Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Bovith, Thomas
2008-01-01
for prediction of this type of weather radar clutter is presented. The method uses a wave propagator to identify areas of potential non-standard propagation. The wave propagator uses a three dimensional refractivity field derived from the geophysical parameters: temperature, humidity, and pressure obtained from......Weather radars are essential sensors for observation of precipitation in the troposphere and play a major part in weather forecasting and hydrological modelling. Clutter caused by non-standard wave propagation is a common problem in weather radar applications, and in this paper a method...... a high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. The wave propagator is based on the parabolic equation approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation. The parabolic equation is solved using the well-known Fourier split-step method. Finally, the radar clutter prediction technique is used...
EM wave propagation analysis in plasma covered radar absorbing material
Singh, Hema; Rawat, Harish Singh
2017-01-01
This book focuses on EM propagation characteristics within multilayered plasma-dielectric-metallic media. The method used for analysis is impedance transformation method. Plasma covered radar absorbing material is approximated as a multi-layered dielectric medium. The plasma is considered to be bounded homogeneous/inhomogeneous medium. The reflection coefficient and hence return loss is analytically derived. The role of plasma parameters, such as electron density, collision frequency, plasma thickness, and plasma density profile in the absorption behavior of multi-layered plasma-RAM structure is described. This book provides a clearer picture of EM propagation within plasma. The reader will get an insight of plasma parameters that play significant role in deciding the absorption characteristics of plasma covered surfaces.
Hollender, F.
1999-01-01
Within the framework of research for waste disposal in deep geological formations, the French agency for nuclear waste management (ANDRA) has to dispose of non-destructive investigation methods to characterize the medium. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) could be used for this purpose in the case of granitic sites. The work presented here deals with this geophysical method. The classical interpretation of GPR data consists in the localization of geological discontinuities by signal amplitude or arrival time analysis. The main objective of our studies is the interpretation of the radar wave distortion (due to propagation and reflection phenomena), not only to localize discontinuities but also to contribute to their identification. Three preliminary studies have been carried out in order to understand on the one hand, the complexity of the electromagnetic phenomena in the geological medium at radar frequency, and on the other hand, the radar equipment constraints. First, the dispersion and the attenuation characterized by a Q variable factor of the GPR waves are shown with the support of dielectric laboratory measurements. A model, which only requires three parameters, is proposed in order to describe this behavior. Second, the radiation patterns of borehole radar antenna are studied. We show that the amplitude and frequency content of the emitted signal are variable versus the emission angle. An analytical method is proposed to study these phenomena. Finally, instrumental drifts of GPR equipment are studied. Emission time, sampling frequency and amplitude fluctuations are described. These elements are taken into account for the processing of propagated signals by tomographic inversion. Medium anisotropy and borehole trajectory errors are inserted in algorithms in order to cancel artifacts which compromised the previous interpretation. A pre-processing method, based on wave separation algorithm, is applied on data in order to increase tomogram resolution. A new
Song, I.-S.; Lee, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Jee, G.; Kim, Y.-H.; Choi, H.-J.; Chun, H.-Y.; Kim, Y. H.
2017-04-01
Vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) are retrieved from meteor radar winds observed at King Sejong Station (KSS: 62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica. IGW horizontal winds extracted from temporal band-pass filtering in regular time-height bins show the frequent occurrence of IGWs with the downward phase progression and the counterclockwise rotation of their horizontal wind vectors with time (i.e., upward energy propagation) near the mesopause region throughout the whole year of 2014. The vertical wavelengths of the observed IGWs roughly range from 14 km to more than 20 km, which is consistent with previous observational studies on the mesospheric IGWs over Antarctica. Stokes parameters and rotary spectra computed from the hodographs of the IGW horizontal wind components reveal that the intrinsic frequencies of the upward propagating IGWs are |f|-3|f| with seasonal variations of the relative predominance between |f|-2|f| and 2|f|-3|f|, where f is the Coriolis parameter at KSS. The hodograph analysis also indicates that the N-S propagation is dominant in austral summer, while the NE-SW propagation is pronounced in austral winter. The propagation direction is discussed in relation to the generation of IGWs due to dynamical imbalances occurring in the tropospheric and stratospheric jet flow systems. Ray tracing results indicate that the N-S propagation in summer may be due to the jet flow systems roughly north of KSS and the NE-SW propagation in winter may be either the SW propagation from the jet flow systems northeast of KSS or the NE propagation (around the South Pole) from the south of Australia and Southern Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Hollender, F
1999-07-01
Within the framework of research for waste disposal in deep geological formations, the French agency for nuclear waste management (ANDRA) has to dispose of non-destructive investigation methods to characterize the medium. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) could be used for this purpose in the case of granitic sites. The work presented here deals with this geophysical method. The classical interpretation of GPR data consists in the localization of geological discontinuities by signal amplitude or arrival time analysis. The main objective of our studies is the interpretation of the radar wave distortion (due to propagation and reflection phenomena), not only to localize discontinuities but also to contribute to their identification. Three preliminary studies have been carried out in order to understand on the one hand, the complexity of the electromagnetic phenomena in the geological medium at radar frequency, and on the other hand, the radar equipment constraints. First, the dispersion and the attenuation characterized by a Q variable factor of the GPR waves are shown with the support of dielectric laboratory measurements. A model, which only requires three parameters, is proposed in order to describe this behavior. Second, the radiation patterns of borehole radar antenna are studied. We show that the amplitude and frequency content of the emitted signal are variable versus the emission angle. An analytical method is proposed to study these phenomena. Finally, instrumental drifts of GPR equipment are studied. Emission time, sampling frequency and amplitude fluctuations are described. These elements are taken into account for the processing of propagated signals by tomographic inversion. Medium anisotropy and borehole trajectory errors are inserted in algorithms in order to cancel artifacts which compromised the previous interpretation. A pre-processing method, based on wave separation algorithm, is applied on data in order to increase tomogram resolution. A new
Radio wave propagation and parabolic equation modeling
Apaydin, Gokhan
2018-01-01
A thorough understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation is fundamental to the development of sophisticated communication and detection technologies. The powerful numerical methods described in this book represent a major step forward in our ability to accurately model electromagnetic wave propagation in order to establish and maintain reliable communication links, to detect targets in radar systems, and to maintain robust mobile phone and broadcasting networks. The first new book on guided wave propagation modeling and simulation to appear in nearly two decades, Radio Wave Propagation and Parabolic Equation Modeling addresses the fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation generally, with a specific focus on radio wave propagation through various media. The authors explore an array of new applications, and detail various v rtual electromagnetic tools for solving several frequent electromagnetic propagation problems. All of the methods described are presented within the context of real-world scenari...
David, P
2013-01-01
Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear
Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves
Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2010-01-01
Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...
Wave propagation in elastic solids
Achenbach, Jan
1984-01-01
The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat
Wave propagation in electromagnetic media
Davis, Julian L
1990-01-01
This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...
Target & Propagation Models for the FINDER Radar
Cable, Vaughn; Lux, James; Haque, Salmon
2013-01-01
Finding persons still alive in piles of rubble following an earthquake, a severe storm, or other disaster is a difficult problem. JPL is currently developing a victim detection radar called FINDER (Finding Individuals in Emergency and Response). The subject of this paper is directed toward development of propagation & target models needed for simulation & testing of such a system. These models are both physical (real rubble piles) and numerical. Early results from the numerical modeling phase show spatial and temporal spreading characteristics when signals are passed through a randomly mixed rubble pile.
Wave propagation in electromagnetic media
Davis, J.L.
1990-01-01
This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media, specifically in electromagnetic materials. An account is presented of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials. The author presents the theory of time-varying electromagnetic fields, which involves a discussion of Faraday's laws, Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic wave propagation under a variety of conditions. The author gives a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Chapters are included on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The mathematical foundation of electromagnetic waves vis a vis partial differential equations is discussed
Millimeter wave radars raise weapon IQ
Lerner, E. J.
1985-02-01
The problems encountered by laser and IR homing devices for guided munitions may be tractable with warhead-mounted mm-wave radars. Operating at about 100 GHz and having several kilometers range, mm-wave radars see through darkness, fog, rain and smoke. The radar must be coupled with an analyzer that discerns moving and stationary targets and higher priority targets. The target lock-on can include shut-off of the transmitter and reception of naturally-generated mm-waves bouncing off the target when in the terminal phase of the flight. Monopulse transmitters have simplified the radar design, although mass production of finline small radar units has yet to be accomplished, particularly in combining GaAs, ferrites and other materials on one monolithic chip.
Wave equations for pulse propagation
Shore, B.W.
1987-01-01
Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity. The memo discusses various ways of characterizing the polarization characteristics of plane waves, that is, of parameterizing a transverse unit vector, such as the Jones vector, the Stokes vector, and the Poincare sphere. It discusses the connection between macroscopically defined quantities, such as the intensity or, more generally, the Stokes parameters, and microscopic field amplitudes. The material presented here is a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. The equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected here as a summary and review of theory needed when treating pulse propagation
Wave Propagation in Bimodular Geomaterials
Kuznetsova, Maria; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pelinovsky, Efim
2016-04-01
Observations and laboratory experiments show that fragmented or layered geomaterials have the mechanical response dependent on the sign of the load. The most adequate model accounting for this effect is the theory of bimodular (bilinear) elasticity - a hyperelastic model with different elastic moduli for tension and compression. For most of geo- and structural materials (cohesionless soils, rocks, concrete, etc.) the difference between elastic moduli is such that their modulus in compression is considerably higher than that in tension. This feature has a profound effect on oscillations [1]; however, its effect on wave propagation has not been comprehensively investigated. It is believed that incorporation of bilinear elastic constitutive equations within theory of wave dynamics will bring a deeper insight to the study of mechanical behaviour of many geomaterials. The aim of this paper is to construct a mathematical model and develop analytical methods and numerical algorithms for analysing wave propagation in bimodular materials. Geophysical and exploration applications and applications in structural engineering are envisaged. The FEM modelling of wave propagation in a 1D semi-infinite bimodular material has been performed with the use of Marlow potential [2]. In the case of the initial load expressed by a harmonic pulse loading strong dependence on the pulse sign is observed: when tension is applied before compression, the phenomenon of disappearance of negative (compressive) strains takes place. References 1. Dyskin, A., Pasternak, E., & Pelinovsky, E. (2012). Periodic motions and resonances of impact oscillators. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331(12), 2856-2873. 2. Marlow, R. S. (2008). A Second-Invariant Extension of the Marlow Model: Representing Tension and Compression Data Exactly. In ABAQUS Users' Conference.
Propagation of sound waves in ducts
Jacobsen, Finn
2000-01-01
Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described.......Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described....
Lamb wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers
Fromme, P.; Pizzolato, M.; Robyr, J-L; Masserey, B.
2018-01-01
Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. Guided ultrasonic waves offer the potential to efficiently detect micro-cracks in the thin wafers. Previous studies of ultrasonic wave propagation in silicon focused on effects of material anisotropy on bulk ultrasonic waves, but the dependence of the wave propagation characteristics on the material anisotropy is not well understood for Lamb waves. The phase slowness a...
Propagation characteristic of THz wave in camouflage net material
Dong, Hailong; Wang, Jiachun; Chen, Zongsheng; Lin, Zhidan; Zhao, Dapeng; Liu, Ruihuang
2017-10-01
Terahertz (THz) radar system, with excellent potentials such as high-resolution and strong penetration capability, is promising in the field of anti-camouflage. Camouflage net is processed by cutting the camouflage net material, which is fabricated on pre-processing substrate by depositing coatings with camouflage abilities in different bands, such as visible, infrared and radar. In this paper, we concentrate on the propagation characteristic of THz wave in camouflage net material. Firstly, function and structure of camouflage net were analyzed. Then the advantage and appliance of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was introduced. And the relevant experiments were conducted by utilizing THz-TDS. The results obtained indicate that THz wave has better penetration capacity in camouflage net material, which demonstrates the feasibility of using THz radar to detect those targets covered with camouflage net.
Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT
Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc
2013-01-01
Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the
Wave propagation on a plasma media
Torres-Silva, H.; Villarroel-Gonzalez, C.; Reggiani, N.; Sakanaka, P.H.
1995-01-01
Chiral-media and ferrite media have been studied over the last decade for many applications. Chiral-media have been examined as coating for reducing radar cross section, for antennas and arrays, for antenna radomes in waveguides and for microstrip substrate. Here, we examine a chiral-plasma medium, where the plasma part of the composite medium is non-reciprocal due to the external magnetic field, to find the general dispersion relation giving the ω against K behavior, vector phasor Helmholtz based equations are derived. We determine the modal eigenvalue properties in the chiral-plasma medium, which is doubly anisotropic. For the case of waves which propagate parallel to the magnetic field is a cold magnetized chiro-plasma. We compare our results with the typical results obtained for a cold plasma. Also we obtain the chiral-Faraday rotation which can be compared with the typical Faraday rotation for a pair of right-and left-handed circularly polarized waves. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs
Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting
Simpson, Alexandra [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Haller, Merrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Civil & Construction Engineering; Walker, David [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lynett, Pat [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2017-08-29
This project addressed Topic 3: “Wave Measurement Instrumentation for Feed Forward Controls” under the FOA number DE-FOA-0000971. The overall goal of the program was to develop a phase-resolving wave forecasting technique for application to the active control of Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) devices. We have developed an approach that couples a wave imaging marine radar with a phase-resolving linear wave model for real-time wave field reconstruction and forward propagation of the wave field in space and time. The scope of the project was to develop and assess the performance of this novel forecasting system. Specific project goals were as follows: Develop and verify a fast, GPU-based (Graphical Processing Unit) wave propagation model suitable for phase-resolved computation of nearshore wave transformation over variable bathymetry; Compare the accuracy and speed of performance of the wave model against a deep water model in their ability to predict wave field transformation in the intermediate water depths (50 to 70 m) typical of planned WEC sites; Develop and implement a variational assimilation algorithm that can ingest wave imaging radar observations and estimate the time-varying wave conditions offshore of the domain of interest such that the observed wave field is best reconstructed throughout the domain and then use this to produce model forecasts for a given WEC location; Collect wave-resolving marine radar data, along with relevant in situ wave data, at a suitable wave energy test site, apply the algorithm to the field data, assess performance, and identify any necessary improvements; and Develop a production cost estimate that addresses the affordability of the wave forecasting technology and include in the Final Report. The developed forecasting algorithm (“Wavecast”) was evaluated for both speed and accuracy against a substantial synthetic dataset. Early in the project, performance tests definitively demonstrated that the system was capable of
Topology optimization of wave-propagation problems
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2006-01-01
Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures.......Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures....
Wave propagation in thermoelastic saturated porous medium
the existence and propagation of four waves in the medium. Three of the waves are ... predicted infinite speed for propagation of ther- mal signals. Lord and ..... saturated reservoir rock (North-sea Sandstone) is chosen for the numerical model ...
Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves
Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A
2013-01-01
Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte
Propagation of radar rainfall uncertainty in urban flood simulations
Liguori, Sara; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel
2013-04-01
This work discusses the results of the implementation of a novel probabilistic system designed to improve ensemble sewer flow predictions for the drainage network of a small urban area in the North of England. The probabilistic system has been developed to model the uncertainty associated to radar rainfall estimates and propagate it through radar-based ensemble sewer flow predictions. The assessment of this system aims at outlining the benefits of addressing the uncertainty associated to radar rainfall estimates in a probabilistic framework, to be potentially implemented in the real-time management of the sewer network in the study area. Radar rainfall estimates are affected by uncertainty due to various factors [1-3] and quality control and correction techniques have been developed in order to improve their accuracy. However, the hydrological use of radar rainfall estimates and forecasts remains challenging. A significant effort has been devoted by the international research community to the assessment of the uncertainty propagation through probabilistic hydro-meteorological forecast systems [4-5], and various approaches have been implemented for the purpose of characterizing the uncertainty in radar rainfall estimates and forecasts [6-11]. A radar-based ensemble stochastic approach, similar to the one implemented for use in the Southern-Alps by the REAL system [6], has been developed for the purpose of this work. An ensemble generator has been calibrated on the basis of the spatial-temporal characteristics of the residual error in radar estimates assessed with reference to rainfall records from around 200 rain gauges available for the year 2007, previously post-processed and corrected by the UK Met Office [12-13]. Each ensemble member is determined by summing a perturbation field to the unperturbed radar rainfall field. The perturbations are generated by imposing the radar error spatial and temporal correlation structure to purely stochastic fields. A
Significant wave height retrieval from synthetic radar images
Wijaya, Andreas Parama; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.
2014-01-01
In many offshore activities radar imagery is used to observe and predict ocean waves. An important issue in analyzing the radar images is to resolve the significant wave height. Different from 3DFFT methods that use an estimate related to the square root of the signal-to-noise ratio of radar images,
Resonant absorption of radar waves by a magnetized collisional plasma
Sun Aiping; Tong Honghui; Shen Liru; Tang Deli; Qiu Xiaoming
2001-01-01
The propagation of radar waves in a magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. It is found for uniform plasma that: first, the wave attenuation and absorbed power show a peak value, i.e., resonant absorption when the collision frequency f en = 0.1, 0.5, 1 GHz and the wave frequency nears upper hybrid frequency. Secondly, the attenuation, absorbed, and transmitted power curves become flat at f en = 5, 10 Ghz. thirdly, the attenuation and absorbed power increase with plasma density, and the attenuation and the proportion of absorbed power can reach 100 dB and 80%, respectively, at the plasma density n = 10 11 cm -3 . For nonuniform plasma, the peak value of reflected power is larger than that in uniform plasma. So, uniform magnetized plasma is of more benefit to plasma cloaking
Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain
Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan
2017-01-01
A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like
Some considerations of wave propagation
Verdonk, P. L. F. M.
The meaning of group velocity and its relation to conserved quantities are demonstrated. The origin of wave dispersion in terms of nonlocal and relaxation phenomena are clarified. The character of a wave described by an equation with a general type of nonlinearity and general dispersion terms is explained. The steepening of a wave flank and the occurrence of stationary waves are discussed.
Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves
Pan, Weiyan
2014-01-01
This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).
Wave propagation and scattering in random media
Ishimaru, Akira
1978-01-01
Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an
Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation
Schakel, M.D.
2011-01-01
Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed,
Reversed phase propagation for hyperbolic surface waves
Repän, Taavi; Novitsky, Andrey; Willatzen, Morten
2018-01-01
Magnetic properties can be used to control phase propagation in hyperbolic metamaterials. However, in the visible spectrum magnetic properties are difficult to obtain. We discuss hyperbolic surface waves allowing for a similar control over phase, achieved without magnetic properties....
Harmonic surface wave propagation in plasma
Shivarova, A.; Stoychev, T.
1980-01-01
Second order harmonic surface waves generated by one fundamental high-frequency surface wave are investigated experimentally in gas discharge plasma. Two types of harmonic waves of equal frequency, associated with the linear dispersion relation and the synchronism conditions relatively propagate. The experimental conditions and the different space damping rates of the waves ensure the existence of different spatial regions (consecutively arranged along the plasma column) of a dominant propagation of each one of these two waves. Experimental data are obtained both for the wavenumbers and the space damping rates by relatively precise methods for wave investigations such as the methods of time-space diagrams and of phase shift measurements. The results are explained by the theoretical model for nonlinear mixing of dispersive waves. (author)
Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices.
Thompson, Barnaby W; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C T; Britton, Melanie M; Taylor, Annette F
2010-04-01
Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses--also observed experimentally.
Variation principle for nonlinear wave propagation
Watanabe, T.; Lee, Y.C.; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Hojo, H.; Yoshida, Y.
1976-01-01
Variation principle is derived which determines stationary nonlinear propagation of electrostatic waves in the self-consistent density profile. Example is given for lower-hybrid waves and the relation to the variation principle for the Lagrangian density of electromagnetic fluids is discussed
Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-Time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting
Haller, M. C.; Simpson, A. J.; Walker, D. T.; Lynett, P. J.; Pittman, R.; Honegger, D.
2016-02-01
It has been shown in various studies that a controls system can dramatically improve Wave Energy Converter (WEC) power production by tuning the device's oscillations to the incoming wave field, as well as protect WEC devices by decoupling them in extreme wave conditions. A requirement of the most efficient controls systems is a phase-resolved, "deterministic" surface elevation profile, alerting the device to what it will experience in the near future. The current study aims to demonstrate a deterministic method of wave forecasting through the pairing of an X-Band marine radar with a predictive Mild Slope Equation (MSE) wave model. Using the radar as a remote sensing technique, the wave field up to 1-4 km surrounding a WEC device can be resolved. Individual waves within the radar scan are imaged through the contrast between high intensity wave faces and low intensity wave troughs. Using a recently developed method, radar images are inverted into the radial component of surface slope, shown in the figure provided using radar data from Newport, Oregon. Then, resolved radial slope images are assimilated into the MSE wave model. This leads to a best-fit model hindcast of the waves within the domain. The hindcast is utilized as an initial condition for wave-by-wave forecasting with a target forecast horizon of 3-5 minutes (tens of wave periods). The methodology is currently being tested with synthetic data and comparisons with field data are imminent.
Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves
Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas
1969-01-01
Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a
Lamb wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers.
Fromme, Paul; Pizzolato, Marco; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Masserey, Bernard
2018-01-01
Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. Guided ultrasonic waves offer the potential to efficiently detect micro-cracks in the thin wafers. Previous studies of ultrasonic wave propagation in silicon focused on effects of material anisotropy on bulk ultrasonic waves, but the dependence of the wave propagation characteristics on the material anisotropy is not well understood for Lamb waves. The phase slowness and beam skewing of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes A 0 and S 0 were investigated. Experimental measurements using contact wedge transducer excitation and laser measurement were conducted. Good agreement was found between the theoretically calculated angular dependency of the phase slowness and measurements for different propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation. Significant wave skew and beam widening was observed experimentally due to the anisotropy, especially for the S 0 mode. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted to visualize and quantify the guided wave beam skew. Good agreement was found for the A 0 mode, but a systematic discrepancy was observed for the S 0 mode. These effects need to be considered for the non-destructive testing of wafers using guided waves.
Ionospheric propagation effects on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN HF radars
X. Vallières
2004-06-01
Full Text Available SuperDARN HF radars provide a global survey of the large-scale convection transversely to the Earth's magnetic field in the high-latitude ionosphere. In addition to the mean plasma velocity, this network also provides measurements of spectral widths which are related to the level of turbulence of the sounded plasma. There is an increasing interest in using spectral widths in geophysical studies, since they are used to monitor the footprints of several magnetospheric regions. In the present paper, we show the effect of radio wave propagation through a typical turbulent ionosphere on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN radars. This effect has already been evidenced experimentally in a previous paper. Here, we model the effects of meso-scale structures on a radar wave front and study their impact on a typical measurement. Numerical simulations reproduce the effect evidenced experimentally and show the role of meso-scale structures (1-10km in the systematic bias that affects spectral width values. As in experimental data, this effect is shown to be increasing with decreasing radar frequency.
Ionospheric propagation effects on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN HF radars
X. Vallières
2004-06-01
Full Text Available SuperDARN HF radars provide a global survey of the large-scale convection transversely to the Earth's magnetic field in the high-latitude ionosphere. In addition to the mean plasma velocity, this network also provides measurements of spectral widths which are related to the level of turbulence of the sounded plasma. There is an increasing interest in using spectral widths in geophysical studies, since they are used to monitor the footprints of several magnetospheric regions. In the present paper, we show the effect of radio wave propagation through a typical turbulent ionosphere on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN radars. This effect has already been evidenced experimentally in a previous paper. Here, we model the effects of meso-scale structures on a radar wave front and study their impact on a typical measurement. Numerical simulations reproduce the effect evidenced experimentally and show the role of meso-scale structures (1-10km in the systematic bias that affects spectral width values. As in experimental data, this effect is shown to be increasing with decreasing radar frequency.
Nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave turbulence
Prakash, M.
1985-01-01
We study the linear and the nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave energy in an inhomogeneous plasma. The drift mode excited in such a plasma is dispersive in nature. The drift wave energy spreads out symmetrically along the direction of inhomogeneity with a finite group velocity. To study the effect of the nonlinear coupling on the propagation of energy in a collision free plasma, we solve the Hasegawa-Mima equation as a mixed initial boundary-value problem. The solutions of the linearized equation are used to check the reliability of our numerical calculations. Additional checks are also performed on the invariants of the system. Our results reveal that a pulse gets distorted as it propagates through the medium. The peak of the pulse propagates with a finite velocity that depends on the amplitude of the initial pulse. The polarity of propagation depends on the initial parameters of the pulse. We have also studied drift wave propagation in a resistive plasma. The Hasegawa-Wakatani equations are used to investigate this problem
Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data
N. F. Arnold
1998-10-01
Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations
Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data
N. F. Arnold
Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.
Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations
Submillimeter wave propagation in tokamak plasmas
Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Johnson, L.C.
1985-01-01
The propagation of submillimeter-waves (smm) in tokamak plasmas has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally to ensure successful measurements of electron density and plasma current distributions in tokamak devices. Theoretical analyses have been carried out to study the polarization of the smm waves in TFTR and ISX-B tokamaks. A multichord smm wave interferometer/polarimeter system has been employed to simultaneously measure the line electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The experimental study on TFTR is under way. Computer codes have been developed and have been used to study the wave propagation and to reconstruct the distributions of plasma current and density from the measured data. The results are compared with other measurements
Submillimeter wave propagation in tokamak plasmas
Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Johnson, L.C.
1986-01-01
Propagation of submillimeter waves (smm) in tokamak plasma was investigated both theoretically and experimentally to ensure successful measurements of electron density and plasma current distributions in tokamak devices. Theoretical analyses were carried out to study the polarization of the smm waves in TFTR and ISX-B tokamaks. A multichord smm wave interferometer/polarimeter system was employed to simultaneously measure the line electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The experimental study on TFTR is under way. Computer codes were developed and have been used to study the wave propagation and to reconstruct the distributions of plasma current and density from the measured data. The results are compared with other measurements. 5 references, 2 figures
Wave propagation in non-linear media
Broer, L.J.F.
1965-01-01
The problem of the propagation of electromagnetic waves through solids is essentially one of interaction between light quanta and matter. The most fundamental and general treatment of this subject is therefore undoubtedly based on the quantummechanical theory of this interaction. Nevertheless, a
Wave propagation retrieval method for chiral metamaterials
Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2010-01-01
In this paper we present the wave propagation method for the retrieving of effective properties of media with circularly polarized eigenwaves, in particularly for chiral metamaterials. The method is applied for thick slabs and provides bulk effective parameters. Its strong sides are the absence...
Wave propagation in complex structures with LEGO
Lancellotti, V.; Hon, de B.P.; Tijhuis, A.G.
2012-01-01
We present the extension of the linear embedding via Green's operators (LEGO) scheme to problems that involve elementary sources localized inside complex structures made of different dielectric media with inclusions. We show how this new feature allows solving problems of wave propagation within,
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Random Media
Pécseli, Hans
1984-01-01
The propagation of a narrow frequency band beam of electromagnetic waves in a medium with randomly varying index of refraction is considered. A novel formulation of the governing equation is proposed. An equation for the average Green function (or transition probability) can then be derived...
Thermoelastic wave propagation in laminated composites plates
Verma K. L.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The dispersion of thermoelastic waves propagation in an arbitrary direction in laminated composites plates is studied in the framework of generalized thermoelasticity in this article. Three dimensional field equations of thermoelasticity with relaxation times are considered. Characteristic equation is obtained on employing the continuity of displacements, temperature, stresses and thermal gradient at the layers’ interfaces. Some important particular cases such as of free waves on reducing plates to single layer and the surface waves when thickness tends to infinity are also discussed. Uncoupled and coupled thermoelasticity are the particular cases of the obtained results. Numerical results are also obtained and represented graphically.
Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping
Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav
2016-01-01
The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...... for alternative excitation cases. The differences between two regimes, the low frequency one, when a waveguide supports only one propagating wave, and the high frequency one, when several waves are supported, are demonstrated and explained....
Counterstreaming magnetized plasmas. II. Perpendicular wave propagation
Tautz, R.C.; Schlickeiser, R.
2006-01-01
The properties of longitudinal and transverse oscillations in magnetized symmetric counterstreaming Maxwellian plasmas with equal thermal velocities for waves propagating perpendicular to the stream direction are investigated on the basis of Maxwell equations and the nonrelativistic Vlasov equation. With the constraint of vanishing particle flux in the stream direction, three distinct dispersion relations are known, which are the ordinary-wave mode, the Bernstein wave mode, and the extraordinary electromagnetic wave mode, where the latter two are only approximations. In this article, all three dispersion relations are evaluated for a counterstreaming Maxwellian distribution function in terms of the hypergeometric function 2 F 2 . The growth rates for the ordinary-wave mode are compared to earlier results by Bornatici and Lee [Phys. Fluids 13, 3007 (1970)], who derived approximate results, whereas in this article the exact dispersion relation is solved numerically. The original results are therefore improved and show differences of up to 21% to the results obtained in this article
Propagation of an ionizing surface electromagnetic wave
Boev, A.G.; Prokopov, A.V.
1976-11-01
The propagation of an rf surface wave in a plasma which is ionized by the wave itself is analyzed. The exact solution of the nonlinear Maxwell equations is discussed for the case in which the density of plasma electrons is an exponential function of the square of the electric field. The range over which the surface wave exists and the frequency dependence of the phase velocity are found. A detailed analysis is given for the case of a plasma whose initial density exceeds the critical density at the wave frequency. An increase in the wave amplitude is shown to expand the frequency range over which the plasma is transparent; The energy flux in the plasma tends toward a certain finite value which is governed by the effective ionization field.
ST radar observations of atmospheric waves over mountainous areas: a review
J. Röttger
2000-07-01
Full Text Available Lee and mountain waves are dominant dynamic processes in the atmosphere above mountain areas. ST VHF radars had been intensively used to investigate these wave processes. These studies are summarized in this work. After discussing features of long-period quasi-stationary lee waves, attention is drawn to the frequent occurrence of freely propagating waves of shorter periods, which seem to be more common and characteristic for wave processes generated over mountainous areas. Characteristics of these waves such as their relation to the topography and background winds, the possibility of trapping by and breaking in the tropopause region and their propagation into the stratosphere is investigated. These orographically produced waves transport energy and momentum into the troposphere and stratosphere, which is considered an important contribution to the kinetic energy of the lower atmosphere. The occurrence of inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere had been confused with lee waves, which is discussed in conclusion. Finally further questions on mountain and lee waves are drawn up, which remain to be solved and where investigations with ST radars could play a fundamental role.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Middle atmosphere dynamics; Waves and tides; Instruments and techniques
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula
2015-01-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals
The effect of lower-hybrid waves on the propagation of hydromagnetic waves
Hamabata, Hiromitsu; Namikawa, Tomikazu; Mori, Kazuhiro
1988-01-01
Propagation characteristics of hydromagnetic waves in a magnetic plasma are investigated using the two-plasma fluid equations including the effect of lower-hybrid waves propagating perpendicularly to the magnetic field. The effect of lower-hybrid waves on the propagation of hydromagnetic waves is analysed in terms of phase speed, growth rate, refractive index, polarization and the amplitude relation between the density perturbation and the magnetic-field perturbation for the cases when hydromagnetic waves propagate in the plane whose normal is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves and in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves. It is shown that hydromagnetic waves propagating at small angles to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves can be excited by the effect of lower-hybrid waves and the energy of excited waves propagates nearly parallel to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves. (author)
Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes
Ziepke, A., E-mail: ziepke@itp.tu-berlin.de; Martens, S.; Engel, H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Hardenbergstraße 36, EW 7-1, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany)
2016-09-07
We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube’s modulation and derive an analytically tractable condition for their occurrence. For the highly diffusive limit, using the Fick-Jacobs approach, we show that wave velocities within modulated tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pulse trains. We observe period changes by integer fractions dependent on the bottleneck width and the period of the entering pulse train.
Propagating wave correlations in complex systems
Creagh, Stephen C; Gradoni, Gabriele; Hartmann, Timo; Tanner, Gregor
2017-01-01
We describe a novel approach for computing wave correlation functions inside finite spatial domains driven by complex and statistical sources. By exploiting semiclassical approximations, we provide explicit algorithms to calculate the local mean of these correlation functions in terms of the underlying classical dynamics. By defining appropriate ensemble averages, we show that fluctuations about the mean can be characterised in terms of classical correlations. We give in particular an explicit expression relating fluctuations of diagonal contributions to those of the full wave correlation function. The methods have a wide range of applications both in quantum mechanics and for classical wave problems such as in vibro-acoustics and electromagnetism. We apply the methods here to simple quantum systems, so-called quantum maps, which model the behaviour of generic problems on Poincaré sections. Although low-dimensional, these models exhibit a chaotic classical limit and share common characteristics with wave propagation in complex structures. (paper)
Pressure wave propagation in sodium loop
Botelho, D.A.
1989-01-01
A study was done on the pressure wave propagation within the pipes and mixture vessel of a termohydraulic loop for thermal shock with sodium. It was used the characteristic method to solve the one-dimensional continuity and momentum equations. The numerical model includes the pipes and the effects of valves and other accidents on pressure losses. The study was based on designer informations and engineering tables. It was evaluated the pressure wave sizes, parametrically as a function of the draining valve closure times. (author) [pt
Electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve
Lai, Meng-Yun; Wang, Yong-Long; Liang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Fan; Zong, Hong-Shi
2018-03-01
By using the thin-layer approach, we derive the effective equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve. We find intrinsic spin-orbit, extrinsic spin-orbit, and extrinsic orbital angular-momentum and intrinsic orbital angular-momentum couplings induced by torsion, which can lead to geometric phase, spin, and orbital Hall effects. And we show the helicity inversion induced by curvature that can convert a right-handed circularly polarized electromagnetic wave into a left-handed polarized one, vice versa. Finally, we demonstrate that the gauge invariance of the effective dynamics is protected by the geometrically induced gauge potential.
Obliquely propagating dust-density waves
Piel, A.; Arp, O.; Klindworth, M.; Melzer, A.
2008-01-01
Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and another mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space charge sheath. The dominance of oblique modes can be described in the frame of a fluid model. It is shown that the results fom the fluid model agree remarkably well with a kinetic electrostatic model of Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)]. In the experiment, the instability is quenched by increasing the gas pressure or decreasing the dust density. The critical pressure and dust density are well described by the models
Seismic Wave Propagation in Layered Viscoelastic Media
Borcherdt, R. D.
2008-12-01
Advances in the general theory of wave propagation in layered viscoelastic media reveal new insights regarding seismic waves in the Earth. For example, the theory predicts: 1) P and S waves are predominantly inhomogeneous in a layered anelastic Earth with seismic travel times, particle-motion orbits, energy speeds, Q, and amplitude characteristics that vary with angle of incidence and hence, travel path through the layers, 2) two types of shear waves exist, one with linear and the other with elliptical particle motions each with different absorption coefficients, and 3) surface waves with amplitude and particle motion characteristics not predicted by elasticity, such as Rayleigh-Type waves with tilted elliptical particle motion orbits and Love-Type waves with superimposed sinusoidal amplitude dependencies that decay exponentially with depth. The general theory provides closed-form analytic solutions for body waves, reflection-refraction problems, response of multiple layers, and surface wave problems valid for any material with a viscoelastic response, including the infinite number of models, derivable from various configurations of springs and dashpots, such as elastic, Voight, Maxwell, and Standard Linear. The theory provides solutions independent of the amount of intrinsic absorption and explicit analytic expressions for physical characteristics of body waves in low-loss media such as the deep Earth. The results explain laboratory and seismic observations, such as travel-time and wide-angle reflection amplitude anomalies, not explained by elasticity or one dimensional Q models. They have important implications for some forward modeling and inverse problems. Theoretical advances and corresponding numerical results as recently compiled (Borcherdt, 2008, Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media, Cambridge University Press) will be reviewed.
Wave Propagation in Jointed Geologic Media
Antoun, T
2009-12-17
Predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in a jointed geologic media remain a modern day scientific frontier. In part this is due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the complex physical processes associated with the transient response of geologic material, and in part it is due to numerical challenges that prohibit accurate representation of the heterogeneities that influence the material response. Constitutive models whose properties are determined from laboratory experiments on intact samples have been shown to over-predict the free field environment in large scale field experiments. Current methodologies for deriving in situ properties from laboratory measured properties are based on empirical equations derived for static geomechanical applications involving loads of lower intensity and much longer durations than those encountered in applications of interest involving wave propagation. These methodologies are not validated for dynamic applications, and they do not account for anisotropic behavior stemming from direcitonal effects associated with the orientation of joint sets in realistic geologies. Recent advances in modeling capabilities coupled with modern high performance computing platforms enable physics-based simulations of jointed geologic media with unprecedented details, offering a prospect for significant advances in the state of the art. This report provides a brief overview of these modern computational approaches, discusses their advantages and limitations, and attempts to formulate an integrated framework leading to the development of predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in jointed and fractured geologic materials.
Wave propagation in the magnetosphere of Jupiter
Liemohn, H. B.
1972-01-01
A systematic procedure is developed for identifying the spatial regimes of various modes of wave propagation in the Jupiter magnetosphere that may be encountered by flyby missions. The Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) diagram of plasma physics is utilized to identify the frequency regimes in which different modes of propagation occur in the magnetoplasma. The Gledhill model and the Ioannidis and Brice model of the magnetoplasma are summarized, and configuration-space CMA diagrams are constructed for each model for frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz. The distinctive propagation features, the radio noise regimes, and the wave-particle interactions are discussed. It is concluded that the concentration of plasma in the equatorial plane makes this region of vital importance for radio observations with flyby missions. Local radio noise around the electron cyclotron frequency will probably differ appreciably from its terrestrial counterpart due to the lack of field-line guidance. Hydromagnetic wave properties at frequencies near the ion cyclotron frequency and below will probably be similar to the terrestrial case.
HF Surface Wave Radar Operation in Adverse Conditions
Ponsford, Anthony M; Dizaji, Reza M; McKerracher, Richard
2005-01-01
...) system based on HF Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR). the primary objective behind the programme was to demonstrate the capability of HFSWR to continuously detect and track surface targets (ships and icebergs...
Trizna, D.; Hathaway, K.
2007-05-01
Two new radar systems have been developed for real-time measurement of near-shore processes, and results are presented for measurements of ocean wave spectra, near-shore sand bar structure, and ocean currents. The first is a non-coherent radar based on a modified version of the Sitex radar family, with a data acquisition system designed around an ISR digital receiver card. The card operates in a PC computer with inputs from a Sitex radar modified for extraction of analogue signals for digitization. Using a 9' antenna and 25 kW transmit power system, data were collected during 2007 at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC during winter and spring of 2007. The directional wave spectrum measurements made are based on using a sequence of 64 to 640 antenna rotations to form a snapshot series of radar images of propagating waves. A square window is extracted from each image, typically 64 x 64 pixels at 3-m resolution. Then ten sets of 64 windows are submitted to a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform process to generate radar image spectra in the frequency-wavenumber space. The relation between the radar image spectral intensity and wave spectral intensity derived from the FRF pressure gauge array was used for a test set of data, in order to establish a modulation transfer function (MTF) for each frequency component. For 640 rotations, 10 of such spectra are averaged for improved statistics. The wave spectrum so generated was compared for extended data sets beyond those used to establish the MTF, and those results are presented here. Some differences between the radar and pressure sensor data that are observed are found to be due to the influence of the wind field, as the radar echo image weakens for light winds. A model is developed to account for such an effect to improve the radar estimate of the directional wave spectrum. The radar ocean wave imagery is severely influenced only by extremely heavy rain-fall rates, so that
Radar cross-section (RCS) analysis of high frequency surface wave radar targets
ÇAKIR, Gonca; SEVGİ, Levent
2010-01-01
Realistic high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) targets are investigated numerically in terms of electromagnetic wave -- target interactions. Radar cross sections (RCS) of these targets are simulated via both the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the Method of Moments (MoM). The virtual RCS prediction tool that was introduced in previous work is used for these investigations. The virtual tool automatically creates the discrete FDTD model of the target under investi...
Electromagnetic wave scattering by aerial and ground radar objects
Sukharevsky, Oleg I
2014-01-01
Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects presents the theory, original calculation methods, and computational results of the scattering characteristics of different aerial and ground radar objects. This must-have book provides essential background for computing electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of different kinds of irregularities, as well as Summarizes fundamental electromagnetic statements such as the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and the image principleContains integral field representations enabling the study of scattering from various layered structur
Enhancing propagation characteristics of truncated localized waves in silica
Salem, Mohamed
2011-07-01
The spectral characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the immunity of the truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica to decay and distortion is enhanced as the non-linearity of the relation between the transverse spatial spectral components and the wave vector gets stronger, in contrast to free-space propagating waves, which suffer from early decay and distortion. © 2011 IEEE.
Full wave simulations of lower hybrid wave propagation in tokamaks
Wright, J. C.; Bonoli, P. T.; Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E.; Harvey, R. W.
2009-01-01
Lower hybrid (LH) waves have the attractive property of damping strongly via electron Landau resonance on relatively fast tail electrons at (2.5-3)xv te , where v te ≡ (2T e /m e ) 1/2 is the electron thermal speed. Consequently these waves are well-suited to driving current in the plasma periphery where the electron temperature is lower, making LH current drive (LHCD) a promising technique for off-axis (r/a≥0.60) current profile control in reactor grade plasmas. Established techniques for computing wave propagation and absorption use WKB expansions with non-Maxwellian self-consistent distributions.In typical plasma conditions with electron densities of several 10 19 m -3 and toroidal magnetic fields strengths of 4 Telsa, the perpendicular wavelength is of the order of 1 mm and the parallel wavelength is of the order of 1 cm. Even in a relatively small device such as Alcator C-Mod with a minor radius of 22 cm, the number of wavelengths that must be resolved requires large amounts of computational resources for the full wave treatment. These requirements are met with a massively parallel version of the TORIC full wave code that has been adapted specifically for the simulation of LH waves [J. C. Wright, et al., Commun. Comput. Phys., 4, 545 (2008), J. C. Wright, et al., Phys. Plasmas 16 July (2009)]. This model accurately represents the effects of focusing and diffraction that occur in LH propagation. It is also coupled with a Fokker-Planck solver, CQL3D, to provide self-consistent distribution functions for the plasma dielectric as well as a synthetic hard X-ray (HXR) diagnostic for direct comparisons with experimental measurements of LH waves.The wave solutions from the TORIC-LH zero FLR model will be compared to the results from ray tracing from the GENRAY/CQL3D code via the synthetic HXR diagnostic and power deposition.
The physical basis for estimating wave-energy spectra with the radar ocean-wave spectrometer
Jackson, Frederick C.
1987-01-01
The derivation of the reflectivity modulation spectrum of the sea surface for near-nadir-viewing microwave radars using geometrical optics is described. The equations required for the derivation are presented. The derived reflectivity modulation spectrum provides data on the physical basis of the radar ocean-wave spectrometer measurements of ocean-wave directional spectra.
Investigation into stress wave propagation in metal foams
Li Lang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate stress wave propagation in metal foams under high-speed impact loading. Three-dimensional Voronoi model is established to represent real closed-cell foam. Based on the one-dimensional stress wave theory and Voronoi model, a numerical model is developed to calculate the velocity of elastic wave and shock wave in metal foam. The effects of impact velocity and relative density of metal foam on the stress wave propagation in metal foams are explored respectively. The results show that both elastic wave and shock wave propagate faster in metal foams with larger relative density; with increasing the impact velocity, the shock wave propagation velocity increase, but the elastic wave propagation is not sensitive to the impact velocity.
Topology Optimization for Transient Wave Propagation Problems
Matzen, René
The study of elastic and optical waves together with intensive material research has revolutionized everyday as well as cutting edge technology in very tangible ways within the last century. Therefore it is important to continue the investigative work towards improving existing as well as innovate...... new technology, by designing new materials and their layout. The thesis presents a general framework for applying topology optimization in the design of material layouts for transient wave propagation problems. In contrast to the high level of modeling in the frequency domain, time domain topology...... optimization is still in its infancy. A generic optimization problem is formulated with an objective function that can be field, velocity, and acceleration dependent, as well as it can accommodate the dependency of filtered signals essential in signal shape optimization [P3]. The analytical design gradients...
Seismic wave propagation in granular media
Tancredi, Gonzalo; López, Francisco; Gallot, Thomas; Ginares, Alejandro; Ortega, Henry; Sanchís, Johnny; Agriela, Adrián; Weatherley, Dion
2016-10-01
Asteroids and small bodies of the Solar System are thought to be agglomerates of irregular boulders, therefore cataloged as granular media. It is a consensus that many asteroids might be considered as rubble or gravel piles.Impacts on their surface could produce seismic waves which propagate in the interior of these bodies, thus causing modifications in the internal distribution of rocks and ejections of particles and dust, resulting in a cometary-type comma.We present experimental and numerical results on the study of propagation of impact-induced seismic waves in granular media, with special focus on behavior changes by increasing compression.For the experiment, we use an acrylic box filled with granular materials such as sand, gravel and glass spheres. Pressure inside the box is controlled by a movable side wall and measured with sensors. Impacts are created on the upper face of the box through a hole, ranging from free-falling spheres to gunshots. We put high-speed cameras outside the box to record the impact as well as piezoelectic sensors and accelerometers placed at several depths in the granular material to detect the seismic wave.Numerical simulations are performed with ESyS-Particle, a software that implements the Discrete Element Method. The experimental setting is reproduced in the numerical simulations using both individual spherical particles and agglomerates of spherical particles shaped as irregular boulders, according to rock models obtained with a 3D scanner. The numerical experiments also reproduces the force loading on one of the wall to vary the pressure inside the box.We are interested in the velocity, attenuation and energy transmission of the waves. These quantities are measured in the experiments and in the simulations. We study the dependance of these three parameters with characteristics like: impact speed, properties of the target material and the pressure in the media.These results are relevant to understand the outcomes of impacts in
WAVE: Interactive Wave-based Sound Propagation for Virtual Environments.
