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Sample records for radar underestimated rainfall

  1. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Wesson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  2. Runoff Analysis Considering Orographical Features Using Dual Polarization Radar Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hui-seong; Shin, Hyun-seok; Kang, Na-rae; Lee, Choong-Ke; Kim, Hung-soo

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the necessity for rainfall estimation and forecasting using the radar is being highlighted, due to the frequent occurrence of torrential rainfall resulting from abnormal changes of weather. Radar rainfall data represents temporal and spatial distributions properly and replace the existing rain gauge networks. It is also frequently applied in many hydrologic field researches. However, the radar rainfall data has an accuracy limitation since it estimates rainfall, by monitoring clouds and precipitation particles formed around the surface of the earth(1.5-3km above the surface) or the atmosphere. In a condition like Korea where nearly 70% of the land is covered by mountainous areas, there are lots of restrictions to use rainfall radar, because of the occurrence of beam blocking areas by topography. This study is aiming at analyzing runoff and examining the applicability of (R(Z), R(ZDR) and R(KDP)) provided by the Han River Flood Control Office(HRFCO) based on the basin elevation of Nakdong river watershed. For this purpose, the amount of radar rainfall of each rainfall event was estimated according to three sub-basins of Nakdong river watershed with the average basin elevation above 400m which are Namgang dam, Andong dam and Hapcheon dam and also another three sub-basins with the average basin elevation below 150m which are Waegwan, Changryeong and Goryeong. After runoff analysis using a distribution model, Vflo model, the results were reviewed and compared with the observed runoff. This study estimated the rainfall by using the radar-rainfall transform formulas, (R(Z), R(Z,ZDR) and R(Z,ZDR,KDP) for four stormwater events and compared the results with the point rainfall of the rain gauge. As the result, it was overestimated or underestimated, depending on rainfall events. Also, calculation indicates that the values from R(Z,ZDR) and R(Z,ZDR,KDP) relatively showed the most similar results. Moreover the runoff analysis using the estimated radar rainfall is

  3. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...... necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall...... estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...

  4. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...... applications. The paper also reviews how the focus in urban hydrology research has shifted over the last decade to fields such as climate change impacts, resilience of urban areas to hydrological extremes, and online prediction/warning systems. It is discussed how radar rainfall data can add value......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...

  5. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology

  6. Radar rainfall estimation in a hilly environment and implications for runoff modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2010-05-01

    Radars are known for their ability to obtain a wealth of information about the spatial stormfield characteristics. Unfortunately, rainfall estimates obtained by this instrument are known to be affected by multiple sources of error. Especially for stratiform precipitation systems, the quality of radar rainfall estimates starts to decrease at relatively close ranges. In the current study the hydrological potential of weather radar is analyzed during a winter half-year for the hilly region of the Belgian Ardennes. A correction algorithm is proposed taking into account attenuation, ground clutter, anomalous propagation, the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) and advection. No final bias correction with respect to rain gauge data were implemented, because that does not add to a better understanding of the quality of the radar. Largest quality improvements in the radar data are obtained by ground clutter removal. The influence of VPR correction and advection depends on the precipitation system observed. Overall, the radar shows an underestimation as compared to the rain gauges, which becomes smaller after averaging at the scale of the medium-sized Ourthe catchment. Remaining differences between both devices can mainly be attributed to an improper choice of the Z-R relationship. Conceptual rainfall-runoff simulations show similar results using either catchment average radar or rain gauge data, although the largest discharge peak observed, is seriously underestimated when applying radar data. Overall, for hydrological applications corrected weather radar information in a hilly environment can be used up to 70 km during a winter half-year.

  7. Radar rainfall estimation for the identification of debris-flow precipitation thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Borga, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Identification of rainfall thresholds for the prediction of debris-flow occurrence is a common approach for warning procedures. Traditionally the debris-flow triggering rainfall is derived from the closest available raingauge. However, the spatial and temporal variability of intense rainfall on mountainous areas, where debris flows take place, may lead to large uncertainty in point-based estimates. Nikolopoulos et al. (2014) have shown that this uncertainty translates into a systematic underestimation of the rainfall thresholds, leading to a step degradation of the performances of the rainfall threshold for identification of debris flows occurrence under operational conditions. A potential solution to this limitation lies on use of rainfall estimates from weather radar. Thanks to their high spatial and temporal resolutions, these estimates offer the advantage of providing rainfall information over the actual debris flow location. The aim of this study is to analyze the value of radar precipitation estimations for the identification of debris flow precipitation thresholds. Seven rainfall events that triggered debris flows in the Adige river basin (Eastern Italian Alps) are analyzed using data from a dense raingauge network and a C-Band weather radar. Radar data are elaborated by using a set of correction algorithms specifically developed for weather radar rainfall application in mountainous areas. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of debris flows are identified in the form of average intensity-duration power law curves using a frequentist approach by using both radar rainfall estimates and raingauge data. Sampling uncertainty associated to the derivation of the thresholds is assessed by using a bootstrap technique (Peruccacci et al. 2012). Results show that radar-based rainfall thresholds are largely exceeding those obtained by using raingauge data. Moreover, the differences between the two thresholds may be related to the spatial characteristics (i.e., spatial

  8. Regional frequency analysis of extreme rainfall in Belgium based on radar estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Goudenhoofdt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Belgium, only rain gauge time series have been used so far to study extreme rainfall at a given location. In this paper, the potential of a 12-year quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE from a single weather radar is evaluated. For the period 2005–2016, 1 and 24 h rainfall extremes from automatic rain gauges and collocated radar estimates are compared. The peak intensities are fitted to the exponential distribution using regression in Q-Q plots with a threshold rank which minimises the mean squared error. A basic radar product used as reference exhibits unrealistic high extremes and is not suitable for extreme value analysis. For 24 h rainfall extremes, which occur partly in winter, the radar-based QPE needs a bias correction. A few missing events are caused by the wind drift associated with convective cells and strong radar signal attenuation. Differences between radar and gauge rainfall values are caused by spatial and temporal sampling, gauge underestimations and radar errors. Nonetheless the fit to the QPE data is within the confidence interval of the gauge fit, which remains large due to the short study period. A regional frequency analysis for 1 h duration is performed at the locations of four gauges with 1965–2008 records using the spatially independent QPE data in a circle of 20 km. The confidence interval of the radar fit, which is small due to the sample size, contains the gauge fit for the two closest stations from the radar. In Brussels, the radar extremes are significantly higher than the gauge rainfall extremes, but similar to those observed by an automatic gauge during the same period. The extreme statistics exhibit slight variations related to topography. The radar-based extreme value analysis can be extended to other durations.

  9. Rainfall estimation for hydrology using volumetric weather radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses specifically on weather radar rainfall measurements in strati form precipitation. In North-Western Europe this type of precipitation is most dominant in winter and leads to the largest hydro logical response of catchments. Unfortunately, the quality of uncorrected radar rainfall

  10. Runoff Calculation by Neural Networks Using Radar Rainfall Data

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 晋作; 四俵, 正俊

    1997-01-01

    Neural networks, are used to calculate runoff from weather radar data and ground rain gauge data. Compared to usual runoff models, it is easier to use radar data in neural network runoff calculation. Basically you can use the radar data directly, or without transforming them into rainfall, as the input of the neural network. A situation with the difficulty of ground measurement is supposed. To cover the area lacking ground rain gauge, radar data are used. In case that the distribution of grou...

  11. Radar rainfall estimation of stratiform winter precipitation in the Belgian Ardennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2011-02-01

    Radars are known for their ability to obtain a wealth of information about spatial storm field characteristics. Unfortunately, rainfall estimates obtained by this instrument are known to be affected by multiple sources of error. Especially for stratiform precipitation systems, the quality of radar rainfall estimates starts to decrease at relatively close ranges. In the current study, the hydrological potential of weather radar is analyzed during a winter half-year for the hilly region of the Belgian Ardennes. A correction algorithm is proposed which corrects the radar data for errors related to attenuation, ground clutter, anomalous propagation, the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR), and advection. No final bias correction with respect to rain gauge data was implemented because such an adjustment would not add to a better understanding of the quality of the radar data. The impact of the different corrections is assessed using rainfall information sampled by 42 hourly rain gauges. The largest improvement in the quality of the radar data is obtained by correcting for ground clutter. The impact of VPR correction and advection depends on the spatial variability and velocity of the precipitation system. Overall during the winter period, the radar underestimates the amount of precipitation as compared to the rain gauges. Remaining differences between both instruments can be attributed to spatial and temporal variability in the type of precipitation, which has not been taken into account.

  12. Applicability of Doppler weather radar based rainfall data for runoff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radar-based hydrological studies in various countries have proven that ... in view of topographical and terrain constraints, cost restrictions and maintenance- .... SCS Unit Hydrograph (SCS UH) method converts surplus rainfall into runoff at the.

  13. Comparison of random forests and support vector machine for real-time radar-derived rainfall forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pao-Shan; Yang, Tao-Chang; Chen, Szu-Yin; Kuo, Chen-Min; Tseng, Hung-Wei

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to compare two machine learning techniques, random forests (RF) and support vector machine (SVM), for real-time radar-derived rainfall forecasting. The real-time radar-derived rainfall forecasting models use the present grid-based radar-derived rainfall as the output variable and use antecedent grid-based radar-derived rainfall, grid position (longitude and latitude) and elevation as the input variables to forecast 1- to 3-h ahead rainfalls for all grids in a catchment. Grid-based radar-derived rainfalls of six typhoon events during 2012-2015 in three reservoir catchments of Taiwan are collected for model training and verifying. Two kinds of forecasting models are constructed and compared, which are single-mode forecasting model (SMFM) and multiple-mode forecasting model (MMFM) based on RF and SVM. The SMFM uses the same model for 1- to 3-h ahead rainfall forecasting; the MMFM uses three different models for 1- to 3-h ahead forecasting. According to forecasting performances, it reveals that the SMFMs give better performances than MMFMs and both SVM-based and RF-based SMFMs show satisfactory performances for 1-h ahead forecasting. However, for 2- and 3-h ahead forecasting, it is found that the RF-based SMFM underestimates the observed radar-derived rainfalls in most cases and the SVM-based SMFM can give better performances than RF-based SMFM.

  14. Propagation of radar rainfall uncertainty in urban flood simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Sara; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    This work discusses the results of the implementation of a novel probabilistic system designed to improve ensemble sewer flow predictions for the drainage network of a small urban area in the North of England. The probabilistic system has been developed to model the uncertainty associated to radar rainfall estimates and propagate it through radar-based ensemble sewer flow predictions. The assessment of this system aims at outlining the benefits of addressing the uncertainty associated to radar rainfall estimates in a probabilistic framework, to be potentially implemented in the real-time management of the sewer network in the study area. Radar rainfall estimates are affected by uncertainty due to various factors [1-3] and quality control and correction techniques have been developed in order to improve their accuracy. However, the hydrological use of radar rainfall estimates and forecasts remains challenging. A significant effort has been devoted by the international research community to the assessment of the uncertainty propagation through probabilistic hydro-meteorological forecast systems [4-5], and various approaches have been implemented for the purpose of characterizing the uncertainty in radar rainfall estimates and forecasts [6-11]. A radar-based ensemble stochastic approach, similar to the one implemented for use in the Southern-Alps by the REAL system [6], has been developed for the purpose of this work. An ensemble generator has been calibrated on the basis of the spatial-temporal characteristics of the residual error in radar estimates assessed with reference to rainfall records from around 200 rain gauges available for the year 2007, previously post-processed and corrected by the UK Met Office [12-13]. Each ensemble member is determined by summing a perturbation field to the unperturbed radar rainfall field. The perturbations are generated by imposing the radar error spatial and temporal correlation structure to purely stochastic fields. A

  15. Mesoscale and Local Scale Evaluations of Quantitative Precipitation Estimates by Weather Radar Products during a Heavy Rainfall Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Pauthier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-hour heavy rainfall event occurred in northeastern France from November 3 to 4, 2014. The accuracy of the quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE by PANTHERE and ANTILOPE radar-based gridded products during this particular event, is examined at both mesoscale and local scale, in comparison with two reference rain-gauge networks. Mesoscale accuracy was assessed for the total rainfall accumulated during the 24-hour event, using the Météo France operational rain-gauge network. Local scale accuracy was assessed for both total event rainfall and hourly rainfall accumulations, using the recently developed HydraVitis high-resolution rain gauge network Evaluation shows that (1 PANTHERE radar-based QPE underestimates rainfall fields at mesoscale and local scale; (2 both PANTHERE and ANTILOPE successfully reproduced the spatial variability of rainfall at local scale; (3 PANTHERE underestimates can be significantly improved at local scale by merging these data with rain gauge data interpolation (i.e., ANTILOPE. This study provides a preliminary evaluation of radar-based QPE at local scale, suggesting that merged products are invaluable for applications at very high resolution. The results obtained underline the importance of using high-density rain-gauge networks to obtain information at high spatial and temporal resolution, for better understanding of local rainfall variation, to calibrate remotely sensed rainfall products.

  16. Short-term ensemble radar rainfall forecasts for hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo de Oliveira, M.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is a very common natural disaster around the world, putting local population and economy at risk. Forecasting floods several hours ahead and issuing warnings are of main importance to permit proper response in emergency situations. However, it is important to know the uncertainties related to the rainfall forecasting in order to produce more reliable forecasts. Nowcasting models (short-term rainfall forecasts) are able to produce high spatial and temporal resolution predictions that are useful in hydrological applications. Nonetheless, they are subject to uncertainties mainly due to the nowcasting model used, errors in radar rainfall estimation, temporal development of the velocity field and to the fact that precipitation processes such as growth and decay are not taken into account. In this study an ensemble generation scheme using rain gauge data as a reference to estimate radars errors is used to produce forecasts with up to 3h lead-time. The ensembles try to assess in a realistic way the residual uncertainties that remain even after correction algorithms are applied in the radar data. The ensembles produced are compered to a stochastic ensemble generator. Furthermore, the rainfall forecast output was used as an input in a hydrodynamic sewer network model and also in hydrological model for catchments of different sizes in north England. A comparative analysis was carried of how was carried out to assess how the radar uncertainties propagate into these models. The first named author is grateful to CAPES - Ciencia sem Fronteiras for funding this PhD research.

  17. Radar Rainfall Bias Correction based on Deep Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.

    2017-04-01

    Radar rainfall measurement errors can be considerably attributed to various sources including intricate synoptic regimes. Temperature, humidity and wind are typically acknowledged as critical meteorological factors in inducing the precipitation discrepancies aloft and on the ground. The conventional practices mainly use the radar-gauge or geostatistical techniques by direct weighted interpolation algorithms as bias correction schemes whereas rarely consider the atmospheric effects. This study aims to comprehensively quantify those meteorological elements' impacts on radar-gauge rainfall bias correction based on a deep learning approach. The deep learning approach employs deep convolutional neural networks to automatically extract three-dimensional meteorological features for target recognition based on high range resolution profiles. The complex nonlinear relationships between input and target variables can be implicitly detected by such a scheme, which is validated on the test dataset. The proposed bias correction scheme is expected to be a promising improvement in systematically minimizing the synthesized atmospheric effects on rainfall discrepancies between radar and rain gauges, which can be useful in many meteorological and hydrological applications (e.g., real-time flood forecasting) especially for regions with complex atmospheric conditions.

  18. A technique to obtain a multiparameter radar rainfall algorithm using the probability matching procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgucci, E.; Scarchilli, G.

    1997-01-01

    The natural cumulative distributions of rainfall observed by a network of rain gauges and a multiparameter radar are matched to derive multiparameter radar algorithms for rainfall estimation. The use of multiparameter radar measurements in a statistical framework to estimate rainfall is resented in this paper, The techniques developed in this paper are applied to the radar and rain gauge measurement of rainfall observed in central Florida and central Italy. Conventional pointwise estimates of rainfall are also compared. The probability matching procedure, when applied to the radar and surface measurements, shows that multiparameter radar algorithms can match the probability distribution function better than the reflectivity-based algorithms. It is also shown that the multiparameter radar algorithm derived matching the cumulative distribution function of rainfall provides more accurate estimates of rainfall on the ground in comparison to any conventional reflectivity-based algorithm

  19. Uncertainty of Flood Forecasting Based on Radar Rainfall Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinchi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the core data input to hydrological forecasting. The uncertainty in precipitation forecast data can lead to poor performance of predictive hydrological models. Radar-based precipitation measurement offers advantages over ground-based measurement in the quantitative estimation of temporal and spatial aspects of precipitation, but errors inherent in this method will still act to reduce the performance. Using data from White Lotus River of Hubei Province, China, five methods were used to assimilate radar rainfall data transformed from the classified Z-R relationship, and the postassimilation data were compared with precipitation measured by rain gauges. The five sets of assimilated rainfall data were then used as input to the Xinanjiang model. The effect of precipitation data input error on runoff simulation was analyzed quantitatively by disturbing the input data using the Breeding of Growing Modes method. The results of practical application demonstrated that the statistical weight integration and variational assimilation methods were superior. The corresponding performance in flood hydrograph prediction was also better using the statistical weight integration and variational methods compared to the others. It was found that the errors of radar rainfall data disturbed by the Breeding of Growing Modes had a tendency to accumulate through the hydrological model.

  20. A preliminary investigation of radar rainfall estimation in the Ardennes region and a first hydrological application for the Ourthe catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first assessment of the hydrometeorological potential of a C-band doppler weather radar recently installed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium near the village of Wideumont in the southern Ardennes region. An analysis of the vertical profile of reflectivity for two contrasting rainfall events confirms the expected differences between stratiform and convective precipitation. The mean areal rainfall over the Ourthe catchment upstream of Tabreux estimated from the Wideumont weather radar using the standard Marshall-Palmer reflectivity-rain rate relation shows biases between +128% and –42% for six selected precipitation events. For two rainfall events the radar-estimated mean areal rainfall is applied to the gauge-calibrated (lumped HBV-model for the Ourthe upstream of Tabreux, resulting in a significant underestimation with respect to the observed discharge for one event and a closer match for another. A bootstrap analysis using the radar data reveals that the uncertainty in the hourly discharge from the ~1600km2} catchment associated with the sampling uncertainty of the mean areal rainfall estimated from 10 rain gauges evenly spread over the catchment amounts to ±25% for the two events analyzed. This uncertainty is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as that associated with the model variables describing the initial state of the model.

  1. The capacity of radar, crowdsourced personal weather stations and commercial microwave links to monitor small scale urban rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijlenhoet, R.; de Vos, L. W.; Leijnse, H.; Overeem, A.; Raupach, T. H.; Berne, A.

    2017-12-01

    For the purpose of urban rainfall monitoring high resolution rainfall measurements are desirable. Typically C-band radar can provide rainfall intensities at km grid cells every 5 minutes. Opportunistic sensing with commercial microwave links yields rainfall intensities over link paths within cities. Additionally, recent developments have made it possible to obtain large amounts of urban in situ measurements from weather amateurs in near real-time. With a known high resolution simulated rainfall event the accuracy of these three techniques is evaluated, taking into account their respective existing layouts and sampling methods. Under ideal measurement conditions, the weather station networks proves to be most promising. For accurate estimation with radar, an appropriate choice for Z-R relationship is vital. Though both the microwave links and the weather station networks are quite dense, both techniques will underestimate rainfall if not at least one link path / station captures the high intensity rainfall peak. The accuracy of each technique improves when considering rainfall at larger scales, especially by increasing time intervals, with the steepest improvements found in microwave links.

  2. Improving the extreme rainfall forecast of Typhoon Morakot (2009) by assimilating radar data from Taiwan Island and mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xuwei; Wu, Dan; Lei, Xiaotu; Ma, Leiming; Wang, Dongliang; Zhao, Kun; Jou, Ben Jong-Dao

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the impact of an improved initial field through assimilating ground-based radar data from mainland China and Taiwan Island to simulate the long-lasting and extreme rainfall caused by Morakot (2009). The vortex location and the subsequent track analyzed through the radial velocity data assimilation (VDA) are generally consistent with the best track. The initial humidity within the radar detecting region and Morakot's northward translation speed can be significantly improved by the radar reflectivity data assimilation (ZDA). As a result, the heavy rainfall on both sides of Taiwan Strait can be reproduced with the joint application of VDA and ZDA. Based on sensitivity experiments, it was found that, without ZDA, the simulated storm underwent an unrealistic inward contraction after 12-h integration, due to underestimation of humidity in the global reanalysis, leading to underestimation of rainfall amount and coverage. Without the vortex relocation via VDA, the moister (drier) initial field with (without) ZDA will produce a more southward (northward) track, so that the rainfall location on both sides of Taiwan Strait will be affected. It was further found that the improvement in the humidity field of Morakot is mainly due to assimilation of high-value reflectivity (strong convection) observed by the radars in Taiwan Island, especially at Kenting station. By analysis of parcel trajectories and calculation of water vapor flux divergence, it was also found that the improved typhoon circulation through assimilating radar data can draw more water vapor from the environment during the subsequent simulation, eventually contributing to the extreme rainfall on both sides of Taiwan Strait.

  3. Improved estimation of heavy rainfall by weather radar after reflectivity correction and accounting for raindrop size distribution variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2015-04-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands, locally giving rise to rainfall accumulations exceeding 150 mm. Correctly measuring the amount of precipitation during such an extreme event is important, both from a hydrological and meteorological perspective. Unfortunately, the operational weather radar measurements were affected by multiple sources of error and only 30% of the precipitation observed by rain gauges was estimated. Such an underestimation of heavy rainfall, albeit generally less strong than in this extreme case, is typical for operational weather radar in The Netherlands. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two groups: (1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements (e.g. ground clutter, radar calibration, vertical profile of reflectivity) and (2) errors resulting from variations in the raindrop size distribution that in turn result in incorrect rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates from observed reflectivity measurements. A stepwise procedure to correct for the first group of errors leads to large improvements in the quality of the estimated precipitation, increasing the radar rainfall accumulations to about 65% of those observed by gauges. To correct for the second group of errors, a coherent method is presented linking the parameters of the radar reflectivity-rain rate (Z-R) and radar reflectivity-specific attenuation (Z-k) relationships to the normalized drop size distribution (DSD). Two different procedures were applied. First, normalized DSD parameters for the whole event and for each precipitation type separately (convective, stratiform and undefined) were obtained using local disdrometer observations. Second, 10,000 randomly generated plausible normalized drop size distributions were used for rainfall estimation, to evaluate whether this Monte Carlo method would improve the quality of weather radar rainfall products. Using the

  4. Bias adjustment and advection interpolation of long-term high resolution radar rainfall series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that in order to apply radar rainfall data for hydrological proposes adjustment against ground observations are crucial. Traditionally, radar reflectivity is transformed into rainfall rates applying a fixed reflectivity – rainfall rate relationship even though...... this is known to depend on the changing drop size distribution of the specific rain. This creates a transient bias between the radar rainfall and the ground observations due to seasonal changes of the drop size distribution as well as other atmospheric effects and effects related to the radar observational...

  5. A Machine Learning-based Rainfall System for GPM Dual-frequency Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation measurement produced by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) plays an important role in researching the water circle and forecasting extreme weather event. Compare with its predecessor - Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), GRM DPR measures precipitation in two different frequencies (i.e., Ku and Ka band), which can provide detailed information on the microphysical properties of precipitation particles, quantify particle size distribution and quantitatively measure light rain and falling snow. This paper presents a novel Machine Learning system for ground-based and space borne radar rainfall estimation. The system first trains ground radar data for rainfall estimation using rainfall measurements from gauges and subsequently uses the ground radar based rainfall estimates to train GPM DPR data in order to get space based rainfall product. Therein, data alignment between space DPR and ground radar is conducted using the methodology proposed by Bolen and Chandrasekar (2013), which can minimize the effects of potential geometric distortion of GPM DPR observations. For demonstration purposes, rainfall measurements from three rain gauge networks near Melbourne, Florida, are used for training and validation purposes. These three gauge networks, which are located in Kennedy Space Center (KSC), South Florida Water Management District (SFL), and St. Johns Water Management District (STJ), include 33, 46, and 99 rain gauge stations, respectively. Collocated ground radar observations from the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) in Melbourne (i.e., KMLB radar) are trained with the gauge measurements. The trained model is then used to derive KMLB radar based rainfall product, which is used to train GPM DPR data collected from coincident overpasses events. The machine learning based rainfall product is compared against the GPM standard products

  6. Sensitivity of power functions to aggregation: Bias and uncertainty in radar rainfall retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall retrieval using weather radar relies on power functions between radar reflectivity Z and rain rate R. The nonlinear nature of these relations complicates the comparison of rainfall estimates employing reflectivities measured at different scales. Transforming Z into R using relations that

  7. Coupling Radar Rainfall to Hydrological Models for Water Abstraction Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Shucksmith, James; Smith, Andrea; MacDonald, Ken

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of climate change and growing water use are likely to put considerable pressure on water resources and the environment. In the UK, a reform to surface water abstraction policy has recently been proposed which aims to increase the efficiency of using available water resources whilst minimising impacts on the aquatic environment. Key aspects to this reform include the consideration of dynamic rather than static abstraction licensing as well as introducing water trading concepts. Dynamic licensing will permit varying levels of abstraction dependent on environmental conditions (i.e. river flow and quality). The practical implementation of an effective dynamic abstraction strategy requires suitable flow forecasting techniques to inform abstraction asset management. Potentially the predicted availability of water resources within a catchment can be coupled to predicted demand and current storage to inform a cost effective water resource management strategy which minimises environmental impacts. The aim of this work is to use a historical analysis of UK case study catchment to compare potential water resource availability using modelled dynamic abstraction scenario informed by a flow forecasting model, against observed abstraction under a conventional abstraction regime. The work also demonstrates the impacts of modelling uncertainties on the accuracy of predicted water availability over range of forecast lead times. The study utilised a conceptual rainfall-runoff model PDM - Probability-Distributed Model developed by Centre for Ecology & Hydrology - set up in the Dove River catchment (UK) using 1km2 resolution radar rainfall as inputs and 15 min resolution gauged flow data for calibration and validation. Data assimilation procedures are implemented to improve flow predictions using observed flow data. Uncertainties in the radar rainfall data used in the model are quantified using artificial statistical error model described by Gaussian distribution and

  8. Comparing Approaches to Deal With Non-Gaussianity of Rainfall Data in Kriging-Based Radar-Gauge Rainfall Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinati, F.; Wani, O.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    Merging radar and rain gauge rainfall data is a technique used to improve the quality of spatial rainfall estimates and in particular the use of Kriging with External Drift (KED) is a very effective radar-rain gauge rainfall merging technique. However, kriging interpolations assume Gaussianity of the process. Rainfall has a strongly skewed, positive, probability distribution, characterized by a discontinuity due to intermittency. In KED rainfall residuals are used, implicitly calculated as the difference between rain gauge data and a linear function of the radar estimates. Rainfall residuals are non-Gaussian as well. The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of applying KED to non-Gaussian rainfall residuals, and to assess the best techniques to improve Gaussianity. We compare Box-Cox transformations with λ parameters equal to 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1, Box-Cox with time-variant optimization of λ, normal score transformation, and a singularity analysis technique. The results suggest that Box-Cox with λ = 0.1 and the singularity analysis is not suitable for KED. Normal score transformation and Box-Cox with optimized λ, or λ = 0.25 produce satisfactory results in terms of Gaussianity of the residuals, probability distribution of the merged rainfall products, and rainfall estimate quality, when validated through cross-validation. However, it is observed that Box-Cox transformations are strongly dependent on the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall and on the units used for the rainfall intensity. Overall, applying transformations results in a quantitative improvement of the rainfall estimates only if the correct transformations for the specific data set are used.

  9. Evaluate Hydrologic Response on Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Rainfall Using High Resolution Radar Rainfall Data and WRF-Hydro Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    A previously developed Dynamic Moving Storm (DMS) generator is a multivariate rainfall model simulating the complex nature of precipitation field: spatial variability, temporal variability, and storm movement. Previous effort by the authors has investigated the sensitivity of DMS parameters on corresponding hydrologic responses by using synthetic storms. In this study, the DMS generator has been upgraded to generate more realistic precipitation field. The dependence of hydrologic responses on rainfall features was investigated by dissecting the precipitation field into rain cells and modifying their spatio-temporal specification individually. To retrieve DMS parameters from radar rainfall data, rain cell segmentation and tracking algorithms were respectively developed and applied on high resolution radar rainfall data (1) to spatially determine the rain cells within individual radar image and (2) to temporally analyze their dynamic behavior. Statistics of DMS parameters were established by processing a long record of rainfall data (10 years) to keep the modification on real storms within the limit of regional climatology. Empirical distributions of the DMS parameters were calculated to reveal any preferential pattern and seasonality. Subsequently, the WRF-Hydro model forced by the remodeled and modified precipitation was used for hydrologic simulation. The study area was the Upper Trinity River Basin (UTRB) watershed, Texas; and two kinds of high resolution radar data i.e. the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) level III Digital Hybrid Reflectivity (DHR) product and Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) precipitation rate product, were utilized to establish parameter statistics and to recreate/remodel historical events respectively. The results demonstrated that rainfall duration is a significant linkage between DMS parameters and their hydrologic impacts—any combination of spatiotemporal characteristics that keep rain cells longer over the catchment will produce higher

  10. Performance of high-resolution X-band radar for rainfall measurement in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. van de Beek

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of 195 rainfall events gathered with the X-band weather radar SOLIDAR and a tipping bucket rain gauge network near Delft, The Netherlands, between May 1993 and April 1994. The aim of this paper is to present a thorough analysis of a climatological dataset using a high spatial (120 m and temporal (16 s resolution X-band radar. This makes it a study of the potential for high-resolution rainfall measurements with non-polarimetric X-band radar over flat terrain. An appropriate radar reflectivity – rain rate relation is derived from measurements of raindrop size distributions and compared with radar – rain gauge data. The radar calibration is assessed using a long-term comparison of rain gauge measurements with corresponding radar reflectivities as well as by analyzing the evolution of the stability of ground clutter areas over time. Three different methods for ground clutter correction as well as the effectiveness of forward and backward attenuation correction algorithms have been studied. Five individual rainfall events are discussed in detail to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of high-resolution X-band radar and the effectiveness of the presented correction methods. X-band radar is found to be able to measure the space-time variation of rainfall at high resolution, far greater than what can be achieved by rain gauge networks or a typical operational C-band weather radar. On the other hand, SOLIDAR can suffer from receiver saturation, wet radome attenuation as well as signal loss along the path. During very strong convective situations the signal can even be lost completely. In combination with several rain gauges for quality control, high resolution X-band radar is considered to be suitable for rainfall monitoring over relatively small (urban catchments. These results offer great prospects for the new high resolution polarimetric doppler X-band radar IDRA.

  11. Adjustment of rainfall estimates from weather radars using in-situ stormwater drainage sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte

    importance as long as the estimated flow and water levels are correct. It makes sense to investigate the possibility of adjusting weather radar data to rainfall-runoff measurements instead of rain gauge measurements in order to obtain better predictions of flow and water levels. This Ph.D. study investigates......-rain gauge adjusted data is applied for urban drainage models, discrepancies between radar-estimated runoff and observed runoff still occur. The aim of urban drainage applications is to estimate flow and water levels in critical points in the system. The “true” rainfall at ground level is, therefore, of less...... how rainfall-runoff measurements can be utilised to adjust weather radars. Two traditional adjustments methods based on rain gauges were used as the basis for developing two radar-runoff adjustment methods. The first method is based on the ZR relationship describing the relation between radar...

  12. Radar rainfall estimation of stratiform winter precipitation in the Belgian Ardennes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2011-01-01

    Radars are known for their ability to obtain a wealth of information about spatial storm field characteristics. Unfortunately, rainfall estimates obtained by this instrument are known to be affected by multiple sources of error. Especially for stratiform precipitation systems, the quality of radar

  13. ICUD-0471 Weather radar rainfall for design of urban storm water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Wright, D. B.; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk

    2017-01-01

    Long continuous series of high-resolution radar rainfall series provides valuable information on spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, which can be used in design of urban drainage systems. In design of especially large drainage systems with complex flow patterns (and potentially surface ...

  14. Applying volumetric weather radar data for rainfall runoff modeling: The importance of error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Delobbe, L.; Weerts, A.; Reggiani, P.

    2009-04-01

    In the current study half a year of volumetric radar data for the period October 1, 2002 until March 31, 2003 is being analyzed which was sampled at 5 minutes intervals by C-band Doppler radar situated at an elevation of 600 m in the southern Ardennes region, Belgium. During this winter half year most of the rainfall has a stratiform character. Though radar and raingauge will never sample the same amount of rainfall due to differences in sampling strategies, for these stratiform situations differences between both measuring devices become even larger due to the occurrence of a bright band (the point where ice particles start to melt intensifying the radar reflectivity measurement). For these circumstances the radar overestimates the amount of precipitation and because in the Ardennes bright bands occur within 1000 meter from the surface, it's detrimental effects on the performance of the radar can already be observed at relatively close range (e.g. within 50 km). Although the radar is situated at one of the highest points in the region, very close to the radar clutter is a serious problem. As a result both nearby and farther away, using uncorrected radar results in serious errors when estimating the amount of precipitation. This study shows the effect of carefully correcting for these radar errors using volumetric radar data, taking into account the vertical reflectivity profile of the atmosphere, the effects of attenuation and trying to limit the amount of clutter. After applying these correction algorithms, the overall differences between radar and raingauge are much smaller which emphasizes the importance of carefully correcting radar rainfall measurements. The next step is to assess the effect of using uncorrected and corrected radar measurements on rainfall-runoff modeling. The 1597 km2 Ourthe catchment lies within 60 km of the radar. Using a lumped hydrological model serious improvement in simulating observed discharges is found when using corrected radar

  15. TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) Level 2 Rainfall Rate and Profile Product (TRMM Product 2A25) V6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), the first of its kind in space, is an electronically scanning radar, operating at 13.8 GHz that measures the 3-D rainfall...

  16. FLASH-FLOOD MODELLING WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS USING RADAR RAINFALL ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Cristian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of artificial neural networks (ANNs in modelling the hydrological processes has become a common approach in the last two decades, among side the traditional methods. In regard to the rainfall-runoff modelling, in both traditional and ANN models the use of ground rainfall measurements is prevalent, which can be challenging in areas with low rain gauging station density, especially in catchments where strong focused rainfall can generate flash-floods. The weather radar technology can prove to be a solution for such areas by providing rain estimates with good time and space resolution. This paper presents a comparison between different ANN setups using as input both ground and radar observations for modelling the rainfall-runoff process for Bahluet catchment, with focus on a flash-flood observed in the catchment.

  17. Regime-dependence of Impacts of Radar Rainfall Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, G. C.; Keil, C.

    2009-04-01

    Experience from the first operational trials of assimilation of radar data in kilometre scale numerical weather prediction models (operating without cumulus parameterisation) shows that the positive impact of the radar data on convective precipitation forecasts typically decay within a few hours, although certain cases show much longer impacts. Here the impact time of radar data assimilation is related to characteristics of the meteorological environment. This QPF uncertainty is investigated using an ensemble of 10 forecasts at 2.8 km horizontal resolution based on different initial and boundary conditions from a global forecast ensemble. Control forecasts are compared with forecasts where radar reflectivity data is assimilated using latent heat nudging. Examination of different cases of convection in southern Germany suggests that the forecasts can be separated into two regimes using a convective timescale. Short impact times are associated with short convective timescales that are characteristic of equilibrium convection. In this regime the statistical properties of the convection are constrained by the large-scale forcing, and effects of the radar data are lost within a few hours as the convection rapidly returns to equilibrium. When the convective timescale is large (non-equilibrium conditions), the impact of the radar data is longer since convective systems are triggered by the latent heat nudging and are able to persist for many hours in the very unstable conditions present in these cases.

  18. Developments in radar and remote-sensing methods for measuring and forecasting rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, C G

    2002-07-15

    Over the last 25 years or so, weather-radar networks have become an integral part of operational meteorological observing systems. While measurements of rainfall made using radar systems have been used qualitatively by weather forecasters, and by some operational hydrologists, acceptance has been limited as a consequence of uncertainties in the quality of the data. Nevertheless, new algorithms for improving the accuracy of radar measurements of rainfall have been developed, including the potential to calibrate radars using the measurements of attenuation on microwave telecommunications links. Likewise, ways of assimilating these data into both meteorological and hydrological models are being developed. In this paper we review the current accuracy of radar estimates of rainfall, pointing out those approaches to the improvement of accuracy which are likely to be most successful operationally. Comment is made on the usefulness of satellite data for estimating rainfall in a flood-forecasting context. Finally, problems in coping with the error characteristics of all these data using both simple schemes and more complex four-dimensional variational analysis are being addressed, and are discussed briefly in this paper.

  19. Polarimetric rainfall retrieval from a C-Band weather radar in a tropical environment (The Philippines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisologo, I.; Vulpiani, G.; Abon, C. C.; David, C. P. C.; Bronstert, A.; Heistermann, Maik

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the potential of polarimetric rainfall retrieval methods for the Tagaytay C-Band weather radar in the Philippines. For this purpose, we combined a method for fuzzy echo classification, an approach to extract and reconstruct the differential propagation phase, Φ DP , and a polarimetric self-consistency approach to calibrate horizontal and differential reflectivity. The reconstructed Φ DP was used to estimate path-integrated attenuation and to retrieve the specific differential phase, K DP . All related algorithms were transparently implemented in the Open Source radar processing software wradlib. Rainfall was then estimated from different variables: from re-calibrated reflectivity, from re-calibrated reflectivity that has been corrected for path-integrated attenuation, from the specific differential phase, and from a combination of reflectivity and specific differential phase. As an additional benchmark, rainfall was estimated by interpolating the rainfall observed by rain gauges. We evaluated the rainfall products for daily and hourly accumulations. For this purpose, we used observations of 16 rain gauges from a five-month period in the 2012 wet season. It turned out that the retrieval of rainfall from K DP substantially improved the rainfall estimation at both daily and hourly time scales. The measurement of reflectivity apparently was impaired by severe miscalibration while K DP was immune to such effects. Daily accumulations of rainfall retrieved from K DP showed a very low estimation bias and small random errors. Random scatter was, though, strongly present in hourly accumulations.

