Sanin, A.
2005-01-01
A variety of electron density (n e ) profiles have been observed in Large Helical Device (LHD). The density profiles change dramatically with heating power and toroidal magnetic field (B t ) under the same line averaged density. The particle transport coefficients, i.e., diffusion coefficient (D) and convection velocity (V) are experimentally obtained in the standard configuration from density modulation experiments. The values of D and V are estimated separately in the core and edge. The diffusion coefficients are found to be a strong function of electron temperature (T e ) and are proportional to T e 1.7±0.9 in the core and T e 1.1±0.14 in the edge. Edge diffusion coefficients are proportional to B t -2.08 . It is found that the scaling of D in the edge is close to gyro-Bohm-like in nature. Non-zero V is observed and it is found that the electron temperature gradient can drive particle convection, particularly in the core region. The convection velocity in the core reverses direction from inward to outward as the T e gradient increases. In the edge, convection is inward directed in most cases of the present data set. It shows a modest tendency, being proportional to T e gradient and remaining inward directed. However, the toroidal magnetic field also significantly affects the value and direction of V. The density fluctuation spectrum varies with heating power suggesting that it has an influence on particle transport. The value of K sub(perpendicular) ρ i is around 0.1, as expected for gyro-Bohm diffusion. Fluctuations are localized in both positive and negative density gradient regions of the hollow density profiles. The fluctuation power in each region is clearly distinguished having different phase velocity profiles. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R
2012-01-01
We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.
Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-Nanofluidics Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis
Qian, Shizhi
2012-01-01
Numerous applications of micro-/nanofluidics are related to particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels, and electrokinetics has proved to be one of the most promising tools to manipulate particles in micro/nanofluidics. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels is crucial to the development of micro/nano-fluidic devices. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-/Nanofluidics: Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis provides a fundamental understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanofluidics involving elect
Relationship between particle and heat transport in JT-60U plasmas with internal transport barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takenaga, H.
2002-01-01
Relationship between particle and heat transport in an internal transport barrier (ITB) has been systematically investigated for the first time in reversed shear (RS) and high-β p ELMy H-mode (weak positive shear) plasmas of JT-60U for understanding of compatibility of improved energy confinement and effective particle control such as exhaust of helium ash and reduction in impurity contamination. In the RS plasma, no helium and carbon accumulation inside the ITB is observed even with highly improved energy confinement. In the high-β p plasma, both helium and carbon density profiles are flat. As the ion temperature profile changes from parabolic- to box-type, the helium diffusivity decreases by a factor of about 2 as well as the ion thermal diffusivity in the RS plasma. The measured soft X-ray profile is more peaked than that calculated by assuming the same n AR profile as the n e profile in the Ar injected RS plasma with the box-type profile, suggesting accumulation of Ar inside the ITB. Particle transport is improved with no change of ion temperature in the RS plasma, when density fluctuation is drastically reduced by a pellet injection. (author)
Transport, Acceleration and Spatial Access of Solar Energetic Particles
Borovikov, D.; Sokolov, I.; Effenberger, F.; Jin, M.; Gombosi, T. I.
2017-12-01
Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are a major branch of space weather. Often driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), SEPs have a very high destructive potential, which includes but is not limited to disrupting communication systems on Earth, inflicting harmful and potentially fatal radiation doses to crew members onboard spacecraft and, in extreme cases, to people aboard high altitude flights. However, currently the research community lacks efficient tools to predict such hazardous SEP events. Such a tool would serve as the first step towards improving humanity's preparedness for SEP events and ultimately its ability to mitigate their effects. The main goal of the presented research is to develop a computational tool that provides the said capabilities and meets the community's demand. Our model has the forecasting capability and can be the basis for operational system that will provide live information on the current potential threats posed by SEPs based on observations of the Sun. The tool comprises several numerical models, which are designed to simulate different physical aspects of SEPs. The background conditions in the interplanetary medium, in particular, the Coronal Mass Ejection driving the particle acceleration, play a defining role and are simulated with the state-of-the-art MHD solver, Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar-wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US). The newly developed particle code, Multiple-Field-Line-Advection Model for Particle Acceleration (M-FLAMPA), simulates the actual transport and acceleration of SEPs and is coupled to the MHD code. The special property of SEPs, the tendency to follow magnetic lines of force, is fully taken advantage of in the computational model, which substitutes a complicated 3-D model with a multitude of 1-D models. This approach significantly simplifies computations and improves the time performance of the overall model. Also, it plays an important role of mapping the affected region by connecting it with the origin of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kopp, Andreas [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Statistique et des Plasmas, CP 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wiengarten, Tobias; Fichtner, Horst [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Effenberger, Frederic [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kühl, Patrick; Heber, Bernd [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrecht-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Raath, Jan-Louis; Potgieter, Marius S. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa)
2017-03-01
The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the heliosphere is determined by the properties of the solar wind plasma. The heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric CR transport are structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which, due to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength and magnetic fluctuations within and due to the associated shocks as well as stream interfaces, do influence the CR diffusion and drift. In a three-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with the numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework Cronos (Wiengarten et al., referred as Paper I), and the results serve as input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (this paper). While, in Paper I, we presented results from 3D simulations with Cronos, the MHD output is now taken as an input to the CR transport modeling. We discuss the diffusion and drift behavior of Galactic cosmic rays using the example of different theories, and study the effects of CIRs on these transport processes. In particular, we point out the wide range of possible particle fluxes at a given point in space resulting from these different theories. The restriction of this variety by fitting the numerical results to spacecraft data will be the subject of the third paper of this series.
Vectorising the detector geometry to optimize particle transport
Apostolakis, John; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro
2014-01-01
Among the components contributing to particle transport, geometry navigation is an important consumer of CPU cycles. The tasks performed to get answers to "basic" queries such as locating a point within a geometry hierarchy or computing accurately the distance to the next boundary can become very computing intensive for complex detector setups. So far, the existing geometry algorithms employ mainly scalar optimisation strategies (voxelization, caching) to reduce their CPU consumption. In this paper, we would like to take a different approach and investigate how geometry navigation can benefit from the vector instruction set extensions that are one of the primary source of performance enhancements on current and future hardware. While on paper, this form of microparallelism promises increasing performance opportunities, applying this technology to the highly hierarchical and multiply branched geometry code is a difficult challenge. We refer to the current work done to vectorise an important part of the critica...
Fundamentals of charged particle transport in gases and condensed matter
Robson, Robert E; Hildebrandt, Malte
2018-01-01
This book offers a comprehensive and cohesive overview of transport processes associated with all kinds of charged particles, including electrons, ions, positrons, and muons, in both gases and condensed matter. The emphasis is on fundamental physics, linking experiment, theory and applications. In particular, the authors discuss: The kinetic theory of gases, from the traditional Boltzmann equation to modern generalizations A complementary approach: Maxwell’s equations of change and fluid modeling Calculation of ion-atom scattering cross sections Extension to soft condensed matter, amorphous materials Applications: drift tube experiments, including the Franck-Hertz experiment, modeling plasma processing devices, muon catalysed fusion, positron emission tomography, gaseous radiation detectors Straightforward, physically-based arguments are used wherever possible to complement mathematical rigor.
High energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niita, K.; Takada, H.; Meigo, S.; Ikeda, Y.
2001-01-01
We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgrade version of NMTC/JAERI97. The available energy range of NMTC/JAM is, in principle, extended to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons including the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the intra-nuclear cascade part. We compare the calculations by NMTC/JAM code with the experimental data of thin and thick targets for proton induced reactions up to several 10 GeV. The results of NMTC/JAM code show excellent agreement with the experimental data. From these code validation, it is concluded that NMTC/JAM is reliable in neutronics optimization study of the high intense spallation neutron utilization facility. (author)
The simulation status of particle transport system JPTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, L.
2015-01-01
'Full text:' Particle transport system JPTS has been developed by IAPCM. It is based on the three support frustrations (JASMIN, JAUMIN and JCOGIN) and is used to simulate the reactor full core and radiation shielding problems. The system has been realized the high fidelity. In this presentation, analysis of the H-M, BEAVRS, VENUS-III and SG-III models are shown. Analyze HZP conditions of BEAVRS model with Monte Carlo code JMCT, MC21 and OpenMC to assess code accuracy against available data. Assess the feasibility of analysis of a PWR using JMCT. The large scale depletion solver is also shown. Assess the feasibility of analysis of radiation shielding using JSNT. JPTS has been proved with the capability of the full-core pin-by-pin and radiation shielding. (author)
New features of the mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Procassini, Richard; Brantley, Patrick; Dawson, Shawn
2010-01-01
Several new capabilities have been added to the Mercury Monte Carlo transport code over the past four years. The most important algorithmic enhancement is a general, extensible infrastructure to support source, tally and variance reduction actions. For each action, the user defines a phase space, as well as any number of responses that are applied to a specified event. Tallies are accumulated into a correlated, multi-dimensional. Cartesian-product result phase space. Our approach employs a common user interface to specify the data sets and distributions that define the phase, response and result for each action. Modifications to the particle trackers include the use of facet halos (instead of extrapolative fuzz) for robust tracking, and material interface reconstruction for use in shape overlaid meshes. Support for expected-value criticality eigenvalue calculations has also been implemented. Computer science enhancements include an in-line Python interface for user customization of problem setup and output. (author)
Particle transport across a circular shear layer with coherent structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, A.H.; Lynov, J.P.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1998-01-01
In the study of the dynamics of coherent structures, forced circular shear flows offer many desirable features. The inherent quantisation of circular geometries due to the periodic boundary conditions makes it possible to design experiments in which the spatial and temporal complexity of the coherent structures can be accurately controlled. Experiments on circular shear flows demonstrating the formation of coherent structures have been performed in different physical systems, including quasi-neutral plasmas, non-neutral plasmas and rotating fluids. In this paper we investigate the evolution of such coherent structures by solving the forced incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically using a spectral code. The model is formulated in the context of a rotating fluid but apply equally well to low frequency electrostatic oscillations in a homogeneous magnetized plasma. In order to reveal the Lagrangian properties of the flow and in particular to investigate the transport capacity in the shear layer, passive particles are traced by the velocity field. (orig.)
Spokes and charged particle transport in HiPIMS magnetrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brenning, N; Lundin, D; Minea, T; Vitelaru, C; Costin, C
2013-01-01
Two separate scientific communities are shown to have studied one common phenomenon, azimuthally rotating dense plasma structures, also called spokes, in pulsed-power E × B discharges, starting from quite different approaches. The first body of work is motivated by fundamental plasma science and concerns a phenomenon called the critical ionization velocity, CIV, while the other body of work is motivated by the applied plasma science of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). Here we make use of this situation by applying experimental observations, and theoretical analysis, from the CIV literature to HiPIMS discharges. For a practical example, we take data from observed spokes in HiPIMS discharges and focus on their role in charged particle transport, and in electron energization. We also touch upon the closely related questions of how they channel the cross-B discharge current, how they maintain their internal potential structure and how they influence the energy spectrum of the ions? New particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisional simulations that shed light on the azimuthal drift and expansion of the spokes are also presented. (paper)
Entropic transport of active particles driven by a transverse ac force
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Jian-chun, E-mail: wjchun2010@163.com; Chen, Qun; Ai, Bao-quan, E-mail: aibq@scnu.edu.cn
2015-12-18
Transport of active particles is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional period channel. In the presence of a transverse ac force, the directed transport of active particles demonstrates striking behaviors. By adjusting the amplitude and the frequency of the transverse ac force, the average velocity will be influenced significantly and the direction of the transport can be reversed several times. Remarkably, it is also found that the direction of the transport varies with different self-propelled speeds. Therefore, particles with different self-propelled speeds will move to the different directions, which is able to separate particles of different self-propelled speeds. - Highlights: • A transverse ac force strongly influence the transport of active particles. • The direction of the transport can be reversed several times. • Active particles with different self-propelled speeds can be separated.
Verification of Gyrokinetic Particle of Turbulent Simulation of Device Size Scaling Transport
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Zhihong; S. ETHIER; T. S. HAHM; W. M. TANG
2012-01-01
Verification and historical perspective are presented on the gyrokinetic particle simulations that discovered the device size scaling of turbulent transport and indentified the geometry model as the source of the long-standing disagreement between gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulations.
Graphical User Interface for High Energy Multi-Particle Transport, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computer codes such as MCNPX now have the capability to transport most high energy particle types (34 particle types now supported in MCNPX) with energies extending...
Graphical User Interface for High Energy Multi-Particle Transport, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computer codes such as MCNPX now have the capability to transport most high energy particle types (34 particle types now supported in MCNPX) with energies extending...
Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.
1991-10-01
The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f r >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martel, Karl; Poisson, Eric
2002-01-01
A one-parameter family of time-symmetric initial data for the radial infall of a particle into a Schwarzschild black hole is constructed within the framework of black-hole perturbation theory. The parameter measures the amount of gravitational radiation present on the initial spacelike surface. These initial data sets are then evolved by integrating the Zerilli-Moncrief wave equation in the presence of the particle. Numerical results for the gravitational waveforms and their power spectra are presented; we show that the choice of initial data strongly influences the waveforms, both in their shapes and their frequency content. We also calculate the total energy radiated by the particle-black-hole system, as a function of the initial separation between the particle and the black hole, and as a function of the choice of initial data. Our results confirm that for large initial separations, a conformally flat initial three-geometry minimizes the initial gravitational-wave content, so that the total energy radiated is also minimized. For small initial separations, however, we show that the conformally flat solution no longer minimizes the energy radiated
Neutral gas transport and particle recycling in the W VII-AS stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sardei, F.; Ringler, H.; Dodhy, A.; Kuehner, G.
1990-01-01
Neutral gas transport simulations with the 3D DEGAS code were applied to model plasmas before the W VII-AS operation was started. For a source of neutrals due to limiter recycling the calculated neutral density distribution is strongly affected by the asymmetries of the magnetic flux surfaces, limiter and wall structures. For a typical ECF heated deuterium discharge from the first months of W VII-AS operation the time histories of H α signals at five toroidal positions provide information about the neutral fluxes due to limiter and wall recycling and to gas puffing. The H α signals are used to scale the calculated 3D distributions of the neutrals and the radial profiles of the ion sources as obtained from the DEGAS code. By comparing the results for the three different neutral sources the limiter is found to provide more than 80% of the plasma refuelling, with a recycling coefficient of about 95%. The calculated total particle fluxes resulting from the integrated ion sources are consistent with neoclassical predictions in the temperature gradient region. Near the plasma edge, however, the fluxes are strongly anomalous. The diffusion coefficient estimated from the fluxes and the measured density gradients (with z eff approx. 3) is about 1/10 - 1/20 of the electron heat conductivity. (author). 6 refs, 10 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y. Y. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Dresing, N.; Klassen, A. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Kiel, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)
2016-08-01
During 2010 August a series of solar particle events was observed by the two STEREO spacecraft as well as near-Earth spacecraft. The events, occurring on August 7, 14, and 18, originated from active regions 11093 and 11099. We combine in situ and remote-sensing observations with predictions from our model of three-dimensional anisotropic particle propagation in order to investigate the physical processes that caused the large angular spreads of energetic electrons during these events. In particular, we address the effects of the lateral transport of the electrons in the solar corona that is due to diffusion perpendicular to the average magnetic field in the interplanetary medium. We also study the influence of two coronal mass ejections and associated shock waves on the electron propagation, and a possible time variation of the transport conditions during the above period. For the August 18 event we also utilize electron observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft at a distance of 0.31 au from the Sun for an attempt to separate between radial and longitudinal dependencies in the transport process. Our modelings show that the parallel and perpendicular diffusion mean free paths of electrons can vary significantly not only as a function of the radial distance, but also of the heliospheric longitude. Normalized to a distance of 1 au, we derive values of λ {sub ∥} in the range of 0.15–0.6 au, and values of λ {sub ⊥} in the range of 0.005–0.01 au. We discuss how our results relate to various theoretical models for perpendicular diffusion, and whether there might be a functional relationship between the perpendicular and the parallel mean free path.
Development of general-purpose particle and heavy ion transport monte carlo code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Niita, Koji
2002-01-01
The high-energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which has been developed at JAERI, was improved for the high-energy heavy ion transport calculation by incorporating the JQMD code, the SPAR code and the Shen formula. The new NMTC/JAM named PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) is the first general-purpose heavy ion transport Monte Carlo code over the incident energies from several MeV/nucleon to several GeV/nucleon. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harvey, R.W.; Sauter, O.; Nikkola, P.; Prater, R.; O'Connell, R.; Forest, C.B.
2003-01-01
The comprehensive CQL3D Fokker-Planck/Quasilinear simulation code has been benchmarked against experiment over a wide range of electron cyclotron conditions in the DIII-D tokamak (C.C. Petty et al., 14. Topical Conf. on RF Power in Plasmas, 2002). The same code, in disagreement with experiment, gives 560 kA of ECCD for a well documented, completely ECCD-driven, 100 kA TCV shot [O. Sauter et al, PRL, 2000]. Recent work (R.W. Harvey et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2002) has resolved the differences as due to radial transport at a level closely consistent with ITER scaling. Transport does not substantially affect DIII-D ECCD, but at similar ECH power has an overwhelming effect on the much smaller TCV. The transport is consistent with electrostatic-type diffusion (D ρρ constant in velocity space) and not with a magnetic-type diffusion (D ρρ ∝ |v || |). Fokker-Planck simulation of Ohmic reversed field pinch (RFP) discharges in the MST device reveals transport velocity dependence stronger than |v || |) will give agreement with current and soft X-ray spectra in standard discharges, but in the higher confinement, current profile controlled PPCD discharges, transport is again electrostatic-like. This is consistent with the object of PPCD, which is to replace magnetic turbulence driven current with auxiliary CD to improve transport. The tokamak and high-confinement RFP results mutually reinforce the constant-in-velocity-space 'electrostatic-type turbulence' conclusion. The steady-state energy and toroidal current are governed by the same radial transport equation. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
HARVEY, R.W.; SAUTER, O.; PRATER, R.; NIKKOLA, P.; O'CONNELL, R.; FOREST, C.B.
2002-01-01
The comprehensive CQL3D Fokker-Planck/Quasilinear simulation code has been benchmarked against experiment over a wide range of electron cyclotron conditions in the DIII-D tokamak (C.C. Petty et al., 14th Topical Conf. on RF Power in Plasmas, 2002). The same code, in disagreement with experiment, gives 560 kA of ECCD for a well documented, completely ECCD-driven, 100 kA TCV shot [O. Sauter et al, PRL, 2000]. Recent work (R.W. Harvey et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2002) has resolved the differences as due to radial transport at a level closely consistent with ITER scaling. Transport does not substantially affect DIII-D ECCD, but at similar ECH power has an overwhelming effect on the much smaller TCV. The transport is consistent with electrostatic-type diffusion (D ρρ constant in velocity-space) and not with a magnetic-type diffusion (D ρρ ∝ |v(parallel)|). Fokker-Planck simulation of Ohmic reversed field pinch (RFP) discharges in the MST device reveals transport velocity dependence stronger than |v(parallel)| will give agreement with current and soft X-ray spectra in standard discharges, but in the higher confinement, current profile controlled PPCD discharges, transport is again electrostatic-like. This is consistent with the object of PPCD, which is to replace magnetic turbulence driven current with auxiliary CD to improve transport. The tokamak and high-confinement RFP results mutually reinforce the constant-in-velocity-space ''electrostatic-type turbulence'' conclusion. The steady-state energy and toroidal current are governed by the same radial transport equation
DANTSYS: a system for deterministic, neutral particle transport calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.
1996-12-31
The THREEDANT code is the latest addition to our system of codes, DANTSYS, which perform neutral particle transport computations on a given system of interest. The system of codes is distinguished by geometrical or symmetry considerations. For example, ONEDANT and TWODANT are designed for one and two dimensional geometries respectively. We have TWOHEX for hexagonal geometries, TWODANT/GQ for arbitrary quadrilaterals in XY and RZ geometry, and THREEDANT for three-dimensional geometries. The design of this system of codes is such that they share the same input and edit module and hence the input and output is uniform for all the codes (with the obvious additions needed to specify each type of geometry). The codes in this system are also designed to be general purpose solving both eigenvalue and source driven problems. In this paper we concentrate on the THREEDANT module since there are special considerations that need to be taken into account when designing such a module. The main issues that need to be addressed in a three-dimensional transport solver are those of the computational time needed to solve a problem and the amount of storage needed to accomplish that solution. Of course both these issues are directly related to the number of spatial mesh cells required to obtain a solution to a specified accuracy, but is also related to the spatial discretization method chosen and the requirements of the iteration acceleration scheme employed as will be noted below. Another related consideration is the robustness of the resulting algorithms as implemented; because insistence on complete robustness has a significant impact upon the computation time. We address each of these issues in the following through which we give reasons for the choices we have made in our approach to this code. And this is useful in outlining how the code is evolving to better address the shortcomings that presently exist.
Dynamics and transport of laser-accelerated particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Stefan
2010-01-01
The subject of this thesis is the investigation and optimization of beam transport elements in the context of the steadily growing field of laser-driven particle acceleration. The first topic is the examination of the free vacuum expansion of an electron beam at high current density. It could be shown that particle tracking codes which are commonly used for the calculation of space charge effects will generate substantial artifacts in the regime considered here. The artifacts occurring hitherto predominantly involve insufficient prerequisites for the Lorentz transformation, the application of inadequate initial conditions and non negligible retardation artifacts. A part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a calculation approach which uses a more adequate ansatz calculating space charge effects for laser-accelerated electron beams. It can also be used to validate further approaches for the calculation of space charge effects. The next elements considered are miniature magnetic quadrupole devices for the focusing of charged particle beams. General problems involved with their miniaturization concern distorting higher order field components. If these distorting components cannot be controlled, the field of applications is very limited. In this thesis a new method for the characterization and compensation of the distorting components was developed, which might become a standard method when assembling these permanent magnet multipole devices. The newly developed characterization method has been validated at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) electron accelerator. Now that we can ensure optimum performance, the first application of permanent magnet quadrupole devices in conjunction with laser-accelerated ion beams is presented. The experiment was carried out at the Z-Petawatt laser system at Sandia National Laboratories. A promising application for laser-accelerated electron beams is the FEL in a university-scale size. The first discussion of all relevant aspects
Dynamics and transport of laser-accelerated particle beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, Stefan
2010-04-19
The subject of this thesis is the investigation and optimization of beam transport elements in the context of the steadily growing field of laser-driven particle acceleration. The first topic is the examination of the free vacuum expansion of an electron beam at high current density. It could be shown that particle tracking codes which are commonly used for the calculation of space charge effects will generate substantial artifacts in the regime considered here. The artifacts occurring hitherto predominantly involve insufficient prerequisites for the Lorentz transformation, the application of inadequate initial conditions and non negligible retardation artifacts. A part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a calculation approach which uses a more adequate ansatz calculating space charge effects for laser-accelerated electron beams. It can also be used to validate further approaches for the calculation of space charge effects. The next elements considered are miniature magnetic quadrupole devices for the focusing of charged particle beams. General problems involved with their miniaturization concern distorting higher order field components. If these distorting components cannot be controlled, the field of applications is very limited. In this thesis a new method for the characterization and compensation of the distorting components was developed, which might become a standard method when assembling these permanent magnet multipole devices. The newly developed characterization method has been validated at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) electron accelerator. Now that we can ensure optimum performance, the first application of permanent magnet quadrupole devices in conjunction with laser-accelerated ion beams is presented. The experiment was carried out at the Z-Petawatt laser system at Sandia National Laboratories. A promising application for laser-accelerated electron beams is the FEL in a university-scale size. The first discussion of all relevant aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng, Jianxin; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Fan, Zongwei
2014-01-01
In existing ultrasonic transportation methods, the long-range transportation of micro-particles is always realized in step-by-step way. Due to the substantial decrease of the driving force in each step, the transportation is lower-speed and stair-stepping. To improve the transporting velocity, a non-stepping ultrasonic transportation approach is proposed. By quantitatively analyzing the acoustic potential well, an optimal region is defined as the position, where the largest driving force is provided under the condition that the driving force is simultaneously the major component of an acoustic radiation force. To keep the micro-particle trapped in the optimal region during the whole transportation process, an approach of optimizing the phase-shifting velocity and phase-shifting step is adopted. Due to the stable and large driving force, the displacement of the micro-particle is an approximately linear function of time, instead of a stair-stepping function of time as in the existing step-by-step methods. An experimental setup is also developed to validate this approach. Long-range ultrasonic transportations of zirconium beads with high transporting velocity were realized. The experimental results demonstrated that this approach is an effective way to improve transporting velocity in the long-range ultrasonic transportation of micro-particles
Transient Particle Transport Analysis on TJ-II Stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eguilior, S.; Castejon, F.; Guasp, J.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Tabares, F.L.; Branas, B.
2006-12-18
Particle diffusivity and convective velocity have been determined in ECRH plasmas confined in the stellarator TJ-II by analysing the evolving density profile. This is obtained from an amplitude modulation reflectometry system in addition to an X-ray tomographic reconstruction. The source term, which is needed as an input for transport equations, is obtained using EIRENE code. In order to discriminate between the diffusive and convective contributions, the dynamics of the density evolution has been analysed in several perturbative experiments. This evolution has been considered in discharges with injection of a single pulse of H2 as well as in those that present a spontaneous transition to an enhanced confinement mode and whose confinement properties are modified by inducing an ohmic current. The pinch velocity and diffusivity are parameterized by different expressions in order to fit the experimental time evolution of density profile. The profile evolution is very different from one case to another due to the different values of convective velocities and diffusivities, besides the different source terms. (Author) 19 refs.