Mehra, Ravish; Rungta, Atul; Golas, Abhinav; Ming Lin; Manocha, Dinesh
2015-04-01
We present an interactive wave-based sound propagation system that generates accurate, realistic sound in virtual environments for dynamic (moving) sources and listeners. We propose a novel algorithm to accurately solve the wave equation for dynamic sources and listeners using a combination of precomputation techniques and GPU-based runtime evaluation. Our system can handle large environments typically used in VR applications, compute spatial sound corresponding to listener's motion (including head tracking) and handle both omnidirectional and directional sources, all at interactive rates. As compared to prior wave-based techniques applied to large scenes with moving sources, we observe significant improvement in runtime memory. The overall sound-propagation and rendering system has been integrated with the Half-Life 2 game engine, Oculus-Rift head-mounted display, and the Xbox game controller to enable users to experience high-quality acoustic effects (e.g., amplification, diffraction low-passing, high-order scattering) and spatial audio, based on their interactions in the VR application. We provide the results of preliminary user evaluations, conducted to study the impact of wave-based acoustic effects and spatial audio on users' navigation performance in virtual environments.
On the propagation of truncated localized waves in dispersive silica
Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan
2010-01-01
Propagation characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica and free space are numerically analyzed. It is shown that those characteristics are affected by the changes in the relation between the transverse spatial
Wave propagation in a magnetically structured atmosphere. Pt. 2
Roberts, B.
1981-01-01
Magnetic fields may introduce structure (inhomogeneity) into an otherwise uniform medium and thus change the nature of wave propagation in that medium. As an example of such structuring, wave propagation in an isolated magnetic slab is considered. It is supposed that disturbances outside the slab are laterally non-propagating. The effect of gravity is ignored. The field can support the propagation of both body and surface waves. The existence and nature of these waves depends upon the relative magnitudes of the sound speed c 0 and Alfven speed upsilonsub(A) inside the slab, and the sound speed csub(e) in the field-free environment. (orig./WL)
Zhang, Zhenfei; Orosei, Roberto; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Jie
2016-07-01
In the data of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding on board the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Mars Express (MEX), a distinctive type of signals (called the "epsilon signature"), which is similar to that previously detected during radio sounding of the terrestrial F region ionosphere, is found. The signature is interpreted to originate from multiple reflections of electromagnetic waves propagating along sounder pulse-created, crustal magnetic field-aligned plasma bubbles (waveguides). The signatures have a low (below 0.5%) occurrence rate and apparent cutoff frequencies 3-5 times higher than the theoretical one for an ordinary mode wave. These properties are explained by the influence of the perpendicular ionospheric plasma density gradient and the sounder pulse frequency on the formation of waveguides.
Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas
Weiss, I.
1985-01-01
An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored
Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments
Yucel, Abdulkadir C.; Liu, Yang; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric
2013-01-01
A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier
E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code
Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.
2004-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time
Mathematical problems in wave propagation theory
1970-01-01
The papers comprising this collection are directly or indirectly related to an important branch of mathematical physics - the mathematical theory of wave propagation and diffraction. The paper by V. M. Babich is concerned with the application of the parabolic-equation method (of Academician V. A. Fok and M. A, Leontovich) to the problem of the asymptotic behavior of eigenfunc tions concentrated in a neighborhood of a closed geodesie in a Riemannian space. The techniques used in this paper have been föund useful in solving certain problems in the theory of open resonators. The topic of G. P. Astrakhantsev's paper is similar to that of the paper by V. M. Babich. Here also the parabolic-equation method is used to find the asymptotic solution of the elasticity equations which describes Love waves concentrated in a neighborhood of some surface ray. The paper of T. F. Pankratova is concerned with finding the asymptotic behavior of th~ eigenfunc tions of the Laplace operator from the exact solution for the surf...
Nonlinear magnetoacoustic wave propagation with chemical reactions
Margulies, Timothy Scott
2002-11-01
The magnetoacoustic problem with an application to sound wave propagation through electrically conducting fluids such as the ocean in the Earth's magnetic field, liquid metals, or plasmas has been addressed taking into account several simultaneous chemical reactions. Using continuum balance equations for the total mass, linear momentum, energy; as well as Maxwell's electrodynamic equations, a nonlinear beam equation has been developed to generalize the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation for a fluid with linear viscosity but nonlinear and diffraction effects. Thermodynamic parameters are used and not tailored to only an adiabatic fluid case. The chemical kinetic equations build on a relaxing media approach presented, for example, by K. Naugolnukh and L. Ostrovsky [Nonlinear Wave Processes in Acoustics (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1998)] for a linearized single reaction and thermodynamic pressure equation of state. Approximations for large and small relaxation times and for magnetohydrodynamic parameters [Korsunskii, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 36 (1990)] are examined. Additionally, Cattaneo's equation for heat conduction and its generalization for a memory process rather than a Fourier's law are taken into account. It was introduced for the heat flux depends on the temperature gradient at an earlier time to generate heat pulses of finite speed.
Models for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered porous media
Kudarova, A.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Drijkoningen, G.G.
2014-01-01
Several models are discussed for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered poroelastic media where layers represent mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities that are larger than the pore and grain sizes but smaller than the wavelength. The layers behave according to Biot’s theory. Wave propagation
Propagation of ionization waves during ignition of fluorescent lamps
Langer, R; Tidecks, R; Horn, S; Garner, R; Hilscher, A
2008-01-01
The propagation of the first ionization wave in a compact fluorescent lamp (T4 tube with standard electrodes) during ignition was investigated for various initial dc-voltages (both polarities measured against ground) and gas compositions (with and without mercury). In addition the effect of the presence of a fluorescent powder coating was studied. The propagation velocity of the initial wave was measured by an assembly of photomultipliers installed along the tube, which detected the light emitted by the wave head. The propagation was found to be faster for positive than for negative polarity. This effect is explained involving processes in the electrode region as well as in the wave head. Waves propagate faster in the presence of a fluorescent powder coating than without it and gases of lighter mass show a faster propagation than gases with higher mass
Wave propagation in plasma-filled wave-guide
Leprince, Philippe
1966-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of wave propagation along a plasma column without external magnetic field. The author first present and comment various theoretical results, and dispersion curves plotted for the main modes (particularly, the bipolar mode). He tries to define fundamental magnitudes which characterise a plasma-filled wave-guide. He reports the comparison of some experimental results with the previous theoretical results. Based on the study of the bipolar mode, the author develops a method of measurement of plasma column density. In the last part, the author reports the study of the resonance of a plasma-containing cavity. Several resonances are highlighted and new dispersion curves are plotted by using a varying length cavity. He also addresses the coupling of plasma modes with guide modes, and thus indicates the shape of Brillouin diagrams for a plasma-filled wave-guide. Moreover, some phenomena highlighted during plasma column density measurements by using the cavity method could then be explained [fr
The Green-function transform and wave propagation
Colin eSheppard
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Fourier methods well known in signal processing are applied to three-dimensional wave propagation problems. The Fourier transform of the Green function, when written explicitly in terms of a real-valued spatial frequency, consists of homogeneous and inhomogeneous components. Both parts are necessary to result in a pure out-going wave that satisfies causality. The homogeneous component consists only of propagating waves, but the inhomogeneous component contains both evanescent and propagating terms. Thus we make a distinction between inhomogeneous waves and evanescent waves. The evanescent component is completely contained in the region of the inhomogeneous component outside the k-space sphere. Further, propagating waves in the Weyl expansion contain both homogeneous and inhomogeneous components. The connection between the Whittaker and Weyl expansions is discussed. A list of relevant spherically symmetric Fourier transforms is given.
Wave propagation in nanostructures nonlocal continuum mechanics formulations
Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan
2013-01-01
Wave Propagation in Nanostructures describes the fundamental and advanced concepts of waves propagating in structures that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. The book is fundamentally based on non-local elasticity theory, which includes scale effects in the continuum model. The book predominantly addresses wave behavior in carbon nanotubes and graphene structures, although the methods of analysis provided in this text are equally applicable to other nanostructures. The book takes the reader from the fundamentals of wave propagation in nanotubes to more advanced topics such as rotating nanotubes, coupled nanotubes, and nanotubes with magnetic field and surface effects. The first few chapters cover the basics of wave propagation, different modeling schemes for nanostructures and introduce non-local elasticity theories, which form the building blocks for understanding the material provided in later chapters. A number of interesting examples are provided to illustrate the important features of wave behav...
TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION
Lorand Catalin STOENESCU
2011-01-01
The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D) of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishi...
A wave propagation matrix method in semiclassical theory
Lee, S.Y.; Takigawa, N.
1977-05-01
A wave propagation matrix method is used to derive the semiclassical formulae of the multiturning point problem. A phase shift matrix and a barrier transformation matrix are introduced to describe the processes of a particle travelling through a potential well and crossing a potential barrier respectively. The wave propagation matrix is given by the products of phase shift matrices and barrier transformation matrices. The method to study scattering by surface transparent potentials and the Bloch wave in solids is then applied
Propagation of Axially Symmetric Detonation Waves
Druce, R L; Roeske, F; Souers, P C; Tarver, C M; Chow, C T S; Lee, R S; McGuire, E M; Overturf, G E; Vitello, P A
2002-06-26
We have studied the non-ideal propagation of detonation waves in LX-10 and in the insensitive explosive TATB. Explosively-driven, 5.8-mm-diameter, 0.125-mm-thick aluminum flyer plates were used to initiate 38-mm-diameter, hemispherical samples of LX-10 pressed to a density of 1.86 g/cm{sup 3} and of TATB at a density of 1.80 g/cm{sup 3}. The TATB powder was a grade called ultrafine (UFTATB), having an arithmetic mean particle diameter of about 8-10 {micro}m and a specific surface area of about 4.5 m{sup 2}/g. Using PMMA as a transducer, output pressure was measured at 5 discrete points on the booster using a Fabry-Perot velocimeter. Breakout time was measured on a line across the booster with a streak camera. Each of the experimental geometries was calculated using the Ignition and Growth Reactive Flow Model, the JWL++ Model and the Programmed Burn Model. Boosters at both ambient and cold (-20 C and -54 C) temperatures have been experimentally and computationally studied. A comparison of experimental and modeling results is presented.
Propagation law of impact elastic wave based on specific materials
Chunmin CHEN
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In order to explore the propagation law of the impact elastic wave on the platform, the experimental platform is built by using the specific isotropic materials and anisotropic materials. The glass cloth epoxy laminated plate is used for anisotropic material, and an organic glass plate is used for isotropic material. The PVDF sensors adhered on the specific materials are utilized to collect data, and the elastic wave propagation law of different thick plates and laminated plates under impact conditions is analyzed. The Experimental results show that in anisotropic material, transverse wave propagation speed along the fiber arrangement direction is the fastest, while longitudinal wave propagation speed is the slowest. The longitudinal wave propagation speed in anisotropic laminates is much slower than that in the laminated thick plates. In the test channel arranged along a particular angle away from the central region of the material, transverse wave propagation speed is larger. Based on the experimental results, this paper proposes a material combination mode which is advantageous to elastic wave propagation and diffusion in shock-isolating materials. It is proposed to design a composite material with high acoustic velocity by adding regularly arranged fibrous materials. The overall design of the barrier material is a layered structure and a certain number of 90°zigzag structure.
Ion stochastic heating by obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves
Gao Xinliang; Lu Quanming; Wu Mingyu; Wang Shui
2012-01-01
The ion motions in obliquely propagating Alfven waves with sufficiently large amplitudes have already been studied by Chen et al.[Phys. Plasmas 8, 4713 (2001)], and it was found that the ion motions are stochastic when the wave frequency is at a fraction of the ion gyro-frequency. In this paper, with test particle simulations, we investigate the ion motions in obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves and find that the ion motions also become stochastic when the amplitude of the magnetosonic waves is sufficiently large due to the resonance at sub-cyclotron frequencies. Similar to the Alfven wave, the increase of the propagating angle, wave frequency, and the number of the wave modes can lower the stochastic threshold of the ion motions. However, because the magnetosonic waves become more and more compressive with the increase of the propagating angle, the decrease of the stochastic threshold with the increase of the propagating angle is more obvious in the magnetosonic waves than that in the Alfven waves.
MIMIC For Millimeter Wave Integrated Circuit Radars
Seashore, C. R.
1987-09-01
A significant program is currently underway in the U.S. to investigate, develop and produce a variety of GaAs analog circuits for use in microwave and millimeter wave sensors and systems. This represents a "new wave" of RF technology which promises to significantly change system engineering thinking relative to RF Architectures. At millimeter wave frequencies, we look forward to a relatively high level of critical component integration based on MESFET and HEMT device implementations. These designs will spawn more compact RF front ends with colocated antenna/transceiver functions and innovative packaging concepts which will survive and function in a typical military operational environment which includes challenging temperature, shock and special handling requirements.
On the propagation of truncated localized waves in dispersive silica
Salem, Mohamed
2010-01-01
Propagation characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica and free space are numerically analyzed. It is shown that those characteristics are affected by the changes in the relation between the transverse spatial spectral components and the wave vector. Numerical experiments demonstrate that as the non-linearity of this relation gets stronger, the pulses propagating in silica become more immune to decay and distortion whereas the pulses propagating in free-space suffer from early decay and distortion. © 2010 Optical Society of America.
Propagation and dispersion of shock waves in magnetoelastic materials
Crum, R. S.; Domann, J. P.; Carman, G. P.; Gupta, V.
2017-12-01
Previous studies examining the response of magnetoelastic materials to shock waves have predominantly focused on applications involving pulsed power generation, with limited attention given to the actual wave propagation characteristics. This study provides detailed magnetic and mechanical measurements of magnetoelastic shock wave propagation and dispersion. Laser generated rarefacted shock waves exceeding 3 GPa with rise times of 10 ns were introduced to samples of the magnetoelastic material Galfenol. The resulting mechanical measurements reveal the evolution of the shock into a compressive acoustic front with lateral release waves. Importantly, the wave continues to disperse even after it has decayed into an acoustic wave, due in large part to magnetoelastic coupling. The magnetic data reveal predominantly shear wave mediated magnetoelastic coupling, and were also used to noninvasively measure the wave speed. The external magnetic field controlled a 30% increase in wave propagation speed, attributed to a 70% increase in average stiffness. Finally, magnetic signals propagating along the sample over 20× faster than the mechanical wave were measured, indicating these materials can act as passive antennas that transmit information in response to mechanical stimuli.
The quasi-two-day wave studied using the Northern Hemisphere SuperDARN HF radars
S. B. Malinga
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Data from the Super Dual Radar Network (SuperDARN radars for 2002 were used to study the behaviour of the quasi-two-day wave (QTDW in the Northern Hemisphere auroral zone. The period of the QTDW is observed to vary in the range of ~42–56 h, with the most dominant period being ~48 h and secondary peaks at ~42- and ~52-h. The spectral power shows a seasonal variation with a peak power (max~70 in summer. The power shows variations of several days and there is also evidence of changes in wave strength with longitude. The 42-h and the 48-h components tend to be strongly correlated in summer. The onset of enhanced wave activity tends to coincide with the westward acceleration of the zonal mean flow and occurs at a time of strong southward meridional flow. The most frequent instantaneous hourly period is in the 40 to 50 h period band, in line with the simultaneous dominance of the 42-h and the 48-h components. The wave numbers are less variable and are around −2 to −4 during times of strong wave activity. For a period of ~48 h, the zonal wave number is about −3 to −4, using a negative value to indicate westward propagating waves. The 42-h and the 52-h components cover a wider band in the −4 to 1 range. The wide zonal wave number spectrum in our results may account for the observed longitudinal variation in the spectral power of the wave.
Guided propagation of Alfven waves in a toroidal plasma
Borg, G.G.; Brennan, M.H.; Cross, R.C.; Giannone, L.; Donnelly, I.J.
1985-01-01
Experimental results are presented which show that the Alfven wave is strongly guided by magnetic fields. The experiment was conducted in a Tokamak plasma using a small dipole loop antenna to generate a localised Alfven ray. The ray was observed, with magnetic probes, to propagate as a localised disturbance along the curved lines of the steady magnetic field without significant refraction due to the effects of finite frequency, resistivity or magnetic field gradients. These results agree with theoretical predictions and demonstrate that a localised Alfven wave may be excited, and may propagate, independently of the fast wave, as expected. The implication of these results for the Alfven wave heating scheme is discussed. (author)
Guided propagation of Alfven waves in a toroidal plasma
Borg, G G; Brennan, M H; Cross, R C; Giannone, L.; Donnelly, I J
1985-10-01
Experimental results are presented which show that the Alfven wave is strongly guided by magnetic fields. The experiment was conducted in a Tokamak plasma using a small dipole loop antenna to generate a localised Alfven ray. The ray was observed, with magnetic probes, to propagate as a localised disturbance along the curved lines of the steady magnetic field without significant refraction due to the effects of finite frequency, resistivity or magnetic field gradients. These results agree with theoretical predictions and demonstrate that a localised Alfven wave may be excited, and may propagate, independently of the fast wave, as expected. The implication of these results for the Alfven wave heating scheme is discussed.
The propagation of travelling waves for stochastic generalized KPP equations
Elworthy, K.D.; Zhao, H.Z.
1993-09-01
We study the existence and propagation of approximate travelling waves of generalized KPP equations with seasonal multiplicative white noise perturbations of Ito type. Three regimes of perturbation are considered: weak, milk, and strong. We show that weak perturbations have little effect on the wave like solutions of the unperturbed equations while strong perturbations essentially destroy the wave and force the solutions to die down. For mild perturbations we show that there is a residual wave form but propagating at a different speed to that of the unperturbed equation. In the appendix J.G. Gaines illustrates these different regimes by computer simulations. (author). 27 refs, 13 figs
Use of conformal mapping to describe MHD wave propagation
Bulanov, S.V.; Pegoraro, F.
1993-01-01
A method is proposed for finding explicit exact solutions of the magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the propagation of magnetoacoustic waves in a plasma in a magnetic potential that depends on two spatial coordinates. This method is based on the use of conformal mappings to transform the wave equation into an equation describing the propagation of waves in a uniform magnetic field. The basic properties of magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves near the critical points, magnetic separatrices, and in configuration with magnetic islands are discussed. Expressions are found for the dimensionless parameters which determine the relative roles of the plasma pressure, nonlinearity, and dissipation near the critical points. 30 refs
Propagation and scattering of waves in dusty plasmas
Vladimirov, S.V.
1994-01-01
Wave propagation and scattering in dusty plasmas with variable charges on dust particles are considered. New kinetic theory including instant charge of a dust particle as a new independent variable is further developed. (author). 9 refs
Topics in Computational Modeling of Shock and Wave Propagation
Gazonas, George A; Main, Joseph A; Laverty, Rich; Su, Dan; Santare, Michael H; Raghupathy, R; Molinari, J. F; Zhou, F
2006-01-01
This report contains reprints of four papers that focus on various aspects of shock and wave propagation in cellular, viscoelastic, microcracked, and fragmented media that appear in the Proceedings...
Numerical simulation methods for wave propagation through optical waveguides
Sharma, A.
1993-01-01
The simulation of the field propagation through waveguides requires numerical solutions of the Helmholtz equation. For this purpose a method based on the principle of orthogonal collocation was recently developed. The method is also applicable to nonlinear pulse propagation through optical fibers. Some of the salient features of this method and its application to both linear and nonlinear wave propagation through optical waveguides are discussed in this report. 51 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs
Topology optimization of vibration and wave propagation problems
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2007-01-01
The method of topology optimization is a versatile method to determine optimal material layouts in mechanical structures. The method relies on, in principle, unlimited design freedom that can be used to design materials, structures and devices with significantly improved performance and sometimes...... novel functionality. This paper addresses basic issues in simulation and topology design of vibration and wave propagation problems. Steady-state and transient wave propagation problems are addressed and application examples for both cases are presented....
Free wave propagation in continuous pipes carrying a flowing fluid
Espindola, J.J. de; Silva, J.B. da
1982-01-01
The propagation constants of a periodically supported pipe are computed. Use is made of a general free wave-propagation theory, based on transfer matrices. Comparison is made with previously published results, computed through a simpler, limited scope theory. (Author) [pt
The linear potential propagator via wave function expansion
Nassar, Antonio B.; Cattani, Mauro S.D.
2002-01-01
We evaluate the quantum propagator for the motion of a particle in a linear potential via a recently developed formalism [A.B. Nassar et al., Phys. Rev. E56, 1230, (1997)]. In this formalism, the propagator comes about as a type of expansion of the wave function over the space of the initial velocities. (author)
Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain
Shrivastava Rohit Kumar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.
Wave propagation through a dielectric layer containing densely packed fibers
Lee, Siu-Chun
2011-01-01
This paper presents the theoretical formulation for the propagation of electromagnetic wave through a dielectric layer containing a random dense distribution of fibers. The diameter of the fibers is comparable to the inter-fiber spacing and wavelength of the incident radiation, but is much smaller than the thickness of the layer. Discontinuity of refractive index across the boundaries of the dielectric layer resulted in multiple internal reflection of both the primary source wave and the scattered waves. As a result the incident waves on the fibers consist of the multiply-reflected primary waves, scattered waves from other fibers, and scattered-reflected waves from the boundaries. The effective propagation constant of the dielectric fiber layer was developed by utilizing the Effective field-Quasicrystalline approximation. The influence of the refractive index of the dielectric medium on the radiative properties of a dense fiber layer was examined by means of numerical analyses.
Influence of Plasma Pressure Fluctuation on RF Wave Propagation
Liu Zhiwei; Bao Weimin; Li Xiaoping; Liu Donglin; Zhou Hui
2016-01-01
Pressure fluctuations in the plasma sheath from spacecraft reentry affect radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation. The influence of these fluctuations on wave propagation and wave properties is studied using methods derived by synthesizing the compressible turbulent flow theory, plasma theory, and electromagnetic wave theory. We study these influences on wave propagation at GPS and Ka frequencies during typical reentry by adopting stratified modeling. We analyzed the variations in reflection and transmission properties induced by pressure fluctuations. Our results show that, at the GPS frequency, if the waves are not totally reflected then the pressure fluctuations can remarkably affect reflection, transmission, and absorption properties. In extreme situations, the fluctuations can even cause blackout. At the Ka frequency, the influences are obvious when the waves are not totally transmitted. The influences are more pronounced at the GPS frequency than at the Ka frequency. This suggests that the latter can mitigate blackout by reducing both the reflection and the absorption of waves, as well as the influences of plasma fluctuations on wave propagation. Given that communication links with the reentry vehicles are susceptible to plasma pressure fluctuations, the influences on link budgets should be taken into consideration. (paper)
Frequency-domain Green's functions for radar waves in heterogeneous 2.5D media
Ellefsen, K.J.; Croize, D.; Mazzella, A.T.; McKenna, J.R.
2009-01-01
Green's functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous 2.5D media might be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid method. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties might vary in the x- and z-directions, but not in the y-direction. Wave propagation in the x- and z-directions is simulated with the finite-difference method, and wave propagation in the y-direction is simulated with an analytic function. The absorbing boundaries on the finite-difference grid are perfectly matched layers that have been modified to make them compatible with the hybrid method. The accuracy of these numerical Greens functions is assessed by comparing them with independently calculated Green's functions. For a homogeneous model, the magnitude errors range from -4.16% through 0.44%, and the phase errors range from -0.06% through 4.86%. For a layered model, the magnitude errors range from -2.60% through 2.06%, and the phase errors range from -0.49% through 2.73%. These numerical Green's functions might be used for forward modeling and full waveform inversion. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.
Controlling wave propagation through nonlinear engineered granular systems
Leonard, Andrea
We study the fundamental dynamic behavior of a special class of ordered granular systems in order to design new, structured materials with unique physical properties. The dynamic properties of granular systems are dictated by the nonlinear, Hertzian, potential in compression and zero tensile strength resulting from the discrete material structure. Engineering the underlying particle arrangement of granular systems allows for unique dynamic properties, not observed in natural, disordered granular media. While extensive studies on 1D granular crystals have suggested their usefulness for a variety of engineering applications, considerably less attention has been given to higher-dimensional systems. The extension of these studies in higher dimensions could enable the discovery of richer physical phenomena not possible in 1D, such as spatial redirection and anisotropic energy trapping. We present experiments, numerical simulation (based on a discrete particle model), and in some cases theoretical predictions for several engineered granular systems, studying the effects of particle arrangement on the highly nonlinear transient wave propagation to develop means for controlling the wave propagation pathways. The first component of this thesis studies the stress wave propagation resulting from a localized impulsive loading for three different 2D particle lattice structures: square, centered square, and hexagonal granular crystals. By varying the lattice structure, we observe a wide range of properties for the propagating stress waves: quasi-1D solitary wave propagation, fully 2D wave propagation with tunable wave front shapes, and 2D pulsed wave propagation. Additionally the effects of weak disorder, inevitably present in real granular systems, are investigated. The second half of this thesis studies the solitary wave propagation through 2D and 3D ordered networks of granular chains, reducing the effective density compared to granular crystals by selectively placing wave
Propagation-invariant waves in acoustic, optical, and radio-wave fields
Salo, Janne
2003-01-01
The physical phenomena considered in this thesis are associated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves that propagate in free space or in homogeneous media without diffraction. The concept of rotationally periodic wave propagation is introduced in the first journal article included in the thesis and it is subsequently used to analyse waves that avoid diffractive deterioration by repeatedly returning to their initial shape, possibly rotated around the optical axis. Such waves constitute an es...
Stress Wave Propagation Through Heterogeneous Media
2002-01-01
.... In this work the influence of interface scattering on finite-amplitude shock waves was experimentally investigated by impacting flyer plates onto periodically layered polycarbonate/6061 aluminum...
Stress Wave Propagation in Larch Plantation Trees-Numerical Simulation
Fenglu Liu; Fang Jiang; Xiping Wang; Houjiang Zhang; Wenhua Yu
2015-01-01
In this paper, we attempted to simulate stress wave propagation in virtual tree trunks and construct two dimensional (2D) wave-front maps in the longitudinal-radial section of the trunk. A tree trunk was modeled as an orthotropic cylinder in which wood properties along the fiber and in each of the two perpendicular directions were different. We used the COMSOL...
Nonlinear wave propagation through a ferromagnet with damping in ...
magnetic waves in a ferromagnet can be reduced to an integro-differential equation. Keywords. Solitons; integro-differential equations; reductive perturbation method. PACS Nos 41.20 Jb; 05.45 Yv; 03.50 De; 78.20 Ls. 1. Introduction. The phenomenon of propagation of electromagnetic waves in ferromagnets are not only.
Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments
Yucel, Abdulkadir C.
2013-01-01
A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier transform and fast multipole method accelerated surface integral equation-based EM simulator to statistically characterize fields from wireless transmitters in complex mine environments. 1536-1225 © 2013 IEEE.
Nonlinear propagation of short wavelength drift-Alfven waves
Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1986-01-01
Making use of a kinetic ion and a hydrodynamic electron description together with the Maxwell equation, the authors derive a set of nonlinear equations which governs the dynamics of short wavelength ion drift-Alfven waves. It is shown that the nonlinear drift-Alfven waves can propagate as two-dim...
Effect of surface conditions on blast wave propagation
Song, Seung Ho; Li, Yi Bao; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jung Il
2016-01-01
We performed numerical simulations of blast wave propagations on surfaces by solving axisymmetric two-dimensional Euler equations. Assuming the initial stage of fireball at the breakaway point after an explosion, we investigated the effect of surface conditions considering surface convex or concave elements and thermal conditions on blast wave propagations near the ground surface. Parametric studies were performed by varying the geometrical factors of the surface element as well as thermal layer characteristics. We found that the peak overpressure near the ground zero was increased due to the surface elements, while modulations of the blast wave propagations were limited within a region for the surface elements. Because of the thermal layer, the precursor was formed in the propagations, which led to the attenuation of the peak overpressure on the ground surface
Characteristics of coupled acoustic wave propagation in metal pipe
Kim, Ho Wuk; Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Sang Kwon
2008-01-01
The circular cylinder pipes are used in the many industrial areas. In this paper, the acoustic wave propagation in the pipe containing gas is researched. First of all, the theory for the coupled acoustic wave propagation in a pipe is investigated. Acoustic wave propagation in pipe can not be occurred independently between the wave of the fluid and the shell. It requires complicated analysis. However, as a special case, the coupled wave in a high density pipe containing a light density medium is corresponded closely to the uncoupled in-vacuo shell waves and to the rigid-walled duct fluid waves. The coincidence frequencies of acoustic and shell modes contribute to the predominant energy transmission. The coincidence frequency means the frequency corresponding to the coincidence of the wavenumber in both acoustic and shell. In this paper, it is assumed that the internal medium is much lighter than the pipe shell. After the uncoupled acoustic wave in the internal medium and uncoupled shell wave are considered, the coincidence frequencies are found. The analysis is successfully confirmed by the verification of the experiment using the real long steel pipe. This work verifies that the coupled wave characteristic of the shell and the fluid is occurred as predominant energy transmission at the coincidence frequencies
Impact induced solitary wave propagation through a woodpile structure
Kore, R; Waychal, A; Yadav, P; Shelke, A; Agarwal, S; Sahoo, N; Uddin, Ahsan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate solitary wave propagation through a one-dimensional woodpile structure excited by low and high velocity impact. Woodpile structures are a sub-class of granular metamaterial, which supports propagation of nonlinear waves. Hertz contact law governs the behavior of the solitary wave propagation through the granular media. Towards an experimental study, a woodpile structure was fabricated by orthogonally stacking cylindrical rods. A shock tube facility has been developed to launch an impactor on the woodpile structure at a velocity of 30 m s −1 . Embedded granular chain sensors were fabricated to study the behavior of the solitary wave. The impact induced stress wave is studied to investigate solitary wave parameters, i.e. contact force, contact time, and solitary wave velocity. With the aid of the experimental setup, numerical simulations, and a theoretical solution based on the long wavelength approximation, formation of the solitary wave in the woodpile structure is validated to a reasonable degree of accuracy. The nondispersive and compact supported solitary waves traveling at sonic wave velocity offer unique properties that could be leveraged for application in nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring. (paper)
A. Fornasiero
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Ground clutter caused by anomalous propagation (anaprop can affect seriously radar rain rate estimates, particularly in fully automatic radar processing systems, and, if not filtered, can produce frequent false alarms. A statistical study of anomalous propagation detected from two operational C-band radars in the northern Italian region of Emilia Romagna is discussed, paying particular attention to its diurnal and seasonal variability. The analysis shows a high incidence of anaprop in summer, mainly in the morning and evening, due to the humid and hot summer climate of the Po Valley, particularly in the coastal zone. Thereafter, a comparison between different techniques and datasets to retrieve the vertical profile of the refractive index gradient in the boundary layer is also presented. In particular, their capability to detect anomalous propagation conditions is compared. Furthermore, beam path trajectories are simulated using a multilayer ray-tracing model and the influence of the propagation conditions on the beam trajectory and shape is examined. High resolution radiosounding data are identified as the best available dataset to reproduce accurately the local propagation conditions, while lower resolution standard TEMP data suffers from interpolation degradation and Numerical Weather Prediction model data (Lokal Model are able to retrieve a tendency to superrefraction but not to detect ducting conditions. Observing the ray tracing of the centre, lower and upper limits of the radar antenna 3-dB half-power main beam lobe it is concluded that ducting layers produce a change in the measured volume and in the power distribution that can lead to an additional error in the reflectivity estimate and, subsequently, in the estimated rainfall rate.
A theory of coherent propagation of light wave in semiconductors
Zi-zhao, G.; Guo-zhen, Y.
1980-05-01
In this paper, we suggest a theory to describe the pheonmena of coherent propagation of light wave in semiconductors. Basing on two band system and considering the interband and intraband transitions induced by light wave and the interaction between electrons, we obtain the nonlinear equations for the description of interaction between carriers and coherent light wave. We have made use of the equations to analyse the phenomena which arise from the interaction between semiconductors and coherent light, for example, the multiphoton transitions, the saturation of light absorption of exciton, the shift of exciton line in intense light field, and the coherent propagation phenomena such as self-induced transparency, etc. (author)
Directional bending wave propagation in periodically perforated plates
Andreassen, Erik; Manktelow, Kevin; Ruzzene, Massimo
2015-01-01
We report on the investigation of wave propagation in a periodically perforated plate. A unit cell with double-C perforations is selected as a test article suitable to investigate two-dimensional dispersion characteristics, group velocities, and internal resonances. A numerical model, formulated...... using Mindlin plate elements, is developed to predict relevant wave characteristics such as dispersion, and group velocity variation as a function of frequency and direction of propagation. Experimental tests are conducted through a scanning laser vibrometer, which provides full wave field information...... for the design of phononic waveguides with directional and internal resonant characteristics....
Propagation of ionizing waves in glow discharge
Suzuki, T.
1977-01-01
Ionizing waves were produced along the positive column of a glow discharge in air by applying an impulse voltage to an electrode at one end of the column. Five photomultipliers and three current-sensing coils were used to observe how the waves were affected by the rise time and the magnitude of the applied impulses and by the electron density in the positive column of the glow discharge. It is shown that the speed of the ionizing waves increases with the slope of the applied impulses and with the preexisting electron density. The electron density is augmented about 100--200 times due to the buildup of ionization at the front of the waves. The theory was developed to explain the property of ionizing waves
VHF radar observations of gravity waves at a low latitude
G. Dutta
1999-08-01
Full Text Available Wind observations made at Gadanki (13.5°N by using Indian MST Radar for few days in September, October, December 1995 and January, 1996 have been analyzed to study gravity wave activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Horizontal wind variances have been computed for gravity waves of period (2-6 h from the power spectral density (PSD spectrum. Exponential curves of the form eZ/H have been fitted by least squares technique to these variance values to obtain height variations of the irregular winds upto the height of about 15 km, where Z is the height in kilometers. The value of H, the scale height, as determined from curve fitting is found to be less than the theoretical value of scale height of neutral atmosphere in this region, implying that the waves are gaining energy during their passage in the troposphere. In other words, it indicates that the sources of gravity waves are present in the troposphere. The energy densities of gravity wave fluctuations have been computed. Polynomial fits to the observed values show that wave energy density increases in the troposphere, its source region, and then decreases in the lower stratosphere.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence; waves and tides
2D full wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma
Hojo, Hitoshi; Uruta, Go; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mase, Atsushi
2002-01-01
Global full-wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma with an external magnetic field imaging a tokamak configuration is performed in two dimensions. The temporal behavior of an electromagnetic wave launched into plasma from a wave-guiding region is obtained. (author)
Shear wave propagation in piezoelectric-piezoelectric composite layered structure
Anshu Mli Gaur
Full Text Available The propagation behavior of shear wave in piezoelectric composite structure is investigated by two layer model presented in this approach. The composite structure comprises of piezoelectric layers of two different materials bonded alternatively. Dispersion equations are derived for propagation along the direction normal to the layering and in direction of layering. It has been revealed that thickness and elastic constants have significant influence on propagation behavior of shear wave. The phase velocity and wave number is numerically calculated for alternative layer of Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF and Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5H in composite layered structure. The analysis carried out in this paper evaluates the effect of volume fraction on the phase velocity of shear wave.
Computer modeling of inelastic wave propagation in porous rock
Cheney, J.A.; Schatz, J.F.; Snell, C.
1979-01-01
Computer modeling of wave propagation in porous rock has several important applications. Among them are prediction of fragmentation and permeability changes to be caused by chemical explosions used for in situ resource recovery, and the understanding of nuclear explosion effects such as seismic wave generation, containment, and site hardness. Of interest in all these applications are the distance from the source to which inelastic effects persist and the amount of porosity change within the inelastic region. In order to study phenomena related to these applications, the Cam Clay family of models developed at Cambridge University was used to develop a similar model that is applicable to wave propagation in porous rock. That model was incorporated into a finite-difference wave propagation computer code SOC. 10 figures, 1 table
Propagation of waves in shear flows
Fabrikant, A L
1998-01-01
The state of the art in a theory of oscillatory and wave phenomena in hydrodynamical flows is presented in this book. A unified approach is used for waves of different physical origins. A characteristic feature of this approach is that hydrodynamical phenomena are considered in terms of physics; that is, the complement of the conventionally employed formal mathematical approach. Some physical concepts such as wave energy and momentum in a moving fluid are analysed, taking into account induced mean flow. The physical mechanisms responsible for hydrodynamic instability of shear flows are conside
Macia, R.; Correig, A.M.
1987-01-01
Seismic wave propagation is described by a second order differential equation for medium displacement. By Fourier transforming with respect to time and space, wave equation transforms into a system of first order linear differential equations for the Fourier transform of displacement and stress. This system of differential equations is solved by means of Matrix Propagator and applied to the propagation of body waves in stratified media. The matrix propagators corresponding to P-SV and SH waves in homogeneous medium are found as an intermediate step to obtain the spectral response of body waves propagating through a stratified medium with homogeneous layers. (author) 14 refs
Propagation of nonlinear ion acoustic wave with generation of long-wavelength waves
Ohsawa, Yukiharu; Kamimura, Tetsuo
1978-01-01
The nonlinear propagation of the wave packet of an ion acoustic wave with wavenumber k 0 asymptotically equals k sub(De) (the electron Debye wavenumber) is investigated by computer simulations. From the wave packet of the ion acoustic wave, waves with long wavelengths are observed to be produced within a few periods for the amplitude oscillation of the original wave packet. These waves are generated in the region where the original wave packet exists. Their characteristic wavelength is of the order of the length of the wave packet, and their propagation velocity is almost equal to the ion acoustic speed. The long-wavelength waves thus produced strongly affect the nonlinear evolution of the original wave packet. (auth.)
Wave propagation in the Lorenz-96 model
van Kekem, Dirk L.; Sterk, Alef E.
2018-04-01
In this paper we study the spatiotemporal properties of waves in the Lorenz-96 model and their dependence on the dimension parameter n and the forcing parameter F. For F > 0 the first bifurcation is either a supercritical Hopf or a double-Hopf bifurcation and the periodic attractor born at these bifurcations represents a traveling wave. Its spatial wave number increases linearly with n, but its period tends to a finite limit as n → ∞. For F traveling wave also grows linearly with n. For F < 0 and even n, however, a Hopf bifurcation is preceded by either one or two pitchfork bifurcations, where the number of the latter bifurcations depends on whether n has remainder 2 or 0 upon division by 4. This bifurcation sequence leads to stationary waves and their spatiotemporal properties also depend on the remainder after dividing n by 4. Finally, we explain how the double-Hopf bifurcation can generate two or more stable waves with different spatiotemporal properties that coexist for the same parameter values n and F.
Wave propagation in the Lorenz-96 model
D. L. van Kekem
2018-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the spatiotemporal properties of waves in the Lorenz-96 model and their dependence on the dimension parameter n and the forcing parameter F. For F > 0 the first bifurcation is either a supercritical Hopf or a double-Hopf bifurcation and the periodic attractor born at these bifurcations represents a traveling wave. Its spatial wave number increases linearly with n, but its period tends to a finite limit as n → ∞. For F < 0 and odd n, the first bifurcation is again a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, but in this case the period of the traveling wave also grows linearly with n. For F < 0 and even n, however, a Hopf bifurcation is preceded by either one or two pitchfork bifurcations, where the number of the latter bifurcations depends on whether n has remainder 2 or 0 upon division by 4. This bifurcation sequence leads to stationary waves and their spatiotemporal properties also depend on the remainder after dividing n by 4. Finally, we explain how the double-Hopf bifurcation can generate two or more stable waves with different spatiotemporal properties that coexist for the same parameter values n and F.
Bulyiginskiy, D.G.; Gurchenko, A.D.; Gusakov, E.Z.; Korkin, V.V.; Larionov, M.M.; Novik, K.M.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Popov, A.Yu.; Saveliev, A.N.; Selenin, V.L.; Stepanov, A.Yu.
2001-01-01
The upper hybrid resonance (UHR) scattering technique possessing such merits as one-dimensional probing geometry, enhancement of cross section, and fine localization of scattering region is modified in the new diagnostics under development to achieve wave number resolution. The fluctuation wave number is estimated in the new technique from the scattering signal time delay measurements. The feasibility of the scheme is checked in the proof of principal experiment in a tokamak. The time delay of the UHR scattering signal exceeding 10 ns is observed. The small scale low frequency density fluctuations are investigated in the UHR RADAR backscattering experiment. The UHR cross-polarization scattering signal related to small scale magnetic fluctuations is observed. The lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation and both linear and nonlinear wave conversion are investigated. The small wavelength (λ≤0.02 cm) high number ion Bernstein harmonics, resulting from the linear wave conversion of the LH wave are observed in a tokamak plasma for the first time
Propagation of inertial-gravity waves on an island shelf
Bondur, V. G.; Sabinin, K. D.; Grebenyuk, Yu. V.
2015-09-01
The propagation of inertial-gravity waves (IGV) at the boundary of the Pacific shelf near the island of Oahu (Hawaii), whose generation was studied in the first part of this work [1], is analyzed. It is shown that a significant role there is played by the plane oblique waves; whose characteristics were identified by the method of estimating 3D wave parameters for the cases when the measurements are available only for two verticals. It is established that along with the descending propagation of energy that is typical of IGVs, wave packets ascend from the bottom to the upper layers, which is caused by the emission of waves from intense jets of discharged waters flowing out of a diffusor located at the bottom.
Shock wave propagation in neutral and ionized gases
Podder, N. K.; Wilson IV, R. B.; Bletzinger, P.
2008-01-01
Preliminary measurements on a recently built shock tube are presented. Planar shock waves are excited by the spark discharge of a capacitor, and launched into the neutral argon or nitrogen gas as well as its ionized glow discharge in the pressure region 1-17 Torr. For the shock wave propagation in the neutral argon at fixed capacitor charging voltage, the shock wave velocity is found to increase nonlinearly at the lower pressures, reach a maximum at an intermediate pressure, and then decrease almost linearly at the higher pressures, whereas the shock wave strength continues to increase at a nonlinear rate over the entire range of pressure. However, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases almost monotonically as the capacitor charging voltage is increased. For the shock wave propagation in the ionized argon glow, the shock wave is found to be most influenced by the glow discharge plasma current. As the plasma current is increased, both the shock wave propagation velocity and the dispersion width are observed to increase nonlinearly
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma
Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yaoze; Gao, Junying; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Sun, Xiudong; Li, Hui; Wu, Jian; Pu, Shaozhi
2015-01-01
Propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in weakly ionized dusty plasmas are the subject of this study. Dielectric relation for EM waves propagating at a weakly ionized dusty plasma is derived based on the Boltzmann distribution law while considering the collision and charging effects of dust grains. The propagation properties of EM energy in dusty plasma of rocket exhaust are numerically calculated and studied, utilizing the parameters of rocket exhaust plasma. Results indicate that increase of dust radius and density enhance the reflection and absorption coefficient. High dust radius and density make the wave hardly transmit through the dusty plasmas. Interaction enhancements between wave and dusty plasmas are developed through effective collision frequency improvements. Numerical results coincide with observed results by indicating that GHz band wave communication is effected by dusty plasma as the presence of dust grains significantly affect propagation of EM waves in the dusty plasmas. The results are helpful to analyze the effect of dust in plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for the experiments. (paper)
Wave propagation in elastic medium with heterogeneous quadratic nonlinearity
Tang Guangxin; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu Jianmin
2011-01-01
This paper studies the one-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic medium with spatially non-uniform quadratic nonlinearity. Two problems are solved analytically. One is for a time-harmonic wave propagating in a half-space where the displacement is prescribed on the surface of the half-space. It is found that spatial non-uniformity of the material nonlinearity causes backscattering of the second order harmonic, which when combined with the forward propagating waves generates a standing wave in steady-state wave motion. The second problem solved is the reflection from and transmission through a layer of finite thickness embedded in an otherwise linearly elastic medium of infinite extent, where it is assumed that the layer has a spatially non-uniform quadratic nonlinearity. The results show that the transmission coefficient for the second order harmonic is proportional to the spatial average of the nonlinearity across the thickness of the layer, independent of the spatial distribution of the nonlinearity. On the other hand, the coefficient of reflection is proportional to a weighted average of the nonlinearity across the layer thickness. The weight function in this weighted average is related to the propagating phase, thus making the coefficient of reflection dependent on the spatial distribution of the nonlinearity. Finally, the paper concludes with some discussions on how to use the reflected and transmitted second harmonic waves to evaluate the variance and autocorrelation length of nonlinear parameter β when the nonlinearity distribution in the layer is a stochastic process.
Carcione, José M
2014-01-01
Authored by the internationally renowned José M. Carcione, Wave Fields in Real Media: Wave Propagation in Anisotropic, Anelastic, Porous and Electromagnetic Media examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, starting with the introduction of relevant stress-strain relations. The combination of this relation and the equations of momentum conservation lead to the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. This book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and ...
Pressure wave propagation in the discharge piping with water pool
Bang, Young S.; Seul, Kwang W.; Kim, In Goo
2004-01-01
Pressure wave propagation in the discharge piping with a sparger submerged in a water pool, following the opening of a safety relief valve, is analyzed. To predict the pressure transient behavior, a RELAP5/MOD3 code is used. The applicability of the RELAP5 code and the adequacy of the present modeling scheme are confirmed by simulating the applicable experiment on a water hammer with voiding. As a base case, the modeling scheme was used to calculate the wave propagation inside a vertical pipe with sparger holes and submerged within a water pool. In addition, the effects on wave propagation of geometric factors, such as the loss coefficient, the pipe configuration, and the subdivision of sparger pipe, are investigated. The effects of inflow conditions, such as water slug inflow and the slow opening of a safety relief valve are also examined
Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves
Salem, Mohamed
2011-08-01
A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagating in one-dimensional layered system
Yun, Y.; Miao, G.Q.; Zhang, P.; Huang, K.; Wei, R.J.
2005-01-01
The propagation of finite-amplitude plane sound in one-dimensional layered media is studied by the extended method of transfer matrix formalism. For the periodic layered system consisting of two alternate types of liquid, the energy distribution and the phase vectors of the interface vibration are computed and analyzed. It is found that in the pass-band, the second harmonic of sound wave can propagate with the characteristic modulation
Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves
Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan
2011-01-01
A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.