  20. Radar-based rainfall estimation: Improving Z/R relations through comparison of drop size distributions, rainfall rates and radar reflectivity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuper, Malte; Ehret, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    The relation between the measured radar reflectivity factor Z and surface rainfall intensity R - the Z/R relation - is profoundly complex, so that in general one speaks about radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) rather than exact measurement. Like in Plato's Allegory of the Cave, what we observe in the end is only the 'shadow' of the true rainfall field through a very small backscatter of an electromagnetic signal emitted by the radar, which we hope has been actually reflected by hydrometeors. The meteorological relevant and valuable Information is gained only indirectly by more or less justified assumptions. One of these assumptions concerns the drop size distribution, through which the rain intensity is finally associated with the measured radar reflectivity factor Z. The real drop size distribution is however subject to large spatial and temporal variability, and consequently so is the true Z/R relation. Better knowledge of the true spatio-temporal Z/R structure therefore has the potential to improve radar-based QPE compared to the common practice of applying a single or a few standard Z/R relations. To this end, we use observations from six laser-optic disdrometers, two vertically pointing micro rain radars, 205 rain gauges, one rawindsonde station and two C-band Doppler radars installed or operated in and near the Attert catchment (Luxembourg). The C-band radars and the rawindsonde station are operated by the Belgian and German Weather Services, the rain gauge data was partly provided by the French, Dutch, Belgian, German Weather Services and the Ministry of Agriculture of Luxembourg and the other equipment was installed as part of the interdisciplinary DFG research project CAOS (Catchment as Organized Systems). With the various data sets correlation analyzes were executed. In order to get a notion on the different appearance of the reflectivity patterns in the radar image, first of all various simple distribution indices (for example the

  1. Effect of radar rainfall time resolution on the predictive capability of a distributed hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencia, A.; Llasat, M. C.; Garrote, L.; Mediero, L.

    2010-10-01

    The performance of distributed hydrological models depends on the resolution, both spatial and temporal, of the rainfall surface data introduced. The estimation of quantitative precipitation from meteorological radar or satellite can improve hydrological model results, thanks to an indirect estimation at higher spatial and temporal resolution. In this work, composed radar data from a network of three C-band radars, with 6-minutal temporal and 2 × 2 km2 spatial resolution, provided by the Catalan Meteorological Service, is used to feed the RIBS distributed hydrological model. A Window Probability Matching Method (gage-adjustment method) is applied to four cases of heavy rainfall to improve the observed rainfall sub-estimation in both convective and stratiform Z/R relations used over Catalonia. Once the rainfall field has been adequately obtained, an advection correction, based on cross-correlation between two consecutive images, was introduced to get several time resolutions from 1 min to 30 min. Each different resolution is treated as an independent event, resulting in a probable range of input rainfall data. This ensemble of rainfall data is used, together with other sources of uncertainty, such as the initial basin state or the accuracy of discharge measurements, to calibrate the RIBS model using probabilistic methodology. A sensitivity analysis of time resolutions was implemented by comparing the various results with real values from stream-flow measurement stations.

  2. Rainfall Estimation Using Specific Differential Phase for the First Operational Polarimetric Radar in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hwan You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the performance of rainfall estimation using specific differential phase observed by Bislsan radar, the first polarimetric radar in Korea, three rainfall cases occurring in 2011 were selected, each caused by different conditions: the first is the Changma front and typhoon, the second is only the Changma front, and the third is only a typhoon. For quantitative use of specific differential phase (KDP, a data quality algorithm was developed for differential phase shift (ΦDP, composed of two steps; the first involves removal of scattered noise and the second is unfolding of ΦDP. This order of the algorithm is necessary so as not to remove unfolded areas, which are the real meteorological target. All noise was removed and the folded ΦDP were unfolded successfully for this study. RKDP relations for S-band radar were calculated for 84,754 samples of observed drop size distribution (DSD using different drop shape assumptions. The relation for the Bringi drop shape showed the best statistics: 0.28 for normalized error, and 6.7 mm for root mean square error for rainfall heavier than 10 mm h-1. Because the drop shape assumption affects the accuracy of rainfall estimation differently for different rainfall types, such characteristics should be taken into account to estimate rainfall more accurately using polarimetric variables.

  3. An assimilation test of Doppler radar reflectivity and radial velocity from different height layers in improving the WRF rainfall forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiyang; Liu, Jia; Yan, Denghua; Li, Chuanzhe; Chu, Zhigang; Yu, Fuliang

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological forecasts require high-resolution and accurate rainfall information, which is one of the most difficult variables to be captured by the mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems. Radar data assimilation is an effective method for improving rainfall forecasts by correcting the initial and lateral boundary conditions of the NWP system. The aim of this study is to explore an efficient way of utilizing the Doppler radar observations for data assimilation, which is implemented by exploring the effect of assimilating radar data from different height layers on the improvement of the NWP rainfall accuracy. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for numerical rainfall forecast in the Zijingguan catchment located in the ;Jing-Jin-Ji; (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) Region of Northern China, and the three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3-DVar) technique is adopted to assimilate the radar data. Radar reflectivity and radial velocity are assimilated separately and jointly. Each type of radar data is divided into seven data sets according to the height layers: (1) 2000 m, and (7) all layers. The results show that radar reflectivity assimilation leads to better results than radial velocity assimilation. The accuracy of the forecasted rainfall deteriorates with the rise of the height of the assimilated radar reflectivity. The same results can be found when assimilating radar reflectivity and radial velocity at the same time. The conclusions of this study provide a reference for efficient assimilation of the radar data in improving the NWP rainfall products.

  4. State-space adjustment of radar rainfall and skill score evaluation of stochastic volume forecasts in urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup

    2013-01-01

    Merging of radar rainfall data with rain gauge measurements is a common approach to overcome problems in deriving rain intensities from radar measurements. We extend an existing approach for adjustment of C-band radar data using state-space models and use the resulting rainfall intensities as input...... improves runoff forecasts compared with using the original radar data and that rain gauge measurements as forecast input are also outperformed. Combining the data merging approach with short-term rainfall forecasting algorithms may result in further improved runoff forecasts that can be used in real time...

  5. Comparison of radar and numerical weather model rainfall forecasts in the perspective of urban flood prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovring, Maite Monica; Löwe, Roland; Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas

    An early flood warning system has been developed for urban catchments and is currently running in online operation in Copenhagen. The system is highly dependent on the quality of rainfall forecast inputs. An investigation of precipitation inputs from Radar Nowcast (RN), Numerical Weather Prediction...

  6. Development of Radar-Satellite Blended QPF (Quantitative Precipitation Forecast) Technique for heavy rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sangmin; Yoon, Sunkwon; Rhee, Jinyoung; Park, Kyungwon

    2016-04-01

    Due to the recent extreme weather and climate change, a frequency and size of localized heavy rainfall increases and it may bring various hazards including sediment-related disasters, flooding and inundation. To prevent and mitigate damage from such disasters, very short range forecasting and nowcasting of precipitation amounts are very important. Weather radar data very useful in monitoring and forecasting because weather radar has high resolution in spatial and temporal. Generally, extrapolation based on the motion vector is the best method of precipitation forecasting using radar rainfall data for a time frame within a few hours from the present. However, there is a need for improvement due to the radar rainfall being less accurate than rain-gauge on surface. To improve the radar rainfall and to take advantage of the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite) data, a technique to blend the different data types for very short range forecasting purposes was developed in the present study. The motion vector of precipitation systems are estimated using 1.5km CAPPI (Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator) reflectivity by pattern matching method, which indicates the systems' direction and speed of movement and blended radar-COMS rain field is used for initial data. Since the original horizontal resolution of COMS is 4 km while that of radar is about 1 km, spatial downscaling technique is used to downscale the COMS data from 4 to 1 km pixels in order to match with the radar data. The accuracies of rainfall forecasting data were verified utilizing AWS (Automatic Weather System) observed data for an extreme rainfall occurred in the southern part of Korean Peninsula on 25 August 2014. The results of this study will be used as input data for an urban stream real-time flood early warning system and a prediction model of landslide. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by

  7. Multifractal analysis of radar rainfall fields over the area of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Calenda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A scale-invariance analysis of space and time rainfall events monitored by meteorological radar over the area of Rome (Italy is proposed. The study of the scale-invariance properties of intense precipitation storms, particularly important in flood forecast and risk mitigation, allows to transfer rainfall information from the large scale predictive meteorological models to the small scale hydrological rainfall-runoff models. Precipitation events are monitored using data collected by the polarimetric Doppler radar Polar 55C (ISAC-CNR, located 15 km Southeast from downtown. The meteorological radar provides the estimates of rainfall intensity over an area of about 10 000 km2 at a resolution of 2×2 km2 in space and 5 min in time. Many precipitation events have been observed from autumn 2001 up to now. A scale-invariance analysis is performed on some of these events with the aim at exploring the multifractal properties and at understanding their dependence on the meteorological large-scale conditions.

  8. Evaluation of rainfall structure on hydrograph simulation: Comparison of radar and interpolated methods, a study case in a tropical catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, N.; Ochoa, A.; Castillo, S.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    The skill of river discharge simulation using hydrological models strongly depends on the quality and spatio-temporal representativeness of precipitation during storm events. All precipitation measurement strategies have their own strengths and weaknesses that translate into discharge simulation uncertainties. Distributed hydrological models are based on evolving rainfall fields in the same time scale as the hydrological simulation. In general, rainfall measurements from a dense and well maintained rain gauge network provide a very good estimation of the total volume for each rainfall event, however, the spatial structure relies on interpolation strategies introducing considerable uncertainty in the simulation process. On the other hand, rainfall retrievals from radar reflectivity achieve a better spatial structure representation but with higher uncertainty in the surface precipitation intensity and volume depending on the vertical rainfall characteristics and radar scan strategy. To assess the impact of both rainfall measurement methodologies on hydrological simulations, and in particular the effects of the rainfall spatio-temporal variability, a numerical modeling experiment is proposed including the use of a novel QPE (Quantitative Precipitation Estimation) method based on disdrometer data in order to estimate surface rainfall from radar reflectivity. The experiment is based on the simulation of 84 storms, the hydrological simulations are carried out using radar QPE and two different interpolation methods (IDW and TIN), and the assessment of simulated peak flow. Results show significant rainfall differences between radar QPE and the interpolated fields, evidencing a poor representation of storms in the interpolated fields, which tend to miss the precise location of the intense precipitation cores, and to artificially generate rainfall in some areas of the catchment. Regarding streamflow modelling, the potential improvement achieved by using radar QPE depends on

  9. Disaggregating radar-derived rainfall measurements in East Azarbaijan, Iran, using a spatial random-cascade model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi Osgouei, Hojjatollah; Zarghami, Mahdi; Ashouri, Hamed

    2017-07-01

    The availability of spatial, high-resolution rainfall data is one of the most essential needs in the study of water resources. These data are extremely valuable in providing flood awareness for dense urban and industrial areas. The first part of this paper applies an optimization-based method to the calibration of radar data based on ground rainfall gauges. Then, the climatological Z-R relationship for the Sahand radar, located in the East Azarbaijan province of Iran, with the help of three adjacent rainfall stations, is obtained. The new climatological Z-R relationship with a power-law form shows acceptable statistical performance, making it suitable for radar-rainfall estimation by the Sahand radar outputs. The second part of the study develops a new heterogeneous random-cascade model for spatially disaggregating the rainfall data resulting from the power-law model. This model is applied to the radar-rainfall image data to disaggregate rainfall data with coverage area of 512 × 512 km2 to a resolution of 32 × 32 km2. Results show that the proposed model has a good ability to disaggregate rainfall data, which may lead to improvement in precipitation forecasting, and ultimately better water-resources management in this arid region, including Urmia Lake.

  10. Stochastic simulation experiment to assess radar rainfall retrieval uncertainties associated with attenuation and its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uijlenhoet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As rainfall constitutes the main source of water for the terrestrial hydrological processes, accurate and reliable measurement and prediction of its spatial and temporal distribution over a wide range of scales is an important goal for hydrology. We investigate the potential of ground-based weather radar to provide such measurements through a theoretical analysis of some of the associated observation uncertainties. A stochastic model of range profiles of raindrop size distributions is employed in a Monte Carlo simulation experiment to investigate the rainfall retrieval uncertainties associated with weather radars operating at X-, C-, and S-band. We focus in particular on the errors and uncertainties associated with rain-induced signal attenuation and its correction for incoherent, non-polarimetric, single-frequency, operational weather radars. The performance of two attenuation correction schemes, the (forward Hitschfeld-Bordan algorithm and the (backward Marzoug-Amayenc algorithm, is analyzed for both moderate (assuming a 50 km path length and intense Mediterranean rainfall (for a 30 km path. A comparison shows that the backward correction algorithm is more stable and accurate than the forward algorithm (with a bias in the order of a few percent for the former, compared to tens of percent for the latter, provided reliable estimates of the total path-integrated attenuation are available. Moreover, the bias and root mean square error associated with each algorithm are quantified as a function of path-averaged rain rate and distance from the radar in order to provide a plausible order of magnitude for the uncertainty in radar-retrieved rain rates for hydrological applications.

  11. Introducing uncertainty of radar-rainfall estimates to the verification of mesoscale model precipitation forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Mittermaier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple measure of the uncertainty associated with using radar-derived rainfall estimates as "truth" has been introduced to the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP verification process to assess the effect on forecast skill and errors. Deterministic precipitation forecasts from the mesoscale version of the UK Met Office Unified Model for a two-day high-impact event and for a month were verified at the daily and six-hourly time scale using a spatially-based intensity-scale method and various traditional skill scores such as the Equitable Threat Score (ETS and log-odds ratio. Radar-rainfall accumulations from the UK Nimrod radar-composite were used.

    The results show that the inclusion of uncertainty has some effect, shifting the forecast errors and skill. The study also allowed for the comparison of results from the intensity-scale method and traditional skill scores. It showed that the two methods complement each other, one detailing the scale and rainfall accumulation thresholds where the errors occur, the other showing how skillful the forecast is. It was also found that for the six-hourly forecasts the error distributions remain similar with forecast lead time but skill decreases. This highlights the difference between forecast error and forecast skill, and that they are not necessarily the same.

  12. Singularity-sensitive gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment methods for urban hydrological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-P. Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment techniques have been widely used to improve the applicability of radar rainfall estimates to large-scale hydrological modelling. However, their use for urban hydrological applications is limited as they were mostly developed based upon Gaussian approximations and therefore tend to smooth off so-called "singularities" (features of a non-Gaussian field that can be observed in the fine-scale rainfall structure. Overlooking the singularities could be critical, given that their distribution is highly consistent with that of local extreme magnitudes. This deficiency may cause large errors in the subsequent urban hydrological modelling. To address this limitation and improve the applicability of adjustment techniques at urban scales, a method is proposed herein which incorporates a local singularity analysis into existing adjustment techniques and allows the preservation of the singularity structures throughout the adjustment process. In this paper the proposed singularity analysis is incorporated into the Bayesian merging technique and the performance of the resulting singularity-sensitive method is compared with that of the original Bayesian (non singularity-sensitive technique and the commonly used mean field bias adjustment. This test is conducted using as case study four storm events observed in the Portobello catchment (53 km2 (Edinburgh, UK during 2011 and for which radar estimates, dense rain gauge and sewer flow records, as well as a recently calibrated urban drainage model were available. The results suggest that, in general, the proposed singularity-sensitive method can effectively preserve the non-normality in local rainfall structure, while retaining the ability of the original adjustment techniques to generate nearly unbiased estimates. Moreover, the ability of the singularity-sensitive technique to preserve the non-normality in rainfall estimates often leads to better reproduction of the urban

  13. Singularity-sensitive gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment methods for urban hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-P.; Ochoa-Rodríguez, S.; Onof, C.; Willems, P.

    2015-09-01

    Gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment techniques have been widely used to improve the applicability of radar rainfall estimates to large-scale hydrological modelling. However, their use for urban hydrological applications is limited as they were mostly developed based upon Gaussian approximations and therefore tend to smooth off so-called "singularities" (features of a non-Gaussian field) that can be observed in the fine-scale rainfall structure. Overlooking the singularities could be critical, given that their distribution is highly consistent with that of local extreme magnitudes. This deficiency may cause large errors in the subsequent urban hydrological modelling. To address this limitation and improve the applicability of adjustment techniques at urban scales, a method is proposed herein which incorporates a local singularity analysis into existing adjustment techniques and allows the preservation of the singularity structures throughout the adjustment process. In this paper the proposed singularity analysis is incorporated into the Bayesian merging technique and the performance of the resulting singularity-sensitive method is compared with that of the original Bayesian (non singularity-sensitive) technique and the commonly used mean field bias adjustment. This test is conducted using as case study four storm events observed in the Portobello catchment (53 km2) (Edinburgh, UK) during 2011 and for which radar estimates, dense rain gauge and sewer flow records, as well as a recently calibrated urban drainage model were available. The results suggest that, in general, the proposed singularity-sensitive method can effectively preserve the non-normality in local rainfall structure, while retaining the ability of the original adjustment techniques to generate nearly unbiased estimates. Moreover, the ability of the singularity-sensitive technique to preserve the non-normality in rainfall estimates often leads to better reproduction of the urban drainage system

  14. The Influence Analysis of the Rainfall Meteorological Conditions on the Operation of the Balloon Borne Radar in Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Geng, Fangzhi

    2018-03-01

    Based on the characteristics of complex terrain and different seasons’ weather in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, through statistic the daily rainfall that from 2002 to 2012, nearly 11 years, by Bomi meteorological station, Bomi area rainfall forecast model is established, and which can provide the basis forecasting for dangerous weather warning system on the balloon borne radar in the next step, to protect the balloon borne radar equipment’s safety work and combat effectiveness.

  15. On the possibility of calibrating urban storm-water drainage models using gauge-based adjusted radar rainfall estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa-Rodriguez, S; Wang, L; Simoes, N; Onof, C; Maksimovi?, ?

    2013-01-01

    24/07/14 meb. Authors did not sign CTA. Traditionally, urban storm water drainage models have been calibrated using only raingauge data, which may result in overly conservative models due to the lack of spatial description of rainfall. With the advent of weather radars, radar rainfall estimates with higher temporal and spatial resolution have become increasingly available and have started to be used operationally for urban storm water model calibration and real time operation. Nonetheless,...

  16. State-space adjustment of radar rainfall and stochastic flow forecasting for use in real-time control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Merging of radar rainfall data with rain gauge measurements is a common approach to overcome problems in deriving rain intensities from radar measurements. We extend an existing approach for adjustment of C-band radar data using state-space models and use the resulting rainfall intensities as input...

  17. State-space adjustment of radar rainfall and stochastic flow forecasting for use in real-time control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Merging of radar rainfall data with rain gauge measurements is a common approach to overcome problems in deriving rain intensities from radar measurements. We extend an existing approach for adjustment of C-band radar data using state-space models and use the resulting rainfall intensities as input...

  18. Radar subpixel-scale rainfall variability and uncertainty: lessons learned from observations of a dense rain-gauge network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Peleg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Runoff and flash flood generation are very sensitive to rainfall's spatial and temporal variability. The increasing use of radar and satellite data in hydrological applications, due to the sparse distribution of rain gauges over most catchments worldwide, requires furthering our knowledge of the uncertainties of these data. In 2011, a new super-dense network of rain gauges containing 14 stations, each with two side-by-side gauges, was installed within a 4 km2 study area near Kibbutz Galed in northern Israel. This network was established for a detailed exploration of the uncertainties and errors regarding rainfall variability within a common pixel size of data obtained from remote sensing systems for timescales of 1 min to daily. In this paper, we present the analysis of the first year's record collected from this network and from the Shacham weather radar, located 63 km from the study area. The gauge–rainfall spatial correlation and uncertainty were examined along with the estimated radar error. The nugget parameter of the inter-gauge rainfall correlations was high (0.92 on the 1 min scale and increased as the timescale increased. The variance reduction factor (VRF, representing the uncertainty from averaging a number of rain stations per pixel, ranged from 1.6% for the 1 min timescale to 0.07% for the daily scale. It was also found that at least three rain stations are needed to adequately represent the rainfall (VRF < 5% on a typical radar pixel scale. The difference between radar and rain gauge rainfall was mainly attributed to radar estimation errors, while the gauge sampling error contributed up to 20% to the total difference. The ratio of radar rainfall to gauge-areal-averaged rainfall, expressed by the error distribution scatter parameter, decreased from 5.27 dB for 3 min timescale to 3.21 dB for the daily scale. The analysis of the radar errors and uncertainties suggest that a temporal scale of at least 10 min should be used for

  19. Towards flash flood prediction in the dry Dead Sea region utilizing radar rainfall information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, E.; Jacoby, Y.; Navon, S.; Bet-Halachmi, E.

    2009-04-01

    Flash-flood warning models can save lives and protect various kinds of infrastructure. In dry climate regions, rainfall is highly variable and can be of high-intensity. Since rain gauge networks in such areas are sparse, rainfall information derived from weather radar systems can provide useful input for flash-flood models. This paper presents a flash-flood warning model utilizing radar rainfall data and applies it to two catchments that drain into the dry Dead Sea region. Radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) were derived using a rain gauge adjustment approach, either on a daily basis (allowing the adjustment factor to change over time, assuming available real-time gauge data) or using a constant factor value (derived from rain gauge data) over the entire period of the analysis. The QPEs served as input for a continuous hydrological model that represents the main hydrological processes in the region, namely infiltration, flow routing and transmission losses. The infiltration function is applied in a distributed mode while the routing and transmission loss functions are applied in a lumped mode. Model parameters were found by calibration based on five years of data for one of the catchments. Validation was performed for a subsequent five-year period for the same catchment and then for an entire ten year record for the second catchment. The probability of detection and false alarm rates for the validation cases were reasonable. Probabilistic flash-flood prediction is presented applying Monte Carlo simulations with an uncertainty range for the QPEs and model parameters. With low probability thresholds, one can maintain more than 70% detection with no more than 30% false alarms. The study demonstrates that a flash-flood-warning model is feasible for catchments in the area studied.

  20. Towards flash-flood prediction in the dry Dead Sea region utilizing radar rainfall information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Efrat; Jacoby, Yael; Navon, Shilo; Bet-Halachmi, Erez

    2009-07-01

    Flash-flood warning models can save lives and protect various kinds of infrastructure. In dry climate regions, rainfall is highly variable and can be of high-intensity. Since rain gauge networks in such areas are sparse, rainfall information derived from weather radar systems can provide useful input for flash-flood models. This paper presents a flash-flood warning model which utilizes radar rainfall data and applies it to two catchments that drain into the dry Dead Sea region. Radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) were derived using a rain gauge adjustment approach, either on a daily basis (allowing the adjustment factor to change over time, assuming available real-time gauge data) or using a constant factor value (derived from rain gauge data) over the entire period of the analysis. The QPEs served as input for a continuous hydrological model that represents the main hydrological processes in the region, namely infiltration, flow routing and transmission losses. The infiltration function is applied in a distributed mode while the routing and transmission loss functions are applied in a lumped mode. Model parameters were found by calibration based on the 5 years of data for one of the catchments. Validation was performed for a subsequent 5-year period for the same catchment and then for an entire 10-year record for the second catchment. The probability of detection and false alarm rates for the validation cases were reasonable. Probabilistic flash-flood prediction is presented applying Monte Carlo simulations with an uncertainty range for the QPEs and model parameters. With low probability thresholds, one can maintain more than 70% detection with no more than 30% false alarms. The study demonstrates that a flash-flood warning model is feasible for catchments in the area studied.

  1. Analyses of the temporal and spatial structures of heavy rainfall from a catalog of high-resolution radar rainfall fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2014-01-01

    that relate to size, structure and evolution of heavy rainfall. Extreme rainfall is also linked with severe weather (tornados, large hail and damaging wind). The diurnal cycle of rainfall for heavy rain days is characterized by an early peak in the largest rainfall rates, an afternoon-evening peak in rain...

  2. Coupling Radar Rainfall Estimation and Hydrological Modelling For Flash-flood Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borga, M.; Creutin, J. D.

    issues are examined: advantages and caveats of using radar rainfall estimates in operational flash flood forecasting, methodological problems as- sociated to the use of hydrological models for distributed flash flood forecasting with rainfall input estimated from radar.

  3. 5 year radar-based rainfall statistics: disturbances analysis and development of a post-correction scheme for the German radar composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A.; Seltmann, J.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-02-01

    A radar-based rainfall statistic demands high quality data that provide realistic precipitation amounts in space and time. Instead of correcting single radar images, we developed a post-correction scheme for long-term composite radar data that corrects corrupted areas, but preserves the original precipitation patterns. The post-correction scheme is based on a 5 year statistical analysis of radar composite data and its constituents. The accumulation of radar images reveals artificial effects that are not visible in the individual radar images. Some of them are already inherent to single radar data such as the effect of increasing beam height, beam blockage or clutter remnants. More artificial effects are introduced in the process of compositing such as sharp gradients at the boundaries of overlapping areas due to different beam heights and resolution. The cause of these disturbances, their behaviour with respect to reflectivity level, season or altitude is analysed based on time-series of two radar products: the single radar reflectivity product PX for each of the 16 radar systems of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) for the time span 2000 to 2006 and the radar composite product RX of DWD from 2005 through to 2009. These statistics result in additional quality information on radar data that is not available elsewhere. The resulting robust characteristics of disturbances, e.g. the dependency of the frequencies of occurrence of radar reflectivities on beam height, are then used as a basis for the post-correction algorithm. The scheme comprises corrections for shading effects and speckles, such as clutter remnants or overfiltering, as well as for systematic differences in frequencies of occurrence of radar reflectivities between the near and the far ranges of individual radar sites. An adjustment to rain gauges is also included. Applying this correction, the Root-Mean-Square-Error for the comparison of radar derived annual rain amounts with rain gauge data

  4. Forecast generation for real-time control of urban drainage systems using greybox modelling and radar rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We present stochastic flow forecasts to be used in a real-time control setup for urban drainage systems. The forecasts are generated using greybox models with rain gauge and radar rainfall observations as input. Predictions are evaluated as intervals rather than just mean values. We obtain...

  5. Rainfall Estimation and Performance Characterization Using an X-band Dual-Polarization Radar in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay area is home to over 5 million people. In February 2016, the area also hosted the NFL Super bowl, bringing additional people and focusing national attention to the region. Based on the El Nino forecast, public officials expressed concern for heavy rainfall and flooding with the potential for threats to public safety, costly flood damage to infrastructure, negative impacts to water quality (e.g., combined sewer overflows) and major disruptions in transportation. Mitigation of the negative impacts listed above requires accurate precipitation monitoring (quantitative precipitation estimation-QPE) and prediction (including radar nowcasting). The proximity to terrain and maritime conditions as well as the siting of existing NEXRAD radars are all challenges in providing accurate, short-term near surface rainfall estimates in the Bay area urban region. As part of a collaborative effort between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory, Colorado State University (CSU), and Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD), an X-band dual-polarization radar was deployed in Santa Clara Valley in February of 2016 to provide support for the National Weather Service during the Super Bowl and NOAA's El Nino Rapid Response field campaign. This high-resolution radar was deployed on the roof of one of the buildings at the Penitencia Water Treatment Plant. The main goal was to provide detailed precipitation information for use in weather forecasting and assists the water district in their ability to predict rainfall and streamflow with real-time rainfall data over Santa Clara County especially during a potentially large El Nino year. The following figure shows the radar's coverage map, as well as sample reflectivity observations on March 06, 2016, at 00:04UTC. This paper presents results from a pilot study from February, 2016 to May, 2016 demonstrating the use of X-band weather radar for quantitative precipitation

  6. Disguised Distress in Children and Adolescents "Flying under the Radar": Why Psychological Problems Are Underestimated and How Schools Must Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    It is now recognized that there is a very high prevalence of psychological disorders among children and adolescents and relatively few receive psychological treatment. In the current article, we present the argument that levels of distress and dysfunction among young people are substantially underestimated and the prevalence of psychological…

  7. Rainfall threshold definition using an entropy decision approach and radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montesarchio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Flash flood events are floods characterised by a very rapid response of basins to storms, often resulting in loss of life and property damage. Due to the specific space-time scale of this type of flood, the lead time available for triggering civil protection measures is typically short. Rainfall threshold values specify the amount of precipitation for a given duration that generates a critical discharge in a given river cross section. If the threshold values are exceeded, it can produce a critical situation in river sites exposed to alluvial risk. It is therefore possible to directly compare the observed or forecasted precipitation with critical reference values, without running online real-time forecasting systems. The focus of this study is the Mignone River basin, located in Central Italy. The critical rainfall threshold values are evaluated by minimising a utility function based on the informative entropy concept and by using a simulation approach based on radar data. The study concludes with a system performance analysis, in terms of correctly issued warnings, false alarms and missed alarms.

  8. Predicting combined sewer overflows chamber depth using artificial neural networks with rainfall radar data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, S R; Shepherd, W; Sailor, G; Shucksmith, J; Saul, A J

    2014-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) represent a common feature in combined urban drainage systems and are used to discharge excess water to the environment during heavy storms. To better understand the performance of CSOs, the UK water industry has installed a large number of monitoring systems that provide data for these assets. This paper presents research into the prediction of the hydraulic performance of CSOs using artificial neural networks (ANN) as an alternative to hydraulic models. Previous work has explored using an ANN model for the prediction of chamber depth using time series for depth and rain gauge data. Rainfall intensity data that can be provided by rainfall radar devices can be used to improve on this approach. Results are presented using real data from a CSO for a catchment in the North of England, UK. An ANN model trained with the pseudo-inverse rule was shown to be capable of predicting CSO depth with less than 5% error for predictions more than 1 hour ahead for unseen data. Such predictive approaches are important to the future management of combined sewer systems.

  9. A Mediterranean nocturnal heavy rainfall and tornadic event. Part I: Overview, damage survey and radar analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Rigo, Tomeu; Aran, Montserrat; Amaro, Jéssica; Gayà, Miquel; Arús, Joan; Montanyà, Joan; der Velde, Oscar van

    2011-06-01

    This study presents an analysis of a severe weather case that took place during the early morning of the 2nd of November 2008, when intense convective activity associated with a rapidly evolving low pressure system affected the southern coast of Catalonia (NE Spain). The synoptic framework was dominated by an upper level trough and an associated cold front extending from Gibraltar along the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula to SE France, which moved north-eastward. South easterly winds in the north of the Balearic Islands and the coast of Catalonia favoured high values of 0-3 km storm relative helicity which combined with moderate MLCAPE values and high shear favoured the conditions for organized convection. A number of multicell storms and others exhibiting supercell features, as indicated by Doppler radar observations, clustered later in a mesoscale convective system, and moved north-eastwards across Catalonia. They produced ground-level strong damaging wind gusts, an F2 tornado, hail and heavy rainfall. Total lightning activity (intra-cloud and cloud to ground flashes) was also relevant, exhibiting several classical features such as a sudden increased rate before ground level severe damage, as discussed in a companion study. Remarkable surface observations of this event include 24 h precipitation accumulations exceeding 100 mm in four different observatories and 30 minute rainfall amounts up to 40 mm which caused local flash floods. As the convective system evolved northward later that day it also affected SE France causing large hail, ground level damaging wind gusts and heavy rainfall.

  10. Development of Deep Learning Based Data Fusion Approach for Accurate Rainfall Estimation Using Ground Radar and Satellite Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandra, C. V.; Tan, H.; Cifelli, R.; Xie, P.

    2016-12-01

    Rainfall estimation based on onboard satellite measurements has been an important topic in satellite meteorology for decades. A number of precipitation products at multiple time and space scales have been developed based upon satellite observations. For example, NOAA Climate Prediction Center has developed a morphing technique (i.e., CMORPH) to produce global precipitation products by combining existing space based rainfall estimates. The CMORPH products are essentially derived based on geostationary satellite IR brightness temperature information and retrievals from passive microwave measurements (Joyce et al. 2004). Although the space-based precipitation products provide an excellent tool for regional and global hydrologic and climate studies as well as improved situational awareness for operational forecasts, its accuracy is limited due to the sampling limitations, particularly for extreme events such as very light and/or heavy rain. On the other hand, ground-based radar is more mature science for quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), especially after the implementation of dual-polarization technique and further enhanced by urban scale radar networks. Therefore, ground radars are often critical for providing local scale rainfall estimation and a "heads-up" for operational forecasters to issue watches and warnings as well as validation of various space measurements and products. The CASA DFW QPE system, which is based on dual-polarization X-band CASA radars and a local S-band WSR-88DP radar, has demonstrated its excellent performance during several years of operation in a variety of precipitation regimes. The real-time CASA DFW QPE products are used extensively for localized hydrometeorological applications such as urban flash flood forecasting. In this paper, a neural network based data fusion mechanism is introduced to improve the satellite-based CMORPH precipitation product by taking into account the ground radar measurements. A deep learning system is

  11. Deployment and Performance of an X-Band Dual-Polarization Radar during the Southern China Monsoon Rainfall Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An X-band dual-polarization radar (XPRAD was deployed in Guangdong province as part of the Southern China Monsoon Rainfall Experiment (SCMREX during the storm season in 2016. This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of XPRAD observations during SCMREX with emphasis on data processing and rainfall products. The differential phase-based attenuation correction and radar calibration using self-consistency of dual-polarization observables are presented. It is found that the standard deviation of the Z d r bias is less than 0.2 dB based on ‘light rain at low angle’ and ‘dry aggregate snow’ observations. Cross-comparison with two standard S-band China New Generation Weather Radars (CINRAD shows that the bias of Z h has a mean value less than 1.5 dBZ and a standard deviation less than 0.5 dBZ. In addition, fifteen rainfall events that occurred during the intensive observing period (IOP are analyzed to demonstrate the rainfall estimation performance of XPRAD. In particular, rainfall accumulations at 1-, 2- and 3-h scales derived using R( K d p and R( Z h , Z d r relations are evaluated using national level rain gauge data and CINRAD-based rainfall estimation. The results show that both R( K d p - and R( Z h , Z d r -based products agree well with the rain gauge observations and CINRAD estimation. The difference between R ( K d p and R ( Z h , Z d r is not significant, although R ( K d p shows slightly better performance than R ( Z h , Z d r .

  12. Application of Volumetric Weather Radar Data and the Distributed Rainfall Runoff Model REW in the Ourthe Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Torfs, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Weerts, A.; Reggiani, P.; Delobbe, L.

    2008-12-01

    In the southern Ardennes region of Belgium near the border with Luxembourg, the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI) installed a C-band Doppler weather radar at an elevation of 600 m in the year 2001. This volumetric weather radar scans over multiple elevations at a temporal resolution of 5 minutes. The current study explores the possibility of using the volumetric information of the precipitation field to correct for the effects of the Vertical Profile of Reflectivity (VPR) over the period October 1, 2002 until March 31, 2003. During this winter half year storm events are mainly stratiform, giving rise to bright band effects which can decrease the performance of the radar. Previous studies have shown multiple drawbacks in applying a single estimated VPR profile to correct such reflectivity data. Therefore, the focus here is on the temporal variability of the VPR as measured by the radar and its variability over different spatial scales. This information is applied to generate a number of possible rainfall fields. These realizations are employed to try to quantify some of the discrepancies in precipitation intensities as estimated by the weather radar and those measured by a raingauge network. The final step then is to assess their potential within a distributed rainfall runoff model. The 1597 km2 Ourthe catchment lies within 60 km of the radar. Over this medium sized watershed ten raingauges measuring at an hourly interval are more or less equally distributed. Near the outlet discharge data are collected at the same time step. The distributed hydrological Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) model is applied to model the hydrological behavior of the Ourthe over the six month period. The benefits of the high spatial and temporal resolution of weather radar data compared to a conventional raingauge network plus the possibility of generating multiple realizations of the precipitation field are expected to yield more information about the hydrological

  13. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Storm Water Runoff in Real-Time using Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Model based short-term forecasting of urban storm water runoff can be applied in realtime control of drainage systems in order to optimize system capacity during rain and minimize combined sewer overflows, improve wastewater treatment or activate alarms if local flooding is impending. A novel onl....... The radar rainfall extrapolation (nowcast) limits the lead time of the system to two hours. In this paper, the model set-up is tested on a small urban catchment for a period of 1.5 years. The 50 largest events are presented....... online system, which forecasts flows and water levels in real-time with inputs from extrapolated radar rainfall data, has been developed. The fully distributed urban drainage model includes auto-calibration using online in-sewer measurements which is seen to improve forecast skills significantly...

  14. Flow Forecasting in Drainage Systems with Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data and Auto Calibration on Flow Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Grum, M.; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Forecasting of flows, overflow volumes, water levels, etc. in drainage systems can be applied in real time control of drainage systems in the future climate in order to fully utilize system capacity and thus save possible construction costs. An online system for forecasting flows and water levels......-calibrated on flow measurements in order to produce the best possible forecast for the drainage system at all times. The system shows great potential for the implementation of real time control in drainage systems and forecasting flows and water levels.......Forecasting of flows, overflow volumes, water levels, etc. in drainage systems can be applied in real time control of drainage systems in the future climate in order to fully utilize system capacity and thus save possible construction costs. An online system for forecasting flows and water levels...... in a small urban catchment has been developed. The forecast is based on application of radar rainfall data, which by a correlation based technique, is extrapolated with a lead time up to two hours. The runoff forecast in the drainage system is based on a fully distributed MOUSE model which is auto...