The OpenMC Monte Carlo particle transport code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romano, Paul K.; Forget, Benoit
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► An open source Monte Carlo particle transport code, OpenMC, has been developed. ► Solid geometry and continuous-energy physics allow high-fidelity simulations. ► Development has focused on high performance and modern I/O techniques. ► OpenMC is capable of scaling up to hundreds of thousands of processors. ► Results on a variety of benchmark problems agree with MCNP5. -- Abstract: A new Monte Carlo code called OpenMC is currently under development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a tool for simulation on high-performance computing platforms. Given that many legacy codes do not scale well on existing and future parallel computer architectures, OpenMC has been developed from scratch with a focus on high performance scalable algorithms as well as modern software design practices. The present work describes the methods used in the OpenMC code and demonstrates the performance and accuracy of the code on a variety of problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hubert, J.
1979-01-01
The variational finite element method (of the Rayleigh-Ritz type) has been applied to solve the standard diffusion-convection equation of radial flow in a dispersive medium. It was shown that the imposing of the boundary condition ΔC/Δx = 0 (=null concentration gradient) introduced great errors in computation results. To remedy it this condition was imposed at the free end of the artifical domain. Its other end joined to the downstream boundary of the investigated domain. The results of calculations compared with the known analytical solutions of the parallel flow show their good accuracy. The method was used to discuss the applicability of the approximate analytical solutions of the radial flow. (author)
Investigation of particle reduction and its transport mechanism in UHF-ECR dielectric etching system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Yokogawa, Ken'etsu; Maeda, Kenji; Izawa, Masaru
2008-01-01
Control of particle transport was investigated by using a UHF-ECR etching apparatus with a laser particle monitor. The particles, which float at a plasma-sheath boundary, fall on a wafer when the plasma is turned off. These floating particles can be removed from the region above the wafer by changing the plasma distribution. We measured the distribution of the rotational temperature of nitrogen molecules across the wafer to investigate the effect of the thermophoretic force. We found that mechanisms of particle transport in directions parallel to the wafer surface can be explained by the balance between thermophoretic and gas viscous forces
Particle transport in subaqueous eruptions: An experimental investigation
Verolino, A.; White, J. D. L.; Zimanowski, B.
2018-01-01
Subaqueous volcanic eruptions are natural events common under the world's oceans. Here we report results from bench-scale underwater explosions that entrain and eject particles into a water tank. Our aim was to examine how particles are transferred to the water column and begin to sediment from it, and to visualize and interpret evolution of the 'eruption' cloud. Understanding particle transfer to water is a key requirement for using deposit characteristics to infer behaviour and evolution of an underwater eruption. For the experiments here, we used compressed argon to force different types of particles, under known driving pressures, into water within a container, and recorded the results at 1 MPx/frame and 1000 fps. Three types of runs were completed: (1) particles within water were driven into a water-filled container; (2) dry particles were driven into water; (3) dry particles were driven into air at atmospheric pressure. Across the range of particles used for all subaqueous runs, we observed: a) initial doming, b) a main expansion of decompressing gas, and c) a phase of necking, when a forced plume separated from the driving jet. Phase c did not take place for the subaerial runs. A key observation is that none of the subaqueous explosions produced a single, simple, open cavity; in all cases, multiphase mixtures of gas bubbles, particles and water were formed. Explosions in which the expanding argon ejects particles in air, analogous to delivery of particles created in an explosion, produce jets and forced plumes that release particles into the tank more readily than do those in which particles in water are driven into the tank. The latter runs mimic propulsion of an existing vent slurry by an explosion. Explosions with different particle types also yielded differences in behaviour controlled primarily by particle mass, particle density, and particle-population homogeneity. Particles were quickly delivered into the water column during plume rise following
Convective and diffusive effects on particle transport in asymmetric periodic capillaries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nazmul Islam
Full Text Available We present here results of a theoretical investigation of particle transport in longitudinally asymmetric but axially symmetric capillaries, allowing for the influence of both diffusion and convection. In this study we have focused attention primarily on characterizing the influence of tube geometry and applied hydraulic pressure on the magnitude, direction and rate of transport of particles in axi-symmetric, saw-tooth shaped tubes. Three initial value problems are considered. The first involves the evolution of a fixed number of particles initially confined to a central wave-section. The second involves the evolution of the same initial state but including an ongoing production of particles in the central wave-section. The third involves the evolution of particles a fully laden tube. Based on a physical model of convective-diffusive transport, assuming an underlying oscillatory fluid velocity field that is unaffected by the presence of the particles, we find that transport rates and even net transport directions depend critically on the design specifics, such as tube geometry, flow rate, initial particle configuration and whether or not particles are continuously introduced. The second transient scenario is qualitatively independent of the details of how particles are generated. In the third scenario there is no net transport. As the study is fundamental in nature, our findings could engender greater understanding of practical systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walsh, Jonathan A.; Palmer, Todd S.; Urbatsch, Todd J.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Generation of discrete differential scattering angle and energy loss cross sections. • Gauss–Radau quadrature utilizing numerically computed cross section moments. • Development of a charged particle transport capability in the Milagro IMC code. • Integration of cross section generation and charged particle transport capabilities. - Abstract: We investigate a method for numerically generating discrete scattering cross sections for use in charged particle transport simulations. We describe the cross section generation procedure and compare it to existing methods used to obtain discrete cross sections. The numerical approach presented here is generalized to allow greater flexibility in choosing a cross section model from which to derive discrete values. Cross section data computed with this method compare favorably with discrete data generated with an existing method. Additionally, a charged particle transport capability is demonstrated in the time-dependent Implicit Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, Milagro. We verify the implementation of charged particle transport in Milagro with analytic test problems and we compare calculated electron depth–dose profiles with another particle transport code that has a validated electron transport capability. Finally, we investigate the integration of the new discrete cross section generation method with the charged particle transport capability in Milagro.
Relationship between particle and heat transport in JT-60U plasmas with internal transport barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takenaga, H.; Higashijima, S.; Oyama, N.
2003-01-01
The relationship between particle and heat transport in an internal transport barrier (ITB) has been systematically investigated in reversed shear (RS) and high β p ELMy H-mode plasmas in JT-60U. No helium and carbon accumulation inside the ITB is observed even with ion heat transport reduced to a neoclassical level. On the other hand, the heavy impurity argon is accumulated inside the ITB. The argon density profile estimated from the soft x-ray profile is more peaked, by a factor of 2-4 in the RS plasma and of 1.6 in the high β p mode plasma, than the electron density profile. The helium diffusivity (D He ) and the ion thermal diffusivity (χ i ) are at an anomalous level in the high β p mode plasma, where D He and χ i are higher by a factor of 5-10 than the neoclassical value. In the RS plasma, D He is reduced from the anomalous to the neoclassical level, together with χ i . The carbon and argon density profiles calculated using the transport coefficients reduced to the neoclassical level only in the ITB are more peaked than the measured profiles, even when χ i is reduced to the neoclassical level. Argon exhaust from the inside of the ITB is demonstrated by applying ECH in the high β p mode plasma, where both electron and argon density profiles become flatter. The reduction of the neoclassical inward velocity for argon due to the reduction of density gradient is consistent with the experimental observation. In the RS plasma, the density gradient is not decreased by ECH and argon is not exhausted. These results suggest the importance of density gradient control to suppress heavy impurity accumulation. (author)
Relationship between particle and heat transport in JT-60U plasmas with internal transport barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takenaga, Hidenobu; Higashijima, S.; Oyama, N.
2003-01-01
The relationship between particle and heat transport in an internal transport barrier (ITB) has been systematically investigated in reversed shear (RS) and high β p ELMy H-mode plasmas in JT-60U. No helium and carbon accumulation inside the ITB is observed even with ion heat transport reduced to a neoclassical level. On the other hand, the heavy impurity argon is accumulated inside the ITB. The argon density profile estimated from the soft x-ray profile is more peaked, by a factor of 2-4 in the RS plasma and of 1.6 in the high β p mode plasma, than the electron density profile. The helium diffusivity (D He ) and the ion thermal diffusivity (χ i ) are at an anomalous level in the high β p mode plasma, where D He and χ i are higher by a factor of 5-10 than the neoclassical value. In the RS plasma, D He is reduced from the anomalous to the neoclassical level, together with χ i . The carbon and argon density profiles calculated using the transport coefficients reduced to the neoclassical level only in the ITB are more peaked than the measured profiles, even when χ i is reduced to the neoclassical level. Argon exhaust from the inside of the ITB is demonstrated by applying ECH in the high β p mode plasma, where both electron and argon density profiles become flatter. The reduction of the neoclassical inward velocity for argon due to the reduction of density gradient is consistent with the experimental observation. In the RS plasma, the density gradient is not decreased by ECH and argon is not exhausted. These results suggest the importance of density control to suppress heavy impurity accumulation. (author)
Ruppert, Kai; Amzajerdian, Faraz; Hamedani, Hooman; Xin, Yi; Loza, Luis; Achekzai, Tahmina; Duncan, Ian F; Profka, Harrilla; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Pourfathi, Mehrdad; Cereda, Maurizio F; Kadlecek, Stephen; Rizi, Rahim R
2018-04-22
To demonstrate the feasibility of using a 3D radial double golden-means acquisition with variable flip angles to monitor pulmonary gas transport in a single breath hold with hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI. Hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI scans with interleaved gas-phase and dissolved-phase excitations were performed using a 3D radial double golden-means acquisition in mechanically ventilated rabbits. The flip angle was either held fixed at 15 ° or 5 °, or it was varied linearly in ascending or descending order between 5 ° and 15 ° over a sampling interval of 1000 spokes. Dissolved-phase and gas-phase images were reconstructed at high resolution (32 × 32 × 32 matrix size) using all 1000 spokes, or at low resolution (22 × 22 × 22 matrix size) using 400 spokes at a time in a sliding-window fashion. Based on these sliding-window images, relative change maps were obtained using the highest mean flip angle as the reference, and aggregated pixel-based changes were tracked. Although the signal intensities in the dissolve-phase maps were mostly constant in the fixed flip-angle acquisitions, they varied significantly as a function of average flip angle in the variable flip-angle acquisitions. The latter trend reflects the underlying changes in observed dissolve-phase magnetization distribution due to pulmonary gas uptake and transport. 3D radial double golden-means acquisitions with variable flip angles provide a robust means for rapidly assessing lung function during a single breath hold, thereby constituting a particularly valuable tool for imaging uncooperative or pediatric patient populations. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This article employed the Hertz contact stress theory and the finite element method to evaluate the maximum contact pressure and the limit stresses of orange fruit under transportation and storage. The elastic properties of orange fruits subjected to axial and axial contact were measured such that elastic limit force, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and bioyield stress were obtained as 18 N, 0.691 MPa, 0.367, 0.009 MPa for axial compression and for radial loading were 15.69 N, 0.645 MPa, 0.123, 0.010 MPa. The Hertz maximum contact pressure was estimated for axial and radial contacts as 0.036 MPa. The estimated limiting yield stress estimated as von Mises stresses for the induced surface stresses of the orange topologies varied from 0.005 MPa–0.03 MPa. Based on the distortion energy theory (DET the yield strength of orange fruit is recommended as 0.03 MPa while based on the maximum shear stress theory (MSST is 0.01 MPa for the design of orange transportation and storage system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Wang
Full Text Available Plants are unavoidably subjected to various abiotic stressors, including high salinity, drought and low temperature, which results in water deficit and even death. Water uptake and transportation play a critical role in response to these stresses. Many aquaporin proteins, localized at different tissues, function in various transmembrane water movements. We targeted at the key aquaporin in charge of both water uptake in roots and radial water transportation from vascular tissues through the whole plant.The MzPIP2;1 gene encoding a plasma membrane intrinsic protein was cloned from salt-tolerant apple rootstock Malus zumi Mats. The GUS gene was driven by MzPIP2;1 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis. It indicated that MzPIP2;1 might function in the epidermal and vascular cells of roots, parenchyma cells around vessels through the stems and vascular tissues of leaves. The ectopically expressed MzPIP2;1 conferred the transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance to slight salt and drought stresses, but sensitive to moderate salt stress, which was indicated by root length, lateral root number, fresh weight and K+/Na+ ratio. In addition, the possible key cis-elements in response to salt, drought and cold stresses were isolated by the promoter deletion experiment.The MzPIP2;1 protein, as a PIP2 aquaporins subgroup member, involved in radial water movement, controls water absorption and usage efficiency and alters transgenic plants drought and salt tolerance.
Development of a Radial Deconsolidation Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-12-01
A series of experiments have been initiated to determine the retention or mobility of fission products* in AGR fuel compacts [Petti, et al. 2010]. This information is needed to refine fission product transport models. The AGR-3/4 irradiation test involved half-inch-long compacts that each contained twenty designed-to-fail (DTF) particles, with 20-μm thick carbon-coated kernels whose coatings were deliberately fabricated such that they would crack under irradiation, providing a known source of post-irradiation isotopes. The DTF particles in these compacts were axially distributed along the compact centerline so that the diffusion of fission products released from the DTF kernels would be radially symmetric [Hunn, et al. 2012; Hunn et al. 2011; Kercher, et al. 2011; Hunn, et al. 2007]. Compacts containing DTF particles were irradiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) [Collin, 2015]. Analysis of the diffusion of these various post-irradiation isotopes through the compact requires a method to radially deconsolidate the compacts so that nested-annular volumes may be analyzed for post-irradiation isotope inventory in the compact matrix, TRISO outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC), and DTF kernels. An effective radial deconsolidation method and apparatus appropriate to this application has been developed and parametrically characterized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Osborne, T.H.; Doyle, E.J.; Rettig, C.L.
1993-08-01
Measurements of the radial electric field, E r , with high spatial and high time resolution in H-mode and VH-mode discharges in the DIII-D tokamak have revealed the significant influence of the shear in E r on confinement and transport in these discharges. These measurements are made using the DIII-D Charge Exchange Recombination (CER) System. At the L-H transition in DIII-D plasmas, a negative well-like E r profile develops just within the magnetic separatrix. A region of shear in E r results, which extends 1 to 2 cm into the plasma from the separatrix. At the transition, this region of sheared E r exhibits the greatest increase in impurity ion poloidal rotation velocity and the greatest reduction in plasma fluctuations. A transport barrier is formed in this same region of E x B velocity shear as is signified by large increases in the observed gradients of the ion temperature, the carbon density, the electron temperature and electron density. The development of the region of sheared E r , the increase in impurity ion poloidal rotation, the reduction in plasma turbulence, and the transport barrier all occur simultaneously at the L-H transition. Measurements of the radial electric field, plasma turbulence, thermal transport, and energy confinement have been performed for a wide range of plasma conditions and configurations. The results support the supposition that the progression of improving confinement at the L-H transition, into the H-mode and then into the VH-mode can be explained by the hypothesis of the suppression of plasma turbulence by the increasing penetration of the region of sheared E x B velocity into the plasma interior
Drummond, Jen; Davies-Colley, Rob; Stott, Rebecca; Sukias, James; Nagels, John; Sharp, Alice; Packman, Aaron
2014-05-01
Transport dynamics of microbial cells and organic fine particles are important to stream ecology and biogeochemistry. Cells and particles continuously deposit and resuspend during downstream transport owing to a variety of processes including gravitational settling, interactions with in-stream structures or biofilms at the sediment-water interface, and hyporheic exchange and filtration within underlying sediments. Deposited cells and particles are also resuspended following increases in streamflow. Fine particle retention influences biogeochemical processing of substrates and nutrients (C, N, P), while remobilization of pathogenic microbes during flood events presents a hazard to downstream uses such as water supplies and recreation. We are conducting studies to gain insights into the dynamics of fine particles and microbes in streams, with a campaign of experiments and modeling. The results improve understanding of fine sediment transport, carbon cycling, nutrient spiraling, and microbial hazards in streams. We developed a stochastic model to describe the transport and retention of fine particles and microbes in rivers that accounts for hyporheic exchange and transport through porewaters, reversible filtration within the streambed, and microbial inactivation in the water column and subsurface. This model framework is an advance over previous work in that it incorporates detailed transport and retention processes that are amenable to measurement. Solute, particle, and microbial transport were observed both locally within sediment and at the whole-stream scale. A multi-tracer whole-stream injection experiment compared the transport and retention of a conservative solute, fluorescent fine particles, and the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli. Retention occurred within both the underlying sediment bed and stands of submerged macrophytes. The results demonstrate that the combination of local measurements, whole-stream tracer experiments, and advanced modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Shiwei; Wang, Ke; Wei, Yi-Ming
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A hybrid self-adaptive PSO–GA-RBF model is proposed for electricity demand prediction. • Each mixed-coding particle is composed by two coding parts of binary and real. • Five independent variables have been selected to predict future electricity consumption in Wuhan. • The proposed model has a simpler structure or higher estimating precision than other ANN models. • No matter what the scenario, the electricity consumption of Wuhan will grow rapidly. - Abstract: The present study proposes a hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm optimized Radial Basis Function (PSO–GA-RBF) neural network for prediction of annual electricity demand. In the model, each mixed-coding particle (or chromosome) is composed of two coding parts, binary and real, which optimizes the structure of the RBF by GA operation and the parameters of the basis and weights by a PSO–GA implementation. Five independent variables have been selected to predict future electricity consumption in Wuhan by using optimized networks. The results shows that (1) the proposed PSO–GA-RBF model has a simpler network structure (fewer hidden neurons) or higher estimation precision than other selected ANN models; and (2) no matter what the scenario, the electricity consumption of Wuhan will grow rapidly at average annual growth rates of about 9.7–11.5%. By 2020, the electricity demand in the planning scenario, the highest among the scenarios, will be 95.85 billion kW h. The lowest demand is estimated for the business-as-usual scenario, and will be 88.45 billion kW h
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heikkinen, J.A.; Henriksson, S.; Janhunen, S.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Ogando, F.
2006-01-01
A full f nonlinear 5D gyrokinetic electrostatic particle-in-cell code ELMFIRE using an implicit direct solution method for ion polarization drift and electron parallel velocity response to electric field and its validation are described. The developed code is applied for transport analysis in a tokamak plasma at steep pressure gradient. The role of turbulence and neoclassical equilibrium in determining the flux surface averaged radial electric field component are investigated, as well as the role of the latter in affecting the saturation level of the turbulence. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Neoclassical transport of energetic beam ions in the Large Helical Device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, Sadayoshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Osamu
2000-01-01
The neoclassical (collisional) transport of energetic ions is investigated by the global neoclassical transport simulation in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The steady state distributions of energetic ions are evaluated assuming an energetic particle source by NBI heating (tangentally injected). Significant radial transport of energetic ions can be seen due to the radial motion of trapped particles in the velocity region below near critical velocity. Our simulation results show relatively good agreements with the experimental results of fast particle measurements in the LHD. This suggests an important role of neoclassical transport in the radial transport process of energetic ions in heliotrons. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noack, K.
1982-01-01
The perturbation source method may be a powerful Monte-Carlo means to calculate small effects in a particle field. In a preceding paper we have formulated this methos in inhomogeneous linear particle transport problems describing the particle fields by solutions of Fredholm integral equations and have derived formulae for the second moment of the difference event point estimator. In the present paper we analyse the general structure of its variance, point out the variance peculiarities, discuss the dependence on certain transport games and on generation procedures of the auxiliary particles and draw conclusions to improve this method
Influence of particle sorting in transport of sediment-associated contaminants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lane, L.J.; Hakonson, T.E.
1982-01-01
Hydrologic and sediment transport models are developed to route the flow of water and sediment (by particle size classes) in alluvial stream channels. A simplified infiltration model is used to compute runoff from upland areas and flow is routed in ephemeral stream channels to account for infiltration or transmission losses in the channel alluvium. Hydraulic calculations, based on the normal flow assumption and an approximating hydrograph, are used to compute sediment transport by particle size classes. Contaminants associated with sediment particles are routed in the stream channels to predict contaminatant transport by particle size classes. An empirical adjustment factor, the enrichment ratio, is shown to be a function of the particle size distribution of stream bed sediments, contaminant concentrations by particle size, differential sediment transport rates, and the magnitude of the runoff event causing transport of sediment and contaminants. This analysis and an example application in a liquid effluent-receiving area illustrate the significance of particle sorting in transport of sediment associated contaminants
Transport of inertial particles in a turbulent premixed jet flame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battista, F; Picano, F; Casciola, C M; Troiani, G
2011-01-01
The heat release, occurring in reacting flows, induces a sudden fluid acceleration which particles follow with a certain lag, due to their finite inertia. Actually, the coupling between particle inertia and the flame front expansion strongly biases the spatial distribution of the particles, by inducing the formation of localized clouds with different dimensions downstream the thin flame front. A possible indicator of this preferential localization is the so-called Clustering Index, quantifying the departure of the actual particle distribution from the Poissonian, which would correspond to a purely random spatial arrangement. Most of the clustering is found in the flame brush region, which is spanned by the fluctuating instantaneous flame front. The effect is significant also for very light particles. In this case a simple model based on the Bray-Moss-Libby formalism is able to account for most of the deviation from the Poissonian. When the particle inertia increases, the effect is found to increases and persist well within the region of burned gases. The effect is maximum when the particle relaxation time is of the order of the flame front time scale. The evidence of this peculiar source of clustering is here provided by data from a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent premixed jet flame and confirmed by experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faure, M.H.
1994-03-01
Understanding the mechanisms which control the transient transport of particles and radionuclides in natural and artificial porous media is a key problem for the assessment of safety of radioactive waste disposals. An experimental study has been performed to characterize the clayey particle mobility in porous media: a laboratory- made column, packed with an unconsolidated sand bentonite (5% weight) sample, is flushed with a salt solution. An original method of salinity gradient allowed us to show and to quantify some typical behaviours of this system: threshold effects in the peptization of particles, creation of preferential pathways, formation of immobile water zones induce solute-transfer limitation. The mathematical modelling accounts for a phenomenological law, where the distribution of particles between the stagnant water zone and the porous medium is a function of sodium chloride concentration. This distribution function is associated with a radionuclide adsorption model, and is included in a convective dispersive transport model with stagnant water zones. It allowed us to simulate the particle and solute transport when the salt environment is modified. The complete model has been validated with experiments involving cesium, calcium and neptunium in a sodium chloride gradient. (author). refs., figs., tabs
Small particle transport across turbulent nonisothermal boundary layers
Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.
1982-01-01
The interaction between turbulent diffusion, Brownian diffusion, and particle thermophoresis in the limit of vanishing particle inertial effects is quantitatively modeled for applications in gas turbines. The model is initiated with consideration of the particle phase mass conservation equation for a two-dimensional boundary layer, including the thermophoretic flux term directed toward the cold wall. A formalism of a turbulent flow near a flat plate in a heat transfer problem is adopted, and variable property effects are neglected. Attention is given to the limit of very large Schmidt numbers and the particle concentration depletion outside of the Brownian sublayer. It is concluded that, in the parameter range of interest, thermophoresis augments the high Schmidt number mass-transfer coefficient by a factor equal to the product of the outer sink and the thermophoretic suction.
A review of the facile (FN) method in particle transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, R.D.M.
1986-02-01
The facile F N method for solving particle transport problems is reviewed. The fundamentals of the method are summarized, recent developments are discussed and several applications of the method are described in detail. (author) [pt
Symmetry properties of the transport coefficients of charged particles in disordered materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baird, J.K.
1979-01-01
The transport coefficients of a charged particle in an isotropic material are shown to be even functions of the applied electric field. We discuss the limitation which this result and its consequences place upon formulae used to represent these coefficients
Influence of coal slurry particle composition on pipeline hydraulic transportation behavior
Li-an, Zhao; Ronghuan, Cai; Tieli, Wang
2018-02-01
Acting as a new type of energy transportation mode, the coal pipeline hydraulic transmission can reduce the energy transportation cost and the fly ash pollution of the conventional coal transportation. In this study, the effect of average velocity, particle size and pumping time on particle composition of coal particles during hydraulic conveying was investigated by ring tube test. Meanwhile, the effects of particle composition change on slurry viscosity, transmission resistance and critical sedimentation velocity were studied based on the experimental data. The experimental and theoretical analysis indicate that the alter of slurry particle composition can lead to the change of viscosity, resistance and critical velocity of slurry. Moreover, based on the previous studies, the critical velocity calculation model of coal slurry is proposed.
Clogging and transport of driven particles in asymmetric funnel arrays
Reichhardt, C. J. O.; Reichhardt, C.
2018-06-01
We numerically examine the flow and clogging of particles driven through asymmetric funnel arrays when the commensurability ratio of the number of particles per plaquette is varied. The particle–particle interactions are modeled with a soft repulsive potential that could represent vortex flow in type-II superconductors or driven charged colloids. The velocity-force curves for driving in the easy flow direction of the funnels exhibit a single depinning threshold; however, for driving in the hard flow direction, we find that there can be both negative mobility where the velocity decreases with increasing driving force as well as a reentrant pinning effect in which the particles flow at low drives but become pinned at intermediate drives. This reentrant pinning is associated with a transition from smooth 1D flow at low drives to a clogged state at higher drives that occurs when the particles cluster in a small number of plaquettes and block the flow. When the drive is further increased, particle rearrangements occur that cause the clog to break apart. We map out the regimes in which the pinned, flowing, and clogged states appear as a function of plaquette filling and drive. The clogged states remain robust at finite temperatures but develop intermittent bursts of flow in which a clog temporarily breaks apart but quickly reforms.
Holzinger, Dennis; Koch, Iris; Burgard, Stefan; Ehresmann, Arno
2015-07-28
An approach for a remotely controllable transport of magnetic micro- and/or nanoparticles above a topographically flat exchange-bias (EB) thin film system, magnetically patterned into parallel stripe domains, is presented where the particle manipulation is achieved by sub-mT external magnetic field pulses. Superparamagnetic core-shell particles are moved stepwise by the dynamic transformation of the particles' magnetic potential energy landscape due to the external magnetic field pulses without affecting the magnetic state of the thin film system. The magnetic particle velocity is adjustable in the range of 1-100 μm/s by the design of the substrate's magnetic field landscape (MFL), the particle-substrate distance, and the magnitude of the applied external magnetic field pulses. The agglomeration of magnetic particles is avoided by the intrinsic magnetostatic repulsion of particles due to the parallel alignment of the particles' magnetic moments perpendicular to the transport direction and parallel to the surface normal of the substrate during the particle motion. The transport mechanism is modeled by a quantitative theory based on the precise knowledge of the sample's MFL and the particle-substrate distance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerra, Fabio A.; Coelho, Leandro dos S.