Wave propagation model of heat conduction and group speed
Zhang, Long; Zhang, Xiaomin; Peng, Song
2018-03-01
In view of the finite relaxation model of non-Fourier's law, the Cattaneo and Vernotte (CV) model and Fourier's law are presented in this work for comparing wave propagation modes. Independent variable translation is applied to solve the partial differential equation. Results show that the general form of the time spatial distribution of temperature for the three media comprises two solutions: those corresponding to the positive and negative logarithmic heating rates. The former shows that a group of heat waves whose spatial distribution follows the exponential function law propagates at a group speed; the speed of propagation is related to the logarithmic heating rate. The total speed of all the possible heat waves can be combined to form the group speed of the wave propagation. The latter indicates that the spatial distribution of temperature, which follows the exponential function law, decays with time. These features show that propagation accelerates when heated and decelerates when cooled. For the model media that follow Fourier's law and correspond to the positive heat rate of heat conduction, the propagation mode is also considered the propagation of a group of heat waves because the group speed has no upper bound. For the finite relaxation model with non-Fourier media, the interval of group speed is bounded and the maximum speed can be obtained when the logarithmic heating rate is exactly the reciprocal of relaxation time. And for the CV model with a non-Fourier medium, the interval of group speed is also bounded and the maximum value can be obtained when the logarithmic heating rate is infinite.
DEMETER observations of manmade waves that propagate in the ionosphere
Parrot, Michel
2018-01-01
This paper is a review of manmade waves observed by the ionospheric satellite DEMETER. It concerns waves emitted by the ground-based VLF and ELF transmitters, by broadcasting stations, by the power line harmonic radiation, by industrial noise, and by active experiments. Examples are shown including, for the first time, the record of a wave coming from an ELF transmitter. These waves propagate upwards in the magnetosphere and they can be observed in the magnetically conjugated region of emission. Depending on their frequencies, they perturb the ionosphere and the particles in the radiation belts, and additional emissions are triggered. xml:lang="fr"
Parabolic approximation method for fast magnetosonic wave propagation in tokamaks
Phillips, C.K.; Perkins, F.W.; Hwang, D.Q.
1985-07-01
Fast magnetosonic wave propagation in a cylindrical tokamak model is studied using a parabolic approximation method in which poloidal variations of the wave field are considered weak in comparison to the radial variations. Diffraction effects, which are ignored by ray tracing mthods, are included self-consistently using the parabolic method since continuous representations for the wave electromagnetic fields are computed directly. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the cylindrical convergence of the launched waves into a diffraction-limited focal spot on the cyclotron absorption layer near the magnetic axis for a wide range of plasma confinement parameters
Transient Aspects of Wave Propagation Connected with Spatial Coherence
Ezzat G. Bakhoum
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents transient aspects of light wave propagation connected with spatial coherence. It is shown that reflection and refraction phenomena involve spatial patterns which are created within a certain transient time interval. After this transient time interval, these patterns act like a memory, determining the wave vector for subsequent sets of reflected/refracted waves. The validity of this model is based on intuitive aspects regarding phase conservation of energy for waves reflected/refracted by multiple centers in a certain material medium.
Continuous-wave radar to detect defects within heat exchangers and steam generator tubes.
Nassersharif, Bahram (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Caffey, Thurlow Washburn Howell; Jedlicka, Russell P. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Garcia, Gabe V. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Rochau, Gary Eugene
2003-01-01
A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The experimental program resulted in a completed product development schedule and the design of an experimental apparatus for studying handling of the probe and data acquisition. These tests were completed as far as the prototypical probe performance allowed. The prototype probe design did not have sufficient sensitivity to detect a defect signal using the defined radar technique and did not allow successful completion of all of the project milestones. The best results from the prototype probe could not detect a tube defect using the radar principle. Though a more precision probe may be possible, the cost of design and construction was beyond the scope of the project. This report describes the probe development and the status of the design at the termination of the project.
Wave propagation through an electron cyclotron resonance layer
Westerhof, E.
1997-01-01
The propagation of a wave beam through an electron cyclotron resonance layer is analysed in two-dimensional slab geometry in order to assess the deviation from cold plasma propagation due to resonant, warm plasma changes in wave dispersion. For quasi-perpendicular propagation, N ' 'parallel to'' ≅ v t /c, an O-mode beam is shown to exhibit a strong wiggle in the trajectory of the centre of the beam when passing through the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance. The effects are largest for low temperatures and close to perpendicular propagation. Predictions from standard dielectric wave energy fluxes are inconsistent with the trajectory of the beam. Qualitatively identical results are obtained for the X-mode second harmonic. In contrast, the X-mode at the fundamental resonance shows significant deviations form cold plasma propagation only for strongly oblique propagation and/or high temperatures. On the basis of the obtained results a practical suggestion is made for ray tracing near electron cyclotron resonance. (Author)
Radio Wave Propagation Scene Partitioning for High-Speed Rails
Bo Ai
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.
Hoffmann, P.; Serafimovich, A.; Peters, D.; Latteck, R. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik, Kuehlungsborn (Germany); Dalin, P. [Swedish Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden); Goldberg, R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
2006-07-01
During the MaCWAVE campaign, combined rocket, radiosonde and ground-based measurements have been performed at the Norwegian Andoeya rocket range (ARR) near Andenes and the Swedish rocket range (ESRANGE) near Kiruna in January 2003 to study gravity waves in the vicinity of the Scandinavian mountain ridge. The investigations presented here are mainly based on the evaluation of continuous radar measurements with the ALWIN VHP radar in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere at Andenes (69.3 N, 16.0 E) and the ESRAD VHP radar near Kiruna (67.9 N, 21.9 E). Both radars are separated by about 260 km. Based on wavelet transformations of both data sets, the strongest activity of inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere has been detected during the first period from 24-26 January 2003 with dominant vertical wavelengths of about 4-5 km as well as with dominant observed periods of about 13-14 h for the altitude range between 5 and 8 km under the additional influence of mountain waves. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of {proportional_to}200 km moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with intrinsic periods in the order of {proportional_to}5 h and with horizontal wavelengths of 200 km, moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. From the derived downward energy propagation it is supposed, that these waves are likely generated by a jet streak in the upper troposphere. The parameters of the jet-induced gravity waves have been estimated at both sites separately. The identified gravity waves are coherent at both locations and show higher amplitudes on the east-side of the Scandinavian mountain ridge, as expected by the influence of mountains. (orig.)
Studying Electromechanical Wave Propagation and Transport Delays in Power Systems
Dasgupta, Kalyan; Kulkarni, A. M.; Soman, Shreevardhan
2013-05-01
Abstract: In this paper, we make an attempt to describe the phenomenon of wave propagation when a disturbance is introduced in an electromechanical system. The focus is mainly on generator trips in a power system. Ordering of the generators is first done using a sensitivity matrix. Thereafter, orthogonal decomposition of the ordered generators is done to group them based on their participation in different modes. Finally, we find the velocity of propagation of the wave and the transport delay associated with it using the ESPRIT method. The analysis done on generators from the eastern and western regions of India.1
24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation Through Vegetation
Rodriguez, Ignacio; Abreu, Renato Barbosa; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika
2016-01-01
This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth was exam......This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth...
A nonlinear wave equation in nonadiabatic flame propagation
Booty, M.R.; Matalon, M.; Matkowsky, B.J.
1988-01-01
The authors derive a nonlinear wave equation from the diffusional thermal model of gaseous combustion to describe the evolution of a flame front. The equation arises as a long wave theory, for values of the volumeric heat loss in a neighborhood of the extinction point (beyond which planar uniformly propagating flames cease to exist), and for Lewis numbers near the critical value beyond which uniformly propagating planar flames lose stability via a degenerate Hopf bifurcation. Analysis of the equation suggests the possibility of a singularity developing in finite time
Slow Wave Propagation and Sheath Interaction for ICRF Waves in the Tokamak SOL
Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.
2009-01-01
In previous work we studied the propagation of slow-wave resonance cones launched parasitically by a fast-wave antenna into a tenuous magnetized plasma. Here we extend the previous calculation to ''dense'' scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas where the usual slow wave is evanescent. Using the sheath boundary condition, it is shown that for sufficiently close limiters, the slow wave couples to a sheath plasma wave and is no longer evanescent, but radially propagating. A self-consistent calculation of the rf-sheath width yields the resulting sheath voltage in terms of the amplitude of the launched SW, plasma parameters and connection length.
High frequency guided wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers
Pizzolato, Marco; Masserey, Bernard; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Fromme, Paul
2017-04-01
Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. The cutting process can introduce micro-cracks in the thin wafers and lead to varying thickness. High frequency guided ultrasonic waves are considered for the structural monitoring of the wafers. The anisotropy of the monocrystalline silicon leads to variations of the wave characteristics, depending on the propagation direction relative to the crystal orientation. Full three-dimensional Finite Element simulations of the guided wave propagation were conducted to visualize and quantify these effects for a line source. The phase velocity (slowness) and skew angle of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes (first anti-symmetric mode A0 and first symmetric mode S0) for varying propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation were measured experimentally. Selective mode excitation was achieved using a contact piezoelectric transducer with a custom-made wedge and holder to achieve a controlled contact pressure. The out-of-plane component of the guided wave propagation was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement was found with the simulation results and theoretical predictions based on nominal material properties of the silicon wafer.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION
Lorand Catalin STOENESCU
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishing of the flood wave is important in the case of sinuous courses of water or with urban settlements very close to the minor river bed. In the case of Poiana Uzului dam, 2 scenarios were simulated with the help of Ph.D. Eng. Dan Stematiu, plausible scenarios but with very little chances of actually producing. The results were presented as animations with flooded surfaces at certain time steps successively.
Stress wave propagation in linear viscoelasticity
Asada, Kazuo; Fukuoka, Hidekazu.
1992-01-01
Decreasing characteristics of both stress and stress gradient with propagation distance at a 2-dimensional linear viscoelasticity wavefront are derived by using our 3-dimensional theoretical equation for particle velocity discontinuities. By finite-element method code DYNA3D, stress at a noncurvature dilatation wavefront of linear viscoelasticity is shown to decrease exponentially. This result is in good accordance with our theory. By dynamic photoelasticity experiment, stress gradients of urethane rubber plates at 3 types of wavefronts are shown to decrease exponentially at a noncurvature wavefront and are shown to be a decreasing function of (1/√R) exp (α 1 2 /(2α 0 3 ξ)) at a curvature wavefront. These experiment results are in good accordance with our theory. (author)
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Observations of apparent superslow wave propagation in solar prominences
Raes, J. O.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Baes, M.; Wright, A. N.
2017-06-01
Context. Phase mixing of standing continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in atmospheric magnetic structures such as coronal arcades can create the apparent effect of a wave propagating across the magnetic field. Aims: We observe a prominence with SDO/AIA on 2015 March 15 and find the presence of oscillatory motion. We aim to demonstrate that interpreting this motion as a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) wave is faulty. We also connect the decrease of the apparent velocity over time with the phase mixing process, which depends on the curvature of the magnetic field lines. Methods: By measuring the displacement of the prominence at different heights to calculate the apparent velocity, we show that the propagation slows down over time, in accordance with the theoretical work of Kaneko et al. We also show that this propagation speed drops below what is to be expected for even slow MHD waves for those circumstances. We use a modified Kippenhahn-Schlüter prominence model to calculate the curvature of the magnetic field and fit our observations accordingly. Results: Measuring three of the apparent waves, we get apparent velocities of 14, 8, and 4 km s-1. Fitting a simple model for the magnetic field configuration, we obtain that the filament is located 103 Mm below the magnetic centre. We also obtain that the scale of the magnetic field strength in the vertical direction plays no role in the concept of apparent superslow waves and that the moment of excitation of the waves happened roughly one oscillation period before the end of the eruption that excited the oscillation. Conclusions: Some of the observed phase velocities are lower than expected for slow modes for the circumstances, showing that they rather fit with the concept of apparent superslow propagation. A fit with our magnetic field model allows for inferring the magnetic geometry of the prominence. The movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org
High frequency guided wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers
Pizzolato, M.; Masserey, B.; Robyr, J. L.; Fromme, P.
2017-01-01
Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. The cutting process can introduce micro-cracks in the thin wafers and lead to varying thickness. High frequency guided ultrasonic waves are considered for the structural monitoring of the wafers. The anisotropy of the monocrystalline silicon leads to variations of the wave characteristics, depending on the propagation direction relative to the crystal orientation. Full...
Seismic Wave Propagation in Icy Ocean Worlds
Stähler, Simon C.; Panning, Mark P.; Vance, Steven D.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; van Driel, Martin; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Kedar, Sharon
2018-01-01
Seismology was developed on Earth and shaped our model of the Earth's interior over the twentieth century. With the exception of the Philae lander, all in situ extraterrestrial seismological effort to date was limited to other terrestrial planets. All have in common a rigid crust above a solid mantle. The coming years may see the installation of seismometers on Europa, Titan, and Enceladus, so it is necessary to adapt seismological concepts to the setting of worlds with global oceans covered in ice. Here we use waveform analyses to identify and classify wave types, developing a lexicon for icy ocean world seismology intended to be useful to both seismologists and planetary scientists. We use results from spectral-element simulations of broadband seismic wavefields to adapt seismological concepts to icy ocean worlds. We present a concise naming scheme for seismic waves and an overview of the features of the seismic wavefield on Europa, Titan, Ganymede, and Enceladus. In close connection with geophysical interior models, we analyze simulated seismic measurements of Europa and Titan that might be used to constrain geochemical parameters governing the habitability of a sub-ice ocean.
Walker, A.D.M.; Stephenson, J.A.E. [KwaZulu-Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). School of Chemistry and Physics
2014-07-01
A case study of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave in the solar wind that is strongly correlated with a magnetospheric field line resonance observed by the SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) radar at Sanae, Antarctica is presented. The data from the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) satellite at the solar libration point are analysed. The data time series are bandpass filtered at the pulsation frequency and the analytic signal deduced. From these data the partition of energy between the field components is computed. It is shown that energy is equally partitioned between the kinetic energy and transverse magnetic potential energy densities. The energy flux vector is closely aligned with the background magnetic field. The transverse magnetic and velocity components are in antiphase. This is the first identification of the triggering wave as a transverse Alfven wave which originates upstream from the space craft and is propagated to the magnetosphere to trigger the pulsation.
Propagation of waves in a multicomponent plasma having charged ...
Propagation of waves in a multicomponent plasma having charged dust particles has been investigated by various authors in recent times as the presence of charged dust grains give rise to a new kind of modes called dust modes and it has wide applications in magneto- sphere and space plasma [1–3]. In fact, Rao et al [4] ...
Chiral metamaterials characterisation using the wave propagation retrieval method
Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu
2010-01-01
In this presentation we extend the wave propagation method for the retrieval of the effective properties to the case of chiral metamaterials with circularly polarised eigenwaves. The method is unambiguous, simple and provides bulk effective parameters. Advantages and constraints are discussed...
Surface wave propagation in a fluid-saturated incompressible ...
dilatational and one rotational elastic waves in fluid-saturated porous solids. Biot theory ..... If the pore liquid is absent or gas is filled in the pores, then ρF ..... Biot M A (1962) Mechanics of deformation and acoustic propagation in porous media.
Seismic wave propagation in fractured media: A discontinuous Galerkin approach
De Basabe, Jonás D.
2011-01-01
We formulate and implement a discontinuous Galekin method for elastic wave propagation that allows for discontinuities in the displacement field to simulate fractures or faults using the linear- slip model. We show numerical results using a 2D model with one linear- slip discontinuity and different frequencies. The results show a good agreement with analytic solutions. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Statistical characterization of wave propagation in mine environments
Bakir, Onur
2012-07-01
A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation (ME-PC) method with a novel domain-decomposition (DD) integral equation-based EM simulator to obtain statistics of electric fields due to wireless transmitters in realistic mine environments. © 2012 IEEE.
Wave propagation in coated cylinders with reference to fretting fatigue
is to study stress wave propagation in cylinders with reference to high frequency fretting. ... The motivation for studying of fretting fatigue at higher frequency is to investigate the ... Hence focus in this work is given to thin rods and cylinders. The.
Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Tsunami Wave Propagation for double layer state in Bore
Yuvaraj, V.; Rajasekaran, S.; Nagarajan, D.
2018-04-01
Tsunami wave enters into the river bore in the landslide. Tsunami wave propagation are described in two-layer states. The velocity and amplitude of the tsunami wave propagation are calculated using the double layer. The numerical and analytical solutions are given for the nonlinear equation of motion of the wave propagation in a bore.
Earthquake wave propagation in immiscibly compressible porous soil
Xue, S.; Kurita, S.; Izumi, M.
1993-01-01
This paper utilizes the formalism of the theory of immiscible compressible mixtures to formulate the wave propagation equation for the soil where the soil has been assumed as a binary mixture consisting of one solid phase and one fluid phase. The method is developed to solve the one dimensional wave equation by the above theory. The relations between the wave attenuating characteristic value Q and the volume fraction, the relative motion of two phases have been shown. It is concluded that based on such theory we can solve more precisely the soil behaviors while considering the interaction of structure and soil of immiscible mixture. (author)
Effective constants for wave propagation through partially saturated porous media
Berryman, J.G.; Thigpen, L.
1985-01-01
The multipole scattering coefficients for elastic wave scattering from a spherical inhomogeneity in a fluid-saturated porous medium have been calculated. These coefficients may be used to obtain estimates of the effective macroscopic constants for long-wavelength propagation of elastic waves through partially saturated media. If the volume average of the single scattering from spherical bubbles of gas and liquid is required to vanish, the resulting equations determine the effective bulk modulus, density, and viscosity of the multiphase fluid filling the pores. The formula for the effective viscosity during compressional wave excitation is apparently new
Alfven wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma
Watts, Christopher; Hanna, Jeremy
2004-01-01
Results from a laboratory study of the dispersion relation of Alfven waves propagating through a partially ionized plasma are presented. The plasma is generated using a helicon source, creating a high density, current-free discharge, where the source can be adjusted to one of several modes with varying neutral fraction. Depending on the neutral fraction, the measured dispersion curve of shear Alfven waves can change significantly. Measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions of the effect of neutral particles on Alfven wave propagation. In fitting the theory, the neutral fraction is independently estimated using two simple particle transport models, one collisionless, the other collisional. The two models predict comparable neutral fractions, and agree well with the neutral fraction required for the Alfven dispersion theory
Propagation and application of waves in the ionosphere.
Yeh, K. C.; Liu, C. H.
1972-01-01
This review deals with the propagation of waves, especially radio waves in the ionosphere. In the macroscopic electromagnetic theory, the mathematical structure of wave propagation problems depends entirely on the properties of the dielectric operator in a magnetically nonpermeable medium. These properties can be deduced from general discussions of symmetry and considerations of physical principles. When the medium is specifically the ionosphere, various physical phenomena may occur. Because of a large number of parameters, it is desirable to define a parameter space. A point in the parameter space corresponds to a specific plasma. The parameter space is subdivided into regions whose boundaries correspond to conditions of resonance and cutoff. As the point crosses these boundaries, the refractive index surface transforms continuously.
Quasinormal modes and classical wave propagation in analogue black holes
Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.
2004-01-01
Many properties of black holes can be studied using acoustic analogues in the laboratory through the propagation of sound waves. We investigate in detail sound wave propagation in a rotating acoustic (2+1)-dimensional black hole, which corresponds to the 'draining bathtub' fluid flow. We compute the quasinormal mode frequencies of this system and discuss late-time power-law tails. Because of the presence of an ergoregion, waves in a rotating acoustic black hole can be superradiantly amplified. We also compute superradiant reflection coefficients and instability time scales for the acoustic black hole bomb, the equivalent of the Press-Teukolsky black hole bomb. Finally we discuss quasinormal modes and late-time tails in a nonrotating canonical acoustic black hole, corresponding to an incompressible, spherically symmetric (3+1)-dimensional fluid flow
Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents.
Demidov, Vladislav E; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O
2016-01-28
Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics.
An Entropy-Based Propagation Speed Estimation Method for Near-Field Subsurface Radar Imaging
Pistorius Stephen
2010-01-01
Full Text Available During the last forty years, Subsurface Radar (SR has been used in an increasing number of noninvasive/nondestructive imaging applications, ranging from landmine detection to breast imaging. To properly assess the dimensions and locations of the targets within the scan area, SR data sets have to be reconstructed. This process usually requires the knowledge of the propagation speed in the medium, which is usually obtained by performing an offline measurement from a representative sample of the materials that form the scan region. Nevertheless, in some novel near-field SR scenarios, such as Microwave Wood Inspection (MWI and Breast Microwave Radar (BMR, the extraction of a representative sample is not an option due to the noninvasive requirements of the application. A novel technique to determine the propagation speed of the medium based on the use of an information theory metric is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses the Shannon entropy of the reconstructed images as the focal quality metric to generate an estimate of the propagation speed in a given scan region. The performance of the proposed algorithm was assessed using data sets collected from experimental setups that mimic the dielectric contrast found in BMI and MWI scenarios. The proposed method yielded accurate results and exhibited an execution time in the order of seconds.
An Entropy-Based Propagation Speed Estimation Method for Near-Field Subsurface Radar Imaging
Flores-Tapia, Daniel; Pistorius, Stephen
2010-12-01
During the last forty years, Subsurface Radar (SR) has been used in an increasing number of noninvasive/nondestructive imaging applications, ranging from landmine detection to breast imaging. To properly assess the dimensions and locations of the targets within the scan area, SR data sets have to be reconstructed. This process usually requires the knowledge of the propagation speed in the medium, which is usually obtained by performing an offline measurement from a representative sample of the materials that form the scan region. Nevertheless, in some novel near-field SR scenarios, such as Microwave Wood Inspection (MWI) and Breast Microwave Radar (BMR), the extraction of a representative sample is not an option due to the noninvasive requirements of the application. A novel technique to determine the propagation speed of the medium based on the use of an information theory metric is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses the Shannon entropy of the reconstructed images as the focal quality metric to generate an estimate of the propagation speed in a given scan region. The performance of the proposed algorithm was assessed using data sets collected from experimental setups that mimic the dielectric contrast found in BMI and MWI scenarios. The proposed method yielded accurate results and exhibited an execution time in the order of seconds.
Modal analysis of wave propagation in dispersive media
Abdelrahman, M. Ismail; Gralak, B.
2018-01-01
Surveys on wave propagation in dispersive media have been limited since the pioneering work of Sommerfeld [Ann. Phys. 349, 177 (1914), 10.1002/andp.19143491002] by the presence of branches in the integral expression of the wave function. In this article a method is proposed to eliminate these critical branches and hence to establish a modal expansion of the time-dependent wave function. The different components of the transient waves are physically interpreted as the contributions of distinct sets of modes and characterized accordingly. Then, the modal expansion is used to derive a modified analytical expression of the Sommerfeld precursor improving significantly the description of the amplitude and the oscillating period up to the arrival of the Brillouin precursor. The proposed method and results apply to all waves governed by the Helmholtz equations.
A two dimension model of the uterine electrical wave propagation.
Rihana, S; Lefrançois, E; Marque, C
2007-01-01
The uterus, usually quiescent during pregnancy, exhibits forceful contractions at term leading to delivery. These contractions are caused by the synchronized propagation of electrical waves from the pacemaker cells to its neighbors inducing the whole coordinated contraction of the uterus wall leading to labor. In a previous work, we simulate the electrical activity of a single uterine cell by a set of ordinary differential equations. Then, this model has been used to simulate the electrical activity propagation. In the present work, the uterine cell tissue is assumed to have uniform and isotropic propagation, and constant electrical membrane properties. The stability of the numerical solution imposes the choice of a critical temporal step. A wave starts at a pacemaker cell; this electrical activity is initiated by the injection of an external stimulation current to the cell membrane. We observe synchronous wave propagation for axial resistance values around 0.5 GOmega or less and propoagation blocking for values greater than 0.7 GOmega. We compute the conduction velocity of the excitation, for different axial resistance values, and obtain a velocity about 10 cm/sec, approaching the one described by the literature for the rat at end of term.
Topics in the Analysis of Shear-Wave Propagation in Oblique-Plate Impact Tests
Scheidler, Mike
2007-01-01
This report addresses several topics in the theoretical analysis of shock waves, acceleration waves, and centered simple waves, with emphasis on the propagation of shear waves generated in oblique-plate impact tests...
Temporal Talbot effect in propagation of attosecond electron waves
Varro, S.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The rapid development in extreme strong-field and extreme short-pulse laser physics provide us with many potentials to explore the dynamics of fundamental processes taking place in light-matter interactions and in propagation of electromagnetic or matter waves. The present paper discusses the propagation of above-threshold electron waves generated by (not necessary ultra-short) strong laser fields. Recently we have shown that - in analogy with the formation of attosecond light pulses by interference of high-order harmonics - the wave components of photoelectrons are naturally assembled in attosecond spikes, through the Fourier synthesis of these de Broglie waves. We would like to emphasize that the proposed scheme does not presupposes an a priori ultrashort excitation. Owing to the inherent dispersion of electron waves even in vacuum, the clean attosecond structure (emanating perpendicularly from a metal target surface) is gradually spoiled due to destructive interference. Fortunately the collapsed fine structure recovers itself at certain distances from the source within well-defined 'revival layers'. This is a temporal analogon of the optical Talbot effect representing the self-imaging of a grating, which is illuminated by stationary plane waves, in the near field. The 'collaps bands' and the 'revival layers' introduced in ref. 3 have been found merely on the basis of some attosecond layers turned out to show certain regularities. In the meantime we have derived approximate analytic formulae for the propagation characteristics, with the help of which we can keep track of the locations of the 'collaps bands' and the 'revival layers' on a larger scale. We shall report on these semiclassical results, and also discuss their possible connection with the recently found entropy remnants in multiphoton Compton scattering by electronic wave packets. Acknowledgement. This work has been supported by the Hungarian National Scientific
Radar Fundamentals, Presentation
Jenn, David
2008-01-01
Topics include: introduction, radar functions, antennas basics, radar range equation, system parameters, electromagnetic waves, scattering mechanisms, radar cross section and stealth, and sample radar systems.
Boussinesq Modeling of Wave Propagation and Runup over Fringing Coral Reefs, Model Evaluation Report
Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G
2007-01-01
..., for waves propagating over fringing reefs. The model evaluation had two goals: (a) investigate differences between laboratory and field characteristics of wave transformation processes over reefs, and (b...
The energy transport by the propagation of sound waves in wave guides with a moving medium
le Grand, P.
1977-01-01
The problem of the propagation of sound waves radiated by a source in a fluid moving with subsonic velocity between two parallel walls or inside a cylindrical tube is considered in [2], The most interesting thing of this problem is that waves may occur with constant amplitude coming from infinity.
Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Karanam, Kishore Kumar; Sunkara, Eswaraiah; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.; Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Ramanjaneyulu, L.
2016-07-01
Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) mean winds, gravity waves, tidal and planetary wave characteristics are investigated using two years (2013-2015) of advanced meteor radar installed at Tirupathi (13.63oN, 79.4oE), India. The observations reveal the presence of high frequency gravity waves (30-120 minutes), atmospheric tides (diurnal, semi-diurnal and terr-diurnal) along with long period oscillations in both zonal and meridional winds. Background mean zonal winds show clear semi-annual oscillation in the mesosphere, whereas meridional winds are characterized by annual oscillation as expected. Diurnal tide amplitudes are significantly larger (60-80 m/s) than semi-diurnal (10-20 m/s) and terr-diurnal (5-8 m/s) tides and larger in meridional than zonal winds. The measured meridional components are in good agreement with Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM-09) predictions than zonal up to ~90 km in all the seasons, except fall equinox. Diurnal tidal phase matches well than the amplitudes between observations and model predictions. However, no similarity is being found in the semi-diurnal tides between observations and model. The measurements are further compared with nearby Thumba meteor radar (8.5oN, 77oE) observations. Some differences do exist between the measurements from Tirupati and Thumba meteor radar and model outputs at greater heights and the possible reasons are discussed. SVU meteor radar observations clearly showed the dominance of well-known ultra-fast kelvin waves (3.5 days), 5-8 day, 16 day, 27 day, and 30-40 day oscillations. Due to higher meteor count extending up to 110 km, we could investigate the variability of these PWs and oscillations covering wider range (70-110 km) for the first time. Significant change above 100 km is noticed in all the above mentioned PW activity and oscillations. We also used ERA-Interim reanalysis data sets available at 0.125x0.125 degree grids for investigating the characteristics of these PW right from surface to 1 h
Effects of respiration depth on human body radar cross section Using 2.4GHz continuous wave radar.
Lee, Alexander; Xiaomeng Gao; Jia Xu; Boric-Lubecke, Olga
2017-07-01
In this study, it was tested whether deep and shallow breathing has an effect on the cardiopulmonary radar cross-section (RCS). Continuous wave radar with quadrature architecture at 2.4GHz was used to test 2 human subjects breathing deep and shallow for 30 seconds each while seated 2 meters away from the radar. A retro-reflective marker was placed on the sternum of each subject and measured by infrared motion capture cameras to accurately track displacement of the chest. The quadrature radar outputs were processed to find the radius of the arc on the IQ plot using a circle-fitting algorithm. Results showed that the effective RCS ratio of deep to shallow breathing for subjects 1 and 2 was 6.99 and 2.24 respectively.
Book Review: Wave propagation in materials and structures
Ferguson, Neil
2018-02-01
This book's remit is to provide a very extensive and detailed coverage of many one and two dimensional wave propagating behaviours primarily in structures such as rods, beams and plates of complexity covering laminated, sandwich plates, smart configurations and complex material compositions. This is potentially where the detailed presentation, including the derivation of the governing equations of motion from first principles, i.e. Hamilton's method, for example, distracts slightly from the subsequent wave solutions, the numerical simulations showing time responses, the wave speeds and importantly the dispersion characteristics. The author introduces a number of known analytical methodologies and means to obtain wave solutions, including the spectral finite element approach and also provides numerical examples showing the approach being applied to joints and framed structures.
Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides
Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten
2008-01-01
A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...... by expanding solutions in terms of cross-sectional eigenfunctions following Stevenson’s method. A transfer matrix can be easily constructed from simple model responses of a given waveguide and later used in computing the response to any complex wave input. Energy losses due to heat conduction and viscous...
On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates
Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng
1998-01-01
This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.
Wave propagation in a quasi-chemical equilibrium plasma
Fang, T.-M.; Baum, H. R.
1975-01-01
Wave propagation in a quasi-chemical equilibrium plasma is studied. The plasma is infinite and without external fields. The chemical reactions are assumed to result from the ionization and recombination processes. When the gas is near equilibrium, the dominant role describing the evolution of a reacting plasma is played by the global conservation equations. These equations are first derived and then used to study the small amplitude wave motion for a near-equilibrium situation. Nontrivial damping effects have been obtained by including the conduction current terms.
Theory for stationary nonlinear wave propagation in complex magnetic geometry
Watanabe, T.; Hojo, H.; Nishikawa, Kyoji.
1977-08-01
We present our recent efforts to derive a systematic calculation scheme for nonlinear wave propagation in the self-consistent plasma profile in complex magnetic-field geometry. Basic assumptions and/or approximations are i) use of the collisionless two-fluid model with an equation of state; ii) restriction to a steady state propagation and iii) existence of modified magnetic surface, modification due to Coriolis' force. We discuss four situations: i) weak-field propagation without static flow, ii) arbitrary field strength with flow in axisymmetric system, iii) weak field limit of case ii) and iv) arbitrary field strength in nonaxisymmetric torus. Except for case iii), we derive a simple variation principle, similar to that of Seligar and Whitham, by introducing appropriate coordinates. In cases i) and iii), we derive explicit results for quasilinear profile modification. (auth.)
Wave propagation in embedded inhomogeneous nanoscale plates incorporating thermal effects
Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza; Dabbagh, Ali
2018-04-01
In this article, an analytical approach is developed to study the effects of thermal loading on the wave propagation characteristics of an embedded functionally graded (FG) nanoplate based on refined four-variable plate theory. The heat conduction equation is solved to derive the nonlinear temperature distribution across the thickness. Temperature-dependent material properties of nanoplate are graded using Mori-Tanaka model. The nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen is introduced to consider small-scale effects. The governing equations are derived by the means of Hamilton's principle. Obtained frequencies are validated with those of previously published works. Effects of different parameters such as temperature distribution, foundation parameters, nonlocal parameter, and gradient index on the wave propagation response of size-dependent FG nanoplates have been investigated.
Carcione, José M
2007-01-01
This book examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, where ideal means an elastic (lossless), isotropic and single-phase medium, and real means an anelastic, anisotropic and multi-phase medium. The analysis starts by introducing the relevant stress-strain relation. This relation and the equations of momentum conservation are combined to give the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. The book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may als...
Simulation of the acoustic wave propagation using a meshless method
Bajko J.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents numerical simulations of the acoustic wave propagation phenomenon modelled via Linearized Euler equations. A meshless method based on collocation of the strong form of the equation system is adopted. Moreover, the Weighted least squares method is used for local approximation of derivatives as well as stabilization technique in a form of spatial ltering. The accuracy and robustness of the method is examined on several benchmark problems.
Wave Propagation of Coupled Modes in the DNA Double Helix
Tabi, Conrad B.; Mohamadou, Alidou; Kofane, Timoleon C.
2010-06-01
The dynamics of waves propagating along the DNA molecule is described by the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We consider both the single and the coupled nonlinear excitation modes, and we discuss their biological implications. Furthermore, the characteristics of the coupled mode solution are discussed and we show that such a solution can describe the local opening observed within the transcription and the replication phenomena. (author)
Singular value decomposition methods for wave propagation analysis
Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Lefeuvre, F.
2003-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 1 (2003), s. 10-1-10-13 ISSN 0048-6604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/01/1064 Grant - others:Barrande(CZ) 98039/98055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911; CEZ:MSM 113200004 Keywords : wave propagation * singular value decomposition Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.832, year: 2003
Nonlinear propagation of Alfven waves in cometary plasmas
Lakhina, G.S.; Shukla, P.K.
1987-07-01
Large amplitude Alfven waves propagating along the guide magnetic field in a three-component plasma are shown to be modulationally unstable due to their nonlinear interaction with nonresonant electrostatic density fluctuations. A new class of subsonic Alfven soliton solutions are found to exist in the three-component plasma. The Alfven solitons can be relevant in explaining the properties of hydromagnetic turbulence near the comets. (author). 15 refs
Wave propagation in layered anisotropic media with application to composites
Nayfeh, AH
1995-01-01
Recent advances in the study of the dynamic behavior of layered materials in general, and laminated fibrous composites in particular, are presented in this book. The need to understand the microstructural behavior of such classes of materials has brought a new challenge to existing analytical tools. This book explores the fundamental question of how mechanical waves propagate and interact with layered anisotropic media. The chapters are organized in a logical sequence depending upon the complexity of the physical model and its mathematical treatment.
Wave propagation in fluids models and numerical techniques
Guinot, Vincent
2012-01-01
This second edition with four additional chapters presents the physical principles and solution techniques for transient propagation in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. The application domains vary including contaminant transport with or without sorption, the motion of immiscible hydrocarbons in aquifers, pipe transients, open channel and shallow water flow, and compressible gas dynamics. The mathematical formulation is covered from the angle of conservation laws, with an emphasis on multidimensional problems and discontinuous flows, such as steep fronts and shock waves. Finite
Directional nonlinear guided wave mixing: Case study of counter-propagating shear horizontal waves
Hasanian, Mostafa; Lissenden, Cliff J.
2018-04-01
While much nonlinear ultrasonics research has been conducted on higher harmonic generation, wave mixing provides the potential for sensitive measurements of incipient damage unencumbered by instrumentation nonlinearity. Studies of nonlinear ultrasonic wave mixing, both collinear and noncollinear, for bulk waves have shown the robust capability of wave mixing for early damage detection. One merit of bulk wave mixing lies in their non-dispersive nature, but guided waves enable inspection of otherwise inaccessible material and a variety of mixing options. Co-directional guided wave mixing was studied previously, but arbitrary direction guided wave mixing has not been addressed until recently. Wave vector analysis is applied to study variable mixing angles to find wave mode triplets (two primary waves and a secondary wave) resulting in the phase matching condition. As a case study, counter-propagating Shear Horizontal (SH) guided wave mixing is analyzed. SH wave interactions generate a secondary Lamb wave mode that is readily receivable. Reception of the secondary Lamb wave mode is compared for an angle beam transducer, an air coupled transducer, and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Results from the angle beam and air coupled transducers are quite consistent, while the LDV measurement is plagued by variability issues.
Radio Wave Propagation Handbook for Communication on and Around Mars
Ho, Christian; Golshan, Nasser; Kliore, Arvydas
2002-01-01
This handbook examines the effects of the Martian environment on radio wave propagation on Mars and in the space near the planet. The environmental effects include these from the Martian atmosphere, ionosphere, global dust storms, aerosols, clouds, and geomorphologic features. Relevant Martian environmental parameters were extracted from the measurements of Mars missions during the past 30 years, especially from Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor. The results derived from measurements and analyses have been reviewed through an extensive literature search. The updated parameters have been theoretically analyzed to study their effects on radio propagation. This handbook also provides basic information about the entire telecommunications environment on and around Mars for propagation researchers, system engineers, and link analysts. Based on these original analyses, some important recommendations have been made, including the use of the Martian ionosphere as a reflector for Mars global or trans-horizon communication between future Martian colonies, reducing dust storm scattering effects, etc. These results have extended our wave propagation knowledge to a planet other than Earth; and the tables, models, and graphics included in this handbook will benefit telecommunication system engineers and scientific researchers.
Thermal effects on parallel-propagating electron cyclotron waves
Robinson, P.A.
1987-01-01
Thermal effects on the dispersion of right-handed electron cyclotron waves propagating parallel to a uniform, ambient magnetic field are investigated in the strictly non-relativistic ('classical') and weakly relativistic approximations for real frequency and complex wave vector. In each approximation, the two branches of the RH mode reconnect near the cyclotron frequency as the plasma temperature is increased or the density is lowered. This reconnection occurs in a manner different from that previously assumed at parallel propagation and from that at perpendicular propagation, giving rise to a new mode near the cold plasma cut-off frequency ωsub(xC). For both parallel and perpendicular propagation, it is noted that reconnection occurs approximately when the cyclotron linewidth equals the width of the stop-band in the cold plasma dispersion relation. Inclusion of weakly relativistic effects is found to be necessary for quantitative calculations and for an accurate treatment of the new mode near ωsub(xC). Weakly relativistic effects also modify the analytic properties of the dispersion relation so as to introduce a new family of weakly damped and undamped solutions. (author)
A contactless approach for respiratory gating in PET using continuous-wave radar
Ersepke, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Ersepke@rub.de; Büther, Florian; Heß, Mirco [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany); Schäfers, Klaus P. [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany and DFG EXC 1003, Cluster of Excellence ‘Cells in Motion,’ Münster 48149 (Germany)
2015-08-15
Purpose: Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce motion artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Clinically established methods for respiratory gating in PET require contact to the patient or a direct optical line between the sensor and the patient’s torso and time consuming preparation. In this work, a contactless method for capturing a respiratory signal during PET is presented based on continuous-wave radar. Methods: The proposed method relies on the principle of emitting an electromagnetic wave and detecting the phase shift of the reflected wave, modulated due to the respiratory movement of the patient’s torso. A 24 GHz carrier frequency was chosen allowing wave propagation through plastic and clothing with high reflections at the skin surface. A detector module and signal processing algorithms were developed to extract a quantitative respiratory signal. The sensor was validated using a high precision linear table. During volunteer measurements and [{sup 18}F] FDG PET scans, the radar sensor was positioned inside the scanner bore of a PET/computed tomography scanner. As reference, pressure belt (one volunteer), depth camera-based (two volunteers, two patients), and PET data-driven (six patients) signals were acquired simultaneously and the signal correlation was quantified. Results: The developed system demonstrated a high measurement accuracy for movement detection within the submillimeter range. With the proposed method, small displacements of 25 μm could be detected, not considerably influenced by clothing or blankets. From the patient studies, the extracted respiratory radar signals revealed high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient) to those derived from the external pressure belt and depth camera signals (r = 0.69–0.99) and moderate correlation to those of the internal data-driven signals (r = 0.53–0.70). In some cases, a cardiac signal could be visualized, due to the representation of the mechanical heart motion on the skin
A contactless approach for respiratory gating in PET using continuous-wave radar.
Ersepke, Thomas; Büther, Florian; Heß, Mirco; Schäfers, Klaus P
2015-08-01
Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce motion artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Clinically established methods for respiratory gating in PET require contact to the patient or a direct optical line between the sensor and the patient's torso and time consuming preparation. In this work, a contactless method for capturing a respiratory signal during PET is presented based on continuous-wave radar. The proposed method relies on the principle of emitting an electromagnetic wave and detecting the phase shift of the reflected wave, modulated due to the respiratory movement of the patient's torso. A 24 GHz carrier frequency was chosen allowing wave propagation through plastic and clothing with high reflections at the skin surface. A detector module and signal processing algorithms were developed to extract a quantitative respiratory signal. The sensor was validated using a high precision linear table. During volunteer measurements and [(18)F] FDG PET scans, the radar sensor was positioned inside the scanner bore of a PET/computed tomography scanner. As reference, pressure belt (one volunteer), depth camera-based (two volunteers, two patients), and PET data-driven (six patients) signals were acquired simultaneously and the signal correlation was quantified. The developed system demonstrated a high measurement accuracy for movement detection within the submillimeter range. With the proposed method, small displacements of 25 μm could be detected, not considerably influenced by clothing or blankets. From the patient studies, the extracted respiratory radar signals revealed high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient) to those derived from the external pressure belt and depth camera signals (r = 0.69-0.99) and moderate correlation to those of the internal data-driven signals (r = 0.53-0.70). In some cases, a cardiac signal could be visualized, due to the representation of the mechanical heart motion on the skin. Accurate respiratory signals were
Theoretical Model of Acoustic Wave Propagation in Shallow Water
Kozaczka Eugeniusz
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The work is devoted to the propagation of low frequency waves in a shallow sea. As a source of acoustic waves, underwater disturbances generated by ships were adopted. A specific feature of the propagation of acoustic waves in shallow water is the proximity of boundaries of the limiting media characterised by different impedance properties, which affects the acoustic field coming from a source situated in the water layer “deformed” by different phenomena. The acoustic field distribution in the real shallow sea is affected not only by multiple reflections, but also by stochastic changes in the free surface shape, and statistical changes in the seabed shape and impedance. The paper discusses fundamental problems of modal sound propagation in the water layer over different types of bottom sediments. The basic task in this case was to determine the acoustic pressure level as a function of distance and depth. The results of the conducted investigation can be useful in indirect determination of the type of bottom.
Rochau, Gary E.; Caffey, Thurlow W.H.; Bahram Nassersharif; Garcia, Gabe V.; Jedlicka, Russell P.
2003-01-01
OAK B204 Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003. A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The technique is 100% volumetric, and may find smaller defects, more rapidly, and less expensively than present methods. The project described in this report was a joint development effort between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) funded by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the project was to research, design, and develop a new concept utilizing a continuous wave radar to detect defects inside metallic tubes and in particular nuclear plant steam generator tubing. The project was divided into four parallel tracks: computational modeling, experimental prototyping, thermo-mechanical design, and signal detection and analysis
Gary E. Rochau and Thurlow W.H. Caffey, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0740; Bahram Nassersharif and Gabe V. Garcia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001; Russell P. Jedlicka, Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001
2003-05-01
OAK B204 Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003. A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The technique is 100% volumetric, and may find smaller defects, more rapidly, and less expensively than present methods. The project described in this report was a joint development effort between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) funded by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the project was to research, design, and develop a new concept utilizing a continuous wave radar to detect defects inside metallic tubes and in particular nuclear plant steam generator tubing. The project was divided into four parallel tracks: computational modeling, experimental prototyping, thermo-mechanical design, and signal detection and analysis.
Propagation of extensional waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor rod
C.L. Zhang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We studied the propagation of extensional waves in a thin piezoelectric semiconductor rod of ZnO whose c-axis is along the axis of the rod. The macroscopic theory of piezoelectric semiconductors was used which consists of the coupled equations of piezoelectricity and the conservation of charge. The problem is nonlinear because the drift current is the product of the unknown electric field and the unknown carrier density. A perturbation procedure was used which resulted in two one-way coupled linear problems of piezoelectricity and the conservation of charge, respectively. The acoustic wave and the accompanying electric field were obtained from the equations of piezoelectricity. The motion of carriers was then determined from the conservation of charge using a trigonometric series. It was found that while the acoustic wave was approximated by a sinusoidal wave, the motion of carriers deviates from a sinusoidal wave qualitatively because of the contributions of higher harmonics arising from the originally nonlinear terms. The wave crests become higher and sharper while the troughs are shallower and wider. This deviation is more pronounced for acoustic waves with larger amplitudes.
Braginsky, V.B.; Kardashev, N.S.; Polnarev, A.G.; Novikov, I.D.
1989-12-01
Propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the field of gravitational waves is considered. Attention is given to the principal difference between the electromagnetic wave propagation in the field of random gravitational waves and the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a randomly-inhomogeneous refraction index. It is shown that in the case of the gravitation wave field the phase shift of an electromagnetic wave does not increase with distance. The capability of space radio interferometry to detect relic gravitational waves as well as gravitational wave bursts of non cosmological origin are analyzed. (author). 64 refs, 2 figs
Excitation and Propagation of Alfven Waves in a Helicon Discharge
Grulke, Olaf; Klinger, Thomas; Franck, Christian M.
2003-01-01
An experimental study of shear Alfven waves in a linearly magnetized plasma is presented. Shear Alfven waves are electromagnetic waves propagating parallel to the background magnetic field without compression of the plasma at a frequency well below the ion cyclotron frequency and a wavelength inversely proportional to the square root of the plasma density. A basic condition on laboratory investigations is that the Alfven wavelength must be significantly smaller than the device dimension. This makes Alfven waves difficult to investigate in laboratory experiments and most studies are performed in space, where typical Alfven wavelengths of several kilometers are observed. The results of these studies are often ambiguous due to difficulties concerning the measurements of plasma parameters and the magnetic field geometry. The primary motivation for the present paper is the investigation of Alfven wave propagation in a well defined laboratory situation. The experiments are conducted in the linear VINETA device. The necessary operational regime is achieved by the large axial device length of 4.5m and the use of a helicon plasma source providing high density plasmas with ionization degrees of up to 100%. The Argon plasma is magnetized by a set of 36 magnetic field coils, which produce a maximum magnetic field of 0.1T on the device axis. With this configuration a plasma-β of ≥ 10-4 is achieved, which exceeds the electron to ion mass ration, and the ion cyclotron frequency is ≅ 250kHz. Langmuir probes provide detailed informations on the time-averaged plasma profiles. Magnetic field perturbations for the excitation of Alfven waves are generated by a current loop, which is introduced into the plasma. The surface normal of the current loop is directed perpendicular to the magnetic field. The waves's dispersion relation in dependence of plasma parameters is determined by spatially resolved B probe measurements
Vogelzang, J.; Wensink, G.J.; Calkoen, C.J.; Kooij, M.W.A. van der
1997-01-01
On August 16, 1989, and on July 12, 1991, experiments were performed to study the mapping of submarine sand waves with the airborne imaging radar, a polarimetric (and, in 1991, interferometric) airborne P, L, and C band synthetic aperture radar system. The experiments took place in an area 30 km off
Fritts, D. C.; Janches, D.; Iimura, H.; Hocking, W. K.; Bageston, J. V.; Pene, N. M.