  15. Evaluation of X-band polarimetric radar estimation of rainfall and rain drop size distribution parameters in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, A. K.; Gosset, M.; Zahiri, E.-P.; Ochou, A. D.; Kacou, M.; Cazenave, F.; Assamoi, P.

    2014-06-01

    As part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) field campaign an X-band dual-polarization Doppler radar was deployed in Benin, West-Africa, in 2006 and 2007, together with a reinforced rain gauge network and several optical disdrometers. Based on this data set, a comparative study of several rainfall estimators that use X-band polarimetric radar data is presented. In tropical convective systems as encountered in Benin, microwave attenuation by rain is significant and quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) at X-band is a challenge. Here, several algorithms based on the combined use of reflectivity, differential reflectivity and differential phase shift are evaluated against rain gauges and disdrometers. Four rainfall estimators were tested on twelve rainy events: the use of attenuation corrected reflectivity only (estimator R(ZH)), the use of the specific phase shift only R(KDP), the combination of specific phase shift and differential reflectivity R(KDP,ZDR) and an estimator that uses three radar parameters R(ZH,ZDR,KDP). The coefficients of the power law relationships between rain rate and radar variables were adjusted either based on disdrometer data and simulation, or on radar-gauges observations. The three polarimetric based algorithms with coefficients predetermined on observations outperform the R(ZH) estimator for rain rates above 10 mm/h which explain most of the rainfall in the studied region. For the highest rain rates (above 30 mm/h) R(KDP) shows even better scores, and given its performances and its simplicity of implementation, is recommended. The radar based retrieval of two parameters of the rain drop size distribution, the normalized intercept parameter NW and the volumetric median diameter Dm was evaluated on four rainy days thanks to disdrometers. The frequency distributions of the two parameters retrieved by the radar are very close to those observed with the disdrometer. NW retrieval based on a combination of ZH

  16. Cross-validation Methodology between Ground and GPM Satellite-based Radar Rainfall Product over Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Biswas, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades, a large number of rainfall products have been developed based on satellite, radar, and/or rain gauge observations. However, to produce optimal rainfall estimation for a given region is still challenging due to the space time variability of rainfall at many scales and the spatial and temporal sampling difference of different rainfall instruments. In order to produce high-resolution rainfall products for urban flash flood applications and improve the weather sensing capability in urban environment, the center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in collaboration with National Weather Service (NWS) and North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), has developed an urban radar remote sensing network in DFW Metroplex. DFW is the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S., that experiences a wide range of natural weather hazards such as flash flood and hailstorms. The DFW urban remote sensing network, centered by the deployment of eight dual-polarization X-band radars and a NWS WSR-88DP radar, is expected to provide impacts-based warning and forecasts for benefit of the public safety and economy. High-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the major goals of the development of this urban test bed. In addition to ground radar-based rainfall estimation, satellite-based rainfall products for this area are also of interest for this study. Typical example is the rainfall rate product produced by the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite. Therefore, cross-comparison between ground and space-based rainfall estimation is critical to building an optimal regional rainfall system, which can take advantages of the sampling differences of different sensors. This paper presents the real-time high-resolution QPE system developed for DFW urban radar network, which is based upon the combination of S-band WSR-88DP and X

  17. Inter-comparison of Rainfall Estimation from Radar and Satellite During 2016 June 23 Yancheng Tornado Event over Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Chen, S.; Liang, Z.; Hu, B.

    2017-12-01

    ABSTRACT: On the afternoon of June 23, 2016, Yancheng city in eastern China was hit by a severe thunderstorm that produced a devastating tornado. This tornado was ranked as an EF4 on the Enhanced Fujita scale by China Meteorological Administration, and killed at least 99 people and injured 846 others (152 seriously). This study evaluates rainfall estimates from ground radar network and four satellite algorithms with a relatively dense rain gauge network over eastern China including Jiangsu province and its adjacent regions for the Yancheng June 23 Tornado extreme convective storm in different spatiotemporal scales (from 0.04° to 0.1° and hourly to event total accumulation). The radar network is composed of about 6 S-band Doppler weather radars. Satellite precipitation products include Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS), and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMap). Relative Bias (RB), Root-Mean-Squared Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CC), Probability Of Detection (POD), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), and Critical Success Index (CSI) are used to quantify the performance of these precipitation products.

  18. TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) Gridded Rainfall Product (TRMM Product 3A25) V6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of algorithm 3A25 is to compute various rainfall statistics over a month from the level 2 PR products. The statistics are derived at two...

  19. TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) Gridded Rainfall Product (TRMM Product 3A25) V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of algorithm 3A25 is to compute various rainfall statistics over a month from the level 2 PR products. The statistics are derived at two...

  20. Urban Flooding Analysis Using Radar Rainfall Data and 2-D Hydrodynamic Model: A Pilot Study of Back Cover Area, Portland, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Eugene [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pierce, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahat, Vinod [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jared, Alissa [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Collis, Scott [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Verner, Duane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project is a part of the Regional Resiliency Assessment Program, led by the Department of Homeland Security, to address flooding hazards of regional significance for Portland, Maine. The pilot study was performed by Argonne National Laboratory to identify differences in spatial rainfall distributions between the radar-derived and rain-gauge rainfall datasets and to evaluate their impacts on urban flooding. The flooding impact analysis utilized a high-resolution 2-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic model (15 ft by 15 ft) incorporating the buildings, streets, stream channels, hydraulic structures, an existing city storm drain system, and assuming a storm surge along the coast coincident with a heavy rainfall event. Two historical storm events from April 16, 2007, and September 29, 2015, were selected for evaluation. The radar-derived rainfall data at a 200-m resolution provide spatially-varied rainfall patterns with a wide range of intensities for each event. The resultant maximum flood depth using data from a single rain gauge within the study area could be off (either under- or over-estimated) by more than 10% in the 2007 storm and more than 60% in the 2015 storm compared to the radar-derived rainfall data. The model results also suggest that the inundation area with a flow depth at or greater than 0.5 ft could reach 11% (2007 storm) and 17% (2015 storm) of the total study area, respectively. The lowland areas within the neighborhoods of North Deering, East Deering, East and West Baysides and northeastern Parkside, appear to be more vulnerable to the flood hazard in both storm events. The high-resolution 2-D hydrodynamic model with high-resolution radar-derived rainfall data provides an excellent tool for detailed urban flood analysis and vulnerability assessment. The model developed in this study could be potentially used to evaluate any proposed mitigation measures and optimize their effects in the future for Portland, ME.

  1. Water quality modelling in the San Antonio River Basin driven by radar rainfall data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoutaz Elhassan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of stream water quality is needed as it has significant impacts on human and ecological health and well-being. Estimating water quality between sampling dates requires model simulation based on the available geospatial and water quality data for a given watershed. Models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT can be used to estimate the missing water quality data. In this study, SWAT was used to estimate water quality at a monitoring station near the outlet of the San Antonio River. Precipitation data from both rain gauges and weather radar were used to force the SWAT simulations. Virtual rain gauges which were based on weather radar data were created in the approximate centres of the 163 sub-watersheds of the San Antonio River Basin for SWAT simulations. This method was first tested in a smaller watershed in the middle of the Guadalupe River Basin resulting in increased model efficiency in simulating surface run-off. The method was then applied to the San Antonio River watershed and yielded good simulations for surface run-off (R2 = 0.7, nitrate (R2 = 0.6 and phosphate (R2 = 0.5 at the watershed outlet (Goliad, TX – USGS (United States Geological Survey gauge as compared to observed data. The study showed that the proper use of weather radar precipitation in SWAT model simulations improves the estimation of missing water quality data.

  2. Challenges with space-time rainfall in urban hydrology highlighted with a semi-distributed model using C-band and X-band radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Rocha Paz, Igor; Ichiba, Abdellah; Skouri-Plakali, Ilektra; Lee, Jisun; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and global warming are expected to make precipitation events more frequent, more severe and more local. This may have serious consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage, economic activities, utilities and public service providers. Then precipitation risk and water management is a key challenge for densely populated urban areas. Applications derived from high (time and space) resolution observation of precipitations are to make our cities more weather-ready. Finer resolution data available from X-band dual radar measurements enhance engineering tools as used for urban planning policies as well as protection (mitigation/adaptation) strategies to tackle climate-change related weather events. For decades engineering tools have been developed to work conveniently either with very local rain gauge networks, or with mainly C-band weather radars that have gradually been set up for space-time remote sensing of precipitation. Most of the time, the C-band weather radars continue to be calibrated by the existing rain gauge networks. Inhomogeneous distributions of rain gauging networks lead to only a partial information on the rainfall fields. In fact, the statistics of measured rainfall is strongly biased by the fractality of the measuring networks. This fractality needs to be properly taken in to account to retrieve the original properties of the rainfall fields, in spite of the radar data calibration. In this presentation, with the help of multifractal analysis, we first demonstrate that the semi-distributed hydrological models statistically reduce the rainfall fields into rainfall measured by a much scarcer network of virtual rain gauges. For this purpose, we use C-band and X-band radar data. The first has a resolution of 1 km in space and 5 min in time and is in fact a product provided by RHEA SAS after treating the Météo-France C-band radar data. The latter is measured by the radar operated at Ecole des Ponts and has a resolution of

  3. Urban sewershed overflow analysis using super-resolution weather radar rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, J. Y.; Rockaway, T. D.; French, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    In urban areas, a prevalence of combined sewer systems (CSS) exist that carry both storm water runoff and sanitary sewer flows in a single pipe, these system are considered combined sewers. In the absence of rainfall-runoff most of these systems function adequately, however CSS capacity is typically inadequate to carry peak stormwater runoff volume. In order to minimize sewage flooding into streets and backups into homes and businesses, most CSS (as well as separate sanitary sewer system) are...

  4. Benefits and limitations of using the weather radar for the definition of rainfall thresholds for debris flows. Case study from Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, C.; Hürlimann, M.; Sempere, D.; Berenguer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Torrential processes such as debris flows or hyperconcentrated flows are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They occur in steep torrents and suppose a high risk for the human settlements. Rainfall is the most common triggering factor for debris flows. The rainfall threshold defines the rainfall conditions that, when reached or exceeded, are likely to provoke one or more events. Many different types of empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering have been defined. Direct measurements of rainfall data are normally not available from a point next to or in the surroundings of the initiation area of the landslide. For this reason, most of the thresholds published for debris flows have been established by data measured at the nearest rain gauges (often located several km far from the landslide). Only in very few cases, the rainfall data to analyse the triggering conditions of the debris flows have been obtained by weather (Doppler) radar. Radar devices present certain limitations in mountainous regions due to undesired reboots, but their main advantage is that radar data can be obtained for any point of the territory. The objective of this work was to test the use of the weather radar data for the definition of rainfall thresholds for debris-flow triggering. Thus, rainfall data obtained from 3 to 5 rain gauges and from radar were compared for a dataset of events occurred in Catalonia (Spain). The goal was to determine in which cases the description of the rainfall episode (in particular the maximum intensity) had been more accurate. The analysed dataset consists of: 1) three events occurred in the Rebaixader debris-flow monitoring station (Axial Pyrenees) including two hyperconcentrated flows and one debris flow; 2) one debris-flow event occurred in the Port Ainé ski resort (Axial Pyrenees); 3) one debris-flow event in Montserrat (Mediterranean Coastal range). The comparison of the hyetographs from the

  5. An approach to combine radar and gauge based rainfall data under consideration of their qualities in low mountain ranges of Saxony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jatho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An approach to combine gauge and radar data and additional quality information is presented. The development was focused on the improvement of the diagnostic for temporal (one hour and spatial (1×1 km2 highly resolved precipitation data. The method is embedded in an online tool and was applied to the target area Saxony, Germany. The aim of the tool is to provide accurate spatial rainfall estimates. The results can be used for rainfall run-off modelling, e.g. in a flood management system.

    Quality information allows a better assessment of the input data and the resulting precipitation field. They are stored in corresponding fields and represent the static and dynamic uncertainties of radar and gauge data. Objective combination of various precipitation and quality fields is realised using a cost function.

    The findings of cross validation reveal that the proposed combination method merged the benefits and disadvantages of interpolated gauge and radar data and leads to mean estimates. The sampling point validation implies that the presented method slightly overestimated the areal rain as well as the high rain intensities in case of convective and advective events, while the results of pure interpolation method performed better. In general, the use of presented cost function avoids false rainfall amount in areas of low input data quality and improves the reliability in areas of high data quality. It is obvious that the combined product includes the small-scale variability of radar, which is seen as the important benefit of the presented combination approach. Local improvements of the final rain field are possible due to consideration of gauges that were not used for radar calibration, e.g. in topographic distinct regions.

  6. Spatial Analysis of High-Resolution Radar Rainfall and Citizen-Reported Flash Flood Data in Ultra-Urban New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne Smith

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New York City (NYC is an ultra-urban region, with over 50% impervious cover and buried stream channels. Traditional flood studies rely on the presence of stream gages to detect flood stage and discharge, but these methods cannot be used in ultra-urban areas. Here we create a high-resolution radar rainfall dataset for NYC and utilize citizen and expert reports of flooding throughout the city to study flash flooding in NYC. Results indicate that interactions between the urban area and land–sea boundary have an important impact on the spatial variability of both heavy rainfall and flooding, sometimes in contrast to results obtained for other cities. Top days of daily and hourly rainfall exhibit a rainfall maximum over the city center and an extended region of higher rainfall downwind of the city. The mechanism for flooding appears to vary across the city, with high groundwater tables influencing more coastal areas and high rain rates or large rain volumes influencing more inland areas. There is also a strong relationship between sewer type and flood frequency, with fewer floods observed in combined sewer areas. Flooding is driven by maximum one-hour to one-day rainfall, which is often substantially less rain than observed for the city-wide daily maximum.

  7. Comparison of Two Methods for Estimating the Sampling-Related Uncertainty of Satellite Rainfall Averages Based on a Large Radar Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Bell, Thomas L.; Steiner, Matthias; Zhang, Yu; Wood, Eric F.

    2002-01-01

    The uncertainty of rainfall estimated from averages of discrete samples collected by a satellite is assessed using a multi-year radar data set covering a large portion of the United States. The sampling-related uncertainty of rainfall estimates is evaluated for all combinations of 100 km, 200 km, and 500 km space domains, 1 day, 5 day, and 30 day rainfall accumulations, and regular sampling time intervals of 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 8 h, and 12 h. These extensive analyses are combined to characterize the sampling uncertainty as a function of space and time domain, sampling frequency, and rainfall characteristics by means of a simple scaling law. Moreover, it is shown that both parametric and non-parametric statistical techniques of estimating the sampling uncertainty produce comparable results. Sampling uncertainty estimates, however, do depend on the choice of technique for obtaining them. They can also vary considerably from case to case, reflecting the great variability of natural rainfall, and should therefore be expressed in probabilistic terms. Rainfall calibration errors are shown to affect comparison of results obtained by studies based on data from different climate regions and/or observation platforms.

  8. Analysis of rainfall intensities using very dense network measurements and radar information for the Brno area during the period 2003-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salek, Milan; Stepanek, Petr; Zahradnicek, Pavel [Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-02-15

    This study presents a data quality control and spatial analysis of maximum precipitation sums of various durations for the area of the city of Brno, using a dense network of automatic gauge stations and radar information. The measurements of 18 stations in the area of Brno, Czech Republic were established for the purposes of better management of the city sewerage system. Before evaluation of the measurements, quality control was executed on the daily, hourly and 15-minute precipitation sums. All suspicious data were compared with radar measurements and erroneous input data were removed. From this quality controlled data, the maxima of precipitation sums for durations of 5, 10, 15 and 60 minutes were calculated for the given time frames (months, seasons and years) and were spatially analyzed. The role of spatial precipitation estimates using weather radar data for hourly rainfall accumulations has been investigated as well. It is revealed that radar measurements show rather little improvement of the areal precipitation estimates when such a dense gauge network is available in real time, but it would be hard to replace radar measurements by any other source of data for successful quality control of the rain-gauge data, especially in summer months. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative precipitation climatology over the Himalayas by using Precipitation Radar on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and a dense network of rain-gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, A.

    2010-09-01

    Quantified grid observation data at a reasonable resolution are indispensable for environmental monitoring as well as for predicting future change of mountain environment. However quantified datasets have not been available for the Himalayan region. Hence we evaluate climatological precipitation data around the Himalayas by using Precipitation Radar (PR) data acquired by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over 10 years of observation. To validate and adjust these patterns, we used a dense network of rain gauges collected by the Asian Precipitation—Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE Water Resources) project (http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/precip/). We used more than 2600 stations which have more than 10-year monthly precipitation over the Himalayan region (75E-105E, 20-36N) including country data of Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, India, Myanmar, and China. The region we studied is so topographically complicated that horizontal patterns are not uniform. Therefore, every path data of PR2A25 (near-surface rain) was averaged in a 0.05-degree grid and a 10-year monthly average was computed (hereafter we call PR). On the other hand, for rain-gauge, we first computed cell averages if each 0.05-degree grid cell has 10 years observation or more. Here we refer to the 0.05-degree rain-gauge climatology data as RG data. On the basis of comparisons between the RG and PR composite values, we defined the parameters of the regressions to correct the monthly climatology value based on the rain gauge observations. Compared with the RG, the PR systematically underestimated precipitation by 28-38% in summer (July-September). Significant correlation between TRMM/PR and rain-gauge data was found for all months, but the correlation is relatively low in winter. The relationship is investigated for different elevation zones, and the PR was found to underestimate RG data in most zones, except for certain zones in

  10. Evaluation of Maximum a Posteriori Estimation as Data Assimilation Method for Forecasting Infiltration-Inflow Affected Urban Runoff with Radar Rainfall Input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied Pedersen, Jonas; Lund, Nadia Schou Vorndran; Borup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    High quality on-line flow forecasts are useful for real-time operation of urban drainage systems and wastewater treatment plants. This requires computationally efficient models, which are continuously updated with observed data to provide good initial conditions for the forecasts. This paper...... period of time that precedes the forecast. The method is illustrated for an urban catchment, where flow forecasts of 0–4 h are generated by applying a lumped linear reservoir model with three cascading reservoirs. Radar rainfall observations are used as input to the model. The effects of different prior...

  11. Merging of rain gauge and radar data for urban hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Christian; Haberlandt, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Urban hydrological processes are generally characterised by short response times and therefore rainfall data with a high resolution in space and time are required for their modelling. In many smaller towns, no recordings of rainfall data exist within the urban catchment. Precipitation radar helps to provide extensive rainfall data with a temporal resolution of five minutes, but the rainfall amounts can be highly biased and hence the data should not be used directly as a model input. However, scientists proposed several methods for adjusting radar data to station measurements. This work tries to evaluate rainfall inputs for a hydrological model regarding the following two different applications: Dimensioning of urban drainage systems and analysis of single event flow. The input data used for this analysis can be divided into two groups: Methods, which rely on station data only (Nearest Neighbour Interpolation, Ordinary Kriging), and methods, which incorporate station as well as radar information (Conditional Merging, Bias correction of radar data based on quantile mapping with rain gauge recordings). Additionally, rainfall intensities that were directly obtained from radar reflectivities are used. A model of the urban catchment of the city of Brunswick (Lower Saxony, Germany) is utilised for the evaluation. First results show that radar data cannot help with the dimensioning task of sewer systems since rainfall amounts of convective events are often overestimated. Gauges in catchment proximity can provide more reliable rainfall extremes. Whether radar data can be helpful to simulate single event flow depends strongly on the data quality and thus on the selected event. Ordinary Kriging is often not suitable for the interpolation of rainfall data in urban hydrology. This technique induces a strong smoothing of rainfall fields and therefore a severe underestimation of rainfall intensities for convective events.

  12. Value of a dual-polarized gap-filling radar in support of southern California post-fire debris-flow warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, David P.; Hanshaw, Maiana N.; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Laber, Jayme L; Staley, Dennis M.; Kean, Jason W.; Restrepo, Pedro J.

    2011-01-01

    A portable truck-mounted C-band Doppler weather radar was deployed to observe rainfall over the Station Fire burn area near Los Angeles, California, during the winter of 2009/10 to assist with debris-flow warning decisions. The deployments were a component of a joint NOAA–U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research effort to improve definition of the rainfall conditions that trigger debris flows from steep topography within recent wildfire burn areas. A procedure was implemented to blend various dual-polarized estimators of precipitation (for radar observations taken below the freezing level) using threshold values for differential reflectivity and specific differential phase shift that improves the accuracy of the rainfall estimates over a specific burn area sited with terrestrial tipping-bucket rain gauges. The portable radar outperformed local Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) National Weather Service network radars in detecting rainfall capable of initiating post-fire runoff-generated debris flows. The network radars underestimated hourly precipitation totals by about 50%. Consistent with intensity–duration threshold curves determined from past debris-flow events in burned areas in Southern California, the portable radar-derived rainfall rates exceeded the empirical thresholds over a wider range of storm durations with a higher spatial resolution than local National Weather Service operational radars. Moreover, the truck-mounted C-band radar dual-polarimetric-derived estimates of rainfall intensity provided a better guide to the expected severity of debris-flow events, based on criteria derived from previous events using rain gauge data, than traditional radar-derived rainfall approaches using reflectivity–rainfall relationships for either the portable or operational network WSR-88D radars. Part of the reason for the improvement was due to siting the radar closer to the burn zone than the WSR-88Ds, but use of the dual-polarimetric variables

  13. Radar-Derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Based on Precipitation Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for improving radar-derived quantitative precipitation estimation is proposed. Tropical vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPRs are first determined from multiple VPRs. Upon identifying a tropical VPR, the event can be further classified as either tropical-stratiform or tropical-convective rainfall by a fuzzy logic (FL algorithm. Based on the precipitation-type fields, the reflectivity values are converted into rainfall rate using a Z-R relationship. In order to evaluate the performance of this rainfall classification scheme, three experiments were conducted using three months of data and two study cases. In Experiment I, the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D default Z-R relationship was applied. In Experiment II, the precipitation regime was separated into convective and stratiform rainfall using the FL algorithm, and corresponding Z-R relationships were used. In Experiment III, the precipitation regime was separated into convective, stratiform, and tropical rainfall, and the corresponding Z-R relationships were applied. The results show that the rainfall rates obtained from all three experiments match closely with the gauge observations, although Experiment II could solve the underestimation, when compared to Experiment I. Experiment III significantly reduced this underestimation and generated the most accurate radar estimates of rain rate among the three experiments.

  14. Rainfall: State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testik, Firat Y.; Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    Rainfall: State of the Science offers the most up-to-date knowledge on the fundamental and practical aspects of rainfall. Each chapter, self-contained and written by prominent scientists in their respective fields, provides three forms of information: fundamental principles, detailed overview of current knowledge and description of existing methods, and emerging techniques and future research directions. The book discusses • Rainfall microphysics: raindrop morphodynamics, interactions, size distribution, and evolution • Rainfall measurement and estimation: ground-based direct measurement (disdrometer and rain gauge), weather radar rainfall estimation, polarimetric radar rainfall estimation, and satellite rainfall estimation • Statistical analyses: intensity-duration-frequency curves, frequency analysis of extreme events, spatial analyses, simulation and disaggregation, ensemble approach for radar rainfall uncertainty, and uncertainty analysis of satellite rainfall products The book is tailored to be an indispensable reference for researchers, practitioners, and graduate students who study any aspect of rainfall or utilize rainfall information in various science and engineering disciplines.

  15. Probabilistic discrimination between liquid rainfall events, hailstorms, biomass burning and industrial fires from C-Band Radar Polarimetric Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, J. M.; Sepúlveda, J.; Hoyos, C.; Herrera, L.

    2017-12-01

    Characterization and identification of fire and hailstorm events using weather radar data in a tropical complex topography region is an important task in risk management and agriculture. Polarimetric variables from a C-Band Dual polarization weather radar have potential uses in particle classification, due to the relationship their sensitivity to shape, spatial orientation, size and fall behavior of particles. In this sense, three forest fires and two chemical fires were identified for the Áburra Valley regions. Measurements were compared between each fire event type and with typical data radar retrievals for liquid precipitation events. Results of this analysis show different probability density functions for each type of event according to the particles present in them. This is very important and useful result for early warning systems to avoid precipitation false alarms during fire events within the study region, as well as for the early detection of fires using radar retrievals in remote cases. The comparative methodology is extended to hailstorm cases. Complementary sensors like laser precipitation sensors (LPM) disdrometers and meteorological stations were used to select dates of solid precipitation occurrence. Then, in this dates weather radar data variables were taken in pixels surrounding the stations and solid precipitation polar values were statistically compared with liquid precipitation values. Spectrum precipitation measured by LPM disdrometer helps to define typical features like particles number, fall velocities and diameters for both precipitation types. In addition, to achieve a complete hailstorm characterization, other meteorological variables were analyzed: wind field from meteorological stations and radar wind profiler, profiling data from Micro Rain Radar (MRR), and thermodynamic data from a microwave radiometer.

  16. NEXRAD Rainfall Data: Eureka, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 (WSR-88D) measurements were used to support AMSR-E rainfall validation efforts in Eureka, California,...

  17. A preliminary investigation of radar rainfall estimation in the Ardennes region and a first hydrological application for the Ourthe catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berne, A.D.; Heggeler, ten M.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Delobbe, L.; Dierickx, P.; Wit, de M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the hydrometeorological potential of a C-band doppler weather radar recently installed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium near the village of Wideumont in the southern Ardennes region. An analysis of the vertical profile of reflectivity for two

  18. Evaluation of Maximum a Posteriori Estimation as Data Assimilation Method for Forecasting Infiltration-Inflow Affected Urban Runoff with Radar Rainfall Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas W. Pedersen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High quality on-line flow forecasts are useful for real-time operation of urban drainage systems and wastewater treatment plants. This requires computationally efficient models, which are continuously updated with observed data to provide good initial conditions for the forecasts. This paper presents a way of updating conceptual rainfall-runoff models using Maximum a Posteriori estimation to determine the most likely parameter constellation at the current point in time. This is done by combining information from prior parameter distributions and the model goodness of fit over a predefined period of time that precedes the forecast. The method is illustrated for an urban catchment, where flow forecasts of 0–4 h are generated by applying a lumped linear reservoir model with three cascading reservoirs. Radar rainfall observations are used as input to the model. The effects of different prior standard deviations and lengths of the auto-calibration period on the resulting flow forecast performance are evaluated. We were able to demonstrate that, if properly tuned, the method leads to a significant increase in forecasting performance compared to a model without continuous auto-calibration. Delayed responses and erratic behaviour in the parameter variations are, however, observed and the choice of prior distributions and length of auto-calibration period is not straightforward.

  19. Effects of an assimilation of radar and satellite data on a very-short range forecast of heavy convective rainfalls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 93, 1-3 (2009), s. 188-206 ISSN 0169-8095. [European Conference on Severe Storms /4./. Miramare -Trieste, 10.09.2007-14.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905; GA MŠk OC 112; GA MŠk 1P05ME748 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Precipitation forecast * NWP model * Assimilation of radar and satellite data * Local convective precipitation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01698095

  20. Derivation of Z-R equation using Mie approach for a 77 GHz radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldo, Silvano; Lucianaz, Claudio; Allegretti, Marco; Perona, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) defines the frequency band around 77 GHz as dedicated to automatic cruise control long-range radars. This work aims to demonstrate that, with specific assumption and the right theoretical background it is also possible to use a 77 GHz as a mini weather radar and/or a microwave rain gauge. To study the behavior of a 77 GHz meteorological radar, since the raindrop size are comparable to the wavelength, it is necessary to use the general Mie scattering theory. According to the Mie formulation, the radar reflectivity factor Z is defined as a function of the wavelength on the opposite of Rayleigh approximation in which is frequency independent. Different operative frequencies commonly used in radar meteorology are considered with both the Rayleigh and Mie scattering theory formulation. Comparing them it is shown that with the increasing of the radar working frequency the use of Rayleigh approximation lead to an always larger underestimation of rain. At 77 GHz such underestimation is up to 20 dB which can be avoided with the full Mie theory. The crucial derivation of the most suited relation between the radar reflectivity factor Z and rainfall rate R (Z-R equation) is necessary to achieve the best Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) possible. Making the use of Mie scattering formulation from the classical electromagnetic theory and considering different radar working frequencies, the backscattering efficiency and the radar reflectivity factor have been derived from a wide range of rain rate using specific numerical routines. Knowing the rain rate and the corresponding reflectivity factor it was possible to derive the coefficients of the Z-R equation for each frequency with the least square method and to obtain the best coefficients for each frequency. The coefficients are then compared with the ones coming from the scientific literature. The coefficients of a 77 GHz weather radar are then obtained. A

  1. Radar Rainfall Statistics During PECAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romatschke, U.; Weckwerth, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field campaign, based in Kansas, USA, took place from May to July 2015. It was designed to understand the causes and improve predictions of the central US nocturnal precipitation maximum. Over 100 instruments were utilized to sample the pre-convective and convective conditions within and around unorganized storms and Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). We analyze quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) derived from a dense network of NEXRADs which, combined with S-Pol, cover an area extending from the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains over the Central Great Plains. As expected, precipitation maxima occurred during the afternoon and evening over the eastern Rocky Mountains and during the night over the plains. The precipitation over the mountains is almost exclusively associated with smaller scale storms which are triggered by solar heating over the elevated terrain. The mountain triggered storms quickly grow and merge to the size of MCSs and are then advected east over the plains. Storms are also initiated over the plains but at much lower frequency than over the mountains. The diurnal cycle of plain initiation is much less pronounced with a broad peak in the afternoon and evening but also significant convection initiation during the night. The nocturnal precipitation over the plains is primarily associated with the MCSs advected from the mountains which merge with the storms triggered over the plains. Some precipitation over the plains is generated by pristine storms triggered over the plains but their precipitation contribution is mostly secondary compared to the merged systems.

  2. Underestimation of Project Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  3. Radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation for the identification of debris flow occurrence over earthquake-affected regions in Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhao; Wei, Fangqiang; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2018-03-01

    Both Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on 12 May 2008 and Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake on 20 April 2013 occurred in the province of Sichuan, China. In the earthquake-affected mountainous area, a large amount of loose material caused a high occurrence of debris flow during the rainy season. In order to evaluate the rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) threshold of the debris flow in the earthquake-affected area, and to fill up the observational gaps caused by the relatively scarce and low-altitude deployment of rain gauges in this area, raw data from two S-band China New Generation Doppler Weather Radar (CINRAD) were captured for six rainfall events that triggered 519 debris flows between 2012 and 2014. Due to the challenges of radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) over mountainous areas, a series of improvement measures are considered: a hybrid scan mode, a vertical reflectivity profile (VPR) correction, a mosaic of reflectivity, a merged rainfall-reflectivity (R - Z) relationship for convective and stratiform rainfall, and rainfall bias adjustment with Kalman filter (KF). For validating rainfall accumulation over complex terrains, the study areas are divided into two kinds of regions by the height threshold of 1.5 km from the ground. Three kinds of radar rainfall estimates are compared with rain gauge measurements. It is observed that the normalized mean bias (NMB) is decreased by 39 % and the fitted linear ratio between radar and rain gauge observation reaches at 0.98. Furthermore, the radar-based I-D threshold derived by the frequentist method is I = 10.1D-0.52 and is underestimated by uncorrected raw radar data. In order to verify the impacts on observations due to spatial variation, I-D thresholds are identified from the nearest rain gauge observations and radar observations at the rain gauge locations. It is found that both kinds of observations have similar I-D thresholds and likewise underestimate I-D thresholds due to undershooting at the core of convective

  4. Heavy rainfall: An underestimated environmental risk for buildings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Second, heavy rain may result in urban pluvial flooding due to sewer overflow that cause severe damage to buildings. A comprehensive study of the impacts and the consequences in Dresden (Germany, presented in the paper, revealed that the potential risks of flooding from sewers due to hydraulic overload can be estimated on building scale using the model approach IVART (Integrated Spatial Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool. Modelling results provide the basis to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of flood resilience technologies.

  5. Polarimetric Radar Retrievals in Southeast Texas During Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, D. B.; Petersen, W. A.; Tokay, A.; Marks, D. A.; Pippitt, J. L.; Kirstetter, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey hit the Texas Gulf Coast as a major hurricane on August 25, 2017 before exiting the state as a tropical storm on September 1, 2017. In its wake, it left a flood of historic proportions, with some areas measuring 60 inches of rain over a five-day period. Although the storm center stayed west of the immediate Houston area training bands of precipitation impacted the Houston area for five full days. The National Weather Service (NWS) WSR88D dual-polarimetric radar (KHGX), located southeast of Houston, maintained operations for the entirety of the event. The Harris County Flood Warning System (HCFWS) had 150 rain gauges deployed in its network and seven NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) rain gauges are also located in the area. In this study, we used the full radar data set to retrieve daily and event-total precipitation estimates within 120 km of the KHGX radar for the period August 25-29, 2017. These estimates were then compared to the HCFWS and ASOS gauges. Three different polarimetric hybrid rainfall retrievals were used: Ciffeli et al. 2011; Bringi et al. 2004; and, Chen et al. 2017. Each of these hybrid retrievals have demonstrated robust performance in the past. However, both daily and event-total comparisons from each of these retrievals compared to those of HCFWS and ASOS rain gauge networks resulted in significant underestimates by the radar retrievals. These radar underestimates are concerning. Sources of error and variance will be investigated to understand the source of radar-gauge disagreement. One current hypothesis is that due to the large number of small drops often found in hurricanes, the differential reflectivity and specific differential phase are relatively small so that the hybrid algorithms use only the reflectivity/rain rate procedure (so called Z-R relationships), and hence rarely invoke the ZDR or KDP procedures. Thus, an alternative Z-R relationship must be invoked to retrieve accurate rain rate estimates.

  6. Radar-driven high-resolution hydro-meteorological forecasts of the 26 September 2007 Venice flash flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossa, Andrea M.; Laudanna Del Guerra, Franco; Borga, Marco; Zanon, Francesco; Settin, Tommaso; Leuenberger, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    SummaryThis study aims to assess the feasibility of assimilating carefully checked radar rainfall estimates into a numerical weather prediction (NWP) to extend the forecasting lead time for an extreme flash flood. The hydro-meteorological modeling chain includes the convection-permitting NWP model COSMO-2 and a coupled hydrological-hydraulic model. Radar rainfall estimates are assimilated into the NWP model via the latent heat nudging method. The study is focused on 26 September 2007 extreme flash flood which impacted the coastal area of North-eastern Italy around Venice. The hydro-meteorological modeling system is implemented over the 90 km2 Dese river basin draining to the Venice Lagoon. The radar rainfall observations are carefully checked for artifacts, including rain-induced signal attenuation, by means of physics-based correction procedures and comparison with a dense network of raingauges. The impact of the radar rainfall estimates in the assimilation cycle of the NWP model is very significant. The main individual organized convective systems are successfully introduced into the model state, both in terms of timing and localization. Also, high-intensity incorrectly localized precipitation is correctly reduced to about the observed levels. On the other hand, the highest rainfall intensities computed after assimilation underestimate the observed values by 20% and 50% at a scale of 20 km and 5 km, respectively. The positive impact of assimilating radar rainfall estimates is carried over into the free forecast for about 2-5 h, depending on when the forecast was started. The positive impact is larger when the main mesoscale convective system is present in the initial conditions. The improvements in the precipitation forecasts are propagated to the river flow simulations, with an extension of the forecasting lead time up to 3 h.

  7. Accuracy of rainfall measurement for scales of hydrological interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Wood

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense network of 49 raingauges over the 135 km2 Brue catchment in Somerset, England is used to examine the accuracy of rainfall estimates obtained from raingauges and from weather radar. Methods for data quality control and classification of precipitation types are first described. A super-dense network comprising eight gauges within a 2 km grid square is employed to obtain a 'true value' of rainfall against which the 2 km radar grid and a single 'typical gauge' estimate can be compared. Accuracy is assessed as a function of rainfall intensity, for different periods of time-integration (15 minutes, 1 hour and 1 day and for two 8-gauge networks in areas of low and high relief. In a similar way, the catchment gauge network is used to provide the 'true catchment rainfall' and the accuracy of a radar estimate (an area-weighted average of radar pixel values and a single 'typical gauge' estimate of catchment rainfall evaluated as a function of rainfall intensity. A single gauge gives a standard error of estimate for rainfall in a 2 km square and over the catchment of 33% and 65% respectively, at rain rates of 4 mm in 15 minutes. Radar data at 2 km resolution give corresponding errors of 50% and 55%. This illustrates the benefit of using radar when estimating catchment scale rainfall. A companion paper (Wood et al., 2000 considers the accuracy of rainfall estimates obtained using raingauge and radar in combination. Keywords: rainfall, accuracy, raingauge, radar

  8. A semi-urban case study of small scale variability of rainfall and run-off, with C- and X-band radars and the fully distributed hydrological model Multi-Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Souza, Bianca; da Silva Rocha Paz, Igor; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of urban hydrology results both from that of urban systems and the extreme rainfall variability. The latter can display strongly localised rain cells that can be extremely damaging when hitting vulnerable parts of urban systems. This paper investigates this complexity on a semi-urban sub-catchment - located in Massy (South of Paris, France) - of the Bievre river, which is known for its frequent flashfloods. Advanced geo-processing techniques were used to find the ideal pixel size for this 6.326km2 basin. C-band and X-band radar data are multifractally downscaled at various resolutions and input to the fully distributed hydrological model Multi-Hydro. The latter has been developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. It integrates validated modules dealing with surface flow, saturated and unsaturated surface flow, and sewer flow. The C-band radar is located in Trappes, approx. 21km East of the catchment, is operated by Méteo-France and has a resolution of 1km x 1km x 5min. The X-band radar operated by Ecole des Ponts Paris Tech on its campus has a resolution of 125m x 125m x 3.4min. The performed multifractal downscaling enables both the generation of large ensemble realizations and easy change of resolution (e.g. down to 10 m in the present study). This in turn allows a detailed analysis of the impacts of small scale variability and the required resolution to obtain accurate simulations, therefore predictions. This will be shown on two rainy episodes over the chosen sub-catchment of the Bievre river.