2008-01-01
An important problem in engineering is the identification of nonlinear systems, among them radial basis function neural networks (RBF-NN) using Gaussian activation functions models, which have received particular attention due to their potential to approximate nonlinear behavior. Several design methods have been proposed for choosing the centers and spread of Gaussian functions and training the RBF-NN. The selection of RBF-NN parameters such as centers, spreads, and weights can be understood as a system identification problem. This paper presents a hybrid training approach based on clustering methods (k-means and c-means) to tune the centers of Gaussian functions used in the hidden layer of RBF-NNs. This design also uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) for centers (local clustering search method) and spread tuning, and the Penrose-Moore pseudoinverse for the adjustment of RBF-NN weight outputs. Simulations involving this RBF-NN design to identify Lorenz's chaotic system indicate that the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional RBF-NN trained for k-means and the Penrose-Moore pseudoinverse for multi-step ahead forecasting
Direct measurements of particle transport in dc glow discharge dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, E. Jr.
2001-01-01
Many recent experiments in dc glow discharge plasmas have shown that clouds of dust particles can be suspended near the biased electrodes. Once formed, the dust clouds have well defined boundaries while particle motion within the clouds can be quite complex. Because the dust particles in the cloud can remain suspended in the plasma for tens of minutes, it implies that the particles have a low diffusive loss rate and follow closed trajectories within the cloud. In the experiments discussed in this paper, direct measurements of the dust particle velocities are made using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. From the velocity measurements, a reconstruction of the three-dimensional transport of the dust particles is performed. A qualitative model is developed for the closed motion of the dust particles in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma. (orig.)
Chen, Xingxin; Wu, Zhonghan; Cai, Qipeng; Cao, Wei
2018-04-01
It is well established that seismic waves traveling through porous media stimulate fluid flow and accelerate particle transport. However, the mechanism remains poorly understood. To quantify the coupling effect of hydrodynamic force, transportation distance, and ultrasonic stimulation on particle transport and fate in porous media, laboratory experiments were conducted using custom-built ultrasonic-controlled soil column equipment. Three column lengths (23 cm, 33 cm, and 43 cm) were selected to examine the influence of transportation distance. Transport experiments were performed with 0 W, 600 W, 1000 W, 1400 W, and 1800 W of applied ultrasound, and flow rates of 0.065 cm/s, 0.130 cm/s, and 0.195 cm/s, to establish the roles of ultrasonic stimulation and hydrodynamic force. The laboratory results suggest that whilst ultrasonic stimulation does inhibit suspended-particle deposition and accelerate deposited-particle release, both hydrodynamic force and transportation distance are the principal controlling factors. The median particle diameter for the peak concentration was approximately 50% of that retained in the soil column. Simulated particle-breakthrough curves using extended traditional filtration theory effectively described the experimental curves, particularly the curves that exhibited a higher tailing concentration.
DANTSYS: A diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport code system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.; Brinkley, F.W.; Marr, D.R.; O'Dell, R.D.; Walters, W.F.
1995-06-01
The DANTSYS code package includes the following transport codes: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, TWOHEX, and THREEDANT. The DANTSYS code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent, multigroup discrete ordinates form of the boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, one or more Solver Modules, and the Edit Module, respectively. The Input and Edit Modules are very general in nature and are common to all the Solver Modules. The ONEDANT Solver Module contains a one-dimensional (slab, cylinder, and sphere), time-independent transport equation solver using the standard diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. Also included in the package are solver Modules named TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, THREEDANT, and TWOHEX. The TWODANT Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation using the diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. The authors have also introduced an adaptive weighted diamond differencing (AWDD) method for the spatial and angular discretization into TWODANT as an option. The TWOHEX Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation on an equilateral triangle spatial mesh. The THREEDANT Solver Module solves the time independent, three-dimensional transport equation for XYZ and RZΘ symmetries using both diamond differencing with set-to-zero fixup and the AWDD method. The TWODANT/GQ Solver Module solves the 2-D transport equation in XY and RZ symmetries using a spatial mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals. The spatial differencing method is based upon the diamond differencing method with set-to-zero fixup with changes to accommodate the generalized spatial meshing
On the Use of Importance Sampling in Particle Transport Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, B.
1965-06-01
The idea of importance sampling is applied to the problem of solving integral equations of Fredholm's type. Especially Bolzmann's neutron transport equation is taken into consideration. For the solution of the latter equation, an importance sampling technique is derived from some simple transformations at the original transport equation into a similar equation. Examples of transformations are given, which have been used with great success in practice
Phenomena of charged particles transport in variable magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savane, Sy Y.; Faza Barry, M.; Vladmir, L.; Diaby, I.
2002-11-01
This present work is dedicated to the study of the dynamical phenomena for the transport of ions in the presence of variable magnetic fields in front of the Jupiter wave shock. We obtain the spectrum of the accelerated ions and we study the conditions of acceleration by solving the transport equation in the planetocentric system. We discuss the theoretical results obtained and make a comparison with the experimental parameters in the region of acceleration behind the Jupiter wave shock. (author)
DANTSYS: A diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport code system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.; Brinkley, F.W.; Marr, D.R.; O`Dell, R.D.; Walters, W.F.
1995-06-01
The DANTSYS code package includes the following transport codes: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, TWOHEX, and THREEDANT. The DANTSYS code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent, multigroup discrete ordinates form of the boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, one or more Solver Modules, and the Edit Module, respectively. The Input and Edit Modules are very general in nature and are common to all the Solver Modules. The ONEDANT Solver Module contains a one-dimensional (slab, cylinder, and sphere), time-independent transport equation solver using the standard diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. Also included in the package are solver Modules named TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, THREEDANT, and TWOHEX. The TWODANT Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation using the diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. The authors have also introduced an adaptive weighted diamond differencing (AWDD) method for the spatial and angular discretization into TWODANT as an option. The TWOHEX Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation on an equilateral triangle spatial mesh. The THREEDANT Solver Module solves the time independent, three-dimensional transport equation for XYZ and RZ{Theta} symmetries using both diamond differencing with set-to-zero fixup and the AWDD method. The TWODANT/GQ Solver Module solves the 2-D transport equation in XY and RZ symmetries using a spatial mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals. The spatial differencing method is based upon the diamond differencing method with set-to-zero fixup with changes to accommodate the generalized spatial meshing.
On the Use of Importance Sampling in Particle Transport Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eriksson, B
1965-06-15
The idea of importance sampling is applied to the problem of solving integral equations of Fredholm's type. Especially Bolzmann's neutron transport equation is taken into consideration. For the solution of the latter equation, an importance sampling technique is derived from some simple transformations at the original transport equation into a similar equation. Examples of transformations are given, which have been used with great success in practice.
Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth's cusps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; Teste, A.; Wilber, M.; Lin, N.; Canu, P.; Dandouras, I.; Reme, H.; Fu, S. Y.; Goldstein, M. L.
2008-01-01
An important problem in space physics still not understood well is how the solar wind enters the Earth's magnetosphere. Evidence is presented that transient solar wind particles produced by solar disturbances can appear in the Earth's mid-altitude (∼5 R E geocentric) cusps with densities nearly equal to those in the magnetosheath. That these are magnetosheath particles is established by showing they have the same ''flattop'' electron distributions as magnetosheath electrons behind the bow shock. The transient ions are moving parallel to the magnetic field (B) toward Earth and often coexist with ionospheric particles that are flowing out. The accompanying waves include electromagnetic and broadband electrostatic noise emissions and Bernstein mode waves. Phase-space distributions show a mixture of hot and cold electrons and multiple ion species including field-aligned ionospheric O + beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castejon, F.; Ochando, M.; Estrada, T.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Ascasibar, E.; Cappa, A.; Eguilior, S.; Fernandez-Curto, A.; Herranz, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Melnikov, A.V.; McCarthy, K.J.; Medina, F.; Pastor, I.; Chmyga, A.A.; Dreval, N.B.; Khrebtov, S.M.; Komarov, A.D.; Kozachok, A.S.; Krupnik, L.; Eliseev, L.
2005-01-01
The influence of the magnetic topology on plasma profiles and turbulence has been investigated in ECH plasmas in the stellarator TJ-II, taking advantage of the flexibility of this almost shearless device. A wide range of edge rotational transform values can be attained, but the rotational transform profile can also be tailored by inducing currents using both ECCD and two sets of OH coils. In this way it is possible to introduce rational surfaces inside the plasma and to modify the magnetic shear to examine their effect on confinement. Kinetic effects and flux changes due to the presence of resonances and ECRH are responsible of the formation of barriers in the plasma core, while the shear flow is a key ingredient in the plasma edge. The results here shown offer wide and valuable information to assess multiple mechanisms based on neoclassical/turbulent bifurcations and kinetic effects as candidates to explain the impact of magnetic topology on radial electric fields and confinement. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torok, J.; Buckley, L.P.; Woods, B.L.
1989-01-01
Laboratory-scale lysimeter experiments were performed with simulated waste forms placed in candidate buffer materials which have been chosen for a low-level radioactive waste repository. Radionuclide releases into the effluent water and radionuclide capture by the buffer material were determined. The results could not be explained by traditional solution transport mechanisms, and transport by particles released from the waste form and/or transport by buffer particles were suspected as the dominant mechanism for radionuclide release from the lysimeters. To elucidate the relative contribution of particle and solution transport, the waste forms were replaced by a wafer of neutron-activated buffer soaked with selected soluble isotopes. Particle transport was determined by the movement of gamma-emitting neutron-activation products through the lysimeter. Solution transport was quantified by comparing the migration of soluble radionuclides relative to the transport of neutron activation products. The new approach for monitoring radionuclide migration in soil is presented. It facilitates the determination of most of the fundamental coefficients required to model the transport process
vanWees, BJ
1996-01-01
We have investigated supercurrent and quasi-particle transport in the 2DEG present in InAs/Al(Ga)Sb quantum wells. The physics of these systems will be discussed with two examples: (i) supercurrent transport in Nb/InAs/Nb junctions, and (ii) phase-dependent resistance in a superconductor-2DEG
Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poellaenen, R.
2002-05-01
In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has been higher
Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poellaenen, R
2002-05-01
In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has
Cai, Li; Tong, Meiping; Wang, Xueting; Kim, Hyunjung
2014-07-01
This study investigated the influence of two representative suspended clay particles, bentonite and kaolinite, on the transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) in saturated quartz sand in both NaCl (1 and 10 mM ionic strength) and CaCl2 solutions (0.1 and 1 mM ionic strength) at pH 7. The breakthrough curves of nTiO2 with bentonite or kaolinite were higher than those without the presence of clay particles in NaCl solutions, indicating that both types of clay particles increased nTiO2 transport in NaCl solutions. Moreover, the enhancement of nTiO2 transport was more significant when bentonite was present in nTiO2 suspensions relative to kaolinite. Similar to NaCl solutions, in CaCl2 solutions, the breakthrough curves of nTiO2 with bentonite were also higher than those without clay particles, while the breakthrough curves of nTiO2 with kaolinite were lower than those without clay particles. Clearly, in CaCl2 solutions, the presence of bentonite in suspensions increased nTiO2 transport, whereas, kaolinite decreased nTiO2 transport in quartz sand. The attachment of nTiO2 onto clay particles (both bentonite and kaolinite) were observed under all experimental conditions. The increased transport of nTiO2 in most experimental conditions (except for kaolinite in CaCl2 solutions) was attributed mainly to the clay-facilitated nTiO2 transport. The straining of larger nTiO2-kaolinite clusters yet contributed to the decreased transport (enhanced retention) of nTiO2 in divalent CaCl2 solutions when kaolinite particles were copresent in suspensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clement, S.; Tagle, J.A.; Bures, M.; Vince, J.; Kock, L. de; Stangeby, P.C.
1989-01-01
The highly anomalous perpendicular transport in the plasma edge of a tokamak is generally attributed to plasma turbulence, primarily to density and electrostatic potential fluctuations. The edge transport could be modified by changing the geometry of objects in contact with the plasma (limiters, radio frequency antennae ...) and during additional heating experiments. Poloidal asymmetries in the scrape-off layer (SOL) in tokamaks using poloidal limiters (eg. ALCATOR-C) have been recently reported, indicating a poloidal asymmetry in cross-field transport. A poloidal ring limiter obstructs communications between different flux tubes in the SOL, thus permitting poloidal asymmetries in n e and T e to develop if D perpendicular is θ-dependent. When JET was operated with discrete limiters, equivalent to a single toroidal limiter at the outside mid-plane, little poloidal variation in the SOL plasma properties was observed. Currently JET is operated with two complete toroidal belt limiters located approximately one meter above and below the outside mid-plane. This configuration breaks the SOL into two regions: the low field side SOL (LFS), between the limiters, and the rest of the SOL on the high field side (HFS). Differences on the scrape-off lengths in the two SOLs are reported here, indicating that cross-field transport is faster on the LFS-SOL, in agreement with observations made on ASDEX and T-10. (author) 8 refs., 6 figs
Biogeochemical significance of transport exopolymer particles in the Indian Ocean
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
DileepKumar, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Ramaiah, N.; Gauns, M.; DeSousa, S.N.
was found between waters of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The TEP concentrations were lower in the Bay of Bengal due to faster scavenging from water column because of interaction with mineral particles. They were higher and occurred even in intense...
Mechanism for Particle Transport and Size Sorting via Low-Frequency Vibrations
Sherrit, Stewart; Scott, James S.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi
2010-01-01
There is a need for effective sample handling tools to deliver and sort particles for analytical instruments that are planned for use in future NASA missions. Specifically, a need exists for a compact mechanism that allows transporting and sieving particle sizes of powdered cuttings and soil grains that may be acquired by sampling tools such as a robotic scoop or drill. The required tool needs to be low mass and compact to operate from such platforms as a lander or rover. This technology also would be applicable to sample handling when transporting samples to analyzers and sorting particles by size.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ido, T.; Hamada, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.; Miura, Y.; Hoshino, K.; Ogawa, H.; Shinohara, K.; Kamiya, K.; Kusama, Y.
2005-01-01
The electrostatic fluctuation with Geodesic-Acoustic-Mode (GAM) frequency is observed in L-mode plasmas. The fluctuation has the poloidal wave number (k θ ) of (-2 ± 24) x 10 -3 (cm -1 ), that corresponds to the poloidal mode number of 1.5 or less, and the radial wave number (k r ) of 0.94 ± 0.05 (cm -1 ), that is corresponds to k r ρ i = 0.26 < 1. The amplitude of the fluctuation changes in the radial direction; it is small near the separatrix and it has maximum at 3 cm inside the separatrix. The relation between the amplitude of potential fluctuation and that of density fluctuation is the same as that of the predicted GAM. The fluctuation is probably GAM. The envelope of ambient density fluctuation and the potential fluctuation have a significant coherence at the GAM frequency. Thus, it is clearly verified that the fluctuation with the GAM frequency correlates with the ambient density fluctuation. The fluctuation with the GAM frequency affects the particle transport through the modulation of the ambient fluctuation. But the effect is not large, and it is not a sufficient condition to form the edge transport barrier and to drive the intermittent particle flux. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ido, T.; Miura, K.; Hoshino, K.
2005-01-01
The electrostatic fluctuation with Geodesic-Acoustic-Mode (GAM) frequency is observed in L-mode plasmas. The fluctuation has the poloidal wave number (k θ ) of (-2 ± 24) x 10 -3 (cm -1 ), that corresponds to the poloidal mode number of 1.5 or less, and the radial wave number (k γ ) of 0.94±0.05 (cm -1 ), that is corresponds to k γ ρ i =0.26 < 1. The amplitude of the fluctuation changes in the radial direction; it is small near the separatrix and it has maximum at 3 cm inside the separatrix. The relation between the amplitude of potential fluctuation and that of density fluctuation is the same as that of the predicted GAM. The fluctuation is probably GAM. The envelope of ambient density fluctuation and the potential fluctuation have a significant coherence at the GAM frequency. Thus, it is clearly verified that the fluctuation with the GAM frequency correlates with the ambient density fluctuation. The fluctuation with the GAM frequency affects the particle transport through the modulation of the ambient fluctuation. But the effect is not large, and it is not a sufficient condition to form the edge transport barrier and to drive the intermittent particle flux. (author)
Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carey, D.C.; Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F.
1995-05-01
TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command
The Random Ray Method for neutral particle transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tramm, John R., E-mail: jtramm@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-107, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Mathematics and Computer Science Department 9700 S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Smith, Kord S., E-mail: kord@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-107, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Forget, Benoit, E-mail: bforget@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-107, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Siegel, Andrew R., E-mail: siegela@mcs.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Mathematics and Computer Science Department 9700 S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2017-08-01
A new approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs) based on the method of characteristics (MOC) is presented. The Random Ray Method (TRRM) uses a stochastic rather than deterministic discretization of characteristic tracks to integrate the phase space of a problem. TRRM is potentially applicable in a number of transport simulation fields where long characteristic methods are used, such as neutron transport and gamma ray transport in reactor physics as well as radiative transfer in astrophysics. In this study, TRRM is developed and then tested on a series of exemplar reactor physics benchmark problems. The results show extreme improvements in memory efficiency compared to deterministic MOC methods, while also reducing algorithmic complexity, allowing for a sparser computational grid to be used while maintaining accuracy.
The Random Ray Method for neutral particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tramm, John R.; Smith, Kord S.; Forget, Benoit; Siegel, Andrew R.
2017-01-01
A new approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs) based on the method of characteristics (MOC) is presented. The Random Ray Method (TRRM) uses a stochastic rather than deterministic discretization of characteristic tracks to integrate the phase space of a problem. TRRM is potentially applicable in a number of transport simulation fields where long characteristic methods are used, such as neutron transport and gamma ray transport in reactor physics as well as radiative transfer in astrophysics. In this study, TRRM is developed and then tested on a series of exemplar reactor physics benchmark problems. The results show extreme improvements in memory efficiency compared to deterministic MOC methods, while also reducing algorithmic complexity, allowing for a sparser computational grid to be used while maintaining accuracy.
Cai, Zhengqing; Fu, Jie; Liu, Wen; Fu, Kunming; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye
2017-01-15
This work investigated effects of three model oil dispersants (Corexit EC9527A, Corexit EC9500A and SPC1000) on settling of fine sediment particles and particle-facilitated distribution and transport of oil components in sediment-seawater systems. All three dispersants enhanced settling of sediment particles. The nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Tween 85) play key roles in promoting particle aggregation. Yet, the effects varied with environmental factors (pH, salinity, DOM, and temperature). Strongest dispersant effect was observed at neutral or alkaline pH and in salinity range of 0-3.5wt%. The presence of water accommodated oil and dispersed oil accelerated settling of the particles. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment phase were increased from 6.9% to 90.1% in the presence of Corexit EC9527A, and from 11.4% to 86.7% for PAHs. The information is useful for understanding roles of oil dispersants in formation of oil-sediment aggregates and in sediment-facilitated transport of oil and PAHs in marine eco-systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Methane Bubbles Transport Particles From Contaminated Sediment to a Lake Surface
Delwiche, K.; Hemond, H.
2017-12-01
Methane bubbling from aquatic sediments has long been known to transport carbon to the atmosphere, but new evidence presented here suggests that methane bubbles also transport particulate matter to a lake surface. This transport pathway is of particular importance in lakes with contaminated sediments, as bubble transport could increase human exposure to toxic metals. The Upper Mystic Lake in Arlington, MA has a documented history of methane bubbling and sediment contamination by arsenic and other heavy metals, and we have conducted laboratory and field studies demonstrating that methane bubbles are capable of transporting sediment particles over depths as great as 15 m in Upper Mystic Lake. Methane bubble traps were used in-situ to capture particles adhered to bubble interfaces, and to relate particle mass transport to bubble flux. Laboratory studies were conducted in a custom-made 15 m tall water column to quantify the relationship between water column height and the mass of particulate transport. We then couple this particle transport data with historical estimates of ebullition from Upper Mystic Lake to quantify the significance of bubble-mediated particle transport to heavy metal cycling within the lake. Results suggest that methane bubbles can represent a significant pathway for contaminated sediment to reach surface waters even in relatively deep water bodies. Given the frequent co-occurrence of contaminated sediments and high bubble flux rates, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals, it will be critical to study the significance of this transport pathway for a range of sediment and contaminant types.
Arendt, V.; Shalchi, A.
2018-06-01
We explore numerically the transport of energetic particles in a turbulent magnetic field configuration. A test-particle code is employed to compute running diffusion coefficients as well as particle distribution functions in the different directions of space. Our numerical findings are compared with models commonly used in diffusion theory such as Gaussian distribution functions and solutions of the cosmic ray Fokker-Planck equation. Furthermore, we compare the running diffusion coefficients across the mean magnetic field with solutions obtained from the time-dependent version of the unified non-linear transport theory. In most cases we find that particle distribution functions are indeed of Gaussian form as long as a two-component turbulence model is employed. For turbulence setups with reduced dimensionality, however, the Gaussian distribution can no longer be obtained. It is also shown that the unified non-linear transport theory agrees with simulated perpendicular diffusion coefficients as long as the pure two-dimensional model is excluded.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brenner, D.J.; Prael, R.E.; Little, R.C.
1987-01-01
Realistic simulations of the passage of fast neutrons through tissue require a large quantity of cross-sectional data. What are needed are differential (in particle type, energy and angle) cross sections. A computer code is described which produces such spectra for neutrons above ∼14 MeV incident on light nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. Comparisons have been made with experimental measurements of double-differential secondary charged-particle production on carbon and oxygen at energies from 27 to 60 MeV; they indicate that the model is adequate in this energy range. In order to utilize fully the results of these calculations, they should be incorporated into a neutron transport code. This requires defining a generalized format for describing charged-particle production, putting the calculated results in this format, interfacing the neutron transport code with these data, and charged-particle transport. The design and development of such a program is described. 13 refs., 3 figs
Analytic theory of the energy and time independent particle transport in the plane geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simovic, R.D.
2001-01-01
An analytic investigation of the energy and time independent particle transport in the plane geometry described by a common anisotropic scattering function is carried out. Regarding the particles with specific diffusion histories in the infinite or the semi-infinite medium, new exact solutions of the corresponding transport equations are analytically derived by means of the Fourier inversion technique. Two particular groups of particles scattered after each successive collision into the directions μ 0, were considered. Its Fourier transformed transport equations have solutions without logarithmic singular points, in the upper part or the lower part of the complex k-plane. The Fourier inversion of solutions are carried out analytically and the obtained formulae represents valid generalization of the expressions for the flux of once scattered particles. (author)
Modelling of shear effects on thermal and particle transport in advanced Tokamak scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreau, D.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Baker, D.R.
1999-01-01
Evolution of thermal and particle internal transport barriers (ITBs) is studied by modelling the time-dependent energy and particle balance in DIII-D plasmas with reversed magnetic shear configurations and in JET discharges with monotonic or slightly reversed q-profiles and large ExB rotation shear. Simulations are performed with semi-empirical models for anomalous diffusion and particle pinch. Stabilizing effects of magnetic and ExB rotation shears are included in anomalous particle and heat diffusivity. Shear effects on particle and thermal transport are compared. Improved particle and energy confinement with the formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB) has been produced in DIII-D plasmas during current ramp-up accompanied with neutral beam injection (NBI). These plasmas are characterized by strong reversed magnetic shear and large ExB rotation shear which provide the reduction of anomalous fluxes. The formation of ITB's in the optimized shear (OS) JET scenario starts with strong NBI heating in a target plasma with a flat or slightly reversed q-profile pre-formed during current ramp-up with ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). Our paper presents the modelling of particle and thermal transport for these scenarios. (authors)
Coupled Particle Transport and Pattern Formation in a Nonlinear Leaky-Box Model
Barghouty, A. F.; El-Nemr, K. W.; Baird, J. K.
2009-01-01
Effects of particle-particle coupling on particle characteristics in nonlinear leaky-box type descriptions of the acceleration and transport of energetic particles in space plasmas are examined in the framework of a simple two-particle model based on the Fokker-Planck equation in momentum space. In this model, the two particles are assumed coupled via a common nonlinear source term. In analogy with a prototypical mathematical system of diffusion-driven instability, this work demonstrates that steady-state patterns with strong dependence on the magnetic turbulence but a rather weak one on the coupled particles attributes can emerge in solutions of a nonlinearly coupled leaky-box model. The insight gained from this simple model may be of wider use and significance to nonlinearly coupled leaky-box type descriptions in general.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gunn, J. P.; Boucher, C.; Dionne, M.; Ďuran, Ivan; Fuchs, Vladimír; Loarer, T.; Nanobashvili, I.; Pánek, Radomír; Pascal, J.-Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Stöckel, Jan; Van Rompuy, T.; Zagórski, R.; Adámek, Jiří; Bucalossi, J.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Devynck, P.; Hertout, P.; Hron, Martin; Lebrun, G.; Moreau, P.; Rimini, F.; Sarkissian, A.; Van Oost, G.