2011-01-01
A new-generation meteor radar was installed at the Brazilian Antarctic Comandante Ferraz Base (62.1degS) in March 2010. This paper describes the motivations for the radar location, its measurement capabilities, and comparisons of measured mean winds, tides, and gravity wave momentum fluxes from April to June of 2010 and 2011 with those by a similar radar on Tierra del Fuego (53.8degS). Motivations for the radars include the "hotspot" of small-scale gravity wave activity extending from the troposphere into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) centered over the Drake Passage, the maximum of the semidiurnal tide at these latitudes, and the lack of other MLT wind measurements in this latitude band. Mean winds are seen to be strongly modulated at planetary wave and longer periods and to exhibit strong coherence over the two radars at shorter time scales as well as systematic seasonal variations. The semidiurnal tide contribute most to the large-scale winds over both radars, with maximum tidal amplitudes during May and maxima at the highest altitudes varying from approx.20 to >70 m/s. In contrast, the diurnal tide and various planetary waves achieve maximum winds of approx.10 to 20 m/s. Monthly-mean gravity wave momentum fluxes appear to reflect the occurrence of significant sources at lower altitudes, with relatively small zonal fluxes over both radars, but with significant, and opposite, meridional momentum fluxes below approx.85 km. These suggest gravity waves propagating away from the Drake Passage at both sites, and may indicate an important source region accounting in part for this "hotspot".
Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs
Zhi-Bin Wang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.
Van Allen Probe observations of EMIC wave propagation in the inner magnetosphere
Saikin, A.; Zhang, J.; Smith, C. W.; Spence, H. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.
2017-12-01
This study examines the propagation of inner magnetosphere (L vector, , analysis on all observed EMIC wave events to determine the direction of propagation, with bi-directionally propagating EMIC waves indicating the presence of the EMIC wave source region. EMIC waves were considered bi-directional (i.e., in the source region) if at least two wave packets exhibited opposing flux components, and (W/km2), consistently for 60 seconds. Events not observed to have opposing flux components are considered unidirectional. EMIC wave events observed at relatively high magnetic latitudes, generally, are found to propagate away from the magnetic equator (i.e., unidirectional). Bi-directionally propagating EMIC waves are preferably observed at lower magnetic latitudes. The occurrence rate, spatial distribution, and the energy propagation angle of both unidirectionally and bi-directionally propagating EMIC waves are examined with respect to L, MLT, and MLAT.
Some problems in generalized electromagnetic thermoelasticity and wave propagation
Mohamed, S.E.S.
2012-01-01
The first chapter contains a review of the classical theory of elasticity, the theory of thermodynamics, the theory of uncoupled thermoelasticity, the coupled theory of thermoelasticity, the generalized theory of thermoelasticity with one relaxation time, electromagneto thermoelasticity and an introduction to wave propagation in elastic media. Chapter two is devoted to the study of wave propagation for a problem of an infinitely long solid conducting circular cylinder whose lateral surface is traction free and subjected to a known surrounding temperatures in the presence of a uniform magnetic field in the direction of the axis of the cylinder. Laplace transform techniques are used to derive the solution in the Laplace transform domain. The inversion process is carried out using asymptotic expansions valid for short tines. Numerical results are computed for the temperature, displacement, stress,induced magnetic field and induced electric field distributions. The chapter contains also a study of the wave propagation in the elastic medium. In chapter three, we consider the two-dimensional problem of an infinitely long conducting solid cylinder. The lateral surface of the cylinder is taken to be traction free and is subjected to a known temperature distribution independent of z in the presence of a uniform magnetic field in the direction of the axis of the cylinder. Laplace transform techniques are used. The inversion process is carried out using a numerical method based on Fourier series expansions. Numerical results are computed and represented graphically. The chapter contains also a study of the wave propagation in the elastic medium. In chapter four, we consider a two-dimensional problem for an infinity long cylinder. The lateral surface of the cylinder is taken to be traction free and is subjected to a known temperature distribution independent of φ in the presence of a uniform electric field in the direction of the binomial of the cylinder axis. Laplace and
Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in elastically anisotropic media
Jacob, Victoria Cristina Cheade; Jospin, Reinaldo Jacques; Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz
2013-01-01
The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components may encounter considerable difficulties to interpret some inspections results mainly in anisotropic crystalline structures. A numerical method for the simulation of elastic wave propagation in homogeneous elastically anisotropic media, based on the general finite element approach, is used to help this interpretation. The successful modeling of elastic field associated with NDE is based on the generation of a realistic pulsed ultrasonic wave, which is launched from a piezoelectric transducer into the material under inspection. The values of elastic constants are great interest information that provide the application of equations analytical models, until small and medium complexity problems through programs of numerical analysis as finite elements and/or boundary elements. The aim of this work is the comparison between the results of numerical solution of an ultrasonic wave, which is obtained from transient excitation pulse that can be specified by either force or displacement variation across the aperture of the transducer, and the results obtained from a experiment that was realized in an aluminum block in the IEN Ultrasonic Laboratory. The wave propagation can be simulated using all the characteristics of the material used in the experiment valuation associated to boundary conditions and from these results, the comparison can be made. (author)
Low frequency piezoresonance defined dynamic control of terahertz wave propagation
Dutta, Moumita; Betal, Soutik; Peralta, Xomalin G.; Bhalla, Amar S.; Guo, Ruyan
2016-11-01
Phase modulators are one of the key components of many applications in electromagnetic and opto-electric wave propagations. Phase-shifters play an integral role in communications, imaging and in coherent material excitations. In order to realize the terahertz (THz) electromagnetic spectrum as a fully-functional bandwidth, the development of a family of efficient THz phase modulators is needed. Although there have been quite a few attempts to implement THz phase modulators based on quantum-well structures, liquid crystals, or meta-materials, significantly improved sensitivity and dynamic control for phase modulation, as we believe can be enabled by piezoelectric-resonance devices, is yet to be investigated. In this article we provide an experimental demonstration of phase modulation of THz beam by operating a ferroelectric single crystal LiNbO3 film device at the piezo-resonance. The piezo-resonance, excited by an external a.c. electric field, develops a coupling between electromagnetic and lattice-wave and this coupling governs the wave propagation of the incident THz beam by modulating its phase transfer function. We report the understanding developed in this work can facilitate the design and fabrication of a family of resonance-defined highly sensitive and extremely low energy sub-millimeter wave sensors and modulators.
HF Radar Observations of Current, Wave and Wind Parameters in the South Australian Gulf
Middleditch, A.; Cosoli, S.
2016-12-01
The Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network (ACORN) has been measuring metocean parameters from an array of HF radar systems since 2007. Current, wave and wind measurements from a WERA phased-array radar system in the South Australian Gulf are evaluated using current meter, wave buoy and weather station data over a 12-month period. The spatial and temporal scales of the radar deployment have been configured for the measurement of surface currents from the first order backscatter spectra. Quality control procedures are applied to the radar currents that relate to the geometric configurations, statistical properties, and diagnostic variables provided by the analysis software. Wave measurements are obtained through an iterative inversion algorithm that provides an estimate of the directional frequency spectrum. The standard static configurations and data sampling strategies are not optimised for waves and so additional signal processing steps need to be implemented in order to provide reliable estimates. These techniques are currently only applied in offline mode but a real-time approach is in development. Improvements in the quality of extracted wave data are found through increased averaging of the raw radar data but the impact of temporal non-stationarity and spatial inhomogeneities in the WERA measurement region needs to be taken into account. Validations of wind direction data from a weather station on Neptune Island show the potential of using HF radar to combat the spread of bushfires in South Australia.
Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements
Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.
1999-01-01
The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Topology Optimization for Wave Propagation Problems with Experimental Validation
Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk
designed using the proposed method is provided. A novel approach for designing meta material slabs with selectively tuned negative refractive behavior is outlined. Numerical examples demonstrating the behavior of a slab under different conditions is provided. Results from an experimental studydemonstrating...... agreement with numerical predictions are presented. Finally an approach for designing acoustic wave shaping devices is treated. Three examples of applications are presented, a directional sound emission device, a wave splitting device and a flat focusing lens. Experimental results for the first two devices......This Thesis treats the development and experimental validation of density-based topology optimization methods for wave propagation problems. Problems in the frequency regime where design dimensions are between approximately one fourth and ten wavelengths are considered. All examples treat problems...
Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in ferromagnetic Rashba conductor
Shibata, Junya; Takeuchi, Akihito; Kohno, Hiroshi; Tatara, Gen
2018-02-01
We present a comprehensive study of various electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena in a ferromagnetic bulk Rashba conductor from the perspective of quantum mechanical transport. In this system, both the space inversion and time reversal symmetries are broken, as characterized by the Rashba field α and magnetization M, respectively. First, we present a general phenomenological analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation in media with broken space inversion and time reversal symmetries based on the dielectric tensor. The dependence of the dielectric tensor on the wave vector q and M is retained to first order. Then, we calculate the microscopic electromagnetic response of the current and spin of conduction electrons subjected to α and M, based on linear response theory and the Green's function method; the results are used to study the system optical properties. First, it is found that a large α enhances the anisotropic properties of the system and enlarges the frequency range in which the electromagnetic waves have hyperbolic dispersion surfaces and exhibit unusual propagations known as negative refraction and backward waves. Second, we consider the electromagnetic cross-correlation effects (direct and inverse Edelstein effects) on the wave propagation. These effects stem from the lack of space inversion symmetry and yield q-linear off-diagonal components in the dielectric tensor. This induces a Rashba-induced birefringence, in which the polarization vector rotates around the vector (α ×q ) . In the presence of M, which breaks time reversal symmetry, there arises an anomalous Hall effect and the dielectric tensor acquires off-diagonal components linear in M. For α ∥M , these components yield the Faraday effect for the Faraday configuration q ∥M and the Cotton-Mouton effect for the Voigt configuration ( q ⊥M ). When α and M are noncollinear, M- and q-induced optical phenomena are possible, which include nonreciprocal directional dichroism in the
Induced wave propagation from a vibrating containment envelope
Stout, R.B.; Thigpen, L.; Rambo, J.T.
1985-09-01
Low frequency wave forms are observed in the particle velocity measurements around the cavity and containment envelope formed by an underground nuclear test. The vibration solution for a spherical shell is used to formulate a model for the low frequency wave that propagates outward from this region. In this model the containment envelope is the zone of material that is crushed by the compressive shock wave of the nuclear explosion. The containment envelope is approximated by a spherical shell of material. The material in the spherical shell is densified and is given a relatively high kinetic energy density because of the high compressive stress and particle velocity of the shock wave. After the shock wave has propagated through the spherical shell, the spherical shell vibrates in order to dissipate the kinetic energy acquired from the shock wave. Based on the model, the frequency of vibration depends on the dimensions and material properties of the spherical shell. The model can also be applied in an inverse mode to obtain global estimates of averaged materials properties. This requires using experimental data and semi-empirical relationships involving the material properties. A particular case of estimating a value for shear strength is described. Finally, the oscillation time period of the lowest frequency from five nuclear tests is correlated with the energy of the explosion. The correlation provides another diagnostic to estimate the energy of a nuclear explosion. Also, the longest oscillation time period measurement provides additional experimental data that can be used to assess and validate various computer models. 11 refs., 2 figs
A phase space approach to wave propagation with dispersion.
Ben-Benjamin, Jonathan S; Cohen, Leon; Loughlin, Patrick J
2015-08-01
A phase space approximation method for linear dispersive wave propagation with arbitrary initial conditions is developed. The results expand on a previous approximation in terms of the Wigner distribution of a single mode. In contrast to this previously considered single-mode case, the approximation presented here is for the full wave and is obtained by a different approach. This solution requires one to obtain (i) the initial modal functions from the given initial wave, and (ii) the initial cross-Wigner distribution between different modal functions. The full wave is the sum of modal functions. The approximation is obtained for general linear wave equations by transforming the equations to phase space, and then solving in the new domain. It is shown that each modal function of the wave satisfies a Schrödinger-type equation where the equivalent "Hamiltonian" operator is the dispersion relation corresponding to the mode and where the wavenumber is replaced by the wavenumber operator. Application to the beam equation is considered to illustrate the approach.
ENERGY CONTENT AND PROPAGATION IN TRANSVERSE SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC WAVES
Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Soler, R. [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Verth, G., E-mail: tom.vandoorsselaere@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)
2013-05-10
Recently, a significant amount of transverse wave energy has been estimated propagating along solar atmospheric magnetic fields. However, these estimates have been made with the classic bulk Alfven wave model which assumes a homogeneous plasma. In this paper, the kinetic, magnetic, and total energy densities and the flux of energy are computed for transverse MHD waves in one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube models with a piecewise constant or continuous radial density profile. There are fundamental deviations from the properties for classic bulk Alfven waves. (1) There is no local equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy. (2) The flux of energy and the velocity of energy transfer have, in addition to a component parallel to the magnetic field, components in the planes normal to the magnetic field. (3) The energy densities and the flux of energy vary spatially, contrary to the case of classic bulk Alfven waves. This last property has the important consequence that the energy flux computed with the well known expression for bulk Alfven waves could overestimate the real flux by a factor in the range 10-50, depending on the flux tube equilibrium properties.
Wave energy converter effects on wave propagation: A sensitivity study in Monterey Bay, CA
Chang, G.; Jones, C. A.; Roberts, J.; Magalen, J.; Ruehl, K.; Chartrand, C.
2014-12-01
The development of renewable offshore energy in the United States is growing rapidly and wave energy is one of the largest resources currently being evaluated. The deployment of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays required to harness this resource could feasibly number in the hundreds of individual devices. The WEC arrays have the potential to alter nearshore wave propagation and circulation patterns and ecosystem processes. As the industry progresses from pilot- to commercial-scale it is important to understand and quantify the effects of WECs on the natural nearshore processes that support a local, healthy ecosystem. To help accelerate the realization of commercial-scale wave power, predictive modeling tools have been developed and utilized to evaluate the likelihood of environmental impact. At present, direct measurements of the effects of different types of WEC arrays on nearshore wave propagation are not available; therefore wave model simulations provide the groundwork for investigations of the sensitivity of model results to prescribed WEC characteristics over a range of anticipated wave conditions. The present study incorporates a modified version of an industry standard wave modeling tool, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore), to simulate wave propagation through a hypothetical WEC array deployment site on the California coast. The modified SWAN, referred to as SNL-SWAN, incorporates device-specific WEC power take-off characteristics to more accurately evaluate a WEC device's effects on wave propagation. The primary objectives were to investigate the effects of a range of WEC devices and device and array characteristics (e.g., device spacing, number of WECs in an array) on nearshore wave propagation using SNL-SWAN model simulations. Results showed that significant wave height was most sensitive to variations in WEC device type and size and the number of WEC devices in an array. Locations in the lee centerline of the arrays in each modeled scenario showed the
Doppler radar physiological sensing
Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya
2016-01-01
Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.
Oblique Propagation of Fast Surface Waves in a Low-Beta Hall-Magnetohydrodynamics Plasma Slab
Zhelyazkov, I.; Mann, G.
1999-01-01
The oblique propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab in the low-beta plasma limit is studied considering the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. It is found that the combined action of the Hall effect and oblique wave propagation makes possible the existence of multivalued solutions to the wave dispersion relations - some of them corresponding to positive values of the transfer wave number, k y , undergo a 'propagation stop' at specific (numerically found) full wave numbers. It is also shown that with growing wave number the waves change their nature - from bulk modes to pseudosurface or pure surface waves. (author)
Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements
Fouques, Sebastien
2005-07-01
The present thesis is concerned with the estimation of the ocean wave spectrum from synthetic aperture radar imaging and the modelling of ocean surface waves using the Lagrangian formalism. The first part gives a short overview of the theories of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) whereas the second part consists of five independent publications. The first two articles investigate the influence of the radar backscatter model on the SAR imaging of ocean waves. In Article I, Monte Carlo simulations of SAR images of the ocean surface are carried out using a nonlinear backscatter model that include both specular reflection and Bragg scattering and the results are compared to simulations from the classical Hasselmann integral transform (Hasselmann and Hasselmann, 1991). It is shown that nonlinearities in the backscatter model strongly influence the imaging of range-travelling waves and that the former can suppress the range-splitting effect (Bruning et al., 1988). Furthermore, in Article II a database of Envisat-ASAR Wave Mode products co-located with directional wave spectra from the numerical model WAM and which contains range-travelling wave cases only, is set up. The WAM spectra are used as input to several ocean-to-SAR integral transforms, with various real aperture radar (RAR) models and the obtained SAR image cross-spectra are compared to the Envisat-ASAR observations. A first result is that the use of a linear backscatter model leads to a high proportion of non-physical negative backscatter values in the RAR image, as suggested by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2001). Then, a comparison between the observed SAR cross-spectra and the ones simulated through Hasselmann's integral transform reveals that only twenty percents of the observations show a range-splitting effect as strong as in the simulations. A much better agreement is obtained when using the integral transform by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2003), which is based on a nonlinear hackscatter model
Modeling of shock wave propagation in large amplitude ultrasound.
Pinton, Gianmarco F; Trahey, Gregg E
2008-01-01
The Rankine-Hugoniot relation for shock wave propagation describes the shock speed of a nonlinear wave. This paper investigates time-domain numerical methods that solve the nonlinear parabolic wave equation, or the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, and the conditions they require to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot relation. Two numerical methods commonly used in hyperbolic conservation laws are adapted to solve the KZK equation: Godunov's method and the monotonic upwind scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL). It is shown that they satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot relation regardless of attenuation. These two methods are compared with the current implicit solution based method. When the attenuation is small, such as in water, the current method requires a degree of grid refinement that is computationally impractical. All three numerical methods are compared in simulations for lithotripters and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) where the attenuation is small compared to the nonlinearity because much of the propagation occurs in water. The simulations are performed on grid sizes that are consistent with present-day computational resources but are not sufficiently refined for the current method to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot condition. It is shown that satisfying the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions has a significant impact on metrics relevant to lithotripsy (such as peak pressures) and HIFU (intensity). Because the Godunov and MUSCL schemes satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions on coarse grids, they are particularly advantageous for three-dimensional simulations.
Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves
Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S.; El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.
2011-01-01
Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.
Linear wave propagation in a hot axisymmetric toroidal plasma
Jaun, A.
1995-03-01
Kinetic effects on the propagation of the Alfven wave are studied for the first time in a toroidal plasma relevant for experiments. This requires the resolution of a set of coupled partial differential equations whose coefficients depend locally on the plasma parameters. For this purpose, a numerical wave propagation code called PENN has been developed using either a bilinear or a bicubic Hermite finite element discretization. It solves Maxwell's equations in toroidal geometry, with a dielectric tensor operator that takes into account the linear response of the plasma. Two different models have been implemented and can be used comparatively to describe the same physical case: the first treats the plasma as resistive fluids and gives results which are in good agreement with toroidal fluid codes. The second is a kinetic model and takes into account the finite size of the Larmor radii; it has successfully been tested against a kinetic plasma model in cylindrical geometry. New results have been obtained when studying kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. Two different conversion mechanisms to the kinetic Alfven wave have been described: one occurs at toroidally coupled resonant surfaces and is the kinetic counterpart of the fluid models' resonance absorption. The other has no such correspondence and results directly from the toroidal coupling between the kinetic Alfven wave and the global wavefield. An analysis of a heating scenario suggests that it might be difficult to heat a plasma with Alfven waves up to temperatures that are relevant for a tokamak reactor. Kinetic effects are studied for three types of global Alfven modes (GAE, TAE, BAE) and a new class of kinetic eigenmodes is described which appear inside the fluid gap: it could be related to recent observations in the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak. (author) 56 figs., 6 tabs., 58 refs
Linear wave propagation in a hot axisymmetric toroidal plasma
Jaun, A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)
1995-03-01
Kinetic effects on the propagation of the Alfven wave are studied for the first time in a toroidal plasma relevant for experiments. This requires the resolution of a set of coupled partial differential equations whose coefficients depend locally on the plasma parameters. For this purpose, a numerical wave propagation code called PENN has been developed using either a bilinear or a bicubic Hermite finite element discretization. It solves Maxwell`s equations in toroidal geometry, with a dielectric tensor operator that takes into account the linear response of the plasma. Two different models have been implemented and can be used comparatively to describe the same physical case: the first treats the plasma as resistive fluids and gives results which are in good agreement with toroidal fluid codes. The second is a kinetic model and takes into account the finite size of the Larmor radii; it has successfully been tested against a kinetic plasma model in cylindrical geometry. New results have been obtained when studying kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. Two different conversion mechanisms to the kinetic Alfven wave have been described: one occurs at toroidally coupled resonant surfaces and is the kinetic counterpart of the fluid models` resonance absorption. The other has no such correspondence and results directly from the toroidal coupling between the kinetic Alfven wave and the global wavefield. An analysis of a heating scenario suggests that it might be difficult to heat a plasma with Alfven waves up to temperatures that are relevant for a tokamak reactor. Kinetic effects are studied for three types of global Alfven modes (GAE, TAE, BAE) and a new class of kinetic eigenmodes is described which appear inside the fluid gap: it could be related to recent observations in the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak. (author) 56 figs., 6 tabs., 58 refs.
Propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by the ionospheric irregularities
Ho, A.Y.; Kuo, S.P.; Lee, M.C.
1993-01-01
The problem of wave propagation and scattering in the ionosphere is particularly important in the areas of communications, remote-sensing and detection. The ionosphere is often perturbed with coherently structured (quasiperiodic) density irregularities. Experimental observations suggest that these irregularities could give rise to significant ionospheric effect on wave propagation such as causing spread-F of the probing HF sounding signals and scintillation of beacon satellite signals. It was show by the latter that scintillation index S 4 ∼ 0.5 and may be as high as 0.8. In this work a quasi-particle theory is developed to study the scintillation phenomenon. A Wigner distribution function for the wave intensity in the (k,r) space is introduced and its governing equation is derived with an effective collision term giving rise to the attenuation and scattering of the wave. This kinetic equation leads to a hierarchy of moment equations in r space. This systems of equations is then truncated to the second moment which is equivalent to assuming a cold quasi-particle distribution In this analysis, the irregularities are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on an uniform background plasma. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating, effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then contributes to the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals. Using the proper plasma parameters and equatorial measured data of irregularities, it is shown that the scintillation index defined by S4=( 2 >- 2 )/ 2 where stands for spatial average over an irregularity wavelength is in the range of the experimentally detected values
Propagation of internal gravity waves in the inhomogeneous atmosphere
Deminov, M.G.; Ponomareva, L.I.
1988-01-01
Equations for disturbances of the density, temperature and speed of large-scale horizontally propagating internal gravity wave (IGM) wind are presented with regard to non-linearity, dispersion, molecular viscosity, thermal conductivity and background horizontal density and wind speed gradients. It is shown that values of wind speed and background atmosphere density decrease, typical of night conditions, provide for IGV amplitude increase near 250 km above the equator about 1.5 times, which with regard to the both hemispheres, fully compensates the effect of viscosity and thermal conductivity under increased solar activity. Speed and density decrease along IGW propagation can be provided both by background distribution of thermosphere parameters and by the front of a large-scale IGW on the background of which isolated IGW amplitude can grow
Planar millimeter wave radar frontend for automotive applications
J. Grubert
2003-01-01
Full Text Available A fully integrated planar sensor for 77 GHz automotive applications is presented. The frontend consists of a transceiver multichip module and an electronically steerable microstrip patch array. The antenna feed network is based on a modified Rotman-lens and connected to the array in a multilayer approach offering higher integration. Furthermore, the frontend comprises a phase lock loop to allow proper frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar operation. The latest experimental results verify the functionality of this advanced frontend design featuring automatic cruise control, precrash sensing and cut-in detection. These promising radar measurements give reason to a detailed theoretical investigation of system performance. Employing commercially available MMIC various circuit topologies are compared based on signal-tonoise considerations. Different scenarios for both sequential and parallel lobing hint to more advanced sensor designs and better performance. These improvements strongly depend on the availability of suitable MMIC and reliable packaging technologies. Within our present approach possible future MMIC developments are already considered and, thus, can be easily adapted by the flexible frontend design. Es wird ein integrierter planarer Sensor für 77 GHz Radaranwendungen vorgestellt. Das Frontend besteht aus einem Sende- und Empfangs-Multi-Chip-Modul und einer elektronisch schwenkbaren Antenne. Das Speisenetzwerk der Antenne basiert auf einer modifizierten Rotman- Linse. Für eine kompakte Bauweise sind Antenne und Speisenetzwerk mehrlagig integriert. Weiterhin umfasst das Frontend eine Phasenregelschleife für eine präzise Steuerung des frequenzmodulierten Dauerstrichradars. Die aktuellen Messergebnisse bestätigen die Funktionalit¨at dieses neuartigen Frontend-Designs, das automatische Geschwindigkeitsregelung, Kollisionswarnung sowie Nahbereichsüberwachung ermöglicht. Die Qualität der Messergebnisse hat weiterf
Propagation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles.
Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Porjai, Porramain; Phantu, Metinee; Kanchanawarin, Jarin; Müller, Stefan C; Luengviriya, Chaiya
2015-05-01
We present an investigation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles with different circumferences in both thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations with the Oregonator model. For circular objects, the area always increases with the circumference. In contrast, we varied the circumference of rectangles with equal areas by adjusting their width w and height h. For both obstacle forms, the propagating parameters (i.e., wavelength, wave period, and velocity of pinned spiral waves) increase with the circumference, regardless of the obstacle area. Despite these common features of the parameters, the forms of pinned spiral waves depend on the obstacle shapes. The structures of spiral waves pinned to circles as well as rectangles with the ratio w/h∼1 are similar to Archimedean spirals. When w/h increases, deformations of the spiral shapes are observed. For extremely thin rectangles with w/h≫1, these shapes can be constructed by employing semicircles with different radii which relate to the obstacle width and the core diameter of free spirals.
Wave propagation downstream of a high power helicon in a dipolelike magnetic field
Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Roberson, B. Race; Ziemba, Timothy
2010-01-01
The wave propagating downstream of a high power helicon source in a diverging magnetic field was investigated experimentally. The magnetic field of the wave has been measured both axially and radially. The three-dimensional structure of the propagating wave is observed and its wavelength and phase velocity are determined. The measurements are compared to predictions from helicon theory and that of a freely propagating whistler wave. The implications of this work on the helicon as a thruster are also discussed.
Petito, F. C.; Wentworth, E. W.
1980-05-01
Recently there has been much interest expressed to determine the ability of millimeter wave radar to perform target acquisition during degraded visibility conditions. In this regard, one of the primary issues of concern has been the potential of high-explosive artillery barrages to obscure the battlefield from millimeter wave radar systems. To address this issue 95 GHz millimeter wave radar measurements were conducted during the Dusty Infrared Test 2 (DIRT 2). This test was held at White Sands Missile Range, NM, 18-28 July 1979. Millimeter wave transmission and backscatter measurements were performed during singular live firings and static detonations of 155 mm and 105 mm high-explosive artillery rounds in addition to static detonations of C-4 explosives. A brief description of the millimeter wave portion of the test and instrumentation is given. The data along with some preliminary conclusions are presented.
Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions
Cherry, J T; Petersen, F L [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)
1970-05-01
This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the
Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions
Cherry, J.T.; Petersen, F.L.
1970-01-01
This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the
Development of an analysis code for pressure wave propagation, (1)
Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Sakano, Kosuke; Shindo, Yoshihisa
1974-11-01
We analyzed the propagation of the pressure-wave in the piping system of SWAT-1B rig by using SWAC-5 Code. We carried out analyses on the following parts. 1) A straight pipe 2) Branches 3) A piping system The results obtained in these analyses are as follows. 1) The present our model simulates well the straight pipe and the branch with the same diameters. 2) The present our model simulates approximately the branch with the different diameters and the piping system. (auth.)
Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand
Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.
2014-01-01
The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence
Human motion estimation with multiple frequency modulated continuous wave radars
van Dorp, P.; Groen, F.C.A.
2010-01-01
Human motion estimation is an important issue in automotive, security or home automation applications. Radar systems are well suited for this because they are robust, are independent of day or night conditions and have accurate range and speed domain. The human response in a radar range-speed-time
Propagation of nonlinear waves over submerged step: wave separation and subharmonic generation
Monsalve, Eduardo; Maurel, Agnes; Pagneux, Vincent; Petitjeans, Philippe
2015-11-01
Water waves can be described in simplified cases by the Helmholtz equation. However, even in these cases, they present a high complexity, among which their dispersive character and their nonlinearities are the subject of the present study. Using Fourier Transform Profilometry, we study experimentally the propagation of waves passing over a submerged step. Because of the small water depth after the step, the wave enters in a nonlinear regime. In the shallow water region, the second harmonic leads to two types of waves: bound waves which are slaves of the fundamental frequency with wavenumber 2 k (ω) , and free waves which propagate according to the usual dispersion relation with wavenumber k (2 ω) . Because of the presence of these two waves, beats are produced at the second harmonic with characteristic beat length. In this work, for the first time we extended this analysis to the third and higher harmonics. Next, the region after the step is limited to a finite size L with a reflecting wall. For certain frequencies and L- values, the spectral component becomes involved, with the appearance of sub harmonics. This regime is analyzed in more details, suggesting a transition to a chaotic and quasi-periodic wave behavior.
Dirac equation and optical wave propagation in one dimension
Gonzalez, Gabriel [Catedras CONACYT, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Coordinacion para la Innovacion y la Aplicacion de la Ciencia y la Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)
2018-02-15
We show that the propagation of transverse electric (TE) polarized waves in one-dimensional inhomogeneous settings can be written in the form of the Dirac equation in one space dimension with a Lorentz scalar potential, and consequently perform photonic simulations of the Dirac equation in optical structures. In particular, we propose how the zero energy state of the Jackiw-Rebbi model can be generated in an optical set-up by controlling the refractive index landscape, where TE-polarized waves mimic the Dirac particles and the soliton field can be tuned by adjusting the refractive index. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Measurements on wave propagation characteristics of spiraling electron beams
Singh, A.; Getty, W. D.
1976-01-01
Dispersion characteristics of cyclotron-harmonic waves propagating on a neutralized spiraling electron beam immersed in a uniform axial magnetic field are studied experimentally. The experimental setup consisted of a vacuum system, an electron-gun corkscrew assembly which produces a 110-eV beam with the desired delta-function velocity distribution, a measurement region where a microwave signal is injected onto the beam to measure wavelengths, and a velocity analyzer for measuring the axial electron velocity. Results of wavelength measurements made at beam currents of 0.15, 1.0, and 2.0 mA are compared with calculated values, and undesirable effects produced by increasing the beam current are discussed. It is concluded that a suitable electron beam for studies of cyclotron-harmonic waves can be generated by the corkscrew device.
Fully resolved simulations of expansion waves propagating into particle beds
Marjanovic, Goran; Hackl, Jason; Annamalai, Subramanian; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, S.
2017-11-01
There is a tremendous amount of research that has been done on compression waves and shock waves moving over particles but very little concerning expansion waves. Using 3-D direct numerical simulations, this study will explore expansion waves propagating into fully resolved particle beds of varying volume fractions and geometric arrangements. The objectives of these simulations are as follows: 1) To fully resolve all (1-way coupled) forces on the particles in a time varying flow and 2) to verify state-of-the-art drag models for such complex flows. We will explore a range of volume fractions, from very low ones that are similar to single particle flows, to higher ones where nozzling effects are observed between neighboring particles. Further, we will explore two geometric arrangements: body centered cubic and face centered cubic. We will quantify the effects that volume fraction and geometric arrangement plays on the drag forces and flow fields experienced by the particles. These results will then be compared to theoretical predictions from a model based on the generalized Faxen's theorem. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Rigorous vector wave propagation for arbitrary flat media
Bos, Steven P.; Haffert, Sebastiaan Y.; Keller, Christoph U.
2017-08-01
Precise modelling of the (off-axis) point spread function (PSF) to identify geometrical and polarization aberrations is important for many optical systems. In order to characterise the PSF of the system in all Stokes parameters, an end-to-end simulation of the system has to be performed in which Maxwell's equations are rigorously solved. We present the first results of a python code that we are developing to perform multiscale end-to-end wave propagation simulations that include all relevant physics. Currently we can handle plane-parallel near- and far-field vector diffraction effects of propagating waves in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic materials, refraction and reflection of flat parallel surfaces, interference effects in thin films and unpolarized light. We show that the code has a numerical precision on the order of 10-16 for non-absorbing isotropic and anisotropic materials. For absorbing materials the precision is on the order of 10-8. The capabilities of the code are demonstrated by simulating a converging beam reflecting from a flat aluminium mirror at normal incidence.
Obliquely propagating large amplitude solitary waves in charge neutral plasmas
F. Verheest
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict charge neutrality has indicated that nonlinear solitary waves (as e.g. oscillitons cannot exist in electron-ion plasmas, at no angle of propagation with respect to the static magnetic field. Specifically for oblique propagation, the proof has turned out to be more involved than for parallel or perpendicular modes. The only exception is pair plasmas that are able to support large charge neutral solitons, owing to the high degree of symmetry naturally inherent in such plasmas. The nonexistence, in particular, of oscillitons is attributed to the breakdown of the plasma approximation in dealing with Poisson's law, rather than to relativistic effects. It is hoped that future space observations will allow to discriminate between oscillitons and large wave packets, by focusing on the time variability (or not of the phase, since the amplitude or envelope graphs look very similar.
Surface Waves Propagating on Grounded Anisotropic Dielectric Slab
Zhuozhu Chen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of surface waves propagating on a grounded anisotropic dielectric slab. Distinct from the existing analyses that generally assume that the fields of surface wave uniformly distribute along the transverse direction of the infinitely large grounded slab, our method takes into account the field variations along the transverse direction of a finite-width slab. By solving Maxwell’s equations in closed-form, it is revealed that no pure transverse magnetic (TM or transverse electric (TE mode exists if the fields are non-uniformly distributed along the transverse direction of the grounded slab. Instead, two hybrid modes, namely quasi-TM and quasi-TE modes, are supported. In addition, the propagation characteristics of two hybrid modes supported by the grounded anisotropic slab are analyzed in terms of the slab thickness, slab width, as well as the relative permittivity tensor of the anisotropic slab. Furthermore, different methods are employed to compare the analyses, as well as to validate our derivations. The proposed method is very suitable for practical engineering applications.
Ground penetrating radar antenna measurements based on plane-wave expansions
Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter
2005-01-01
The plane-wave transmitting spectrum of the system consisting of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna and the air-soil interface is measured using a loop buried in the soil. The plane-wave spectrum is used to determine various parameters characterizing the radiation of the GPR antenna...
Numerical Simulations of Upstream Propagating Solitary Waves and Wave Breaking In A Stratified Fjord
Stastna, M.; Peltier, W. R.
In this talk we will discuss ongoing numerical modeling of the flow of a stratified fluid over large scale topography motivated by observations in Knight Inlet, a fjord in British Columbia, Canada. After briefly surveying the work done on the topic in the past we will discuss our latest set of simulations in which we have observed the gener- ation and breaking of three different types of nonlinear internal waves in the lee of the sill topography. The first type of wave observed is a large lee wave in the weakly strat- ified main portion of the water column, The second is an upward propagating internal wave forced by topography that breaks in the strong, near-surface pycnocline. The third is a train of upstream propagating solitary waves that, in certain circumstances, form as breaking waves consisting of a nearly solitary wave envelope and a highly unsteady core near the surface. Time premitting, we will comment on the implications of these results for our long term goal of quantifying tidally driven mixing in Knight Inlet.
Propagation of waves at the loosely bonded interface of two porous elastic half-spaces
Tajuddin, M.
1993-10-01
Employing Biot's theory for wave propagation in porous solids, the propagation of waves at the loosely bonded interface between two poroelastic half-spaces is examined theoretically. The analogous study of Stoneley waves for smooth interface and bonded interface form a limiting case. The results due to classical theory are shown as a special case. (author). 13 refs
Parametric Excitations of Fast Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams
Shvets, G.; Fisch, N.J.
2001-01-01
Short- and long-wavelength plasma waves can become strongly coupled in the presence of two counter-propagating laser pump pulses detuned by twice the cold plasma frequency. What makes this four-wave interaction important is that the growth rate of the plasma waves occurs much faster than in the more obvious co-propagating geometry
Radar observations of ion cyclotron waves associated with two barium shaped-charge releases
Providakes, J.; Swartz, W.E.; Kelley, M.C.; Djuth, F.T.; Noble, S.; Jost, R.J.
1990-01-01
A 50-MHz Doppler radar interferometer and a 138-MHz Doppler radar were operated from Kennedy Space Center to study 3-m and 1-m plasma waves associated with two shaped-charged barium releases from Wallops Island, Virginia, on May 13, 1986. During the first release, interferometer and Doppler power spectral studies showed the existence of short-lived ( + EIC waves were unstable for field-aligned electron drifts greater than 0.7υ the at the altitude of 510 km in a multispecies (O + , NO + , or similarly O 2 + ) ionospheric plasma. The authors interpret the 30-Hz waves seen by the two radars far above the release as strong electrostatic ion cyclotron waves generated by intense field-aligned currents associated with the barium stream acting like an MHD generator coupled to the ionospheres
Matsuda, Y.; Crawford, F.W.
1975-01-01
An economical low-noise plasma simulation model originated by Denavit is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation. These tests serve to establish the low-noise features of the model, and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 10 -6 of the plasma thermal energy: Better quantitative results are obtained, for comparable computing time, than can be obtained by conventional particle simulation models, or direct solution of the Vlasov equation. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories
Propagation of stationary Rossby waves in the Martian lower atmosphere
Ghosh, Priyanka; Thokuluwa, Ramkumar
The Martian lower atmospheric (-1.5 km to 29.3 km) temperature, measured by radio occultation technique during the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission launched by US in November 1996, at the Northern winter hemispheric latitude of about 63(°) N clearly shows a statistically significant (above 95 percent confidential level white noise) and strong 3.5-day oscillation during 1-10 January 2006. This strong signal occurs in the longitudinal sectors of 0-30(°) E and 190-230(°) E but statistically insignificant in almost all the other longitudes. This 180 degree separation between the two peaks of occurrence of strong 3.5 day oscillation indicates that this may be associated with zonal wave number 2 structure global scale wave. At the lowest height of -1.5 km, the power observed in the longitude of 0-30(°) E is 50 K (2) and it increased gradually to the maximum power of 130 K (2) at the height of 0.8 - 1.7 km. Above this height, the power decreased monotonously and gradually to insignificant level at the height of 3.7 km (20 K (2) ). This gradual decrease of power above the height of 1.7 km indicates that radiative damping (infra red cooling due to large abundance of CO _{2} molecules and dust particles) would have played an important role in the dissipation of waves. The height and longitudinal profiles of phase of the 3.5-day wave indicate that this wave is a vertically standing and eastward propagating planetary wave respectively. Since the statistically significant spectral amplitude occurs near the high topography structures, it seems that the wave is generated by flows over the topography. In the Northern winter, it is possible that the large gradient of temperature between the low and high latitudes would lead to flow of winds from the tropical to polar latitudes. Due to the Coriolis effect, this flow would in turn move towards the right and incite wave generation when the air flows over the high topographic structures. This lead to speculate that the observed 3
SIMULATION OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE WAVE PROPAGATION IN WATER PIPE NETWORK
Tang Van Lam
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Subject: factors such as pipe wall roughness, mechanical properties of pipe materials, physical properties of water affect the pressure surge in the water supply pipes. These factors make it difficult to analyze the transient problem of pressure evolution using simple programming language, especially in the studies that consider only the magnitude of the positive pressure surge with the negative pressure phase being neglected. Research objectives: determine the magnitude of the negative pressure in the pipes on the experimental model. The propagation distance of the negative pressure wave will be simulated by the valve closure scenarios with the help of the HAMMER software and it is compared with an experimental model to verify the quality the results. Materials and methods: academic version of the Bentley HAMMER software is used to simulate the pressure surge wave propagation due to closure of the valve in water supply pipe network. The method of characteristics is used to solve the governing equations of transient process of pressure change in the pipeline. This method is implemented in the HAMMER software to calculate the pressure surge value in the pipes. Results: the method has been applied for water pipe networks of experimental model, the results show the affected area of negative pressure wave from valve closure and thereby we assess the largest negative pressure that may appear in water supply pipes. Conclusions: the experiment simulates the water pipe network with a consumption node for various valve closure scenarios to determine possibility of appearance of maximum negative pressure value in the pipes. Determination of these values in real-life network is relatively costly and time-consuming but nevertheless necessary for identification of the risk of pipe failure, and therefore, this paper proposes using the simulation model by the HAMMER software. Initial calibration of the model combined with the software simulation results and
Wave propagation simulation of radio occultations based on ECMWF refractivity profiles
von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per
2015-01-01
This paper describes a complete radio occultation simulation environment, including realistic refractivity profiles, wave propagation modeling, instrument modeling, and bending angle retrieval. The wave propagator is used to simulate radio occultation measurements. The radio waves are propagated...... of radio occultations. The output from the wave propagator simulator is used as input to a Full Spectrum Inversion retrieval module which calculates geophysical parameters. These parameters can be compared to the ECMWF atmospheric profiles. The comparison can be used to reveal system errors and get...... a better understanding of the physics. The wave propagation simulations will in this paper also be compared to real measurements. These radio occultations have been exposed to the same atmospheric conditions as the radio occultations simulated by the wave propagator. This comparison reveals that precise...
Coronal Seismology: The Search for Propagating Waves in Coronal Loops
Schad, Thomas A.; Seeley, D.; Keil, S. L.; Tomczyk, S.
2007-05-01
We report on Doppler observations of the solar corona obtained in the Fe XeXIII 1074.7nm coronal emission line with the HAO Coronal Multi-Channel Polarimeter (CoMP) mounted on the NSO Coronal One Shot coronagraph located in the Hilltop Facility of NSO/Sacramento Peak. The COMP is a tunable filtergraph instrument that records the entire corona from the edge of the occulting disk at approximately 1.03 Rsun out to 1.4 Rsun with a spatial resolution of about 4” x 4”. COMP can be rapidly scanned through the spectral line while recording orthogonal states of linear and circular polarization. The two dimensional spatial resolution allows us to correlate temporal fluctuations observed in one part of the corona with those seen at other locations, in particular along coronal loops. Using cross spectral analysis we find that the observations reveal upward propagating waves that are characterized by Doppler shifts with rms velocities of 0.3 km/s, peak wave power in the 3-5 mHz frequency range, and phase speeds 1-3 Mm/s. The wave trajectories are consistent with the direction of the magnetic field inferred from the linear polarization measurements. We discuss the phase and coherence of these waves as a function of height in the corona and relate our findings to previous observations. The observed waves appear to be Alfvenic in character. "Thomas Schad was supported through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) site program, which is co-funded by the Department of Defense in partnership with the National Science Foundation REU Program." Daniel Seeley was supported through the National Solar Observatory Research Experience for Teachers (RET) site program, which is funded by the National Science Foundation RET program.
Investigation on ultrasonic guided waves propagation in elbow pipe
Qi, Minxin; Zhou, Shaoping; Ni, Jing; Li, Yong
2016-01-01
Pipeline plays an indispensable role in process industries, whose structural integrity is of great significance for the safe production. In this paper, the axial crack-like defects in 90° elbows are inspected by using the T (0, 1) mode guided waves. The detection sensitivity for different defect locations is firstly investigated by guided waves experimentally. The propagation of guided waves in the bent pipe is then simulated by using finite element method. The results show that the rates of T (0, 1) mode passing through elbow correlate strongly with the excitation frequency. Less mode conversion is generated at the frequency of 38 kHz when passing through the elbow, while most of energy converted into F (1, 2) mode at the frequency of 75 kHz. The crack in different locations of the elbow can affect the rates of mode conversion. It can be found that the crack in the middle of the elbow inhibits mode conversion and shares the highest detection sensitivity, while the crack in the extrados of elbow causes more mode conversion.
FDTD Simulation on Terahertz Waves Propagation Through a Dusty Plasma
Wang, Maoyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Guiping; Jiang, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Xu, Jun
2016-08-01
The frequency dependent permittivity for dusty plasmas is provided by introducing the charging response factor and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles. The field equations that describe the characteristics of Terahertz (THz) waves propagation in a dusty plasma sheath are derived and discretized on the basis of the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Compared with numerical solutions in reference, the accuracy for the ADE FDTD method is validated. The reflection property of the metal Aluminum interlayer of the sheath at THz frequencies is discussed. The effects of the thickness, effective collision frequency, airborne particle density, and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles on the electromagnetic properties of Terahertz waves through a dusty plasma slab are investigated. Finally, some potential applications for Terahertz waves in information and communication are analyzed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41104097, 11504252, 61201007, 41304119), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. ZYGX2015J039, ZYGX2015J041), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120185120012)
Propagation of a hybrid inferior wave in axisymmetrical plasma
Fivaz, M.; Appert, K.; Krlin, L.
1990-05-01
The linear propagation of hybrid inferior waves in an axisymmetrical plasma (magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of the Soloviev type) has been numerically simulated. The evolution of k // (component of the wave vector k parallel to the magnetic field B), important for current drive modelling, has been studied as a function of the geometric parameters of the equilibrium: aspect ratio, ellipticity and triangularity. The results show that k // depends abruptly on the parameters; the engendered structures are very rich. Two mechanisms by which k // increases have been shown: the 'resonance' occurring in small bands of the space of the parameters and which is associated with trajectories in (R,Z) near stabilization; a stochastic evolution resembling diffusion in equlibriums of very high triangularity. However, a strong increase of k // of a part of the waves, susceptible of engendering a current in the plasma, has only been observed in a minority of cases. In literature current drive experiments have been reported which work and whose parameters are a priori such that our model cannot be expected to show the desired growth of k // . Consequently, our model, which is similar to normally used models, does not explain the current drive. 5 refs., 16 figs
Bulk elastic wave propagation in partially saturated porous solids
Berryman, J.G.; Thigpen, L.; Chin, R.C.Y.