  9. Constraining frequency–magnitude–area relationships for rainfall and flood discharges using radar-derived precipitation estimates: example applications in the Upper and Lower Colorado River basins, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Orem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood-envelope curves (FECs are useful for constraining the upper limit of possible flood discharges within drainage basins in a particular hydroclimatic region. Their usefulness, however, is limited by their lack of a well-defined recurrence interval. In this study we use radar-derived precipitation estimates to develop an alternative to the FEC method, i.e., the frequency–magnitude–area-curve (FMAC method that incorporates recurrence intervals. The FMAC method is demonstrated in two well-studied US drainage basins, i.e., the Upper and Lower Colorado River basins (UCRB and LCRB, respectively, using Stage III Next-Generation-Radar (NEXRAD gridded products and the diffusion-wave flow-routing algorithm. The FMAC method can be applied worldwide using any radar-derived precipitation estimates. In the FMAC method, idealized basins of similar contributing area are grouped together for frequency–magnitude analysis of precipitation intensity. These data are then routed through the idealized drainage basins of different contributing areas, using contributing-area-specific estimates for channel slope and channel width. Our results show that FMACs of precipitation discharge are power-law functions of contributing area with an average exponent of 0.82 ± 0.06 for recurrence intervals from 10 to 500 years. We compare our FMACs to published FECs and find that for wet antecedent-moisture conditions, the 500-year FMAC of flood discharge in the UCRB is on par with the US FEC for contributing areas of  ∼ 102 to 103 km2. FMACs of flood discharge for the LCRB exceed the published FEC for the LCRB for contributing areas in the range of  ∼ 103 to 104 km2. The FMAC method retains the power of the FEC method for constraining flood hazards in basins that are ungauged or have short flood records, yet it has the added advantage that it includes recurrence-interval information necessary for estimating event probabilities.

  10. The impact of reflectivity correction and accounting for raindrop size distribution variability to improve precipitation estimation by weather radar for an extreme low-land mesoscale convective system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-11-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands, locally giving rise to rainfall accumulations exceeding 150 mm. Correctly measuring the amount of precipitation during such an extreme event is important, both from a hydrological and meteorological perspective. Unfortunately, the operational weather radar measurements were affected by multiple sources of error and only 30% of the precipitation observed by rain gauges was estimated. Such an underestimation of heavy rainfall, albeit generally less strong than in this extreme case, is typical for operational weather radar in The Netherlands. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two groups: (1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements (e.g. ground clutter, radar calibration, vertical profile of reflectivity) and (2) errors resulting from variations in the raindrop size distribution that in turn result in incorrect rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates from observed reflectivity measurements. A stepwise procedure to correct for the first group of errors leads to large improvements in the quality of the estimated precipitation, increasing the radar rainfall accumulations to about 65% of those observed by gauges. To correct for the second group of errors, a coherent method is presented linking the parameters of the radar reflectivity-rain rate (Z - R) and radar reflectivity-specific attenuation (Z - k) relationships to the normalized drop size distribution (DSD). Two different procedures were applied. First, normalized DSD parameters for the whole event and for each precipitation type separately (convective, stratiform and undefined) were obtained using local disdrometer observations. Second, 10,000 randomly generated plausible normalized drop size distributions were used for rainfall estimation, to evaluate whether this Monte Carlo method would improve the quality of weather radar rainfall products. Using the

  11. Underestimating belief in climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T.

    2018-03-01

    People are influenced by second-order beliefs — beliefs about the beliefs of others. New research finds that citizens in the US and China systematically underestimate popular support for taking action to curb climate change. Fortunately, they seem willing and able to correct their misperceptions.

  12. Radar-driven High-resolution Hydrometeorological Forecasts of the 26 September 2007 Venice flash flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo Rossa, Andrea; Laudanna Del Guerra, Franco; Borga, Marco; Zanon, Francesco; Settin, Tommaso; Leuenberger, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    highest rainfall intensities were underestimated by 20% at a scale of 1000 km2, and the local peaks by 50%. The positive impact of the assimilated radar rainfall was carried over into the free forecast for about 2-5 hours, depending on when this forecast was started, and was larger, when the main mesoscale convective system was present in the initial conditions. The improvements of the meteorological model simulations were directly propagated to the river flow simulations, with an extension of the warning lead time up to three hours.

  13. Simulation of an extreme heavy rainfall event over Chennai, India using WRF: Sensitivity to grid resolution and boundary layer physics

    KAUST Repository

    Srinivas, C.V.

    2018-05-04

    In this study, the heavy precipitation event on 01 December 2015 over Chennai located on the southeast coast of India was simulated using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. A series of simulations were conducted using explicit convection and varying the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes. The model results were compared with available surface, satellite and Doppler Weather Radar observations. Simulations indicate strong, sustained moist convection associated with development of a mesoscale upper air cyclonic circulation, during the passage of a synoptic scale low-pressure trough caused heavy rainfall over Chennai and its surroundings. Results suggest that veering of wind with height associated with strong wind shear in the layer 800–400 hPa together with dry air advection facilitated development of instability and initiation of convection. The 1-km domain using explicit convection improved the prediction of rainfall intensity of about 450 mm and its distribution. The PBL physics strongly influenced the rainfall prediction by changing the location of upper air circulation, energy transport, moisture convergence and intensity of convection in the schemes YSU, MYJ and MYNN. All the simulations underestimated the first spell of the heavy rainfall. While YSU and MYJ schemes grossly underestimated the rainfall and dislocated the area of maximum rainfall, the higher order MYNN scheme simulated the rainfall pattern in better agreement with observations. The MYNN showed lesser mixing and simulated more humid boundary layer, higher convective available potential energy (CAPE) and stronger winds at mid-troposphere than did the other schemes. The MYNN also realistically simulated the location of upper air cyclonic flow and various dynamic and thermodynamic features. Consequently it simulated stronger moisture convergence and higher precipitation.

  14. Simulation of an extreme heavy rainfall event over Chennai, India using WRF: Sensitivity to grid resolution and boundary layer physics

    KAUST Repository

    Srinivas, C.V.; Yesubabu, V.; Hari Prasad, D.; Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Greeshma, M.M.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the heavy precipitation event on 01 December 2015 over Chennai located on the southeast coast of India was simulated using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. A series of simulations were conducted using explicit convection and varying the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes. The model results were compared with available surface, satellite and Doppler Weather Radar observations. Simulations indicate strong, sustained moist convection associated with development of a mesoscale upper air cyclonic circulation, during the passage of a synoptic scale low-pressure trough caused heavy rainfall over Chennai and its surroundings. Results suggest that veering of wind with height associated with strong wind shear in the layer 800–400 hPa together with dry air advection facilitated development of instability and initiation of convection. The 1-km domain using explicit convection improved the prediction of rainfall intensity of about 450 mm and its distribution. The PBL physics strongly influenced the rainfall prediction by changing the location of upper air circulation, energy transport, moisture convergence and intensity of convection in the schemes YSU, MYJ and MYNN. All the simulations underestimated the first spell of the heavy rainfall. While YSU and MYJ schemes grossly underestimated the rainfall and dislocated the area of maximum rainfall, the higher order MYNN scheme simulated the rainfall pattern in better agreement with observations. The MYNN showed lesser mixing and simulated more humid boundary layer, higher convective available potential energy (CAPE) and stronger winds at mid-troposphere than did the other schemes. The MYNN also realistically simulated the location of upper air cyclonic flow and various dynamic and thermodynamic features. Consequently it simulated stronger moisture convergence and higher precipitation.

  15. Urban rainfall estimation employing commercial microwave links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire

    2015-04-01

    Urban areas often lack rainfall information. To increase the number of rainfall observations in cities, microwave links from operational cellular telecommunication networks may be employed. Although this new potential source of rainfall information has been shown to be promising, its quality needs to be demonstrated more extensively. In the Rain Sense kickstart project of the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS), sensors and citizens are preparing Amsterdam for future weather. Part of this project is rainfall estimation using new measurement techniques. Innovative sensing techniques will be utilized such as rainfall estimation from microwave links, umbrellas for weather sensing, low-cost sensors at lamp posts and in drainage pipes for water level observation. These will be combined with information provided by citizens in an active way through smartphone apps and in a passive way through social media posts (Twitter, Flickr etc.). Sensor information will be integrated, visualized and made accessible to citizens to help raise citizen awareness of urban water management challenges and promote resilience by providing information on how citizens can contribute in addressing these. Moreover, citizens and businesses can benefit from reliable weather information in planning their social and commercial activities. In the end city-wide high-resolution rainfall maps will be derived, blending rainfall information from microwave links and weather radars. This information will be used for urban water management. This presentation focuses on rainfall estimation from commercial microwave links. Received signal levels from tens of microwave links within the Amsterdam region (roughly 1 million inhabitants) in the Netherlands are utilized to estimate rainfall with high spatial and temporal resolution. Rainfall maps will be presented and compared to a gauge-adjusted radar rainfall data set. Rainfall time series from gauge(s), radars and links will be compared.

  16. Measurement of Precipitation in the Alps Using Dual-Polarization C-Band Ground-Based Radars, the GPM Spaceborne Ku-Band Radar, and Rain Gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gabella

    2017-11-01

    a geostatistical approach. The GPM mission is adding significant new coverage to mountainous areas, especially in poorly instrumented parts of the world and at latitudes not previously covered by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. According to this study, one could expect an underestimation of the precipitation product by the dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR also in other mountainous areas of the world.

  17. Comparison of Ground- and Space-based Radar Observations with Disdrometer Measurements During the PECAN Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. D.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Bodine, D. J.; Dougherty, E.

    2015-12-01

    Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) was a large field campaign that studied nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), convective initiation, bores, and low-level jets across the central plains in the United States. MCSs are responsible for over half of the warm-season precipitation across the central U.S. plains. The rainfall from deep convection of these systems over land have been observed to be underestimated by satellite radar rainfall-retrieval algorithms by as much as 40 percent. These algorithms have a strong dependence on the generally unmeasured rain drop-size distribution (DSD). During the campaign, our group measured rainfall DSDs, precipitation fall velocities, and total precipitation in the convective and stratiform regions of MCSs using Ott Parsivel optical laser disdrometers. The disdrometers were co-located with mobile pod units that measured temperature, wind, and relative humidity for quality control purposes. Data from the operational NEXRAD radar in LaCrosse, Wisconsin and space-based radar measurements from a Global Precipitation Measurement satellite overpass on July 13, 2015 were used for the analysis. The focus of this study is to compare DSD measurements from the disdrometers to radars in an effort to reduce errors in existing rainfall-retrieval algorithms. The error analysis consists of substituting measured DSDs into existing quantitative precipitation estimation techniques (e.g. Z-R relationships and dual-polarization rain estimates) and comparing these estimates to ground measurements of total precipitation. The results from this study will improve climatological estimates of total precipitation in continental convection that are used in hydrological studies, climate models, and other applications.

  18. Using naive Bayes classifier for classification of convective rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the rainfall intensity in the convective clouds is evaluated using weather radar over the northern Algeria. The results indicate an ... tropical and extratropical regions, are dominated .... MSG is a new series of European geostationary satellites ...

  19. Censored rainfall modelling for estimation of fine-scale extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, David; Onof, Christian; Winter, Hugo; Bernardara, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Reliable estimation of rainfall extremes is essential for drainage system design, flood mitigation, and risk quantification. However, traditional techniques lack physical realism and extrapolation can be highly uncertain. In this study, we improve the physical basis for short-duration extreme rainfall estimation by simulating the heavy portion of the rainfall record mechanistically using the Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse (BLRP) model. Mechanistic rainfall models have had a tendency to underestimate rainfall extremes at fine temporal scales. Despite this, the simple process representation of rectangular pulse models is appealing in the context of extreme rainfall estimation because it emulates the known phenomenology of rainfall generation. A censored approach to Bartlett-Lewis model calibration is proposed and performed for single-site rainfall from two gauges in the UK and Germany. Extreme rainfall estimation is performed for each gauge at the 5, 15, and 60 min resolutions, and considerations for censor selection discussed.

  20. Enhanced Orographic Tropical Rainfall: An Study of the Colombia's rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaranda, V. M.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.; Mesa, O. J.

    2015-12-01

    Convection in tropical regions may be enhanced by orographic barriers. The orographic enhancement is an intensification of rain rates caused by the forced lifting of air over a mountainous structure. Orographic heavy rainfall events, occasionally, comes along by flooding, debris flow and substantial amount of looses, either economics or human lives. Most of the heavy convective rainfall events, occurred in Colombia, have left a lot of victims and material damages by flash flooding. An urgent action is required by either scientific communities or society, helping to find preventive solutions against these kind of events. Various scientific literature reports address the feedback process between the convection and the local orographic structures. The orographic enhancement could arise by several physical mechanism: precipitation transport on leeward side, convection triggered by the forcing of air over topography, the seeder-feeder mechanism, among others. The identification of the physical mechanisms for orographic enhancement of rainfall has not been studied over Colombia. As far as we know, orographic convective tropical rainfall is just the main factor for the altitudinal belt of maximum precipitation, but the lack of detailed hydro-meteorological measurements have precluded a complete understanding of the tropical rainfall in Colombia and its complex terrain. The emergence of the multifractal theory for rainfall has opened a field of research which builds a framework for parsimonious modeling of physical process. Studies about the scaling behavior of orographic rainfall have found some modulating functions between the rainfall intensity probability distribution and the terrain elevation. The overall objective is to advance in the understanding of the orographic influence over the Colombian tropical rainfall based on observations and scaling-analysis techniques. We use rainfall maps, weather radars scans and ground-based rainfall data. The research strategy is

  1. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  2. Tundra water budget and implications of precipitation underestimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Anna K; Hinzman, Larry D; Kane, Douglas L; Oechel, Walter C; Tweedie, Craig E; Zona, Donatella

    2017-08-01

    Difficulties in obtaining accurate precipitation measurements have limited meaningful hydrologic assessment for over a century due to performance challenges of conventional snowfall and rainfall gauges in windy environments. Here, we compare snowfall observations and bias adjusted snowfall to end-of-winter snow accumulation measurements on the ground for 16 years (1999-2014) and assess the implication of precipitation underestimation on the water balance for a low-gradient tundra wetland near Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska (2007-2009). In agreement with other studies, and not accounting for sublimation, conventional snowfall gauges captured 23-56% of end-of-winter snow accumulation. Once snowfall and rainfall are bias adjusted, long-term annual precipitation estimates more than double (from 123 to 274 mm), highlighting the risk of studies using conventional or unadjusted precipitation that dramatically under-represent water balance components. Applying conventional precipitation information to the water balance analysis produced consistent storage deficits (79 to 152 mm) that were all larger than the largest actual deficit (75 mm), which was observed in the unusually low rainfall summer of 2007. Year-to-year variability in adjusted rainfall (±33 mm) was larger than evapotranspiration (±13 mm). Measured interannual variability in partitioning of snow into runoff (29% in 2008 to 68% in 2009) in years with similar end-of-winter snow accumulation (180 and 164 mm, respectively) highlights the importance of the previous summer's rainfall (25 and 60 mm, respectively) on spring runoff production. Incorrect representation of precipitation can therefore have major implications for Arctic water budget descriptions that in turn can alter estimates of carbon and energy fluxes.

  3. Ku/Ka/W-band Antenna for Electronically-Scanned Cloud and Precipitation Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previously, cloud radars such as CloudSat have been separated from precipitation radars such as TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) and GPM (Global...

  4. A utilização das imagens de radar meteorológico em Climatologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fragoso

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available WEATHER RADAR IMAGE IN CLIMATOLOGY - After a brief overview about weather radar as a remote sensing instrument, some problems concerning the use of radar images are discussed. The great interest of radar images as a tool in Climatology is pointed out. Finally, a case study about two rainfall events in Nancy (France in April 1995 is presented.

  5. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate and evaluate the quality, limitations and uncertainties of satellite rainfall estimates are fundamental to assure the correct and successful use of these products in applications, such as climate studies, hydrological modeling and natural hazard monitoring. Over regions of the globe that lack in situ observations, such studies are only possible through intensive field measurement campaigns, which provide a range of high quality ground measurements, e.g., CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GlobAl Precipitation Measurement and GoAmazon (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon over the Brazilian Amazon during 2014/2015. This study aims to assess the characteristics of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite-based precipitation estimates in representing the diurnal cycle over the Brazilian Amazon. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG and the Goddard Profiling Algorithm—Version 2014 (GPROF2014 algorithms are evaluated against ground-based radar observations. Specifically, the S-band weather radar from the Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM, is first validated against the X-band CHUVA radar and then used as a reference to evaluate GPM precipitation. Results showed satisfactory agreement between S-band SIPAM radar and both IMERG and GPROF2014 algorithms. However, during the wet season, IMERG, which uses the GPROF2014 rainfall retrieval from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI sensor, significantly overestimates the frequency of heavy rainfall volumes around 00:00–04:00 UTC and 15:00–18:00 UTC. This overestimation is particularly evident over the Negro, Solimões and Amazon rivers due to the poorly-calibrated algorithm over water surfaces. On the other hand, during the dry season, the IMERG product underestimates mean precipitation in comparison to the S-band SIPAM

  6. Radar Chart

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Radar Chart collection is an archived product of summarized radar data. The geographic coverage is the 48 contiguous states of the United States. These hourly...

  7. Utilizing the Vertical Variability of Precipitation to Improve Radar QPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Patrick N.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of the melting layer and raindrop size distribution can be exploited to further improve radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). Using dual-polarimetric radar and disdrometers, we found that the characteristic size of raindrops reaching the ground in stratiform precipitation often varies linearly with the depth of the melting layer. As a result, a radar rainfall estimator was formulated using D(sub m) that can be employed by polarimetric as well as dual-frequency radars (e.g., space-based radars such as the GPM DPR), to lower the bias and uncertainty of conventional single radar parameter rainfall estimates by as much as 20%. Polarimetric radar also suffers from issues associated with sampling the vertical distribution of precipitation. Hence, we characterized the vertical profile of polarimetric parameters (VP3)-a radar manifestation of the evolving size and shape of hydrometeors as they fall to the ground-on dual-polarimetric rainfall estimation. The VP3 revealed that the profile of ZDR in stratiform rainfall can bias dual-polarimetric rainfall estimators by as much as 50%, even after correction for the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). The VP3 correction technique that we developed can improve operational dual-polarimetric rainfall estimates by 13% beyond that offered by a VPR correction alone.

  8. Comparison between Pludix and impact/optical disdrometers during rainfall measurement campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Clelia; Prodi, Franco; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2006-11-01

    The performances of two couples of disdrometers based on different measuring principles are compared: a classical Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer and a recently developed device, called the Pludix tested in Ferrara, Italy, and Pludix and the two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) tested in Cabauw, The Netherlands. First, the measuring principles of the different instruments are presented and compared. Secondly, the performances of the two pairs of disdrometers are analysed by comparing their rain amounts with nearby tipping bucket rain gauges and the inferred drop size distributions. The most important rainfall integral parameters (e.g. rain rate and radar reflectivity) and drop size distribution parameters are also analysed and compared. The data set for Ferrara comprises 13 rainfall events, with a total of 20 mm of rainfall and a maximum rain rate of 4 mm h - 1 . The data set for Cabauw consists of 9 events, with 25-50 mm of rainfall and a maximum rain rate of 20-40 mm h - 1 . The Pludix tends to underestimate slightly the bulk rainfall variables in less intense events, whereas it tends to overestimate with respect to the other instruments in heavier events. The correspondence of the inferred drop size distributions with those measured by the other disdrometers is reasonable, particularly with the Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer. Considering that the Pludix is still in a calibration and testing phase, the reported results are encouraging. A new signal inversion algorithm, which will allow the detection of rain drops throughout the entire diameter interval between 0.3 and 7.0 mm, is under development.

  9. Radar Fundamentals, Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Topics include: introduction, radar functions, antennas basics, radar range equation, system parameters, electromagnetic waves, scattering mechanisms, radar cross section and stealth, and sample radar systems.

  10. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K

    2012-01-01

    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  11. Retrieval algorithm for rainfall mapping from microwave links in a cellular communication network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2016-01-01

    Microwave links in commercial cellular communication networks hold a promise for areal rainfall monitoring and could complement rainfall estimates from ground-based weather radars, rain gauges, and satellites. It has been shown that country-wide (≈ 35 500 km2) 15 min rainfall maps can

  12. Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for hydrological model calibration in a large poorly gauged catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, Christian; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The availability of data is a major challenge for hydrological modelling in large parts of the world. Remote sensing data can be exploited to improve models of ungauged or poorly gauged catchments. In this study we combine three datasets for calibration of a rainfall-runoff model of the poorly...... gauged Okavango catchment in Southern Africa: (i) surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates derived from radar measurements onboard the Envisat satellite; (ii) radar altimetry measurements by Envisat providing river stages in the tributaries of the Okavango catchment, down to a minimum river width of about...... one hundred meters; and (iii) temporal changes of the Earth's gravity field recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) caused by total water storage changes in the catchment. The SSM data are shown to be helpful in identifying periods with over-respectively underestimation...

  13. Social Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    RTA HFM-201/RSM PAPER 3 - 1 © 2012 The MITRE Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Social Radar Barry Costa and John Boiney MITRE Corporation...defenders require an integrated set of capabilities that we refer to as a “ social radar.” Such a system would support strategic- to operational-level...situation awareness, alerting, course of action analysis, and measures of effectiveness for each action undertaken. Success of a social radar

  14. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  15. Heterogeneity of Dutch rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rainfall data for the Netherlands have been used in this study to investigate aspects of heterogeneity of rainfall, in particular local differences in rainfall levels, time trends in rainfall, and local differences in rainfall trend. The possible effect of urbanization and industrialization on the

  16. Hydrometeorological and statistical analyses of heavy rainfall in Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndahl, S.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2012-04-01

    During the last two decades the mid-western states of the United States of America has been largely afflicted by heavy flood producing rainfall. Several of these storms seem to have similar hydrometeorological properties in terms of pattern, track, evolution, life cycle, clustering, etc. which raise the question if it is possible to derive general characteristics of the space-time structures of these heavy storms. This is important in order to understand hydrometeorological features, e.g. how storms evolve and with what frequency we can expect extreme storms to occur. In the literature, most studies of extreme rainfall are based on point measurements (rain gauges). However, with high resolution and quality radar observation periods exceeding more than two decades, it is possible to do long-term spatio-temporal statistical analyses of extremes. This makes it possible to link return periods to distributed rainfall estimates and to study precipitation structures which cause floods. However, doing these statistical frequency analyses of rainfall based on radar observations introduces some different challenges, converting radar reflectivity observations to "true" rainfall, which are not problematic doing traditional analyses on rain gauge data. It is for example difficult to distinguish reflectivity from high intensity rain from reflectivity from other hydrometeors such as hail, especially using single polarization radars which are used in this study. Furthermore, reflectivity from bright band (melting layer) should be discarded and anomalous propagation should be corrected in order to produce valid statistics of extreme radar rainfall. Other challenges include combining observations from several radars to one mosaic, bias correction against rain gauges, range correction, ZR-relationships, etc. The present study analyzes radar rainfall observations from 1996 to 2011 based the American NEXRAD network of radars over an area covering parts of Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, and

  17. Contribution of long-term accounting for raindrop size distribution variations on quantitative precipitation estimation by weather radar: Disdrometers vs parameter optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Leijnse, H.

    2015-12-01

    Volumetric weather radars provide information on the characteristics of precipitation at high spatial and temporal resolution. Unfortunately, rainfall measurements by radar are affected by multiple error sources, which can be subdivided into two main groups: 1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements (e.g. ground clutter, vertical profile of reflectivity, attenuation, etc.), and 2) errors related to the conversion of the observed reflectivity (Z) values into rainfall intensity (R) and specific attenuation (k). Until the recent wide-scale implementation of dual-polarimetric radar, this second group of errors received relatively little attention, focusing predominantly on precipitation type-dependent Z-R and Z-k relations. The current work accounts for the impact of variations of the drop size distribution (DSD) on the radar QPE performance. We propose to link the parameters of the Z-R and Z-k relations directly to those of the normalized gamma DSD. The benefit of this procedure is that it reduces the number of unknown parameters. In this work, the DSD parameters are obtained using 1) surface observations from a Parsivel and Thies LPM disdrometer, and 2) a Monte Carlo optimization procedure using surface rain gauge observations. The impact of both approaches for a given precipitation type is assessed for 45 days of summertime precipitation observed within The Netherlands. Accounting for DSD variations using disdrometer observations leads to an improved radar QPE product as compared to applying climatological Z-R and Z-k relations. However, overall precipitation intensities are still underestimated. This underestimation is expected to result from unaccounted errors (e.g. transmitter calibration, erroneous identification of precipitation as clutter, overshooting and small-scale variability). In case the DSD parameters are optimized, the performance of the radar is further improved, resulting in the best performance of the radar QPE product. However

  18. Improved spatial mapping of rainfall events with spaceborne SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Brisco, B.; Dobson, C.

    1983-01-01

    The Seasat satellite acquired the first spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images of the earth's surface, in 1978, at a frequency of 1.275 GHz (L-band) in a like-polarization mode at incidence angles of 23 + or - 3 deg. Although this may not be the optimum system configuration for radar remote sensing of soil moisture, interpretation of two Seasat images of Iowa demonstrates the sensitivity of microwave backscatter to soil moisture content. In both scenes, increased image brightness, which represents more radar backscatter, can be related to previous rainfall activity in the two areas. Comparison of these images with ground-based rainfall observations illustrates the increased spatial coverage of the rainfall event that can be obtained from the satellite SAR data. These data can then be color-enhanced by a digital computer to produce aesthetically pleasing output products for the user community.

  19. Underestimation of risk due to exposure misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels

    2004-01-01

    Exposure misclassification constitutes a major obstacle when developing dose-response relationships for risk assessment. A non-differentional error results in underestimation of the risk. If the degree of misclassification is known, adjustment may be achieved by sensitivity analysis. The purpose...

  20. Rainfall Erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the Rfactor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national...... and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based...

  1. Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for hydrological model calibration in a large poorly gauged catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Milzow

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of data is a major challenge for hydrological modelling in large parts of the world. Remote sensing data can be exploited to improve models of ungauged or poorly gauged catchments. In this study we combine three datasets for calibration of a rainfall-runoff model of the poorly gauged Okavango catchment in Southern Africa: (i surface soil moisture (SSM estimates derived from radar measurements onboard the Envisat satellite; (ii radar altimetry measurements by Envisat providing river stages in the tributaries of the Okavango catchment, down to a minimum river width of about one hundred meters; and (iii temporal changes of the Earth's gravity field recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE caused by total water storage changes in the catchment. The SSM data are shown to be helpful in identifying periods with over-respectively underestimation of the precipitation input. The accuracy of the radar altimetry data is validated on gauged subbasins of the catchment and altimetry data of an ungauged subbasin is used for model calibration. The radar altimetry data are important to condition model parameters related to channel morphology such as Manning's roughness. GRACE data are used to validate the model and to condition model parameters related to various storage compartments in the hydrological model (e.g. soil, groundwater, bank storage etc.. As precipitation input the FEWS-Net RFE, TRMM 3B42 and ECMWF ERA-Interim datasets are considered and compared.

  2. Development of Method for X-band Weather Radar Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Calibration of the X-band LAWR (Local Area Weather Radar) is traditionally based on an assumed linear relation between the LAWRradar output and the rainfall intensity. However, closer inspections of the data reveal that the validity of this linear assumption is doubtful. Previous studies of this ......Calibration of the X-band LAWR (Local Area Weather Radar) is traditionally based on an assumed linear relation between the LAWRradar output and the rainfall intensity. However, closer inspections of the data reveal that the validity of this linear assumption is doubtful. Previous studies...... of this type of weather radar have also illustrated that the radar commonly has difficulties in estimating high rain rates. Therefore, a new radar–rainfall transformation model and a calibration method have been developed. The new method is based on nonlinear assumptions and is aimed at describing the whole...

  3. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  4. Detecting Climate Variability in Tropical Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W.

    2004-05-01

    El Niño is substantially smaller due to decreased rainfall in the west Pacific partially canceling increases in the central and east Pacific. These differences are not limited to the long-term merged rainfall products using infrared data, but are also exist in state-of-the-art rainfall retrievals from the active and passive microwave sensors on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). For example, large differences exist in the response of tropical mean rainfall retrieved from the TRMM microwave imager (TMI) 2A12 algorithm and the precipitation radar (PR) 2A25 algorithm to the 1997/98 El Niño. To assist scientists attempting to wade through the vast array of climate rainfall products currently available, and to help them determine whether systematic biases in these rainfall products impact the conclusions of a given study, we have developed a Climate Rainfall Data Center (CRDC). The CRDC web site (rain.atmos.colostate.edu/CRDC) provides climate researchers information on the various rainfall datasets available as well as access to experts in the field of satellite rainfall retrievals to assist them in the appropriate selection and use of climate rainfall products.

  5. Comparison of short term rainfall forecasts for model based flow prediction in urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Poulsen, Troels Sander; Bøvith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forecast based flow prediction in drainage systems can be used to implement real time control of drainage systems. This study compares two different types of rainfall forecasts – a radar rainfall extrapolation based nowcast model and a numerical weather prediction model. The models are applied...... performance of the system is found using the radar nowcast for the short leadtimes and weather model for larger lead times....

  6. Comparison of short-term rainfall forecasts for modelbased flow prediction in urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Ahm, Malte; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbek

    2013-01-01

    Forecast-based flow prediction in drainage systems can be used to implement real-time control of drainage systems. This study compares two different types of rainfall forecast - a radar rainfall extrapolation-based nowcast model and a numerical weather prediction model. The models are applied...... performance of the system is found using the radar nowcast for the short lead times and the weather model for larger lead times....

  7. Bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Annotation his book is a major extension of a chapter on bistatic radar written by the author for the Radar Handbook, 2nd edition, edited by Merrill Skolnik. It provides a history of bistatic systems that points out to potential designers the applications that have worked and the dead-ends not worth pursuing. The text reviews the basic concepts and definitions, and explains the mathematical development of relationships, such as geometry, Ovals of Cassini, dynamic range, isorange and isodoppler contours, target doppler, and clutter doppler spread.Key Features * All development and analysis are

  8. Improving Radar QPE's in Complex Terrain for Improved Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Streubel, D. P.; Reynolds, D.

    2010-12-01

    been little quantitative evaluation of MPE performance in this region compared to simply using a gage only analysis. In this study, an evaluation of MPE and RFC QPE is performed in a portion of the CNRFC (including the Russian and American River basins) using an independent set of rain gauge data from the Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT). Data from a precipitation event in January 2010 are used to establish the comparison methodology and for preliminary evaluation. For this multi-day event, it is shown that the RFC QPE shows generally better agreement with the HMT gauges compared to MPE in terms of storm total precipitation. However, the bias in RFC:MPE is shown to vary as a function of terrain and time. Moreover, for a subset of the HMT gauges in Sonoma county, the 1-hour MPE precipitation totals are found to be generally well correlated to the HMT gauge totals with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.6-0.9. For the Sonoma county gauges, the MPE product generally underestimates rainfall compared to HMT, probably as a consequence of low-level, orographically forced precipitation that was not well captured by the MPE radar analysis.

  9. Regionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patternsin Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    One major controlling factor of water erosion is rainfall erosivity, which is quantified as the product of total storm energy and a maximum 30 min intensity (I30). Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). As rainfall erosivity is closely correlated with rainfall amount and intensity, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland can be expected to have a regional characteristic and seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This intra-annual variability was mapped by a monthly modeling approach to assess simultaneously spatial and monthly patterns of rainfall erosivity. So far only national seasonal means and regional annual means exist for Switzerland. We used a network of 87 precipitation gauging stations with a 10 min temporal resolution to calculate long-term monthly mean R-factors. Stepwise generalized linear regression (GLM) and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) were used to select spatial covariates which explain the spatial and temporal patterns of the R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The monthly R-factor is mapped by summarizing the predicted R-factor of the regression equation and the corresponding residues of the regression, which are interpolated by ordinary kriging (regression-kriging). As spatial covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included such as snow depths, a combination product of hourly precipitation measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), daily Alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD), and monthly precipitation sums (RhiresM). Topographic parameters (elevation, slope) were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of the 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed a distinct seasonality with the highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) influenced by intense rainfall events. Winter months have the lowest rainfall erosivity. A proportion of 62 % of

  10. Impacts of rainfall variability and expected rainfall changes on cost-effective adaptation of water systems to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, T D; van Ierland, E C; Gabbert, S; Weikard, H-P; Hendrix, E M T

    2015-05-01

    Stormwater drainage and other water systems are vulnerable to changes in rainfall and runoff and need to be adapted to climate change. This paper studies impacts of rainfall variability and changing return periods of rainfall extremes on cost-effective adaptation of water systems to climate change given a predefined system performance target, for example a flood risk standard. Rainfall variability causes system performance estimates to be volatile. These estimates may be used to recurrently evaluate system performance. This paper presents a model for this setting, and develops a solution method to identify cost-effective investments in stormwater drainage adaptations. Runoff and water levels are simulated with rainfall from stationary rainfall distributions, and time series of annual rainfall maxima are simulated for a climate scenario. Cost-effective investment strategies are determined by dynamic programming. The method is applied to study the choice of volume for a storage basin in a Dutch polder. We find that 'white noise', i.e. trend-free variability of rainfall, might cause earlier re-investment than expected under projected changes in rainfall. The risk of early re-investment may be reduced by increasing initial investment. This can be cost-effective if the investment involves fixed costs. Increasing initial investments, therefore, not only increases water system robustness to structural changes in rainfall, but could also offer insurance against additional costs that would occur if system performance is underestimated and re-investment becomes inevitable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Poverty Underestimation in Rural India- A Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Sarvalingam, A

    2010-01-01

    When ever the Planning Commission of India releases the poverty data, that data is being criticised by experts and economists. The main criticism is underestimation of poverty especially in rural India by the Planning Commission. This paper focuses on that criticism and compares the Indian Planning Commission’s 2004-05 rural poverty data with the India’s 2400 kcal poverty norms, World Bank’s US $1.08 poverty concept and Asian Development Bank’s US $1.35 poverty concept.

  12. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  13. Exploring the potential of multivariate depth-damage and rainfall-damage models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ootegem, Luc; van Herck, K.; Creten, T.

    2018-01-01

    In Europe, floods are among the natural catastrophes that cause the largest economic damage. This article explores the potential of two distinct types of multivariate flood damage models: ‘depth-damage’ models and ‘rainfall-damage’ models. We use survey data of 346 Flemish households that were...... victim of pluvial floods complemented with rainfall data from both rain gauges and weather radars. In the econometrical analysis, a Tobit estimation technique is used to deal with the issue of zero damage observations. The results show that in the ‘depth-damage’ models flood depth has a significant...... impact on the damage. In the ‘rainfall-damage’ models there is a significant impact of rainfall accumulation on the damage when using the gauge rainfall data as predictor, but not when using the radar rainfall data. Finally, non-hazard indicators are found to be important for explaining pluvial flood...

  14. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-07-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972 2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa.

  15. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972-2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa

  16. The impact of reflectivity correction and conversion methods to improve precipitation estimation by weather radar for an extreme low-land Mesoscale Convective System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands. For most of the country this led to over 15 hours of near-continuous precipitation, which resulted in total event accumulations exceeding 150 mm in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Such accumulations belong to the largest sums ever recorded in this country and gave rise to local flooding. Measuring precipitation by weather radar within such mesoscale convective systems is known to be a challenge, since measurements are affected by multiple sources of error. For the current event the operational weather radar rainfall product only estimated about 30% of the actual amount of precipitation as measured by rain gauges. In the current presentation we will try to identify what gave rise to such large underestimations. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two different groups: 1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements taken, and 2) errors related to the conversion of reflectivity values in rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates. To correct for the first group of errors, the quality of the weather radar reflectivity data was improved by successively correcting for 1) clutter and anomalous propagation, 2) radar calibration, 3) wet radome attenuation, 4) signal attenuation and 5) the vertical profile of reflectivity. Such consistent corrections are generally not performed by operational meteorological services. Results show a large improvement in the quality of the precipitation data, however still only ~65% of the actual observed accumulations was estimated. To further improve the quality of the precipitation estimates, the second group of errors are corrected for by making use of disdrometer measurements taken in close vicinity of the radar. Based on these data the parameters of a normalized drop size distribution are estimated for the total event as well as for each precipitation type separately (convective

  17. Correlations between rainfall data and insurance damage data related to sewer flooding for the case of Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    Sewer flooding due to extreme rainfall may result in considerable damage. Damage data to quantify costs of cleaning, drying, and replacing materials and goods are rare in literature. In this study, insurance claim data related to property damages were analysed for the municipality of Aarhus...... to underestimations of correlations between rainfall and damage variables. Rainfall data from two rain gauges were used to extract rainfall characteristics. From cross correlations between time series of rainfall and claim data, it can be concluded that rainfall events induce claims mostly on the same day, but also...