363-365, - (2007), s. 484-490 ISSN 0022-3115. [International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/17th./. Hefei, 22.05.2006-26.05. 2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/03/P062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Cross-field transport * Edge plasma * Plasma flow * Tore Supra Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2007
Monte Carlo simulations of the particle transport in semiconductor detectors of fast neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedlačková, Katarína; Zaťko, Bohumír; Šagátová, Andrea; Nečas, Vladimír
2013-01-01
Several Monte Carlo all-particle transport codes are under active development around the world. In this paper we focused on the capabilities of the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) to follow the particle transport in semiconductor detector of fast neutrons. Semiconductor detector based on semi-insulating GaAs was the object of our investigation. As converter material capable to produce charged particles from the (n, p) interaction, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was employed. As the source of fast neutrons, the 239 Pu–Be neutron source was used in the model. The simulations were performed using the MCNPX code which makes possible to track not only neutrons but also recoiled protons at all interesting energies. Hence, the MCNPX code enables seamless particle transport and no other computer program is needed to process the particle transport. The determination of the optimal thickness of the conversion layer and the minimum thickness of the active region of semiconductor detector as well as the energy spectra simulation were the principal goals of the computer modeling. Theoretical detector responses showed that the best detection efficiency can be achieved for 500 μm thick HDPE converter layer. The minimum detector active region thickness has been estimated to be about 400 μm. -- Highlights: ► Application of the MCNPX code for fast neutron detector design is demonstrated. ► Simulations of the particle transport through conversion film of HDPE are presented. ► Simulations of the particle transport through detector active region are presented. ► The optimal thickness of the HDPE conversion film has been calculated. ► Detection efficiency of 0.135% was reached for 500 μm thick HDPE conversion film
Pedretti, D.; Fernàndez-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Benson, D. A.
2014-02-01
Aquifer hydraulic properties such as hydraulic conductivity (K) are ubiquitously heterogeneous and typically only a statistical characterization can be sought. Additionally, statistical anisotropy at typical characterization scales is the rule. Thus, regardless of the processes governing solute transport at the local (pore) scale, transport becomes non-Fickian. Mass-transfer models provide an efficient tool that reproduces observed anomalous transport; in some cases though, these models lack predictability as model parameters cannot readily be connected to the physical properties of aquifers. In this study, we focus on a multirate mass-transfer model (MRMT), and in particular the apparent capacity coefficient (β), which is a strong indicator of the potential of immobile zones to capture moving solute. We aim to find if the choice of an apparent β can be phenomenologically related to measures of statistical anisotropy. We analyzed an ensemble of random simulations of three-dimensional log-transformed multi-Gaussian permeability fields with stationary anisotropic correlation under convergent flow conditions. It was found that apparent β also displays an anisotropic behavior, physically controlled by the aquifer directional connectivity, which in turn is controlled by the anisotropic correlation model. A high hydraulic connectivity results in large β values. These results provide new insights into the practical use of mass-transfer models for predictive purposes.
Particle Transport and Size Sorting in Bubble Microstreaming Flow
Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha
2014-11-01
Ultrasonic driving of sessile semicylindrical bubbles results in powerful steady streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. In a microchannel, this flow field pattern can be fine-tuned to achieve size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles at scales much smaller than the bubble itself; the sorting mechanism has been successfully described based on simple geometrical considerations. We investigate the sorting process in more detail, both experimentally (using new parameter variations that allow greater control over the sorting) and theoretically (incorporating the device geometry as well as the superimposed channel flow into an asymptotic theory). This results in optimized criteria for size sorting and a theoretical description that closely matches the particle behavior close to the bubble, the crucial region for size sorting.
Surface transport and stable trapping of particles and cells by an optical waveguide loop.
Hellesø, Olav Gaute; Løvhaugen, Pål; Subramanian, Ananth Z; Wilkinson, James S; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh
2012-09-21
Waveguide trapping has emerged as a useful technique for parallel and planar transport of particles and biological cells and can be integrated with lab-on-a-chip applications. However, particles trapped on waveguides are continuously propelled forward along the surface of the waveguide. This limits the practical usability of the waveguide trapping technique with other functions (e.g. analysis, imaging) that require particles to be stationary during diagnosis. In this paper, an optical waveguide loop with an intentional gap at the centre is proposed to hold propelled particles and cells. The waveguide acts as a conveyor belt to transport and deliver the particles/cells towards the gap. At the gap, the diverging light fields hold the particles at a fixed position. The proposed waveguide design is numerically studied and experimentally implemented. The optical forces on the particle at the gap are calculated using the finite element method. Experimentally, the method is used to transport and trap micro-particles and red blood cells at the gap with varying separations. The waveguides are only 180 nm thick and thus could be integrated with other functions on the chip, e.g. microfluidics or optical detection, to make an on-chip system for single cell analysis and to study the interaction between cells.
Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa
2014-07-01
The current study developed a coupled computational model to simulate the transient fluid flow, solidification, and particle transport processes in a slab continuous-casting mold. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated using the large eddy simulation. An enthalpy-porosity approach is used for the analysis of solidification processes. The transport of bubble and non-metallic inclusion inside the liquid pool is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. A criterion of particle entrapment in the solidified shell is developed using the user-defined functions of FLUENT software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern inside the liquid pool exhibits quite satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. The predicted complex instantaneous velocity field is composed of various small recirculation zones and multiple vortices. The transport of particles inside the liquid pool and the entrapment of particles in the solidified shell are not symmetric. The Magnus force can reduce the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell, especially for smaller particles, but the effect is not obvious. The Marangoni force can play an important role in controlling the motion of particles, which increases the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell obviously.
Nonlinear mechanisms for drift wave saturation and induced particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimits, A.M.; Lee, W.W.
1989-12-01
A detailed theoretical study of the nonlinear dynamics of gyrokinetic particle simulations of electrostatic collisionless and weakly collisional drift waves is presented. In previous studies it was shown that, in the nonlinearly saturated phase of the evolution, the saturation levels and especially the particle fluxes have an unexpected dependence on collisionality. In this paper, the explanations for these collisionality dependences are found to be as follows: The saturation level is determined by a balance between the electron and ion fluxes. The ion flux is small for levels of the potential below an E x B-trapping threshold and increases sharply once this threshold is crossed. Due to the presence of resonant electrons, the electron flux has a much smoother dependence on the potential. In the 2-1/2-dimensional (''pseudo-3D'') geometry, the electrons are accelerated away from the resonance as they diffuse spatially, resulting in an inhibition of their diffusion. Collisions and three-dimensional effects can repopulate the resonance thereby increasing the value of the particle flux. 30 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs
A deformable particle-in-cell method for advective transport in geodynamic modeling
Samuel, Henri
2018-06-01
This paper presents an improvement of the particle-in-cell method commonly used in geodynamic modeling for solving pure advection of sharply varying fields. Standard particle-in-cell approaches use particle kernels to transfer the information carried by the Lagrangian particles to/from the Eulerian grid. These kernels are generally one-dimensional and non-evolutive, which leads to the development of under- and over-sampling of the spatial domain by the particles. This reduces the accuracy of the solution, and may require the use of a prohibitive amount of particles in order to maintain the solution accuracy to an acceptable level. The new proposed approach relies on the use of deformable kernels that account for the strain history in the vicinity of particles. It results in a significant improvement of the spatial sampling by the particles, leading to a much higher accuracy of the numerical solution, for a reasonable computational extra cost. Various 2D tests were conducted to compare the performances of the deformable particle-in-cell method with the particle-in-cell approach. These consistently show that at comparable accuracy, the deformable particle-in-cell method was found to be four to six times more efficient than standard particle-in-cell approaches. The method could be adapted to 3D space and generalized to cases including motionless transport.
Atmospheric fate and transport of fine volcanic ash: Does particle shape matter?
White, C. M.; Allard, M. P.; Klewicki, J.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Mulukutla, G.; Genareau, K.; Sahagian, D. L.
2013-12-01
Volcanic ash presents hazards to infrastructure, agriculture, and human and animal health. In particular, given the economic importance of intercontinental aviation, understanding how long ash is suspended in the atmosphere, and how far it is transported has taken on greater importance. Airborne ash abrades the exteriors of aircraft, enters modern jet engines and melts while coating interior engine parts causing damage and potential failure. The time fine ash stays in the atmosphere depends on its terminal velocity. Existing models of ash terminal velocities are based on smooth, quasi-spherical particles characterized by Stokes velocity. Ash particles, however, violate the various assumptions upon which Stokes flow and associated models are based. Ash particles are non-spherical and can have complex surface and internal structure. This suggests that particle shape may be one reason that models fail to accurately predict removal rates of fine particles from volcanic ash clouds. The present research seeks to better parameterize predictive models for ash particle terminal velocities, diffusivity, and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer. The fundamental hypothesis being tested is that particle shape irreducibly impacts the fate and transport properties of fine volcanic ash. Pilot studies, incorporating modeling and experiments, are being conducted to test this hypothesis. Specifically, a statistical model has been developed that can account for actual volcanic ash size distributions, complex ash particle geometry, and geometry variability. Experimental results are used to systematically validate and improve the model. The experiments are being conducted at the Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH. Terminal velocities and dispersion properties of fine ash are characterized using still air drop experiments in an unconstrained open space using a homogenized mix of source particles. Dispersion and sedimentation dynamics are quantified using particle image
Particle transport and gas feed during gun injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, T K.
1999-01-01
It is shown that ion and neutral transport during gun injection tends to equalize the density in the spheromak to that in the open-line current channel. Since a gun operating at or near the ion saturation current requires a minimum density, because of transport these gun requirements also determine a minimum density in the spheromak that increases as the field increases. Hence attaining high fields by gun injection sets lower limits on the density, which in turn limits the temperature of the plasma and increases its ohmic resistance. Estimates of these effects are given using 0-D models calibrated to CTX, as guidance to 2-D UEDGE calculations in progress. For gun power levels in SSPX and the Pulsed Spheromak reactor, we find that buildup persists to the highest field levels of interest
Modified Monte Carlo procedure for particle transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthes, W.
1978-01-01
The simulation of photon transport in the atmosphere with the Monte Carlo method forms part of the EURASEP-programme. The specifications for the problems posed for a solution were such, that the direct application of the analogue Monte Carlo method was not feasible. For this reason the standard Monte Carlo procedure was modified in the sense that additional properly weighted branchings at each collision and transport process in a photon history were introduced. This modified Monte Carlo procedure leads to a clear and logical separation of the essential parts of a problem and offers a large flexibility for variance reducing techniques. More complex problems, as foreseen in the EURASEP-programme (e.g. clouds in the atmosphere, rough ocean-surface and chlorophyl-distribution in the ocean) can be handled by recoding some subroutines. This collision- and transport-splitting procedure can of course be performed differently in different space- and energy regions. It is applied here only for a homogeneous problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotiluoto, P.
2007-05-01
A new deterministic three-dimensional neutral and charged particle transport code, MultiTrans, has been developed. In the novel approach, the adaptive tree multigrid technique is used in conjunction with simplified spherical harmonics approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. The development of the new radiation transport code started in the framework of the Finnish boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) project. Since the application of the MultiTrans code to BNCT dose planning problems, the testing and development of the MultiTrans code has continued in conventional radiotherapy and reactor physics applications. In this thesis, an overview of different numerical radiation transport methods is first given. Special features of the simplified spherical harmonics method and the adaptive tree multigrid technique are then reviewed. The usefulness of the new MultiTrans code has been indicated by verifying and validating the code performance for different types of neutral and charged particle transport problems, reported in separate publications. (orig.)
Parallelization of particle transport using Intel® TBB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostolakis, J; Brun, R; Carminati, F; Gheata, A; Wenzel, S; Belogurov, S; Ovcharenko, E
2014-01-01
One of the current challenges in HEP computing is the development of particle propagation algorithms capable of efficiently use all performance aspects of modern computing devices. The Geant-Vector project at CERN has recently introduced an approach in this direction. This paper describes the implementation of a similar workflow using the Intel(r) Threading Building Blocks (Intel(r) TBB) library. This approach is intended to overcome the potential bottleneck of having a single dispatcher on many-core architectures and to result in better scalability compared to the initial pthreads-based version.
Solar Energetic Particle Transport Near a Heliospheric Current Sheet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Battarbee, Markus; Dalla, Silvia [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Marsh, Mike S., E-mail: mbattarbee@uclan.ac.uk [Met Office, Exeter, EX1 3 PB (United Kingdom)
2017-02-10
Solar energetic particles (SEPs), a major component of space weather, propagate through the interplanetary medium strongly guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). In this work, we analyze the implications that a flat Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) has on proton propagation from SEP release sites to the Earth. We simulate proton propagation by integrating fully 3D trajectories near an analytically defined flat current sheet, collecting comprehensive statistics into histograms, fluence maps, and virtual observer time profiles within an energy range of 1–800 MeV. We show that protons experience significant current sheet drift to distant longitudes, causing time profiles to exhibit multiple components, which are a potential source of confusing interpretations of observations. We find that variation of the current sheet thickness within a realistic parameter range has little effect on particle propagation. We show that the IMF configuration strongly affects the deceleration of protons. We show that in our model, the presence of a flat equatorial HCS in the inner heliosphere limits the crossing of protons into the opposite hemisphere.
Ruiz, Maritza
Thermal management of systems under high heat fluxes on the order of hundreds of W/cm2 is important for the safety, performance and lifetime of devices, with innovative cooling technologies leading to improved performance of electronics or concentrating solar photovoltaics. A novel, spiraling radial inflow microchannel heat sink for high flux cooling applications, using a single phase or vaporizing coolant, has demonstrated enhanced heat transfer capabilities. The design of the heat sink provides an inward swirl flow between parallel, coaxial disks that form a microchannel of 1 cm radius and 300 micron channel height with a single inlet and a single outlet. The channel is heated on one side through a conducting copper surface, and is essentially adiabatic on the opposite side to simulate a heat sink scenario for electronics or concentrated photovoltaics cooling. Experimental results on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in the heat sink, using single phase water as a working fluid, revealed heat transfer enhancements due to flow acceleration and induced secondary flows when compared to unidirectional laminar fully developed flow between parallel plates. Additionally, thermal gradients on the surface are small relative to the bulk fluid temperature gain, a beneficial feature for high heat flux cooling applications. Heat flux levels of 113 W/cm2 at a surface temperature of 77 deg C were reached with a ratio of pumping power to heat rate of 0.03%. Analytical models on single phase flow are used to explore the parametric trends of the flow rate and passage geometry on the streamlines and pressure drop through the device. Flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were obtained for this heat sink using water at near atmospheric pressure as the working fluid for inlet subcooling levels ranging from 20 to 80 deg C and mean mass flux levels ranging from 184-716 kg/m. 2s. Flow enhancements similar to singlephase flow were expected, as well
Effects of varying the step particle distribution on a probabilistic transport model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouzat, S.; Farengo, R.
2005-01-01
The consequences of varying the step particle distribution on a probabilistic transport model, which captures the basic features of transport in plasmas and was recently introduced in Ref. 1 [B. Ph. van Milligen et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2272 (2004)], are studied. Different superdiffusive transport mechanisms generated by a family of distributions with algebraic decays (Tsallis distributions) are considered. It is observed that the possibility of changing the superdiffusive transport mechanism improves the flexibility of the model for describing different situations. The use of the model to describe the low (L) and high (H) confinement modes is also analyzed
Modeling particle transport and discoloration risk in drinking water distribution networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. van Summeren
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Discoloration of drinking water is a worldwide phenomenon caused by accumulation and subsequent remobilization of particulate matter in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs. It contributes a substantial fraction of customer complaints to water utilities. Accurate discoloration risk predictions could improve system operation by allowing for more effective programs on cleaning and prevention actions and field measurements, but are challenged by incomplete understanding on the origins and properties of particles and a complex and not fully understood interplay of processes in distribution networks. In this paper, we assess and describe relevant hydraulic processes that govern particle transport in turbulent pipe flow, including gravitational settling, bed-load transport, and particle entrainment into suspension. We assess which transport mechanisms are dominant for a range of bulk flow velocities, particle diameters, and particle mass densities, which includes common conditions for DWDSs in the Netherlands, the UK, and Australia. Our analysis shows that the theoretically predicted particle settling velocity and threshold shear stresses for incipient particle motion are in the same range as, but more variable than, previous estimates from lab experiments, field measurements, and modeling. The presented material will be used in the future development of a numerical modeling tool to determine and predict the spatial distribution of particulate material and discoloration risk in DWDSs. Our approach is aimed at understanding specific causalities and processes, which can complement data-driven approaches.
Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C
2016-01-15
A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.
2011-09-21
The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.
2011-01-01
The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buffa, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-06-15
The effect of a circularly polarized wave on a cylindrical plasma in a axial magnetostatic field and a radial space-charge field proportional to r is studied. Single particle motion is considered. The electrostatic field produces a shift in the cyclotron resonance frequency and,in case of high charge density, a radial movement of the off-resonance particles. In these conditions a radio-frequency-particle resonance is also possible called 'drift-resonance'. The drift resonance can be produced, with whistler mode, and may be employed in ion acceleration. Afterwards parametrical resonances produced by space-charge field oscillations and collisional limits of theory are studied. Cases in which ion acceleration is possible are considered on the basis of a quantitative analysis of results. (author) [French] On etudie l'effet d'une onde polarisee circulairement sur un plasma cylindrique place dans un champ magnetique axial constant, en supposant etre en presence d'un, champ de charge d'espace radial proportionnel a r. L'etude est faite du point de vue de la particule individuelle. Le champ electrostatique deplace la frequence de resonance cyclotron et, dans le cas de forte densite, donne lieu a un mouvement radial des particules qui ne sont pas en resonance. Dans ces champs, il peut aussi se produire une resonance qu'on a appele 'de derive', entre un R.F. et la particule. Cette resonance peut se produire avec le mode siffleur et peut etre utilisee pour l'acceleration des ions. On considere ensuite les resonances parametriques, qui se manifestent lorsque le champ de charge d'espace oscille, et les limites a la theorie posees par les collisions. Une discussion quantitative des resultats fait ressortir les cas dans lesquels on peut accelerer les ions. (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Junichiro; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Miura, Yukitoshi; Kawashima, Hisato.
1997-01-01
The effective divertor heat-load relaxation using ExB induced convective cells in the SOL is studied. The ExB convective cells in the SOL are generated by the toroidally asymmetric divertor biasing, which can control the local plasma potential in the SOL. The preliminary experiment has been done in the JFT-2M tokamak with poloidal divertor. The helical SOL current flows along the magnetic field between the locally biased inboard plate and grounded outer plates, thereby modifying plasma potential in the vicinity of the local divertor current flow. The generation of the poloidal electric field reaching up to 1.5kV/m locally in the SOL and the modification of the heat flux profile on the divertor plate is observed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, G. Q.; Ma, J.; Weiland, J.; Zang, Q.
2013-01-01
We have made the first drift wave study of particle transport in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (Wan et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104011 (2009)). The results reveal that collisions make the particle flux more inward in the high collisionality regime. This can be traced back to effects that are quadratic in the collision frequency. The particle pinch is due to electron trapping which is not very efficient in the high collisionality regime so the approach to equilibrium is slow. We have included also the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode to give the right electron temperature gradient, since the Trapped Electron Mode (TE mode) is weak in this regime. However, at the ETG mode number ions are Boltzmann distributed so the ETG mode does not give particle transport
Physical considerations relevant to HZE-particle transport in matter.
Schimmerling, W
1988-06-01
High-energy, highly charged (HZE) heavy nuclei may seem at first sight to be an exotic type of radiation, only remotely connected with nuclear power generation. On closer examination it becomes evident that heavy-ion accelerators are being seriously considered for driving inertial confinement fusion reactors, and high-energy heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation are likely to place significant constraints on satellite power system deployment and space-based power generation. The use of beams of heavy nuclei in an increasing number of current applications, as well as their importance for the development of the state of the art of the future, makes it necessary to develop at the same time a good understanding of their transport through matter.
Resolving Rapid Variation in Energy for Particle Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haut, Terry Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Ahrens, Cory Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Jonko, Alexandra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Till, Andrew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Lowrie, Robert Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division
2016-08-23
Resolving the rapid variation in energy in neutron and thermal radiation transport is needed for the predictive simulation capability in high-energy density physics applications. Energy variation is difficult to resolve due to rapid variations in cross sections and opacities caused by quantized energy levels in the nuclei and electron clouds. In recent work, we have developed a new technique to simultaneously capture slow and rapid variations in the opacities and the solution using homogenization theory, which is similar to multiband (MB) and to the finite-element with discontiguous support (FEDS) method, but does not require closure information. We demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of the method for a variety of problems. We are researching how to extend the method to problems with multiple materials and the same material but with different temperatures and densities. In this highlight, we briefly describe homogenization theory and some results.
Linear kinetic theory and particle transport in stochastic mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomraning, G.C.
1994-03-01
The primary goal in this research is to develop a comprehensive theory of linear transport/kinetic theory in a stochastic mixture of solids and immiscible fluids. The statistics considered correspond to N-state discrete random variables for the interaction coefficients and sources, with N denoting the number of components of the mixture. The mixing statistics studied are Markovian as well as more general statistics, such as renewal processes. A further goal of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of the formalism to real world engineering problems. This three year program was initiated June 15, 1993 and has been underway nine months. Many significant results have been obtained, both in the formalism development and in representative applications. These results are summarized by listing the archival publications resulting from this grant, including the abstracts taken directly from the papers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jian-Hua.
1990-01-01
Carbon impurity ion transport is studied in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT), using a carbon tipped probe which is inserted into the plasma (n e ∼ 1 - 5 x 10 14 (cm -3 ), T e ∼ 4 - 10 (eV), B t ∼ 0.2 - 0.4(T)). Carbon impurity light, mainly the strong lines of C II (4267A, emitted by the C + ions) and C III (4647A, emitted by the C ++ ions), is formed by the ablation or sputtering of plasma ions and by the discharge of the carbon probe itself. The diffusion transport of the carbon ions is modeled by measuring the space-and-time dependent spectral light emission of the carbon ions with a collimated optical beam and photomultiplier. The point of emission can be observed in such a way as to sample regions along and transverse to the toroidal magnetic field. The carbon ion diffusion coefficients are obtained by fitting the data to a diffusion transport model. It is found that the diffusion of the carbon ions is ''classical'' and is controlled by the high collisionality of the HBT plasma; the diffusion is a two-dimensional problem and the expected dependence on the charge of the impurity ion is observed. The measurement of the spatial distribution of the H α emissivity was obtained by inverting the light signals from a 4-channel polychromator, the data were used to calculate the minor-radial influx, the density, and the recycling time of neutral hydrogen atoms or molecules. The calculation shows that the particle recycling time τ p is comparable with the plasma energy confinement time τ E ; therefore, the recycling of the hot plasma ions with the cold neutrals from the walls is one of the main mechanisms for loss of plasma energy
Modeling the solute transport by particle-tracing method with variable weights
Jiang, J.
2016-12-01
Particle-tracing method is usually used to simulate the solute transport in fracture media. In this method, the concentration at one point is proportional to number of particles visiting this point. However, this method is rather inefficient at the points with small concentration. Few particles visit these points, which leads to violent oscillation or gives zero value of concentration. In this paper, we proposed a particle-tracing method with variable weights. The concentration at one point is proportional to the sum of the weights of the particles visiting it. It adjusts the weight factors during simulations according to the estimated probabilities of corresponding walks. If the weight W of a tracking particle is larger than the relative concentration C at the corresponding site, the tracking particle will be splitted into Int(W/C) copies and each copy will be simulated independently with the weight W/Int(W/C) . If the weight W of a tracking particle is less than the relative concentration C at the corresponding site, the tracking particle will be continually tracked with a probability W/C and the weight will be adjusted to be C. By adjusting weights, the number of visiting particles distributes evenly in the whole range. Through this variable weights scheme, we can eliminate the violent oscillation and increase the accuracy of orders of magnitudes.
Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro
2001-01-01
This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.
Modeling of Particle Transport on Channels and Gaps Exposed to Plasma Fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieto-Perez, Martin
2008-01-01
Many problems in particle transport in fusion devices involve the transport of plasma or eroded particles through channels or gaps, such as in the case of trying to assess damage to delicate optical diagnostics collecting light through a slit or determining the deposition and codeposition on the gaps between tiles of plasma-facing components. A dynamic-composition Monte Carlo code in the spirit of TRIDYN, previously developed to study composition changes on optical mirrors subject to ion bombardment, has been upgraded to include motion of particles through a volume defined by sets of plane surfaces. Particles sputtered or reflected from the walls of the channel/gap can be tracked as well, allowing the calculation of wall impurity transport, either back to the plasma (for the case of a gap) or to components separated from the plasma by a channel/slit (for the case of optical diagnostics). Two examples of the code application to particle transport in fusion devices will be presented in this work: one will evaluate the erosion/impurity deposition rate on a mirror separated from a plasma source by a slit; the other case will look at the enhanced emission of tile material in the region of the gap between two tiles
Design of sampling tools for Monte Carlo particle transport code JMCT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shangguan Danhua; Li Gang; Zhang Baoyin; Deng Li
2012-01-01
A class of sampling tools for general Monte Carlo particle transport code JMCT is designed. Two ways are provided to sample from distributions. One is the utilization of special sampling methods for special distribution; the other is the utilization of general sampling methods for arbitrary discrete distribution and one-dimensional continuous distribution on a finite interval. Some open source codes are included in the general sampling method for the maximum convenience of users. The sampling results show sampling correctly from distribution which are popular in particle transport can be achieved with these tools, and the user's convenience can be assured. (authors)
Particle transport analysis in lower hybrid current drive discharges of JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagashima, K.; Ide, S.; Naito, O.
1996-01-01
Particle transport is modified in lower hybrid current drive discharges of JT-60U. The density profile becomes broad during the lower hybrid wave injection and the profile change depends on the injected wave spectrum. Particle transport coefficients (diffusion coefficient and profile peaking factor) were evaluated using gas-puff modulation experiments. The diffusion coefficient in the current drive discharges is about three times larger than in the ohmic discharges. The profile peaking factor decreases in the current drive discharges and the evaluated values are consistent with the measured density profiles. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchajkin, V.V.