1988-01-01
The linear equations of motion that describe the behavior of small disturbances in a porous solid containing both liquid and gas are solved for bulk wave propagation. The equations have been simplified by neglecting effects due to changes in capillary pressure. With this simplifying assumption, the equations reduce to two coupled (vector) equations of the form found in Biot's equations (for full saturation) but with more complicated coefficients. As in fully saturated solids, two shear waves with the same speed but different polarizations exist as do two compressional waves with distinct speeds. Attenuation effects can be enhanced in the partially saturated solid, depending on the distribution of gas in the pore space. Two models of the liquid/gas spatial distribution are considered: a segregated-fluids model and a mixed-fluids model. The two models predict comparable attentuation when the gas saturation is low, but the segregated-fluids model predicts a more rapid roll-off of attenuation as the gas saturation increases
Experimental study of the fast wave propagation in TFR
1981-02-01
Several experiments (PLT, DIVA, ERASMUS, TFR) have shown that the heating mechanism of ICRF is dominated in Tokamaks by the presence of the ion-ion hybrid layer. The first experimental evidence of this effect came from propagation studies: a very strong damping was observed on magnetic probes since the hybrid layer was inside the plasma. Comparison with simple models which do not take into account boundary conditions have been undertaken. Recently a new theoretical model has been developped. Based on a plane, inhomogeneous, bounded plasma, it shows that the radial structure of the fast wave and hence the loading impedance of the launching coil depends on the position of the hybrid layer with respect to the plasma boundaries. This result is obtained by solving the wave equation, in the cold plasma approximation. We present here, a serie of experiments, performed in TFR. It confirms the validity of that model underlining thus the importance of radial eigenmodes, when the wave conversion layer is inside the plasma
A study of the radar backscattering from the breaking of wind waves on the sea
Ivanov, V.A.; Yurovskij, Yu.Yu.; Malinovskij, V.V.
2011-01-01
The results of a field study of the relationship between radar backscattering parameters and geometrical characteristics of the wind wave breaking are presented. The radar cross-section of a whitecap is found to be proportional to the breaking crest length. It is shown that the accounting for a change of the non-Bragg scattering in the presence of an oil slick on the sea surface allows one to interpret experimental data correctly.
Millimeter-Wave Receiver Concepts for 77 GHz Automotive Radar in Silicon-Germanium Technology
Kissinger, Dietmar
2012-01-01
The book presents the analysis and design of integrated automotive radar receivers in Silicon-Germanium technology, for use in complex multi-channel radar transceiver front-ends in the 77GHz frequency band. The main emphasis of the work is the realization of high-linearity and low-power modular receiver channels as well as the investigation of millimeter-wave integrated test concepts for the receiver front-end.
The development of efficient numerical time-domain modeling methods for geophysical wave propagation
Zhu, Lieyuan
This Ph.D. dissertation focuses on the numerical simulation of geophysical wave propagation in the time domain including elastic waves in solid media, the acoustic waves in fluid media, and the electromagnetic waves in dielectric media. This thesis shows that a linear system model can describe accurately the physical processes of those geophysical waves' propagation and can be used as a sound basis for modeling geophysical wave propagation phenomena. The generalized stability condition for numerical modeling of wave propagation is therefore discussed in the context of linear system theory. The efficiency of a series of different numerical algorithms in the time-domain for modeling geophysical wave propagation are discussed and compared. These algorithms include the finite-difference time-domain method, pseudospectral time domain method, alternating directional implicit (ADI) finite-difference time domain method. The advantages and disadvantages of these numerical methods are discussed and the specific stability condition for each modeling scheme is carefully derived in the context of the linear system theory. Based on the review and discussion of these existing approaches, the split step, ADI pseudospectral time domain (SS-ADI-PSTD) method is developed and tested for several cases. Moreover, the state-of-the-art stretched-coordinate perfect matched layer (SCPML) has also been implemented in SS-ADI-PSTD algorithm as the absorbing boundary condition for truncating the computational domain and absorbing the artificial reflection from the domain boundaries. After algorithmic development, a few case studies serve as the real-world examples to verify the capacities of the numerical algorithms and understand the capabilities and limitations of geophysical methods for detection of subsurface contamination. The first case is a study using ground penetrating radar (GPR) amplitude variation with offset (AVO) for subsurface non-aqueous-liquid (NAPL) contamination. The
Propagation of short-period gravity waves at high-latitudes during the MaCWAVE winter campaign
K. Nielsen
2006-07-01
Full Text Available As part of the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending Vertically winter campaign an all-sky monochromatic CCD imager has been used to investigate the properties of short-period mesospheric gravity waves at high northern latitudes. Sequential measurements of several nightglow emissions were made from Esrange, Sweden, during a limited period from 27–31 January 2003. Coincident wind measurements over the altitude range (~80–100 km using two meteor radar systems located at Esrange and Andenes have been used to perform a novel investigation of the intrinsic properties of five distinct wave events observed during this period. Additional lidar and MSIS model temperature data have been used to investigate their nature (i.e. freely propagating or ducted. Four of these extensive wave events were found to be freely propagating with potential source regions to the north of Scandinavia. No evidence was found for strong orographic forcing by short-period waves in the airglow emission layers. The fifth event was most unusual exhibiting an extensive, but much smaller and variable wavelength pattern that appeared to be embedded in the background wind field. Coincident wind measurements indicated the presence of a strong shear suggesting this event was probably due to a large-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.
Two-dimensional wave propagation in layered periodic media
Quezada de Luna, Manuel
2014-09-16
We study two-dimensional wave propagation in materials whose properties vary periodically in one direction only. High order homogenization is carried out to derive a dispersive effective medium approximation. One-dimensional materials with constant impedance exhibit no effective dispersion. We show that a new kind of effective dispersion may arise in two dimensions, even in materials with constant impedance. This dispersion is a macroscopic effect of microscopic diffraction caused by spatial variation in the sound speed. We analyze this dispersive effect by using highorder homogenization to derive an anisotropic, dispersive effective medium. We generalize to two dimensions a homogenization approach that has been used previously for one-dimensional problems. Pseudospectral solutions of the effective medium equations agree to high accuracy with finite volume direct numerical simulations of the variable-coeffi cient equations.
Variational structure of inverse problems in wave propagation and vibration
Berryman, J.G.
1995-03-01
Practical algorithms for solving realistic inverse problems may often be viewed as problems in nonlinear programming with the data serving as constraints. Such problems are most easily analyzed when it is possible to segment the solution space into regions that are feasible (satisfying all the known constraints) and infeasible (violating some of the constraints). Then, if the feasible set is convex or at least compact, the solution to the problem will normally lie on the boundary of the feasible set. A nonlinear program may seek the solution by systematically exploring the boundary while satisfying progressively more constraints. Examples of inverse problems in wave propagation (traveltime tomography) and vibration (modal analysis) will be presented to illustrate how the variational structure of these problems may be used to create nonlinear programs using implicit variational constraints.
Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems
Ippolito, L. J.
1981-01-01
The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.
Modes in light wave propagating in semiconductor laser
Manko, Margarita A.
1994-01-01
The study of semiconductor laser based on an analogy of the Schrodinger equation and an equation describing light wave propagation in nonhomogeneous medium is developed. The active region of semiconductor laser is considered as optical waveguide confining the electromagnetic field in the cross-section (x,y) and allowing waveguide propagation along the laser resonator (z). The mode structure is investigated taking into account the transversal and what is the important part of the suggested consideration longitudinal nonhomogeneity of the optical waveguide. It is shown that the Gaussian modes in the case correspond to spatial squeezing and correlation. Spatially squeezed two-mode structure of nonhomogeneous optical waveguide is given explicitly. Distribution of light among the laser discrete modes is presented. Properties of the spatially squeezed two-mode field are described. The analog of Franck-Condon principle for finding the maxima of the distribution function and the analog of Ramsauer effect for control of spatial distribution of laser emission are discussed.
P. Hoffmann
2006-11-01
Full Text Available During the {MaCWAVE} campaign, combined rocket, radiosonde and ground-based measurements have been performed at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR near Andenes and the Swedish Rocket Range (ESRANGE near Kiruna in January 2003 to study gravity waves in the vicinity of the Scandinavian mountain ridge. The investigations presented here are mainly based on the evaluation of continuous radar measurements with the ALWIN VHF radar in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere at Andenes (69.3° N, 16.0° E and the ESRAD VHF radar near Kiruna (67.9° N, 21.9° E. Both radars are separated by about 260 km. Based on wavelet transformations of both data sets, the strongest activity of inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere has been detected during the first period from 24–26 January 2003 with dominant vertical wavelengths of about 4–5 km as well as with dominant observed periods of about 13–14 h for the altitude range between 5 and 8 km under the additional influence of mountain waves. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of ~200 km moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with intrinsic periods in the order of ~5 h and with horizontal wavelengths of 200 km, moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. From the derived downward energy propagation it is supposed, that these waves are likely generated by a jet streak in the upper troposphere. The parameters of the jet-induced gravity waves have been estimated at both sites separately. The identified gravity waves are coherent at both locations and show higher amplitudes on the east-side of the Scandinavian mountain ridge, as expected by the influence of mountains.
On propagation of electromagnetic and gravitational waves in the expanding Universe
Gladyshev, V O
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to obtain an equation for the propagation time of electromagnetic and gravitational waves in the expanding Universe. The velocity of electromagnetic waves propagation depends on the velocity of the interstellar medium in the observer's frame of reference. Gravitational radiation interacts weakly with the substance, so electromagnetic and gravitational waves propagate from a remote astrophysical object to the terrestrial observer at different time. Gravitational waves registration enables the inverse problem solution - by the difference in arrival time of electromagnetic and gravitational-wave signal, we can determine the characteristics of the emitting area of the astrophysical object. (paper)
Propagation of fast ionization waves in long discharge tubes filled with a preionized gas
Boutine, O.V.; Vasilyak, L.M.
1999-01-01
The propagation of fast ionization waves in discharge tubes is modeled with allowance for radial variations in the electric potential, nonlocal dependence of the plasma parameters on the electric field, and nonsteady nature of the electron energy distribution. The wave propagation dynamics and the wave attenuation in helium are described. The plasma parameters at the wave front and behind the front and the energy deposition in the discharge are found. The results obtained are compared with experimental data
Modeling the propagation of electromagnetic waves over the surface of the human body
Vendik, I. B.; Vendik, O. G.; Kirillov, V. V.; Pleskachev, V. V.; Tural'chuk, P. A.
2016-12-01
The results of modeling and an experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in microwave range propagating along the surface of the human body have been presented. The parameters of wave propagation, such as the attenuation and phase velocity, have also been investigated. The calculation of the propagation of EM waves by the numerical method FDTD (finite difference time domain), as well as the use of the analytical model of the propagation of the EM wave along flat and curved surfaces has been fulfilled. An experimental study on a human body has been conducted. It has been shown that creeping waves are slow and exhibit a noticeable dispersion, while the surface waves are dispersionless and propagate at the speed of light in free space. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation, analytical calculation, and experimental investigations at a frequency of 2.55 GHz has been carried out.
Shock Wave Propagation in Layered Planetary Interiors: Revisited
Arkani-Hamed, J.; Monteux, J.
2017-12-01
The end of the terrestrial planet accretion is characterized by numerous large impacts. About 90% of the mass of a large planet is accreted while the core mantle separation is occurring, because of the accretionary and the short-lived radio-isotope heating. The characteristics of the shockwave propagation, hence the existing scaling laws are poorly known within the layered planets. Here, we use iSALE-2D hydrocode simulations to calculate shock pressure in a differentiated Mars type body for impact velocities of 5-20 km/s, and impactor sizes of 100-400 km. We use two different rheologies for the target interior, an inviscid model ("no-stress model") and a pressure and damage-dependent strength model ("elaborated model"). To better characterize the shock pressure within the whole mantle as a function of distance from the impact site, we propose the following distribution: (1) a near field zone larger than the isobaric core that extends to 7-15 times the projectile radius into the target, where the peak shock pressure decays exponentially with increasing distance, (2) a far field zone where the pressure decays with distance following a power law. The shock pressure decreases more rapidly with distance in the near field for the elaborated model than for the no-stress model because of the influence of acoustic fluidization and damage. However to better illustrate the influence of the rheology on the shock propagation, we use the same expressions to fit the shock pressure with distance for both models. At the core-mantle boundary, CMB, the peak shock pressure jumps as the shock wave enters the core. We derived the boundary condition at CMB for the peak shock pressure. It is less sensitive to the impact velocity or the impactor size, but strongly depends on the rheology of the planet's mantle. Because of the lower shock wave velocity in the core compared to that in the mantle, the refracted shockwave propagates toward the symmetry axis of the planet, and the shock
Study of equatorial Kelvin waves using the MST radar and radiosonde observations
P. Kishore
2005-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to study equatorial Kelvin waves using a high power coherent VHF radar located at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in the Indian sub-continent. Simultaneous radiosonde observations taken from a nearby meteorological station located in Chennai (13.04° N, 80.17° E were also used to see the coherence in the observed structures. These data sets were analyzed to study the mean winds and equatorial waves in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Equatorial waves with different periodicities were identified. In the present study, particular attention has been given to the fast Kelvin wave (6.5-day and slow Kelvin wave (16-day. Mean zonal wind structures were similar at both locations. The fast Kelvin wave amplitudes were somewhat similar in both observations and the maximum amplitude is about 8m/s. The phase profiles indicated a slow downward progression. The slow Kelvin wave (16-day amplitudes shown by the radiosonde measurements are a little larger than the radar derived amplitudes. The phase profiles showed downward phase progression and it translates into a vertical wavelength of ~10-12km. The radar and radiosonde derived amplitudes of fast and slow Kelvin waves are larger at altitudes near the tropopause (15-17km, where the mean wind attains westward maximum.
Dispersion analysis for waves propagated in fractured media
Lesniak, A; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-05-01
Dispersion of velocity is defined as a variation of the phase velocity with frequency. This paper describes the dispersion analysis of compressional body waves propagated in the heterogeneous fractured media. The new method proposed and discussed here permitted the evaluation of the variation in P wave arrival with frequency. For this processing method, any information about the attenuation of the medium are not required, and only an assumption of weak heterogeneity is important. It was shown that different mechanisms of dispersion can be distinguished and its value can be quantitatively estimated. Although the frequency used in this study was lower than those in most previous experiments reported in literature, the evaluated dispersion was large. It was suggested that such a large dispersion may be caused by the velocity structure of the media studied and by frequency dependent processes in a highly fractured zone. It was demonstrated that the present method can be used in the evaluation of subsurface fracture systems or characterization of any kind of heterogeneities. 10 refs., 6 figs.
Modelling viscoacoustic wave propagation with the lattice Boltzmann method.
Xia, Muming; Wang, Shucheng; Zhou, Hui; Shan, Xiaowen; Chen, Hanming; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Qingchen
2017-08-31
In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate wave propagation in viscous media. LBM is a kind of microscopic method for modelling waves through tracking the evolution states of a large number of discrete particles. By choosing different relaxation times in LBM experiments and using spectrum ratio method, we can reveal the relationship between the quality factor Q and the parameter τ in LBM. A two-dimensional (2D) homogeneous model and a two-layered model are tested in the numerical experiments, and the LBM results are compared against the reference solution of the viscoacoustic equations based on the Kelvin-Voigt model calculated by finite difference method (FDM). The wavefields and amplitude spectra obtained by LBM coincide with those by FDM, which demonstrates the capability of the LBM with one relaxation time. The new scheme is relatively simple and efficient to implement compared with the traditional lattice methods. In addition, through a mass of experiments, we find that the relaxation time of LBM has a quantitative relationship with Q. Such a novel scheme offers an alternative forward modelling kernel for seismic inversion and a new model to describe the underground media.
Wave propagation in a strongly nonlinear locally resonant granular crystal
Vorotnikov, K.; Starosvetsky, Y.; Theocharis, G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2018-02-01
In this work, we study the wave propagation in a recently proposed acoustic structure, the locally resonant granular crystal. This structure is composed of a one-dimensional granular crystal of hollow spherical particles in contact, containing linear resonators. The relevant model is presented and examined through a combination of analytical approximations (based on ODE and nonlinear map analysis) and of numerical results. The generic dynamics of the system involves a degradation of the well-known traveling pulse of the standard Hertzian chain of elastic beads. Nevertheless, the present system is richer, in that as the primary pulse decays, secondary ones emerge and eventually interfere with it creating modulated wavetrains. Remarkably, upon suitable choices of parameters, this interference "distills" a weakly nonlocal solitary wave (a "nanopteron"). This motivates the consideration of such nonlinear structures through a separate Fourier space technique, whose results suggest the existence of such entities not only with a single-side tail, but also with periodic tails on both ends. These tails are found to oscillate with the intrinsic oscillation frequency of the out-of-phase motion between the outer hollow bead and its internal linear attachment.
Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines
Peixin Shi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.
Elmer, Christopher E.; Vleck, Erik S. van
2003-01-01
This article is concerned with effect of spatial and temporal discretizations on traveling wave solutions to parabolic PDEs (Nagumo type) possessing piecewise linear bistable nonlinearities. Solution behavior is compared in terms of waveforms and in terms of the so-called (a,c) relationship where a is a parameter controlling the bistable nonlinearity by varying the potential energy difference of the two phases and c is the wave speed of the traveling wave. Uniform spatial discretizations and A(α) stable linear multistep methods in time are considered. Results obtained show that although the traveling wave solutions to parabolic PDEs are stationary for only one value of the parameter a,a 0 , spatial discretization of these PDEs produce traveling waves which are stationary for a nontrivial interval of a values which include a 0 , i.e., failure of the solution to propagate in the presence of a driving force. This is true no matter how wide the interface is with respect to the discretization. For temporal discretizations at large wave speeds the set of parameter a values for which there are traveling wave solutions is constrained. An analysis of a complete discretization points out the potential for nonuniqueness in the (a,c) relationship
Ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions from the West Coast experiment
Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.
1980-01-01
Short gravity-capillary waves, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean waves. These short waves are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale wave probe. Modulation transfer functions (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean wave periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the wave-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by waves of typical ocean wave period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water waves should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean waves by the ocean wave frequency.
Modeling stress wave propagation in rocks by distinct lattice spring model
Gaofeng Zhao
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the ability of the distinct lattice spring model (DLSM for modeling stress wave propagation in rocks was fully investigated. The influence of particle size on simulation of different types of stress waves (e.g. one-dimensional (1D P-wave, 1D S-wave and two-dimensional (2D cylindrical wave was studied through comparing results predicted by the DLSM with different mesh ratios (lr and those obtained from the corresponding analytical solutions. Suggested values of lr were obtained for modeling these stress waves accurately. Moreover, the weak material layer method and virtual joint plane method were used to model P-wave and S-wave propagating through a single discontinuity. The results were compared with the classical analytical solutions, indicating that the virtual joint plane method can give better results and is recommended. Finally, some remarks of the DLSM on modeling of stress wave propagation in rocks were provided.
Cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate
Xiang Yanxun; Deng Mingxi
2008-01-01
The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear reflection of acoustic waves at an interface. In general, the cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave propagation does not occur. However, the present paper shows that the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied. Through boundary condition and initial condition of excitation, the analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves propagation is determined. Numerical results show the cumulative effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns. (classical areas of phenomenology)
Ferroics and Multiferroics for Dynamically Controlled Terahertz Wave Propagation
Dutta, Moumita
The terahertz (THz) region of electromagnetic spectra, referred roughly to the frequency range of 100 GHz (0.1 THz) to 10 THz, is the bridging gap between the microwave and infrared spectral bands. Previously confined only to astronomy and analytical sciences due to the unavailability of technology, with the recent advancements in non-linear optics, this novel field has now started emerging as a promising area of research and study. Considerable efforts are underway to fill this 'THz gap' by developing efficient THz sources, detectors, switches, modulators etc. Be it any field, to realize this regime as one of the active frontiers, it is essential to have an efficient control over the wave propagation. In this research, functional materials (ferroics/multiferroics) have been explored to attain dynamic control over the THz beam propagation. The objective is to expand the horizon by enabling different family of materials to be incorporated in the design of THz modulators, exploiting the novel properties they exhibit. To reach that goal, following a comprehensive but selective (to dielectrics) review on the current-status of this research field, some preliminary studies on ferroic materials have been performed to understand the crux of ferroism and the novel functionalities they have to offer. An analytical study on microstructural and nanoscale properties of solid-solution ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti 0.48)O3 (PZT) and composite bio-ferroic seashells have been performed to elucidate the significance of structure-property relationship in intrinsic ferroelectrics. Moving forward, engineered ferroelectricity has been demonstrated. A precise control over fabrication parameters has been exploited to introduce oxygen-vacancy defined nanoscale polar-domains in centrosymmetric BaZrO3. Realizing that structure-property relationship can significantly influence the material properties and therefore the device performance, models for figure of merit analysis have been developed for
Quantifying Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Environment Using Measurements From A Small Buoy
2017-06-01
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT USING MEASUREMENTS FROM A SMALL BUOY by Andrew E. Sweeney June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Qing Wang...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE QUANTIFYING ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT USING MEASUREMENTS FROM A...the Coupled Air Sea Processes and Electromagnetic (EM) ducting Research (CASPER), to understand air-sea interaction processes and their representation
Guided wave propagation as a measure of axial loads in rails
Loveday, PW
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Guided wave propagation has been proposed as a means to monitor the axial loads in continuously welded railway rails although no practical system has been developed. In this paper, the influence of axial load on the guided wave propagation...
Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2017-04-13
This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density n_{e}(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rn_{e}(r).
Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality
Wang, Bingnan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2009-01-01
Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity ϵ, magnetic permeability μ are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective μ < 1 or even μ < 0. Varactor based
Modeling elastic wave propagation in kidney stones with application to shock wave lithotripsy.
Cleveland, Robin O; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A
2005-10-01
A time-domain finite-difference solution to the equations of linear elasticity was used to model the propagation of lithotripsy waves in kidney stones. The model was used to determine the loading on the stone (principal stresses and strains and maximum shear stresses and strains) due to the impact of lithotripsy shock waves. The simulations show that the peak loading induced in kidney stones is generated by constructive interference from shear waves launched from the outer edge of the stone with other waves in the stone. Notably the shear wave induced loads were significantly larger than the loads generated by the classic Hopkinson or spall effect. For simulations where the diameter of the focal spot of the lithotripter was smaller than that of the stone the loading decreased by more than 50%. The constructive interference was also sensitive to shock rise time and it was found that the peak tensile stress reduced by 30% as rise time increased from 25 to 150 ns. These results demonstrate that shear waves likely play a critical role in stone comminution and that lithotripters with large focal widths and short rise times should be effective at generating high stresses inside kidney stones.
Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment
Zhao, X.; Huang, S.
2010-01-01
This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed ...
Sun Zheng; Ning Hui; Tang Jing; Xie Yong-Jie; Shi Peng-Fei; Wang Jian-Hua; Wang Ke
2016-01-01
Atmospheric duct is a common phenomenon over large bodies of water, and it can significantly affect the performance of many radio systems. In this paper, a two-month (in July and August, 2014) sounding experiment in ducting conditions over Bosten Lake was carried out at a littoral station (41.89° N, 87.22° E) with high resolution GPS radiosondes, and atmospheric ducts were observed for the first time in this area. During the two months, surface and surface-based ducts occurred frequently over the Lake. Strong diurnal variations in ducting characteristics were noticed in clear days. Ducting occurrence was found at its lowest in the early morning and at its highest (nearly 100%) in the afternoon. Duct strength was found increasing from early morning to forenoon, and reaching its maximum in the afternoon. But contrarily, duct altitude experienced a decrease in a clear day. Then the meteorological reasons for the variations were discussed in detail, turbulent bursting was a possible reason for the duct formation in the early morning and the prevailing lake-breeze front was the main reason in the afternoon. The propagation of electromagnetic wave in a ducting environment was also investigated. A ray-tracing framework based on Runge–Kutta method was proposed to assess the performance of radio systems, and the precise critical angle and grazing angle derived from the ray-tracing equations were provided. Finally, numerical investigations on the radar performance in the observed ducting environments have been carried out with high accuracy, which demonstrated that atmospheric ducts had made great impacts on the performance of radio systems. The range/height errors for radar measurement induced by refraction have also been presented, too, which shows that the height errors were very large for trapped rays when the total range was long enough. (paper)
Electromagnetic Simulations of Ground-Penetrating Radar Propagation near Lunar Pits and Lava Tubes
Zimmerman, M. I.; Carter, L. M.; Farrell, W. M.; Bleacher, J. E.; Petro, N. E.
2013-01-01
Placing an Orion capsule at the Earth-Moon L2 point (EML2) would potentially enable telerobotic operation of a rover on the lunar surface. The Human Exploration Virtual Institute (HEVI) is proposing that rover operations be carried out near one of the recently discovered lunar pits, which may provide radiation shielding for long duration human stays as well as a cross-disciplinary, science-rich target for nearer-term telerobotic exploration. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) instrumentation included onboard a rover has the potential to reveal many details of underground geologic structures near a pit, as well as characteristics of the pit itself. In the present work we employ the full-wave electromagnetic code MEEP to simulate such GPR reflections from a lunar pit and other subsurface features including lava tubes. These simulations will feed forward to mission concepts requiring knowledge of where to hide from harmful radiation and other environmental hazards such as plama charging and extreme diurnal temperatures.
The nonlinear distortion of propagation cones of lower hybrid wave in an inhomogeneous plasma
Sanuki, Heiji; Ogino, Tatsuki.
1976-12-01
Nonlinear propagation of externally driven waves in the lower hybrid frequency range in an inhomogeneous plasma are investigated. The results of finite temperature, inhomogeneity of the plasma and density depression due to the ponderomotive force are emphasized since these effects are responsible for the propagation characteristics of the waves. The results shows that the waves are localized in a spatial wave packet that propagates into the plasma center along the conical trajectory which makes a small angle with respect to the confining magnetic field. (auth.)
Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Antonita, T. Maria; Shelbi, S. T.
2007-12-01
In the present communication, allSKy interferometric METeor (SKiYMET) radar observations of gravity wave activity in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region over Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E) are presented. The present meteor radar system provides hourly zonal and meridional winds in the MLT region, which can be readily used for studying the tides, planetary waves, gravity waves of periods 2-6 hours, and other long period oscillations in this region. However, these hourly winds are not sufficient for studying short period gravity waves having periods less than an hour, which demand high temporal resolution measurements. Even though the winds are estimated on an hourly basis, information such as zenith angle, azimuth angle, and radial velocity of each detected meteor are archived. Using these details of the meteor, an algorithm is developed to obtain the 15-min temporal resolution wind data. The output of the algorithm is compared with hourly wind data, and it showed a good agreement during the high meteor shower periods. Most of the times high meteor counts are observed during late night and early morning hours (local) over this latitude. Continuous wind measurements during the high meteor shower periods are used for studying the gravity wave activity in the MLT region. As the wave activity is intermittent and nonstationary, wavelet analysis has been used for delineating the wave features. The results showed the upward propagating intermittent gravity waves with periods 1-2 and 4-5 hours. The new aspect of the present communication is the usage of meteor radar for gravity wave studies for the first time over this latitude and studying their seasonal variability.
Measurement of Plane-Wave Spectra of Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas
Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter
2005-01-01
The plane-wave transmitting spectrum of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) loop antenna close to the air-soil interface is measured by means of a probe buried in soil. Probe correction is implemented based upon knowledge about the complex permittivity of the soil and the current distribution...
Detection of Metallic and Electronic Radar Targets by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves
2017-07-01
by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory J... Program 13 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms 18 Distribution List 19 Approved for public release; distribution is...4 Fig. 4 Flowchart of wireless experiment to receive acoustically modulated radar waveforms
Mechanisms of ignition by transient energy deposition: Regimes of combustion wave propagation
Kiverin, A. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Ivanov, M. F.; Liberman, M. A.
2013-01-01
Regimes of chemical reaction wave propagating in reactive gaseous mixtures, whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics, are studied depending on the characteristics of a transient thermal energy deposition localized in a finite volume of reactive gas. Different regimes of the reaction wave propagation are initiated depending on the amount of deposited thermal energy, power of the source, and the size of the hot spot. The main parameters which define regimes of the combustion wave...
On the propagation of low-hybrid waves of finite amplitude
Kozyrev, A.N.; Piliya, A.D.; Fedorov, V.I.
1979-01-01
Propagation of low-hybrid waves of a finite amplitude with allowance for variation in plasma density caused by HF field pressure is studied. Considered is wave ''overturning'' which takes place in the absence of space dispersion. With taking account of dispersion the wave propagation is described by the third-order nonlinear equation which differs in shape from the complex modified Korteweg-de-Vries (Hirota) equation. Solutions of this equation of the space solution type are found
de Jong, G.
1975-01-01
With the aid of a two-dimensional integral equation formulation, the ground wave propagation of electromagnetic waves transmitted by a vertical electric dipole over an inhomogeneous flat earth is investigated. For the configuration in which a ground wave is propagating across an ''island'' on a flat earth, the modulus and argument of the attenuation function have been computed. The results for the two-dimensional treatment are significantly more accurate in detail than the calculations using a one-dimensional integral equation
Acoustic wave propagation in fluids with coupled chemical reactions
Margulies, T.S.; Schwarz, W.H.
1984-08-01
This investigation presents a hydroacoustic theory which accounts for sound absorption and dispersion in a multicomponent mixture of reacting fluids (assuming a set of first-order acoustic equations without diffusion) such that several coupled reactions can occur simultaneously. General results are obtained in the form of a biquadratic characteristic equation (called the Kirchhoff-Langevin equation) for the complex propagation variable chi = - (α + iω/c) in which α is the attenuation coefficient, c is the phase speed of the progressive wave and ω is the angular frequency. Computer simulations of sound absorption spectra have been made for three different chemical systems, each comprised of two-step chemical reactions using physico-chemical data available in the literature. The chemical systems studied include: (1) water-dioxane, (2) aqueous solutions of glycine and (3) cobalt polyphosphate mixtures. Explicit comparisons are made between the exact biquadratic characteristic solution and the approximate equation (sometimes referred to as a Debye equation) previously applied to interpret the experimental data for the chemical reaction contribution to the absorption versus frequency. The relative chemical reaction and classical viscothermal contributions to the sound absorption are also presented. Several discrepancies that can arise when estimating thermodynamic data (chemical reaction heats or volume changes) for multistep chemical reaction systems when making dilute solution or constant density assumptions are discussed
Stress wave propagation and mitigation in two polymeric foams
Pradel, Pierre; Malaise, Frederic; Cadilhon, Baptiste; Quessada, Jean-Hugues; de Resseguier, Thibaut; Delhomme, Catherine; Le Blanc, Gael
2017-06-01
Polymeric foams are widely used in industry for thermal insulation or shock mitigation. This paper investigates the ability of a syntactic epoxy foam and an expanded polyurethane foam to mitigate intense (several GPa) and short duration (<10-6 s) stress pulses. Plate impact and electron beam irradiation experiments have been conducted to study the dynamic mechanical responses of both foams. Interferometer Doppler Laser method is used to record the target rear surface velocity. A two-wave structure associated with the propagation of an elastic precursor followed by the compaction of the pores has been observed. The compaction stress level deduced from the velocity measurement is a good indicator of mitigation capability of the foams. Quasi-static tests and dynamic soft recovery experiments have also been performed to determine the compaction mechanisms. In the polyurethane foam, the pores are closed by elastic buckling of the matrix and damage of the structure. In the epoxy foam, the compaction is due to the crushing of glass microspheres. Two porous material models successfully represent the macroscopic response of these polymeric foams.
Shock Wave Propagation in Functionally Graded Mineralized Tissue
Nelms, Matthew; Hodo, Wayne; Livi, Ken; Browning, Alyssa; Crawford, Bryan; Rajendran, A. M.
2017-06-01
In this investigation, the effects of shock wave propagation in bone-like biomineralized tissue was investigated. The Alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) exoskeleton is comprised of many disparate scales that provide a biological analog for potential design of flexible protective material systems. The gar scale is identified as a two-phase, (1) hydroxyapatite mineral and (2) collagen protein, biological composite with two distinct layers where a stiff, ceramic-like ganoine overlays a soft, highly ductile ganoid bone. Previous experimentations has shown significant softening under compressive loading and an asymmetrical stress-strain response for analogous mineralized tissues. The structural features, porosity, and elastic modulus were determined from high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, 3D micro-tomography, and dynamic nanoindentation experiments to develop an idealized computational model for FE simulations. The numerical analysis employed Gurson's yield criterion to determine the influence of porosity and pressure on material strength. Functional gradation of elastic moduli and certain structural features, such as the sawtooth interface, are explicitly modeled to study the plate impact shock profile for a full 3-D analysis using ABAQUS finite element software.
Larmat, C. S.; Rougier, E.; Delorey, A.; Steedman, D. W.; Bradley, C. R.
2016-12-01
The goal of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to bring empirical and theoretical advances to the problem of detection and identification of underground nuclear explosions. For this, the SPE program includes a strong modeling effort based on first principles calculations with the challenge to capture both the source and near-source processes and those taking place later in time as seismic waves propagate within complex 3D geologic environments. In this paper, we report on results of modeling that uses hydrodynamic simulation codes (Abaqus and CASH) coupled with a 3D full waveform propagation code, SPECFEM3D. For modeling the near source region, we employ a fully-coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) modeling capability with a new continuum-based visco-plastic fracture model for simulation of damage processes, called AZ_Frac. These capabilities produce high-fidelity models of various factors believed to be key in the generation of seismic waves: the explosion dynamics, a weak grout-filled borehole, the surrounding jointed rock, and damage creation and deformations happening around the source and the free surface. SPECFEM3D, based on the Spectral Element Method (SEM) is a direct numerical method for full wave modeling with mathematical accuracy. The coupling interface consists of a series of grid points of the SEM mesh situated inside of the hydrodynamic code's domain. Displacement time series at these points are computed using output data from CASH or Abaqus (by interpolation if needed) and fed into the time marching scheme of SPECFEM3D. We will present validation tests with the Sharpe's model and comparisons of waveforms modeled with Rg waves (2-8Hz) that were recorded up to 2 km for SPE. We especially show effects of the local topography, velocity structure and spallation. Our models predict smaller amplitudes of Rg waves for the first five SPE shots compared to pure elastic models such as Denny &Johnson (1991).
Development of hybrid composite radar wave absorbing structure for ...
vehicles led to the invention of stealth technology. Rao and. Mahulikar [1] argue that 'Stealth technology ... vehicle increases the weight and also needs to be periodically repaired'. Chin and Lee [7] argue that the 'RAS .... EM wave electric field intensity) to Ei (incident EM wave electric field intensity) expressed by as follows':.
A Wing Pod-based Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar on HIAPER
Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Tsai, Peisang; Ellis, Scott; Loew, Eric; Lee, Wen-Chau; Emmett, Joanthan
2014-05-01
One of the attractive features of a millimeter wave radar system is its ability to detect micron-sized particles that constitute clouds with lower than 0.1 g m-3 liquid or ice water content. Scanning or vertically-pointing ground-based millimeter wavelength radars are used to study stratocumulus (Vali et al. 1998; Kollias and Albrecht 2000) and fair-weather cumulus (Kollias et al. 2001). Airborne millimeter wavelength radars have been used for atmospheric remote sensing since the early 1990s (Pazmany et al. 1995). Airborne millimeter wavelength radar systems, such as the University of Wyoming King Air Cloud Radar (WCR) and the NASA ER-2 Cloud Radar System (CRS), have added mobility to observe clouds in remote regions and over oceans. Scientific requirements of millimeter wavelength radar are mainly driven by climate and cloud initiation studies. Survey results from the cloud radar user community indicated a common preference for a narrow beam W-band radar with polarimetric and Doppler capabilities for airborne remote sensing of clouds. For detecting small amounts of liquid and ice, it is desired to have -30 dBZ sensitivity at a 10 km range. Additional desired capabilities included a second wavelength and/or dual-Doppler winds. Modern radar technology offers various options (e.g., dual-polarization and dual-wavelength). Even though a basic fixed beam Doppler radar system with a sensitivity of -30 dBZ at 10 km is capable of satisfying cloud detection requirements, the above-mentioned additional options, namely dual-wavelength, and dual-polarization, significantly extend the measurement capabilities to further reduce any uncertainty in radar-based retrievals of cloud properties. This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter wave radar, preliminary radar measurements and corresponding derived scientific products. Since some of the primary engineering requirements of this millimeter wave radar are that it should be deployable on an airborne platform
Bourdi, Taoufik; Rhazi, Jamal Eddine; Ballivy, Gérard; Boone, François
2012-01-01
A number of efficient and diverse mathematical methods have been used to model electromagnetic wave propagation. Each of these methods possesses a set of key elements which eases its understanding. However, the modelling of the propagation in concrete becomes impossible without modelling its electrical properties. In addition to experimental measurements; material theoretical and empirical models can be useful to investigate the behaviour of concrete's electrical properties with respect to frequency, moisture content (MC) or other factors. These models can be used in different fields of civil engineering such as (1) electromagnetic compatibility which predicts the shielding effectiveness (SE) of a concrete structure against external electromagnetic waves and (2) in non-destructive testing to predict the radar wave reflected on a concrete slab. This paper presents a comparison between the Jonscher model and the Debye models which is suitable to represent the dielectric properties of concrete, although dielectric and conduction losses are taken into consideration in these models. The Jonscher model gives values of permittivity, SE and radar wave reflected in a very good agreement with those given by experimental measurements and this for different MCs. Compared with other models, the Jonscher model is very effective and is the most appropriate to represent the electric properties of concrete.
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Foteinopoulou, Stavroula [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2003-01-01
In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates
Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense Plasma for Efficient X-Ray Generation
Tanabe, M.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nagai, K.; Iwamae, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Fournier, K.B.; Girard, F.; Primout, M.; Villette, B.; Tobin, M.; Mima, K.
2008-01-01
We have observed supersonic heat wave propagation in a low-density aerogel target (ρ ∼ 3.2 mg/cc) irradiated at the intensity of 4 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The heat wave propagation was measured with a time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics, and the results were compared with simulations made with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic code, RAICHO. Propagation velocity of the ionization front gradually decreased as the wave propagates into the target. The reason of decrease is due to increase of laser absorption region as the front propagates and interplay of hydrodynamic motion and reflection of laser propagation. These features are well reported with the simulation
Full wave simulations of fast wave mode conversion and lower hybrid wave propagation in tokamaks
Wright, J.C.; Bonoli, P.T.; Brambilla, M.
2004-01-01
Fast wave (FW) studies of mode conversion (MC) processes at the ion-ion hybrid layer in toroidal plasmas must capture the disparate scales of the FW and mode converted ion Bernstein and ion cyclotron waves. Correct modeling of the MC layer requires resolving wavelengths on the order of k...
Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers
Jain, Vipul
Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All
Oblique propagation of nonlinear hydromagnetic waves: One- and two-dimensional behavior
Malara, F.; Elaoufir, J.
1991-01-01
The one- and two-dimensional behavior of obliquely propagating hydromagnetic waves is analyzed by means of analytical theory and numerical simulations. It is shown that the nonlinear evolution of a one-dimensional MHD wave leads to the formation of a rotational discontinuity and a compressive steepened quasi-linearly polarized pulse whose structure is similar to that of a finite amplitude magnetosonic simple wave. For small propagation angles, the pulse mode (fast or slow) depends on the value of β with respect to unity while for large propagation angles the wave mode is fixed by the sign of the initial density-field correlation. The two-dimensional evolution shows that an MHD wave is unstable against a small-amplitude long-wavelength modulation in the direction transverse to the wave propagation direction. A two-dimensional magnetosonic wave solution is found, in which the density fluctuation is driven by the corresponding total pressure fluctuation, exactly as in the one-dimensional simple wave. Along with the steepening effect, the wave experiences both wave front deformation and a self-focusing effect which may eventually lead to the collapse of the wave. The results compare well with observations of MHD waves in the Earth's foreshock and at comets
Wu, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Wang, K. W.
2018-02-01
We present an approach to achieve adaptable band structures and nonreciprocal wave propagation by exploring and exploiting the concept of metastable modular metastructures. Through studying the dynamics of wave propagation in a chain composed of finite metastable modules, we provide experimental and analytical results on nonreciprocal wave propagation and unveil the underlying mechanisms that facilitate such unidirectional energy transmission. In addition, we demonstrate that via transitioning among the numerous metastable states, the proposed metastructure is endowed with a large number of bandgap reconfiguration possibilities. As a result, we illustrate that unprecedented adaptable nonreciprocal wave propagation can be realized using the metastable modular metastructure. Overall, this research elucidates the rich dynamics attainable through the combinations of periodicity, nonlinearity, spatial asymmetry, and metastability and creates a class of adaptive structural and material systems capable of realizing tunable bandgaps and nonreciprocal wave transmissions.
A problem-based approach to elastic wave propagation: the role of constraints
Fazio, Claudio; Guastella, Ivan; Tarantino, Giovanni
2009-01-01
A problem-based approach to the teaching of mechanical wave propagation, focused on observation and measurement of wave properties in solids and on modelling of these properties, is presented. In particular, some experimental results, originally aimed at measuring the propagation speed of sound waves in metallic rods, are used in order to deepen the role of constraints in mechanical wave propagation. Interpretative models of the results obtained in the laboratory are built and implemented by using a well-known simulation environment. The simulation results are, then, compared with experimental data. The approach has been developed and experimented in the context of a workshop on mechanical wave propagation of the two-year Graduate Program for Physics Teacher Education at University of Palermo.
Radar Measurements of Ocean Surface Waves using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition
2017-03-30
Golinval, 2002, Physical interpretation of the proper orthogonal modes using the singular value decomposition, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 249...complex and contain contributions from the environment (e.g., wind, waves, currents) as well as artifacts associated with electromagnetic (EM) (wave...Although there is no physical basis/ interpretation inherent to the method because it is purely a mathematical tool, there has been an increasing
Bertelli, N.; Balakin, A.A.; Westerhof, E.
2010-01-01
are estimated in a vacuum beam propagation between the edge density layer and the EC resonance absorption layer. Consequences on the EC beam propagation are investigated by using a simplified model in which the density fluctuations are described by a single harmonic oscillation. In addition, quasi......A numerical analysis of the electron cyclotron (EC) wave beam propagation in the presence of edge density fluctuations by means of a quasi-optical code [Balakin A. A. et al, Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 065003] is presented. The effects of the density fluctuations on the wave beam propagation...
Supersonic propagation of ionization waves in an underdense, laser-produced plasma
Constantin, C.; Back, C.A.; Fournier, K.B.; Gregori, G.; Landen, O.L.; Glenzer, S.H.; Dewald, E.L.; Miller, M.C.
2005-01-01
A laser-driven supersonic ionization wave propagating through a millimeter-scale plasma of subcritical density up to 2-3 keV electron temperatures was observed. Propagation velocities initially ten times the sound speed were measured by means of time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics. The measured ionization wave trajectory is modeled analytically and by a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code. The comparison to the modeling suggests that nonlocal heat transport effects may contribute to the attenuation of the heat-wave propagation
Wen Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Wang Gang; Zhao Honggang; Liu Yaozong; Wen Xisen
2007-01-01
The directional propagation characteristics of elastic wave during pass bands in two-dimensional thin plate phononic crystals are analyzed by using the lumped-mass method to yield the phase constant surface. The directions and regions of wave propagation in phononic crystals for certain frequencies during pass bands are predicted with the iso-frequency contour lines of the phase constant surface, which are then validated with the harmonic responses of a finite two-dimensional thin plate phononic crystals with 16x16 unit cells. These results are useful for controlling the wave propagation in the pass bands of phononic crystals
Nonlinear Wave Propagation and Solitary Wave Formation in Two-Dimensional Heterogeneous Media
Luna, Manuel
2011-05-01
Solitary wave formation is a well studied nonlinear phenomenon arising in propagation of dispersive nonlinear waves under suitable conditions. In non-homogeneous materials, dispersion may happen due to effective reflections between the material interfaces. This dispersion has been used along with nonlinearities to find solitary wave formation using the one-dimensional p-system. These solitary waves are called stegotons. The main goal in this work is to find two-dimensional stegoton formation. To do so we consider the nonlinear two-dimensional p-system with variable coefficients and solve it using finite volume methods. The second goal is to obtain effective equations that describe the macroscopic behavior of the variable coefficient system by a constant coefficient one. This is done through a homogenization process based on multiple-scale asymptotic expansions. We compare the solution of the effective equations with the finite volume results and find a good agreement. Finally, we study some stability properties of the homogenized equations and find they and one-dimensional versions of them are unstable in general.
Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer and Its Application to Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
Wang, Q.
2015-12-01
An important application of the atmospheric surface layer research is to characterize the near surface vertical gradients in temperature and humidity in order to predict radar and radio communication conditions in the environment. In this presentation, we will give an overview of a new research initiative funded under the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI): the Coupled Air-Sea Processes and EM Ducting Research (CASPER). The objective is to fully characterize the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) as an electromagnetic (EM) propagation environment with the emphasis of spatial and temporal heterogeneities and surface wave/swell effects, both of which contravene the underlying assumptions of Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) used in coupled environmental forecast models. Furthermore, coastal variability in the inversion atop the MABL presents a challenge to forecast models and also causes practical issues in EM prediction models. These issues are the target of investigation of CASPER. CASPER measurement component includes two major field campaigns: CASPER-East (2015 Duck, NC) and CASPER-West (2018 southern California). This presentation will show the extensive measurements to be made during the CASPER -East field campaign with the focus on the marine atmospheric surface layer measurements with two research vessels, two research aircraft, surface flux buoy, wave gliders, ocean gliders, tethered balloons, and rawinsondes. Unlike previous research on the marine surface layer with the focus on surface fluxes and surface flux parameterization, CASPER field campaigns also emphasize of the surface layer profiles and the validation of the surface layer flux-profile relationship originally derived over land surfaces. Results from CASPER pilot experiment and preliminary results from CASPER-East field campaign will be discussed.