  18. Distributed modelling of shallow landslides triggered by intense rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazard assessment of shallow landslides represents an important aspect of land management in mountainous areas. Among all the methods proposed in the literature, physically based methods are the only ones that explicitly includes the dynamic factors that control landslide triggering (rainfall pattern, land-use. For this reason, they allow forecasting both the temporal and the spatial distribution of shallow landslides. Physically based methods for shallow landslides are based on the coupling of the infinite slope stability analysis with hydrological models. Three different grid-based distributed hydrological models are presented in this paper: a steady state model, a transient "piston-flow" wetting front model, and a transient diffusive model. A comparative test of these models was performed to simulate landslide occurred during a rainfall event (27–28 June 1997 that triggered hundreds of shallow landslides within Lecco province (central Southern Alps, Italy. In order to test the potential for a completely distributed model for rainfall-triggered landslides, radar detected rainfall intensity has been used. A new procedure for quantitative evaluation of distributed model performance is presented and used in this paper. The diffusive model results in the best model for the simulation of shallow landslide triggering after a rainfall event like the one that we have analysed. Finally, radar data available for the June 1997 event permitted greatly improving the simulation. In particular, radar data allowed to explain the non-uniform distribution of landslides within the study area.

  19. Raingauge-Based Rainfall Nowcasting with Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Shie-Yui; He, Shan

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall forecasting and nowcasting are of great importance, for instance, in real-time flood early warning systems. Long term rainfall forecasting demands global climate, land, and sea data, thus, large computing power and storage capacity are required. Rainfall nowcasting's computing requirement, on the other hand, is much less. Rainfall nowcasting may use data captured by radar and/or weather stations. This paper presents the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) on rainfall nowcasting using data observed at weather and/or rainfall stations. The study focuses on the North-East monsoon period (December, January and February) in Singapore. Rainfall and weather data from ten stations, between 2000 and 2006, were selected and divided into three groups for training, over-fitting test and validation of the ANN. Several neural network architectures were tried in the study. Two architectures, Backpropagation ANN and Group Method of Data Handling ANN, yielded better rainfall nowcasting, up to two hours, than the other architectures. The obtained rainfall nowcasts were then used by a catchment model to forecast catchment runoff. The results of runoff forecast are encouraging and promising.With ANN's high computational speed, the proposed approach may be deliverable for creating the real-time flood early warning system.

  20. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity Assessment for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion is crucially controlled by rainfall erosivity, which is quantified out of the kinetic energy of raindrop impact and associated surface runoff. Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as the R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). Just like precipitation, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland has a characteristic seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This inter-annual variability is to be assessed by a monthly and seasonal modelling approach. We used a network of 86 precipitation gauging stations with a 10-minute temporal resolution to calculate long-term average monthly R-factors. Stepwise regression and Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) was used to select spatial covariates to explain the spatial pattern of R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The regionalized monthly R-factor is mapped by its individual regression equation and the ordinary kriging interpolation of its residuals (Regression-Kriging). As covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included like snow height, a combination of hourly gauging measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), mean monthly alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD) and monthly precipitation sums (Rhires). Topographic parameters were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of all 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed seasonality with highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) and lowest rainfall erosivity in winter months. Besides the inter-annual temporal regime, a seasonal spatial variability was detectable. Spatial maps of monthly rainfall erosivity are presented for the first time for Switzerland. The assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamic behaviour of the R-factor is valuable for the identification of more susceptible seasons and regions as well as for the application of selective erosion control measures. A combination with monthly vegetation

  1. Fishermen´s underestimation of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Grøn, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    to stress the positive potentiale of risk. This can be explained by several, interrelated factors such as the nature of fishing, it-self a risk-based enterprise; a life-form promoting independency and identification with the enterprise's pecuniary priorities; working conditions upholding a feeling......  Fishermen's underestimation of risk   Background: In order to understand the effect of footwear and flooring on slips, trips and falls, 1st author visited 4 fishing boats.  An important spinoff of the study was to get an in situ insight in the way, fishermen perceive risk.   Objectives......: The presentation will analyse fishermen's risk perception, its causes and consequences.   Methods: The first author participated in 3 voyages at sea on fishing vessels (from 1 to 10 days each and from 2 to 4 crewmembers) where  interviews and participant observation was undertaken. A 4th fishing boat was visited...

  2. Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    This software enables easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. The software was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground based Sand C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite s Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument. The software is also applicable to other ground-based and space-based radars. The ground and space radar volume matching and comparison software was developed in response to requirements defined by the Ground Validation System (GVS) of Goddard s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) project. This software innovation is specifically concerned with simplifying the comparison of ground- and spacebased radar measurements for the purpose of GPM algorithm and data product validation. This software is unique in that it provides an operational environment to routinely create comparison products, and uses a direct geometric approach to derive common volumes of space- and ground-based radar data. In this approach, spatially coincident volumes are defined by the intersection of individual space-based Precipitation Radar rays with the each of the conical elevation sweeps of the ground radar. Thus, the resampled volume elements of the space and ground radar reflectivity can be directly compared to one another.

  3. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  4. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  5. Rainfall simulation in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Piet; Baartman, Jantiene; Gooren, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall simulation has become an important method for the assessment of soil erosion and soil hydrological processes. For students, rainfall simulation offers an year-round, attractive and active way of experiencing water erosion, while not being dependent on (outdoors) weather conditions. Moreover, using rainfall simulation devices, they can play around with different conditions, including rainfall duration, intensity, soil type, soil cover, soil and water conservation measures, etc. and evaluate their effect on erosion and sediment transport. Rainfall simulators differ in design and scale. At Wageningen University, both BSc and MSc student of the curriculum 'International Land and Water Management' work with different types of rainfall simulation devices in three courses: - A mini rainfall simulator (0.0625m2) is used in the BSc level course 'Introduction to Land Degradation and Remediation'. Groups of students take the mini rainfall simulator with them to a nearby field location and test it for different soil types, varying from clay to more sandy, slope angles and vegetation or litter cover. The groups decide among themselves which factors they want to test and they compare their results and discuss advantage and disadvantage of the mini-rainfall simulator. - A medium sized rainfall simulator (0.238 m2) is used in the MSc level course 'Sustainable Land and Water Management', which is a field practical in Eastern Spain. In this course, a group of students has to develop their own research project and design their field measurement campaign using the transportable rainfall simulator. - Wageningen University has its own large rainfall simulation laboratory, in which a 15 m2 rainfall simulation facility is available for research. In the BSc level course 'Land and Water Engineering' Student groups will build slopes in the rainfall simulator in specially prepared containers. Aim is to experience the behaviour of different soil types or slope angles when (heavy) rain

  6. W-band spaceborne radar observations of atmospheric river events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    While the main objective of the world first W-band radar aboard the CloudSat satellite is to provide vertically resolved information on clouds, it proved to be a valuable tool for observing precipitation. The CloudSat radar is generally able to resolve precipitating cloud systems in their vertical entirety. Although measurements from the liquid hydrometer layer containing rainfall are strongly attenuated, special retrieval approaches can be used to estimate rainfall parameters. These approaches are based on vertical gradients of observed radar reflectivity factor rather than on absolute estimates of reflectivity. Concurrent independent estimations of ice cloud parameters in the same vertical column allow characterization of precipitating systems and provide information on coupling between clouds and rainfall they produce. The potential of CloudSat for observations atmospheric river events affecting the West Coast of North America is evaluated. It is shown that spaceborne radar measurements can provide high resolution information on the height of the freezing level thus separating areas of rainfall and snowfall. CloudSat precipitation rate estimates complement information from the surface-based radars. Observations of atmospheric rivers at different locations above the ocean and during landfall help to understand evolutions of atmospheric rivers and their structures.

  7. Ten-Year Climatology of Summertime Diurnal Rainfall Rate Over the Conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshihisa; Mocko, David; Lee, Myong-In; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Suarez, Max J.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.

    2010-01-01

    Diurnal cycles of summertime rainfall rates are examined over the conterminous United States, using radar-gauge assimilated hourly rainfall data. As in earlier studies, rainfall diurnal composites show a well-defined region of rainfall propagation over the Great Plains and an afternoon maximum area over the south and eastern portion of the United States. Zonal phase speeds of rainfall in three different small domains are estimated, and rainfall propagation speeds are compared with background zonal wind speeds. Unique rainfall propagation speeds in three different regions can be explained by the evolution of latent-heat theory linked to the convective available potential energy, than by gust-front induced or gravity wave propagation mechanisms.

  8. Radar-raingauge data combination techniques: a revision and analysis of their suitability for urban hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Pen; Ochoa-Rodríguez, Susana; Simões, Nuno Eduardo; Onof, Christian; Maksimović, Cedo

    2013-01-01

    The applicability of the operational radar and raingauge networks for urban hydrology is insufficient. Radar rainfall estimates provide a good description of the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall; however, their accuracy is in general insufficient. It is therefore necessary to adjust radar measurements using raingauge data, which provide accurate point rainfall information. Several gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment techniques have been developed and mainly applied at coarser spatial and temporal scales; however, their suitability for small-scale urban hydrology is seldom explored. In this paper a review of gauge-based adjustment techniques is first provided. After that, two techniques, respectively based upon the ideas of mean bias reduction and error variance minimisation, were selected and tested using as case study an urban catchment (∼8.65 km(2)) in North-East London. The radar rainfall estimates of four historical events (2010-2012) were adjusted using in situ raingauge estimates and the adjusted rainfall fields were applied to the hydraulic model of the study area. The results show that both techniques can effectively reduce mean bias; however, the technique based upon error variance minimisation can in general better reproduce the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, which proved to have a significant impact on the subsequent hydraulic outputs. This suggests that error variance minimisation based methods may be more appropriate for urban-scale hydrological applications.

  9. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  10. Evaluation of Version-7 TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis Product during the Beijing Extreme Heavy Rainfall Event of 21 July 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest Version-7 (V7 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA products were released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA in December of 2012. Their performance on different climatology, locations, and precipitation types is of great interest to the satellite-based precipitation community. This paper presents a study of TMPA precipitation products (3B42RT and 3B42V7 for an extreme precipitation event in Beijing and its adjacent regions (from 00:00 UTC 21 July 2012 to 00:00 UTC 22 July 2012. Measurements from a dense rain gauge network were used as the ground truth to evaluate the latest TMPA products. Results are summarized as follows. Compared to rain gauge measurements, both 3B42RT and 3B42V7 generally captured the rainfall spatial and temporal pattern, having a moderate spatial correlation coefficient (CC, 0.6 and high CC values (0.88 over the broader Hebei, Beijing and Tianjin (HBT regions, but the rainfall peak is 6 h ahead of gauge observations. Overall, 3B42RT showed higher estimation than 3B42V7 over both HBT and Beijing. At the storm center, both 3B42RT and 3B42V7 presented a relatively large deviation from the temporal variation of rainfall and underestimated the storm by 29.02% and 36.07%, respectively. The current study suggests that the latest TMPA products still have limitations in terms of resolution and accuracy, especially for this type of extreme event within a latitude area on the edge of coverage of TRMM precipitation radar and microwave imager. Therefore, TMPA users should be cautious when 3B42RT and 3B42V7 are used to model, monitor, and forecast both flooding hazards in the Beijing urban area and landslides in the mountainous west and north of Beijing.

  11. Quantitative analysis of X-band weather radar attenuation correction accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berne, A.D.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2006-01-01

    At short wavelengths, especially C-, X-, and K-band, weather radar signals arc attenuated by the precipitation along their paths. This constitutes a major source of error for radar rainfall estimation, in particular for intense precipitation. A recently developed stochastic simulator of range

  12. Minimum redundancy MIMO radars

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chun-Yang; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    2008-01-01

    The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar concept has drawn considerable attention recently. In the traditional single-input multiple-output (SIMO) radar system, the transmitter emits scaled versions of a single waveform. However, in the MIMO radar system, the transmitter transmits independent waveforms. It has been shown that the MIMO radar can be used to improve system performance. Most of the MIMO radar research so far has focused on the uniform array. However, i...

  13. Development of Bread Board Model of TRMM precipitation radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ken'ichi; Ihara, Toshio; Kumagai, Hiroshi

    The active array radar was selected as a reliable candidate for the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation radar after the trade off studies performed by Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) in the US-Japan joint feasibility study of TRMM in 1987-1988. Main system parameters and block diagram for TRMM precipitation radar are shown as the result of feasibility study. CRL developed key devices for the active array precipitation radar such as 8-element slotted waveguide array antenna, the 5 bit PIN diode phase shifters, solid state power amplifiers and low noise amplifiers in 1988-1990. Integration of these key devices was made to compose 8-element Bread Board Model of TRMM precipitation radar.

  14. Radioactive pollution in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemtland, R.

    1985-01-01

    Routine measurements of radioactivity in rainfall are carried out at the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Norway. The report discusses why the method of ion exchange was selected and gives details on how the measurements are performed

  15. Copula-based assimilation of radar and gauge information to derive bias-corrected precipitation fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vogl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the problem of combining radar information and gauge measurements. Gauge measurements are the best available source of absolute rainfall intensity albeit their spatial availability is limited. Precipitation information obtained by radar mimics well the spatial patterns but is biased for their absolute values.

    In this study copula models are used to describe the dependence structure between gauge observations and rainfall derived from radar reflectivity at the corresponding grid cells. After appropriate time series transformation to generate "iid" variates, only the positive pairs (radar >0, gauge >0 of the residuals are considered. As not each grid cell can be assigned to one gauge, the integration of point information, i.e. gauge rainfall intensities, is achieved by considering the structure and the strength of dependence between the radar pixels and all the gauges within the radar image. Two different approaches, namely Maximum Theta and Multiple Theta, are presented. They finally allow for generating precipitation fields that mimic the spatial patterns of the radar fields and correct them for biases in their absolute rainfall intensities. The performance of the approach, which can be seen as a bias-correction for radar fields, is demonstrated for the Bavarian Alps. The bias-corrected rainfall fields are compared to a field of interpolated gauge values (ordinary kriging and are validated with available gauge measurements. The simulated precipitation fields are compared to an operationally corrected radar precipitation field (RADOLAN. The copula-based approach performs similarly well as indicated by different validation measures and successfully corrects for errors in the radar precipitation.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall and their effects on hydrological response in urban areas – a review

    OpenAIRE

    E. Cristiano; M.-C. ten Veldhuis; N. van de Giesen

    2017-01-01

    In urban areas, hydrological processes are characterized by high variability in space and time, making them sensitive to small-scale temporal and spatial rainfall variability. In the last decades new instruments, techniques, and methods have been developed to capture rainfall and hydrological processes at high resolution. Weather radars have been introduced to estimate high spatial and temporal rainfall variability. At the same time, new models have been proposed to reproduce hydrological res...

  17. Rainfall estimation in the context of post-event flash flood analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrieu, Guy; Boudevillain, Brice; Bouilloud, Ludovic

    2010-05-01

    Due to their spatial coverage and space-time resolution, operational weather radar networks offer unprecedented opportunities for the observation of flash flood generating storms. However, the radar rainfall estimation quality highly depends on the relative locations of the event and the radar(s). A mountainous environment obviously adds to the complexity of the radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). A pragmatic methodology was developed within the EC-funded HYDRATE project to take the best benefit of the existing rainfall observations (radar and raingauge data) for given flash-flood cases: 1) A precise documentation of the radar characteristics (location, parameters, operating protocol, data archives and processing) needs first to be established. The radar(s) detection domain(s) can then be characterized using the "hydrologic visibility" concepts (Pellarin et al. J Hydrometeor 3(5) 539-555 2002). 2) Rather dense raingauge observations (operational, amateur) are usually available at the event time scale while few raingauge time series exist at the hydrologic time steps. Such raingauge datasets need to be critically analysed; a geostatistical approach is proposed for this task. 3) A number of identifications can be implemented prior to the radar data re-processing: a) Special care needs to be paid to (residual) ground clutter which has a dramatic impact of radar QPE. Dry-weather maps and rainfall accumulation maps may help in this task. b) Various sources of power losses such as screening, wet radome, attenuation in rain need to be identified and quantified. It will be shown that mountain returns can be used to quantify attenuation effects at C-band. c) Radar volume data is required to characterize the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR), eventually conditioned on rain type (convective, widespread). When such data is not available, knowledge of the 0°C isotherm and the scanning protocol may help detecting bright-band contaminations that critically

  18. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Bot...

  19. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  20. Radar and ARPA manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bole, A G

    2013-01-01

    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  1. Climatology of extreme rainfall from rain gauges and weather radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, A.

    2009-01-01

    Extreme neerslaggebeurtenissen hebben een grote invloed op de maatschappij en kunnen leiden tot materi¨ele schade en slachtoffers. Daarom is een betrouwbare klimatologie van extreme neerslag belangrijk, bijvoorbeeld voor het ontwerp van afvoersystemen. Een dergelijke klimatologie kan worden

  2. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America ) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model. Review of other latent heating algorithms will be discussed in the workshop.

  3. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM rainfall products from December 1997 to November 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2001. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DE 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs. west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in strtaiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  4. The sensitivity of catchment runoff models to rainfall data at different spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of catchment runoff models to rainfall is investigated at a variety of spatial scales using data from a dense raingauge network and weather radar. These data form part of the HYREX (HYdrological Radar EXperiment dataset. They encompass records from 49 raingauges over the 135 km2 Brue catchment in south-west England together with 2 and 5 km grid-square radar data. Separate rainfall time-series for the radar and raingauge data are constructed on 2, 5 and 10 km grids, and as catchment average values, at a 15 minute time-step. The sensitivity of the catchment runoff models to these grid scales of input data is evaluated on selected convective and stratiform rainfall events. Each rainfall time-series is used to produce an ensemble of modelled hydrographs in order to investigate this sensitivity. The distributed model is shown to be sensitive to the locations of the raingauges within the catchment and hence to the spatial variability of rainfall over the catchment. Runoff sensitivity is strongest during convective rainfall when a broader spread of modelled hydrographs results, with twice the variability of that arising from stratiform rain. Sensitivity to rainfall data and model resolution is explored and, surprisingly, best performance is obtained using a lower resolution of rainfall data and model. Results from the distributed catchment model, the Simple Grid Model, are compared with those obtained from a lumped model, the PDM. Performance from the distributed model is found to be only marginally better during stratiform rain (R2 of 0.922 compared to 0.911 but significantly better during convective rain (R2 of 0.953 compared to 0.909. The improved performance from the distributed model can, in part, be accredited to the excellence of the dense raingauge network which would not be the norm for operational flood warning systems. In the final part of the paper, the effect of rainfall resolution on the performance of the 2 km distributed

  5. Combined TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) Gridded Orbital Data Set (G2B31) V6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combined TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) gridded orbital rainfall data, is a special product derived from the TRMM standard product (2B-31)...

  6. Rainfall Product Evaluation for the TRMM Ground Validation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, E.; Wolff, D. B.; Robinson, M.; Silberstein, D. S.; Marks, D. A.; Kulie, M. S.; Fisher, B.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite observations is conducted through a comprehensive Ground Validation (GV) Program. Standardized instantaneous and monthly rainfall products are routinely generated using quality-controlled ground based radar data from four primary GV sites. As part of the TRMM GV program, effort is being made to evaluate these GV products and to determine the uncertainties of the rainfall estimates. The evaluation effort is based on comparison to rain gauge data. The variance between the gauge measurement and the true averaged rain amount within the radar pixel is a limiting factor in the evaluation process. While monthly estimates are relatively simple to evaluate, the evaluation of the instantaneous products are much more of a challenge. Scattegrams of point comparisons between radar and rain gauges are extremely noisy for several reasons (e.g. sample volume discrepancies, timing and navigation mismatches, variability of Z(sub e)-R relationships), and therefore useless for evaluating the estimates. Several alternative methods, such as the analysis of the distribution of rain volume by rain rate as derived from gauge intensities and from reflectivities above the gauge network will be presented. Alternative procedures to increase the accuracy of the estimates and to reduce their uncertainties also will be discussed.

  7. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  8. Evaluation of Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Drought and Flood Monitoring in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien Toté

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and floods and thus, an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different rainfall products is valuable. Three dekadal (10-day gridded satellite rainfall products (TAMSAT African Rainfall Climatology And Time-series (TARCAT v2.0, Famine Early Warning System NETwork (FEWS NET Rainfall Estimate (RFE v2.0, and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS are compared to independent gauge data (2001–2012. This is done using pairwise comparison statistics to evaluate the performance in estimating rainfall amounts and categorical statistics to assess rain-detection capabilities. The analysis was performed for different rainfall categories, over the seasonal cycle and for regions dominated by different weather systems. Overall, satellite products overestimate low and underestimate high dekadal rainfall values. The RFE and CHIRPS products perform as good, generally outperforming TARCAT on the majority of statistical measures of skill. TARCAT detects best the relative frequency of rainfall events, while RFE underestimates and CHIRPS overestimates the rainfall events frequency. Differences in products performance disappear with higher rainfall and all products achieve better results during the wet season. During the cyclone season, CHIRPS shows the best results, while RFE outperforms the other products for lower dekadal rainfall. Products blending thermal infrared and passive microwave imagery perform better than infrared only products and particularly when meteorological patterns are more complex, such as over the coastal, central and south regions of Mozambique, where precipitation is influenced by frontal systems.

  9. Evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates for drought and flood monitoring in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tote, Carolien; Patricio, Domingos; Boogaard, Hendrik; van der Wijngaart, Raymond; Tarnavsky, Elena; Funk, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and floods and thus, an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different rainfall products is valuable. Three dekadal (10-day) gridded satellite rainfall products (TAMSAT African Rainfall Climatology And Time-series (TARCAT) v2.0, Famine Early Warning System NETwork (FEWS NET) Rainfall Estimate (RFE) v2.0, and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS)) are compared to independent gauge data (2001–2012). This is done using pairwise comparison statistics to evaluate the performance in estimating rainfall amounts and categorical statistics to assess rain-detection capabilities. The analysis was performed for different rainfall categories, over the seasonal cycle and for regions dominated by different weather systems. Overall, satellite products overestimate low and underestimate high dekadal rainfall values. The RFE and CHIRPS products perform as good, generally outperforming TARCAT on the majority of statistical measures of skill. TARCAT detects best the relative frequency of rainfall events, while RFE underestimates and CHIRPS overestimates the rainfall events frequency. Differences in products performance disappear with higher rainfall and all products achieve better results during the wet season. During the cyclone season, CHIRPS shows the best results, while RFE outperforms the other products for lower dekadal rainfall. Products blending thermal infrared and passive microwave imagery perform better than infrared only products and particularly when meteorological patterns are more complex, such as over the coastal, central and south regions of Mozambique, where precipitation is influenced by frontal systems.

  10. Empirical studies of the microwave radiometric response to rainfall in the tropics and midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from quantitative comparisons between satellite microwave radiometer observations and digital radar observations of equatorial convective cloud clusters and midlatitude frontal precipitation. Simultaneous data from the Winter Monsoon Experiment digital radar and the SMMR for December 1978 are analyzed. It is found that the most important differences between the microwave response to rainfall in the equatorial tropics and to stratiform rain in oceanic midlatitude fronts is caused by the different spatial characteristics of stratiform and convective rainfall and by the different background brightness temperature fields associated with tropical and midlatitude levels of atmospheric water vapor.

  11. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  12. ISTEF Laser Radar Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stryjewski, John

    1998-01-01

    The BMDO Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (BMDO/ISTEF) laser radar program is engaged in an ongoing program to develop and demonstrate advanced laser radar concepts for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...

  13. Weather Radar Impact Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent an inventory of the national impacts of wind turbine interference with NEXRAD radar stations. This inventory was developed by the NOAA Radar...

  14. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Nickel, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Real aperture array radar; Imaging radar and Passive and multistatic radar.

  15. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H

    1988-01-01

    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  16. Rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Klik, Andreas; Rousseva, Svetla; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Michaelides, Silas; Hrabalíková, Michaela; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Beguería, Santiago; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60 min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30 min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5 years to a maximum of 40 years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1 years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1 km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months, average temperature), elevation and latitude/longitude. The mean R-factor for the EU plus Switzerland is 722 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1), with the highest values (>1000 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Mediterranean and alpine regions and the lowest (<500 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Nordic countries. The erosivity density (erosivity normalised to annual precipitation amounts) was also the highest in Mediterranean regions which implies high risk for erosive events and floods

  17. Rainfall Modification by Urban Areas: New Perspectives from TRMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Pierce, Harold F.; Negri, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) were employed to identify warm season rainfall (1998-2000) patterns around Atlanta, Montgomery, Nashville, San Antonio, Waco, and Dallas. Results reveal an average increase of -28% in monthly rainfall rates within 30-60 kilometers downwind of the metropolis with a modest increase of 5.6% over the metropolis. Portions of the downwind area exhibit increases as high as 51%. The percentage changes are relative to an upwind control area. It was also found that maximum rainfall rates in the downwind impact area exceeded the mean value in the upwind control area by 48% - 116%. The maximum value was generally found at an average distance of 39 km from the edge of the urban center or 64 km from the center of the city. Results are consistent with METROMEX studies of St. Louis almost two decades ago and with more recent studies near Atlanta. Future work is extending the investigation to Phoenix, Arizona, an arid U.S. city, and several international cities like Mexico City, Johannesburg, and Brasilia. The study establishes the possibility of utilizing satellite-based rainfall estimates for examining rainfall modification by urban areas on global scales and over longer time periods. Such research has implications for weather forecasting, urban planning, water resource management, and understanding human impact on the environment and climate.

  18. A TRMM-Calibrated Infrared Rainfall Algorithm Applied Over Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, A. J.; Xu, L.; Adler, R. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The development of a satellite infrared technique for estimating convective and stratiform rainfall and its application in studying the diurnal variability of rainfall in Amazonia are presented. The Convective-Stratiform. Technique, calibrated by coincident, physically retrieved rain rates from the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), is applied during January to April 1999 over northern South America. The diurnal cycle of rainfall, as well as the division between convective and stratiform rainfall is presented. Results compare well (a one-hour lag) with the diurnal cycle derived from Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) radar-estimated rainfall in Rondonia. The satellite estimates reveal that the convective rain constitutes, in the mean, 24% of the rain area while accounting for 67% of the rain volume. The effects of geography (rivers, lakes, coasts) and topography on the diurnal cycle of convection are examined. In particular, the Amazon River, downstream of Manaus, is shown to both enhance early morning rainfall and inhibit afternoon convection. Monthly estimates from this technique, dubbed CST/TMI, are verified over a dense rain gage network in the state of Ceara, in northeast Brazil. The CST/TMI showed a high bias equal to +33% of the gage mean, indicating that possibly the TMI estimates alone are also high. The root mean square difference (after removal of the bias) equaled 36.6% of the gage mean. The correlation coefficient was 0.77 based on 72 station-months.

  19. Software Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the definition and the key features of Software Radar, which is a new concept, are proposed and discussed. We consider the development of modern radar system technology to be divided into three stages: Digital Radar, Software radar and Intelligent Radar, and the second stage is just commencing now. A Software Radar system should be a combination of various modern digital modular components conformed to certain software and hardware standards. Moreover, a software radar system with an open system architecture supporting to decouple application software and low level hardware would be easy to adopt "user requirements-oriented" developing methodology instead of traditional "specific function-oriented" developing methodology. Compared with traditional Digital Radar, Software Radar system can be easily reconfigured and scaled up or down to adapt to the changes of requirements and technologies. A demonstration Software Radar signal processing system, RadarLab 2.0, which has been developed by Tsinghua University, is introduced in this paper and the suggestions for the future development of Software Radar in China are also given in the conclusion.

  20. Some sources of the underestimation of evaluated cross section uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badikov, S.A.; Gai, E.V.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of the underestimation of evaluated cross-section uncertainties is addressed. Two basic sources of the underestimation of evaluated cross-section uncertainties - a) inconsistency between declared and observable experimental uncertainties and b) inadequacy between applied statistical models and processed experimental data - are considered. Both the sources of the underestimation are mainly a consequence of existence of the uncertainties unrecognized by experimenters. A model of a 'constant shift' is proposed for taking unrecognised experimental uncertainties into account. The model is applied for statistical analysis of the 238 U(n,f)/ 235 U(n,f) reaction cross-section ratio measurements. It is demonstrated that multiplication by sqrt(χ 2 ) as instrument for correction of underestimated evaluated cross-section uncertainties fails in case of correlated measurements. It is shown that arbitrary assignment of uncertainties and correlation in a simple least squares fit of two correlated measurements of unknown mean leads to physically incorrect evaluated results. (author)

  1. Rainfall measurement based on in-situ storm drainage flow sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup

    2017-01-01

    Data for adjustment of weather radar rainfall estimations are mostly obtained from rain gauge observations. However, the density of rain gauges is often very low. Yet in many urban catchments, runoff sensors are typically available which can measure the rainfall indirectly. By utilising these sen......Data for adjustment of weather radar rainfall estimations are mostly obtained from rain gauge observations. However, the density of rain gauges is often very low. Yet in many urban catchments, runoff sensors are typically available which can measure the rainfall indirectly. By utilising...... these sensors, it may be possible to improve the ground rainfall estimate, and thereby improve the quantitative precipitation estimation from weather radars for urban drainage applications. To test the hypothesis, this paper presents a rainfall measurement method based on flow rate measurements from well......-defined urban surfaces. This principle was used to design a runoff measurement system in a parking structure in Aalborg, Denmark, where it was evaluated against rain gauges. The measurements show that runoff measurements from well-defined urban surfaces perform just as well as rain gauges. This opens up...

  2. Modified retrieval algorithm for three types of precipitation distribution using x-band synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanan; Zhou, Mingliang; Pan, Dengke

    2017-10-01

    The forward-scattering model is introduced to describe the response of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of precipitation with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Since the distribution of near-surface rainfall is related to the rate of near-surface rainfall and horizontal distribution factor, a retrieval algorithm called modified regression empirical and model-oriented statistical (M-M) based on the volterra integration theory is proposed. Compared with the model-oriented statistical and volterra integration (MOSVI) algorithm, the biggest difference is that the M-M algorithm is based on the modified regression empirical algorithm rather than the linear regression formula to retrieve the value of near-surface rainfall rate. Half of the empirical parameters are reduced in the weighted integral work and a smaller average relative error is received while the rainfall rate is less than 100 mm/h. Therefore, the algorithm proposed in this paper can obtain high-precision rainfall information.

  3. Rainfall Stochastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, M. A.; Lopez, J. J.; Rebole, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    This work was carried out in north of Spain. San Sebastian A meteorological station, where there are available precipitation records every ten minutes was selected. Precipitation data covers from October of 1927 to September of 1997. Pulse models describe the temporal process of rainfall as a succession of rainy cells, main storm, whose origins are distributed in time according to a Poisson process and a secondary process that generates a random number of cells of rain within each storm. Among different pulse models, the Bartlett-Lewis was used. On the other hand, alternative renewal processes and Markov chains describe the way in which the process will evolve in the future depending only on the current state. Therefore they are nor dependant on past events. Two basic processes are considered when describing the occurrence of rain: the alternation of wet and dry periods and temporal distribution of rainfall in each rain event, which determines the rainwater collected in each of the intervals that make up the rain. This allows the introduction of alternative renewal processes and Markov chains of three states, where interstorm time is given by either of the two dry states, short or long. Thus, the stochastic model of Markov chains tries to reproduce the basis of pulse models: the succession of storms, each one composed for a series of rain, separated by a short interval of time without theoretical complexity of these. In a first step, we analyzed all variables involved in the sequential process of the rain: rain event duration, event duration of non-rain, average rainfall intensity in rain events, and finally, temporal distribution of rainfall within the rain event. Additionally, for pulse Bartlett-Lewis model calibration, main descriptive statistics were calculated for each month, considering the process of seasonal rainfall in each month. In a second step, both models were calibrated. Finally, synthetic series were simulated with calibration parameters; series

  4. Understanding radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley, Simon

    1999-01-01

    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  5. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  6. Weather Radar Estimations Feeding an Artificial Neural Network Model Weather Radar Estimations Feeding an Artificial Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Han

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of ANNs (Artifi cial Neural Networks has been studied by many researchers in modelling rainfall runoff processes. However, the work so far has been focused on the rainfall data from traditional raingauges. Weather radar is a modern technology which could provide high resolution rainfall in time and space. In this study, a comparison in rainfall runoff modelling between the raingauge and weather radar has been carried out. The data were collected from Brue catchment in Southwest of England, with 49 raingauges covering 136 km2 and two C-band weather radars. This raingauge network is extremely dense (for research purposes and does not represent the usual raingauge density in operational flood forecasting systems. The ANN models were set up with both lumped and spatial rainfall input. The results showed that raingauge data outperformed radar data in all the events tested, regardless of the lumped and spatial input. La aplicación de Redes Neuronales Artificiales (RNA en el modelado de lluvia-flujo ha sido estudiada ampliamente. Sin embargo, hasta ahora se han utilizado datos provenientes de pluviómetros tradicionales. Los radares meteorológicos son una tecnología moderna que puede proveer datos de lluvia de alta resolución en tiempo y espacio. Este es un trabajo de comparación en el modelado lluvia-flujo entre pluviómetros y radares meteorológicos. Los datos provienen de la cuenca del río Brue en el suroeste de Inglaterra, con 49 pluviómetros cubriendo 136 km2 y dos radares meteorológicos en la banda C. Esta red de pluviómetros es extremadamente densa (para investigación y no representa la densidad usual en sistemas de predicción de inundaciones. Los modelos de RNA fueron implementados con datos de entrada de lluvia tanto espaciados como no distribuidos. Los resultados muestran que los datos de los pluviómetros fueron mejores que los datos de los radares en todos los eventos probados.

  7. Influence of uncertain identification of triggering rainfall on the assessment of landslide early warning thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, David J.; Cancelliere, Antonino; Greco, Roberto; Bogaard, Thom A.

    2018-03-01

    Uncertainty in rainfall datasets and landslide inventories is known to have negative impacts on the assessment of landslide-triggering thresholds. In this paper, we perform a quantitative analysis of the impacts of uncertain knowledge of landslide initiation instants on the assessment of rainfall intensity-duration landslide early warning thresholds. The analysis is based on a synthetic database of rainfall and landslide information, generated by coupling a stochastic rainfall generator and a physically based hydrological and slope stability model, and is therefore error-free in terms of knowledge of triggering instants. This dataset is then perturbed according to hypothetical reporting scenarios that allow simulation of possible errors in landslide-triggering instants as retrieved from historical archives. The impact of these errors is analysed jointly using different criteria to single out rainfall events from a continuous series and two typical temporal aggregations of rainfall (hourly and daily). The analysis shows that the impacts of the above uncertainty sources can be significant, especially when errors exceed 1 day or the actual instants follow the erroneous ones. Errors generally lead to underestimated thresholds, i.e. lower than those that would be obtained from an error-free dataset. Potentially, the amount of the underestimation can be enough to induce an excessive number of false positives, hence limiting possible landslide mitigation benefits. Moreover, the uncertain knowledge of triggering rainfall limits the possibility to set up links between thresholds and physio-geographical factors.

  8. Influence of uncertain identification of triggering rainfall on the assessment of landslide early warning thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Peres

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in rainfall datasets and landslide inventories is known to have negative impacts on the assessment of landslide-triggering thresholds. In this paper, we perform a quantitative analysis of the impacts of uncertain knowledge of landslide initiation instants on the assessment of rainfall intensity–duration landslide early warning thresholds. The analysis is based on a synthetic database of rainfall and landslide information, generated by coupling a stochastic rainfall generator and a physically based hydrological and slope stability model, and is therefore error-free in terms of knowledge of triggering instants. This dataset is then perturbed according to hypothetical reporting scenarios that allow simulation of possible errors in landslide-triggering instants as retrieved from historical archives. The impact of these errors is analysed jointly using different criteria to single out rainfall events from a continuous series and two typical temporal aggregations of rainfall (hourly and daily. The analysis shows that the impacts of the above uncertainty sources can be significant, especially when errors exceed 1 day or the actual instants follow the erroneous ones. Errors generally lead to underestimated thresholds, i.e. lower than those that would be obtained from an error-free dataset. Potentially, the amount of the underestimation can be enough to induce an excessive number of false positives, hence limiting possible landslide mitigation benefits. Moreover, the uncertain knowledge of triggering rainfall limits the possibility to set up links between thresholds and physio-geographical factors.

  9. Radar-Based Depth Area Reduction Factors for Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, D. C.; Humphrey, J. H.; Bare, D.

    2011-12-01

    More than 340,000 fifteen-minute storm cells, nearly 45,000 one-hour cells, and over 20,000 three-hour cells found in 21 months of gage adjusted radar-rainfall estimates (GARR) over El Paso County, CO, were identified and evaluated using TITAN (Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis and Nowcasting) software. TITAN's storm cell identification capability enabled the analysis of the geometric properties of storms, time step by time step. The gage-adjusted radar-rainfall data set was derived for months containing runoff producing events observed in the Fountain Creek Watershed within El Paso County from 1994-2008. Storm centered Depth Area Reduction Factors (DARFs) were computed and compared to DARFs published by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) in Technical Paper 29, which are widely used in stormwater infrastructure design. Radar-based storm centered DARFs decay much more sharply than the NWS standard curves. The results suggest lower watershed average rainfall inputs from radar-based storm centered DARFs than from standard NWS DARFs for a given watershed area. The results also suggest that DARFs are variable by return period and, perhaps, by location. Both findings could have significant impacts on design storm standards. Lower design volumes for a given return period translate to lower capacity requirements and lower cost infrastructure. Conversely, the higher volume requirements implied for the NWS DARFs translate to higher capacity requirements, higher costs, but lower risk of failure. Ultimately, a decision about which approach is to use depends on the risk tolerance of the decision maker. However, the growing volume of historical radar rainfall estimates coupled with the type of analysis described herein, supports a better understanding of risk and more informed decision-making by local officials.