1977-01-01
The two-dimensional functional is used to show that the mathematical expectation of symmetrical functionals may be represented as a nonlinear functional obtained from the solution of the Boltzman equations (Green's function). For the highest moments of additive detector readings, which are a particular case of symmetrical functionals, a similar result was obtained by the author previously when he studied particles transport with and without multiplication. In physical terms such a concept is conditioned by the absence of moving particles with one another, the assumption of which is the basis of the linear transport theory
Particle modeling of transport of α-ray generated ion clusters in air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong, Lizhu; Nanbu, Kenichi; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi
2006-01-01
A particle model is developed using the test-particle Monte Carlo method to study the transport properties of α-ray generated ion clusters in a flow of air. An efficient ion-molecule collision model is proposed to simulate the collisions between ion and air molecule. The simulations are performed for a steady state of ion transport in a circular pipe. In the steady state, generation of ions is balanced with such losses of ions as absorption of the measuring sensor or pipe wall and disappearance by positive-negative ion recombination. The calculated ion current to the measuring sensor agrees well with the previous measured data. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: By invoking physically motivated coordinate transformation into quantum Smoluchowski equation, we have presented a transparent treatment for the determination of the effective diffusion coefficient and current of a quantum Brownian particle. Substantial enhancement in the efficiency of the diffusive transport is envisaged due to the quantum correction effects. Highlights:: ► Transport of a quantum Brownian particle in a periodic potential has been addressed. ► Governing quantum Smoluchowski equation (QSE) includes state dependent diffusion. ► A coordinate transformation is used to recast QSE with constant diffusion. ► Transport properties increases in comparison to the corresponding classical result. ► This enhancement is purely a quantum effect. - Abstract: The transport property of a quantum Brownian particle that interacts strongly with a bath (in which a typical damping constant by far exceeds a characteristic frequency of the isolated system) under the influence of a tilted periodic potential has been studied by solving quantum Smoluchowski equation (QSE). By invoking physically motivated coordinate transformation into QSE, we have presented a transparent treatment for the determination of the effective diffusion coefficient of a quantum Brownian particle and the current (the average stationary velocity). Substantial enhancement in the efficiency of the diffusive transport is envisaged due to the quantum correction effects only if the bath temperature hovers around an appropriate range of intermediate values. Our findings also confirm the results obtained in the classical cases.
SWAN-PPL, Fusion Reactor 1-D Particle Transport Optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, P.; Greenspan, E.
1989-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: Given the material density profiles which describe a one-dimensional reference system with a neutron source, SWAN will calculate, and optionally implement, density changes so as to optimize a single functional parameter of the system. 2 - Method of solution: The one-dimensional discrete-ordinate transport code ANISN is used to calculate flux and adjoint distributions for specified sources. The code SWIF calculates first-order estimates of the effect of material density changes on a goal functional, and from these evaluates effectiveness functions for the substitution of one material for another. Density distribution changes are then calculated which would optimize the goal functional, optionally subject to a constraint of holding another functional constant (to first order). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: SWAN is not designed to analyze critical systems; it assumes that there is a fixed source, as in shielding or fusion reactor applications. Otherwise it is compatible with ANISN. All arrays are variably-dimensioned, so that there are no restrictions on individual dimensions
Mechanism and Kinetics of the Formation and Transport of Aerosol Particles in the Lower Stratosphere
Aloyan, A. E.; Ermakov, A. N.; Arutyunyan, V. O.
2018-03-01
Field and laboratory observation data on aerosol particles in the lower stratosphere are considered. The microphysics of their formation, mechanisms of heterogeneous chemical reactions involving reservoir gases (e.g., HCl, ClONO2, etc.) and their kinetic characteristics are analyzed. A new model of global transport of gaseous and aerosol admixtures in the lower stratosphere is described. The preliminary results from a numerical simulation of the formation of sulfate particles of the Junge layer and particles of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs, types Ia, Ib, and II) are presented, and their effect on the gas and aerosol composition is analyzed.
210Pb and 210Po as tracers of particle transport mechanisms on continental margins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S.; Biscaye, P.; Abassi, A.
1997-01-01
The natural radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb, members of the 238 U decay chain, are particularly helpful to the understanding of particle transport processes in the ocean. These isotopes were analysed on sediment trap particles collected during 3 one-year experiments on continental margins. In the Bay of Biscay (Northeastern Atlantic) and in the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) both as part of the French ECOMARGE programme, and in the Middle Atlantic Bight (Northwestern Atlantic) as part of the SEEP programme. They yielded great insights into scenarios of particle transfer at each site, mainly based on the spatial and temporal distribution of 210 Pb particulate concentrations and fluxes. (author)
Coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations for high-field electron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lei, X. L.
2008-01-01
It is pointed out that in the framework of balance-equation approach, the coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations can be used as a complete set of equations to determine the high-field transport of semiconductors in both strong and weak electron-electron interaction limits. We call to attention that the occupation rate equation conserves the total particle number and maintains the energy balance of the relative electron system, and there is no need to introduce any other term in it. The addition of an energy-drift term in the particle-occupation rate equation [Phys. Rev. B 71, 195205 (2005)] is physically inadequate for the violation of the total particle-number conservation and the energy balance. It may lead to a substantial unphysical increase of the total particle number by the application of a dc electric field
Transport and selective chaining of bidisperse particles in a travelling wave potential.
Tierno, Pietro; Straube, Arthur V
2016-05-01
We combine experiments, theory and numerical simulation to investigate the dynamics of a binary suspension of paramagnetic colloidal particles dispersed in water and transported above a stripe-patterned magnetic garnet film. The substrate generates a one-dimensional periodic energy landscape above its surface. The application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field causes the landscape to translate, inducing direct transport of paramagnetic particles placed above the film. The ellipticity of the applied field can be used to control and tune the interparticle interactions, from net repulsive to net attractive. When considering particles of two distinct sizes, we find that, depending on their elevation above the surface of the magnetic substrate, the particles feel effectively different potentials, resulting in different mobilities. We exploit this feature to induce selective chaining for certain values of the applied field parameters. In particular, when driving two types of particles, we force only one type to condense into travelling parallel chains. These chains confine the movement of the other non-chaining particles within narrow colloidal channels. This phenomenon is explained by considering the balance of pairwise magnetic forces between the particles and their individual coupling with the travelling landscape.
China, Swarup; Alpert, Peter A.; Zhang, Bo; Schum, Simeon; Dzepina, Katja; Wright, Kendra; Owen, R. Chris; Fialho, Paulo; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Knopf, Daniel A.
2017-03-01
Long-range transported free tropospheric particles can play a significant role on heterogeneous ice nucleation. Using optical and electron microscopy we examine the physicochemical characteristics of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Particles were collected on substrates from the free troposphere at the remote Pico Mountain Observatory in the Azores Islands, after long-range transport and aging over the Atlantic Ocean. We investigate four specific events to study the ice formation potential by the collected particles with different ages and transport patterns. We use single-particle analysis, as well as bulk analysis to characterize particle populations. Both analyses show substantial differences in particle composition between samples from the four events; in addition, single-particle microscopy analysis indicates that most particles are coated by organic material. The identified INPs contained mixtures of dust, aged sea salt and soot, and organic material acquired either at the source or during transport. The temperature and relative humidity (RH) at which ice formed, varied only by 5% between samples, despite differences in particle composition, sources, and transport patterns. We hypothesize that this small variation in the onset RH may be due to the coating material on the particles. This study underscores and motivates the need to further investigate how long-range transported and atmospherically aged free tropospheric particles impact ice cloud formation.
Turbulence simulations of blob formation and radial propagation in toroidally magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2006-01-01
the presence of long- range correlations in the particle density fluctuations. Finally, conditional statistics of the particle flux demonstrates the intermittency of the turbulent plasma transport and the quasi-periodic apparency of blob structures due to bursting in the global turbulence level....... of particles and heat, which is coupled to a scrape-off layer with linear damping terms for all dependent variables corresponding to transport along open magnetic field lines. The formation of blob structures is related to profile variations caused by bursting in the global turbulence level, which is due...... to a dynamical regulation by self- sustained differential rotation of the plasma layer. Radial propagation of the blob structures follows from a vertical charge polarization due to magnetic guiding centre drifts in the toroidally magnetized plasma. Statistical analysis of the particle density, radial electric...
Nourani, Vahid; Mousavi, Shahram; Dabrowska, Dominika; Sadikoglu, Fahreddin
2017-05-01
As an innovation, both black box and physical-based models were incorporated into simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Time series of groundwater level (GL) and chloride concentration (CC) observed at different piezometers of study plain were firstly de-noised by the wavelet-based de-noising approach. The effect of de-noised data on the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was evaluated. Wavelet transform coherence was employed for spatial clustering of piezometers. Then for each cluster, ANN and ANFIS models were trained to predict GL and CC values. Finally, considering the predicted water heads of piezometers as interior conditions, the radial basis function as a meshless method which solves partial differential equations of GFCT, was used to estimate GL and CC values at any point within the plain where there is not any piezometer. Results indicated that efficiency of ANFIS based spatiotemporal model was more than ANN based model up to 13%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Dröge, W. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Gedalin, M. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion Unversity of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)
2016-03-20
We use numerical solutions of the focused transport equation obtained by an implicit stochastic differential equation scheme to study the evolution of the pitch-angle dependent distribution function of protons in the vicinity of shock waves. For a planar stationary parallel shock, the effects of anisotropic distribution functions, pitch-angle dependent spatial diffusion, and first-order Fermi acceleration at the shock are examined, including the timescales on which the energy spectrum approaches the predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory. We then consider the case that a flare-accelerated population of ions is released close to the Sun simultaneously with a traveling interplanetary shock for which we assume a simplified geometry. We investigate the consequences of adiabatic focusing in the diverging magnetic field on the particle transport at the shock, and of the competing effects of acceleration at the shock and adiabatic energy losses in the expanding solar wind. We analyze the resulting intensities, anisotropies, and energy spectra as a function of time and find that our simulations can naturally reproduce the morphologies of so-called mixed particle events in which sometimes the prompt and sometimes the shock component is more prominent, by assuming parameter values which are typically observed for scattering mean free paths of ions in the inner heliosphere and energy spectra of the flare particles which are injected simultaneously with the release of the shock.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayaraju, S.T.; Sathiah, P.; Roelofs, F.; Dehbi, A.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Near-wall modeling uncertainties in the RANS particle transport and deposition are addressed in a turbulent duct flow. • Discrete Random Walk (DRW) model and Continuous Random Walk (CRW) model performances are tested. • Several near-wall anisotropic model accuracy is assessed. • Numerous sensitivity studies are performed to recommend a robust, well-validated near-wall model for accurate particle deposition predictions. - Abstract: Dust accumulation in the primary system of a (V)HTR is identified as one of the foremost concerns during a potential accident. Several numerical efforts have focused on the use of RANS methodology to better understand the complex phenomena of fluid–particle interaction at various flow conditions. In the present work, several uncertainties relating to the near-wall modeling of particle transport and deposition are addressed for the RANS approach. The validation analyses are performed in a fully developed turbulent duct flow setup. A standard k − ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment is used for modeling the turbulence. For the Lagrangian phase, the performance of a continuous random walk (CRW) model and a discrete random walk (DRW) model for the particle transport and deposition are assessed. For wall bounded flows, it is generally seen that accounting for near wall anisotropy is important to accurately predict particle deposition. The various near-wall correlations available in the literature are either derived from the DNS data or from the experimental data. A thorough investigation into various near-wall correlations and their applicability for accurate particle deposition predictions are assessed. The main outcome of the present work is a well validated turbulence model with optimal near-wall modeling which provides realistic particle deposition predictions
Frank, Donya; Calantoni, Joseph
2017-05-01
Improved understanding of coastal hydrodynamics and morphology will lead to more effective mitigation measures that reduce fatalities and property damage caused by natural disasters such as hurricanes. We investigated sediment transport under oscillatory flow over flat and rippled beds with phase-separated stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Standard PIV techniques severely limit measurements at the fluid-sediment interface and do not allow for the observation of separate phases in multi-phase flow (e.g. sand grains in water). We have implemented phase-separated Particle Image Velocimetry by adding fluorescent tracer particles to the fluid in order to observe fluid flow and sediment transport simultaneously. While sand grains scatter 532 nm wavelength laser light, the fluorescent particles absorb 532 nm laser light and re-emit light at a wavelength of 584 nm. Optical long-pass filters with a cut-on wavelength of 550 nm were installed on two cameras configured to perform stereoscopic PIV to capture only the light emitted by the fluorescent tracer particles. A third high-speed camera was used to capture the light scattered by the sand grains allowing for sediment particle tracking via particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). Together, these overlapping, simultaneously recorded images provided sediment particle and fluid velocities at high temporal and spatial resolution (100 Hz sampling with 0.8 mm vector spacing for the 2D-3C fluid velocity field). Measurements were made under a wide range of oscillatory flows over flat and rippled sand beds. The set of observations allow for the investigation of the relative importance of pressure gradients and shear stresses on sediment transport.
Selective transport of Fe(III) using ionic imprinted polymer (IIP) membrane particle
Djunaidi, Muhammad Cholid; Jumina, Siswanta, Dwi; Ulbricht, Mathias
2015-12-01
The membrane particles was prepared from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polymer IIP with weight ratios of 1: 2 and 1: 1 using different adsorbent templates and casting thickness. The permeability of membrane towards Fe(III) and also mecanism of transport were studied. The selectivity of the membrane for Fe(III) was studied by performing adsorption experiments also with Cr(III) separately. In this study, the preparation of Ionic Imprinted Polymer (IIP) membrane particles for selective transport of Fe (III) had been done using polyeugenol as functional polymer. Polyeugenol was then imprinted with Fe (III) and then crosslinked with PEGDE under alkaline condition to produce polyeugenol-Fe-PEGDE polymer aggregates. The agrregates was then crushed and sieved using mesh size of 80 and the powder was then used to prepare the membrane particles by mixing it with PVA (Mr 125,000) solution in 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent. The membrane was obtained after casting at a speed of 25 m/s and soaking in NaOH solution overnight. The membrane sheet was then cut and Fe(III) was removed by acid to produce IIP membrane particles. Analysis of the membrane and its constituent was done by XRD, SEM and size selectivity test. Experimental results showed the transport of Fe(III) was faster with the decrease of membrane thickness, while the higher concentration of template ion correlates with higher Fe(III) being transported. However, the transport of Fe(III) was slower for higher concentration of PVA in the membrane. IImparticles works through retarded permeation mechanism, where Fe(III) was bind to the active side of IIP. The active side of IIP membrane was dominated by the -OH groups. The selectivity of all IIP membranes was confirmed as they were all unable to transport Cr (III), while NIP (Non-imprinted Polymer) membrane was able transport Cr (III).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z; Rewoldt, G; Ethier, S; Hahm, T S; Lee, W W; Lewandowski, J L V; Nishimura, Y; Wang, W X
2005-01-01
Recent progress in gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of turbulent plasmas using the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) is surveyed. In particular, recent results for electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes and their resulting transport are presented. Also, turbulence spreading, and the effects of the parallel nonlinearity, are described. The GTC code has also been generalized for non-circular plasma cross-section, and initial results are presented. In addition, two distinct methods of generalizing the GTC code to be electromagnetic are described, along with preliminary results. Finally, a related code, GTC-Neo, for calculating neoclassical fluxes, electric fields, and velocities, are described
Monte Carlo particle simulation and finite-element techniques for tandem mirror transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rognlien, T.D.; Cohen, B.I.; Matsuda, Y.; Stewart, J.J. Jr.
1987-01-01
A description is given of numerical methods used in the study of axial transport in tandem mirrors owing to Coulomb collisions and rf diffusion. The methods are Monte Carlo particle simulations and direct solution to the Fokker-Planck equations by finite-element expansion. (author)
TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS
TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...
Two analytic transport equation solutions for particular cases of particle history
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simovic, R.
1997-01-01
For anisotropic scattering and plane geometry, the linear transport equation of particles generated by a monodirectional unit source A(x,μ) = δ(x-0)δ(μ - μ 0 ) > 0, can be stated in the form of an integral equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, Edward Jr.; Williams, Jeremiah D.; Silver, Jennifer
2004-01-01
Over the past 5 years, two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques [E. Thomas, Jr., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2672 (1999)] have been used to obtain detailed measurements of microparticle transport in dusty plasmas. This Letter reports on an extension of these techniques to a three-dimensional velocity vector measurement approach using stereoscopic PIV. Initial measurements using the stereoscopic PIV diagnostic are presented
Monte Carlo particle simulation and finite-element techniques for tandem mirror transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rognlien, T.D.; Cohen, B.I.; Matsuda, Y.; Stewart, J.J. Jr.
1985-12-01
A description is given of numerical methods used in the study of axial transport in tandem mirrors owing to Coulomb collisions and rf diffusion. The methods are Monte Carlo particle simulations and direct solution to the Fokker-Planck equations by finite-element expansion. 11 refs
Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, S; Bandyopadhyay, P
2016-05-01
A versatile linear dusty (complex) plasma device is designed to study the transport and dynamical behavior of dust particles in a large volume. Diffused inductively coupled plasma is generated in the background of argon gas. A novel technique is used to introduce the dust particles in the main plasma by striking a secondary direct current glow discharge. These dust particles are found to get trapped in an electrostatic potential well, which is formed due to the combination of the ambipolar electric field caused by diffusive plasma and the field produced by the charged glass wall of the vacuum chamber. According to the requirements, the volume of the dust cloud can be controlled very precisely by tuning the plasma and discharge parameters. The present device can be used to address the underlying physics behind the transport of dust particles, self-excited dust acoustic waves, and instabilities. The detailed design of this device, plasma production and characterization, trapping and transport of the dust particle, and some of the preliminary experimental results are presented.
Chain segmentation for the Monte Carlo solution of particle transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragheb, M.M.H.
1984-01-01
A Monte Carlo approach is proposed where the random walk chains generated in particle transport simulations are segmented. Forward and adjoint-mode estimators are then used in conjunction with the firstevent source density on the segmented chains to obtain multiple estimates of the individual terms of the Neumann series solution at each collision point. The solution is then constructed by summation of the series. The approach is compared to the exact analytical and to the Monte Carlo nonabsorption weighting method results for two representative slowing down and deep penetration problems. Application of the proposed approach leads to unbiased estimates for limited numbers of particle simulations and is useful in suppressing an effective bias problem observed in some cases of deep penetration particle transport problems
Neutral particle transport modeling with a reflective source in the plasma edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valenti, M.E.
1992-01-01
A reflective source term is incorporated into the Boltzmann neutral particle transport equation to account for boundary reflection. This reflective neutral model is integrated over a uniform axis and subsequently discretized. The discrete two-dimensional equations are solved iteratively with a computer code. The results of the reflective neutral model computer code are benchmarked with the neutral particle transport code ONEDANT. The benchmark process demonstrates the validity of the reflective neutral model. The reflective neutral model is coupled to the Braams plasma particle and energy transport code. The coupled system generates self-consistent plasma edge transport solutions. These solutions, which utilize the transport equation are similar to solutions which utilize simple plasma edge neutral models when high recycle divertors are modeled. In the high recycle mode, the high electron density at the divertor plate reduces the mean free path of plate neutrals. Hence, the similarity in results. It is concluded that simple neutral models are sufficient for the analysis of high recycle power reactor edge plasmas. Low recycle edge plasmas were not examined
Coupling fine particle and bedload transport in gravel-bedded streams
Park, Jungsu; Hunt, James R.
2017-09-01
Fine particles in the silt- and clay-size range are important determinants of surface water quality. Since fine particle loading rates are not unique functions of stream discharge this limits the utility of the available models for water quality assessment. Data from 38 minimally developed watersheds within the United States Geological Survey stream gauging network in California, USA reveal three lines of evidence that fine particle release is coupled with bedload transport. First, there is a transition in fine particle loading rate as a function of discharge for gravel-bedded sediments that does not appear when the sediment bed is composed of sand, cobbles, boulders, or bedrock. Second, the discharge at the transition in the loading rate is correlated with the initiation of gravel mobilization. Third, high frequency particle concentration and discharge data are dominated by clockwise hysteresis where rising limb discharges generally have higher concentrations than falling limb discharges. These three observations across multiple watersheds lead to a conceptual model that fine particles accumulate within the sediment bed at discharges less than the transition and then the gravel bed fluidizes with fine particle release at discharges above the transition discharge. While these observations were individually recognized in the literature, this analysis provides a consistent conceptual model based on the coupling of fine particle dynamics with filtration at low discharges and gravel bed fluidization at higher discharges.
Momentum, heat, and mass transfer analogy for vertical hydraulic transport of inert particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaćimovski Darko R.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer in vertical liquid-solids flow, as well as in single phase flow, were studied. The aim of this investigation was to establish the analogy among those phenomena. Also, effect of particles concentration on momentum, heat and mass transfer was studied. The experiments in hydraulic transport were performed in a 25.4 mm I.D. cooper tube equipped with a steam jacket, using spherical glass particles of 1.94 mm in diameter and water as a transport fluid. The segment of the transport tube used for mass transfer measurements was inside coated with benzoic acid. In the hydraulic transport two characteristic flow regimes were observed: turbulent and parallel particle flow regime. The transition between two characteristic regimes (γ*=0, occurs at a critical voidage ε≈0.85. The vertical two-phase flow was considered as the pseudofluid, and modified mixture-wall friction coefficient (fw and modified mixture Reynolds number (Rem were introduced for explanation of this system. Experimental data show that the wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer coefficients, in vertical flow of pseudofluid, for the turbulent regime are significantly higher than in parallel regime. Wall-to-bed, mass and heat transfer coefficients in hydraulic transport of particles were much higher then in single-phase flow for lower Reynolds numbers (Re15000, there was not significant difference. The experimental data for wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer in vertical flow of pseudofluid in parallel particle flow regime, show existing analogy among these three phenomena. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172022
Actinide transport in Topopah Spring Tuff: Pore size, particle size, and diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchholtz ten Brink, M.; Phinney, D.L.; Smith, D.K.
1991-04-01
Diffusive transport rates for aqueous species in a porous medium are a function of sorption, molecular diffusion, and sample tortuosity. With heterogeneous natural samples, an understanding of the effect of multiple transport paths and sorption mechanisms is particularly important since a small amount of radioisotope traveling via a faster-than-anticipated transport path may invalidate the predictions of transport codes which assume average behavior. Static-diffusion experiments using aqueous 238 U tracer in tuff indicated that U transport was faster in regions of greater porosity and that apparent diffusion coefficients depended on the scale (m or μm) over which concentration gradients were measured in Topopah Spring Tuff. If a significant fraction of actinides in high-level waste are released to the environment in forms that do not sorb to the matrix, they may be similarly transported along fast paths in porous regions of the tuff. To test this, aqueous diffusion rates in tuff were measured for 238 U and 239 Pu leached from doped glass. Measured transport rates and patterns were consistent in both systems with a dual-porosity transported moeld. In addition, filtration or channelling of actinides associated with colloidal particles may significantly affect the radionuclide transport rate in Topopah Spring tuff. 9 refs., 7 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Long Ma
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We studied sediment cores from Sayram Lake in the Tianshan Mountains of northwest China to evaluate variations in aeolian transport processes over the past ~150 years. Using an end-member modeling algorithm of particle size data, we interpreted end members with a strong bimodal distribution as having been transported by aeolian processes, whereas other end members were interpreted to have been transported by fluvial processes. The aeolian fraction accounted for an average of 27% of the terrigenous components in the core. We used the ratio of aeolian to fluvial content in the Sayram Lake sediments as an index of past intensity of aeolian transport in the Tianshan Mountains. During the interval 1910-1930, the index was high, reflecting the fact that dry climate provided optimal conditions for aeolian dust transport. From 1930-1980, the intensity of aeolian transport was weak. From the 1980s to the 2000s, aeolian transport to Sayram Lake increased. Although climate in northwest China became more humid in the mid-1980s, human activity had by that time altered the impact of climate on the landscape, leading to enhanced surface erosion, which provided more transportable material for dust storms. Comparison of the Lake Sayram sediment record with sediment records from other lakes in the region indicates synchronous intervals of enhanced aeolian transport from 1910 to 1930 and 1980 to 2000.
TRANSPORT: a computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F.; Carey, D.C.; Iselin, C.
1977-05-01
TRANSPORT is a first- and second-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. It has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version, described in the manual given, includes both first- and second-order fitting capabilities. TRANSPORT will step through the beam line, element by element, calculating the properties of the beam or other quantities, described below, where requested. Therefore one of the first elements is a specification of the phase space region occupied by the beam entering the system. Magnets and intervening spaces and other elements then follow in the sequence in which they occur in the beam line. Specifications of calculations to be done or of configurations other than normal are placed in the same sequence, at the point where their effect is to be made
Neuropathy - radial nerve; Radial nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the radial nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Eiler, J. M.
2010-01-01
We have acquired NanoSIMS images of the matrices of CI, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites to study, in situ, the organic matter trapped during the formation of their parent bodies. D/H ratio images reveal the occurrence of D-rich hot spots, constituting isolated organic particles. Not all the organic particles are D-rich hot spots, indicating that at least two kinds of organic particles have been accreted in the parent bodies. Ratio profiles through D-rich hot spots indicate that no significant self-diffusion of deuterium occurs between the D-rich organic matter and the depleted hydrous minerals that are surrounding them. This is not the result of a physical shielding by any constituent of the chondrites. Ab initio calculations indicate that it cannot be explained by isotopic equilibrium. Then it appears that the organic matter that is extremely enriched in D does not exchange with the hydrous minerals, or this exchange is so slow that it is not significant over the 4.5 billion year history on the parent body. If we consider that the D-rich hot spots are the result of an exposure to intense irradiation, then it appears that carbonaceous chondrites accreted organic particles that have been brought to different regions of the solar nebula. This is likely the result of important radial and vertical transport in the early solar system.
Monoenergetic particle transport in a semi-infinite medium with reflection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, B.D.