X-Band wave radar system for monitoring and risk management of the coastal infrastructures
Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco
2017-04-01
The presence of the infrastructures in coastal region entails an increase of the sea level and the shift of the sediment on the bottom with a continuous change of the coastline. In order to preserve the coastline, it has been necessary to resort the use of applications coastal engineering, as the construction of the breakwaters for preventing the coastal erosion. In this frame, the knowledge of the sea state parameters, as wavelength, period and significant wave height and of surface current and bathymetry can be used for the harbor operations and to prevent environmental disasters. In the last years, the study of the coastal phenomena and monitoring of the sea waves impact on the coastal infrastructures through the analysis of images acquired by marine X-band radars is of great interest [1-3]. The possibility to observe the sea surface from radar images is due to the fact that the X-band electromagnetic waves interact with the sea capillary waves (Bragg resonance), which ride on the gravity waves. However, the image acquired by a X-band radar is not the direct representation of the sea state, but it represents the sea surface as seen by the radar. Accordingly, to estimate the sea state parameters as, direction, wavelength, period of dominant waves, the significant wave height as well as the bathymetry and surface current, through a time stack of radar data are required advanced data processing procedures. In particular, in the coastal areas due to the non-uniformity of sea surface current and bathymetry fields is necessary a local analysis of the sea state parameters. In order to analyze the data acquired in coastal area an inversion procedure defined "Local Method" is adopted, which is based on the spatial partitioning of the investigated area in partially overlapping sub-areas. In addition, the analysis of the sea spectrum of each sub-area allows us to retrieve the local sea state parameters. In particular, this local analysis allows us to detect the reflected
Near-Field Ground Motion Modal versus Wave Propagation Analysis
Artur Cichowicz
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The response spectrum generally provides a good estimate of the global displacement and acceleration demand of far-field ground motion on a structure. However, it does not provide accurate information on the local shape or internal deformation of the response of the structure. Near-field pulse-like ground motion will propagate through the structure as waves, causing large, localized deformation. Therefore, the response spectrum alone is not a sufficient representation of near-field ground motion features. Results show that the drift-response technique based on a continuous shear-beam model has to be employed here to estimate structure-demand parameters when structure is exposed to the pulse like ground motion. Conduced modeling shows limited applicability of the drift spectrum based on the SDOF approximation. The SDOF drift spectrum approximation can only be applied to structures with smaller natural periods than the dominant period of the ground motion. For periods larger than the dominant period of ground motion the SDOF drift spectra model significantly underestimates maximum deformation. Strong pulse-type motions are observed in the near-source region of large earthquakes; however, there is a lack of waveforms collected from small earthquakes at very close distances that were recorded underground in mines. The results presented in this paper are relevant for structures with a height of a few meters, placed in an underground excavation. The strong ground motion sensors recorded mine-induced earthquakes in a deep gold mine, South Africa. The strongest monitored horizontal ground motion was caused by an event of magnitude 2 at a distance of 90 m with PGA 123 m/s2, causing drifts of 0.25%–0.35%. The weak underground motion has spectral characteristics similar to the strong ground motion observed on the earth's surface; the drift spectrum has a maximum value less than 0.02%.
FDTD simulation of EM wave propagation in 3-D media
Wang, T.; Tripp, A.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics
1996-01-01
A finite-difference, time-domain solution to Maxwell`s equations has been developed for simulating electromagnetic wave propagation in 3-D media. The algorithm allows arbitrary electrical conductivity and permittivity variations within a model. The staggered grid technique of Yee is used to sample the fields. A new optimized second-order difference scheme is designed to approximate the spatial derivatives. Like the conventional fourth-order difference scheme, the optimized second-order scheme needs four discrete values to calculate a single derivative. However, the optimized scheme is accurate over a wider wavenumber range. Compared to the fourth-order scheme, the optimized scheme imposes stricter limitations on the time step sizes but allows coarser grids. The net effect is that the optimized scheme is more efficient in terms of computation time and memory requirement than the fourth-order scheme. The temporal derivatives are approximated by second-order central differences throughout. The Liao transmitting boundary conditions are used to truncate an open problem. A reflection coefficient analysis shows that this transmitting boundary condition works very well. However, it is subject to instability. A method that can be easily implemented is proposed to stabilize the boundary condition. The finite-difference solution is compared to closed-form solutions for conducting and nonconducting whole spaces and to an integral-equation solution for a 3-D body in a homogeneous half-space. In all cases, the finite-difference solutions are in good agreement with the other solutions. Finally, the use of the algorithm is demonstrated with a 3-D model. Numerical results show that both the magnetic field response and electric field response can be useful for shallow-depth and small-scale investigations.
Koga, K; Hara, H; Kasai, H; Ito, M [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)
1996-05-01
Validity of continuous wave radar exploration was verified when the said technique and some other probing methods were investigated at the Senzan Faults in Awaji Island. The signal transmitted by a continuous wave exploration system is a collection of sinusoidal waves different in frequency, and the frequencies are so controlled that they form steps relative to the sweep time. Exploration into great depths is carried out by prolonging the transmission signal sweep time, where high resolution is maintained by use of widened transmission frequency bandwidths. On-site measurements were made using a triplicated multichannel method, and electromagnetic wave propagation velocities required for depth conversion of the reflected cross section were determined in compliance with the wide angle method. On the basis of the analytical cross section using the profiles obtained by continuous radar reflection exploration conducted from the ground surface, interpretation was made of the geological structure. The presence and position and the geological development of the Senzan Faults were identified by the study of discontinuities in reflective structures such as the strata. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Two-wave propagation in in vitro swine distal ulna
Mano, Isao; Horii, Kaoru; Matsukawa, Mami; Otani, Takahiko
2015-07-01
Ultrasonic transmitted waves were obtained in an in vitro swine distal ulna specimen, which mimics a human distal radius, that consists of interconnected cortical bone and cancellous bone. The transmitted waveforms appeared similar to the fast waves, slow waves, and overlapping fast and slow waves measured in the specimen after removing the surface cortical bone (only cancellous bone). In addition, the circumferential waves in the cortical bone and water did not affect the fast and slow waves. This suggests that the fast-and-slow-wave phenomenon can be observed in an in vivo human distal radius.
Interface waves propagating along tensile fractures in dolomite
Roy, S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.
1995-01-01
Elastic interface waves have been observed in induced tensile fractures in dolomite rock cores. Multiscaling wavelet analysis distinguishes the interface wave from bulk shear waves, quantifies the interface wave spectral content, and determines the arrival time of peak energy. The dominant seismic energy is concentrated in the slow interface wave, with little or no detectable energy in the fast wave. As stress across the fracture increases, the slow interface wave velocity increases, and the frequency of the spectral peak shifts to higher frequencies. The shear dynamic specific stiffness of the fracture was calculated from the peak energy arrival time as a function of stress. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
Yan, Wen; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Song, Ying; Liu, Dongping; Wang, Dezhen; Sosnin, Eduard A; Skakun, Victor S
2017-01-01
A 2D computational study of ionization waves propagating in U-shape channels at atmospheric pressure was performed, with emphasis on the effect of voltage polarity and the curvature of the bend. The discharge was ignited by a HV needle electrode inside the channel, and power was applied in the form of a trapezoidal pulse lasting 2 µ s. We have shown that behavior of ionization waves propagating in U-shape channels was quite different with that in straight tubes. For positive polarity of applied voltage, the ionization waves tended to propagate along one side of walls rather than filling the channel. The propagation velocity of ionization waves predicted by the simulation was in good agreement with the experiment results; the velocity was first increasing rapidly in the vicinity of the needle tip and then decreasing with the increment of propagation distance. Then we have studied the influence of voltage polarity on discharge characteristics. For negative polarity, the ionization waves tended to propagate along the opposite side of the wall, while the discharge was more diffusive and volume-filling compared with the positive case. It was found that the propagation velocity for the negative ionization wave was higher than that for the positive one. Meanwhile, the propagation of the negative ionization wave depended less on the pre-ionization level than the positive ionization wave. Finally, the effect of the radius of curvature was studied. Simulations have shown that the propagation speeds were sensitive to the radii of the curvature of the channels for both polarities. Higher radii of curvature tended to have higher speed and longer length of plasma. The simulation results were supported by experimental observations under similar discharge conditions. (paper)
Pijush Pal Roy
1987-01-01
Full Text Available The propagation of edge waves in a thinly layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stresses is examined. Based upon an approximate representation of a laminated medium by an equivalent anisotropic continuum with average initial and couple stresses, an explicit form of frequency equation is obtained to derive the phase velocity of edge waves. Edge waves exist under certain conditions. The inclusion of couple stresses increases the velocity of wave propagation. For a specific compression, the presence of couple stresses increases the velocity of wave propagation with the increase of wave number, whereas the reverse is the case when there is no couple stress. Numerical computation is performed with graphical representations. Several special cases are also examined.
Stepped-frequency radar sensors theory, analysis and design
Nguyen, Cam
2016-01-01
This book presents the theory, analysis and design of microwave stepped-frequency radar sensors. Stepped-frequency radar sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require fine resolution. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter describes the fundamentals of radar sensors including applications followed by a review of ultra-wideband pulsed, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), and stepped-frequency radar sensors. The second chapter discusses a general analysis of radar sensors including wave propagation in media and scattering on targets, as well as the radar equation. The third chapter addresses the analysis of stepped-frequency radar sensors including their principles and design parameters. Chapter 4 presents the development of two stepped-frequency radar sensors at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies based on microwave integrated circuits (MICs), microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and printed-circuit antennas, and discusses their signal processing....
Modeling Sub-500MHz Space-Borne Radar Signal Propagation in Complex Media
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space-borne radar platforms are becoming increasingly prevalent in current and planned missions by NASA and partner organizations (e.g. the European Space Agency...
Effect of material parameters on stress wave propagation during fast upsetting
WANG Zhong-jin; CHENG Li-dong
2008-01-01
Based'on a dynamic analysis method and an explicit algorithm, a dynamic explicit finite element code was developed for modeling the fast upsetting process of block under drop hammer impact, in which the hammer velocity during the deformation was calculated by energy conservation law according to the operating principle of hammer equipment. The stress wave propagation and its effect on the deformation were analyzed by the stress and strain distributions. Industrial pure lead, oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper and 7039 aluminum alloy were chosen to investigate the effect of material parameters on the stress wave propagation. The results show that the stress wave propagates from top to bottom of block, and then reflects back when it reaches the bottom surface. After that, stress wave propagates and reflects repeatedly between the upper surface and bottom surface. The stress wave propagation has a significant effect on the deformation at the initial stage, and then becomes weak at the middle-final stage. When the ratio of elastic modulus or the slope of stress-strain curve to mass density becomes larger, the velocity of stress wave propagation increases, and the influence of stress wave on the deformation becomes small.
A Methodology for Phased Array Radar Threshold Modeling Using the Advanced Propagation Model (APM)
2017-10-01
There are exact equations to determine a Pd given SNR, but the inverse cannot be expressed analytically (Shnidman, 2002). However, Shnidman developed a...each mode. Therefore, to determine the overall radar performance at any azimuth for both modes simultaneously , only eight executions of the APM are...same azimuth for multiple waveforms improves the overall efficiency in determining radar performance for all operational scan modes simultaneously
Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in dusty plasma with full ionization
Dan, Li; Guo, Li-Xin; Li, Jiang-Ting
2018-01-01
This study investigates the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM) waves in fully ionized dusty plasmas. The propagation characteristics of fully ionized plasma with and without dust under the Fokker-Planck-Landau (FPL) and Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) models are compared to those of weakly ionized plasmas by using the propagation matrix method. It is shown that the FPL model is suitable for the analysis of the propagation characteristics of weakly collisional and fully ionized dusty plasmas, as is the BGK model. The influence of varying the dust parameters on the propagation properties of EM waves in the fully ionized dusty plasma was analyzed using the FPL model. The simulation results indicated that the densities and average radii of dust grains influence the reflection and transmission coefficients of fully ionized dusty plasma slabs. These results may be utilized to analyze the effects of interaction between EM waves and dusty plasmas, such as those associated with hypersonic vehicles.
An Improved Split-Step Wavelet Transform Method for Anomalous Radio Wave Propagation Modelling
A. Iqbal
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Anomalous tropospheric propagation caused by ducting phenomenon is a major problem in wireless communication. Thus, it is important to study the behavior of radio wave propagation in tropospheric ducts. The Parabolic Wave Equation (PWE method is considered most reliable to model anomalous radio wave propagation. In this work, an improved Split Step Wavelet transform Method (SSWM is presented to solve PWE for the modeling of tropospheric propagation over finite and infinite conductive surfaces. A large number of numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Developed algorithm is compared with previously published techniques; Wavelet Galerkin Method (WGM and Split-Step Fourier transform Method (SSFM. A very good agreement is found between SSWM and published techniques. It is also observed that the proposed algorithm is about 18 times faster than WGM and provide more details of propagation effects as compared to SSFM.
Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators
Karssenberg, J.G.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Volokhine, I.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Boller, Klaus J.
2006-01-01
Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for
The numerical simulation of Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel
Zhang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jingming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhou, Qingxiang; Han, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yang
2017-12-01
In order to explore the Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel, the numerical simulation is used to show the feature of Lamb wave. In this paper, according to Lamb dispersion equation, excites the Lamb wave on the edge of thin stainless steel plate, and presents the reflection coefficient for quantizing the Lamb wave energy, the results show that the reflection coefficient is increased with the welding width increasing,
Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Lugni, Claudio; Fucile, Fabio; Bulian, Gabriele
2016-04-01
X-band radar system is able to provide information about direction and intensity of the sea surface currents and dominant waves in a range of few kilometers from the observation point (up to 3 nautical miles). This capability, together with their flexibility and low cost, makes these devices useful tools for the sea monitoring either coastal or off-shore area. The data collected from wave radar system can be analyzed by using the inversion strategy presented in [1,2] to obtain the estimation of the following sea parameters: peak wave direction; peak period; peak wavelength; significant wave height; sea surface current and bathymetry. The estimation of the significant wave height represents a limitation of the wave radar system because of the radar backscatter is not directly related to the sea surface elevation. In fact, in the last period, substantial research has been carried out to estimate significant wave height from radar images either with or without calibration using in-situ measurements. In this work, we will present two alternative approaches for the reconstruction of the sea surface elevation from wave radar images. In particular, the first approach is based on the basis of an approximated version of the modulation transfer function (MTF) tuned from a series of numerical simulation, following the line of[3]. The second approach is based on the inversion of radar images using a direct regularised least square technique. Assuming a linearised model for the tilt modulation, the sea elevation has been reconstructed as a least square fitting of the radar imaging data[4]. References [1]F. Serafino, C. Lugni, and F. Soldovieri, "A novel strategy for the surface current determination from marine X-band radar data," IEEE Geosci.Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 231-235, Apr. 2010. [2]Ludeno, G., Brandini, C., Lugni, C., Arturi, D., Natale, A., Soldovieri, F., Serafino, F. (2014). Remocean System for the Detection of the Reflected Waves from the Costa
Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J.e.
1979-01-01
The stimulated Raman backscattering of an intense electromagnetic wave propagating in the extraordinary mode along a uniform, static magnetic field is considered. The dispersion relation for a homogeneous magnetized plasma in the presence of the circularly polarized pump waves is developed in the cold-plasma approximation with the pump frequency above the plasma frequency. Formulas are derived for the threshold νsub(OT) of the parametric instability and for the growth rate γ of the backscattered extraordinary wave and Langmuir wave. The effects of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation on νsub(0T) and γ are studied numerically. (author)
Numerical and experimental study of Lamb wave propagation in a two-dimensional acoustic black hole
Yan, Shiling; Shen, Zhonghua, E-mail: shenzh@njust.edu.cn [Faculty of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lomonosov, Alexey M. [Faculty of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-06-07
The propagation of laser-generated Lamb waves in a two-dimensional acoustic black-hole structure was studied numerically and experimentally. The geometrical acoustic theory has been applied to calculate the beam trajectories in the region of the acoustic black hole. The finite element method was also used to study the time evolution of propagating waves. An optical system based on the laser-Doppler vibration method was assembled. The effect of the focusing wave and the reduction in wave speed of the acoustic black hole has been validated.
Ruderman, M S
1988-08-01
Nonlinear Alfven surface wave propagation at a magnetic interface in a compressible fluid is considered. It is supposed that the magnetic field directions at both sides of the interface and the direction of wave propagation coincide. The equation governing time-evolution of nonlinear small-amplitude waves is derived by the method of multiscale expansions. This equation is similar to the equation for nonlinear Alfven surface waves in an incompressible fluid derived previously. The numerical solution of the equation shows that a sinusoidal disturbance overturns, i.e. infinite gradients arise.
Counter-propagating wave interaction for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging
Renaud, G.; Bosch, J. G.; ten Kate, G. L.; Shamdasani, V.; Entrekin, R.; de Jong, N.; van der Steen, A. F. W.
2012-11-01
Most techniques for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging require linear propagation to detect nonlinear scattering of contrast agent microbubbles. Waveform distortion due to nonlinear propagation impairs their ability to distinguish microbubbles from tissue. As a result, tissue can be misclassified as microbubbles, and contrast agent concentration can be overestimated; therefore, these artifacts can significantly impair the quality of medical diagnoses. Contrary to biological tissue, lipid-coated gas microbubbles used as a contrast agent allow the interaction of two acoustic waves propagating in opposite directions (counter-propagation). Based on that principle, we describe a strategy to detect microbubbles that is free from nonlinear propagation artifacts. In vitro images were acquired with an ultrasound scanner in a phantom of tissue-mimicking material with a cavity containing a contrast agent. Unlike the default mode of the scanner using amplitude modulation to detect microbubbles, the pulse sequence exploiting counter-propagating wave interaction creates no pseudoenhancement behind the cavity in the contrast image.
Invertible propagator for plane wave illumination of forward-scattering structures.
Samelsohn, Gregory
2017-05-10
Propagation of directed waves in forward-scattering media is considered. It is assumed that the evolution of the wave field is governed by the standard parabolic wave equation. An efficient one-step momentum-space propagator, suitable for a tilted plane wave illumination of extended objects, is derived. It is expressed in terms of a propagation operator that transforms (the complex exponential of) a linogram of the illuminated object into a set of its diffraction patterns. The invertibility of the propagator is demonstrated, which permits a multiple-shot scatter correction to be performed, and makes the solution especially attractive for either projective or tomographic imaging. As an example, high-resolution tomograms are obtained in numerical simulations implemented for a synthetic phantom, with both refractive and absorptive inclusions.
Paćko, P; Bielak, T; Staszewski, W J; Uhl, T; Spencer, A B; Worden, K
2012-01-01
This paper demonstrates new parallel computation technology and an implementation for Lamb wave propagation modelling in complex structures. A graphical processing unit (GPU) and computer unified device architecture (CUDA), available in low-cost graphical cards in standard PCs, are used for Lamb wave propagation numerical simulations. The local interaction simulation approach (LISA) wave propagation algorithm has been implemented as an example. Other algorithms suitable for parallel discretization can also be used in practice. The method is illustrated using examples related to damage detection. The results demonstrate good accuracy and effective computational performance of very large models. The wave propagation modelling presented in the paper can be used in many practical applications of science and engineering. (paper)
Vojkan M. Radonjić
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Quality transmission of digital signals from a transmitting radio-relay device to a receiving one depends on the impact of environmental effects on the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In this paper some of the most important effects are explained and modeled, especially those characteristic for the frequency range within which the GRC 408E operates. The modeling resulted in the conclusions about the quality of transmission of digital signals in the GRC 408E radio-relay equipment. Propagation of electromagnetic waves A radio-relay link is achieved by direct electromagnetic waves, provided there is a line of sight between the transmitting and receiving antenna of a radio-relay device. Electromagnetic waves on the road are exposed to various environmental influences causing phenomena such as bending, reflection, refraction, absorption and multiple propagation. Due to these environmental effects, the quality of information transmission is not satisfactory and a radio-relay link is not reliable. The approach to the analysis of the quality of links in digital radiorelay devices is different from the one in analog radio-relay devices. Therefore, the quality is seen through errors in the received bit ( BER , the propagation conditions are taken into account, a reservation for the fading is determined by other means, etc.. Phenomena which accompany the propagation of electromagnetic waves in digital radio-relay links The propagation of direct EM waves is followed by the following phenomena: - attenuation due to propagation, - diffraction (changing table, - refraction (refraction, - reflection (refusing, - absorption (absorption and - multiple wave propagation. Each of these has a negative effect on the quality of the received signal at the receiving antenna of the radio-relay device. Attenuation due to propagation of electromagnetic waves The main parameter for evaluating the quality of radio-relay links is the level of the field at the reception
J. A. Wild
Full Text Available High-time resolution CUTLASS observations and ground-based magnetometers have been employed to study the occurrence of vortical flow structures propagating through the high-latitude ionosphere during magnetospheric substorms. Fast-moving flow vortices (~800 m s^{-1} associated with Hall currents flowing around upward directed field-aligned currents are frequently observed propagating at high speed (~1 km s^{-1} azimuthally away from the region of the ionosphere associated with the location of the substorm expansion phase onset. Furthermore, a statistical analysis drawn from over 1000 h of high-time resolution, nightside radar data has enabled the characterisation of the bulk properties of these vortical flow systems. Their occurrence with respect to substorm phase has been investigated and a possible generation mechanism has been suggested.
Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents · Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms
Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)
2017-02-12
High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained. - Highlights: • High frequency electrostatic wave propagation is investigated in a dense semi-bounded quantum plasma. • The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. • The quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. • The frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave. • The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.
Orthogonal wave propagation of epileptiform activity in the planar mouse hippocampus in vitro.
Kibler, Andrew B; Durand, Dominique M
2011-09-01
In vitro brain preparations have been used extensively to study the generation and propagation of epileptiform activity. Transverse and longitudinal slices of the rodent hippocampus have revealed various patterns of propagation. Yet intact connections between the transverse and longitudinal pathways should generate orthogonal (both transverse and longitudinal) propagation of seizures involving the entire hippocampus. This study utilizes the planar unfolded mouse hippocampus preparation to reveal simultaneous orthogonal epileptiform propagation and to test a method of arresting propagation. This study utilized an unfolded mouse hippocampus preparation. It was chosen due to its preservation of longitudinal neuronal processes, which are thought to play an important role in epileptiform hyperexcitability. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP), microelectrodes, and voltage-sensitive dye imaging were employed to investigate tissue excitability. In 50-μm 4-AP, stimulation of the stratum radiatum induced transverse activation of CA3 cells but also induced a longitudinal wave of activity propagating along the CA3 region at a speed of 0.09 m/s. Without stimulation, a wave originated at the temporal CA3 and propagated in a temporal-septal direction could be suppressed with glutamatergic receptor antagonists. Orthogonal propagation traveled longitudinally along the CA3 pathway, secondarily invading the CA1 region at a velocity of 0.22 ± 0.024 m/s. Moreover, a local lesion restricted to the CA3 region could arrest wave propagation. These results reveal a complex two-dimensional epileptiform wave propagation pattern in the hippocampus that is generated by a combination of synaptic transmission and axonal propagation in the CA3 recurrent network. Epileptiform propagation block via a transverse selective CA3 lesion suggests a potential surgical technique for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.
Comparison of classical and modern theories of longitudinal wave propagation in elastic rods
Shatalov, M
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Conference on Computational and Applied Mechanics SACAM10 Pretoria, 10?13 January 2010 ? SACAM COMPARISON OF CLASSICAL AND MODERN THEORIES OF LONGITUDINAL WAVE PROPAGATION IN ELASTIC RODS M. Shatalov*,?,?? , I. Fedotov? 1 , HM. Tenkam? 2, J. Marais..., Pretoria, 0001 FIN-40014, South Africa 1fedotovi@tut.ac.za, 2djouosseutenkamhm@tut.ac.za ?? Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Keywords: Elastic rod, wave propagation, classical...
Observation of drift wave propagation as a source of tokamak edge turbulence
Wang Guiding; Liu Wandong; Yu Changxuan
1998-01-01
Core and edge turbulences were measured by Langmuir probe arrays in the KT-5C tokamak plasma. The radial wavenumber spectra show a quasimode like structure which results in a net radial outward propagation of the turbulent fluctuations. The measured fluctuation levels and wave action fluxes are in good agreement with model predictions by Mattor et al., suggesting that drift wave propagation could be a source of edge turbulence
Imaging radar observations of Farley Buneman waves during the JOULE II experiment
D. L. Hysell
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Vector electric fields and associated E×B drifts measured by a sounding rocket in the auroral zone during the NASA JOULE II experiment in January 2007, are compared with coherent scatter spectra measured by a 30 MHz radar imager in a common volume. Radar imaging permits precise collocation of the spectra with the background electric field. The Doppler shifts and spectral widths appear to be governed by the cosine and sine of the convection flow angle, respectively, and also proportional to the presumptive ion acoustic speed. The neutral wind also contributes to the Doppler shifts. These findings are consistent with those from the JOULE I experiment and also with recent numerical simulations of Farley Buneman waves and instabilities carried out by Oppenheim et al. (2008. Simple linear analysis of the waves offers some insights into the spectral moments. A formula relating the spectral width to the flow angle, ion acoustic speed, and other ionospheric parameters is derived.
The optics of gyrotropic crystals in the field of two counter-propagating ultrasound waves
Gevorgyan, A H; Harutyunyan, E M; Hovhannisyan, M A; Matinyan, G K
2014-01-01
We consider oblique light propagation through a layer of a gyrotropic crystal in the field of two counter-propagating ultrasound waves. The problem is solved by Ambartsumyan's layer addition modified method. The results of the reflection spectra for different values of the problem parameters are presented. The possibilities of such system applications are discussed.
Oblique Propagation and Dissipation of Alfvén Waves in Coronal ...
velocity and energy flux density as the propagation angle of Alfvén waves increases inside the coronal holes. For any propagation angle, the energy flux density and damping length scale also show a decrement in the source region of the solar wind (<1.05 R⊙) where these may be one of the pri- mary energy sources ...
Array-Based Ultrawideband through-Wall Radar: Prediction and Assessment of Real Radar Abilities
Nadia Maaref
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a new through-the-wall (TTW radar demonstrator for the detection and the localisation of people in a room (in a noncooperative way with the radar situated outside but in the vicinity of the first wall. After modelling the propagation through various walls and quantifying the backscattering by the human body, an analysis of the technical considerations which aims at defining the radar design is presented. Finally, an ultrawideband (UWB frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar is proposed, designed, and implemented. Some representative trials show that this radar is able to localise and track moving people behind a wall in real time.
Application of Coupled-Wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin Approximation to Ground Penetrating Radar
Igor Prokopovich; Alexei Popov; Lara Pajewski; Marian Marciniak
2017-01-01
This paper deals with bistatic subsurface probing of a horizontally layered dielectric half-space by means of ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves. In particular, the main objective of this work is to present a new method for the solution of the two-dimensional back-scattering problem arising when a pulsed electromagnetic signal impinges on a non-uniform dielectric half-space; this scenario is of interest for ground penetrating radar (GPR) applications. For the analytical description of the s...
Producing accurate wave propagation time histories using the global matrix method
Obenchain, Matthew B; Cesnik, Carlos E S
2013-01-01
This paper presents a reliable method for producing accurate displacement time histories for wave propagation in laminated plates using the global matrix method. The existence of inward and outward propagating waves in the general solution is highlighted while examining the axisymmetric case of a circular actuator on an aluminum plate. Problems with previous attempts to isolate the outward wave for anisotropic laminates are shown. The updated method develops a correction signal that can be added to the original time history solution to cancel the inward wave and leave only the outward propagating wave. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the new method for circular and square actuators bonded to the surface of isotropic laminates, and these results are compared with exact solutions. Results for circular actuators on cross-ply laminates are also presented and compared with experimental results, showing the ability of the new method to successfully capture the displacement time histories for composite laminates. (paper)
Spin-wave propagation and spin-polarized electron transport in single-crystal iron films
Gladii, O.; Halley, D.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M.
2017-11-01
The techniques of propagating spin-wave spectroscopy and current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift are applied to a 20-nm-thick Fe/MgO(001) film. The magnetic parameters extracted from the position of the spin-wave resonance peaks are very close to those tabulated for bulk iron. From the zero-current propagating wave forms, a group velocity of 4 km/s and an attenuation length of about 6 μ m are extracted for 1.6-μ m -wavelength spin wave at 18 GHz. From the measured current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift, we extract a surprisingly high degree of spin polarization of the current of 83 % , which constitutes the main finding of this work. This set of results makes single-crystalline iron a promising candidate for building devices utilizing high-frequency spin waves and spin-polarized currents.
Chen, Jilei; Stueckler, Tobias; Zhang, Youguang; Zhao, Weisheng; Yu, Haiming; Chang, Houchen; Liu, Tao; Wu, Mingzhong; Liu, Chuanpu; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Fert Beijing research institute Team; Colorado State University Team; Peking University Collaboration
Magnonics offers a new way to transport information using spin waves free of charge current and could lead to a new paradigm in the area of computing. Forward volume (FV) mode spin wave with perpendicular magnetized configuration is suitable for spin wave logic device because it is free of non-reciprocity effect. Here, we study FV mode spin wave propagation in YIG thin film with an ultra-low damping. We integrated differently designed antenna i.e., coplanar waveguide and micro stripline with different dimensions. The k vectors of the spin waves defined by the design of the antenna are calculated using Fourier transform. We show FV mode spin wave propagation results by measuring S12 parameter from vector network analyzer and we extract the group velocity of the FV mode spin wave as well as its dispersion relations.
Six-day westward propagating wave in the maximum electron density of the ionosphere
D. Altadill
2003-07-01
Full Text Available Analyses of time-spatial variations of critical plasma frequency foF2 during the summer of 1998 reveal the existence of an oscillation activity with attributes of a 6-day westward propagating wave. This event manifests itself as a global scale wave in the foF2 of the Northern Hemisphere, having a zonal wave number 2. This event coincides with a 6-day oscillation activity in the meridional neutral winds of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT. The oscillation in neutral winds seems to be linked to the 6–7-day global scale unstable mode westward propagating wave number 1 in the MLT. The forcing mechanisms of the 6-day wave event in the ionosphere from the wave activity in the MLT are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (Ionosphere-Atmosphere interactions; Mid-latitude Ionosphere – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides
Six-day westward propagating wave in the maximum electron density of the ionosphere
D. Altadill
Full Text Available Analyses of time-spatial variations of critical plasma frequency foF2 during the summer of 1998 reveal the existence of an oscillation activity with attributes of a 6-day westward propagating wave. This event manifests itself as a global scale wave in the foF2 of the Northern Hemisphere, having a zonal wave number 2. This event coincides with a 6-day oscillation activity in the meridional neutral winds of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT. The oscillation in neutral winds seems to be linked to the 6–7-day global scale unstable mode westward propagating wave number 1 in the MLT. The forcing mechanisms of the 6-day wave event in the ionosphere from the wave activity in the MLT are discussed.
Key words. Ionosphere (Ionosphere-Atmosphere interactions; Mid-latitude Ionosphere – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides
Simulation of non-hydrostatic gravity wave propagation in the upper atmosphere
Y. Deng
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The high-frequency and small horizontal scale gravity waves may be reflected and ducted in non-hydrostatic simulations, but usually propagate vertically in hydrostatic models. To examine gravity wave propagation, a preliminary study has been conducted with a global ionosphere–thermosphere model (GITM, which is a non-hydrostatic general circulation model for the upper atmosphere. GITM has been run regionally with a horizontal resolution of 0.2° long × 0.2° lat to resolve the gravity wave with wavelength of 250 km. A cosine wave oscillation with amplitude of 30 m s−1 has been applied to the zonal wind at the low boundary, and both high-frequency and low-frequency waves have been tested. In the high-frequency case, the gravity wave stays below 200 km, which indicates that the wave is reflected or ducted in propagation. The results are consistent with the theoretical analysis from the dispersion relationship when the wavelength is larger than the cutoff wavelength for the non-hydrostatic situation. However, the low-frequency wave propagates to the high altitudes during the whole simulation period, and the amplitude increases with height. This study shows that the non-hydrostatic model successfully reproduces the high-frequency gravity wave dissipation.
Shvets, G.; Tushentsov, M.; Tokman, M.D.; Kryachko, A.
2005-01-01
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma near the electron cyclotron frequency can be strongly modified by adding a weak magnetic undulator. For example, both right- and left-hand circularly polarized waves can propagate along the magnetic field without experiencing resonant absorption. This effect of entirely eliminating electron cyclotron heating is referred to as the undulator-induced transparency (UIT) of the plasma, and is the classical equivalent of the well-known quantum mechanical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. The basics of UIT are reviewed, and various ways in which UIT can be utilized to achieve exotic propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in plasmas are discussed. For example, UIT can dramatically slow down the waves' group velocity, resulting in the extreme compression of the wave energy in the plasma. Compressed waves are polarized along the propagation direction, and can be used for synchronous electron or ion acceleration. Strong coupling between the two wave helicities are explored to impart the waves with high group velocities ∂ω/∂k for vanishing wave numbers k. Cross-helicity coupling for realistic density and magnetic field profiles are examined using a linearized fluid code, particle-in-cell simulations, and ray-tracing WKB calculations
Investigating Alfvénic wave propagation in coronal open-field regions
Morton, R. J.; Tomczyk, S.; Pinto, R.
2015-01-01
The physical mechanisms behind accelerating solar and stellar winds are a long-standing astrophysical mystery, although recent breakthroughs have come from models invoking the turbulent dissipation of Alfvén waves. The existence of Alfvén waves far from the Sun has been known since the 1970s, and recently the presence of ubiquitous Alfvénic waves throughout the solar atmosphere has been confirmed. However, the presence of atmospheric Alfvénic waves does not, alone, provide sufficient support for wave-based models; the existence of counter-propagating Alfvénic waves is crucial for the development of turbulence. Here, we demonstrate that counter-propagating Alfvénic waves exist in open coronal magnetic fields and reveal key observational insights into the details of their generation, reflection in the upper atmosphere and outward propagation into the solar wind. The results enhance our knowledge of Alfvénic wave propagation in the solar atmosphere, providing support and constraints for some of the recent Alfvén wave turbulence models. PMID:26213234
An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in a Harbour Area
Giovanni Ludeno
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Marine X-band radar based systems are well tested to provide information about sea state and bathymetry. It is also well known that complex geometries and non-uniform bathymetries provide a much bigger challenge than offshore scenarios. In order to tackle this issue a retrieval method is proposed, based on spatial partitioning of the data and the application of the Normalized Scalar Product (NSP, which is an innovative procedure for the joint estimation of bathymetry and surface currents. The strategy is then applied to radar data acquired around a harbour entrance, and results show that the reconstructed bathymetry compares well with ground truth data obtained by an echo-sounder campaign, thus proving the reliability of the whole procedure. The spectrum thus retrieved is then analysed to show the evidence of reflected waves from the harbour jetties, as confirmed by chain of hydrodynamic models of the sea wave field. The possibility of using a land based radar to reveal sea wave reflection is entirely new and may open up new operational applications of the system.
APPARENT CROSS-FIELD SUPERSLOW PROPAGATION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN SOLAR PLASMAS
Kaneko, T.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Goossens, M.; Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, Bus 2400, B-3001 Herverlee (Belgium); Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Wright, A. N., E-mail: kaneko@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2015-10-20
In this paper we show that the phase-mixing of continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in the magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere as, e.g., coronal arcades, can create the illusion of wave propagation across the magnetic field. This phenomenon could be erroneously interpreted as fast magnetosonic waves. The cross-field propagation due to the phase-mixing of continuum waves is apparent because there is no real propagation of energy across the magnetic surfaces. We investigate the continuous Alfvén and slow spectra in two-dimensional (2D) Cartesian equilibrium models with a purely poloidal magnetic field. We show that apparent superslow propagation across the magnetic surfaces in solar coronal structures is a consequence of the existence of continuum Alfvén waves and continuum slow waves that naturally live on those structures and phase-mix as time evolves. The apparent cross-field phase velocity is related to the spatial variation of the local Alfvén/slow frequency across the magnetic surfaces and is slower than the Alfvén/sound velocities for typical coronal conditions. Understanding the nature of the apparent cross-field propagation is important for the correct analysis of numerical simulations and the correct interpretation of observations.
G. E. Bond
1997-11-01
Full Text Available Results are presented from an experimental campaign in April 1996, in which the new CUTLASS (Co-operative UK twin-located Auroral Sounding System coherent scatter radar was employed to observe artificial field aligned irregularities (FAI generated by the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter heating facility at Tromsø, Norway. The distribution of backscatter intensity from within the heated region has been investigated both in azimuth and range with the Finland component of CUTLASS, and the first observations of artificial irregularities by the Iceland radar are also presented. The heated region has been measured to extend over a horizontal distance of 170±50km, which by comparison with a model of the heater beam pattern corresponds to a threshold electric field for FAI of between 0.1 and 0.01V/m. Differences between field-aligned and vertical propagation heating are also presented.
Parametric instabilities of parallel propagating incoherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma
Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.; Tsubouchi, K.
2007-01-01
Large amplitude, low-frequency Alfven waves constitute one of the most essential elements of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the fast solar wind. Due to small collisionless dissipation rates, the waves can propagate long distances and efficiently convey such macroscopic quantities as momentum, energy, and helicity. Since loading of such quantities is completed when the waves damp away, it is important to examine how the waves can dissipate in the solar wind. Among various possible dissipation processes of the Alfven waves, parametric instabilities have been believed to be important. In this paper, we numerically discuss the parametric instabilities of coherent/incoherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma using a one-dimensional hybrid (superparticle ions plus an electron massless fluid) simulation, in order to explain local production of sunward propagating Alfven waves, as suggested by Helios/Ulysses observation results. Parameter studies clarify the dependence of parametric instabilities of coherent/incoherent Alfven waves on the ion and electron beta ratio. Parametric instabilities of coherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma are vastly different from those in the cold ions (i.e., MHD and/or Hall-MHD systems), even if the collisionless damping of the Alfven waves are neglected. Further, ''nonlinearly driven'' modulational instability is important for the dissipation of incoherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma regardless of their polarization, since the ion kinetic effects let both the right-hand and left-hand polarized waves become unstable to the modulational instability. The present results suggest that, although the antisunward propagating dispersive Alfven waves are efficiently dissipated through the parametric instabilities in a finite ion beta plasma, these instabilities hardly produce the sunward propagating waves
Improved analysis of all-sky meteor radar measurements of gravity wave variances and momentum fluxes
V. F. Andrioli
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The advantages of using a composite day analysis for all-sky interferometric meteor radars when measuring mean winds and tides are widely known. On the other hand, problems arise if this technique is applied to Hocking's (2005 gravity wave analysis for all-sky meteor radars. In this paper we describe how a simple change in the procedure makes it possible to use a composite day in Hocking's analysis. Also, we explain how a modified composite day can be constructed to test its ability to measure gravity wave momentum fluxes. Test results for specified mean, tidal, and gravity wave fields, including tidal amplitudes and gravity wave momentum fluxes varying strongly with altitude and/or time, suggest that the modified composite day allows characterization of monthly mean profiles of the gravity wave momentum fluxes, with good accuracy at least at the altitudes where the meteor counts are large (from 89 to 92.5 km. In the present work we also show that the variances measured with Hocking's method are often contaminated by the tidal fields and suggest a method of empirical correction derived from a simple simulation model. The results presented here greatly increase our confidence because they show that our technique is able to remove the tide-induced false variances from Hocking's analysis.
Apisit Tongchai
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We recently developed a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves. The development, evaluation, and demonstration of the use of the survey were reported elsewhere [A. Tongchai et al., Developing, evaluating and demonstrating the use of a conceptual survey in mechanical waves, Int. J. Sci. Educ. 31, 2437 (2009ISEDEB0950-069310.1080/09500690802389605]. We administered the survey to 902 students from seven different groups ranging from high school to second year university. As an outcome of that analysis we were able to identify several conceptual models which the students seemed to be using when answering the questions in the survey. In this paper we attempt to investigate the strength with which the students were committed to these conceptual models, as evidenced by the consistency with which they answered the questions. For this purpose we focus on the patterns of student responses to questions in one particular subtopic, wave propagation. This study has three main purposes: (1 to investigate the consistency of student conceptions, (2 to explore the relative usefulness of different analysis techniques, and (3 to determine what extra information a study of consistency can give about student understanding of basic concepts. We used two techniques: first, categorizing and counting, which is widely used in the science education community, and second, model analysis, recently introduced into physics education research. The manner in which categorizing and counting is used is very diverse while model analysis has been employed only in prescriptive ways. Research studies have reported that students often use their conceptual models inconsistently when solving a series of questions that test the same idea. Our results support their conclusions. Moreover, our findings suggest that students who have had more experiences in physics learning seem to use the scientifically accepted models more consistently. Further, the two analysis techniques
Vertical elliptic operator for efficient wave propagation in TTI media
Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-01-01
Elliptic wave extrapolation operators require significantly less computational cost than the ones for transversely isotropic (TI) media. However, it does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for the prevalent TI media. We propose a new vertical elliptically anisotropic (VEA) wave equation by decomposing the acoustic TI pseudo-differential wave equation. The decomposition results in a vertical elliptic differential equation and a scalar operator. The new VEA-like wave equation shares the same dispersion relation as that of the original acoustic TI wave equation. Therefore, the kinematic contents are correctly matched to the original equation. Moreover, the proposed decomposition yields better amplitude properties than the isotropic decomposition without increasing the computational load. Therefore, it exhibits better cost versus accuracy tradeoff compared to the isotropic or the tilted elliptic decompositions. We demonstrate with numerical examples that the proposed methodology is numerically stable for complex models and is free from shear-wave artifacts.
Gas explosion characterization, wave propagation (small scale experiments)
Larsen, G.C.
1985-08-01
A number of experiments have been performed with blast waves arising from the ignition of homogeneous and well defined mixtures of methane, oxygen and nitrogen, contained within spherical balloons with controlled initial dimensions. The pressure characteristics has been studied for blast waves with and without influence from reflected waves. The influence of obstacles in the flow field has also been treated. Both configuration with one box and two closely spaced boxes have been considered, and a wave-wave interaction phenomenon was observed in the case of closely spaced obstacles. Moreover reflection coefficients have been established and some pressure variations over the surfaces have been observed. An acoustic appriximation has been used to model the blast wave originating from an expanding sphere. It has been demonstrated, that the generated pressure pulse is very sensitive to the expansion rate. Calculated and measured data have been compared, and a reasonable agreement has been found. (author)
Vertical elliptic operator for efficient wave propagation in TTI media
Waheed, Umair bin
2015-08-19
Elliptic wave extrapolation operators require significantly less computational cost than the ones for transversely isotropic (TI) media. However, it does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for the prevalent TI media. We propose a new vertical elliptically anisotropic (VEA) wave equation by decomposing the acoustic TI pseudo-differential wave equation. The decomposition results in a vertical elliptic differential equation and a scalar operator. The new VEA-like wave equation shares the same dispersion relation as that of the original acoustic TI wave equation. Therefore, the kinematic contents are correctly matched to the original equation. Moreover, the proposed decomposition yields better amplitude properties than the isotropic decomposition without increasing the computational load. Therefore, it exhibits better cost versus accuracy tradeoff compared to the isotropic or the tilted elliptic decompositions. We demonstrate with numerical examples that the proposed methodology is numerically stable for complex models and is free from shear-wave artifacts.
Analytical Time-Domain Solution of Plane Wave Propagation Across a Viscoelastic Rock Joint
Zou, Yang; Li, Jianchun; Laloui, Lyesse; Zhao, Jian
2017-10-01
The effects of viscoelastic filled rock joints on wave propagation are of great significance in rock engineering. The solutions in time domain for plane longitudinal ( P-) and transverse ( S-) waves propagation across a viscoelastic rock joint are derived based on Maxwell and Kelvin models which are, respectively, applied to describe the viscoelastic deformational behaviour of the rock joint and incorporated into the displacement discontinuity model (DDM). The proposed solutions are verified by comparing with the previous studies on harmonic waves, which are simulated by sinusoidal incident P- and S-waves. Comparison between the predicted transmitted waves and the experimental data for P-wave propagation across a joint filled with clay is conducted. The Maxwell is found to be more appropriate to describe the filled joint. The parametric studies show that wave propagation is affected by many factors, such as the stiffness and the viscosity of joints, the incident angle and the duration of incident waves. Furthermore, the dependences of the transmission and reflection coefficients on the specific joint stiffness and viscosity are different for the joints with Maxwell and Kelvin behaviours. The alternation of the reflected and transmitted waveforms is discussed, and the application scope of this study is demonstrated by an illustration of the effects of the joint thickness. The solutions are also extended for multiple parallel joints with the virtual wave source method and the time-domain recursive method. For an incident wave with arbitrary waveform, it is convenient to adopt the present approach to directly calculate wave propagation across a viscoelastic rock joint without additional mathematical methods such as the Fourier and inverse Fourier transforms.
Wave propagation through disordered media without backscattering and intensity variations
Konstantinos G Makris; Andre Brandst(o)tter; Philipp Ambichl; Ziad H Musslimani; Stefan Rotter
2017-01-01
A fundamental manifestation of wave scattering in a disordered medium is the highly complex intensity pattern the waves acquire due to multi-path interference.Here we show that these intensity variations can be entirely suppressed by adding disorder-specific gain and loss components to the medium.The resulting constant-intensity waves in such non-Hermitian scattering landscapes are free of any backscattering and feature perfect transmission through the disorder.An experimental demonstration of these unique wave states is envisioned based on spatially modulated pump beams that can flexibly control the gain and loss components in an active medium.
Nonlinear sausage-wave propagation in a magnetic slab in an incompressible fluid
Ruderman, M.S.
1993-01-01
Long nonlinear sausage-wave propagation in a magnetic slab in an incompressible plasma is considered. The governing equation is derived with the aid of the reductive perturbation method. The solutions of this equation in the form of periodic waves of permanent shape are found numerically. (Author)
Propagation of Love waves in an elastic layer with void pores
The paper presents a study of propagation of Love waves in a poroelastic layer resting over a poro-elastic half-space. Pores contain nothing of mechanical or energetic signiﬁcance. The study reveals that such a medium transmits two types of love waves. The ﬁrst front depends upon the modulus of rigidity of the elastic ...