  10. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...... of separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678ha) located in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over the catchment and runoff...... measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level. The number of potential subcatchments is limited by the number of available rainfall events with a sufficient spatial variability....

  11. Probabilistic online runoff forecasting for urban catchments using inputs from rain gauges as well as statically and dynamically adjusted weather radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Thorndahl, Søren; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the application of rainfall observations and forecasts from rain gauges and weather radar as input to operational urban runoff forecasting models. We apply lumped rainfall runoff models implemented in a stochastic grey-box modelling framework. Different model structures are conside......We investigate the application of rainfall observations and forecasts from rain gauges and weather radar as input to operational urban runoff forecasting models. We apply lumped rainfall runoff models implemented in a stochastic grey-box modelling framework. Different model structures...

  12. Identification and Quantification of Uncertainties Related to Using Distributed X-band Radar Estimated Precipitation as input in Urban Drainage Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a small scale weather radar providing distributed measurements of rainfall primarily for use as input in hydrological applications. As any other weather radar the LAWR measurement of the rainfall is an indirect measurement since it does not measure the rainf......The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a small scale weather radar providing distributed measurements of rainfall primarily for use as input in hydrological applications. As any other weather radar the LAWR measurement of the rainfall is an indirect measurement since it does not measure...... are quantified using statistical methods. Furthermore, the present calibration method is reviewed and a new extended calibration method has been developed and tested resulting in improved rainfall estimates. As part of the calibration analysis a number of elements affecting the LAWR performance were identified...... in connection with boundary assignment besides general improved understanding of the benefits and pitfalls in using distributed rainfall data as input to models. In connection with the use of LAWR data in urban drainage context, the potential for using LAWR data for extreme rainfall statistics has been studied...

  13. Airborne Radar Observations of Severe Hailstorms: Implications for Future Spaceborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; McLinden, Matthew; Cervantes, Jaime I.

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-frequency (Ku and Ka band) nadir-pointing Doppler radar on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft, called the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), has collected data over severe thunderstorms in Oklahoma and Kansas during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The overarching motivation for this study is to understand the behavior of the dualwavelength airborne radar measurements in a global variety of thunderstorms and how these may relate to future spaceborne-radar measurements. HIWRAP is operated at frequencies that are similar to those of the precipitation radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (Ku band) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission satellite's dual-frequency (Ku and Ka bands) precipitation radar. The aircraft measurements of strong hailstorms have been combined with ground-based polarimetric measurements to obtain a better understanding of the response of the Ku- and Ka-band radar to the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors, including hail. Data from two flight lines on 24 May 2011 are presented. Doppler velocities were approx. 39m/s2at 10.7-km altitude from the first flight line early on 24 May, and the lower value of approx. 25m/s on a second flight line later in the day. Vertical motions estimated using a fall speed estimate for large graupel and hail suggested that the first storm had an updraft that possibly exceeded 60m/s for the more intense part of the storm. This large updraft speed along with reports of 5-cm hail at the surface, reflectivities reaching 70 dBZ at S band in the storm cores, and hail signals from polarimetric data provide a highly challenging situation for spaceborne-radar measurements in intense convective systems. The Ku- and Ka-band reflectivities rarely exceed approx. 47 and approx. 37 dBZ, respectively, in these storms.

  14. On the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM): Bringing NASA's Earth System Science Program to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is the first mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall using a variety of remote sensing instrumentation, including the first spaceborne rain-measuring radar. Since the energy released when tropical rainfall occurs is a primary "fuel" supply for the weather and climate "engine"; improvements in computer models which predict future weather and climate states may depend on better measurements of global tropical rainfall and its energy. In support of the STANYS conference theme of Education and Space, this presentation focuses on one aspect of NASA's Earth Systems Science Program. We seek to present an overview of the TRMM mission. This overview will discuss the scientific motivation for TRMM, the TRMM instrument package, and recent images from tropical rainfall systems and hurricanes. The presentation also targets educational components of the TRMM mission in the areas of weather, mathematics, technology, and geography that can be used by secondary school/high school educators in the classroom.

  15. Toward a Framework for Systematic Error Modeling of NASA Spaceborne Radar with NOAA/NSSL Ground Radar-Based National Mosaic QPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstettier, Pierre-Emmanual; Honh, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Chen, S.; Flamig, Z.; Zhang, J.; Howard, K.; Schwaller, M.; Petersen, W.; Amitai, E.

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of the error associated to satellite rainfall estimates is a necessary component of deterministic and probabilistic frameworks involving space-born passive and active microwave measurement") for applications ranging from water budget studies to forecasting natural hazards related to extreme rainfall events. We focus here on the error structure of NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) at ground. The problem is addressed by comparison of PR QPEs with reference values derived from ground-based measurements using NOAA/NSSL ground radar-based National Mosaic and QPE system (NMQ/Q2). A preliminary investigation of this subject has been carried out at the PR estimation scale (instantaneous and 5 km) using a three-month data sample in the southern part of US. The primary contribution of this study is the presentation of the detailed steps required to derive trustworthy reference rainfall dataset from Q2 at the PR pixel resolution. It relics on a bias correction and a radar quality index, both of which provide a basis to filter out the less trustworthy Q2 values. Several aspects of PR errors arc revealed and quantified including sensitivity to the processing steps with the reference rainfall, comparisons of rainfall detectability and rainfall rate distributions, spatial representativeness of error, and separation of systematic biases and random errors. The methodology and framework developed herein applies more generally to rainfall rate estimates from other sensors onboard low-earth orbiting satellites such as microwave imagers and dual-wavelength radars such as with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  16. Do we really use rainfall observations consistent with reality in hydrological modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Follain, Stéphane; Raclot, Damien; Crabit, Armand; Pastor, Amandine; Moussa, Roger; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2017-04-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall control how water reaches soil surface and interacts with soil properties (i.e., soil wetting, infiltration, saturation). Once a hydrological event is defined by a rainfall with its spatiotemporal variability and by some environmental parameters such as soil properties (including land use, topographic and anthropic features), the evidence shows that each parameter variation produces different, specific outputs (e.g., runoff, flooding etc.). In this study, we focus on the effect of rainfall patterns because, due to the difficulty to dispose of detailed data, their influence in modelling is frequently underestimated or neglected. A rainfall event affects a catchment non uniformly, it is spatially localized and its pattern moves in space and time. The way and the time how the water reaches the soil and saturates it respect to the geometry of the catchment deeply influences soil saturation, runoff, and then sediment delivery. This research, approaching a hypothetical, simple case, aims to stimulate the debate on the reliability of the rainfall quality used in hydrological / soil erosion modelling. We test on a small catchment of the south of France (Roujan, Languedoc Roussillon) the influence of rainfall variability with the use of a HD hybrid hydrological - soil erosion model, combining a cinematic wave with the St. Venant equation and a simplified "bucket" conceptual model for ground water, able to quantify the effect of different spatiotemporal patterns of a very-high-definition synthetic rainfall. Results indicate that rainfall spatiotemporal patterns are crucial simulating an erosive event: differences between spatially uniform rainfalls, as frequently adopted in simulations, and some hypothetical rainfall patterns here applied, reveal that the outcome of a simulated event can be highly underestimated.

  17. Characterization of the Sahelian-Sudan rainfall based on observations and regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Tjernström, Michael; Zhang, Qiong

    2018-04-01

    The African Sahel region is known to be highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. We analyze rainfall in the Sahelian Sudan in terms of distribution of rain-days and amounts, and examine whether regional climate models can capture these rainfall features. Three regional models namely, Regional Model (REMO), Rossby Center Atmospheric Model (RCA) and Regional Climate Model (RegCM4), are evaluated against gridded observations (Climate Research Unit, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, and ERA-interim reanalysis) and rain-gauge data from six arid and semi-arid weather stations across Sahelian Sudan over the period 1989 to 2008. Most of the observed rain-days are characterized by weak (0.1-1.0 mm/day) to moderate (> 1.0-10.0 mm/day) rainfall, with average frequencies of 18.5% and 48.0% of the total annual rain-days, respectively. Although very strong rainfall events (> 30.0 mm/day) occur rarely, they account for a large fraction of the total annual rainfall (28-42% across the stations). The performance of the models varies both spatially and temporally. RegCM4 most closely reproduces the observed annual rainfall cycle, especially for the more arid locations, but all of the three models fail to capture the strong rainfall events and hence underestimate its contribution to the total annual number of rain-days and rainfall amount. However, excessive moderate rainfall compensates this underestimation in the models in an annual average sense. The present study uncovers some of the models' limitations in skillfully reproducing the observed climate over dry regions, will aid model users in recognizing the uncertainties in the model output and will help climate and hydrological modeling communities in improving models.

  18. Performance of bias corrected MPEG rainfall estimate for rainfall-runoff simulation in the upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worqlul, Abeyou W.; Ayana, Essayas K.; Maathuis, Ben H. P.; MacAlister, Charlotte; Philpot, William D.; Osorio Leyton, Javier M.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2018-01-01

    In many developing countries and remote areas of important ecosystems, good quality precipitation data are neither available nor readily accessible. Satellite observations and processing algorithms are being extensively used to produce satellite rainfall products (SREs). Nevertheless, these products are prone to systematic errors and need extensive validation before to be usable for streamflow simulations. In this study, we investigated and corrected the bias of Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimate-Geostationary (MPEG) data. The corrected MPEG dataset was used as input to a semi-distributed hydrological model Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) for simulation of discharge of the Gilgel Abay and Gumara watersheds in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The result indicated that the MPEG satellite rainfall captured 81% and 78% of the gauged rainfall variability with a consistent bias of underestimating the gauged rainfall by 60%. A linear bias correction applied significantly reduced the bias while maintaining the coefficient of correlation. The simulated flow using bias corrected MPEG SRE resulted in a simulated flow comparable to the gauge rainfall for both watersheds. The study indicated the potential of MPEG SRE in water budget studies after applying a linear bias correction.

  19. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  20. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  1. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  2. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  3. A multi-source precipitation approach to fill gaps over a radar precipitation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfagiorgis, K. B.; Mahani, S. E.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite Precipitation Estimates (SPEs) may be the only available source of information for operational hydrologic and flash flood prediction due to spatial limitations of radar and gauge products. The present work develops an approach to seamlessly blend satellite, radar, climatological and gauge precipitation products to fill gaps over ground-based radar precipitation fields. To mix different precipitation products, the bias of any of the products relative to each other should be removed. For bias correction, the study used an ensemble-based method which aims to estimate spatially varying multiplicative biases in SPEs using a radar rainfall product. Bias factors were calculated for a randomly selected sample of rainy pixels in the study area. Spatial fields of estimated bias were generated taking into account spatial variation and random errors in the sampled values. A weighted Successive Correction Method (SCM) is proposed to make the merging between error corrected satellite and radar rainfall estimates. In addition to SCM, we use a Bayesian spatial method for merging the gap free radar with rain gauges, climatological rainfall sources and SPEs. We demonstrate the method using SPE Hydro-Estimator (HE), radar- based Stage-II, a climatological product PRISM and rain gauge dataset for several rain events from 2006 to 2008 over three different geographical locations of the United States. Results show that: the SCM method in combination with the Bayesian spatial model produced a precipitation product in good agreement with independent measurements. The study implies that using the available radar pixels surrounding the gap area, rain gauge, PRISM and satellite products, a radar like product is achievable over radar gap areas that benefits the scientific community.

  4. Validation of Satellite Estimates (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, TRMM for Rainfall Variability over the Pacific Slope and Coast of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolívar Erazo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A dense rain-gauge network within continental Ecuador was used to evaluate the quality of various products of rainfall data over the Pacific slope and coast of Ecuador (EPSC. A cokriging interpolation method is applied to the rain-gauge data yielding a gridded product at 5-km resolution covering the period 1965–2015. This product is compared with the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC dataset, the Climatic Research Unit–University of East Anglia (CRU dataset, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/TMPA 3B43 Version 7 dataset and the ERA-Interim Reanalysis. The analysis reveals that TRMM data show the most realistic features. The relative bias index (Rbias indicates that TRMM data is closer to the observations, mainly over lowlands (mean Rbias of 7% but have more limitations in reproducing the rainfall variability over the Andes (mean Rbias of −28%. The average RMSE and Rbias of 68.7 and −2.8% of TRMM are comparable with the GPCC (69.8 and 5.7% and CRU (102.3 and −2.3% products. This study also focuses on the rainfall inter-annual variability over the study region which experiences floods that have caused high economic losses during extreme El Niño events. Finally, our analysis evaluates the ability of TRMM data to reproduce rainfall events during El Niño years over the study area and the large basins of Esmeraldas and Guayas rivers. The results show that TRMM estimates report reasonable levels of heavy rainfall detection (for the extreme 1998 El Niño event over the EPSC and specifically towards the center-south of the EPSC (Guayas basin but present underestimations for the moderate El Niño of 2002–2003 event and the weak 2009–2010 event. Generally, the rainfall seasonal features, quantity and long-term climatology patterns are relatively well estimated by TRMM.

  5. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard

    2017-08-01

    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  6. BMI may underestimate the socioeconomic gradient in true obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) does not make a distinction between fat mass and lean mass. In children, high fat mass appears to be associated with low maternal education, as well as low lean mass because maternal education is associated with physical activity. Therefore, BMI might underestimate true obesity

  7. Nuclear power plant cost underestimation: mechanisms and corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Criticisms of inaccurate nuclear power plant cost estimates have commonly focused upon what factors have caused actual costs to increase and not upon the engineering cost estimate methodology itself. This article describes two major sources of cost underestimation and suggests corrections for each which can be applied while retaining the traditional engineering methodology in general

  8. Uterine radiation dose from open sources: The potential for underestimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.H.; Klijn, J.G.M.; Pillay, M.; Bontebal, M.; Schoenfeld, D.H.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent observations on the biodistribution of a therapeutic dose of sodium iodide I 131 in a patient with an unsuspected early pregnancy lead us to suspect that current dose estimates with respect to uterine exposure (ARSAC 1988) may seriously underestimate the actual exposure of the developing foetus. (orig.)

  9. Use of radar QPE for the derivation of Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves in a range of climatic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves are widely used in flood risk management because they provide an easy link between the characteristics of a rainfall event and the probability of its occurrence. Weather radars provide distributed rainfall estimates with high spatial and temporal resolutions and overcome the scarce representativeness of point-based rainfall for regions characterized by large gradients in rainfall climatology. This work explores the use of radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) for the identification of IDF curves over a region with steep climatic transitions (Israel) using a unique radar data record (23 yr) and combined physical and empirical adjustment of the radar data. IDF relationships were derived by fitting a generalized extreme value distribution to the annual maximum series for durations of 20 min, 1 h and 4 h. Arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean climates were explored using 14 study cases. IDF curves derived from the study rain gauges were compared to those derived from radar and from nearby rain gauges characterized by similar climatology, taking into account the uncertainty linked with the fitting technique. Radar annual maxima and IDF curves were generally overestimated but in 70% of the cases (60% for a 100 yr return period), they lay within the rain gauge IDF confidence intervals. Overestimation tended to increase with return period, and this effect was enhanced in arid climates. This was mainly associated with radar estimation uncertainty, even if other effects, such as rain gauge temporal resolution, cannot be neglected. Climatological classification remained meaningful for the analysis of rainfall extremes and radar was able to discern climatology from rainfall frequency analysis.

  10. Aspects of Radar Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    LÜNEBURG, Ernst

    2002-01-01

    This contribution is a tutorial introduction to the phenomenological theory of radar polarimetry for the coherent scatter case emphasizing monostatic backscattering and forward scattering (transmission). Characteristic similarities and differences between radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry and the role of linear and antilinear operators (time-reversal) are pointed out and typical polarimetric invariants are identified.

  11. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  12. Determination of radar MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  13. Rainfall erosivity map for Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oduro Afriyie, K.

    1995-10-01

    Monthly rainfall data, spanning over a period of more than thirty years, were used to compute rainfall erosivity indices for various stations in Ghana, using the Fournier index, c, defined as p 2 /P, where p is the rainfall amount in the wettest month and P is the annual rainfall amount. Values of the rainfall erosivity indices ranged from 24.5 mm at Sunyani in the mid-portion of Ghana to 180.9 mm at Axim in the south western coastal portion. The indices were used to construct a rainfall erosivity map for the country. The map revealed that Ghana may be broadly divided into five major erosion risk zones. The middle sector of Ghana is generally in the low erosion risk zone; the northern sector is in the moderate to severe erosion risk zone, while the coastal sector is in the severe to extreme severe erosion risk zone. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Calibration of Local Area Weather Radar-Identifying significant factors affecting the calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Niels Einar; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is an X-band weather radar developed to meet the needs of high resolution rainfall data for hydrological applications. The LAWR system and data processing methods are reviewed in the first part of this paper, while the second part of the paper focuses...... cases when the calibration is based on a factorized 3 parameter linear model instead of a single parameter linear model....

  15. Principles of modern radar radar applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scheer, James A

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Radar Applications is the third of the three-volume seriesof what was originally designed to be accomplished in one volume. As the final volumeof the set, it finishes the original vision of a complete yet bounded reference for radartechnology. This volume describes fifteen different system applications or class ofapplications in more detail than can be found in Volumes I or II.As different as the applications described, there is a difference in how these topicsare treated by the authors. Whereas in Volumes I and II there is strict adherence tochapter format and leve

  16. ANALYSIS OF DEBRIS FLOW DISASTER DUE TO HEAVY RAIN BY X-BAND MP RADAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nishio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On August 20 of 2014, Hiroshima City (Japan was struck by local heavy rain from an autumnal rain front. The resultant debris flow disaster claimed 75 victims and destroyed many buildings. From 1:30 am to 4:30 am on August 20, the accumulated rainfall in Hiroshima City exceeded 200 mm. Serious damage occurred in the Asakita and Asaminami wards of Hiroshima City. As a disaster prevention measure, local heavy rain (localized torrential rains is usually observed by the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA and by the C-band radar operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT of Japan, with spatial resolutions of 2.5 km and 1 km, respectively. The new X-band MP radar system enables more detailed rainfall observations than the C-band radar. In fact, this radar can observe local rainfall throughout Japan in near-real time over a minimum mesh size of 250 m. A fine-scale accumulated rainfall monitoring system is crucial for disaster prevention, and potential disasters can be alerted by the hazard levels of the accumulated rainfall.

  17. Classification and correction of the radar bright band with polarimetric radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Will; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel; Kramer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The annular region of enhanced radar reflectivity, known as the Bright Band (BB), occurs when the radar beam intersects a layer of melting hydrometeors. Radar reflectivity is related to rainfall through a power law equation and so this enhanced region can lead to overestimations of rainfall by a factor of up to 5, so it is important to correct for this. The BB region can be identified by using several techniques including hydrometeor classification and freezing level forecasts from mesoscale meteorological models. Advances in dual-polarisation radar measurements and continued research in the field has led to increased accuracy in the ability to identify the melting snow region. A method proposed by Kitchen et al (1994), a form of which is currently used operationally in the UK, utilises idealised Vertical Profiles of Reflectivity (VPR) to correct for the BB enhancement. A simpler and more computationally efficient method involves the formation of an average VPR from multiple elevations for correction that can still cause a significant decrease in error (Vignal 2000). The purpose of this research is to evaluate a method that relies only on analysis of measurements from an operational C-band polarimetric radar without the need for computationally expensive models. Initial results show that LDR is a strong classifier of melting snow with a high Critical Success Index of 97% when compared to the other variables. An algorithm based on idealised VPRs resulted in the largest decrease in error when BB corrected scans are compared to rain gauges and to lower level scans with a reduction in RMSE of 61% for rain-rate measurements. References Kitchen, M., R. Brown, and A. G. Davies, 1994: Real-time correction of weather radar data for the effects of bright band, range and orographic growth in widespread precipitation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1231-1254. Vignal, B. et al, 2000: Three methods to determine profiles of reflectivity from volumetric radar data to correct

  18. Improving Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation over Complex Terrain in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study by the State of California's Department of Water Resources has emphasized that the San Francisco Bay Area is at risk of catastrophic flooding. Therefore, accurate quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and forecast (QPF) are critical for protecting life and property in this region. Compared to rain gauge and meteorological satellite, ground based radar has shown great advantages for high-resolution precipitation observations in both space and time domain. In addition, the polarization diversity shows great potential to characterize precipitation microphysics through identification of different hydrometeor types and their size and shape information. Currently, all the radars comprising the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network are operating in dual-polarization mode. Enhancement of QPE is one of the main considerations of the dual-polarization upgrade. The San Francisco Bay Area is covered by two S-band WSR-88D radars, namely, KMUX and KDAX. However, in complex terrain like the Bay Area, it is still challenging to obtain an optimal rainfall algorithm for a given set of dual-polarization measurements. In addition, the accuracy of rain rate estimates is contingent on additional factors such as bright band contamination, vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) correction, and partial beam blockages. This presentation aims to improve radar QPE for the Bay area using advanced dual-polarization rainfall methodologies. The benefit brought by the dual-polarization upgrade of operational radar network is assessed. In addition, a pilot study of gap fill X-band radar performance is conducted in support of regional QPE system development. This paper also presents a detailed comparison between the dual-polarization radar-derived rainfall products with various operational products including the NSSL's Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Quantitative evaluation of various rainfall products is achieved

  19. Impact of Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Rainfall Inputs on Integrated Catchment Dissolved Oxygen Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Moreno-Rodenas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Catchment Modelling aims to simulate jointly urban drainage systems, wastewater treatment plant and rivers. The effect of rainfall input uncertainties in the modelling of individual urban drainage systems has been discussed in several studies already. However, this influence changes when simultaneously simulating several urban drainage subsystems and their impact on receiving water quality. This study investigates the effect of the characteristics of rainfall inputs on a large-scale integrated catchment simulator for dissolved oxygen predictions in the River Dommel (The Netherlands. Rainfall products were generated with varying time-aggregation (10, 30 and 60 min deriving from different sources of data with increasing spatial information: (1 Homogeneous rainfall from a single rain gauge; (2 block kriging from 13 rain gauges; (3 averaged C-Band radar estimation and (4 kriging with external drift combining radar and rain gauge data with change of spatial support. The influence of the different rainfall inputs was observed at combined sewer overflows (CSO and dissolved oxygen (DO dynamics in the river. Comparison of the simulations with river monitoring data showed a low sensitivity to temporal aggregation of rainfall inputs and a relevant impact of the spatial scale with a link to the storm characteristics to CSO and DO concentration in the receiving water.

  20. DeepRain: ConvLSTM Network for Precipitation Prediction using Multichannel Radar Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seongchan; Hong, Seungkyun; Joh, Minsu; Song, Sa-kwang

    2017-01-01

    Accurate rainfall forecasting is critical because it has a great impact on people's social and economic activities. Recent trends on various literatures show that Deep Learning (Neural Network) is a promising methodology to tackle many challenging tasks. In this study, we introduce a brand-new data-driven precipitation prediction model called DeepRain. This model predicts the amount of rainfall from weather radar data, which is three-dimensional and four-channel data, using convolutional LSTM...

  1. Radar-to-Radar Interference Suppression for Distributed Radar Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar sensor networks, including bi- and multi-static radars, provide several operational advantages, like reduced vulnerability, good system flexibility and an increased radar cross-section. However, radar-to-radar interference suppression is a major problem in distributed radar sensor networks. In this paper, we present a cross-matched filtering-based radar-to-radar interference suppression algorithm. This algorithm first uses an iterative filtering algorithm to suppress the radar-to-radar interferences and, then, separately matched filtering for each radar. Besides the detailed algorithm derivation, extensive numerical simulation examples are performed with the down-chirp and up-chirp waveforms, partially overlapped or inverse chirp rate linearly frequency modulation (LFM waveforms and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM chirp diverse waveforms. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the simulation results.

  2. Comparison of Satellite Rainfall Estimates and Rain Gauge Measurements in Italy, and Impact on Landslide Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Rossi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Landslides can be triggered by intense or prolonged rainfall. Rain gauge measurements are commonly used to predict landslides even if satellite rainfall estimates are available. Recent research focuses on the comparison of satellite estimates and gauge measurements. The rain gauge data from the Italian network (collected in the system database “Verifica Rischio Frana”, VRF are compared with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM products. For the purpose, we couple point gauge and satellite rainfall estimates at individual grid cells, evaluating the correlation between gauge and satellite data in different morpho-climatological conditions. We then analyze the statistical distributions of both rainfall data types and the rainfall events derived from them. Results show that satellite data underestimates ground data, with the largest differences in mountainous areas. Power-law models, are more appropriate to correlate gauge and satellite data. The gauge and satellite-based products exhibit different statistical distributions and the rainfall events derived from them differ. In conclusion, satellite rainfall cannot be directly compared with ground data, requiring local investigation to account for specific morpho-climatological settings. Results suggest that satellite data can be used for forecasting landslides, only performing a local scaling between satellite and ground data.

  3. Location-Based Rainfall Nowcasting Service for Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Wang-chun

    2013-04-01

    The Hong Kong Observatory has developed the "Short-range Warning of Intense Rainstorms in Localized Systems (SWIRLS)", a radar-based rainfall nowcasting system originally to support forecasters in rainstorm warning and severe weather forecasting such as hail, lightning and strong wind gusts in Hong Kong. The system has since been extended to provide rainfall nowcast service direct for the public in recent years. Following the launch of "Rainfall Nowcast for the Pearl River Delta Region" service provided via a Geographical Information System (GIS) platform in 2008, a location-based rainfall nowcast service served through "MyObservatory", a smartphone app for iOS and Android developed by the Observatory, debuted in September 2012. The new service takes advantage of the capability of smartphones to detect own locations and utilizes the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) from SWIRLS to provide location-based rainfall nowcast to the public. The conversion of radar reflectivity data (at 2 or 3 km above ground) to rainfall in SWIRLS is based on the Z-R relationship (Z=aRb) with dynamical calibration of the coefficients a and b determined using real-time rain gauge data. Adopting the "Multi-scale Optical-flow by Variational Analysis (MOVA)" scheme to track the movement of radar echoes and Semi-Lagrangian Advection (SLA) scheme to extrapolate their movement, the system is capable of producing QPF for the next six hours in a grid of 480 x 480 that covers a domain of 256 km x 256 km once every 6 minutes. Referencing the closest point in a resampled 2-km grid over the territory of Hong Kong, a prediction as to whether there will be rainfall exceeding 0.5 mm in every 30 minute intervals for the next two hours at users' own or designated locations are made available to the users in both textual and graphical format. For those users who have opted to receive notifications, a message would pop up on the user's phone whenever rain is predicted in the next two hours in a user

  4. The modification of the typhoon rainfall climatology model in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-S. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the modification of a typhoon rainfall climatological model, by using the dataset up to 2006 and including data collected from rain gauge stations established after the 921 earthquake (1999. Subsequently, the climatology rainfall models for westward- and northward-moving typhoons are established by using the typhoon track classification from the Central Weather Bureau. These models are also evaluated and examined using dependent cases collected between 1989 and 2006 and independent cases collected from 2007 to 2011. For the dependent cases, the average total rainfall at all rain gauge stations forecasted using the climatology rainfall models for westward- (W-TRCM12 and northward-moving (N-TRCM12 typhoons is superior to that obtained using the original climatological model (TRCM06. Model W-TRCM12 significantly improves the precipitation underestimation of model TRCM06. The independent cases show that model W-TRCM12 provides better accumulated rainfall forecasts and distributions than model TRCM06. A climatological model for accompanied northeastern monsoons (A-TRCM12 for special typhoon types has also been established. The current A-TRCM12 model only contains five historical cases and various typhoon combinations can cause precipitation in different regions. Therefore, precipitation is likely to be significantly overestimated and high false alarm ratios are likely to occur in specific regions. For example, model A-TRCM12 significantly overestimates the rainfall forecast for Typhoon Mitag, an independent case from 2007. However, it has a higher probability of detection than model TRCM06. From a disaster prevention perspective, a high probability of detection is much more important than a high false alarm ratio. The modified models can contribute significantly to operational forecast.

  5. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  6. FROM RAINFALL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisuru Sendanayake

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many correlations developed to predict incident solar radiation at a givenlocation developed based on geographical and meteorological parameters. However, allcorrelations depend on accurate measurement and availability of weather data such assunshine duration, cloud cover, relative humidity, maximum and minimumtemperatures etc, which essentially is a costly exercise in terms of equipment andlabour. Sri Lanka being a tropical island of latitudinal change of only 30 along thelength of the country, the meteorological factors govern the amount of incidentradiation. Considering the cloud formation and wind patterns over Sri Lanka as well asthe seasonal rainfall patterns, it can be observed that the mean number of rainy dayscan be used to predict the monthly average daily global radiation which can be used forcalculations in solar related activities conveniently.

  7. Analysis of the sensitivity to rainfall spatio-temporal variability of an operational urban rainfall-runoff model in a multifractal framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Lovejoy, S.

    2011-12-01

    In large urban areas, storm water management is a challenge with enlarging impervious areas. Many cities have implemented real time control (RTC) of their urban drainage system to either reduce overflow or limit urban contamination. A basic component of RTC is hydraulic/hydrologic model. In this paper we use the multifractal framework to suggest an innovative way to test the sensitivity of such a model to the spatio-temporal variability of its rainfall input. Indeed the rainfall variability is often neglected in urban context, being considered as a non-relevant issue at the scales involve. Our results show that on the contrary the rainfall variability should be taken into account. Universal multifractals (UM) rely on the concept of multiplicative cascade and are a standard tool to analyze and simulate with a reduced number of parameters geophysical processes that are extremely variable over a wide range of scales. This study is conducted on a 3 400 ha urban area located in Seine-Saint-Denis, in the North of Paris (France). We use the operational semi-distributed model that was calibrated by the local authority (Direction Eau et Assainnissement du 93) that is in charge of urban drainage. The rainfall data comes from the C-Band radar of Trappes operated by Météo-France. The rainfall event of February 9th, 2009 was used. A stochastic ensemble approach was implemented to quantify the uncertainty on discharge associated to the rainfall variability occurring at scales smaller than 1 km x 1 km x 5 min that is usually available with C-band radar networks. An analysis of the quantiles of the simulated peak flow showed that the uncertainty exceeds 20 % for upstream links. To evaluate a potential gain from a direct use of the rainfall data available at the resolution of X-band radar, we performed similar analysis of the rainfall fields of the degraded resolution of 9 km x 9 km x 20 min. The results show a clear decrease in uncertainty when the original resolution of C

  8. Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Batalla, R J

    2016-01-01

    The relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport is highly variable in Mediterranean catchments. Their relation can be modified by land use changes and climate oscillations that, ultimately, will control water and sediment yields. This paper analyses rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a meso-scale Mediterranean mountain catchment, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). A total of 73 floods recorded between November 2005 and November 2008 at the Inglabaga Sediment Transport Station (114.5 km(2)) have been analysed. Suspended sediment transport and flow discharge were measured continuously. Rainfall data was obtained by means of direct rain gauges and daily rainfall reconstructions from radar information. Results indicate that the annual sediment yield (2.3 t km(-1) y(-1) on average) and the flood-based runoff coefficients (4.1% on average) are low. The Ribera Salada presents a low geomorphological and hydrological activity compared with other Mediterranean mountain catchments. Pearson correlations between rainfall, runoff and sediment transport variables were obtained. The hydrological response of the catchment is controlled by the base flows. The magnitude of suspended sediment concentrations is largely correlated with flood magnitude, while sediment load is correlated with the amount of direct runoff. Multivariate analysis shows that total suspended load can be predicted by integrating rainfall and runoff variables. The total direct runoff is the variable with more weight in the equation. Finally, three main hydro-sedimentary phases within the hydrological year are defined in this catchment: (a) Winter, where the catchment produces only water and very little sediment; (b) Spring, where the majority of water and sediment is produced; and (c) Summer-Autumn, when little runoff is produced but significant amount of sediments is exported out of the catchment. Results show as land use and climate change may have an important

  9. Radar remote sensing in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  10. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Koch, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Waveform diversity and cognitive radar and Target tracking and data fusion.

  11. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  12. Surface-based GPR underestimates below-stump root biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen; Peter H. Anderson; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke

    2016-01-01

    Aims While lateral root mass is readily detectable with ground penetrating radar (GPR), the roots beneath a tree (below-stump) and overlapping lateral roots near large trees are problematic for surface-based antennas operated in reflection mode. We sought to determine if tree size (DBH) effects GPR root detection proximal to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) and if...

  13. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  14. Wind farm radar study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report examines the possible degradations of radar performance that may be caused by the presence of a wind turbine generator within the radar coverage area. A brief literature survey reviews the previously published work, which is mainly concerned with degradation of broadcast TV reception. Estimates are made of wind turbine generator scattering cross-sections, and of the time and Doppler characteristics of the echo signals from representative wind turbine generator. The general characteristics of radar detection and tracking methods are described, and the behaviour of such systems in the presence of strong returns from a wind turbine generator (or an array of them) is discussed. (author)

  15. Radar observations of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the radar altimetry profiles of Mercury obtained on the basis of data from the Arecibo Observatory are presented. In these measurements, the delay-Doppler method was used to measure altitudes along the Doppler equator, rather than to map radar reflectivity. The profiles, derived from observations made over a 6-yr period, provide extensive coverage over a restricted equatorial band and permit the identification of radar signatures for features as small as 50-km diameter craters and 1-km-high arcuate scarps. The data allowed identification of large-scale topographic features such as smooth plains subsidence zones and major highland regions

  16. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  17. Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  18. An Assessment of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Products Relative to Ground Observations over East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Wambui Kimani

    2017-05-01

    decreased with an increase in temporal resolution from a monthly to yearly scale. Challenges in retrieving orographic rainfall, especially during the OND season, were identified as the main cause of high underestimations. Underestimation was observed when elevation was <2500 m and above this threshold; overestimation was evident in mountainous areas. CMORPH, CHIRPS, and TRMM showed consistently high performance during both seasons, and this was attributed to their ability to retrieve rainfall of different rainfall regimes.

  19. Quantitative rainfall metrics for comparing volumetric rainfall retrievals to fine scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Scott; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Giangrande, Scott; Fridlind, Ann; Theisen, Adam; Jensen, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation processes play a significant role in the energy balance of convective systems for example, through latent heating and evaporative cooling. Heavy precipitation "cores" can also be a proxy for vigorous convection and vertical motions. However, comparisons between rainfall rate retrievals from volumetric remote sensors with forecast rain fields from high-resolution numerical weather prediction simulations are complicated by differences in the location and timing of storm morphological features. This presentation will outline a series of metrics for diagnosing the spatial variability and statistical properties of precipitation maps produced both from models and retrievals. We include existing metrics such as Contoured by Frequency Altitude Diagrams (Yuter and Houze 1995) and Statistical Coverage Products (May and Lane 2009) and propose new metrics based on morphology, cell and feature based statistics. Work presented focuses on observations from the ARM Southern Great Plains radar network consisting of three agile X-Band radar systems with a very dense coverage pattern and a C Band system providing site wide coverage. By combining multiple sensors resolutions of 250m2 can be achieved, allowing improved characterization of fine-scale features. Analyses compare data collected during the Midlattitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) with simulations of observed systems using the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model. May, P. T., and T. P. Lane, 2009: A method for using weather radar data to test cloud resolving models. Meteorological Applications, 16, 425-425, doi:10.1002/met.150, 10.1002/met.150. Yuter, S. E., and R. A. Houze, 1995: Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Microphysical Evolution of Florida Cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency Distributions of Vertical Velocity, Reflectivity, and Differential Reflectivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1941-1963, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1995)1232.0.CO;2.

  20. Quantification of the spatial variability of rainfall based on a dense network of rain gauges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Niels Einar; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2010-01-01

    The spatial variability of rainfall within a single Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) pixel of 500 x 500 m is quantified based on data from two locations. The work was motivated by the need to quantify the variability on this scale in order to provide an estimate of the uncertainty of using a single...... from an earlier campaign in 2003. The fact that the 20072008 dataset was almost four times larger than the original dataset from 2003 motivated this extended study. Two methods were used to describe the variability: the coefficient of variation and the spatial correlation structure of the rainfall......% prediction interval for a given rainfall depth is estimated and can be used to address the uncertainty of using a single rain gauge to represent the rainfall within a 500 x 500 m area. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Sampling design optimisation for rainfall prediction using a non-stationary geostatistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadoux, Alexandre M. J.-C.; Brus, Dick J.; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.

    2017-09-01

    The accuracy of spatial predictions of rainfall by merging rain-gauge and radar data is partly determined by the sampling design of the rain-gauge network. Optimising the locations of the rain-gauges may increase the accuracy of the predictions. Existing spatial sampling design optimisation methods are based on minimisation of the spatially averaged prediction error variance under the assumption of intrinsic stationarity. Over the past years, substantial progress has been made to deal with non-stationary spatial processes in kriging. Various well-documented geostatistical models relax the assumption of stationarity in the mean, while recent studies show the importance of considering non-stationarity in the variance for environmental processes occurring in complex landscapes. We optimised the sampling locations of rain-gauges using an extension of the Kriging with External Drift (KED) model for prediction of rainfall fields. The model incorporates both non-stationarity in the mean and in the variance, which are modelled as functions of external covariates such as radar imagery, distance to radar station and radar beam blockage. Spatial predictions are made repeatedly over time, each time recalibrating the model. The space-time averaged KED variance was minimised by Spatial Simulated Annealing (SSA). The methodology was tested using a case study predicting daily rainfall in the north of England for a one-year period. Results show that (i) the proposed non-stationary variance model outperforms the stationary variance model, and (ii) a small but significant decrease of the rainfall prediction error variance is obtained with the optimised rain-gauge network. In particular, it pays off to place rain-gauges at locations where the radar imagery is inaccurate, while keeping the distribution over the study area sufficiently uniform.