1993-01-01
Next to neutron or photon transport in infinite geometry, particle transport in semi-infinite geometry is probably the most investigated transport problem. When the mean free path for particle interaction is small compared to the physical dimension of the scattering medium, the infinite or semi-infinite geometry assumption is reasonable for a variety of applications. These include nondestructive testing, photon transport in plant canopies, and inverse problems associated with well logging. Another important application of the transport solution in a semi-infinite medium is as a benchmark to which other more approximate methods can be compared. In this paper, the transport solution in a semi-infinite medium with both diffuse and specular reflection at the free surface is solved analytically and numerically evaluated. The approach is based on a little-known solution obtained by Sobelev for the problem with specular reflection, which itself originates from the classical albedo problem solution without reflection. Using Sobelev's solution as a partial Green's function, the exiting flux for diffuse reflection can be obtained. In this way, the exiting flux for a half-space with both constant diffuse and specular reflection coefficients is obtained for the first time. This expression can then be extended to the complex plane to obtain the interior flux as an inverse Laplace transform, which is numerically evaluated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faure, M.H.
1994-01-01
This work deals with the radiation protection of high-level and long-life radioactive waste storages. The colloids presence in ground waters can accelerate the radionuclides migration in natural geological deposits. The aim of this thesis is then to control particularly the particles motion in porous medium in order to anticipate quantitatively their migration. Liquid chromatography columns are filled with a clayey sand and fed with a decreasing concentration sodium chloride solution in order to study the particles outlet under a salinity gradient. When the porous medium undergoes a decrease of salinity it deteriorates. The adsorption of the cations : sodium 22, calcium 45, cesium 137 and neptunium 237 is then studied by the ions exchange method. The radionuclide solution is injected before the decrease of the feed solution salinity. The decrease of the sodium chloride concentration leads to the decrease of the radionuclides concentration because the adsorption competition between the sodium ion and the injected cation is lower. The particles transport, without fouling of the porous medium, is carried out in particular physical and chemical conditions which are described. (O.L.). 71 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs
Modeling particle-facilitated solute transport using the C-Ride module of HYDRUS
Simunek, Jiri; Bradford, Scott A.
2017-04-01
Strongly sorbing chemicals (e.g., heavy metals, radionuclides, pharmaceuticals, and/or explosives) in soils are associated predominantly with the solid phase, which is commonly assumed to be stationary. However, recent field- and laboratory-scale observations have shown that, in the presence of mobile colloidal particles (e.g., microbes, humic substances, clays and metal oxides), the colloids could act as pollutant carriers and thus provide a rapid transport pathway for strongly sorbing contaminants. Such transport can be further accelerated since these colloidal particles may travel through interconnected larger pores where the water velocity is relatively high. Additionally, colloidal particles have a considerable adsorption capacity for other species present in water because of their large specific surface areas and their high concentrations in soil-water and groundwater. As a result, the transport of contaminants can be significantly, sometimes dramatically, enhanced when they are adsorbed to mobile colloids. To address this problem, we have developed the C-Ride module for HYDRUS-1D. This one-dimensional numerical module is based on the HYDRUS-1D software package and incorporates mechanisms associated with colloid and colloid-facilitated solute transport in variably saturated porous media. This numerical model accounts for both colloid and solute movement due to convection, diffusion, and dispersion in variably-saturated soils, as well as for solute movement facilitated by colloid transport. The colloids transport module additionally considers processes of attachment/detachment to/from the solid phase, straining, and/or size exclusion. Various blocking and depth dependent functions can be used to modify the attachment and straining coefficients. The module additionally considers the effects of changes in the water content on colloid/bacteria transport and attachment/detachment to/from solid-water and air-water interfaces. For example, when the air
Advances in Field Deployable Instrumented Particles for the Study of Alluvial Transport Mechanisms
Dillon, B.; Strom, K.
2017-12-01
Advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) in the past decade have lead to the development of various instrumented or "smart" particles for use in the study of alluvial transport. The goal of many of these devices is to collect data on the interaction between hydrodynamic turbulence and individual sediment particles. Studying this interaction provides a basis to better understand entrainment and deposition processes which leads to better predictive morphologic and transport models. In collecting data on these processes, researchers seek to capture the time history of the forces incident on the particle and the particle's reaction. Many methods have been employed to capture this data - miniaturized pressure traps, accelerometers, gyroscopes, MEMs pressure transducers, and cantilevered load cells. However no system to date has been able to capture the pressure forces incident on the particle and its reaction while remaining mobile and of a size and density comparable to most gravels. Advances in the development, deployment, and use of waterproofed laboratory instrumentation have led our research group to develop such a particle. This particle has been used in both laboratory settings and large-scale fluvial environments (coupled with a field-deployable PIV system) to capture data on turbulent erosion processes. This system advances the practice in several ways: 1) It is, at present, the smallest (⌀ 19mm) instrumented erodible particle reported in the literature. 2) It contains novel developments in pressure sensing technology which allow the inclusion of six pressure ports, a 3-axis accelerometer, and a 1-axis gyroscope - all of which can be recorded simultaneously. 3) It expands the researcher's abilities to gather data on phenomena that, previously, have mandated the use of a laboratory scale model. The use of this system has generated observations of the so-called very large scale motions (VLSMs) in a reach of the Virginia section of the New River. Their
Magnetic fluctuation driven cross-field particle transport in the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.; Liu, D.
1997-01-01
Electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations generally cause cross-field particle transport in confined plasmas. Thus core localized turbulence must be kept at low levels for sufficient energy confinement in magnetic fusion plasmas. Reversed-field pinch (RFP) equilibria can, theoretically, be completely stable to ideal and resistive (tearing) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes at zero beta. Unstable resistive interchange modes are, however, always present at experimentally relevant values of the poloidal beta β θ . An analytical quasilinear, ambipolar diffusion model is here used to model associated particle transport. The results indicate that core density fluctuations should not exceed a level of about 1% for plasmas of fusion interest. Parameters of experimentally relevant stationary states of the RFP were adjusted to minimize growth rates, using a fully resistive linearized MHD stability code. Density gradient effects are included through employing a parabolic density profile. The scaling of particle diffusion [D(r)∝λ 2 n 0.5 T/aB, where λ is the mode width] is such that the effects of particle transport are milder in present day RFP experiments than in future reactor-relevant plasmas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
McNair, James N; Newbold, J Denis
2012-05-07
Most ecological studies of particle transport in streams that focus on fine particulate organic matter or benthic invertebrates use the Exponential Settling Model (ESM) to characterize the longitudinal pattern of particle settling on the bed. The ESM predicts that if particles are released into a stream, the proportion that have not yet settled will decline exponentially with transport time or distance and will be independent of the release elevation above the bed. To date, no credible basis in fluid mechanics has been established for this model, nor has it been rigorously tested against more-mechanistic alternative models. One alternative is the Local Exchange Model (LEM), which is a stochastic advection-diffusion model that includes both longitudinal and vertical spatial dimensions and is based on classical fluid mechanics. The LEM predicts that particle settling will be non-exponential in the near field but will become exponential in the far field, providing a new theoretical justification for far-field exponential settling that is based on plausible fluid mechanics. We review properties of the ESM and LEM and compare these with available empirical evidence. Most evidence supports the prediction of both models that settling will be exponential in the far field but contradicts the ESM's prediction that a single exponential distribution will hold for all transport times and distances. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vrhovac, S.B.; Petrovic, Z.Lj.
1995-01-01
Momentum - transfer approximation is applied to momentum and energy balance equations describing reacting particle swarms in gases in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Transport coefficients of charged particles undergoing both inelastic and reactive, non-particle-conserving collisions with a gas of neutral molecules are calculated. Momentum - transfer theory (MTT) has been developed mainly by Robson and collaborators. It has been applied to a single reactive gas and mixtures of reactive gases in electric field only. MTT has also been applied in crossed electric and magnetic fields recently and independently of our work but the reactive collisions were not considered. Consider a swarm of electrons of charge e and mass m moving with velocity rvec v through a neutral gas under the influence of an applied electric rvec E and magnetic rvec B field. The collision processes which we shall investigate are limited to elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions of electrons with gas molecules. Here we interpret reactive collisions as collisions which produce change in number of the swarm particles. Reactive collisions involve creation (ionization by electron impact) or loss (electron attachment) of swarm particles. We consider only single ionization in approximation of the mass ratio m/m 0 0 are masses of electrons and neutral particles, respectively. We assume that the stage of evolution of the swarm is the hydrodynamic limit (HDL). In HDL, the space - time dependence of all properties is carried by the number density n of swarm particles
Lappa, Marcello
2018-03-01
A systematic numerical analysis is carried out on the multiplicity of patterns produced by inertial particles dispersed in a fluid and localized gravitational convection developing in the form of a rising thermal plume. In particular, specific numerical examples are presented to provide inputs for an increased understanding of the underlying flow-particle interaction mechanisms and cause-and-effect relationships. A rich spectrum of convective dynamics is obtained at the relatively high value of the considered Rayleigh number (Ra = 108), which naturally allows the investigation of several intriguing effects (including, but not limited to, particle interaction with plume jet, associated vortices, shear instabilities, and symmetry breaking phenomena). An important degree of freedom is introduced in the problem by changing the particle viscous drag through proper tuning of the related Stokes number (St). Similarly, inertia and weight of solid matter are varied parametrically by performing numerical simulations for both light and heavy particles at different values of the Froude number. This framework lets us identify the average behavior of particles by revealing the mean evolution. We connect such statistics to the behavior of the temporally evolving thermal plume, giving deeper insights into the particle transport mechanisms and associated dissipative dynamics.
On the equation of transport for cosmic-ray particles in the interplanetary region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G.M.; Gleeson, L.J.
1979-01-01
Two new alternative derivations of the equation of transport for cosmic-ray particles in the interplanetary region are provided. Both derivations are carried out by using particle position r and time t in a frame of reference fixed in the solar system, and the particle momentum p' is specified relative to a local frame of reference moving with the solar wind. The first derivation is carried out by writing down a continuity equation for the cosmic rays, taking into account particle streaming and energy changes, and subsequently deriving the streaming and energy change terms in this equation. The momentum change term in the continuity equation, previously considered to be due to the adiabatic deceleration of particles in the expanding magnetic fields carried by the solar wing, appears in the present analysis as a dynamic effect in which the Lorentz force on the particle does not appear explicitly. An alternative derivation based on the ensemble averaged Liouville equation for charged particles in the stochastic interplanetary magnetic field using (r,p',t) as independent coordinates is also given. The latter derivation confirms the momentum change interpretation of the first derivation. A new derivation of the adiabatic rate as a combination of inverse-Fermi and betatron deceleration processes is also provided. (Auth.)
Silver (Ag) Transport Mechanisms in TRISO coated particles: A Critical Review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
I J van Rooyen; J H Neethling; J A A Engelbrecht; P M van Rooyen; G Strydom
2012-10-01
Transport of 110mAg in the intact SiC layer of TRISO coated particles has been studied for approximately 30 years without arriving at a satisfactory explanation of the transport mechanism. In this paper the possible mechanisms postulated in previous experimental studies, both in-reactor and out-of reactor research environment studies are critically reviewed and of particular interest are relevance to very high temperature gas reactor operating and accident conditions. Among the factors thought to influence Ag transport are grain boundary stoichiometry, SiC grain size and shape, the presence of free silicon, nano-cracks, thermal decomposition, palladium attack, transmutation products, layer thinning and coated particle shape. Additionally new insight to nature and location of fission products has been gained via recent post irradiation electron microscopy examination of TRISO coated particles from the DOE’s fuel development program. The combined effect of critical review and new analyses indicates a direction for investigating possible the Ag transport mechanism including the confidence level with which these mechanisms may be experimentally verified.
Silver (Ag) transport mechanisms in TRISO coated particles: A critical review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rooyen, I.J. van, E-mail: isabella.vanrooyen@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Dunzik-Gougar, M.L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Idaho State University, ID (United States); Rooyen, P.M. van [Philip M. van Rooyen Network Consultants, Midlands Estates (South Africa)
2014-05-01
Transport of {sup 110m}Ag in the intact SiC layer of TRISO coated particles has been studied for approximately 30 years without arriving at a satisfactory explanation of the transport mechanism. In this paper the possible mechanisms postulated in previous experimental studies, both in-reactor and out-of reactor research environment studies are critically reviewed and of particular interest are relevance to very high temperature gas reactor operating and accident conditions. Among the factors thought to influence Ag transport are grain boundary stoichiometry, SiC grain size and shape, the presence of free silicon, nano-cracks, thermal decomposition, palladium attack, transmutation products, layer thinning and coated particle shape. Additionally new insight to nature and location of fission products has been gained via recent post irradiation electron microscopy examination of TRISO coated particles from the DOE's fuel development program. The combined effect of critical review and new analyses indicates a direction for investigating possible the Ag transport mechanism including the confidence level with which these mechanisms may be experimentally verified.
Wu, Zilan; Lin, Tian; Li, Zhongxia; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Tianfeng; Guo, Zhigang
2017-10-01
Ship-board air samples were collected during March to May 2015 from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) to explore the atmospheric occurrence and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when the westerly East Asian Monsoon prevailed. Total PCB concentrations in the atmosphere ranged from 56.8 to 261 pg m-3. Higher PCB levels were observed off the coast and minor temperature-induced changes showed that continuous emissions from East Asia remain as an important source to the regional atmosphere. A significant relationship between Koa (octanol-air partition coefficient) and KP (gas-particle partition coefficient) for PCBs was observed under continental air masses, suggesting that land-derived organic aerosols affected the PCB gas-particle partitioning after long-range transport, while an absence of this correlation was identified in marine air masses. The PCB partitioning cannot be fully explained by the absorptive mechanism as the predicted KP were found to be 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the measured Kp, while the prediction was closely matched when soot adsorption was considered. The results suggested the importance of soot carbon as a transport medium for PCBs during their long-range transport and considerable impacts of continental outflows on PCBs across the downwind area. The estimated transport mass of particulate PCBs into the ECS and NWP totals 2333 kg during the spring, constituting ca. 17% of annual emission inventories of unintentionally produced PCB in China.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, M.H.; Diallo, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Fu, G.Y.
2000-01-01
Concerns about the flexibility and robustness of a compact quasiaxial stellarator design are addressed by studying the effects of varied pressure and rotational transform profiles on expected performance. For thirty, related, fully three-dimensional configurations the global, ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability is evaluated as well as energetic particle transport. It is found that tokamak intuition is relevant to understanding the magnetohydrodynamic stability, with pressure gradient driving terms and shear stabilization controlling both the periodicity preserving, N=0, and the non-periodicity preserving, N=1, unstable kink modes. Global kink modes are generated by steeply peaked pressure profiles near the half radius and edge localized kink modes are found for plasmas with steep pressure profiles at the edge as well as with edge rotational transform above 0.5. Energetic particle transport is not strongly dependent on these changes of pressure and current (or rotational transform) profiles, although a weak inverse dependence on pressure peaking through the corresponding Shafranov shift is found. While good transport and MHD stability are not anticorrelated in these equilibria, stability only results from a delicate balance of the pressure and shear stabilization forces. A range of interesting MHD behaviors is found for this large set of equilibria, exhibiting similar particle transport properties
Toroidally asymmetric particle transport caused by phase-locking of MHD modes in RFX-mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorenzini, R.; Terranova, D.; Auriemma, F.; Cavazzana, R.; Innocente, P.; Martini, S.; Serianni, G.; Zuin, M.
2007-01-01
The particle and energy transport in reversed field pinch experiments is affected by the locking in phase of the tearing modes, also dubbed dynamo modes, that sustain the magnetic configuration. In standard RFP pulses many m = 1 and m = 0 resonant modes have a relatively large amplitude (a spectrum dubbed MH for multiple helicity). The locking in phase of m = 1 tearing modes produces a helical deformation (locked mode (LM)) of the magnetic surfaces in a region of approximately 40 toroidal degrees. The region of the LM is characterized by a strong plasma-wall interaction and by high losses of energy and particles that account for a significant fraction of the input power and of the total particle outflux. The locking in phase of m = 0 modes modifies the plasma radius, shrinking and enlarging the plasma cross section in two wide toroidal regions of about 100 0 . The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent the locking in phase of m = 0 modes introduces toroidal asymmetries in the transport properties of the plasma. This study has been carried out investigating the shape of the density profile in the RFX-mod experiment. The analyses show that the profile exhibits a dependence on the toroidal angle, which is related to the deformation of the plasma column due to the locking in phase of m = 0 modes: the least steep density gradients at the edge are found in the region where the plasma column is shrunk, entailing that in this region the particle transport is enhanced. An analogous asymmetry also characterizes the density and magnetic fluctuations at the edge, which are enhanced in the same toroidal region where the particle transport also is enhanced. This result can be considered the first experimental evidence of an instability localized where the plasma column is shrunk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasemin eKarabacak
2015-08-01
Full Text Available A series of drugs have been reported to increase memory performance modulating the dopaminergic system and herein modafinil was tested for its working memory (WM enhancing properties. Reuptake inhibition of dopamine, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET by modafinil was tested. 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups (modafinil-treated 1-5-10 mg/kg body weight, trained and untrained and vehicle treated trained and untrained rats; daily injected intraperitoneally for a period of 10 days and tested in a radial arm maze (RAM, a paradigm for testing spatial WM. Hippocampi were taken six hours following the last day of training and complexes containing the unphosphorylated or phosphorylated dopamine transporter (DAT-CC and pDAT-CC and complexes containing the D1-3 dopamine receptor subunits (D1-D3-CC were determined. Modafinil was binding to the DAT but insignificantly to SERT or NET and dopamine reuptake was blocked specifically (IC50=11.11; SERT 1547; NET 182. From day 8 (day 9 for 1 mg/kg body weight modafinil was decreasing WM errors in the RAM significantly and remarkably at all doses tested as compared to the vehicle controls. WMEs were linked to the D2R-CC and the pDAT-CC. pDAT and D1-D3-CC levels were modulated significantly and modafinil was shown to enhance spatial WM in the rat in a well-documented paradigm at all the three doses and dopamine reuptake inhibition with subsequent modulation of D1-3-CC is proposed as a possible mechanism of action.
Particle Transport in ECRH Plasmas of the TJ-II; Transporte de Particulas en Plasmas ECRH del TJ-II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vargas, V. I.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Estrada, T.; Guasp, J.; Reynolds, J. M.; Velasco, J. L.; Herranz, J.
2007-07-01
We present a systematic study of particle transport in ECRH plasmas of TJ-II with different densities. The goal is to fi nd particle confinement time and electron diffusivity dependence with line-averaged density. The experimental information consists of electron temperature profiles, T{sub e} (Thomson Scattering TS) and electron density, n{sub e}, (TS and reflectometry) and measured puffing data in stationary discharges. The profile of the electron source, Se, was obtained by the 3D Monte-Carlo code EIRENE. The analysis of particle balance has been done by linking the results of the code EIRENE with the results of a model that reproduces ECRH plasmas in stationary conditions. In the range of densities studied (0.58 {<=}n{sub e}> (10{sup 1}9m{sup -}3) {<=}0.80) there are two regions of confinement separated by a threshold density,
Transport of intense particle beams with application to heavy ion fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchanan, H.L.; Chambers, F.W.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.; Briggs, R.J.; Rosenbluth, M.N.
1979-01-01
An attractive feature of the high energy (> GeV) heavy ion beam approach to inertial fusion, as compared with other particle beam systems, is the relative simplicity involved in the transport and focusing of energy on the target inside a reactor chamber. While this focusing could be done in vacuum by conventional methods with multiple beams, there are significant advantages in reactor design if one can operate at gas pressures around one torr. In this paper we summarize the results of our studies of heavy ion beam transport in gases. With good enough charge and current neutralization, one could get a ballistically-converging beam envelope down to a few millimeters over a 10 meter path inside the chamber. Problems of beam filamentation place important restrictions on this approach. We also discuss transport in a self-focused mode, where a relatively stable pressure window is predicted similar to the observed window for electron beam transport
Integral and Lagrangian simulations of particle and radiation transport in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christlieb, A J; Hitchon, W N G; Lawler, J E; Lister, G G
2009-01-01
Accurate integral and Lagrangian models of transport in plasmas, in which the models reflect the actual physical behaviour as closely as possible, are presented. These methods are applied to the behaviour of particles and photons in plasmas. First, to show how these types of models arise in a wide range of plasma physics applications, an application to radiation transport in a lighting discharge is given. The radiation transport is solved self-consistently with a model of the discharge to provide what are believed to be very accurate 1D simulations of fluorescent lamps. To extend these integral methods to higher dimensions is computationally very costly. The wide utility of 'treecodes' in solving massive integral problems in plasma physics is discussed, and illustrated in modelling vortex formation in a Penning trap, where a remarkably detailed simulation of vortex formation in the trap is obtained. Extension of treecode methods to other integral problems such as radiation transport is under consideration.
Particle integrity, sampling, and application of a DNA-tagged tracer for aerosol transport studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaeser, Cynthia Jeanne [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
2017-07-21
Aerosols are an ever-present part of our daily environment and have extensive effects on both human and environmental health. Particles in the inhalable range (1-10 μm diameter) are of particular concern because their deposition in the lung can lead to a variety of illnesses including allergic reactions, viral or bacterial infections, and cancer. Understanding the transport of inhalable aerosols across both short and long distances is necessary to predict human exposures to aerosols. To assess the transport of hazardous aerosols, surrogate tracer particles are required to measure their transport through occupied spaces. These tracer particles must not only possess similar transport characteristics to those of interest but also be easily distinguished from the background at low levels and survive the environmental conditions of the testing environment. A previously-developed DNA-tagged particle (DNATrax), composed of food-grade sugar and a DNA oligonucleotide as a “barcode” label, shows promise as a new aerosol tracer. Herein, the use of DNATrax material is validated for use in both indoor and outdoor environments. Utilizing passive samplers made of materials commonly found in indoor environments followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for endpoint particle detection, particles detection was achieved up to 90 m from the aerosolization location and across shorter distances with high spatial resolution. The unique DNA label and PCR assay specificity were leveraged to perform multiple simultaneous experiments. This allowed the assessment of experimental reproducibility, a rare occurrence among aerosol field tests. To transition to outdoor testing, the solid material provides some protection of the DNA label when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with 60% of the DNA remaining intact after 60 minutes under a germicidal lamp and the rate of degradation declining with irradiation time. Additionally, exposure of the DNATrax material using
Simulation of neutron transport process, photons and charged particles within the Monte Carlo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.; Artamonov, S.N.; Bolonkina, G.V.; Lomtev, V.L.; Pupko, S.V.
1991-01-01
Description is given to the program system BRAND designed for the accurate solution of non-stationary transport equation of neutrons, photons and charged particles in the conditions of real three-dimensional geometry. An extensive set of local and non-local estimates provides an opportunity of calculating a great set of linear functionals normally being of interest in the calculation of reactors, radiation protection and experiment simulation. The process of particle interaction with substance is simulated on the basis of individual non-group data on each isotope of the composition. 24 refs
Particle transport simulation for spaceborne, NaI gamma-ray spectrometers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyer, C.S.; Truscott, P.R.; Sims, A.J.; Comber, C.; Hammond, N.D.A.
1988-11-01
Radioactivity induced in detectors by protons and secondary neutrons limits the sensitivity of spaceborne gamma-ray spectrometers. Three dimensional Monte Carlo transport codes have been employed to simulate particle transport of cosmic rays and inner-belt protons in various representations of the Gamma Ray Observatory Spacecraft and the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment. Results are used to accurately quantify the contributions to the radioactive background, assess shielding options and examine the effect of detector and space-craft orientation in anisotropic trapped proton fluxes. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ihle, Thomas
2008-01-01
Detailed calculations of the transport coefficients of a recently introduced particle-based model for fluid dynamics with a non-ideal equation of state are presented. Excluded volume interactions are modeled by means of biased stochastic multi-particle collisions which depend on the local velocities and densities. Momentum and energy are exactly conserved locally. A general scheme to derive transport coefficients for such biased, velocity-dependent collision rules is developed. Analytic expressions for the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity are obtained, and very good agreement is found with numerical results at small and large mean free paths. The viscosity turns out to be proportional to the square root of temperature, as in a real gas. In addition, the theoretical framework is applied to a two-component version of the model, and expressions for the viscosity and the difference in diffusion of the two species are given
The discrete cones methods for two-dimensional neutral particle transport problems with voids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Y.; Maynard, C.W.
1983-01-01
One of the most widely applied deterministic methods for time-independent, two-dimensional neutron transport calculations is the discrete ordinates method (DSN). The DSN solution, however, fails to be accurate in a void due to the ray effect. In order to circumvent this drawback, the authors have been developing a novel approximation: the discrete cones method (DCN), where a group of particles in a cone are simultaneously traced instead of particles in discrete directions for the DSN method. Programs, which apply to the DSN method in a non-vacuum region and the DCN method in a void, have been written for transport calculations in X-Y coordinates. The solutions for test problems demonstrate mitigation of the ray effect in voids without loosing the computational efficiency of the DSN method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brooks, J.N.; Ruzic, D.N.
1990-01-01
The microstructure of the redeposited surface in tokamaks may affect sputtering and reflection properties and subsequent particle transport. This subject has been studied numerically using coupled models/codes for near-surface plasma particle kinetic transport (WBC code) and rough surface sputtering (fractal-TRIM). The coupled codes provide an overall Monte Carlo calculation of the sputtering cascade resulting from an initial flux of hydrogen ions. Beryllium, carbon, and tungsten surfaces are analyzed for typical high recycling, oblique magnetic field, divertor conditions. Significant variations in computed sputtering rates are found with surface roughness. Beryllium exhibits high D-T and self-sputtering coefficients for the plasma regime studied (T e = 30-75 eV). Carbon and tungsten sputtering is significantly lower. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Transport of particles by surface waves: a modification of the classical bouncer model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragulskis, M; Sanjuan, M A F
2008-01-01
We consider a ball under the influence of gravity on a platform. A propagating surface wave travels on the surface of the platform, while the platform remains motionless. This is a modification of the classical bouncing ball problem and describes the transport of particles by surface waves. Phase and velocity maps cannot be expressed in an explicit form owing to implicit formulations, and no formal analytical analysis is possible. Numerical analysis shows that the transition to chaos is produced via a period doubling route, which is a common property for classical bouncers. The bouncing process can be sensitive to the initial conditions, which can build the ground for control techniques that can dramatically increase the effectiveness of particle transport in practical applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svensson, Urban
2001-04-01
A particle tracking algorithm, PARTRACK, that simulates transport and dispersion in a sparsely fractured rock is described. The main novel feature of the algorithm is the introduction of multiple particle states. It is demonstrated that the introduction of this feature allows for the simultaneous simulation of Taylor dispersion, sorption and matrix diffusion. A number of test cases are used to verify and demonstrate the features of PARTRACK. It is shown that PARTRACK can simulate the following processes, believed to be important for the problem addressed: the split up of a tracer cloud at a fracture intersection, channeling in a fracture plane, Taylor dispersion and matrix diffusion and sorption. From the results of the test cases, it is concluded that PARTRACK is an adequate framework for simulation of transport and dispersion of a solute in a sparsely fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apisit, Patchimpattapong; Alireza, Haghighat; Shedlock, D.