Optimal implicit 2-D finite differences to model wave propagation in poroelastic media
Itzá, Reymundo; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Parra, Jorge O.
2016-08-01
Numerical modeling of seismic waves in heterogeneous porous reservoir rocks is an important tool for the interpretation of seismic surveys in reservoir engineering. We apply globally optimal implicit staggered-grid finite differences (FD) to model 2-D wave propagation in heterogeneous poroelastic media at a low-frequency range (differentiation involves solving tridiagonal linear systems of equations through Thomas' algorithm.
Niu, Keishiro; Shimojo, Takashi.
1978-02-01
Increase in kinetic energy of a charged particle, affected by an electrostatic wave propagating perpendicularly to a uniform magnetic field, is obtained for both the initial and later stages. Detrapping time of the particle from the potential dent of the electrostatic wave and energy increase during trapping of the particle is analytically derived. Numerical simulations are carried out to support theoretical results. (auth.)
Transverse wave propagation in [ab0] direction of silicon single crystal
Yun, Sang Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Se Ho; Kim, Young H. [Applied Acoustics Lab, Korea Science Academy of KAIST, Busan(Korea, Republic of)
2015-12-15
The speed and oscillation directions of elastic waves propagating in the [ab0] direction of a silicon single crystal were obtained by solving Christoffel's equation. It was found that the quasi waves propagate in the off-principal axis, and hence, the directions of the phase and group velocities are not the same. The maximum deviation of the two directions was 7.2 degree angle. Two modes of the pure transverse waves propagate in the [110] direction with different speeds, and hence, two peaks were observed in the pulse echo signal. The amplitude ratio of the two peaks was dependent on the initial oscillating direction of the incident wave. The pure and quasi-transverse waves propagate in the [210] direction, and the oscillation directions of these waves are perpendicular to each other. The skewing angle of the quasi wave was calculated as 7.14 degree angle, and it was measured as 9.76 degree angle. The amplitude decomposition in the [210] direction was similar to that in the [110] direction, since the oscillation directions of these waves are perpendicular to each other. These results offer useful information in measuring the crystal orientation of the silicon single crystal.
Discrete Element Simulation of Elastoplastic Shock Wave Propagation in Spherical Particles
M. Shoaib
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Elastoplastic shock wave propagation in a one-dimensional assembly of spherical metal particles is presented by extending well-established quasistatic compaction models. The compaction process is modeled by a discrete element method while using elastic and plastic loading, elastic unloading, and adhesion at contacts with typical dynamic loading parameters. Of particular interest is to study the development of the elastoplastic shock wave, its propagation, and reflection during entire loading process. Simulation results yield information on contact behavior, velocity, and deformation of particles during dynamic loading. Effects of shock wave propagation on loading parameters are also discussed. The elastoplastic shock propagation in granular material has many practical applications including the high-velocity compaction of particulate material.
Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment
X. Zhao
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed Fourier split-step algorithm. Numerical experiments indicate that wind-driven roughened sea surface has an impact on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment, and the strength is intensified along with the increment of sea wind speeds and/or the operating frequencies. In a fixed duct environment, however, proper disposition of the transmitter could reduce these impacts.
Propagation of Elastic Waves in a One-Dimensional High Aspect Ratio Nanoridge Phononic Crystal
Abdellatif Gueddida
2018-05-01
Full Text Available We investigate the propagation of elastic waves in a one-dimensional (1D phononic crystal constituted by high aspect ratio epoxy nanoridges that have been deposited at the surface of a glass substrate. With the help of the finite element method (FEM, we calculate the dispersion curves of the modes localized at the surface for propagation both parallel and perpendicular to the nanoridges. When the direction of the wave is parallel to the nanoridges, we find that the vibrational states coincide with the Lamb modes of an infinite plate that correspond to one nanoridge. When the direction of wave propagation is perpendicular to the 1D nanoridges, the localized modes inside the nanoridges give rise to flat branches in the band structure that interact with the surface Rayleigh mode, and possibly open narrow band gaps. Filling the nanoridge structure with a viscous liquid produces new modes that propagate along the 1D finite height multilayer array.
Di Sigalotti, Leonardo G.; Sira, Eloy; Tremola, Ciro
2002-01-01
The propagation of acoustic and thermal waves in a heat conducting, hydrogen plasma, in which photoionization and photorecombination [H + +e - H+hν(χ)] processes are progressing, is re-examined here using linear analysis. The resulting dispersion equation is solved analytically and the results are compared with previous solutions for the same plasma model. In particular, it is found that wave propagation in a slightly and highly ionized hydrogen plasma is affected by crossing between acoustic and thermal modes. At temperatures where the plasma is partially ionized, waves of all frequencies propagate without the occurrence of mode crossing. These results disagree with those reported in previous work, thereby leading to a different physical interpretation of the propagation of small linear disturbances in a conducting, ionizing-recombining, hydrogen plasma
Magnetic Field Effects and Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Highly Collisional Plasmas.
Bozeman, Steven Paul
The homogeneity and size of radio frequency (RF) and microwave driven plasmas are often limited by insufficient penetration of the electromagnetic radiation. To investigate increasing the skin depth of the radiation, we consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized plasma immersed in a steady magnetic field where the dominant collision processes are electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions. Retaining both the electron and ion dynamics, we have adapted the theory for cold collisionless plasmas to include the effects of these collisions and obtained the dispersion relation at arbitrary frequency omega for plane waves propagating at arbitrary angles with respect to the magnetic field. We discuss in particular the cases of magnetic field enhanced wave penetration for parallel and perpendicular propagation, examining the experimental parameters which lead to electromagnetic wave propagation beyond the collisional skin depth. Our theory predicts that the most favorable scaling of skin depth with magnetic field occurs for waves propagating nearly parallel to B and for omega << Omega_{rm e} where Omega_{rm e} is the electron cyclotron frequency. The scaling is less favorable for propagation perpendicular to B, but the skin depth does increase for this case as well. Still, to achieve optimal wave penetration, we find that one must design the plasma configuration and antenna geometry so that one generates primarily the appropriate angles of propagation. We have measured plasma wave amplitudes and phases using an RF magnetic probe and densities using Stark line broadening. These measurements were performed in inductively coupled plasmas (ICP's) driven with a standard helical coil, a reverse turn (Stix) coil, and a flat spiral coil. Density measurements were also made in a microwave generated plasma. The RF magnetic probe measurements of wave propagation in a conventional ICP with wave propagation approximately perpendicular to B show an increase in
Surface wave propagation in an ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic plasma jet in flowing environment
Sikka, Himanshu; Kumar, Nagendra; Zhelyazkov, Ivan
2004-01-01
The behavior of the Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) sausage and kink waves is studied in the presence of steady flow. The influence of the flow both inside and outside the plasma slab is taken into account. The plasma in the environment is considered to be cold and moves with the different flow velocity outside the slab. In the limit of parallel propagation, dispersion relation is derived to discuss the propagation of both the modes. Numerical results for the propagation characteristics are obtained for different Alfvenic Mach number ratios inside and outside the slab. It is found that the dispersion curves for both surface modes, namely, the sausage and kink ones in cold plasma show complexities in their behavior in terms of multivalued portions of the curves. These multivalued portions correspond to the different normalized phase velocities for the same value of Alfvenic Mach number. In contrast to the conventional MHD surface waves which are assumed to be pure surface waves or pseudosurface waves, surface waves are obtained which are bulk waves for very small dimensionless wave numbers, then turn to leaky waves and finally transform to pure surface waves for values of dimensionless wave number greater than one
Fernandes, Maria; Alonso-Martirena, Andrés; Agostinho, Pedro; Sanchez, Jorge; Ferrer, Macu; Fernandes, Carlos
2015-04-01
The coastal zone is an important area for the development of maritime countries, either in terms of recreation, energy exploitation, weather forecasting or national security. Field measurements are in the basis of understanding how coastal and oceanic processes occur. Most processes occur over long timescales and over large spatial ranges, like the variation of mean sea level. These processes also involve a variety of factors such as waves, winds, tides, storm surges, currents, etc., that cause huge interference on such phenomena. Measurement of waves have been carried out using different techniques. The instruments used to measure wave parameters can be very different, i.e. buoys, ship base equipment like sonar and satellites. Each equipment has its own advantage and disadvantage depending on the study subject. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the behaviour of a different technology available and presently adopted in wave measurement. In the past few years the measurement of waves using High Frequency (HF) Radars has had several developments. Such a method is already established as a powerful tool for measuring the pattern of surface current, but its use in wave measurements, especially in the dual arrangement is recent. Measurement of the backscatter of HF radar wave provides the raw dataset which is analyzed to give directional data of surface elevation at each range cell. Buoys and radars have advantages, disadvantages and its accuracy is discussed in this presentation. A major advantage with HF radar systems is that they are unaffected by weather, clouds or changing ocean conditions. The HF radar system is a very useful tool for the measurement of waves over a wide area with real-time observation, but it still lacks a method to check its accuracy. The primary goal of this study was to show how the HF radar system responds to high energetic variations when compared to wave buoy data. The bulk wave parameters used (significant wave height, period and
The effect of convection and shear on the damping and propagation of pressure waves
Kiel, Barry Vincent
Combustion instability is the positive feedback between heat release and pressure in a combustion system. Combustion instability occurs in the both air breathing and rocket propulsion devices, frequently resulting in high amplitude spinning waves. If unchecked, the resultant pressure fluctuations can cause significant damage. Models for the prediction of combustion instability typically include models for the heat release, the wave propagation and damping. Many wave propagation models for propulsion systems assume negligible flow, resulting in the wave equation. In this research the effect of flow on wave propagation was studied both numerically and experimentally. Two experiential rigs were constructed, one with axial flow to study the longitudinal waves, the other with swirling flow to study circumferential waves. The rigs were excited with speakers and the resultant pressure was measured simultaneously at many locations. Models of the rig were also developed. Equations for wave propagation were derived from the Euler Equations. The resultant resembled the wave equation with three additional terms, two for the effect of the convection and a one for the effect of shear of the mean flow on wave propagation. From the experimental and numerical data several conclusions were made. First, convection and shear both act as damping on the wave propagation, reducing the magnitude of the Frequency Response Function and the resonant frequency of the modes. Second, the energy extracted from the mean flow as a result of turbulent shear for a given condition is frequency dependent, decreasing with increasing frequency. The damping of the modes, measured for the same shear flow, also decreased with frequency. Finally, the two convective terms cause the anti-nodes of the modes to no longer be stationary. For both the longitudinal and circumferential waves, the anti-nodes move through the domain even for mean flow Mach numbers less than 0.10. It was concluded that convection
Field experiments and laboratory study of plasma turbulence and effects on EM wave propagation
Lee, M.C.; Kuo, S.P.
1990-01-01
Both active experiments in space and laboratory experiments with plasma chambers have been planned to investigate plasma turbulence and effects on electromagnetic wave propagation. Plasma turbulence can be generated by intense waves or occur inherently with the production of plasmas. The turbulence effects to be singled out for investigation include nonlinear mode conversion process and turbulence scattering of electromagnetic waves by plasma density fluctuations. The authors have shown theoretically that plasma density fluctuations can render the nonlinear mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into lower hybrid waves, leading to anomalous absorption of waves in magnetoplasmas. The observed spectral broadening of VLF waves is the evidence of the occurrence of this process. Since the density fluctuations may have a broad range of scale lengths, this process is effective in weakening the electromagnetic waves in a wideband. In addition, plasma density fluctuations can scatter waves and diversify the electromagnetic energy. Schemes of generating plasma turbulence and the diagnoses of plasma effects are discussed
Valeo, Ernest; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Eun-Hwa; Phillips, Cynthia
2012-01-01
A wide variety of plasma waves play an important role in the energization and loss of particles in the inner magnetosphere. Our ability to understand and model wave-particle interactions in this region requires improved knowledge of the spatial distribution and properties of these waves as well as improved understanding of how the waves depend on changes in solar wind forcing and/or geomagnetic activity. To this end, we have developed a two-dimensional, finite element code that solves the full wave equations in global magnetospheric geometry. The code describes three-dimensional wave structure including mode conversion when ULF, EMIC, and whistler waves are launched in a two-dimensional axisymmetric background plasma with general magnetic field topology. We illustrate the capabilities of the code by examining the role of plasmaspheric plumes on magnetosonic wave propagation; mode conversion at the ion-ion and Alfven resonances resulting from external, solar wind compressions; and wave structure and mode conversion of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves launched in the equatorial magnetosphere, which propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the ionosphere. We also discuss advantages of the finite element method for resolving resonant structures, and how the model may be adapted to include nonlocal kinetic effects.
Spin-wave propagation spectrum in magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires
Li, Zhi-xiong; Wang, Meng-ning; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Xia, Qing-lin [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)
2016-09-15
Spin-wave propagation in periodic magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires is studied by micromagnetic simulation. Spin wave scattering at the interface of two magnetization segments causes a spin-wave band structure, which can be effectively tuned by changing either the magnetization modulation level or the period of the cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal. The bandgap width is oscillating with either the period or magnetization modulation due to the oscillating variation of the spin wave transmission coefficient through the interface of the two magnetization segments. Analytical calculation based on band theory is used to account for the micromagnetic simulation results. - Highlights: • A magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal is proposed. • Propagating characteristics of spin waves in such magnonic crystal are studied. • Spin-wave spectra can be manipulated by changing modulation level and period.
3D dynamic simulation of crack propagation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Wijerathne, M. L. L.; Hori, Muneo; Sakaguchi, Hide; Oguni, Kenji
2010-06-01
Some experimental observations of Shock Wave Lithotripsy(SWL), which include 3D dynamic crack propagation, are simulated with the aim of reproducing fragmentation of kidney stones with SWL. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of kidney stones by focusing an ultrasonic pressure pulse onto the stones. 3D models with fine discretization are used to accurately capture the high amplitude shear shock waves. For solving the resulting large scale dynamic crack propagation problem, PDS-FEM is used; it provides numerically efficient failure treatments. With a distributed memory parallel code of PDS-FEM, experimentally observed 3D photoelastic images of transient stress waves and crack patterns in cylindrical samples are successfully reproduced. The numerical crack patterns are in good agreement with the experimental ones, quantitatively. The results shows that the high amplitude shear waves induced in solid, by the lithotriptor generated shock wave, play a dominant role in stone fragmentation.
Z. Hashemiyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort.
Packo, P.; Staszewski, W. J.; Uhl, T.
2016-01-01
Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808
High-Order Wave Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems
Ketcheson, David I.; Parsani, Matteo; LeVeque, Randall J.
2013-01-01
of accuracy and allows a well-balanced implementation for capturing solutions of balance laws near steady state. This well-balancing is achieved through the $f$-wave Riemann solver and a novel wave-slope WENO reconstruction procedure. The wide applicability
Valeo, E.J.; Phillips, C.K.; Bonoli, P.T.; Wright, J.C.; Brambilla, M.
2007-01-01
The generation of energetic tails in the electron distribution function is intrinsic to lower-hybrid (LH) heating and current drive in weakly collisional magnetically confined plasma. The effects of these deformations on the RF deposition profile have previously been examined within the ray approximation. Recently, the calculation of full-wave propagation of LH waves in a thermal plasma has been accomplished using an adaptation of the TORIC code. Here, initial results are presented from TORIC simulations of LH propagation in a toroidal plasma with non-thermal electrons. The required efficient computation of the hot plasma dielectric tensor is accomplished using a technique previously demonstrated in full-wave simulations of ICRF propagation in plasma with non-thermal ions
Portable concealed weapon detection using millimeter-wave FMCW radar imaging
Johnson, Michael A.; Chang, Yu-Wen
2001-02-01
Unobtrusive detection of concealed weapons on persons or in abandoned bags would provide law enforcement a powerful tool to focus resources and increase traffic throughput in high- risk situations. We have developed a fast image scanning 94 GHz radar system that is suitable for portable operation and remote viewing of radar data. This system includes a novel fast image-scanning antenna that allows for the acquisition of medium resolution 3D millimeter wave images of stationary targets with frame times on order of one second. The 3D radar data allows for potential isolation of concealed weapons from body and environmental clutter such as nearby furniture or other people. The radar is an active system so image quality is not affected indoors, emitted power is however very low so there are no health concerns for operator or targets. The low power operation is still sufficient to penetrate heavy clothing or material. Small system size allows for easy transport and rapid deployment of the system as well as an easy migration path to future hand held systems.
THz Wave Propagation on Strip Lines: Devices, Properties, and Applications
Y. Kadoya
2008-06-01
Full Text Available We report the propagation characteristics of THz pulses on micro-strip-lines and coplanar strip-lines, in which low permittivity polymer materials are used as the dielectric layer or the substrate. As a result of the low attenuation and small dispersion in the devices, the spectral width up to 3 THz can be achieved even after the 1 mm propagation. Spectroscopic characterizations of liquid or powder specimens are demonstrated using the devices. We also show a possibility of realizing a very low attenuation using a quadrupole mode in three strip coplanar lines on the polymer substrate.
Path Loss Analysis of WSN Wave Propagation in Vegetation
Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S A; Ahmad, R B; Malek, M F; Salim, M S; Kamaruddin, R
2013-01-01
Deployment of a successful wireless sensor network requires precise prediction models that provide a reliable communication links of wireless nodes. Prediction models fused with foliage models provide sensible parameters of wireless nodes separation distance, antenna height, and power transmission which affect the reliability and communication coverage of a network. This paper review the line of sight and the two ray propagation models combined with the most known foliage models that cover the propagation of wireless communications in vegetative environments, using IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Simulation of models is presented and the impacts of the communication parameters, environment and vegetation have been reported.
Chernchok Soankwan
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We recently developed a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves. The development, evaluation, and demonstration of the use of the survey were reported elsewhere [ A. Tongchai et al. Int. J. Sci. Educ. 31 2437 (2009]. We administered the survey to 902 students from seven different groups ranging from high school to second year university. As an outcome of that analysis we were able to identify several conceptual models which the students seemed to be using when answering the questions in the survey. In this paper we attempt to investigate the strength with which the students were committed to these conceptual models, as evidenced by the consistency with which they answered the questions. For this purpose we focus on the patterns of student responses to questions in one particular subtopic, wave propagation. This study has three main purposes: (1 to investigate the consistency of student conceptions, (2 to explore the relative usefulness of different analysis techniques, and (3 to determine what extra information a study of consistency can give about student understanding of basic concepts. We used two techniques: first, categorizing and counting, which is widely used in the science education community, and second, model analysis, recently introduced into physics education research. The manner in which categorizing and counting is used is very diverse while model analysis has been employed only in prescriptive ways. Research studies have reported that students often use their conceptual models inconsistently when solving a series of questions that test the same idea. Our results support their conclusions. Moreover, our findings suggest that students who have had more experiences in physics learning seem to use the scientifically accepted models more consistently. Further, the two analysis techniques have different advantages and disadvantages. Our findings show that model analysis can be used in more diverse ways, provides
Propagation of sech2-type solitary waves in higher-order KdV-type systems
Ilison, O.; Salupere, A.
2005-01-01
Wave propagation in microstructured media is essentially influenced by nonlinear and dispersive effects. The simplest model governing these effects results in the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. In the present paper a KdV-type evolution equation, including the third- and fifth-order dispersive and the fourth-order nonlinear terms, is used for modelling the wave propagation in microstructured solids like martensitic-austenitic alloys. The model equation is solved numerically under localised initial conditions. Possible solution types are defined and discussed. The existence of a threshold is established. Below the threshold, the relatively small solitary waves decay in time. However, if the amplitude exceeds a certain threshold, i.e., the critical value, then such a solitary wave can propagate with nearly a constant speed and amplitude and consequently conserve the energy
An Overview of Recent Advances in the Iterative Analysis of Coupled Models for Wave Propagation
D. Soares
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Wave propagation problems can be solved using a variety of methods. However, in many cases, the joint use of different numerical procedures to model different parts of the problem may be advisable and strategies to perform the coupling between them must be developed. Many works have been published on this subject, addressing the case of electromagnetic, acoustic, or elastic waves and making use of different strategies to perform this coupling. Both direct and iterative approaches can be used, and they may exhibit specific advantages and disadvantages. This work focuses on the use of iterative coupling schemes for the analysis of wave propagation problems, presenting an overview of the application of iterative procedures to perform the coupling between different methods. Both frequency- and time-domain analyses are addressed, and problems involving acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic wave propagation problems are illustrated.
Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves Recorded by the Four CLUSTER Satellites
Parrot, M.; Santolik, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Maksimovic, M.; Harvey, Ch.
2001-01-01
This paper will describe the methods we use to determine the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves observed by the four CLUSTER satellites. The data is recorded aboard CLUSTER by the STAFF (Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations) spectrum analyser. This instrument has several modes of operation, and can provide the spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric components. This spectral matrix is processed by a dedicated software (PRASSADCO: Propagation Analysis of STAFF-SA Data with Coherency Tests) in order to determine the wave normal directions with respect to the DC magnetic field. PRASSADCO also provides a number of alternative methods to estimate wave polarisation and propagation parameters, such as the Poynting vector, and the refractive index. It is therefore possible to detect the source extension of various electromagnetic waves using the 4 satellites. Results of this data processing will be shown here for one event observed by one satellite. (author)
Huba, J. D.; Rowland, H. L.
1993-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere is presented in a theoretical and numerical analysis. The model assumes a source of electromagnetic radiation in the Venus atmosphere, such as that produced by lightning. Specifically addressed is wave propagation in the altitude range z = 130-160 km at the four frequencies detectable by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Electric Field Detector: 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz. Parameterizations of the wave intensities, peak electron density, and Poynting flux as a function of magnetic field are presented. The waves are found to propagate most easily in conditions of low electron density and high magnetic field. The results of the model are consistent with observational data.
Wave propagation in metamaterials mimicking the topology of a cosmic string
Fernández-Núñez, Isabel; Bulashenko, Oleg
2018-04-01
We study the interference and diffraction of light when it propagates through a metamaterial medium mimicking the spacetime of a cosmic string—a topological defect with curvature singularity. The phenomenon may look like a gravitational analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, since the light propagates in a region where the Riemann tensor vanishes, being nonetheless affected by the non-zero curvature confined to the string core. We carry out the full-wave numerical simulation of the metamaterial medium and give the analytical interpretation of the results by use of the asymptotic theory of diffraction, which turns out to be in excellent agreement. In particular, we show that the main features of wave propagation in a medium with conical singularity can be explained by four-wave interference involving two geometrical optics and two diffracted waves.
Effects of ion-atom collisions on the propagation and damping of ion-acoustic waves
Andersen, H.K.; D'Angelo, N.; Jensen, Vagn Orla
1968-01-01
Experiments are described on ion-acoustic wave propagation and damping in alkali plasmas of various degrees of ionization. An increase of the ratio Te/Ti from 1 to approximately 3-4, caused by ion-atom collisions, results in a decrease of the (Landau) damping of the waves. At high gas pressure and....../or low wave frequency a "fluid" picture adequately describes the experimental results....
Nie, Guoquan; Liu, Jinxi; Liu, Xianglin
2017-10-01
Propagation of transverse surface waves in a three-layer system consisting of a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic (PE/PM) bi-layer bonded on an elastic half-space is theoretically investigated in this paper. Dispersion relations and mode shapes for transverse surface waves are obtained in closed form under electrically open and shorted boundary conditions at the upper surface. Two transverse surface waves related both to Love-type wave and Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) type wave propagating in corresponding three-layer structure are discussed through numerically solving the derived dispersion equation. The results show that Love-type wave possesses the property of multiple modes, it can exist all of the values of wavenumber for every selected thickness ratios regardless of the electrical boundary conditions. The presence of PM interlayer makes the phase velocity of Love-type wave decrease. There exist two modes allowing the propagation of B-G type wave under electrically shorted circuit, while only one mode appears in the case of electrically open circuit. The modes of B-G type wave are combinations of partly normal dispersion and partly anomalous dispersion whether the electrically open or shorted. The existence range of mode for electrically open case is greatly related to the thickness ratios, with the thickness of PM interlayer increasing the wavenumber range for existence of B-G type wave quickly shortened. When the thickness ratio is large enough, the wavenumber range of the second mode for electrically shorted circuit is extremely narrow which can be used to remove as an undesired mode. The propagation behaviors and mode shapes of transverse surface waves can be regulated by the modification of the thickness of PM interlayer. The obtained results provide a theoretical prediction and basis for applications of PE-PM composites and acoustic wave devices.
Latitudinal amplitude-phase structure of MHD waves: STARE radar observations and modeling
Pilipenko V.
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We have developed a numerical model that yields a steady-state distribution of field components of MHD wave in an inhomogeneous plasma box simulating the realistic magnetosphere. The problem of adequate boundary condition at the ionosphere–magnetosphere interface for coupled MHD mode is considered. To justify the model’s assumptions, we have derived the explicit inequality showing when the ionospheric inductive Hall effect can be neglected upon the consideration of Alfven wave reflection from the ionospheric boundaries. The model predicts a feature of the ULF spatial amplitude/phase distribution that has not been noticed by the field line resonance theory: the existence of a region with opposite phase delays on the source side of the resonance. This theoretical prediction is supported by the amplitude-phase latitudinal structures of Pc5 waves observed by STARE radar and IMAGE magnetometers. A gradual decrease in azimuthal wave number m at smaller L-shells was observed at longitudinally separated radar beams.
Lan Chaohui; Hu Xiwei; Jiang Zhonghe
2008-01-01
A two-dimensional metal model is established to investigate the stealth mechanisms of radar absorbing material (RAM) and plasma when they cover the model together. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) waves with the model can be studied. In this paper, three covering cases are considered: a. RAM or plasma covering the metal solely; b. RAM and plasma covering the metal, while plasma is placed outside; c. RAM and plasma covering the metal, while RAM is placed outside. The calculated results show that the covering order has a great influence on the absorption of EM waves. Compared to case a, case b has an advantage in the absorption of relatively high-frequency EM waves (HFWs), whereas case c has an advantage in the absorption of relatively low-frequency EM waves (LFWs). Through the optimization of the parameters of both plasma and RAM, it is hopeful to obtain a broad absorption band by RAM and plasma covering. Near-field attenuation rate and far-field radar cross section (RCS) are employed to compare the different cases. (low temperature plasma)
MAVEN Observation of an Obliquely Propagating Low-Frequency Wave Upstream of Mars
Ruhunusiri, Suranga; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; McFadden, J. P.; Mazelle, C.; Brain, D.; Collinson, G.; Harada, Y.; Larson, D. E.;
2016-01-01
We report Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission observations of a large amplitude low-frequency plasma wave that propagated oblique to the ambient magnetic field upstream of Mars along with a non-solar-wind plasma component that had a flow velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field. We consider nine possibilities for this wave that include various combinations of its propagation direction, polarization in the solar wind frame, and ion source responsible for its generation. Using the observed wave parameters and the measured plasma parameters as constraints, we uniquely identify the wave by systematically discarding these possibilities. We determine that the wave is a right-hand polarized wave that propagated upstream in the solar wind frame. We find two possibilities for the ion source that can be responsible for this wave generation. They are either newly born pickup protons or reflected solar wind protons from the bow shock.We determine that the observed non-solar-wind component is not responsible for the wave generation, and it is likely that the non-solar-wind component was merely perturbed by the passage of the wave.
Time domain phenomena of wave propagation in rapidly created plasma of periodic distribution
Kuo, S P
2007-01-01
Theories, experiments and numerical simulations on the interaction of electromagnetic waves with rapidly created unmagnetized plasmas are presented. In the case that plasma is created uniformly, the frequency of a propagating electromagnetic wave is upshifted. An opposite propagation wave of the same frequency is also generated. In addition, a static current supporting a wiggler magnetic field is also produced in the plasma. When a spatially periodic structure is introduced to the rapidly created plasma, the theory and numerical simulation results show that both frequency-upshifted and downshifted waves are generated. If the plasma has a large but finite dimension in the incident wave propagation direction and is created rapidly rather than instantaneously, the frequency downshifted waves are found to be trapped by the plasma when the plasma frequency is larger than the wave frequency. The wave trapping results in accumulating the frequency-downshifted waves during the finite transient period of plasma creation. Indeed, in the experimental observations the frequency downshifted signals were detected repetitively with considerably enhanced spectral intensities, confirming the results of the numerical simulations. The missing of frequency upshifted signals in the experimental observations is explained by the modal field distributions in the periodic structure, indicating that the frequency upshifted modes experience heavier collisional damping of the plasma than the frequency downshifted modes
Wave Propagation in an Ion Beam-Plasma System
Jensen, T. D.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1979-01-01
The spatial evolution of a velocity- or density-modulated ion beam is calculated for stable and unstable ion beam plasma systems, using the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The propagation properties are found to be strongly dependent on the form of modulation. In the case of velocity...
Spectral element method for wave propagation on irregular domains
Yan Hui Geng
2018-03-14
Mar 14, 2018 ... Abstract. A spectral element approximation of acoustic propagation problems combined with a new mapping method on irregular domains is proposed. Following this method, the Gauss–Lobatto–Chebyshev nodes in the standard space are applied to the spectral element method (SEM). The nodes in the ...
Spectral element method for wave propagation on irregular domains
A spectral element approximation of acoustic propagation problems combined with a new mapping method on irregular domains is proposed. Following this method, the Gauss–Lobatto–Chebyshev nodes in the standard space are applied to the spectral element method (SEM). The nodes in the physical space are ...
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weak collisional and fully ionized dusty plasma
Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Sha; Yue, Feng [Shanghai Institute of Spaceflight Control Technology, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wu, Jian [China Research Institute of Radio wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); China Research Institute of Radio wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China)
2016-04-15
The propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in fully ionized dusty plasmas is the subject of this study. The dielectric relationships for EM waves propagating in a fully ionized dusty plasma was derived from the Boltzmann distribution law, taking into consideration the collision and charging effects of the dust grains. The propagation properties of the EM waves in a dusty plasma were numerically calculated and studied. The study results indicated that the dusty grains with an increased radius and charge were more likely to impede the penetration of EM waves. Dust grains with large radii and high charge cause the attenuation of the EM wave in the dusty plasma. The different density of the dust in the plasma appeared to have no obvious effect on the transmission of the EM waves. The propagation of the EM waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma varies from that in a fully ionized dusty plasma. The results are helpful to analyze the effects of dust in dusty plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for future studies.
A theoretical analysis of the weak shock waves propagating through a bubbly flow
Jun, Gu Sik; Kim, Heuy Dong; Baek, Seung Cheol
2004-01-01
Two-phase flow of liquid and gas through pipe lines are frequently encountered in nuclear power plant or industrial facility. Pressure waves which can be generated by a valve operation or any other cause in pipe lines propagate through the two-phase flow, often leading to severe noise and vibration problems or fatigue failure of pipe line system. It is of practical importance to predict the propagation characteristics of the pressure waves for the safety design for the pipe line. In the present study, a theoretical analysis is performed to understand the propagation characteristics of a weak shock wave in a bubbly flow. A wave equation is developed using a small perturbation method to analyze the weak shock wave through a bubbly flow with comparably low void fractions. It is known that the elasticity of pipe and void fraction significantly affect the propagation speed of shock wave, but the frequency of relaxation oscillation which is generated behind the shock wave is not strongly influenced by the elasticity of pipe. The present analytical results are in close agreement with existing experimental data
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weak collisional and fully ionized dusty plasma
Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Sha; Yue, Feng; Wu, Jian; Li, Hui
2016-01-01
The propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in fully ionized dusty plasmas is the subject of this study. The dielectric relationships for EM waves propagating in a fully ionized dusty plasma was derived from the Boltzmann distribution law, taking into consideration the collision and charging effects of the dust grains. The propagation properties of the EM waves in a dusty plasma were numerically calculated and studied. The study results indicated that the dusty grains with an increased radius and charge were more likely to impede the penetration of EM waves. Dust grains with large radii and high charge cause the attenuation of the EM wave in the dusty plasma. The different density of the dust in the plasma appeared to have no obvious effect on the transmission of the EM waves. The propagation of the EM waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma varies from that in a fully ionized dusty plasma. The results are helpful to analyze the effects of dust in dusty plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for future studies.
Do electromagnetic waves always propagate along null geodesics?
Asenjo, Felipe A; Hojman, Sergio A
2017-01-01
We find exact solutions to Maxwell equations written in terms of four-vector potentials in non–rotating, as well as in Gödel and Kerr spacetimes. We show that Maxwell equations can be reduced to two uncoupled second-order differential equations for combinations of the components of the four-vector potential. Exact electromagnetic waves solutions are written on given gravitational field backgrounds where they evolve. We find that in non–rotating spherical symmetric spacetimes, electromagnetic waves travel along null geodesics. However, electromagnetic waves on Gödel and Kerr spacetimes do not exhibit that behavior. (paper)
High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping
Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul
2017-01-01
High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step
Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast ...
Second, baroclinic Kelvin waves generated in the Bay of Bengal at periods shorter than about 120 ... significant energy remains trapped to the Indian west coast. .... ary condition, enables us to isolate the response of the West India Coastal ...
Electron thermal conductivity from heat wave propagation in Wendelstein 7-AS
Giannone, L.; Erckmann, V; Gasparino, U; Hartfuss, H J; Kuehner, G; Maassberg, H; Stroth, U; Tutter, M [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); W7-AS Team; ECRH Group IPF Stuttgart; Gyrotron Group KFK Karlsruhe
1992-11-01
Heat wave propagation experiments have been carried out on the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator. The deposition of electron cyclotron resonance heating power is highly localized in the plasma centre, so that power modulation produces heat waves which propagate away from the deposition volume. Radiometry of the electron cyclotron emission is used to measure the generated temperature perturbation. The propagation time delay of the temperature perturbation as a function of distance to the power deposition region is used to determine the electron thermal conductivity [chi][sub e]. This value is then compared with the value determined by global power balance. In contrast to sawtooth propagation experiments in tokamaks, it is found that the value of [chi][sub e] from heat wave propagation is comparable to that calculated by power balance. In addition, inward propagating waves were produced by choosing a power deposition region away from the plasma centre. Experiments were carried out at 70 GHz in the ordinary mode and at 140 GHz in the extraordinary mode. Variations of the modulation power amplitude have demonstrated that the inferred value of [chi][sub e] is independent of the amplitude of the induced temperature perturbations. (author). 29 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs.
Propagation of acoustic waves in a stratified atmosphere, 1
Kalkofen, W.; Rossi, P.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.
1994-01-01
This work is motivated by the chromospheric 3 minute oscillations observed in the K(sub 2v) bright points. We study acoustic gravity waves in a one-dimensional, gravitationally stratified, isothermal atmosphere. The oscillations are excited either by a velocity pulse imparted to a layer in an atmosphere of infinite vertical extent, or by a piston forming the lower boundary of a semi-infinite medium. We consider both linear and non-linear waves.
Hauser, DanièLe; Caudal, GéRard
1996-11-01
The analysis of synthetic aperture radar observations over the ocean to derive the directional spectra of the waves is based upon a complex transfer function which is the sum of three terms: tilt modulation, hydrodynamic modulation, and velocity bunching effect. Both the hydrodynamic and the velocity bunching terms are still poorly known. Here we focus on the hydrodynamic part of the transfer function, from an experimental point of view. In this paper a new method is proposed to estimate the hydrodynamic modulation. The approach consists in analyzing observations obtained with an airborne real-aperture radar (called RESSAC). This radar (C band, HH polarized, broad beam of 14° × 3°) was used during the SEMAPHORE experiment, in two different modes. From the first mode (incidence angles from 7° to 21°) the directional spectra of the long waves are deduced under the assumption that the hydrodynamic modulation can be neglected (small incidence angles) and validated against in situ measurements. From the second mode (incidence angle from 27° to 41°) the amplitude and phase of the hydrodynamic modulation are deduced by combining the measured signal modulation spectrum at a mean incidence angle of 34° and the directional wave spectrum obtained from the first mode. The results, obtained in four different wind-wave cases of the SEMAPHORE experiment, show that the modulus of the hydrodynamic modulation is larger than that of the tilt modulation. Furthermore, we find that the modulus of the hydrodynamic transfer function is several times larger (by a factor 2-12) than the theoretical value proposed in previous works and 1.5-2.5 larger than experimental values reported in recent papers. The phase of the hydrodynamic modulation is found to be close to zero for waves propagating at an angle from the wind direction and between -20° and -40° for waves propagating along the wind direction. This indicates a significant influence of the wind-wave angle on the phase of the
Takashima, Keisuke; Adamovich, Igor V.; Xiong Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.; Starikovskaia, Svetlana; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Luggenhoelscher, Dirk
2011-01-01
Fast ionization wave (FIW), nanosecond pulse discharge propagation in nitrogen and helium in a rectangular geometry channel/waveguide is studied experimentally using calibrated capacitive probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge in the channel was generated using a custom designed pulsed plasma generator (peak voltage 10-40 kV, pulse duration 30-100 ns, and voltage rise time ∼1 kV/ns), generating a sequence of alternating polarity high-voltage pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz. Both negative polarity and positive polarity ionization waves have been studied. Ionization wave speed, as well as time-resolved potential distributions and axial electric field distributions in the propagating discharge are inferred from the capacitive probe data. ICCD images show that at the present conditions the FIW discharge in helium is diffuse and volume-filling, while in nitrogen the discharge propagates along the walls of the channel. FIW discharge propagation has been analyzed numerically using quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional kinetic models in a hydrodynamic (drift-diffusion), local ionization approximation. The wave speed and the electric field distribution in the wave front predicted by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results. A self-similar analytic solution of the fast ionization wave propagation equations has also been obtained. The analytic model of the FIW discharge predicts key ionization wave parameters, such as wave speed, peak electric field in the front, potential difference across the wave, and electron density as functions of the waveform on the high voltage electrode, in good agreement with the numerical calculations and the experimental results.
Hayne, G. S.; Hancock, D. W., III
1990-01-01
Range estimates from a radar altimeter have biases which are a function of the significant wave height (SWH) and the satellite attitude angle (AA). Based on results of prelaunch Geosat modeling and simulation, a correction for SWH and AA was already applied to the sea-surface height estimates from Geosat's production data processing. By fitting a detailed model radar return waveform to Geosat waveform sampler data, it is possible to provide independent estimates of the height bias, the SWH, and the AA. The waveform fitting has been carried out for 10-sec averages of Geosat waveform sampler data over a wide range of SWH and AA values. The results confirm that Geosat sea-surface-height correction is good to well within the original dm-level specification, but that an additional height correction can be made at the level of several cm.
Mishra, Rinku; Dey, M.
2018-04-01
An analytical model is developed that explains the propagation of a high frequency electrostatic surface wave along the interface of a plasma system where semi-infinite electron-ion plasma is interfaced with semi-infinite dusty plasma. The model emphasizes that the source of such high frequency waves is inherent in the presence of ion acoustic and dust ion acoustic/dust acoustic volume waves in electron-ion plasma and dusty plasma region. Wave dispersion relation is obtained for two distinct cases and the role of plasma parameters on wave dispersion is analyzed in short and long wavelength limits. The normalized surface wave frequency is seen to grow linearly for lower wave number but becomes constant for higher wave numbers in both the cases. It is observed that the normalized frequency depends on ion plasma frequencies when dust oscillation frequency is neglected.
Propagation of Tsunami-like Surface Long Waves in the Bays of a Variable Depth
A.Yu. Bazykina
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Within the framework of the nonlinear long wave theory the regularities of solitary long wave propagation in the semi-closed bays of model and real geometry are numerically studied. In the present article the zones of wave amplification in the bay are found. The first one is located near the wave running-up on the beach (in front of the bay entrance and the other one – in the middle part of the sea basin. Wave propagation in these zones is accompanied both by significant rise and considerable fall of the sea level. Narrowing of the bay entrance and increase of the entering wave length result in decrease of the sea level maximum rises and falls. The Feodosiya Gulf in the Black Sea is considered as a real basin. In general the dynamics of the waves in the gulf is similar to wave dynamics in the model bay. Four zones of the strongest wave amplification in the Feodosiya Gulf are revealed in the article. The sea level maximum rises and extreme falls which tend to grow with decrease of the entering wave length are observed in these zones. The distance traveled by the wave before the collapse (due to non-linear effects, was found to reduce with decreasing wavelength of the entrance to the bay (gulf.
Analysis of pulse thermography using similarities between wave and diffusion propagation
Gershenson, M.
2017-05-01
Pulse thermography or thermal wave imaging are commonly used as nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. While the technical aspect has evolve with time, theoretical interpretation is lagging. Interpretation is still using curved fitting on a log log scale. A new approach based directly on the governing differential equation is introduced. By using relationships between wave propagation and the diffusive propagation of thermal excitation, it is shown that one can transform from solutions in one type of propagation to the other. The method is based on the similarities between the Laplace transforms of the diffusion equation and the wave equation. For diffusive propagation we have the Laplace variable s to the first power, while for the wave propagation similar equations occur with s2. For discrete time the transformation between the domains is performed by multiplying the temperature data vector by a matrix. The transform is local. The performance of the techniques is tested on synthetic data. The application of common back projection techniques used in the processing of wave data is also demonstrated. The combined use of the transform and back projection makes it possible to improve both depth and lateral resolution of transient thermography.
A millimetre-wave MIMO radar system for threat detection in urban environments
Kirschner, A. J.; Guetlein, J.; Bertl, S.; Detlefsen, J.
2012-10-01
The European Defence Agency (EDA) engages countermeasures against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) by funding several scientific programs on threat awareness, countermeasures IEDs or land-mine detection, in which this work is only one of numerous projects. The program, denoted as Surveillance in an urban environment using mobile sensors (SUM), covers the idea of equipping one or more vehicles of a patrol or a convoy with a set of sensors exploiting different physical principles in order to gain detailed insights of the road situation ahead. In order to give an added value to a conventional visual camera system, measurement data from an infra-red (IR) camera, a radiometer and a millimetre-wave radar are fused with data from an optical image and are displayed on a human-machine-interface (HMI) which shall assist the vehicle's co-driver to identify suspect objects or persons on or next to the road without forcing the vehicle to stop its cruise. This paper shall especially cover the role of the millimetre-wave radar sensor and its different operational modes. Measurement results are discussed. It is possible to alter the antenna mechanically which gives two choices for a field of view and angular resolution trade-off. Furthermore a synthetic aperture radar mode is possible and has been tested successfully. MIMO radar principles like orthogonal signal design were exploited tofrom a virtual array by 4 transmitters and 4 receivers. In joint evaluation, it was possible to detect e.g. grenade shells under cardboard boxes or covered metal barrels which were invisible for optical or infra-red detection.
Guided Wave Propagation Study on Laminated Composites by Frequency-Wavenumber Technique
Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara A. C.
2014-01-01
Toward the goal of delamination detection and quantification in laminated composites, this paper examines guided wave propagation and wave interaction with delamination damage in laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites using frequency-wavenumber (f-kappa) analysis. Three-dimensional elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used to acquire simulated time-space wavefields for a CFRP composite. The time-space wavefields show trapped waves in the delamination region. To unveil the wave propagation physics, the time-space wavefields are further analyzed by using two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms (FT). In the analysis results, new f-k components are observed when the incident guided waves interact with the delamination damage. These new f-kappa components in the simulations are experimentally verified through data obtained from scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) tests. By filtering the new f-kappa components, delamination damage is detected and quantified.
Langmuir wave-packet generation from an electron beam propagating in the inhomogeneous solar wind
Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Volokitin, A. S.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Bale, S. D.
2010-01-01
Recent in-situ observations by the TDS instrument equipping the STEREO spacecraft revealed that large amplitude spatially localized Langmuir waves are frequent in the solar wind, and correlated with the presence of suprathermal electron beams during type III events or close to the electron foreshock. We briefly present the new theoretical model used to perform the study of these localized electrostatic waves, and show first results of simulations of the destabilization of Langmuir waves by a beam propagating in the inhomogeneous solar wind. The main results are that the destabilized waves are mainly focalized near the minima of the density profiles, and that the nonlinear interaction of the waves with the resonant particles enhances this focalization compared to a situation in which the only propagation effects are taken into account.
Ostachowicz, W; Kudela, P
2010-01-01
A Spectral Element Method is used for wave propagation modelling. A 3D solid spectral element is derived with shape functions based on Lagrange interpolation and Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre points. This approach is applied for displacement approximation suited for fundamental modes of Lamb waves as well as potential distribution in piezoelectric transducers. The novelty is the model geometry extension from flat to curved elements for application in shell-like structures. Exemplary visualisations of waves excited by the piezoelectric transducers in curved shell structure made of aluminium alloy are presented. Simple signal analysis of wave interaction with crack is performed. The crack is modelled by separation of appropriate nodes between elements. An investigation of influence of the crack length on wave propagation signals is performed. Additionally, some aspects of the spectral element method implementation are discussed.
Perfectly matched layers for radio wave propagation in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas
Gondarenko, Natalia A.; Guzdar, Parvez N.; Ossakow, Sidney L.; Bernhardt, Paul A.
2004-01-01
We present 1D and 2D numerical models of the propagation of high-frequency (HF) radio waves in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas. The simulations allow one to describe the process of linear conversion of HF electromagnetic waves into electrostatic waves. The waves, launched from the lower boundary normally or at a specified angle on a layer of a magnetoactive plasma, can undergo linear conversion of the incident O-mode into a Z-mode at appropriate locations in an inhomogeneous prescribed plasma density. The numerical scheme for solving 2D HF wave propagation equations is described. The model employed the Maxwellian perfectly matched layers (PML) technique for approximating nonreflecting boundary conditions. Our numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the PML technique for transparent boundary conditions for an open-domain problem
Generic short-time propagation of sharp-boundaries wave packets
Granot, E.; Marchewka, A.
2005-11-01
A general solution to the "shutter" problem is presented. The propagation of an arbitrary initially bounded wave function is investigated, and the general solution for any such function is formulated. It is shown that the exact solution can be written as an expression that depends only on the values of the function (and its derivatives) at the boundaries. In particular, it is shown that at short times (t << 2mx2/hbar, where x is the distance to the boundaries) the wave function propagation depends only on the wave function's values (or its derivatives) at the boundaries of the region. Finally, we generalize these findings to a non-singular wave function (i.e., for wave packets with finite-width boundaries) and suggest an experimental verification.