  2. Comparison of online and offline based merging methods for high resolution rainfall intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Bora; Haberlandt, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Accurate rainfall intensities with high spatial and temporal resolution are crucial for urban flow prediction. Commonly, raw or bias corrected radar fields are used for forecasting, while different merging products are employed for simulation. The merging products are proven to be adequate for rainfall intensities estimation, however their application in forecasting is limited as they are developed for offline mode. This study aims at adapting and refining the offline merging techniques for the online implementation, and at comparing the performance of these methods for high resolution rainfall data. Radar bias correction based on mean fields and quantile mapping are analyzed individually and also are implemented in conditional merging. Special attention is given to the impact of different spatial and temporal filters on the predictive skill of all methods. Raw radar data and kriging interpolation of station data are considered as a reference to check the benefit of the merged products. The methods are applied for several extreme events in the time period 2006-2012 caused by different meteorological conditions, and their performance is evaluated by split sampling. The study area is located within the 112 km radius of Hannover radar in Lower Saxony, Germany and the data set constitutes of 80 recording stations in 5 min time steps. The results of this study reveal how the performance of the methods is affected by the adjustment of radar data, choice of merging method and selected event. Merging techniques can be used to improve the performance of online rainfall estimation, which gives way to the application of merging products in forecasting.

  3. Assessing the accuracy of weather radar to track intense rain cells in the Greater Lyon area, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Florent; Chapon, Pierre-Marie; Comby, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The Greater Lyon is a dense area located in the Rhône Valley in the south east of France. The conurbation counts 1.3 million inhabitants and the rainfall hazard is a great concern. However, until now, studies on rainfall over the Greater Lyon have only been based on the network of rain gauges, despite the presence of a C-band radar located in the close vicinity. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to investigate the hydrological quality of this radar. This assessment, based on comparison of radar estimations and rain-gauges values concludes that the radar data has overall a good quality since 2006. Given this good accuracy, this study made a next step and investigated the characteristics of intense rain cells that are responsible of the majority of floods in the Greater Lyon area. Improved knowledge on these rainfall cells is important to anticipate dangerous events and to improve the monitoring of the sewage system. This paper discusses the analysis of the ten most intense rainfall events in the 2001-2010 period. Spatial statistics pointed towards straight and linear movements of intense rainfall cells, independently on the ground surface conditions and the topography underneath. The speed of these cells was found nearly constant during a rainfall event, but depend from event to ranges on average from 25 to 66 km/h.

  4. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  5. Improved Laser Vibration Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilaire, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...

  6. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events ... frequency and extreme intensity indices, suggesting that extreme events are more frequent and intense during years with high rainfall. The proportion of total rainfall from ...

  7. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  8. Radar detection of Vesta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, S.J.; Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.); Campbell, D.B.; Pettengill, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Asteroid 4 Vesta was detected on November 6, 1979 with the Arecibo Observatory's S-band (12.6-cm-wavelength) radar. The echo power spectrum, received in the circular polarization opposite to that transmitted, yields a radar cross section of (0.2 + or - 0.1)pi a-squared, for a 272 km. The data are too noisy to permit derivation of Vesta's rotation period

  9. Downhole pulse radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  10. Does GPM-based multi-satellite precipitation enhance rainfall estimates over Pakistan and Bolivia arid regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Y.; Satgé, F.; Bonnet, M. P.; Pillco, R.; Molina, J.; Timouk, F.; Roig, H.; Martinez-Carvajal, H., Sr.; Gulraiz, A.

    2016-12-01

    Arid regions are sensitive to rainfall variations which are expressed in the form of flooding and droughts. Unfortunately, those regions are poorly monitored and high quality rainfall estimates are still needed. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission released two new satellite rainfall products named Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals GPM (IMERG) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation version 6 (GSMaP-v6) bringing the possibility of accurate rainfall monitoring over these countries. This study assessed both products at monthly scale over Pakistan considering dry and wet season over the 4 main climatic zones from 2014 to 2016. With similar climatic conditions, the Altiplano region of Bolivia is considered to quantify the influence of big lakes (Titicaca and Poopó) in rainfall estimates. For comparison, the widely used TRMM-Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B43 (TMPA-3B43) version 7 is also involved in the analysis to observe the potential enhancement in rainfall estimate brought by GPM products. Rainfall estimates derived from 110 rain-gauges are used as reference to compare IMERG, GSMaP-v6 and TMPA-3B43 at the 0.1° and 0.25° spatial resolution. Over both regions, IMERG and GSMaP-v6 capture the spatial pattern of precipitation as well as TMPA-3B43. All products tend to over estimates rainfall over very arid regions. This feature is even more marked during dry season. However, during this season, both reference and estimated rainfall remain very low and do not impact seasonal water budget computation. On a general way, IMERG slightly outperforms TMPA-3B43 and GSMaP-v6 which provides the less accurate rainfall estimate. The TMPA-3B43 rainfall underestimation previously found over Lake Titicaca is still observed in IMERG estimates. However, GSMaP-v6 considerably decreases the underestimation providing the most accurate rainfall estimate over the lake. MOD11C3 Land Surface Temperature (LST) and ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset reveal strong

  11. Areal rainfall estimation using moving cars - computer experiments including hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Ehsan; Haberlandt, Uwe; Sester, Monika; Fitzner, Daniel; Wallner, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The need for high temporal and spatial resolution precipitation data for hydrological analyses has been discussed in several studies. Although rain gauges provide valuable information, a very dense rain gauge network is costly. As a result, several new ideas have emerged to help estimating areal rainfall with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Rabiei et al. (2013) observed that moving cars, called RainCars (RCs), can potentially be a new source of data for measuring rain rate. The optical sensors used in that study are designed for operating the windscreen wipers and showed promising results for rainfall measurement purposes. Their measurement accuracy has been quantified in laboratory experiments. Considering explicitly those errors, the main objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of using RCs for estimating areal rainfall. For that, computer experiments are carried out, where radar rainfall is considered as the reference and the other sources of data, i.e., RCs and rain gauges, are extracted from radar data. Comparing the quality of areal rainfall estimation by RCs with rain gauges and reference data helps to investigate the benefit of the RCs. The value of this additional source of data is not only assessed for areal rainfall estimation performance but also for use in hydrological modeling. Considering measurement errors derived from laboratory experiments, the result shows that the RCs provide useful additional information for areal rainfall estimation as well as for hydrological modeling. Moreover, by testing larger uncertainties for RCs, they observed to be useful up to a certain level for areal rainfall estimation and discharge simulation.

  12. Rainfall prediction with backpropagation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, E. G.; Fauzan, L. M. F.; Abriyani, F.; Muchlis, N. F.; Ulfa, M.

    2018-03-01

    Rainfall is an important factor in many fields, such as aviation and agriculture. Although it has been assisted by technology but the accuracy can not reach 100% and there is still the possibility of error. Though current rainfall prediction information is needed in various fields, such as agriculture and aviation fields. In the field of agriculture, to obtain abundant and quality yields, farmers are very dependent on weather conditions, especially rainfall. Rainfall is one of the factors that affect the safety of aircraft. To overcome the problems above, then it’s required a system that can accurately predict rainfall. In predicting rainfall, artificial neural network modeling is applied in this research. The method used in modeling this artificial neural network is backpropagation method. Backpropagation methods can result in better performance in repetitive exercises. This means that the weight of the ANN interconnection can approach the weight it should be. Another advantage of this method is the ability in the learning process adaptively and multilayer owned on this method there is a process of weight changes so as to minimize error (fault tolerance). Therefore, this method can guarantee good system resilience and consistently work well. The network is designed using 4 input variables, namely air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and sunshine duration and 3 output variables ie low rainfall, medium rainfall, and high rainfall. Based on the research that has been done, the network can be used properly, as evidenced by the results of the prediction of the system precipitation is the same as the results of manual calculations.

  13. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    limited by the nearly continuous cloud cover in the region and heavy rainfall, which occurs more than 150 days each year. The ability of the shuttle radars to 'see' through the forest canopy to the cultivated cacao below -- independent of weather or sunlight conditions --will allow researchers to distinguish forest from cabruca in unprecedented detail. This SIR-C/X-SAR image was produced by assigning red to the L-band, green to the C-band and blue to the X-band. The Una Reserve is located in the middle of the image west of the coastline and slightly northwest of Comandatuba River. The reserve's primary forests are easily detected by the pink areas in the image. The intensity of red in these areas is due to the high density of forest vegetation (biomass) detected by the radar's L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) channel. Secondary forest is visible along the reserve's eastern border. The Serrado Mar mountain range is located in the top left portion of the image. Cabruca forest to the west of Una Reserve has a different texture and a yellow color. The removal of understory in cabruca forest reduces its biomass relative to primary forest, which changes the L-band and C-band penetration depth and returns, and produces a different texture and color in the image. The region along the Atlantic is mainly mangrove swamp, agricultural fields and urban areas. The high intensity of blue in this region is a result of increasing X-band return in areas covered with swamp and low vegetation. The image clearly separates the mangrove region (east of coastal Highway 001, shown in blue) from the taller and dryer forest west of the highway. The high resolution capability of SIR-C/X-SAR imaging and the sensitivity of its frequency and polarization channels to various land covers will be used for monitoring and mapping areas of importance for conservation. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth

  14. Determination of meteoroid physical properties from tristatic radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we give a review of the meteor head echo observations carried out with the tristatic 930 MHz EISCAT UHF radar system during four 24 h runs between 2002 and 2005 and compare these with earlier observations. A total number of 410 tristatic meteors were observed. We describe a method to determine the position of a compact radar target in the common volume monitored by the three receivers and demonstrate its applicability for meteor studies. The inferred positions of the meteor targets have been utilized to estimate their velocities, decelerations and directions of arrival as well as their radar cross sections with unprecedented accuracy. The velocity distribution of the meteoroids is bimodal with peaks at 35–40 km/s and 55–60 km/s, and ranges from 19–70 km/s. The estimated masses are between 10−9–10−5.5 kg. There are very few detections below 30 km/s. The observations are clearly biased to high-velocity meteoroids, but not so biased against slow meteoroids as has been presumed from previous tristatic measurements. Finally, we discuss how the radial deceleration observed with a monostatic radar depends on the meteoroid velocity and the angle between the trajectory and the beam. The finite beamwidth leads to underestimated meteoroid masses if radial velocity and deceleration of meteoroids approaching the radar are used as estimates of the true quantities in a momentum equation of motion.

  15. Individuals underestimate moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karissa L Canning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the common physical activity (PA intensity descriptors used in PA guidelines worldwide align with the associated percent heart rate maximum method used for prescribing relative PA intensities consistently between sexes, ethnicities, age categories and across body mass index (BMI classifications. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine whether individuals properly select light, moderate and vigorous intensity PA using the intensity descriptions in PA guidelines and determine if there are differences in estimation across sex, ethnicity, age and BMI classifications. METHODS: 129 adults were instructed to walk/jog at a "light," "moderate" and "vigorous effort" in a randomized order. The PA intensities were categorized as being below, at or above the following %HRmax ranges of: 50-63% for light, 64-76% for moderate and 77-93% for vigorous effort. RESULTS: On average, people correctly estimated light effort as 51.5±8.3%HRmax but underestimated moderate effort as 58.7±10.7%HRmax and vigorous effort as 69.9±11.9%HRmax. Participants walked at a light intensity (57.4±10.5%HRmax when asked to walk at a pace that provided health benefits, wherein 52% of participants walked at a light effort pace, 19% walked at a moderate effort and 5% walked at a vigorous effort pace. These results did not differ by sex, ethnicity or BMI class. However, younger adults underestimated moderate and vigorous intensity more so than middle-aged adults (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: When the common PA guideline descriptors were aligned with the associated %HRmax ranges, the majority of participants underestimated the intensity of PA that is needed to obtain health benefits. Thus, new subjective descriptions for moderate and vigorous intensity may be warranted to aid individuals in correctly interpreting PA intensities.

  16. Satellite rainfall monitoring over Africa for food security, using multi-channel MSG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, R.; Grimes, D.; Saunders, R.; Blackmore, T.; Francis, P.

    2009-04-01

    Near real-time rainfall estimates are crucial in sub-Saharan Africa for a variety of humanitarian and agricultural purposes. However, for economic and infrastructural reasons, regularly reporting rain-gauges are sparse and precipitation radar networks extremely rare. Satellite rainfall estimates, particularly from geostationary satellites such as Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), present one method of filling this information gap, as they produce data at high temporal and spatial resolution. An algorithm has been developed to produce rainfall estimates for Africa from multi-channel MSG data. The algorithm is calibrated using precipitation radar data collected in Niamey, Niger as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) project in 2006, and is based on an algorithm used operationally over Europe by the UK Met Office. Contingency tables are used to establish a statistical relationship between multi-channel MSG data and probability of rainfall at several different rain-rate magnitudes as sensed by the radar. Rain-rate estimates can then be produced at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, with MSG scan length (15 minutes) and pixel size (3-4km) as the lower limit. Results will be presented of a validation of this algorithm over the Sahel region of Africa. Rainfall estimates from this algorithm, processed for 2004, will be validated against gridded rain-gauge data at a 0.5 degree and 10 day timescale suitable for drought monitoring purposes. A comparison will also be made against rainfall estimates from the TAMSAT algorithm, which uses single channel IR data from MSG, and has been shown to perform well in the Sahel region.

  17. Dissemination of regional rainfall analysis in design and analysis of urban drainage at un-gauged locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Harremoes, Poul; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2002-01-01

    regional variation of extreme rainfalls throughout the country. This has implications for design and analysis of all practical problems related to urban drainage, since the rainfall data so far recommended as input to engineering analyses underestimates the problems. Consequently, the Danish Water......A research program in Denmark on statistical modelling of rainfall has resulted in a model for regional distribution of rainfall extremes. The results show that extreme rainfalls critical to the hydraulic function of urban drainage systems and the pollution discharge are subject to a significant...... Pollution Control Committee has issued a statement recommending a new engineering practice. The dissemination of the research results proved to be difficult due to lack of understanding of the concepts of the new paradigm by practitioners. The traditional means of communication was supplemented by user...

  18. TRMM Applications for Rainfall-Induced Landslide Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dok, A.; Fukuoka, H.; Hong, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Early warning system (EWS) is the most effective method in saving lives and reducing property damages resulted from the catastrophic landslides if properly implemented in populated areas of landslide-prone nations. For predicting the occurrence of landslides, it requires examination of empirical relationship between rainfall characteristics and past landslide occurrence. In developed countries like Japan and the US, precipitation is monitored by rain radars and ground-based rain gauge matrix. However, in developing regions like Southeast Asian countries, very limited number of rain gauges is available, and there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. Correspondingly, satellite precipitation monitoring could be therefore a possible and promising solution for launching landslide quasi-real-time early warning system in those countries. It is due to the fact that TMPA (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis) can provides a globally calibration-based sequential scheme for combining precipitation estimates from multiple satellites, and gauge analyses where feasible, at fine scales (3-hourly with 0.25°x0.25° spatial resolution). It is available both after and in quasi-real time, calibrated by TRMM Combined Instrument and TRMM Microwave Imager precipitation product. However, validation of ground based rain gauge and TRMM satellite data in the vulnerable regions is still not yet operative. Snake-line/Critical-line and Soil Water Index (SWI) are used for issuing warning of landslide occurrence in Japan; whereas, Caine criterion is preferable in Europe and western nations. Herewith, it presents rainfall behavior which took place in Beichuan city (located on the 2008 Chinese Wenchuan earthquake fault), Hofu and Shobara cities in Japan where localized heavy rainfall attacked in 2009 and 2010, respectively, from TRMM 3B42RT correlated with ground based rain gauge data. The 1-day rainfall intensity and 15-day cumulative rainfall

  19. Radar–rain-gauge rainfall estimation for hydrological applications in small catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The accurate evaluation of the precipitation's time–spatial structure is a critical step for rainfall–runoff modelling. Particularly for small catchments, the variability of rainfall can lead to mismatched results. Large errors in flow evaluation may occur during convective storms, responsible for most of the flash floods in small catchments in the Mediterranean area. During such events, we may expect large spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, using rain-gauge measurements only can be insufficient in order to adequately depict extreme rainfall events. In this work, a double-level information approach, based on rain gauges and weather radar measurements, is used to improve areal rainfall estimations for hydrological applications. In order to highlight the effect that precipitation fields with different level of spatial details have on hydrological modelling, two kinds of spatial rainfall fields were computed for precipitation data collected during 2015, considering both rain gauges only and their merging with radar information. The differences produced by these two precipitation fields in the computation of the areal mean rainfall accumulation were evaluated considering 999 basins of the region Calabria, southern Italy. Moreover, both of the two precipitation fields were used to carry out rainfall–runoff simulations at catchment scale for main precipitation events that occurred during 2015 and the differences between the scenarios obtained in the two cases were analysed. A representative case study is presented in detail.

  20. GLUE Based Uncertainty Estimation of Urban Drainage Modeling Using Weather Radar Precipitation Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Distributed weather radar precipitation measurements are used as rainfall input for an urban drainage model, to simulate the runoff from a small catchment of Denmark. It is demonstrated how the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology can be implemented and used to estimate...

  1. What is a Proper Resolution of Weather Radar Precipitation Estimates for Urban Drainage Modelling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of distributed rainfall input for drainage models is the topic of this paper. The study is based on data from high resolution X-band weather radar used together with an urban drainage model of a medium size Danish village. The flow, total run-off volume and CSO volume are evaluated...

  2. Rainfall Simulations of Typhoon Morakot with Controlled Translation Speed Based on EnKF Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsiung Yen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot produced record-breaking accumulated rainfall over southern Taiwan in August 2009. The combination of several factors resulted in this extreme weather event: the steep terrain in Taiwan, the prevailing south-westerly flow in the monsoon trough, Typhoon Goni over the northern South China Sea, and the slow translation speed of Morakot itself over Taiwan. In this study, the influence of the translation speed is particularly emphasized. Based on the EnKF data assimilation, an innovative method is applied to perform ensemble simulations with several designated translation speeds of Morakot using the WRF model. Thus the influence of the translation speed on the amount of accumulated rainfall over Taiwan can be quantitatively evaluated. In the control simulation with observed translation speed, the maximum amount and geographic pattern of accumulated rainfall during the landfall period of Morakot are generally consistent with the observations, though the detailed overall distributions of accumulated rainfall is mostly underestimated, resulting in the low bias of the frequency distribution of the accumulated rainfall. In a simulation with nearly-doubled translation speed of Morakot, the maximum accumulated rainfall is decreased by 33% than that in the control simulation, while the rainfall distribution over Taiwan remains similar. In addition, the 28 ensemble members can further provide additional information in terms of their spread and other statistics. The results from ensemble members reveal the usefulness of ensemble simulations for the quantitative precipitation forecast.

  3. Probabilistic Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for the October 2015 Flooding in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Samadi, S. Z.; Meadows, M.

    2017-12-01

    The potential for the intensity of extreme rainfall to increase with climate change nonstationarity has emerged as a prevailing issue for the design of engineering infrastructure, underscoring the need to better characterize the statistical assumptions underlying hydrological frequency analysis. The focus of this study is on developing probabilistic rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for the major catchments in South Carolina (SC) where the October 02-05, 2015 floods caused infrastructure damages and several lives to be lost. Continuous to discrete probability distributions including Weibull, the generalized extreme value (GEV), the Generalized Pareto (GP), the Gumbel, the Fréchet, the normal, and the log-normal functions were fitted to the short duration (i.e., 24-hr) intense rainfall. Analysis suggests that the GEV probability distribution provided the most adequate fit to rainfall records. Rainfall frequency analysis indicated return periods above 500 years for urban drainage systems with a maximum return level of approximately 2,744 years, whereas rainfall magnitude was much lower in rural catchments. Further, the return levels (i.e., 2, 20, 50,100, 500, and 1000 years) computed by Monte Carlo method were consistently higher than the NOAA design IDF curves. Given the potential increase in the magnitude of intense rainfall, current IDF curves can substantially underestimate the frequency of extremes, indicating the susceptibility of the storm drainage and flood control structures in SC that were designed under assumptions of a stationary climate.

  4. Evaluation of CMIP5 twentieth century rainfall simulation over the equatorial East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoma, Victor; Chen, Haishan; Gao, Chujie

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the performance of 22 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical simulations of rainfall over East Africa (EA) against reanalyzed datasets during 1951-2005. The datasets were sourced from Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and Climate Research Unit (CRU). The metrics used to rank CMIP5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) based on their performance in reproducing the observed rainfall include correlation coefficient, standard deviation, bias, percentage bias, root mean square error, and trend. Performances of individual models vary widely. The overall performance of the models over EA is generally low. The models reproduce the observed bimodal rainfall over EA. However, majority of them overestimate and underestimate the October-December (OND) and March-May (MAM) rainfall, respectively. The monthly (inter-annual) correlation between model and reanalyzed is high (low). More than a third of the models show a positive bias of the annual rainfall. High standard deviation in rainfall is recorded in the Lake Victoria Basin, central Kenya, and eastern Tanzania. A number of models reproduce the spatial standard deviation of rainfall during MAM season as compared to OND. The top eight models that produce rainfall over EA relatively well are as follows: CanESM2, CESM1-CAM5, CMCC-CESM, CNRM-CM5, CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, EC-EARTH, INMCM4, and MICROC5. Although these results form a fairly good basis for selection of GCMs for carrying out climate projections and downscaling over EA, it is evident that there is still need for critical improvement in rainfall-related processes in the models assessed. Therefore, climate users are advised to use the projections of rainfall from CMIP5 models over EA cautiously when making decisions on adaptation to or mitigation of climate change.

  5. Performance of High Resolution Satellite Rainfall Products over Data Scarce Parts of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimelis B. Gebere

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of rainfall in mountainous areas is necessary for various water resource-related applications. Though rain gauges accurately measure rainfall, they are rarely found in mountainous regions and satellite rainfall data can be used as an alternative source over these regions. This study evaluated the performance of three high-resolution satellite rainfall products, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42, the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP_MVK+, and the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely-Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN at daily, monthly, and seasonal time scales against rain gauge records over data-scarce parts of Eastern Ethiopia. TRMM 3B42 rain products show relatively better performance at the three time scales, while PERSIANN did much better than GSMaP. At the daily time scale, TRMM correctly detected 88% of the rainfall from the rain gauge. The correlation at the monthly time scale also revealed that the TRMM has captured the observed rainfall better than the other two. For Belg (short rain and Kiremt (long rain seasons, the TRMM did better than the others by far. However, during Bega (dry season, PERSIANN showed a relatively good estimate. At all-time scales, noticing the bias, TRMM tends to overestimate, while PERSIANN and GSMaP tend to underestimate the rainfall. The overall result suggests that monthly and seasonal TRMM rainfall performed better than daily rainfall. It has also been found that both GSMaP and PERSIANN performed better in relatively flat areas than mountainous areas. Before the practical use of TRMM, the RMSE value needs to be improved by considering the topography of the study area or adjusting the bias.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall and their effects on hydrological response in urban areas - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Elena; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-07-01

    In urban areas, hydrological processes are characterized by high variability in space and time, making them sensitive to small-scale temporal and spatial rainfall variability. In the last decades new instruments, techniques, and methods have been developed to capture rainfall and hydrological processes at high resolution. Weather radars have been introduced to estimate high spatial and temporal rainfall variability. At the same time, new models have been proposed to reproduce hydrological response, based on small-scale representation of urban catchment spatial variability. Despite these efforts, interactions between rainfall variability, catchment heterogeneity, and hydrological response remain poorly understood. This paper presents a review of our current understanding of hydrological processes in urban environments as reported in the literature, focusing on their spatial and temporal variability aspects. We review recent findings on the effects of rainfall variability on hydrological response and identify gaps where knowledge needs to be further developed to improve our understanding of and capability to predict urban hydrological response.

  7. Some analysis on the diurnal variation of rainfall over the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, T.; Perng, S.; Hughes, A.

    1981-01-01

    Data collected from the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was examined. The data were collected from 10,000 grid points arranged as a 100 x 100 array; each grid covered a 4 square km area. The amount of rainfall was measured every 15 minutes during the experiment periods using c-band radars. Two types of analyses were performed on the data: analysis of diurnal variation was done on each of grid points based on the rainfall averages at noon and at midnight, and time series analysis on selected grid points based on the hourly averages of rainfall. Since there are no known distribution model which best describes the rainfall amount, nonparametric methods were used to examine the diurnal variation. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test if the rainfalls at noon and at midnight have the same statistical distribution. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test if the noon rainfall is heavier than, equal to, or lighter than the midnight rainfall. These tests were done on each of the 10,000 grid points at which the data are available.

  8. The concurrent multiplicative-additive approach for gauge-radar/satellite multisensor precipitation estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pintado, J.; Barberá, G. G.; Erena Arrabal, M.; Castillo, V. M.

    2010-12-01

    Objective analysis schemes (OAS), also called ``succesive correction methods'' or ``observation nudging'', have been proposed for multisensor precipitation estimation combining remote sensing data (meteorological radar or satellite) with data from ground-based raingauge networks. However, opposite to the more complex geostatistical approaches, the OAS techniques for this use are not optimized. On the other hand, geostatistical techniques ideally require, at the least, modelling the covariance from the rain gauge data at every time step evaluated, which commonly cannot be soundly done. Here, we propose a new procedure (concurrent multiplicative-additive objective analysis scheme [CMA-OAS]) for operational rainfall estimation using rain gauges and meteorological radar, which does not require explicit modelling of spatial covariances. On the basis of a concurrent multiplicative-additive (CMA) decomposition of the spatially nonuniform radar bias, within-storm variability of rainfall and fractional coverage of rainfall are taken into account. Thus both spatially nonuniform radar bias, given that rainfall is detected, and bias in radar detection of rainfall are handled. The interpolation procedure of CMA-OAS is built on the OAS, whose purpose is to estimate a filtered spatial field of the variable of interest through a successive correction of residuals resulting from a Gaussian kernel smoother applied on spatial samples. The CMA-OAS, first, poses an optimization problem at each gauge-radar support point to obtain both a local multiplicative-additive radar bias decomposition and a regionalization parameter. Second, local biases and regionalization parameters are integrated into an OAS to estimate the multisensor rainfall at the ground level. The approach considers radar estimates as background a priori information (first guess), so that nudging to observations (gauges) may be relaxed smoothly to the first guess, and the relaxation shape is obtained from the sequential

  9. CAMEX-4 TOGA RADAR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TOGA radar dataset consists of browse and radar data collected from the TOGA radar during the CAMEX-4 experiment. TOGA is a C-band linear polarized doppler radar...

  10. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable......Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling...... overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5–30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall...

  11. Testing the Beta-Lognormal Model in Amazonian Rainfall Fields Using the Generalized Space q-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán D. Salas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial scaling and complexity properties of Amazonian radar rainfall fields using the Beta-Lognormal Model (BL-Model with the aim to characterize and model the process at a broad range of spatial scales. The Generalized Space q-Entropy Function (GSEF, an entropic measure defined as a continuous set of power laws covering a broad range of spatial scales, S q ( λ ∼ λ Ω ( q , is used as a tool to check the ability of the BL-Model to represent observed 2-D radar rainfall fields. In addition, we evaluate the effect of the amount of zeros, the variability of rainfall intensity, the number of bins used to estimate the probability mass function, and the record length on the GSFE estimation. Our results show that: (i the BL-Model adequately represents the scaling properties of the q-entropy, S q, for Amazonian rainfall fields across a range of spatial scales λ from 2 km to 64 km; (ii the q-entropy in rainfall fields can be characterized by a non-additivity value, q s a t, at which rainfall reaches a maximum scaling exponent, Ω s a t; (iii the maximum scaling exponent Ω s a t is directly related to the amount of zeros in rainfall fields and is not sensitive to either the number of bins to estimate the probability mass function or the variability of rainfall intensity; and (iv for small-samples, the GSEF of rainfall fields may incur in considerable bias. Finally, for synthetic 2-D rainfall fields from the BL-Model, we look for a connection between intermittency using a metric based on generalized Hurst exponents, M ( q 1 , q 2 , and the non-extensive order (q-order of a system, Θ q, which relates to the GSEF. Our results do not exhibit evidence of such relationship.

  12. A Stochastic Fractional Dynamics Model of Rainfall Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasun; Travis, James

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall varies in space and time in a highly irregular manner and is described naturally in terms of a stochastic process. A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they depend strongly on the space-time scales over which rain data are averaged. A spectral model of precipitation has been developed based on a stochastic differential equation of fractional order for the point rain rate, that allows a concise description of the second moment statistics of rain at any prescribed space-time averaging scale. The model is designed to faithfully reflect the scale dependence and is thus capable of providing a unified description of the statistics of both radar and rain gauge data. The underlying dynamical equation can be expressed in terms of space-time derivatives of fractional orders that are adjusted together with other model parameters to fit the data. The form of the resulting spectrum gives the model adequate flexibility to capture the subtle interplay between the spatial and temporal scales of variability of rain but strongly constrains the predicted statistical behavior as a function of the averaging length and times scales. The main restriction is the assumption that the statistics of the precipitation field is spatially homogeneous and isotropic and stationary in time. We test the model with radar and gauge data collected contemporaneously at the NASA TRMM ground validation sites located near Melbourne, Florida and in Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands in the tropical Pacific. We estimate the parameters by tuning them to the second moment statistics of the radar data. The model predictions are then found to fit the second moment statistics of the gauge data reasonably well without any further adjustment. Some data sets containing periods of non-stationary behavior that involves occasional anomalously correlated rain events, present a challenge for the model.

  13. Micro-Physical characterisation of Convective & Stratiform Rainfall at Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekanth, T. S.

    Large Micro-Physical characterisation of Convective & Stratiform Rainfall at Tropics begin{center} begin{center} Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , and V Sasi Kumar (2) *Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) 32. NCC Nagar, Peroorkada, Thiruvananthapuram ABSTRACT Micro-physical parameters of rainfall such as rain drop size & fall speed distribution, mass weighted mean diameter, Total no. of rain drops, Normalisation parameters for rain intensity, maximum & minimum drop diameter from different rain intensity ranges, from both stratiform and convective rain events were analysed. Convective -Stratiform classification was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001) and as an additional information electrical behaviour of clouds from Atmospheric Electric Field Mill was also used. Events which cannot be included in both types are termed as 'mixed precipitation' and identified separately. For the three years 2011, 2012 & 2013, rain events from both convective & stratiform origin are identified from three seasons viz Pre-Monsoon (March-May), Monsoon (June-September) and Post-Monsoon (October-December). Micro-physical characterisation was done for each rain events and analysed. Ground based and radar observations were made and classification of stratiform and convective rainfall was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001). Radar bright band and non bright band analysis was done for confimation of stratifom and convective rain respectievely. Atmospheric electric field data from electric field mill is also used for confirmation of convection during convective events. Statistical analyses revealed that the standard deviation of rain drop size in higher rain rates are higher than in lower rain rates. Normalised drop size distribution is ploted for selected events from both forms. Inter relations between various precipitation parameters were analysed in three

  14. Radar Scan Methods in Modern Multifunctional Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Skosyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered urgent task of organizing the review space in modern multifunctional radar systems shall review the space in a wide range of elevation angles from minus 5 to 60-80 degrees and 360 degrees azimuth. MfRLS this type should provide an overview of the zone for a limited time (2-3 sec, detecting a wide range of subtle high and low-flying targets. The latter circumstance requires the organization to select targets against the background of reflections from the underlying surface and local objects (MP. When providing an overview of the space taken into account the need to increase not only the noise immunity, and survivability.Two variants of the review of space in the elevation plane in the solid-state AESA radar. In the first case the overview space narrow beam by one beam. In the second - the transfer of DNA is formed, covering the whole sector of responsibility in elevation and at the reception beam is formed in spetsvychislitele (CB as a result of the signal processing of digitized after emitters antenna web. The estimations of the parameters specific to the multifunction radar SAM air and missile defense. It is shown that in a number of practically important cases, preference should be given clearly one of the methods described review of space.The functional scheme with AESA radar for both variants of the review. Necessary to analyze their differences. Contains the problem of increasing the cost of MfRLS with digital beamforming DNA with increasing bandwidth probing signal being processed.Noted drawbacks of MfRLS with digital beamforming beam. Including: reduced accuracy of the coordinates at low elevation angles, the complexity of the organization of thermal regime of the solid element base using quasi-continuous signal with a low duty cycle. Shows their fundamentally unavoidable in the steppe and desert areas with uneven terrain (Kazakhstan, China, the Middle East.It is shown that for MfRLS working in strong clutter, more preferably

  15. The underestimated potential of solar energy to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Felix; Agoston, Peter; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Luderer, Gunnar; Nemet, Gregory; Pietzcker, Robert C.

    2017-09-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's fifth assessment report emphasizes the importance of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage for achieving climate goals, but it does not identify solar energy as a strategically important technology option. That is surprising given the strong growth, large resource, and low environmental footprint of photovoltaics (PV). Here we explore how models have consistently underestimated PV deployment and identify the reasons for underlying bias in models. Our analysis reveals that rapid technological learning and technology-specific policy support were crucial to PV deployment in the past, but that future success will depend on adequate financing instruments and the management of system integration. We propose that with coordinated advances in multiple components of the energy system, PV could supply 30-50% of electricity in competitive markets.

  16. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  17. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  18. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed

  19. Uganda rainfall variability and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2018-05-01

    This study analyzes large-scale controls on Uganda's rainfall. Unlike past work, here, a May-October season is used because of the year-round nature of agricultural production, vegetation sensitivity to rainfall, and disease transmission. The Uganda rainfall record exhibits steady oscillations of ˜3 and 6 years over 1950-2013. Correlation maps at two-season lead time resolve the subtropical ridge over global oceans as an important feature. Multi-variate environmental predictors include Dec-May south Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, east African upper zonal wind, and South Atlantic wind streamfunction, providing a 33% fit to May-Oct rainfall time series. Composite analysis indicates that cool-phase El Niño Southern Oscillation supports increased May-Oct Uganda rainfall via a zonal overturning lower westerly/upper easterly atmospheric circulation. Sea temperature anomalies are positive in the east Atlantic and negative in the west Indian Ocean in respect of wet seasons. The northern Hadley Cell plays a role in limiting the northward march of the equatorial trough from May to October. An analysis of early season floods found that moist inflow from the west Indian Ocean converges over Uganda, generating diurnal thunderstorm clusters that drift southwestward producing high runoff.

  20. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Vern Suomi 's Vital Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joanne; Kummerow, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission was a new concept of measuring rainfall over the global tropics using a combination of instruments, including the first weather radar to be flown in space. An important objective of the mission was to obtain profiles of latent heat in order to initialize large-scale circulation models and to understand the relationship between short-term climate changes in relation to rainfall variability. The idea originated in the early 1980's from scientists at the Goddard Space Flight Center/NASA who had been involved with attempts to measure rain with a passive microwave instrument on Nimbus 5 and had compared its results with rain falling in the area covered by the GATE1 radar ships. Using an imaginary satellite flying over the GATE ships, scientists showed that a satellite with an inclined orbit of 30-35 degrees could obtain monthly rainfalls with a sampling error of less than 10 percent over 5 degree by 5 degree areas. The Japanese proposed that they could build a nadir-scanning rain radar for the satellite. Vern Suomi was excited by this mission from the outset, since he recognized the great importance of adequate rainfall measurements over the tropical oceans. He was a charter member of the Science Steering Team and prepared a large part of the Report. While the mission attracted strong support in the science community, it was opposed by some of the high-level NASA management who feared its competition for funds with some much larger Earth Science satellites. Vern was able to overcome this opposition and to generate Congressional support, so that the Project finally got underway on both sides of the Pacific in 1991. The paper will discuss the design of the satellite, its data system and ground validation program. TP.NM was successfully launched in late 1997. Early results will be described. 1 GATE stands for GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment and GARP stands for Global Atmospheric Research Program.

  1. Spatial interpolation of hourly rainfall – effect of additional information, variogram inference and storm properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verworn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological modelling of floods relies on precipitation data with a high resolution in space and time. A reliable spatial representation of short time step rainfall is often difficult to achieve due to a low network density. In this study hourly precipitation was spatially interpolated with the multivariate geostatistical method kriging with external drift (KED using additional information from topography, rainfall data from the denser daily networks and weather radar data. Investigations were carried out for several flood events in the time period between 2000 and 2005 caused by different meteorological conditions. The 125 km radius around the radar station Ummendorf in northern Germany covered the overall study region. One objective was to assess the effect of different approaches for estimation of semivariograms on the interpolation performance of short time step rainfall. Another objective was the refined application of the method kriging with external drift. Special attention was not only given to find the most relevant additional information, but also to combine the additional information in the best possible way. A multi-step interpolation procedure was applied to better consider sub-regions without rainfall.

    The impact of different semivariogram types on the interpolation performance was low. While it varied over the events, an averaged semivariogram was sufficient overall. Weather radar data were the most valuable additional information for KED for convective summer events. For interpolation of stratiform winter events using daily rainfall as additional information was sufficient. The application of the multi-step procedure significantly helped to improve the representation of fractional precipitation coverage.