2003-01-01
An expert system for generating an effective mesh distribution for the SN particle transport simulation has been developed. This expert system consists of two main parts: 1) an algorithm for generating an effective mesh distribution in a serial environment, and 2) an algorithm for inference of an effective domain decomposition strategy for parallel computing. For the first part, the algorithm prepares an effective mesh distribution considering problem physics and the spatial differencing scheme. For the second part, the algorithm determines a parallel-performance-index (PPI), which is defined as the ratio of the granularity to the degree-of-coupling. The parallel-performance-index provides expected performance of an algorithm depending on computing environment and resources. A large index indicates a high granularity algorithm with relatively low coupling among processors. This expert system has been successfully tested within the PENTRAN (Parallel Environment Neutral-Particle Transport) code system for simulating real-life shielding problems. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apisit, Patchimpattapong [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Office of Corporate Planning, Bangkruai, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Alireza, Haghighat; Shedlock, D. [Florida Univ., Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2003-07-01
An expert system for generating an effective mesh distribution for the SN particle transport simulation has been developed. This expert system consists of two main parts: 1) an algorithm for generating an effective mesh distribution in a serial environment, and 2) an algorithm for inference of an effective domain decomposition strategy for parallel computing. For the first part, the algorithm prepares an effective mesh distribution considering problem physics and the spatial differencing scheme. For the second part, the algorithm determines a parallel-performance-index (PPI), which is defined as the ratio of the granularity to the degree-of-coupling. The parallel-performance-index provides expected performance of an algorithm depending on computing environment and resources. A large index indicates a high granularity algorithm with relatively low coupling among processors. This expert system has been successfully tested within the PENTRAN (Parallel Environment Neutral-Particle Transport) code system for simulating real-life shielding problems. (authors)
Finite Element in Angle Unit Sphere Meshing for Charged Particle Transport.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega, Mario Ivan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Drumm, Clifton R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-10-01
Finite element in angle formulations of the charged particle transport equation require the discretization of the unit sphere. In Sceptre, a three-dimensional surface mesh of a sphere is transformed into a two-dimensional mesh. Projection of a sphere onto a two-dimensional surface is well studied with map makers spending the last few centuries attempting to create maps that preserve proportion and area. Using these techniques, various meshing schemes for the unit sphere were investigated.
The three-dimensional, discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code TORT: An overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azmy, Y.Y.
1996-01-01
The centerpiece of the Discrete Ordinates Oak Ridge System (DOORS), the three-dimensional neutral particle transport code TORT is reviewed. Its most prominent features pertaining to large applications, such as adjustable problem parameters, memory management, and coarse mesh methods, are described. Advanced, state-of-the-art capabilities including acceleration and multiprocessing are summarized here. Future enhancement of existing graphics and visualization tools is briefly presented
Performing three-dimensional neutral particle transport calculations on tera scale computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodward, C.S.; Brown, P.N.; Chang, B.; Dorr, M.R.; Hanebutte, U.R.
1999-01-01
A scalable, parallel code system to perform neutral particle transport calculations in three dimensions is presented. To utilize the hyper-cluster architecture of emerging tera scale computers, the parallel code successfully combines the MPI message passing and paradigms. The code's capabilities are demonstrated by a shielding calculation containing over 14 billion unknowns. This calculation was accomplished on the IBM SP ''ASCI-Blue-Pacific computer located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)
Adomian decomposition method for solving the telegraph equation in charged particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdou, M.A.
2005-01-01
In this paper, the analysis for the telegraph equation in case of isotropic small angle scattering from the Boltzmann transport equation for charged particle is presented. The Adomian decomposition is used to solve the telegraph equation. By means of MAPLE the Adomian polynomials of obtained series (ADM) solution have been calculated. The behaviour of the distribution function are shown graphically. The results reported in this article provide further evidence of the usefulness of Adomain decomposition for obtaining solution of linear and nonlinear problems
Study of heat transfer and particle transport in Tore Supra and HL-2A tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, S.
2011-12-01
This thesis reports on experimental studies of heat and particles transport performed on 2 large tokamaks: Tore Supra (based at CEA/Cadarache, France) and HL-2A (based at the Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, China). The modulated source is the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) for the heat pinch and density pump-out studies, while the non-local transport experiments use the Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) as source of modulation. The emphasis is put on the inward heat pinch. In the off-axis ECRH modulation experiments on Tore Supra with low frequency (1 Hz), strong heat inward transport has been observed, in particular for low density. Two transport models have been applied in order to analyze the experimental behavior. The first one is the linear pinch model (LPM) and the second one is an empirical model based on micro-instabilities theory, named Critical Gradient Model (CGM). Good agreement has been found for all harmonics between the experimental data and the simulation using LPM. On the other hand, good agreement has not been achieved using CGM. The density pump-out with large particles and energy losses during ECRH is commonly observed in tokamaks. A new dynamic approach using the modulation technique has been used in HL-2A for analyzing the transient phase of the density pump-out. A correlation between the turbulence increase and the density pump-out has been found. The non-local transport phenomenon, characterized by a fast transient process compared to the normal diffusive response to the perturbation is observed. Both phenomena, i.e., pump-out and non-locality, show as simultaneous variation of density and temperature. This can be an inspiration for the usage of a transport matrix which considers the density and temperature evolution together. Simulations with a simple transport matrix, with non-diagonal terms coupling temperature and density qualitatively reproduce the non-local and pump-out effects qualitatively
Progress in Solving the Elusive Ag Transport Mechanism in TRISO Coated Particles: What is new?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isabella Van Rooyen
2014-10-01
The TRISO particle for HTRs has been developed to an advanced state where the coating withstands internal gas pressures and retains fission products during irradiation and under postulated accidents. However, one exception is Ag that has been found to be released from high quality TRISO coated particles when irradiated and can also during high temperature accident heating tests. Although out- of- pile laboratory tests have never hither to been able to demonstrate a diffusion process of Ag in SiC, effective diffusion coefficients have been derived to successfully reproduce measured Ag-110m releases from irradiated HTR fuel elements, compacts and TRISO particles It was found that silver transport through SiC does not proceed via bulk volume diffusion. Presently grain boundary diffusion that may be irradiation enhanced either by neutron bombardment or by the presence of fission products such as Pd, are being investigated. Recent studies of irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), transmission kukuchi diffraction (TKD) patterns and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) have been used to further the understanding of Ag transport through TRISO particles. No silver was observed in SiC grains, but Ag was identified at triple-points and grain boundaries of the SiC layer in the TRISO particle. Cadmium was also found in some of the very same triple junctions, but this could be related to silver behavior as Ag-110m decays to Cd-110. Palladium was identified as the main constituent of micron-sized precipitates present at the SiC grain boundaries and in most SiC grain boundaries and the potential role of Pd in the transport of Ag will be discussed.
Furukawa, Shunsuke; Karaki, Chiaki; Kawano, Tomonori
2009-01-01
It is well known that Paramecium species including green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria) migrate towards the anode when exposed to an electric field in a medium. This type of a cellular movement is known as galvanotaxis. Our previous study revealed that an electric stimulus given to P bursaria is converted to a galvanotactic cellular movement by involvement of T-type calcium channel on the plasma membrane [Aonuma et al. (2007), Z. Naturforsch. 62c, 93-102]. This phenomenon has attracted the attention of bioengineers in the fields of biorobotics or micro-robotics in order to develop electrically controllable micromachineries. Here, we demonstrate the galvanotactic controls of the cellular migration of P bursaria in capillary tubes (diameter, 1-2 mm; length, 30-240 mm). Since the Paramecium cells take up particles of various sizes, we attempted to use the electrically stimulated cells of P bursaria as the vehicle for transportation of micro-particles in the capillary system. By using apo-symbiotic cells of P bursaria obtained after forced removal of symbiotic algae, the uptake of the particles could be maximized and visualized. Then, electrically controlled transportations of particle-filled apo-symbiotic P bursaria cells were manifested. The particles transported by electrically controlled cells (varying in size from nm to /m levels) included re-introduced green algae, fluorescence-labeled polystyrene beads, magnetic microspheres, emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP)-labeled cells of E. coli, Indian ink, and crystals of zeolite (hydrated aluminosilicate minerals with a micro-porous structure) and some metal oxides. Since the above demonstrations were successful, we concluded that P bursaria has a potential to be employed as one of the micro-biorobotic devices used in BioMEMS (biological micro-electro-mechanical systems).
Valenzuela, Javier
2001-01-01
A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.
Transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles in response to thunderstorm runoff.
Matisoff, G; Ketterer, M E; Wilson, C G; Layman, R; Whiting, P J
2001-08-15
The downslope transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles remobilized during a spring thunderstorm was studied on both a natural prairie and an agricultural field in southwestern Iowa (U.S.A.). A technique was developed for tagging natural soils with the rare earth elements Eu, Tb, and Ho to approximately 1,000 ppm via coprecipitation with MnO2. Tagged material was replaced in target locations; surficial soil samples were collected following precipitation and runoff; and rare earth element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Diffusion and exponential models were applied to the concentration-distance data to determine particle transport distances. The results indicate that the concentration-distance data are well described by the diffusion model, butthe exponential model does not simulate the rapid drop-off in concentrations near the tagged source. Using the diffusion model, calculated particle transport distances at all hillside locations and at both the cultivated and natural prairie sites were short, ranging from 3 to 73 cm during this single runoff event. This study successfully demonstrates a new tool for studying soil erosion.
PHITS: Particle and heavy ion transport code system, version 2.23
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Iwase, Hiroshi; Sihver, Lembit
2010-10-01
A Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System PHITS has been developed under the collaboration of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), RIST (Research Organization for Information Science and Technology) and KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization). PHITS can deal with the transport of all particles (nucleons, nuclei, mesons, photons, and electrons) over wide energy ranges, using several nuclear reaction models and nuclear data libraries. Geometrical configuration of the simulation can be set with GG (General Geometry) or CG (Combinatorial Geometry). Various quantities such as heat deposition, track length and production yields can be deduced from the simulation, using implemented estimator functions called 'tally'. The code also has a function to draw 2D and 3D figures of the calculated results as well as the setup geometries, using a code ANGEL. Because of these features, PHITS has been widely used for various purposes such as designs of accelerator shielding, radiation therapy and space exploration. Recently PHITS introduces an event generator for particle transport parts in the low energy region. Thus, PHITS was completely rewritten for the introduction of the event generator for neutron-induced reactions in energy region less than 20 MeV. Furthermore, several new tallis were incorporated for estimation of the relative biological effects. This document provides a manual of the new PHITS. (author)
PyMercury: Interactive Python for the Mercury Monte Carlo Particle Transport Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iandola, F.N.; O'Brien, M.J.; Procassini, R.J.
2010-01-01
Monte Carlo particle transport applications are often written in low-level languages (C/C++) for optimal performance on clusters and supercomputers. However, this development approach often sacrifices straightforward usability and testing in the interest of fast application performance. To improve usability, some high-performance computing applications employ mixed-language programming with high-level and low-level languages. In this study, we consider the benefits of incorporating an interactive Python interface into a Monte Carlo application. With PyMercury, a new Python extension to the Mercury general-purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code, we improve application usability without diminishing performance. In two case studies, we illustrate how PyMercury improves usability and simplifies testing and validation in a Monte Carlo application. In short, PyMercury demonstrates the value of interactive Python for Monte Carlo particle transport applications. In the future, we expect interactive Python to play an increasingly significant role in Monte Carlo usage and testing.
High-Speed Transport of Fluid Drops and Solid Particles via Surface Acoustic Waves
Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Lih, Shyh-shiuh
2012-01-01
A compact sampling tool mechanism that can operate at various temperatures, and transport and sieve particle sizes of powdered cuttings and soil grains with no moving parts, has been created using traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs) that are emitted by an inter-digital transducer (IDT). The generated waves are driven at about 10 MHz, and it causes powder to move towards the IDT at high speed with different speeds for different sizes of particles, which enables these particles to be sieved. This design is based on the use of SAWs and their propelling effect on powder particles and fluids along the path of the waves. Generally, SAWs are elastic waves propagating in a shallow layer of about one wavelength beneath the surface of a solid substrate. To generate SAWs, a piezoelectric plate is used that is made of LiNbO3 crystal cut along the x-axis with rotation of 127.8 along the y-axis. On this plate are printed pairs of fingerlike electrodes in the form of a grating that are activated by subjecting the gap between the electrodes to electric field. This configuration of a surface wave transmitter is called IDT. The IDT that was used consists of 20 pairs of fingers with 0.4-mm spacing, a total length of 12.5 mm. The surface wave is produced by the nature of piezoelectric material to contract or expand when subjected to an electric field. Driving the IDT to generate wave at high amplitudes provides an actuation mechanism where the surface particles move elliptically, pulling powder particles on the surface toward the wavesource and pushing liquids in the opposite direction. This behavior allows the innovation to separate large particles and fluids that are mixed. Fluids are removed at speed (7.5 to 15 cm/s), enabling this innovation of acting as a bladeless wiper for raindrops. For the windshield design, the electrodes could be made transparent so that they do not disturb the driver or pilot. Multiple IDTs can be synchronized to transport water or powder over larger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishino, T; Negishi, R; Ishibashi, K; Kawao, M; Nagata, T; Ozawa, H
2010-01-01
We have fabricated Nb nanogap electrodes using a combination of molecular lithography and electron beam lithography. Au nano-particles with anchor molecules were placed in the gap, the width of which could be controlled on a molecular scale (∼2 nm). Three different anchor molecules which connect the Au nano-particles and the electrodes were tested to investigate their contact resistance, and a local gate was fabricated underneath the Au nano-particles. The electrical transport measurements at liquid helium temperatures indicated single electron transistor (SET) characteristics with a charging energy of about ∼ 5 meV, and a clear indication of the effect of superconducting electrodes was not observed, possibly due to the large tunnel resistance.
{sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po as tracers of particle transport mechanisms on continental margins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S. [Perpignan Univ., 66 (France). Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geochimie Marines; Biscaye, P.; Abassi, A. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory
1997-12-31
The natural radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, members of the {sup 238}U decay chain, are particularly helpful to the understanding of particle transport processes in the ocean. These isotopes were analysed on sediment trap particles collected during 3 one-year experiments on continental margins. In the Bay of Biscay (Northeastern Atlantic) and in the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) both as part of the French ECOMARGE programme, and in the Middle Atlantic Bight (Northwestern Atlantic) as part of the SEEP programme. They yielded great insights into scenarios of particle transfer at each site, mainly based on the spatial and temporal distribution of {sup 210}Pb particulate concentrations and fluxes. (author) 11 refs.
Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny, E-mail: eh@udsu.ru [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Kostenkov, Sergey [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)
2014-02-15
Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law.
Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny; Kostenkov, Sergey
2014-01-01
Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law
Testing of a "smart-pebble" for measuring particle transport statistics
Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Avgeris, Loukas; Valyrakis, Manousos
2017-04-01
This paper presents preliminary results from novel experiments aiming to assess coarse sediment transport statistics for a range of transport conditions, via the use of an innovative "smart-pebble" device. This device is a waterproof sphere, which has 7 cm diameter and is equipped with a number of sensors that provide information about the velocity, acceleration and positioning of the "smart-pebble" within the flow field. A series of specifically designed experiments are carried out to monitor the entrainment of a "smart-pebble" for fully developed, uniform, turbulent flow conditions over a hydraulically rough bed. Specifically, the bed surface is configured to three sections, each of them consisting of well packed glass beads of slightly increasing size at the downstream direction. The first section has a streamwise length of L1=150 cm and beads size of D1=15 mm, the second section has a length of L2=85 cm and beads size of D2=22 mm, and the third bed section has a length of L3=55 cm and beads size of D3=25.4 mm. Two cameras monitor the area of interest to provide additional information regarding the "smart-pebble" movement. Three-dimensional flow measurements are obtained with the aid of an acoustic Doppler velocimeter along a measurement grid to assess the flow forcing field. A wide range of flow rates near and above the threshold of entrainment is tested, while using four distinct densities for the "smart-pebble", which can affect its transport speed and total momentum. The acquired data are analyzed to derive Lagrangian transport statistics and the implications of such an important experiment for the transport of particles by rolling are discussed. The flow conditions for the initiation of motion, particle accelerations and equilibrium particle velocities (translating into transport rates), statistics of particle impact and its motion, can be extracted from the acquired data, which can be further compared to develop meaningful insights for sediment transport
Liot, O; Socol, M; Garcia, L; Thiéry, J; Figarol, A; Mingotaud, A F; Joseph, P
2018-06-13
This paper presents experimental results about transport of dilute suspensions of nano-objects in silicon-glass micrometric and sub-micrometric channels. Two kinds of objects are used: solid, rigid latex beads and spherical capsule-shaped, soft polymersomes. They are tracked using fluorescence microscopy. Three aspects are studied: confinement (ratio between particle diameter and channel depth), Brownian diffusion and particle nature. The aim of this work is to understand how these different aspects affect the transport of suspensions in narrow channels and to understand the different mechanisms at play. Concerning the solid beads we observe the appearance of two regimes, one where the experimental mean velocity is close to the expected one and another where this velocity is lower. This is directly related to a competition between confinement, Brownian diffusion and advection. These two regimes are shown to be linked to the inhomogeneity of particles distribution in the channel depth, which we experimentally deduce from velocity distributions. This inhomogeneity appears during the entrance process into the sub-micrometric channels, as for hydrodynamic separation or deterministic lateral displacement. Concerning the nature of the particles we observed a shift of transition towards the second regime likely due to the relationships between shear stress and polymersomes mechanical properties which could reduce the inhomogeneity imposed by the geometry of our device.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kornreich, D.E.; Ganapol, B.D.
1997-01-01
The linear Boltzmann equation for the transport of neutral particles is investigated with the objective of generating benchmark-quality evaluations of solutions for homogeneous infinite media. In all cases, the problems are stationary, of one energy group, and the scattering is isotropic. The solutions are generally obtained through the use of Fourier transform methods with the numerical inversions constructed from standard numerical techniques such as Gauss-Legendre quadrature, summation of infinite series, and convergence acceleration. Consideration of the suite of benchmarks in infinite homogeneous media begins with the standard one-dimensional problems: an isotropic point source, an isotropic planar source, and an isotropic infinite line source. The physical and mathematical relationships between these source configurations are investigated. The progression of complexity then leads to multidimensional problems with source configurations that also emit particles isotropically: the finite line source, the disk source, and the rectangular source. The scalar flux from the finite isotropic line and disk sources will have a two-dimensional spatial variation, whereas a finite rectangular source will have a three-dimensional variation in the scalar flux. Next, sources emitting particles anisotropically are considered. The most basic such source is the point beam giving rise to the Green's function, which is physically the most fundamental transport problem, yet may be constructed from the isotropic point source solution. Finally, the anisotropic plane and anisotropically emitting infinite line sources are considered. Thus, a firm theoretical and numerical base is established for the most fundamental neutral particle benchmarks in infinite homogeneous media
Application of State Quantization-Based Methods in HEP Particle Transport Simulation
Santi, Lucio; Ponieman, Nicolás; Jun, Soon Yung; Genser, Krzysztof; Elvira, Daniel; Castro, Rodrigo
2017-10-01
Simulation of particle-matter interactions in complex geometries is one of the main tasks in high energy physics (HEP) research. An essential aspect of it is an accurate and efficient particle transportation in a non-uniform magnetic field, which includes the handling of volume crossings within a predefined 3D geometry. Quantized State Systems (QSS) is a family of numerical methods that provides attractive features for particle transportation processes, such as dense output (sequences of polynomial segments changing only according to accuracy-driven discrete events) and lightweight detection and handling of volume crossings (based on simple root-finding of polynomial functions). In this work we present a proof-of-concept performance comparison between a QSS-based standalone numerical solver and an application based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit, with its default Runge-Kutta based adaptive step method. In a case study with a charged particle circulating in a vacuum (with interactions with matter turned off), in a uniform magnetic field, and crossing up to 200 volume boundaries twice per turn, simulation results showed speedups of up to 6 times in favor of QSS while it being 10 times slower in the case with zero volume boundaries.
Drift-Alfven wave mediated particle transport in an elongated density depression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter
2006-01-01
Cross-field particle transport due to drift-Alfven waves is measured in an elongated density depression within an otherwise uniform, magnetized helium plasma column. The depression is formed by drawing an electron current to a biased copper plate with cross-field dimensions of 28x0.24 ion sound-gyroradii ρ s =c s /ω ci . The process of density depletion and replenishment via particle flux repeats in a quasiperiodic fashion for the duration of the current collection. The mode structure of the wave density fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field is revealed using a two-probe correlation technique. The particle flux as a function of frequency is measured using a linear array of Langmuir probes and the only significant transport occurs for waves with frequencies between 15%-25% of the ion cyclotron frequency (measured in the laboratory frame) and with perpendicular wavelengths k perpendicular ρ s ∼0.7. The frequency-integrated particle flux is in rough agreement with observed increases in density in the center of the depletion as a function of time. The experiments are carried out in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the Basic Plasma Science Facility located at the University of California, Los Angeles
Drift-Alfvén wave mediated particle transport in an elongated density depression
Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter
2006-06-01
Cross-field particle transport due to drift-Alfvén waves is measured in an elongated density depression within an otherwise uniform, magnetized helium plasma column. The depression is formed by drawing an electron current to a biased copper plate with cross-field dimensions of 28ρs=cs/ωci. The process of density depletion and replenishment via particle flux repeats in a quasiperiodic fashion for the duration of the current collection. The mode structure of the wave density fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field is revealed using a two-probe correlation technique. The particle flux as a function of frequency is measured using a linear array of Langmuir probes and the only significant transport occurs for waves with frequencies between 15%-25% of the ion cyclotron frequency (measured in the laboratory frame) and with perpendicular wavelengths k ⊥ρs˜0.7. The frequency-integrated particle flux is in rough agreement with observed increases in density in the center of the depletion as a function of time. The experiments are carried out in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the Basic Plasma Science Facility located at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Liot, O.; Socol, M.; Garcia, L.; Thiéry, J.; Figarol, A.; Mingotaud, A. F.; Joseph, P.
2018-06-01
This paper presents experimental results about transport of dilute suspensions of nano-objects in silicon-glass micrometric and sub-micrometric channels. Two kinds of objects are used: solid, rigid latex beads and spherical capsule-shaped, soft polymersomes. They are tracked using fluorescence microscopy. Three aspects are studied: confinement (ratio between particle diameter and channel depth), Brownian diffusion and particle nature. The aim of this work is to understand how these different aspects affect the transport of suspensions in narrow channels and to understand the different mechanisms at play. Concerning the solid beads we observe the appearance of two regimes, one where the experimental mean velocity is close to the expected one and another where this velocity is lower. This is directly related to a competition between confinement, Brownian diffusion and advection. These two regimes are shown to be linked to the inhomogeneity of particles distribution in the channel depth, which we experimentally deduce from velocity distributions. This inhomogeneity appears during the entrance process into the sub-micrometric channels, as for hydrodynamic separation or deterministic lateral displacement. Concerning the nature of the particles we observed a shift of transition towards the second regime likely due to the relationships between shear stress and polymersomes mechanical properties which could reduce the inhomogeneity imposed by the geometry of our device.
Collective transport of Lennard–Jones particles through one-dimensional periodic potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Jian-hui; Wen Jia-le; Chen Pei-rong; Zheng Dong-qin; Zhong Wei-rong
2017-01-01
The surrounding media in which transport occurs contains various kinds of fields, such as particle potentials and external potentials. One of the important questions is how elements work and how position and momentum are redistributed in the diffusion under these conditions. For enriching Fick’s law, ordinary non-equilibrium statistical physics can be used to understand the complex process. This study attempts to discuss particle transport in the one-dimensional channel under external potential fields. Two kinds of potentials—the potential well and barrier—which do not change the potential in total, are built during the diffusion process. There are quite distinct phenomena because of the different one-dimensional periodic potentials. By the combination of a Monte Carlo method and molecular dynamics, we meticulously explore why an external potential field impacts transport by the subsection and statistical method. Besides, one piece of evidence of the Maxwell velocity distribution is confirmed under the assumption of local equilibrium. The simple model is based on the key concept that relates the flux to sectional statistics of position and momentum and could be referenced in similar transport problems. (rapid communication)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.
2008-01-01
Density profiles in LHD were measured and particle transport coefficients were estimated from density modulation experiments in LHD. The data set contains the wide region of discharge condition. The dataset of different magnetic axis, toroidal magnetic field and heating power provided data set of widely scanned neoclassical transport. At minimized neoclassical transport configuration in the dataset (Rax=3.5m, Bt=2.8T) showed peaked density profile. Its peaking factor increased gradually with decrease of collisional frequency. This is a similar result observed in tokamak data base. At other configuration, peaking factor reduced with decrease of collisional frequency. Data set showed that larger contribution of neoclassical transport produced hollowed density profile. Comparison between neoclassical and experimental estimated particle diffusivity showed different minimum condition. This suggests neoclassical optimization is not same as anomalous optimization. Clear difference of spatial profile of turbulence was observed between hollowed and peaked density profiles. Major part of fluctuation existed in the unstable region of linear growth rate of ion temperature gradient mode. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, R.C.