Third harmonic generation of shear horizontal guided waves propagation in plate-like structures
Li, Wei Bin [School of Aerospace Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Xu, Chun Guang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China); Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-04-15
The use of nonlinear ultrasonics wave has been accepted as a promising tool for monitoring material states related to microstructural changes, as it has improved sensitivity compared to conventional non-destructive testing approaches. In this paper, third harmonic generation of shear horizontal guided waves propagating in an isotropic plate is investigated using the perturbation method and modal analysis approach. An experimental procedure is proposed to detect the third harmonics of shear horizontal guided waves by electromagnetic transducers. The strongly nonlinear response of shear horizontal guided waves is measured. The accumulative growth of relative acoustic nonlinear response with an increase of propagation distance is detected in this investigation. The experimental results agree with the theoretical prediction, and thus providing another indication of the feasibility of using higher harmonic generation of electromagnetic shear horizontal guided waves for material characterization.
Analysis of stress wave propagation in an elasto-viscoplastic plate
Nakagawa, Noritoshi; Kawai, Ryoji; Urushi, Norio.
1986-01-01
Stress waves which propagate in the body are reflected at the boundary, and due to the interaction of the reflected stress waves, the focussing of stress waves will take place and a high stress level can be caused. The focussing of stress waves due to the reflection from the boundary may bring about fracture of the body, so that this is an important problem from a viewpoint of dynamic strength of structures. In this paper the process of stress wave focussing and the strain-rate dependence of constitutive equation in elastic and plastic regions are investigated. In the case where an in-plane step load uniformly acts on the straight edge of the plate with a semi-circular boundary, the propagation of stress waves in the plate was numerically analyzed by the finite element method, applying viscoelastic, elasto-plastic and elasto-viscoplastic constitutive equations. As the result, the process of focussing of stress waves due to reflection from the semi-circular boundary was observed and the difference in propagation behaviour of stress waves was discussed in materials represented by some kinds of constitutive equations. (author)
Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air
Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.
2011-11-01
Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.
Determining the Viscosity Coefficient for Viscoelastic Wave Propagation in Rock Bars
Niu, Leilei; Zhu, Wancheng; Li, Shaohua; Guan, Kai
2018-05-01
Rocks with microdefects exhibit viscoelastic behavior during stress wave propagation. The viscosity coefficient of the wave can be used to characterize the attenuation as the wave propagates in rock. In this study, a long artificial bar with a readily adjustable viscosity coefficient was fabricated to investigate stress wave attenuation. The viscoelastic behavior of the artificial bar under dynamic loading was investigated, and the initial viscoelastic coefficient was obtained based on the amplitude attenuation of the incident harmonic wave. A one-dimensional wave propagation program was compiled to reproduce the time history of the stress wave measured during the experiments, and the program was well fitted to the Kelvin-Voigt model. The attenuation and dispersion of the stress wave in long artificial viscoelastic bars were quantified to accurately determine the viscoelastic coefficient. Finally, the method used to determine the viscoelastic coefficient of a long artificial bar based on the experiments and numerical simulations was extended to determine the viscoelastic coefficient of a short rock bar. This study provides a new method of determining the viscosity coefficient of rock.
Effects of minority ions on the propagation of the Fast Alfven wave
Wong, K.L.; Kristiansen, M.; Hagler, M.
1985-01-01
Minority ions play an important role in ICRF wave heating and fast wave current drive. The former provides supplemental heating to the plasma ions, and the latter enables a Tokamak reactor to operate in steady state. The injection of minority ions greatly perturbs the propagation and absorption properties of the fast waves provided that the excitation frequency and confining magnetic field strength make the hybrid layers exist inside the plasma. A cold-plasma slab model with gradient confining magnetic field, parabolic plasma density, vacuum layer, launching antenna and conducting walls was used in studying wave propagation with and without minority ions. The wave propagation was studied individually for each discrete toroidal eigenmode (N=Rk/sub z/). There exists an asymmetric density cutoff region which is mainly due to the density variation in a single-ion plasma. The larger the torodial mode number, the larger the density cutoff region. Therefore, there exists a maximum mode number N/sub m/, which can be excited for each operating frequency. With injection of minority ions, the cutoff region for each mode number is almost unchanged. But, if one carefully chooses the excitation frequency; the hybrid layers can exist inside the plamsa for all or part of the allowed eigenmodes. Those eigenmodes with hybrid layers inside the plasma will undergo drastic change in the propagation and absorption of the waves
Spin waves propagation and confinement in magnetic microstructures
Bailleul, Matthieu
2002-01-01
In this thesis, ferromagnetic thin film elements have been studied on a small scale (μm) and at high frequencies (GHz). For those studies, a microwave spectrometer based on the use of micro-antennae has been developed. It had been applied to two different systems. In a first time, we have launched and detected spin waves in continuous films. This allowed us to describe both the transduction process and the relaxation law for long wavelength spin waves. In a second time, we have studied micrometer-wide stripe for which the magnetic ground state is inhomogeneous. The obtained microwave response has been interpreted in terms of micro-magnetic phase transitions and in terms of spin waves confinement. (author)
Bertelli, N; Balakin, A A; Westerhof, E; Garcia, O E; Nielsen, A H; Naulin, V
2010-01-01
A numerical analysis of the electron cyclotron (EC) wave beam propagation in the presence of edge density fluctuations by means of a quasi-optical code [Balakin A. A. et al, Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 065003] is presented. The effects of the density fluctuations on the wave beam propagation are estimated in a vacuum beam propagation between the edge density layer and the EC resonance absorption layer. Consequences on the EC beam propagation are investigated by using a simplified model in which the density fluctuations are described by a single harmonic oscillation. In addition, quasi-optical calculations are shown by using edge density fluctuations as calculated by two-dimensional interchange turbulence simulations and validated with the experimental data [O. E. Garcia et al, Nucl. Fusion 47 (2007) 667].
Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Wang, Hong-Yu; Xie, Bai-Song
2011-01-01
Nonparaxial and nonlinear propagation of a short intense laser beam in a parabolic plasma channel is analyzed by means of the variational method and nonlinear dynamics. The beam propagation properties are classified by five kinds of behaviors. In particularly, the electromagnetic solitary wave for finite pulse laser is found beside the other four propagation cases including beam periodically oscillating with defocussing and focusing amplitude, constant spot size, beam catastrophic focusing. It is also found that the laser pulse can be allowed to propagate in the plasma channel only when a certain relation for laser parameters and plasma channel parameters is satisfied. For the solitary wave, it may provide an effective way to obtain ultra-short laser pulse.
On the rogue wave propagation in ion pair superthermal plasma
Abdelwahed, H. G., E-mail: hgomaa-eg@yahoo.com, E-mail: hgomaa-eg@mans.edu.eg; Zahran, M. A. [Physics Department, College of Sciences and Humanities Studies Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj (Saudi Arabia); Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); El-Shewy, E. K., E-mail: emadshewy@yahoo.com; Elwakil, S. A. [Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)
2016-02-15
Effects of superthermal electron on the features of nonlinear acoustic waves in unmagnetized collisionless ion pair plasma with superthermal electrons have been examined. The system equations are reduced in the form of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The rogue wave characteristics dependences on the ionic density ratio (ν = n{sub –0}/n{sub +0}), ionic mass ratio (Q = m{sub +}/m{sub −}), and superthermality index (κ) are investigated. It is worth mentioning that the results present in this work could be applicable in the Earth's ionosphere plasmas.
Propagation of Quasi-plane Nonlinear Waves in Tubes
P. Koníček
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with possibilities of using the generalized Burgers equation and the KZK equation to describe nonlinear waves in circular ducts. A new method for calculating of diffraction effects taking into account boundary layer effects is described. The results of numerical solutions of the model equations are compared. Finally, the limits of validity of the used model equations are discussed with respect to boundary conditions and the radius of the circular duct. The limits of applicability of the KZK equation and the GBE equation for describing nonlinear waves in tubes are discussed.
Biggerstaff, Michael I.; Zounes, Zackery; Addison Alford, A.; Carrie, Gordon D.; Pilkey, John T.; Uman, Martin A.; Jordan, Douglas M.
2017-08-01
A series of vertical cross sections taken through a small mesoscale convective system observed over Florida by the dual-polarimetric SMART radar were combined with VHF radiation source locations from a lightning mapping array (LMA) to examine the lightning channel propagation paths relative to the radar-observed ice alignment signatures associated with regions of negative specific differential phase (KDP). Additionally, charge layers inferred from analysis of LMA sources were related to the ice alignment signature. It was found that intracloud flashes initiated near the upper zero-KDP boundary surrounding the negative KDP region. The zero-KDP boundary also delineated the propagation path of the lightning channel with the negative leaders following the upper boundary and positive leaders following the lower boundary. Very few LMA sources were found in the negative KDP region. We conclude that rapid dual-polarimetric radar observations can diagnose strong electric fields and may help identify surrounding regions of charge.
Calculation models of pressure wave propagation within the WWER-440 primary circulating loop
Adamik, V.; Tkach, A.
1982-01-01
Computer codes SHOCK, LOVE, BAREL are described that can be used for the study of pressure wave propagation within the reactor and pipeline system during a LOCA as well as for mechanical loads identification in various parts of the system. SHOCK code is applicable to one-dimensional pressure wave propagation analysis in any hydraulic network containing a compressible nonviscous liquid with a constant (within the considered transient process period) density. LOVE code allows to calculate non-symmetrical mechanical loads on the WWER shaft in case of the main circulation pipeline cold branch rupture. BAREL code is an advanced modification of SHOCK code. It is fitted for two-dimensional pressure wave propagation analysing in the downstream section of a pressurised water reactor in case of the main circulation pipeline cold branch rupture. The calculation results for B-213 type WWER-440 reactor are presented that have been obtained under the assumption of perfect structure rigidity [ru
Slow-wave propagation and sheath interaction in the ion-cyclotron frequency range
Myra, J R; D'Ippolito, D A
2010-01-01
In previous work (Myra J R and D'Ippolito D A 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 195004) we studied the propagation of slow-wave (SW) resonance cones launched parasitically by a fast-wave antenna into a tenuous magnetized plasma. Here we extend the treatment of SW propagation and sheath interaction to 'dense' scrape-off-layer plasmas where the usual cold-plasma SW is evanescent. Using the sheath boundary condition, it is shown that for sufficiently close limiters, the SW couples to a sheath-plasma wave and is no longer evanescent, but radially propagating. A self-consistent calculation of the rf-sheath width yields the resulting sheath voltage in terms of the amplitude of the launched SW, plasma parameters and connection length. The conditions for avoiding potentially deleterious rf-wall interactions in tokamak rf heating experiments are summarized.
Wave propagation in structured materials as a platform for effective parameters retrieving
Andryieuski, Andrei; Ha, S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.
MM slab can be considered as a semi-infinite medium. Modelling the one-directional (forward) propagation of the wave inside a metamaterial slab thick enough to avoid transition layers effects and reflection from the rear interface we are able to restore complex refractive index3. Getting the input...... established yet. In this contribution, we present an overview of our activity in EPs retrieving based on observation of wave propagation phenomena in thick (multilayer) MMs. We put a goal to develop a method which is unambiguous, but at the same time simple and straightforward. The idea is that thick enough...... utilization of the Bloch-mode analysis5. The idea is to perform the Bloch mode expansion6 of the field inside the metamaterial slab when it is illuminated with a plane wave incident from vacuum. Then we determine the effective refractive index from the propagation constant of the dominating (fundamental...
Influence of vertically and obliquely propagating gravity waves on the polar summer mesosphere
Thurairajah, B.; Siskind, D. E.; Bailey, S. M.
2017-12-01
Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) are sensitive to changes in temperature of the cold polar summer mesosphere, which in turn are modulated by gravity waves (GWs). In this study we investigate the link between PMCs and GWs that propagate both vertically (i.e. wave propagation is directly above the source region) and obliquely (lateral or non-vertical propagation upward but away from the source region). Several observational studies have analyzed the link between PMCs and vertically propagating GWs and have reported both positive and negative correlations. Moreover, while modelling studies have noted the possibility of oblique propagation of GWs from the low-latitude stratosphere to the high-latitude mesosphere, observational studies of the influence of these waves on the polar summer mesosphere are sparse. We present a comprehensive analysis of the influence of vertically and obliquely propagating GWs on the northern hemisphere (NH) polar summer mesosphere using data from 8 PMC seasons. Temperature data from the SOFIE experiment on the AIM satellite and SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite are used to derive GW parameters. SOFIE PMC data in terms of Ice Water Content (IWC) are used to quantify the changes in the polar summer mesosphere. At high latitudes, preliminary analysis of vertically propagating waves indicate a weak but positive correlation between GWs at 50 km and GWs at the PMC altitude of 84 km. Overall there is a negative correlation between GWs at 50 km and IWC and a positive correlation between GWs at 84 km and IWC. These results and the presence of a slanted structure (slanted from the low-latitude stratosphere to the high-latitude mesosphere) in GW momentum flux suggest the possibility of a significant influence of obliquely propagating GWs on the polar summer mesosphere
Mati Goldberg
Full Text Available A new paradigm has recently emerged in brain science whereby communications between glial cells and neuron-glia interactions should be considered together with neurons and their networks to understand higher brain functions. In particular, astrocytes, the main type of glial cells in the cortex, have been shown to communicate with neurons and with each other. They are thought to form a gap-junction-coupled syncytium supporting cell-cell communication via propagating Ca(2+ waves. An identified mode of propagation is based on cytoplasm-to-cytoplasm transport of inositol trisphosphate (IP(3 through gap junctions that locally trigger Ca(2+ pulses via IP(3-dependent Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release. It is, however, currently unknown whether this intracellular route is able to support the propagation of long-distance regenerative Ca(2+ waves or is restricted to short-distance signaling. Furthermore, the influence of the intracellular signaling dynamics on intercellular propagation remains to be understood. In this work, we propose a model of the gap-junctional route for intercellular Ca(2+ wave propagation in astrocytes. Our model yields two major predictions. First, we show that long-distance regenerative signaling requires nonlinear coupling in the gap junctions. Second, we show that even with nonlinear gap junctions, long-distance regenerative signaling is favored when the internal Ca(2+ dynamics implements frequency modulation-encoding oscillations with pulsating dynamics, while amplitude modulation-encoding dynamics tends to restrict the propagation range. As a result, spatially heterogeneous molecular properties and/or weak couplings are shown to give rise to rich spatiotemporal dynamics that support complex propagation behaviors. These results shed new light on the mechanisms implicated in the propagation of Ca(2+ waves across astrocytes and the precise conditions under which glial cells may participate in information processing in the brain.
Photoacoustic wave propagating from normal into superconductive phases in Pb single crystals
Iwanaga, Masanobu
2005-01-01
Photoacoustic (PA) wave has been examined in a superconductor of the first kind, Pb single crystal. The PA wave is induced by optical excitation of electronic state and propagates from normal into superconductive phases below T$_{\\rm C}$. It is clearly shown by wavelet analysis that the measured PA wave includes two different components. The high-frequency component is MHz-ultrasonic and the relative low-frequency one is induced by thermal wave. The latter is observed in a similar manner irre...
Propagating waves in starling, Sturnus vulgaris, flocks under predation
Procaccini, Andrea; Orlandi, Alberto; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Zoratto, Francesca; Santucci, Daniela; Chiarotti, Flavia; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Alleva, Enrico; Parisi, Giorgio; Carere, Claudio
2011-01-01
The formation of waves is a vivid example of collective behaviour occurring in insects, birds, fish and mammals, which has been interpreted as an antipredator response. In birds a quantitative characterization of this phenomenon, involving thousands of individuals, is missing and its link with
Non-homogeneous polymer model for wave propagation and its ...
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Analysis of flexural wave propagation in poroelastic composite ...
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dimensional solution for free vibration problem of homogeneous isotropic cylindrical ... Abousleiman and Cui (1998) presented poroelastic solutions in an inclined ...... The Biot-willis elastic coefficients for a sandstone, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. ... Study of wave motions in fluid-saturated porous rocks, Journal of the ...
Highly Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Elastic Woodpile Periodic Structures
2016-08-03
called a nanopteron, is not only motivated theoretically and numerically, but are also visualized experimentally by means of a laser Doppler vibrometer...velocity, which clearly follow the prin- cipal solitary wave (highlighted in red color ). It should be noted that the velocities involved in the
Non-homogeneous polymer model for wave propagation and its ...
This article concerns certain aspects of four parameter polymer models to study harmonic waves in the non-homogeneous polymer rods of varying density. There are two sections of this paper, in first section, the rheological behaviour of the model is discussed numerically and then it is solved analytically with the help of ...
Nonlinear wave propagation studies, dispersion modeling, and signal parameters correction
Převorovský, Zdeněk
..: ..., 2004, 00. [European Workshop on FP6-AERONEWS /1./. Naples (IT), 13.09.2004-16.09.2004] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 502927 - AERO-NEWS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : nodestructive testing * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Unstructured Spectral Element Model for Dispersive and Nonlinear Wave Propagation
Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes; Bigoni, Daniele
2016-01-01
We introduce a new stabilized high-order and unstructured numerical model for modeling fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves. The model is based on a nodal spectral element method of arbitrary order in space and a -transformed formulation due to Cai, Langtangen, Nielsen and Tveito (1998). In...
Park, Sang Jin [UST Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Hui Nam [Division of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Doo Byung; Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
In this research, we study the propagation of longitudinal and transverse waves through a metal rod including a liquid layer using computational and experimental analyses. The propagation characteristics of longitudinal and transverse waves obtained by the computational and experimental analyses were consistent with the wave propagation theory for both cases, that is, the homogeneous metal rod and the metal rod including a liquid layer. The fluid-structure interaction modeling technique developed for the computational wave propagation analysis in this research can be applied to the more complex structures including solid-liquid interfaces.
Surface wave propagation in steady ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic magnetic slabs
Miteva, Rossitsa; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Erdelyi, Robert
2003-01-01
This paper studies the dispersion characteristics of sausage and kink surface waves traveling along a plasma layer within the framework of Hall magnetohydrodynamics in steady state. While in a static plasma slab these waves are Alfven ones (their phase velocities are close to the Alfven speed in the layer); in a slab with steady flows they may become super Alfvenic waves. Moreover, there exist two types of waves: forward and backward ones bearing in mind that the flow velocity defines the positive (forward) direction. As a typical representative of a magnetic slab in steady state here is considered a solar wind flux rope with a finite β plasma flow (typically β∼1).The forward sausage surface mode exhibits an increased dispersion at small wave numbers while the forward kink waves become practically non-dispersive. Both backward propagating sausage and kink surface modes show an increased dispersion for large wave numbers
Using the gauge condition to simplify the elastodynamic analysis of guided wave propagation
Md Yeasin BHUIYAN
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, gauge condition in elastodynamics is explored more to revive its potential capability of simplifying wave propagation problems in elastic medium. The inception of gauge condition in elastodynamics happens from the Navier-Lame equations upon application of Helmholtz theorem. In order to solve the elastic wave problems by potential function approach, the gauge condition provides the necessary conditions for the potential functions. The gauge condition may be considered as the superposition of the separate gauge conditions of Lamb waves and shear horizontal (SH guided waves respectively, and thus, it may be resolved into corresponding gauges of Lamb waves and SH waves. The manipulation and proper choice of the gauge condition does not violate the classical solutions of elastic waves in plates; rather, it simplifies the problems. The gauge condition allows to obtain the analytical solution of complicated problems in a simplified manner.
Propagation of a surface electromagnetic wave in a plasma with allowance for electron heating
Boev, A.G.; Prokopov, A.V.
1978-01-01
Considered is propagation of a surface high-frequency wave in a semibounded plasma, which electron component is heated within the wave field. Dissipative effects are considered small, that is possible if wave frequency is much higher than the collision frequency and phase velocity of wave considerably exceeds electron heat velocity. Under conditions of anomalous skin-effect the distributions of electron temperature and wave damping have been found. It is established, that higher electron temperature on the boundary results in a higher decrease of temperature inside a plasma, far from the boundary temperature decreases exponentially; damping coefficient under anomalous skin-effect conditions is characterized by a stronger dependence not only on the wave amplitude, but as well as on gas pressure and wave frequency in comparison with normal conditions
Low velocity target detection based on time-frequency image for high frequency ground wave radar
YAN Songhua; WU Shicai; WEN Biyang
2007-01-01
The Doppler spectral broadening resulted from non-stationary movement of target and radio-frequency interference will decrease the veracity of target detection by high frequency ground wave(HEGW)radar.By displaying the change of signal energy on two dimensional time-frequency images based on time-frequency analysis,a new mathematical morphology method to distinguish target from nonlinear time-frequency curves is presented.The analyzed results from the measured data verify that with this new method the target can be detected correctly from wide Doppler spectrum.
Gas explosion characterization, wave propagation (small-scale experiments)
Larsen, G.C.
1985-01-01
A number of experiments have been performed with blast waves arising from the ignition of homogeneous and well defined mixtures of methane, oxygen and nitrogen, contained within spherical balloons with controlled initial dimensions. In the initial small scale experiments pressure characteristics, ground reflection phenomena and pressure distribution on box like obstacles were studied. Both configurations with one box and two closely spaced boxes have been considered, and a wave-wave interaction phenomenom was observed in the case of closely spaced obstacles. Main emphasis has been placed on the half scale field experiments. In these, the maximum flame speed has been of the order of 100 m/s, resulting in positive peak pressures of 50-100.10 2 Pa in 5 - 10 m distance from the source. The explosion process was found to be reasonable symmetric. The attenuation of the blast wave due to vegetation and the influence of obstacles as banks, walls and houses on the pressure field have been investigated. The presence of the bank and the house was felt in a zone with a length corresponding to a typical dimension of the obstacles, whereas the overall pressure field is shown to be unaffected by the type of obstacles and vegetation investigated. For the wall and house, reflection factors have been established, and some variation over the surface has been measured. The scatter of the pressure measurements is estimated for stable, neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions, and an attempt to determine the ground reflection factor has been performed. Finally the accelerations of a house exposed to the blast wave have been examined
A case study of gravity waves in noctilucent clouds
P. Dalin
2004-06-01
Full Text Available We present a case study of a noctilucent cloud (NLC display appearing on 10-11 August 2000 over Northern Sweden. Clear wave structures were visible in the clouds and time-lapse photography was used to derive the parameters characterising the gravity waves which could account for the observed NLC modulation. Using two nearby atmospheric radars, the Esrange MST Radar data and Andoya MF radar, we have identified gravity waves propagating upward from the upper stratosphere to NLC altitudes. The wave parameters derived from the radar measurements support the suggestion that gravity waves are responsible for the observed complex wave dynamics in the NLC.
Carroll, B.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Limmer, R.
2009-03-01
A frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) handheld radar operating in the frequency range of 8-18 GHz, resulting in a relatively fine range resolution was designed and constructed for on-site inspection of refractory structure thickness. This paper presents the design of the radar and the results of measurements conducted on typical refractory furnace structures assembled in the laboratory.
Condor equatorial electrojet campaign: Radar results
Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.; Hanuise, C.
1987-01-01
A review of the experimental and theoretical background to the Condor equatorial electrojet compaign is followed by the presentation and discussion of VHF radar interferometer and HF radar backscatter data taken concurrently with two rocket in situ experiments reported in companion papers (Pfaff et al., this issue (a, b). Both experiments were conducted in strongly driven periods with the on-line radar interferometer displaying signatures of what has been interpreted in earlier radar work (Kudeki et al., 1982) as kilometer scale gradient drift waves. Low-frequency density fluctuations detected by in situ rocket sensors confirm the earlier interpretation. VHF radar/rocket data comparisons also indicate the existence of a turbulent layer in the upper portion of the daytime electrojet at about 108 km altitude driven purely by the two-stream instability. Nonlinear mode coupling of linearly growing two-stream waves to linearly damped 3-m vertical modes could account for the radar echoes scattered from this layer, which showed no indication of large-scale gradient drift waves. Nonlinear mode coupling may therefore compete with the wave-induced anomalous diffusion mechanism proposed recently by Sudan (1983) for the saturation of directly excited two-stream waves. Nighttime radar data show a bifurcated layer with the two parts having comparable echo strength but oppositely directed zonal drift velocities. The lower layer shows narrow backscatter spectra; the upper layer is characterized by kilometer scale waves and vertically propagating type 1 waves
Fully Noncontact Wave Propagation Imaging in an Immersed Metallic Plate with a Crack
Jung-Ryul Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a noncontact sensing technique with ultrasonic wave propagation imaging algorithm, for damage visualization of liquid-immersed structures. An aluminum plate specimen (400 mm × 400 mm × 3 mm with a 12 mm slit was immersed in water and in glycerin. A 532 nm Q-switched continuous wave laser is used at an energy level of 1.2 mJ to scan an area of 100 mm × 100 mm. A laser Doppler vibrometer is used as a noncontact ultrasonic sensor, which measures guided wave displacement at a fixed point. The tests are performed with two different cases of specimen: without water and filled with water and with glycerin. Lamb wave dispersion curves for the respective cases are calculated, to investigate the velocity-frequency relationship of each wave mode. Experimental propagation velocities of Lamb waves for different cases are compared with the theoretical dispersion curves. This study shows that the dispersion and attenuation of the Lamb wave is affected by the surrounding liquid, and the comparative experimental results are presented to verify it. In addition, it is demonstrated that the developed fully noncontact ultrasonic propagation imaging system is capable of damage sizing in submerged structures.
Wave Propagation From Electrons to Photonic Crystals and Left-Handed Materials
Markos, Peter
2010-01-01
This textbook offers the first unified treatment of wave propagation in electronic and electromagnetic systems and introduces readers to the essentials of the transfer matrix method, a powerful analytical tool that can be used to model and study an array of problems pertaining to wave propagation in electrons and photons. It is aimed at graduate and advanced undergraduate students in physics, materials science, electrical and computer engineering, and mathematics, and is ideal for researchers in photonic crystals, negative index materials, left-handed materials, plasmonics, nonlinear effects,
Unidirectional Wave Propagation in Low-Symmetric Colloidal Photonic-Crystal Heterostructures
Vassilios Yannopapas
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We show theoretically that photonic crystals consisting of colloidal spheres exhibit unidirectional wave propagation and one-way frequency band gaps without breaking time-reversal symmetry via, e.g., the application of an external magnetic field or the use of nonlinear materials. Namely, photonic crystals with low symmetry such as the monoclinic crystal type considered here as well as with unit cells formed by the heterostructure of different photonic crystals show significant unidirectional electromagnetic response. In particular, we show that the use of scatterers with low refractive-index contrast favors the formation of unidirectional frequency gaps which is the optimal route for achieving unidirectional wave propagation.
Unidirectional Wave Propagation in Low-Symmetric Colloidal Photonic-Crystal Heterostructures.
Yannopapas, Vassilios
2015-03-19
We show theoretically that photonic crystals consisting of colloidal spheres exhibit unidirectional wave propagation and one-way frequency band gaps without breaking time-reversal symmetry via, e.g., the application of an external magnetic field or the use of nonlinear materials. Namely, photonic crystals with low symmetry such as the monoclinic crystal type considered here as well as with unit cells formed by the heterostructure of different photonic crystals show significant unidirectional electromagnetic response. In particular, we show that the use of scatterers with low refractive-index contrast favors the formation of unidirectional frequency gaps which is the optimal route for achieving unidirectional wave propagation.
Two modes of wave propagation manifested in vertical electric dipole radiation over a sphere
Houdzoumis, Vassilios A.
2000-01-01
The radiation of a vertical electric dipole over an electrically homogeneous sphere is considered anew, starting with a novel mathematical formulation. Both the dipole and the point of observation are assumed to lie on the spherical interface. The analysis is valid for a sphere whose radius is much larger than the wavelength in the outside region. Contributions to the value of the fields come, on the one hand, from the waves that propagate along the interface and, on the other hand, from the waves that propagate through the sphere by successive reflections. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union
A Backscattering and Propagation Model for Radar Sounding of Ice Sheets
Dall, Jørgen
2016-01-01
. The scattering and propagation properties of the icesheets are characterized using an empirical approach. The model comprises surface scattering from the air/ice interfaceand the ice/bed interface as well as volume scattering from the firn and the ice. Also specular reflection from the internal layers is modeled...
Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array.
Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Qi, Fugui; Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi
2016-01-01
It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor's respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person's head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors.
Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array
Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi
2016-01-01
It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor’s respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person’s head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors. PMID:27073860
Modelling of long-wave chaotic radar system for anti-stealth applications
Al-Suhail, Ghaida A.; Tahir, Fadhil Rahma; Abd, Mariam Hussien; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Fortuna, Luigi
2018-04-01
Although the Very Low-Frequency (VLF) waveforms have limited practical applications in acoustics (sonar) and secure military communications with radars and submarines; to this end; this paper presents a new and simple analytical model of VLF monostatic direct chaotic radar system. The model hypothetically depends on the two identical coupled time-delayed feedback chaotic systems which can generate and recover a long-wave chaotic signal. To resist the influence of positive Lyapunov exponents of the time-delay chaotic systems, the complete replacement of Pecaro and Carroll (PC) synchronization is employed. It can faithfully recover the chaotic signal from the back-scattered (echo) signal from the target over a noisy channel. The system performance is characterized in terms of the time series of synchronization in addition to the peak of the cross-correlation. Simulation results are conducted for substantial sensitivities of the chaotic signal to the system parameters and initial conditions. As a result, it is found that an effective and robust chaotic radar (CRADAR) model can be obtained when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) highly degrades to 0 dB, but with clear peak in correlation performance for detecting the target. Then, the model can be considered as a state of the art towards counter stealth technology and might be developed for other acoustic secure applications.
A Study of Solar Flare Effects on Mid and High Latitude Radio Wave Propagation using SuperDARN.
Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Chakraborty, S.; Baker, J. B.
2017-12-01
Over the Horizon (OTH) communication is strongly dependent on the state of the ionosphere, which is sensitive to solar X-ray flares. The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), whose working principle is dependent on trans-ionospheric radio communication, uses HF radio waves to remotely sense the ionosphere. The backscatter returns from the terrestrial surface (also known as ground-scatter) transit the ionosphere four times and simulate the operation of an HF communications link. SuperDARN backscatter signal properties are altered (strongly attenuated and changes apparent phase) during a sudden ionospheric disturbance following a solar flare, commonly known as Short-Wave Fadeout or SWF. During an SWF the number of SuperDARN backscatter echoes drops suddenly (≈1 min) and sharply, often to near zero, and recovers within 30 minutes to an hour. In this study HF propagation data (SuperDARN backscatter) obtained during SWF events are analyzed for the purpose of validating and improving the performance of HF absorption models, such as, Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) D-region Absorption model (DRAP) and CCMC physics based AbbyNormal model. We will also present preliminary results from a physics based model for the mid and high latitude ionospheric response to flare-driven space weather anomalies, which can be used to estimate different physical parameters of the ionosphere such as electron density, collision frequency, absorption coefficients, response time of D-region etc.
An eastward propagating compressional Pc 5 wave observed by AMPTE/CCE in the postmidnight sector
Takahashi, K.; McEntire, R.W.; Zanetti, L.J.; Lopez, R.E.; Kistler, L.M.; Ipavich, R.M.
1987-01-01
Data from three instruments, the magnetometer, the charge-energy-mass spectrometer, and the medium-energy particle analyzer onboard the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft have been used to study a compressional Pc 5 wave observed at 1925-2200 UT on day 202 (July 21) of 1986 at a radial distance of ≅ 8 R E in the postmidnight sector near the beginning of minor geomagnetic activity. The wave exhibited harmonically related transverse and compressional magnetic oscillations, modulation of the flux of medium energy protons (E approx-gt 10 keV), and a large azimuthal wave number (m ∼ 65). These properties are similar to those of compressional Pc 5 waves observed previously at geostationary orbit. The unique observations associated with the CCE event are the occurrence in the postmidnight sector, the eastward (or sunward) propagation with respect to the spacecraft, and the left-handed polarization of the perturbed magnetic field. These are opposite to previous geostationary observations. The authors propose that the unique propagation and polarization are propagating westward in the plasma rest frame, appears to propagate eastward to the observer because the electric field drift velocity is larger than the wave phase velocity
He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua; Pei, Zhongtian [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Marsch, Eckart [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Chen, Christopher H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Lei [Sate Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Salem, Chadi S.; Bale, Stuart D., E-mail: jshept@gmail.com [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2015-11-10
Magnetohydronamic turbulence is believed to play a crucial role in heating laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas. However, the precise connection between the turbulent fluctuations and the particle kinetics has not yet been established. Here we present clear evidence of plasma turbulence heating based on diagnosed wave features and proton velocity distributions from solar wind measurements by the Wind spacecraft. For the first time, we can report the simultaneous observation of counter-propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind turbulence. As opposed to the traditional paradigm with counter-propagating Alfvén waves (AWs), anti-sunward AWs are encountered by sunward slow magnetosonic waves (SMWs) in this new type of solar wind compressible turbulence. The counter-propagating AWs and SWs correspond, respectively, to the dominant and sub-dominant populations of the imbalanced Elsässer variables. Nonlinear interactions between the AWs and SMWs are inferred from the non-orthogonality between the possible oscillation direction of one wave and the possible propagation direction of the other. The associated protons are revealed to exhibit bi-directional asymmetric beams in their velocity distributions: sunward beams appear in short, narrow patterns and anti-sunward in broad extended tails. It is suggested that multiple types of wave–particle interactions, i.e., cyclotron and Landau resonances with AWs and SMWs at kinetic scales, are taking place to jointly heat the protons perpendicular and in parallel.
Mapping of spin wave propagation in a one-dimensional magnonic crystal
Ordóñez-Romero, César L., E-mail: cloro@fisica.unam.mx; Lazcano-Ortiz, Zorayda; Aguilar-Huerta, Melisa; Monsivais, Guillermo [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Drozdovskii, Andrey; Kalinikos, Boris [St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); International laboratory “MultiferrLab,” ITMO University, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Domínguez-Juárez, J. L. [Cátedras CONACyT, CFATA, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Juriquilla, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Lopez-Maldonado, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Lerma de Villada, 52006 Estado de México (Mexico); Qureshi, Naser; Kolokoltsev, Oleg [CCADET, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)
2016-07-28
The formation and evolution of spin wave band gaps in the transmission spectrum of a magnonic crystal have been studied. A time and space resolved magneto inductive probing system has been used to map the spin wave propagation and evolution in a geometrically structured yttrium iron garnet film. Experiments have been carried out using (1) a chemically etched magnonic crystal supporting the propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves, (2) a short microwave pulsed excitation of the spin waves, and (3) direct spin wave detection using a movable magneto inductive probe connected to a synchronized fast oscilloscope. The results show that the periodic structure not only modifies the spectra of the transmitted spin waves but also influences the distribution of the spin wave energy inside the magnonic crystal as a function of the position and the transmitted frequency. These results comprise an experimental confirmation of Bloch′s theorem in a spin wave system and demonstrate good agreement with theoretical observations in analogue phononic and photonic systems. Theoretical prediction of the structured transmission spectra is achieved using a simple model based on microwave transmission lines theory. Here, a spin wave system illustrates in detail the evolution of a much more general physical concept: the band gap.
Chiuderi, C; Giovanardi, C [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia
1979-11-01
This paper presents a detailed discussion of the properties of linear, periodic acoustic waves that propagate vertically in a non-isothermal atmosphere. In order to retain the basic feature of the solar atmosphere we have chosen a temperature profile presenting a minimum. An analytical solution of the problem is possible if T/..mu.., ..mu.. being the mean molecular weight, varies parabolically with height. The purpose of this study is to point out the qualitative differences existing between the case treated here and the customary analysis based on a locally isothermal treatment. The computed velocity amplitude and the temperature-perturbation as functions of the wave period exhibit a sharp peak in the region between 180 and 300 s, thus showing the possibility of interpreting the five-minute oscillations as a resonant phenomenon. The propagating or stationary nature of the waves is investigated by a study of the phase of the proposed analytical solution.
High-Order Wave Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems
Ketcheson, David I.
2013-01-22
We present a finite volume method that is applicable to hyperbolic PDEs including spatially varying and semilinear nonconservative systems. The spatial discretization, like that of the well-known Clawpack software, is based on solving Riemann problems and calculating fluctuations (not fluxes). The implementation employs weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction in space and strong stability preserving Runge--Kutta integration in time. The method can be extended to arbitrarily high order of accuracy and allows a well-balanced implementation for capturing solutions of balance laws near steady state. This well-balancing is achieved through the $f$-wave Riemann solver and a novel wave-slope WENO reconstruction procedure. The wide applicability and advantageous properties of the method are demonstrated through numerical examples, including problems in nonconservative form, problems with spatially varying fluxes, and problems involving near-equilibrium solutions of balance laws.
Nonlinear wave propagation in discrete and continuous systems
Rothos, V. M.
2016-09-01
In this review we try to capture some of the recent excitement induced by a large volume of theoretical and computational studies addressing nonlinear Schrödinger models (discrete and continuous) and the localized structures that they support. We focus on some prototypical structures, namely the breather solutions and solitary waves. In particular, we investigate the bifurcation of travelling wave solution in Discrete NLS system applying dynamical systems methods. Next, we examine the combined effects of cubic and quintic terms of the long range type in the dynamics of a double well potential. The relevant bifurcations, the stability of the branches and their dynamical implications are examined both in the reduced (ODE) and in the full (PDE) setting. We also offer an outlook on interesting possibilities for future work on this theme.
Excitation of propagating magnetization waves by microstrip antennas
Dmitriev, V. F.; Kalinikos, B. A.
1988-11-01
We discuss the self-consistent theory of excitation of dipole-exchange magnetization waves by microstrip antennas in a metal-dielectric-ferrite-dielectric-metal stratified structure, magnetized under an arbitrary angle to the surface. Spin-wave Green's functions are derived, describing the response of the spin-system to a spatially inhomogeneous varying magnetic field. The radiative resistance of microstrip antenna is calculated. In this case the distribution of surface current density in the antenna is found on the basis of the analytic solution of a singular integral equation. The nature of the effect of metallic screens and redistributed surface current densities in the antenna on the frequency dependence of the resistive radiation is investigated. Approximate relations are obtained, convenient for practical calculations of radiative resistance of microstrip antennas both in a free and in a screened ferromagnetic film. The theoretical calculations are verified by data of experiments carried out on monocrystalline films of iron-yttrium garnet.
General solution of EM wave propagation in anisotropic media
Lee, Jinyoung; Lee, Seoktae
2010-01-01
When anisotropy is involved, the wave equation becomes simultaneous partial differential equations that are not easily solved. Moreover, when the anisotropy occurs due to both permittivity and permeability, these equations are insolvable without a numerical or an approximate method. The problem is essentially due to the fact neither ε nor μ can be extracted from the curl term, when they are in it. The terms curl(E) (or H) and curl(εE) (or μH) are practically independent variables, and E and H are coupled to each other. However, if Maxwell's equations are manipulated in a different way, new wave equations are obtained. The obtained equations can be applied in anisotropic, as well as isotropic, cases. In addition, E and H are decoupled in the new equations, so the equations can be solved analytically by using tensor Green's functions.
Monitoring and modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in crystallizing mixtures
Marshall, T.; Challis, R. E.; Tebbutt, J. S.
2002-05-01
The utility of ultrasonic compression wave techniques for monitoring crystallization processes is investigated in a study of the seeded crystallization of copper II sulfate pentahydrate from aqueous solution. Simple models are applied to predict crystal yield, crystal size distribution and the changing nature of the continuous phase. A scattering model is used to predict the ultrasonic attenuation as crystallization proceeds. Experiments confirm that modeled attenuation is in agreement with measured results.
Wave propagation near the lower hybrid resonance in toroidal plasmas
Ohkubo, K.; Ohasa, K.; Matsuura, K.
1975-10-01
Dielectric tensor and equipotential curves (ray trajectories) of an electrostatic wave near the lower hybrid resonance are investigated for the toroidal plasma with a shear magnetic field. The ray trajectories start from the vicinity of the plasma surface, and rotate in a spiral form around the magnetic axis, and then reach the lower or upper parts of lower hybrid resonance layer. The numerical computations are performed on the parameters of JIPP T-II device with two dimensional inhomogeneity. (auth.)
Propagation of Quasi-plane Nonlinear Waves in Tubes
P. Koníček; M. Bednařík; M. Červenka
2002-01-01
This paper deals with possibilities of using the generalized Burgers equation and the KZK equation to describe nonlinear waves in circular ducts. A new method for calculating of diffraction effects taking into account boundary layer effects is described. The results of numerical solutions of the model equations are compared. Finally, the limits of validity of the used model equations are discussed with respect to boundary conditions and the radius of the circular duct. The limits of applicabi...
Yucel, Abdulkadir C.; Sheng, Weitian; Zhou, Chenming; Liu, Yang Z.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric
2018-01-01
A fast and memory efficient 3D full wave simulator for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in electrically large and realistic mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conductors is proposed. The simulator relies on Muller and combined field
Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)] [and others
1996-04-01
During April 1994, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) fielded two millimeter-wave atmospheric radars in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Operation Period (RCS-IOP) experiment. The UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) operates simultaneously at 33.12 GHz and 94.92 GHz through a single antenna. The Penn State radar operates at 93.95 GHz and has separate transmitting and receiving antennas. The two systems were separated by approximately 75 meters and simultaneously observed a variety of cloud types at verticle incidence over the course of the experiment. This abstract presents some initial results from our calibration efforts. An absolute calibration of the UMass radar was made from radar measurements of a trihedral corner reflector, which has a known radar cross-section. A relative calibration of between the Penn State and UMass radars is made from the statistical comparison of zenith pointing measurements of low altitude liquid clouds. Attenuation is removed with the aid of radiosonde data, and the difference in the calibration between the UMass and Penn State radars is determined by comparing the ratio of 94-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity values to a model that accounts for parallax effects of the two antennas used in the Penn State system.
Effect of parallel electric fields on the whistler mode wave propagation in the magnetosphere
Gupta, G.P.; Singh, R.N.
1975-01-01
The effect of parallel electric fields on whistler mode wave propagation has been studied. To account for the parallel electric fields, the dispersion equation has been analyzed, and refractive index surfaces for magnetospheric plasma have been constructed. The presence of parallel electric fields deforms the refractive index surfaces which diffuse the energy flow and produce defocusing of the whistler mode waves. The parallel electric field induces an instability in the whistler mode waves propagating through the magnetosphere. The growth or decay of whistler mode instability depends on the direction of parallel electric fields. It is concluded that the analyses of whistler wave records received on the ground should account for the role of parallel electric fields
Wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic nanobeams via two nonlocal beam models
Ma, Li-Hong; Ke, Liao-Liang; Wang, Yi-Ze; Wang, Yue-Sheng
2017-02-01
This paper makes the first attempt to investigate the dispersion behavior of waves in magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) nanobeams. The Euler nanobeam model and Timoshenko nanobeam model are developed in the formulation based on the nonlocal theory. By using the Hamilton's principle, we derive the governing equations which are then solved analytically to obtain the dispersion relations of MEE nanobeams. Results are presented to highlight the influences of the thermo-electro-magnetic loadings and nonlocal parameter on the wave propagation characteristics of MEE nanobeams. It is found that the thermo-electro-magnetic loadings can lead to the occurrence of the cut-off wave number below which the wave can't propagate in MEE nanobeams.
Zhong, P; Chuong, C J
1993-07-01
To understand the physical process of the impingement of cavitation microjet and the resultant shock wave propagation in an elastic solid, a theoretical model using geometrical acoustics was developed. Shock waves induced in both the jet head (water) and the solid were analyzed during a tri-supersonic impact configuration when the contact edge between the jet head and the elastic boundary expands faster than the longitudinal wave speed in the solid. Impact pressure at the boundary was solved using continuity conditions along the boundary normal. Reflection and refraction of shock waves from a solid-water interface were also included in the model. With this model, the impact pressure at the solid boundary and the stress, strain as well as velocity discontinuities at the propagating shock fronts were calculated. A comparison with results from previous studies shows that this model provides a more complete and general solution for the jet impact problem.
Numerical simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation using time domain meshless method
Ikuno, Soichiro; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Taku; Nakata, Susumu; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Kamitani, Atsushi
2012-01-01
The electromagnetic wave propagation in various shaped wave guide is simulated by using meshless time domain method (MTDM). Generally, Finite Differential Time Domain (FDTD) method is applied for electromagnetic wave propagation simulation. However, the numerical domain should be divided into rectangle meshes if FDTD method is applied for the simulation. On the other hand, the node disposition of MTDM can easily describe the structure of arbitrary shaped wave guide. This is the large advantage of the meshless time domain method. The results of computations show that the damping rate is stably calculated in case with R < 0.03, where R denotes a support radius of the weight function for the shape function. And the results indicate that the support radius R of the weight functions should be selected small, and monomials must be used for calculating the shape functions. (author)
A Temporal Millimeter Wave Propagation Model for Tunnels Using Ray Frustum Techniques and FFT
Choonghyen Kwon
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A temporal millimeter wave propagation model for tunnels is presented using ray frustum techniques and fast Fourier transform (FFT. To directly estimate or simulate effects of millimeter wave channel properties on the performance of communication services, time domain impulse responses of demodulated signals should be obtained, which needs rather large computation time. To mitigate the computational burden, ray frustum techniques are used to obtain frequency domain transfer function of millimeter wave propagation environment and FFT of equivalent low pass signals are used to retrieve demodulated waveforms. This approach is numerically efficient and helps to directly estimate impact of tunnel structures and surfaces roughness on the performance of millimeter wave communication services.
Nonlocal wave propagation in an embedded DWBNNT conveying fluid via strain gradient theory
Ghorbanpour Arani, A.; Kolahchi, R.; Vossough, H.
2012-01-01
Based on the strain gradient and Eringen’s piezoelasticity theories, wave propagation of an embedded double-walled boron nitride nanotube (DWBNNT) conveying fluid is investigated using Euler-Bernoulli beam model. The elastic medium is simulated by the Pasternak foundation. The van der Waals (vdW) forces between the inner and outer nanotubes are taken into account. Since, considering electro-mechanical coupling made the nonlinear motion equations, a numerical procedure is proposed to evaluate the upstream and downstream phase velocities. The results indicate that the effect of nonlinear terms in motion equations on the phase velocity cannot be neglected at lower wave numbers. Furthermore, the effect of fluid-conveying on wave propagation of the DWBNNT is significant at lower wave numbers.