1990-01-01
The passage of energetic ions through semiconductor devices generates excess charge which can produce logic upset, memory change, and device damage. This single event upset (SEU) phenomenon is increasingly important for satellite communications. Experimental and numerical simulation of SEUs is difficult because of the subnanosecond times and large charge densities within the ion track. The objective of this work is twofold: (1) the determination of the track structure and electron-hole pair generation profiles following the passage of an energetic ion; (2) the development and application of a new numerical method for transient charge transport in semiconductor devices. A secondary electron generation and transport model, based on the Monte Carlo method, is developed and coupled to an ion transport code to simulate ion track formation in silicon. A new numerical method is developed for the study of transient charge transport. The numerical method combines an axisymmetric quadratic finite-element formulation for the solution of the potential with particle simulation methods for electron and hole transport. Carrier transport, recombination, and thermal generation of both majority and minority carriers are included. To assess the method, transient one-dimensional solutions for silicon diodes are compared to a fully iterative finite-element method. Simulations of charge collection from ion tracks in three-dimensional axisymmetric devices are presented and compared to previous work. The results of this work for transient current pulses following charged ion passage are in agreement with recent experimental data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilks, P.
1994-02-01
AECL Research is developing a concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel waste in a deep engineered vault in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield and is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to document its case for the acceptability of the disposal concept. This report, one in a series of supporting documents for the EIS, addresses the role of particles in radionuclide transport. It summarizes our studies of natural particles in groundwater and presents the arguments used to justify the omission of particle-facilitated transport in the geosphere model that is based on the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and used in the postclosure assessment study case. Because radiocolloids formed in the vault will not be able to migrate through the clay buffer, radiocolloid formation in the geosphere will be determined by the sorption of radionuclides onto particles in groundwater. These particles consist of typical fracture-lining minerals, such as clays, micas and quartz; precipitated particles, such as colloidal silica and Fe-Si oxyhydroxides; and organic particles. In groundwater from the WRA, the average concentrations of colloids and suspended particles are 0.34 and 1.4 mg/L respectively. Particle-facilitated transport is not included in the geosphere model because the concentrations of particles in groundwater from the WRA are too low to have a significant impact on radionuclide transport. (author). 92 refs., 11 tabs., 13 figs
Numerical study of the particle transport in fast neutron detectors with conversion layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedlackova, K.; Zatko, B.; Necas, V.
2012-01-01
This paper deals with fast neutron and recoil proton transport simulation using statistical analysis of Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MCNPX). Its possibilities in the detector design and optimization are presented. MCNPX proved as a very advantageous self-contained simulation program for fast neutron and secondary proton tracking. Simulations of respective particle transport through conversion layer of HDPE and further in the active volume of detector let us to follow important characteristics as neutron/proton flux density, reaction rate of elastic scattering on hydrogen nuclei and deposited energy as well as their dependencies on incident neutron energy and conversion layer/active region thickness. The efficiency of neutrons to protons conversion has been calculated and its maximum was reached for 500 μm thick conversion layer. The minimum active region thickness has been estimated to be about 300 μm.(authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, R.; Beg, F. N. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Leblanc, P.; Sentoku, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Wei, M. S. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)
2013-07-15
Fully relativistic collisional Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code, PICLS, has been developed to study extreme energy density conditions produced in intense laser-solid interaction. Recent extensions to PICLS, such as the implementation of dynamic ionization, binary collisions in a partially ionized plasma, and radiative losses, enhance the efficacy of simulating intense laser plasma interaction and subsequent energy transport in resistive media. Different ionization models are introduced and benchmarked against each other to check the suitability of the model. The atomic physics models are critical to determine the energy deposition and transport in dense plasmas, especially when they consist of high Z (atomic number) materials. Finally we demonstrate the electron transport simulations to show the importance of target material on fast electron dynamics.
BEAMR: An interactive graphic computer program for design of charged particle beam transport systems
Leonard, R. F.; Giamati, C. C.
1973-01-01
A computer program for a PDP-15 is presented which calculates, to first order, the characteristics of charged-particle beam as it is transported through a sequence of focusing and bending magnets. The maximum dimensions of the beam envelope normal to the transport system axis are continuously plotted on an oscilloscope as a function of distance along the axis. Provision is made to iterate the calculation by changing the types of magnets, their positions, and their field strengths. The program is especially useful for transport system design studies because of the ease and rapidity of altering parameters from panel switches. A typical calculation for a system with eight elements is completed in less than 10 seconds. An IBM 7094 version containing more-detailed printed output but no oscilloscope display is also presented.
Nonlinear ion-mixing-mode particle transport in the dissipative trapped electron regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ware, A.S.; Terry, P.W.
1993-09-01
The nonlinear particle transport arising from the convection of nonadiabatic electron density by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence is examined for trapped electron collisionality regimes. The renormalized dissipative nonadiabatic trapped electron phase space density response is derived and used to calculate the nonlinear particle flux along with an ansatz for the turbulently broadened frequency spectrum. In the lower temperature end of this regime, trapped electrons are collisional and all components of the quasilinear particle flux are outward (i.e., in the direction of the gradients). Nonlinear effects can alter the phase between the nonadiabatic trapped electron phase space density and the electrostatic potential, producing inward components in the particle flux. Specifically, both turbulent shifting of the peak of the frequency spectrum and nonlinear source terms in the trapped electron response can give rise to inward components. However, in the dissipative regime these terms are small and the trapped electron response remains dominantly laminar. When the trapped electrons are collisionless, there is a temperature threshold above which the electron temperature gradient driven component of the quasilinear particle flux changes sign and becomes inward. For finite amplitude turbulence, however, turbulent broadening of both the electron collisional resonance and the frequency spectrum removes tills threshold., and the temperature gradient driven component remains outward
Transport of particles in liquid foams: a multi-scale approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louvet, N.
2009-11-01
Foam is used for the decontamination of radioactive tanks since foam is a system that has a large surface for a low amount of liquid and as a consequence requires less water to be decontaminated. We study experimentally different particle transport configurations in fluid micro-channels network (Plateau borders) of aqueous foam. At first, foam permeability is measured at the scale of a single channel and of the whole foam network for 2 soap solutions known for their significant different interface mobility. Experimental data are well described by a model that takes into account the real geometry of the foam and by considering a constant value of the Boussinesq number of each soap solutions. Secondly, the velocity of one particle convected in a single foam channel is measured for different particle/channel aspect ratio. For small aspect ratio, a counterflow that is taking place at the channel's corners slows down the particle. A recirculation model in the channel foam films is developed to describe this effect. To do this, the Gibbs elasticity is introduced. Then, the threshold between trapped and released of one particle in liquid foam are carried out. This threshold is deduced from hydrodynamic and capillary forces equilibrium. Finally, the case of a clog foam node is addressed. (author)
Modelling of a general purpose irradiation chamber using a Monte Carlo particle transport code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi; Sheik, F.O.A.; Nurul Fadzlin Hasbullah
2013-01-01
Full-text: The aim of this research is to stimulate the effectiveness use of a general purpose irradiation chamber to contain pure neutron particles obtained from a research reactor. The secondary neutron and gamma particles dose discharge from the chamber layers will be used as a platform to estimate the safe dimension of the chamber. The chamber, made up of layers of lead (Pb), shielding, polyethylene (PE), moderator and commercial grade aluminium (Al) cladding is proposed for the use of interacting samples with pure neutron particles in a nuclear reactor environment. The estimation was accomplished through simulation based on general Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code using Los Alamos MCNPX software. Simulations were performed on the model of the chamber subjected to high neutron flux radiation and its gamma radiation product. The model of neutron particle used is based on the neutron source found in PUSPATI TRIGA MARK II research reactor which holds a maximum flux value of 1 x 10 12 neutron/ cm 2 s. The expected outcomes of this research are zero gamma dose in the core of the chamber and neutron dose rate of less than 10 μSv/ day discharge from the chamber system. (author)
Ballooning mode instability due to slowed-down ALPHA -particles and associated transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Sanae; Itoh, Kimitaka; Tuda, Takashi; Tokuda, Shinji.
1982-01-01
The microscopic stability of tokamak plasma, which contains slowed-down alpha-particles and the anomalous fluxes enhanced by the fluctuation, was studied. The local maxwellian distribution with the density inhomogeneity as the equilibrium distribution of electrons, ions and alpha-particles was closen. In the zero-beta limit, two branches of eigenmodes, which are electrostatic, were obtained. The electrostatic ballooning mode became unstable by the grad B drift of particles in the toroidal plasma. It should be noted that there was no critical alpha-particle density and no critical beta-value for the onset of the instability in toroidal plasma even in the presence of the magnetic shear. When the beta-value exceeded the critical beta-value of the MHD ballooning mode, the growth rate approached to that of the MHD mode, and the mode sturcture became very close to that of the MHD mode. The unstable mode in toroidal plasma was the ballooning mode, and was unstable for all plasma parameters. The associated cross-field transport by the ballooning mode is considered. It was found that if the distribution function was assumed to be the birth distribution, the loss rate was very slow and slower than the slowing down time. The effect of alpha-particles on the large scale MHD activity of plasma is discussed. (Kato, T.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tooprakai, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Seripienlert, A.; Ruffolo, D.; Chuychai, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Matthaeus, W. H., E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)
2016-11-10
We simulate trajectories of energetic particles from impulsive solar flares for 2D+slab models of magnetic turbulence in spherical geometry to study dropout features, i.e., sharp, repeated changes in the particle density. Among random-phase realizations of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, a spherical harmonic expansion can generate homogeneous turbulence over a sphere, but a 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT) locally mapped onto the lateral coordinates in the region of interest is much faster computationally, and we show that the results are qualitatively similar. We then use the 2D FFT field as input to a 2D MHD simulation, which dynamically generates realistic features of turbulence such as coherent structures. The magnetic field lines and particles spread non-diffusively (ballistically) to a patchy distribution reaching up to 25° from the injection longitude and latitude at r ∼ 1 au. This dropout pattern in field line trajectories has sharper features in the case of the more realistic 2D MHD model, in better qualitative agreement with observations. The initial dropout pattern in particle trajectories is relatively insensitive to particle energy, though the energy affects the pattern’s evolution with time. We make predictions for future observations of solar particles near the Sun (e.g., at 0.25 au), for which we expect a sharp pulse of outgoing particles along the dropout pattern, followed by backscattering that first remains close to the dropout pattern and later exhibits cross-field transport to a distribution that is more diffusive, yet mostly contained within the dropout pattern found at greater distances.
Coupling Solute and Fine Particle Transport with Sand Bed Morphodynamics within a Field Experiment
Phillips, C. B.; Ortiz, C. P.; Schumer, R.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Packman, A. I.
2017-12-01
Fine suspended particles are typically considered to pass through streams and rivers as wash load without interacting with the bed, however experiments have demonstrated that hyporheic flow causes advective exchange of fine particles with the stream bed, yielding accumulation of fine particle deposits within the bed. Ultimately, understanding river morphodynamics and ecosystem dynamics requires coupling both fine particle and solute transport with bed morphodynamics. To better understand the coupling between these processes we analyze a novel dataset from a controlled field experiment conducted on Clear Run, a 2nd order sand bed stream located within the North Carolina coastal plain. Data include concentrations of continuously injected conservative solutes and fine particulate tracers measured at various depths within the stream bed, overhead time lapse images of bed forms, stream discharge, and geomorphological surveys of the stream. We use image analysis of bed morphodynamics to assess exchange, retention, and remobilization of solutes and fine particles during constant discharge and a short duration experimental flood. From the images, we extract a time series of bedform elevations and scour depths for the duration of the experiment. The high-resolution timeseries of bed elevation enables us to assess coupling of bed morphodynamics with both the solute and fine particle flux during steady state mobile bedforms prior to the flood and to changing bedforms during the flood. These data allow the application of a stochastic modeling framework relating bed elevation fluctuations to fine particle residence times. This combined experimental and modeling approach ultimately informs our ability to predict not only the fate of fine particulate matter but also associated nutrient and carbon dynamics within streams and rivers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tooprakai, P.; Seripienlert, A.; Ruffolo, D.; Chuychai, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2016-01-01
We simulate trajectories of energetic particles from impulsive solar flares for 2D+slab models of magnetic turbulence in spherical geometry to study dropout features, i.e., sharp, repeated changes in the particle density. Among random-phase realizations of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, a spherical harmonic expansion can generate homogeneous turbulence over a sphere, but a 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT) locally mapped onto the lateral coordinates in the region of interest is much faster computationally, and we show that the results are qualitatively similar. We then use the 2D FFT field as input to a 2D MHD simulation, which dynamically generates realistic features of turbulence such as coherent structures. The magnetic field lines and particles spread non-diffusively (ballistically) to a patchy distribution reaching up to 25° from the injection longitude and latitude at r ∼ 1 au. This dropout pattern in field line trajectories has sharper features in the case of the more realistic 2D MHD model, in better qualitative agreement with observations. The initial dropout pattern in particle trajectories is relatively insensitive to particle energy, though the energy affects the pattern’s evolution with time. We make predictions for future observations of solar particles near the Sun (e.g., at 0.25 au), for which we expect a sharp pulse of outgoing particles along the dropout pattern, followed by backscattering that first remains close to the dropout pattern and later exhibits cross-field transport to a distribution that is more diffusive, yet mostly contained within the dropout pattern found at greater distances.
Observations of bromine monoxide transport in the Arctic sustained on aerosol particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. K. Peterson
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The return of sunlight in the polar spring leads to the production of reactive halogen species from the surface snowpack, significantly altering the chemical composition of the Arctic near-surface atmosphere and the fate of long-range transported pollutants, including mercury. Recent work has shown the initial production of reactive bromine at the Arctic surface snowpack; however, we have limited knowledge of the vertical extent of this chemistry, as well as the lifetime and possible transport of reactive bromine aloft. Here, we present bromine monoxide (BrO and aerosol particle measurements obtained during the March 2012 BRomine Ozone Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX near Utqiaġvik (Barrow, AK. The airborne differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS measurements provided an unprecedented level of spatial resolution, over 2 orders of magnitude greater than satellite observations and with vertical resolution unable to be achieved by satellite methods, for BrO in the Arctic. This novel method provided quantitative identification of a BrO plume, between 500 m and 1 km aloft, moving at the speed of the air mass. Concurrent aerosol particle measurements suggest that this lofted reactive bromine plume was transported and maintained at elevated levels through heterogeneous reactions on colocated supermicron aerosol particles, independent of surface snowpack bromine chemistry. This chemical transport mechanism explains the large spatial extents often observed for reactive bromine chemistry, which impacts atmospheric composition and pollutant fate across the Arctic region, beyond areas of initial snowpack halogen production. The possibility of BrO enhancements disconnected from the surface potentially contributes to sustaining BrO in the free troposphere and must also be considered in the interpretation of satellite BrO column observations, particularly in the context of the rapidly changing Arctic sea ice and snowpack.
Walsh, S. D.; Du Frane, W. L.; Vericella, J. J.; Aines, R. D.
2014-12-01
Smart tracers and smart proppants promise new methods for sensing and manipulating rock fractures. However, the correct use and interpretation of these technologies relies on accurate models of their transport. Even for less exotic particles, the factors controlling particle transport through fractures are poorly understood. In this presentation, we will describe ongoing research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory into the transport properties of particles in natural rock fractures. Using three dimensional printing techniques, we create clear-plastic reproductions of real-world fracture surfaces, thereby enabling direct observation of the particle movement. We will also discuss how particle tracking of dense particle packs can be further enhanced by using such specially tailored flow cells in combination with micro-encapsulated tracer particles. Experimental results investigating the transport behavior of smart tracers and proppants close to the neutrally buoyant limit will be presented and we will describe how data from these experiments can be used to improve large-scale models of particle transport in fractures. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Extended fluid transport theory in the tokamak plasma edge
Stacey, W. M.
2017-06-01
Fluid theory expressions for the radial particle and energy fluxes and the radial distributions of pressure and temperature in the edge plasma are derived from fundamental conservation (particle, energy, momentum) relations, taking into account kinetic corrections arising from ion orbit loss, and integrated to illustrate the dependence of the observed edge pedestal profile structure on fueling, heating, and electromagnetic and thermodynamic forces. Solution procedures for the fluid plasma and associated neutral transport equations are discussed.
New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Komppula
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In air masses of eastern origin almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in air masses of western origin most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the
Results and perspectives of particle transport measurements in gases in microgravity
Vedernikov, Andrei; Balapanov, Daniyar; Beresnev, Sergey
2016-07-01
Solid or liquid particles floating in a gas belong to dispersed systems, most often referred to as aerosols or dust clouds. They are widely spread in nature, involving both environmental and technological issues. They attract growing attention in microgravity, particularly in complex plasma, simulation of protoplanetary dust clouds, atmospheric aerosol, etc. Brownian random walk, motion of particles in gravity, electrostatic and magnetic fields, are well defined. We present the survey showing that the quantitative description of a vast variety of other types of motion is much less accurate, often known only in a limited region of parameters, sometimes described by the contradictory models, poorly verified experimentally. It is true even for the most extensively investigated transport phenomena - thermophoresis and photophoresis, not to say about diffusiophoresis, gravito-photophoresis, various other types of particle motion driven by physicochemical transformation and accommodation peculiarities on the particle-gas interface, combination of different processes. The number of publications grow very quickly, only those dealing with thermophoresis exceeded 300 in 2015. Hence, there is a strong need in high quality experimental data on particle transport properties with growing interest to expand the scope for non-isometric particles, agglomerates, dense clouds, interrelation with the two-phase flow dynamics. In most cases, the accuracy and sometimes the entire possibility of the measurement is limited by the presence of gravity. Floating particles have the density considerably different from that of the gas. They sediment, often with gliding and tumbling, that perturbs the motion trajectory, local hydrodynamic environment around particles, all together complicating definition of the response. Measurements at very high or very low Knudsen numbers (rarefied gas or too big particles) are of particular difficulty. Experiments assume creating a well-defined force, i
Low frequency turbulence, particle and heat transport in the Wisconsin levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garner, H.R.
1982-01-01
Low frequency turbulence in the drift frequency range and its relation to the observed particle transport in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole has been studied with a microwave scattering apparatus. The experimental parameters were T/sub e/ approx. T/sub i/ 13 cm -3 , 200 G < B/sub p-average/ < 1.25 kG. The effect of shear on the transport was studied by the addition of a small toroidal field. By matching experimentally measured density profiles to those given by numerical solutions of the transport equations, diffusion coefficients were obtained. Time dependent density fluctuation spectra were measured with an 8 mm microwave scattering diagnostic to correlate the drift wave portion of the spectrum with the observed diffusion. The density fluctuation spectrum of low frequency (1 kHz < ω < 6 MHz) turbulence was measured for several values of perpendicular wavenumber, k/sub perpendicular to/. Electron heat transport was studied by fitting experimentally measured electron temperature profiles to those predicted by numerical solutions of electron energy transport equation
Creating and using a type of free-form geometry in Monte Carlo particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J.
1993-01-01
While the reactor physicists were fine-tuning the Monte Carlo paradigm for particle transport in regular geometries, the computer scientists were developing rendering algorithms to display extremely realistic renditions of irregular objects ranging from the ubiquitous teakettle to dynamic Jell-O. Even though the modeling methods share a common basis, the initial strategies each discipline developed for variance reduction were remarkably different. Initially, the reactor physicist used Russian roulette, importance sampling, particle splitting, and rejection techniques. In the early stages of development, the computer scientist relied primarily on rejection techniques, including a very elegant hierarchical construction and sampling method. This sampling method allowed the computer scientist to viably track particles through irregular geometries in three-dimensional space, while the initial methods developed by the reactor physicists would only allow for efficient searches through analytical surfaces or objects. As time goes by, it appears there has been some merging of the variance reduction strategies between the two disciplines. This is an early (possibly first) incorporation of geometric hierarchical construction and sampling into the reactor physicists' Monte Carlo transport model that permits efficient tracking through nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces in three-dimensional space. After some discussion, the results from this model are compared with experiments and the model employing implicit (analytical) geometric representation
Load balancing in highly parallel processing of Monte Carlo code for particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higuchi, Kenji; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Takuji
1998-01-01
In parallel processing of Monte Carlo (MC) codes for neutron, photon and electron transport problems, particle histories are assigned to processors making use of independency of the calculation for each particle. Although we can easily parallelize main part of a MC code by this method, it is necessary and practically difficult to optimize the code concerning load balancing in order to attain high speedup ratio in highly parallel processing. In fact, the speedup ratio in the case of 128 processors remains in nearly one hundred times when using the test bed for the performance evaluation. Through the parallel processing of the MCNP code, which is widely used in the nuclear field, it is shown that it is difficult to attain high performance by static load balancing in especially neutron transport problems, and a load balancing method, which dynamically changes the number of assigned particles minimizing the sum of the computational and communication costs, overcomes the difficulty, resulting in nearly fifteen percentage of reduction for execution time. (author)
Behafarid, Farhad; Brasseur, James G.
2017-11-01
Following tablet disintegration, clouds of drug particles 5-200 μm in diameter pass through the intestines where drug molecules are absorbed into the blood. Release rate depends on particle size, drug solubility, local drug concentration and the hydrodynamic environment driven by patterned gut contractions. To analyze the dynamics underlying drug release and absorption, we use a 3D lattice Boltzmann model of the velocity and concentration fields driven by peristaltic contractions in vivo, combined with a mathematical model of dissolution-rate from each drug particle transported through the grid. The model is empirically extended for hydrodynamic enhancements to release rate by local convection and shear-rate, and incorporates heterogeneity in bulk concentration. Drug dosage and solubility are systematically varied along with peristaltic wave speed and volume. We predict large hydrodynamic enhancements (35-65%) from local shear-rate with minimal enhancement from convection. With high permeability boundary conditions, a quasi-equilibrium balance between release and absorption is established with volume and wave-speed dependent transport time scale, after an initial transient and before a final period of dissolution/absorption. Supported by FDA.
Bär, Séverine; Rommelaere, Jean; Nüesch, Jürg P F
2013-09-01
Progeny particles of non-enveloped lytic parvoviruses were previously shown to be actively transported to the cell periphery through vesicles in a gelsolin-dependent manner. This process involves rearrangement and destruction of actin filaments, while microtubules become protected throughout the infection. Here the focus is on the intracellular egress pathway, as well as its impact on the properties and release of progeny virions. By colocalization with cellular marker proteins and specific modulation of the pathways through over-expression of variant effector genes transduced by recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors, we show that progeny PV particles become engulfed into COPII-vesicles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are transported through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Besides known factors like sar1, sec24, rab1, the ERM family proteins, radixin and moesin play (an) essential role(s) in the formation/loading and targeting of virus-containing COPII-vesicles. These proteins also contribute to the transport through ER and Golgi of the well described analogue of cellular proteins, the secreted Gaussia luciferase in absence of virus infection. It is therefore likely that radixin and moesin also serve for a more general function in cellular exocytosis. Finally, parvovirus egress via ER and Golgi appears to be necessary for virions to gain full infectivity through post-assembly modifications (e.g. phosphorylation). While not being absolutely required for cytolysis and progeny virus release, vesicular transport of parvoviruses through ER and Golgi significantly accelerates these processes pointing to a regulatory role of this transport pathway.
Herterich, James G.; Griffiths, Ian M.; Vella, Dominic; Field, Robert W.
2014-01-01
The transport of a dilute suspension of particles through a channel with porous walls, accounting for the concentration dependence of the viscosity, is analyzed. In particular, we study two cases of fluid permeation through the porous channel walls
Lin, Y.; Wang, X.; Fok, M. C. H.; Buzulukova, N.; Perez, J. D.; Chen, L. J.
2017-12-01
The interaction between the Earth's inner and outer magnetospheric regions associated with the tail fast flows is calculated by coupling the Auburn 3-D global hybrid simulation code (ANGIE3D) to the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere/Ionosphere (CIMI) model. The global hybrid code solves fully kinetic equations governing the ions and a fluid model for electrons in the self-consistent electromagnetic field of the dayside and night side outer magnetosphere. In the integrated computation model, the hybrid simulation provides the CIMI model with field data in the CIMI 3-D domain and particle data at its boundary, and the transport in the inner magnetosphere is calculated by the CIMI model. By joining the two existing codes, effects of the solar wind on particle transport through the outer magnetosphere into the inner magnetosphere are investigated. Our simulation shows that fast flows and flux ropes are localized transients in the magnetotail plasma sheet and their overall structures have a dawn-dusk asymmetry. Strong perpendicular ion heating is found at the fast flow braking, which affects the earthward transport of entropy-depleted bubbles. We report on the impacts from the temperature anisotropy and non-Maxwellian ion distributions associated with the fast flows on the ring current and the convection electric field.
GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong Chunye; Liu Jie; Chi Lihua; Huang Haowei; Fang Jingyue; Gong Zhenghu
2011-01-01
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), originally developed for real-time, high-definition 3D graphics in computer games, now provides great faculty in solving scientific applications. The basis of particle transport simulation is the time-dependent, multi-group, inhomogeneous Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation involves the discrete ordinates (S n ) method and the procedure of source iteration. In this paper, we present a GPU accelerated simulation of one energy group time-independent deterministic discrete ordinates particle transport in 3D Cartesian geometry (Sweep3D). The performance of the GPU simulations are reported with the simulations of vacuum boundary condition. The discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the GPU implementation, the simulation on multi GPUs, the programming effort and code portability are also reported. The results show that the overall performance speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU ranges from 2.56 compared with one Intel Xeon X5670 chip to 8.14 compared with one Intel Core Q6600 chip for no flux fixup. The simulation with flux fixup on one M2050 is 1.23 times faster than on one X5670.
GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method
Gong, Chunye; Liu, Jie; Chi, Lihua; Huang, Haowei; Fang, Jingyue; Gong,