  2. Rainy Day: A Remote Sensing-Driven Extreme Rainfall Simulation Approach for Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel; Yatheendradas, Soni; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Ayalew, Tibebu; Mantilla, Ricardo; Krajewski, Witold

    2015-04-01

    Progress on the assessment of rainfall-driven hazards such as floods and landslides has been hampered by the challenge of characterizing the frequency, intensity, and structure of extreme rainfall at the watershed or hillslope scale. Conventional approaches rely on simplifying assumptions and are strongly dependent on the location, the availability of long-term rain gage measurements, and the subjectivity of the analyst. Regional and global-scale rainfall remote sensing products provide an alternative, but are limited by relatively short (~15-year) observational records. To overcome this, we have coupled these remote sensing products with a space-time resampling framework known as stochastic storm transposition (SST). SST "lengthens" the rainfall record by resampling from a catalog of observed storms from a user-defined region, effectively recreating the regional extreme rainfall hydroclimate. This coupling has been codified in Rainy Day, a Python-based platform for quickly generating large numbers of probabilistic extreme rainfall "scenarios" at any point on the globe. Rainy Day is readily compatible with any gridded rainfall dataset. The user can optionally incorporate regional rain gage or weather radar measurements for bias correction using the Precipitation Uncertainties for Satellite Hydrology (PUSH) framework. Results from Rainy Day using the CMORPH satellite precipitation product are compared with local observations in two examples. The first example is peak discharge estimation in a medium-sized (~4000 square km) watershed in the central United States performed using CUENCAS, a parsimonious physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The second example is rainfall frequency analysis for Saint Lucia, a small volcanic island in the eastern Caribbean that is prone to landslides and flash floods. The distinct rainfall hydroclimates of the two example sites illustrate the flexibility of the approach and its usefulness for hazard analysis in data-poor regions.

  3. Netted LPI RADARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    CHALLENGES ............................66 1. Radar Processing Gain ........................66 2. High Sensitivity Requirement .................68 B...Relationship Between Network Space and Challenges .....................................127 Figure 42. Maneuverability................................129...virtually any kind of terrain. It has five modes: Normal, Weather, ECCM, LPI, and Very Low Clearance ( VLC ). Pictures of the LANTIRN pod aboard and F-16

  4. Extreme Rainfall In A City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdirim, Lawrence

    Cities contain many structures and activities that are vulnerable to severe weather. Heavy precipitation cause floods which can damage structures, compromise transportation and water supply systems, and slow down economic and social activities. Rain induced flood patterns in cities must be well understood to enable effective placement of flood control and other regulatory measures. The planning goal is not to eliminate all floods but to reduce their frequency and resulting damage. Possible approaches to such planning include probability based extreme event analysis. Precipitation is normally the most variable hydrologic element over a given area. This variability results from the distribution of clouds and in cloud processes in the atmosphere, the storm path, and the distribution of topographical features on the ground along path. Some studies suggest that point rainfall patterns are also affected by urban industrial effects hence some agreement that cities are wetter than the country surrounding them. However, there are still questions regarding the intra- urban distribution of precipitation. The sealed surfaces, urban structures, and the urban heat anomaly increase convection in cities which may enhance the generation of clouds. Increased dust and gaseous aerosols loads are effective condensation and sublimation nuclei which may also enhance the generation of precipitation. Based on these associations, the greatest amount of convection type rainfall should occur at city center. A study of summer rainfall in Calgary showed that frequencies of trace amounts of rainfall and events under 0.2mm are highest downtown than elsewhere. For amounts greater than than 0.2 mm, downtown sites were not favored. The most compelling evidence for urban-industrial precipitation enhancement came from the Metromex project around St. Loius, Missouri where maximum increases of between 5 to 30 per cent in summer rainfall downwind of the city was linked to urbanization and

  5. Effects of Using High-Density Rain Gauge Networks and Weather Radar Data on Urban Hydrological Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Sim Yoon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood prediction is difficult in urban areas because only sparse gauge data and radar data of low accuracy are usually used to analyze flooding and inundation. Sub-basins of urban areas are extremely small, so rainfall data of high spatial resolution are required for analyzing complex drainage systems with high spatial variability. This study aimed to produce three types of quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE products using rainfall data that was derived from 190 gauges, including the new high-density rain-gauge network operated by the SK Planet company, and the automated weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration, along with weather radar data. This study also simulated urban runoff for the Gangnam District of Seoul, South Korea, using the obtained QPE products to evaluate hydraulic and hydrologic impacts according to three rainfall fields. The accuracy of this approach was assessed in terms of the amount and spatial distribution of rainfall in an urban area. The QPE products provided highly accurate results and simulations of peak runoff and overflow phenomena. They also accurately described the spatial variability of the rainfall fields. Overall, the integration of high-density gauge data with radar data proved beneficial for quantitative rainfall estimation.

  6. The Significance of the Spatial Variability of Rainfall on the Numerical Simulation of Urban Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Guillaume Courty

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of urban population, combined with an increase of extreme events due to climate change call for a better understanding and representation of urban floods. The uncertainty in rainfall distribution is one of the most important factors that affects the watershed response to a given precipitation event. However, most of the investigations on this topic have considered theoretical scenarios, with little reference to case studies in the real world. This paper incorporates the use of spatially-variable precipitation data from a long-range radar in the simulation of the severe floods that impacted the city of Hull, U.K., in June 2007. This radar-based rainfall field is merged with rain gauge data using a Kriging with External Drift interpolation technique. The utility of this spatially-variable information is investigated through the comparison of computed flooded areas (uniform and radar against those registered by public authorities. Both results show similar skills at reproducing the real event, but differences in the total precipitated volumes, water depths and flooded areas are illustrated. It is envisaged that in urban areas and with the advent of higher resolution radars, these differences will be more important and call for further investigation.

  7. Daily rainfall statistics of TRMM and CMORPH: A case for trans-boundary Gandak River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Patra, Kanhu Charan; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2016-07-01

    Satellite precipitation products offer an opportunity to evaluate extreme events (flood and drought) for areas where rainfall data are not available or rain gauge stations are sparse. In this study, daily precipitation amount and frequency of TRMM 3B42V.7 and CMORPH products have been validated against daily rain gauge precipitation for the monsoon months (June-September or JJAS) from 2005-2010 in the trans-boundary Gandak River basin. The analysis shows that the both TRMM and CMORPH can detect rain and no-rain events, but they fail to capture the intensity of rainfall. The detection of precipitation amount is strongly dependent on the topography. In the plains areas, TRMM product is capable of capturing high-intensity rain events but in the hilly regions, it underestimates the amount of high-intensity rain events. On the other hand, CMORPH entirely fails to capture the high-intensity rain events but does well with low-intensity rain events in both hilly regions as well as the plain region. The continuous variable verification method shows better agreement of TRMM rainfall products with rain gauge data. TRMM fares better in the prediction of probability of occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events, but it underestimates intensity at high altitudes. This implies that TRMM precipitation estimates can be used for flood-related studies only after bias adjustment for the topography.

  8. Body Size Estimation from Early to Middle Childhood: Stability of Underestimation, BMI, and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Steinsbekk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who are overweight are more likely to underestimate their body size than those who are normal weight, and overweight underestimators are less likely to engage in weight loss efforts. Underestimation of body size might represent a barrier to prevention and treatment of overweight; thus insight in how underestimation of body size develops and tracks through the childhood years is needed. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine stability in children’s underestimation of body size, exploring predictors of underestimation over time. The prospective path from underestimation to BMI was also tested. In a Norwegian cohort of 6 year olds, followed up at ages 8 and 10 (analysis sample: n = 793 body size estimation was captured by the Children’s Body Image Scale, height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Overall, children were more likely to underestimate than overestimate their body size. Individual stability in underestimation was modest, but significant. Higher BMI predicted future underestimation, even when previous underestimation was adjusted for, but there was no evidence for the opposite direction of influence. Boys were more likely than girls to underestimate their body size at ages 8 and 10 (age 8: 38.0% vs. 24.1%; Age 10: 57.9% vs. 30.8% and showed a steeper increase in underestimation with age compared to girls. In conclusion, the majority of 6, 8, and 10-year olds correctly estimate their body size (prevalence ranging from 40 to 70% depending on age and gender, although a substantial portion perceived themselves to be thinner than they actually were. Higher BMI forecasted future underestimation, but underestimation did not increase the risk for excessive weight gain in middle childhood.

  9. Rainfall simulation for environmental application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.; Abner, C.H.; Mann, L.K.

    1977-08-01

    Rain simulation systems have been designed for field and greenhouse studies which have the capability of reproducing the physical and chemical characteristics of natural rainfall. The systems permit the simulation of variations in rainfall and droplet size similar to that of natural precipitation. The systems are completely automatic and programmable, allowing unattended operation for periods of up to one week, and have been used to expose not only vegetation but also soils and engineering materials, making them versatile tools for studies involving simulated precipitation.

  10. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected

  11. A GIS-based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamdan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrology is the study of water in all its forms, origins, and destinations on the earth.This paper develops a novel modeling technique using a geographic information system (GIS) to facilitate watershed hydrological routing using RADAR data. The RADAR rainfall data, segmented to 4 km by 4 km blocks, divides the watershed into several sub basins which are modeled independently. A case study for the GIS-based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data is provided for South Fork Cowikee Creek near Batesville, Alabama. All the data necessary to complete the analysis is maintained in the ArcView GIS software. This paper concludes that the GIS-Based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data is a viable method to calculate hydrological routing for large watersheds. (author)

  12. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered bathymetric data. The paper reviews the concepts of bathymetry assessment by radar, the radar imaging mechanism, and the possibilities and limitations of the use of radar data in rapid assessment.

  13. Language issues, an underestimated danger in major hazard control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Paul; Ale, Ben J M

    2009-12-15

    Language issues are problems with communication via speech, signs, gestures or their written equivalents. They may result from poor reading and writing skills, a mix of foreign languages and other circumstances. Language issues are not picked up as a safety risk on the shop floor by current safety management systems. These safety risks need to be identified, acknowledged, quantified and prioritized in order to allow risk reducing measures to be taken. This study investigates the nature of language issues related danger in literature, by experiment and by a survey among the Seveso II companies in the Netherlands. Based on human error frequencies, and on the contents of accident investigation reports, the risks associated with language issues were ranked. Accident investigation method causal factor categories were found not to be sufficiently representative for the type and magnitude of these risks. Readability of safety related documents used by the companies was investigated and found to be poor in many cases. Interviews among regulators and a survey among Seveso II companies were used to identify the gap between the language issue related dangers found in literature and current best practices. This study demonstrates by means of triangulation with different investigative methods that language issue related risks are indeed underestimated. A recommended coarse of action in order to arrive at appropriate measures is presented.

  14. Flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia: carcinoma underestimation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingegnoli, Anna; d'Aloia, Cecilia; Frattaruolo, Antonia; Pallavera, Lara; Martella, Eugenia; Crisi, Girolamo; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the underestimation rate of carcinoma upon surgical biopsy after a diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia and 11-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. A retrospective review was conducted of 476 vacuum-assisted breast biopsy performed from May 2005 to January 2007 and a total of 70 cases of atypia were identified. Fifty cases (71%) were categorized as pure atypical ductal hyperplasia, 18 (26%) as pure flat epithelial atypia and two (3%) as concomitant flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Each group were compared with the subsequent open surgical specimens. Surgical biopsy was performed in 44 patients with atypical ductal hyperplasia, 15 patients with flat epithelial atypia, and two patients with flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Five cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia were upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ, three cases of flat epithelial atypia yielded one ductal carcinoma in situ and two cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, and one case of flat epithelial atypia/atypical ductal hyperplasia had invasive ductal carcinoma. The overall rate of malignancy was 16% for atypical ductal hyperplasia (including flat epithelial atypia/atypical ductal hyperplasia patients) and 20% for flat epithelial atypia. The presence of flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia at biopsy requires careful consideration, and surgical excision should be suggested.

  15. Are We Underestimating Microplastic Contamination in Aquatic Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkle, Jeremy L.; Báez Del Valle, Christian D.; Turner, Jeffrey W.

    2018-01-01

    Plastic debris, specifically microplastic in the aquatic environment, is an escalating environmental crisis. Efforts at national scales to reduce or ban microplastics in personal care products are starting to pay off, but this will not affect those materials already in the environment or those that result from unregulated products and materials. To better inform future microplastic research and mitigation efforts this study (1) evaluates methods currently used to quantify microplastics in the environment and (2) characterizes the concentration and size distribution of microplastics in a variety of products. In this study, 50 published aquatic surveys were reviewed and they demonstrated that most ( 80%) only account for plastics ≥ 300 μm in diameter. In addition, we surveyed 770 personal care products to determine the occurrence, concentration and size distribution of polyethylene microbeads. Particle concentrations ranged from 1.9 to 71.9 mg g-1 of product or 1649 to 31,266 particles g-1 of product. The large majority ( > 95%) of particles in products surveyed were less than the 300 μm minimum diameter, indicating that previous environmental surveys could be underestimating microplastic contamination. To account for smaller particles as well as microfibers from synthetic textiles, we strongly recommend that future surveys consider methods that materials < 300 μm in diameter.

  16. Did the Stern Review underestimate US and global climate damages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, Frank; Stanton, Elizabeth A.; Hope, Chris; Alberth, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    The Stern Review received widespread attention for its innovative approach to the economics of climate change when it appeared in 2006, and generated controversies that have continued to this day. One key controversy concerns the magnitude of the expected impacts of climate change. Stern's estimates, based on results from the PAGE2002 model, sounded substantially greater than those produced by many other models, leading several critics to suggest that Stern had inflated his damage figures. We reached the opposite conclusion in a recent application of PAGE2002 in a study of the costs to the US economy of inaction on climate change. This article describes our revisions to the PAGE estimates, and explains our conclusion that the model runs used in the Stern Review may well underestimate US and global damages. Stern's estimates from PAGE2002 implied that mean business-as-usual damages in 2100 would represent just 0.4 percent of GDP for the United States and 2.2 percent of GDP for the world. Our revisions and reinterpretation of the PAGE model imply that climate damages in 2100 could reach 2.6 percent of GDP for the United States and 10.8 percent for the world.

  17. Language issues, an underestimated danger in major hazard control?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhout, Paul, E-mail: plindhout@minszw.nl [Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, AI-MHC, Anna van Hannoverstraat 4, P.O. Box 90801, 2509 LV The Hague (Netherlands); Ale, Ben J.M. [Delft University of Technology, TBM-Safety Science Group, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Language issues are problems with communication via speech, signs, gestures or their written equivalents. They may result from poor reading and writing skills, a mix of foreign languages and other circumstances. Language issues are not picked up as a safety risk on the shop floor by current safety management systems. These safety risks need to be identified, acknowledged, quantified and prioritised in order to allow risk reducing measures to be taken. This study investigates the nature of language issues related danger in literature, by experiment and by a survey among the Seveso II companies in the Netherlands. Based on human error frequencies, and on the contents of accident investigation reports, the risks associated with language issues were ranked. Accident investigation method causal factor categories were found not to be sufficiently representative for the type and magnitude of these risks. Readability of safety related documents used by the companies was investigated and found to be poor in many cases. Interviews among regulators and a survey among Seveso II companies were used to identify the gap between the language issue related dangers found in literature and current best practices. This study demonstrates by means of triangulation with different investigative methods that language issue related risks are indeed underestimated. A recommended coarse of action in order to arrive at appropriate measures is presented.

  18. Language issues, an underestimated danger in major hazard control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhout, Paul; Ale, Ben J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Language issues are problems with communication via speech, signs, gestures or their written equivalents. They may result from poor reading and writing skills, a mix of foreign languages and other circumstances. Language issues are not picked up as a safety risk on the shop floor by current safety management systems. These safety risks need to be identified, acknowledged, quantified and prioritised in order to allow risk reducing measures to be taken. This study investigates the nature of language issues related danger in literature, by experiment and by a survey among the Seveso II companies in the Netherlands. Based on human error frequencies, and on the contents of accident investigation reports, the risks associated with language issues were ranked. Accident investigation method causal factor categories were found not to be sufficiently representative for the type and magnitude of these risks. Readability of safety related documents used by the companies was investigated and found to be poor in many cases. Interviews among regulators and a survey among Seveso II companies were used to identify the gap between the language issue related dangers found in literature and current best practices. This study demonstrates by means of triangulation with different investigative methods that language issue related risks are indeed underestimated. A recommended coarse of action in order to arrive at appropriate measures is presented.

  19. Satellite methods underestimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Joyce E.; Xu, Li; Wang, Minghuai

    2011-01-01

    Satellite-based estimates of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) are consistently smaller than the estimates from global aerosol models, and, partly as a result of these differences, the assessment of this climate forcing includes large uncertainties. Satellite estimates typically use the present-day (PD) relationship between observed cloud drop number concentrations (Nc) and aerosol optical depths (AODs) to determine the preindustrial (PI) values of Nc. These values are then used to determine the PD and PI cloud albedos and, thus, the effect of anthropogenic aerosols on top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes. Here, we use a model with realistic aerosol and cloud processes to show that empirical relationships for ln(Nc) versus ln(AOD) derived from PD results do not represent the atmospheric perturbation caused by the addition of anthropogenic aerosols to the preindustrial atmosphere. As a result, the model estimates based on satellite methods of the AIE are between a factor of 3 to more than a factor of 6 smaller than model estimates based on actual PD and PI values for Nc. Using ln(Nc) versus ln(AI) (Aerosol Index, or the optical depth times angstrom exponent) to estimate preindustrial values for Nc provides estimates for Nc and forcing that are closer to the values predicted by the model. Nevertheless, the AIE using ln(Nc) versus ln(AI) may be substantially incorrect on a regional basis and may underestimate or overestimate the global average forcing by 25 to 35%. PMID:21808047

  20. Is hyperthyroidism underestimated in pregnancy and misdiagnosed as hyperemesis gravidarum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetic, Ana Tikvica; Miskovic, Berivoj

    2010-10-01

    Thyroid changes are considered to be normal events that happen as a large maternal multiorganic adjustment to pregnancy. However, hyperthyroidism occurs in pregnancy with clinical presentation similar to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and pregnancy itself. Moreover, 10% of women with HG will continue to have symptoms throughout the pregnancy suggesting that the underlying cause might not be elevation of human chorionic gonadotropin in the first trimester. Variable frequency of both hyperthyroidism and HG worldwide might suggest the puzzlement of inclusion criteria for both diagnoses enhanced by the alternation of thyroid hormone levels assessed in normal pregnancy. Increased number of hyperthyroidism among women population without the expected rise in gestational hyperthyroidism encouraged us for creating the hypotheses that hyperthyroidism could be underestimated in normal pregnancy and even misdiagnosed as HG. This hypothesis, if confirmed, might have beneficial clinical implications, such as better detection of hyperthyroidism in pregnancies, application of therapy when needed with the reduction of maternal or fetal consequences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Where do forests influence rainfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; van der Ent, Ruud; Fetzer, Ingo; Keys, Patrick; Savenije, Hubert; Gordon, Line

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a major role in hydrology. Not only by immediate control of soil moisture and streamflow, but also by regulating climate through evaporation (i.e., transpiration, interception, and soil evaporation). The process of evaporation travelling through the atmosphere and returning as precipitation on land is known as moisture recycling. Whether evaporation is recycled depends on wind direction and geography. Moisture recycling and forest change studies have primarily focused on either one region (e.g. the Amazon), or one biome type (e.g. tropical humid forests). We will advance this via a systematic global inter-comparison of forest change impacts on precipitation depending on both biome type and geographic location. The rainfall effects are studied for three contemporary forest changes: afforestation, deforestation, and replacement of mature forest by forest plantations. Furthermore, as there are indications in the literature that moisture recycling in some places intensifies during dry years, we will also compare the rainfall impacts of forest change between wet and dry years. We model forest change effects on evaporation using the global hydrological model STEAM and trace precipitation changes using the atmospheric moisture tracking scheme WAM-2layers. This research elucidates the role of geographical location of forest change driven modifications on rainfall as a function of the type of forest change and climatic conditions. These knowledge gains are important at a time of both rapid forest and climate change. Our conclusions nuance our understanding of how forests regulate climate and pinpoint hotspot regions for forest-rainfall coupling.

  2. Simulation of Tropical Rainfall Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, J.; Latif, M.

    2002-12-01

    The impact of sea surface temperature (SST) - especially the role of the tropical Atlantic meridional SST gradient and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation - on precipitation is investigated with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM4/T42. Ensemble experiments - driven with observed SST - show that Atlantic SST has a significant influence on precipitation over West Africa and northeast Brazil. SST sensitivity experiments were performed in which the climatological SST was enhanced or decreased by one Kelvin in certain ocean areas. Changing SST in the eastern tropical Atlantic caused only significant changes along the Guinea Coast, with a positive anomaly (SSTA) increasing rainfall and a negative SSTA reducing it. The response was nearly linear. Changing SST in other ocean areas caused significant changes over West Africa, especially in the Sahel area. The response is found to be non linear, with only negative SSTA leading to significant reduction in Sahel rainfall. Also, the impact of the SSTAs from the different ocean regions was not additive with respect to the rainfall. The influence of SST on precipitation over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) was also investigated. Three experiments were performed in which the climatological SST was enhanced/decreased or decreased/enhanced by one Kelvin in the North/South Atlantic and increased by two Kelvin in the Nino3 ocean area. All experiments caused significant changes over Nordeste, with an enhanced/reduced SST gradient in the Atlantic increasing/reducing rainfall. The response was nearly linear. The main effect of the Atlantic SST gradient was a shift of the ITCZ, caused by trade wind changes. The ''El Nino'' event generates a significant reduction in Nordeste rainfall. A significant positive SLP anomaly occurs in northeast Brazil which may be associated with the descending branch of the Walker circulation. Also a significant positive SLP over the Atlantic from 30S to 10N north occurs. This results in a reduced SLP

  3. Flood Monitoring using X-band Dual-polarization Radar Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Wang, Y.; Maki, M.; Nakane, K.

    2009-09-01

    A dense weather radar network is an emerging concept advanced by the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA). Using multiple radars observing over a common will create different data outcomes depending on the characteristics of the radar units employed and the network topology. To define this a general framework is developed to describe the radar network space, and formulations are obtained that can be used for weather radar network characterization. Current weather radar surveillance networks are based upon conventional sensing paradigm of widely-separated, standalone sensing systems using long range radars that operate at wavelengths in 5-10 cm range. Such configuration has limited capability to observe close to the surface of the earth because of the earth's curvature but also has poorer resolution at far ranges. The dense network radar system, observes and measures weather phenomenon such as rainfall and severe weather close to the ground at higher spatial and temporal resolution compared to the current paradigm. In addition the dense network paradigm also is easily adaptable to complex terrain. Flooding is one of the most common natural hazards in the world. Especially, excessive development decreases the response time of urban watersheds and complex terrain to rainfall and increases the chance of localized flooding events over a small spatial domain. Successful monitoring of urban floods requires high spatiotemporal resolution, accurate precipitation estimation because of the rapid flood response as well as the complex hydrologic and hydraulic characteristics in an urban environment. This paper reviews various aspects in radar rainfall mapping in urban coverage using dense X-band dual-polarization radar networks. By reducing the maximum range and operating at X-band, one can ensure good azimuthal resolution with a small-size antenna and keep the radar beam closer to the ground. The networked topology helps to achieve satisfactory

  4. Indonesian Rainfall Characteristic Based on the EAR and WPR Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Eddy

    2010-05-01

    As one of the most real product of the joint research between RISH (Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere) of Kyoto University, Japan with the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN), is being applied the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang, Bukittinggi, West Sumatera that has already operated since June, 2001. The other one, since March 2007, has also operated the other radar that called as WPR (Wind Profiling Radar) at Pontianak and Biak station under the JAMSTEC (Japan Marine Science Technology), Japan. Those radars give a good chance for the Indonesian young scientist to apply those data in applicable research for many people. One of them is the behavior of Indonesian rainfall variability over Kototabang, Pontianak, and Biak, respectively. This is very important, since rainfall is one of the most important parameter that has direct effect to daily living, not only in wet season (suspected related to flooding) or dry season (suspected related to drought) than normal condition. We understood that until now, no many significant result obtained from those data, especially from WPR, not only since that data is still new one, but also related well to the limitation of the other suppport data, facility (hardware and software), also the man power (reseracher) working on that data analysis. Based on this condition, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the Indonesian rainfall behavior, especially over Kototabang, Pontianak, and Biak, respectively. The others are we would like to investigate the pattern of zonal wind variation along the Indian Ocean passing away to Indonesia region, to investigate the MJO (Madden Julian Oscillation) phenomenon, and to investigate the relationship or correlation between rainfall and zonal wind variation. The results show that in the wet season (DJF=December-January-February), Kototabang and surrounded area is dominated by the Westerly wind that mostly contains of water vapor. While, in the dry

  5. Observation of snowfall with a low-power FM-CW K-band radar (Micro Rain Radar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Stefan; Maahn, Maximilian; Peters, Gerhard; Simmer, Clemens

    2011-06-01

    Quantifying snowfall intensity especially under arctic conditions is a challenge because wind and snow drift deteriorate estimates obtained from both ground-based gauges and disdrometers. Ground-based remote sensing with active instruments might be a solution because they can measure well above drifting snow and do not suffer from flow distortions by the instrument. Clear disadvantages are, however, the dependency of e.g. radar returns on snow habit which might lead to similar large uncertainties. Moreover, high sensitivity radars are still far too costly to operate in a network and under harsh conditions. In this paper we compare returns from a low-cost, low-power vertically pointing FM-CW radar (Micro Rain Radar, MRR) operating at 24.1 GHz with returns from a 35.5 GHz cloud radar (MIRA36) for dry snowfall during a 6-month observation period at an Alpine station (Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus, UFS) at 2,650 m height above sea level. The goal was to quantify the potential and limitations of the MRR in relation to what is achievable by a cloud radar. The operational MRR procedures to derive standard radar variables like effective reflectivity factor ( Z e) or the mean Doppler velocity ( W) had to be modified for snowfall since the MRR was originally designed for rain observations. Since the radar returns from snowfall are weaker than from comparable rainfall, the behavior of the MRR close to its detection threshold has been analyzed and a method is proposed to quantify the noise level of the MRR based on clear sky observations. By converting the resulting MRR- Z e into 35.5 GHz equivalent Z e values, a remaining difference below 1 dBz with slightly higher values close to the noise threshold could be obtained. Due to the much higher sensitivity of MIRA36, the transition of the MRR from the true signal to noise can be observed, which agrees well with the independent clear sky noise estimate. The mean Doppler velocity differences between both radars

  6. Tropospheric biennial oscillation and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall in a coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Gopinadh; Chowdary, J. S.; Srinivas, G.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Parekh, Anant; Attada, Raju; Rama Krishna, S. S. V. S.

    2018-06-01

    In this study Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall are examined in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) hindcast. High correlation between the observations and model TBO index suggests that the model is able to capture most of the TBO years. Spatial patterns of rainfall anomalies associated with positive TBO over the south Asian region are better represented in the model as in the observations. However, the model predicted rainfall anomaly patterns associated with negative TBO years are improper and magnitudes are underestimated compared to the observations. It is noted that positive (negative) TBO is associated with La Niña (El Niño) like Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the model. This leads to the fact that model TBO is El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) driven, while in the observations Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) also plays a role in the negative TBO phase. Detailed analysis suggests that the negative TBO rainfall anomaly pattern in the model is highly influenced by improper teleconnections allied to IOD. Unlike in the observations, rainfall anomalies over the south Asian region are anti-correlated with IOD index in CFSv2. Further, summer monsoon rainfall over south Asian region is highly correlated with IOD western pole than eastern pole in CFSv2 in contrast to the observations. Altogether, the present study highlights the importance of improving Indian Ocean SST teleconnections to south Asian summer rainfall in the model by enhancing the predictability of TBO. This in turn would improve monsoon rainfall prediction skill of the model.

  7. Tropospheric biennial oscillation and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall in a coupled model

    KAUST Repository

    Konda, Gopinadh; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Srinivas, G; Gnanaseelan, C; Parekh, Anant; Attada, Raju; Rama Krishna, S S V S

    2018-01-01

    In this study Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall are examined in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) hindcast. High correlation between the observations and model TBO index suggests that the model is able to capture most of the TBO years. Spatial patterns of rainfall anomalies associated with positive TBO over the south Asian region are better represented in the model as in the observations. However, the model predicted rainfall anomaly patterns associated with negative TBO years are improper and magnitudes are underestimated compared to the observations. It is noted that positive (negative) TBO is associated with La Niña (El Niño) like Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the model. This leads to the fact that model TBO is El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) driven, while in the observations Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) also plays a role in the negative TBO phase. Detailed analysis suggests that the negative TBO rainfall anomaly pattern in the model is highly influenced by improper teleconnections allied to IOD. Unlike in the observations, rainfall anomalies over the south Asian region are anti-correlated with IOD index in CFSv2. Further, summer monsoon rainfall over south Asian region is highly correlated with IOD western pole than eastern pole in CFSv2 in contrast to the observations. Altogether, the present study highlights the importance of improving Indian Ocean SST teleconnections to south Asian summer rainfall in the model by enhancing the predictability of TBO. This in turn would improve monsoon rainfall prediction skill of the model.

  8. Tropospheric biennial oscillation and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall in a coupled model

    KAUST Repository

    Konda, Gopinadh

    2018-05-22

    In this study Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall are examined in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) hindcast. High correlation between the observations and model TBO index suggests that the model is able to capture most of the TBO years. Spatial patterns of rainfall anomalies associated with positive TBO over the south Asian region are better represented in the model as in the observations. However, the model predicted rainfall anomaly patterns associated with negative TBO years are improper and magnitudes are underestimated compared to the observations. It is noted that positive (negative) TBO is associated with La Niña (El Niño) like Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the model. This leads to the fact that model TBO is El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) driven, while in the observations Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) also plays a role in the negative TBO phase. Detailed analysis suggests that the negative TBO rainfall anomaly pattern in the model is highly influenced by improper teleconnections allied to IOD. Unlike in the observations, rainfall anomalies over the south Asian region are anti-correlated with IOD index in CFSv2. Further, summer monsoon rainfall over south Asian region is highly correlated with IOD western pole than eastern pole in CFSv2 in contrast to the observations. Altogether, the present study highlights the importance of improving Indian Ocean SST teleconnections to south Asian summer rainfall in the model by enhancing the predictability of TBO. This in turn would improve monsoon rainfall prediction skill of the model.

  9. RainyDay: An Online, Open-Source Tool for Physically-based Rainfall and Flood Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D.; Yu, G.; Holman, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    Flood frequency analysis in ungaged or changing watersheds typically requires rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves combined with hydrologic models. IDF curves only depict point-scale rainfall depth, while true rainstorms exhibit complex spatial and temporal structures. Floods result from these rainfall structures interacting with watershed features such as land cover, soils, and variable antecedent conditions as well as river channel processes. Thus, IDF curves are traditionally combined with a variety of "design storm" assumptions such as area reduction factors and idealized rainfall space-time distributions to translate rainfall depths into inputs that are suitable for flood hydrologic modeling. The impacts of such assumptions are relatively poorly understood. Meanwhile, modern precipitation estimates from gridded weather radar, grid-interpolated rain gages, satellites, and numerical weather models provide more realistic depictions of rainfall space-time structure. Usage of such datasets for rainfall and flood frequency analysis, however, are hindered by relatively short record lengths. We present RainyDay, an open-source stochastic storm transposition (SST) framework for generating large numbers of realistic rainfall "scenarios." SST "lengthens" the rainfall record by temporal resampling and geospatial transposition of observed storms to extract space-time information from regional gridded rainfall data. Relatively short (10-15 year) records of bias-corrected radar rainfall data are sufficient to estimate rainfall and flood events with much longer recurrence intervals including 100-year and 500-year events. We describe the SST methodology as implemented in RainyDay and compare rainfall IDF results from RainyDay to conventional estimates from NOAA Atlas 14. Then, we demonstrate some of the flood frequency analysis properties that are possible when RainyDay is integrated with a distributed hydrologic model, including robust estimation of flood

  10. THE TEXTBOOK AS A PRODUCT OF SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY: underestimated work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eustáquio de Sene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This article will address the textbook as a specific cultural production of school disciplines having as reference the theoretical debate that opposed the conceptions of "didactic transposition" (CHEVALLARD, 1997 and "school culture" (CHERVEL, 1990. Based on this debate, characteristic of the curriculum field, this article aims to understand why, historically, the textbook has been underestimated and even considered a "less important work” within the limits of the academy (BITTENCOURT, 2004. The examples used will always be of the Geography discipline – both school and academic, as well as the relations between this two fields – having in mind their "multiplicity of paradigms" (LESTEGÁS, 2002. The analysis will also take into account the historic process of institutionalization of academic Geography based on "Layton’s stages" (GOODSON, 2005. RESUMO: Este artigo abordará o livro didático como uma produção cultural específica das disciplinas escolares tendo como referência o debate teórico que opõem as concepções de “transposição didática” (CHEVALLARD, 1997 e de “cultura escolar” (CHERVEL, 1990. Com base em tal debate, próprio do campo curricular, procurará compreender porque historicamente o livro didático tem sido pouco valorizado e até mesmo considerado uma “obra menor” nos limites da academia (BITTENCOURT, 2004. Os exemplos utilizados serão sempre da disciplina Geografia – tanto a escolar quanto a acadêmica, assim como das relações entre ambas – tendo em vista sua “multiplicidade de paradigmas” (LESTEGÁS, 2002. A análise também levará em conta o histórico processo de institucionalização da Geografia acadêmica com base nos “estágios de Layton” (GOODSON, 2005.

  11. Comet radar explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  12. Evaluation of rainfall infiltration characteristics in a volcanic ash soil by time domain reflectometry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hasegawa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Time domain reflectometry (TDR was used to monitor soil water conditions and to evaluate infiltration characteristics associated with rainfall into a volcanic-ash soil (Hydric Hapludand with a low bulk density. Four 1 m TDR probes were installed vertically along a 6 m line in a bare field. Three 30 cm and one 60 cm probes were installed between the 1 m probes. Soil water content was measured every half or every hour throughout the year. TDR enabled prediction of the soil water content precisely even though the empirical equation developed by Topp et al. (1980 underestimated the water content. Field capacity, defined as the amount of water stored to a depth of 1 m on the day following heavy rainfall, was 640 mm. There was approximately 100 mm difference in the amount of water stored between field capacity and the driest period. Infiltration characteristics of rainfall were investigated for 36 rainfall events exceeding 10 mm with a total amount of rain of 969 mm out of an annual rainfall of 1192 mm. In the case of 25 low intensity rainfall events with less than 10 mm h-1 on to dry soils, the increase in the amount of water stored to a depth of 1 m was equal to the cumulative rainfall. For rain intensity in excess of 10 mm h-1, non-uniform infiltration occurred. The increase in the amount of water stored at lower elevation locations was 1.4 to 1.6 times larger than at higher elevation locations even though the difference in ground height among the 1 m probes was 6 cm. In the two instances when rainfall exceeded 100 mm, including the amount of rain in a previous rainfall event, the increase in the amount of water stored to a depth of 1 m was 65 mm lower than the total quantity of rain on the two occasions (220 mm; this indicated that 65 mm of water or 5.5% of the annual rainfall had flowed away either by surface runoff or bypass flow. Hence, approximately 95% of the annual rainfall was absorbed by the soil matrix but it is not possible to simulate

  13. Using raindrop size distributions from different types of disdrometer to establish weather radar algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Luca; Adirosi, Elisa; Roberto, Nicoletta; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Russo, Fabio; Napolitano, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Radar precipitation retrieval uses several relationships that parameterize precipitation properties (like rainfall rate and liquid water content and attenuation (in case of radars at attenuated frequencies such as those at C- and X- band) as a function of combinations of radar measurements. The uncertainty in such relations highly affects the uncertainty precipitation and attenuation estimates. A commonly used method to derive such relationships is to apply regression methods to precipitation measurements and radar observables simulated from datasets of drop size distributions (DSD) using microphysical and electromagnetic assumptions. DSD datasets are determined both by theoretical considerations (i.e. based on the assumption that the radar always samples raindrops whose sizes follow a gamma distribution) or from experimental measurements collected throughout the years by disdrometers. In principle, using long-term disdrometer measurements provide parameterizations more representative of a specific climatology. However, instrumental errors, specific of a disdrometer, can affect the results. In this study, different weather radar algorithms resulting from DSDs collected by diverse types of disdrometers, namely 2D video disdrometer, first and second generation of OTT Parsivel laser disdrometer, and Thies Clima laser disdrometer, in the area of Rome (Italy) are presented and discussed to establish at what extent dual-polarization radar algorithms derived from experimental DSD datasets are influenced by the different error structure of the different type of disdrometers used to collect the data.

  14. Pseudo-radar algorithms with two extremely wet months of disdrometer data in the Paris area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

    2018-05-01

    Disdrometer data collected during the two extremely wet months of May and June 2016 at the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech are used to get insights on radar algorithms. The rain rate and pseudo-radar quantities (horizontal and vertical reflectivity, specific differential phase shift) are all estimated over several durations with the help of drop size distributions (DSD) collected at 30 s time steps. The pseudo-radar quantities are defined with simplifying hypotheses, in particular on the DSD homogeneity. First it appears that the parameters of the standard radar relations Zh - R, R - Kdp and R - Zh - Zdr for these pseudo-radar quantities exhibit strong variability between events and even within an event. Second an innovative methodology that relies on checking the ability of a given algorithm to reproduce the good scale invariant multifractal behaviour (on scales 30 s - few h) observed on rainfall time series is implemented. In this framework, the classical hybrid model (Zh - R for low rain rates and R - Kdp for great ones) performs best, as well as the local estimates of the radar relations' parameters. However, we emphasise that due to the hypotheses on which they rely these observations cannot be straightforwardly extended to real radar quantities.

  15. Validation and correction of rainfall data from the WegenerNet high density network in southeast Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Sungmin; Foelsche, U.; Kirchengast, G.; Fuchsberger, J.

    2018-01-01

    Eight years of daily rainfall data from WegenerNet were analyzed by comparison with data from Austrian national weather stations. WegenerNet includes 153 ground level weather stations in an area of about 15 km × 20 km in the Feldbach region in southeast Austria. Rainfall has been measured by tipping bucket gauges at 150 stations of the network since the beginning of 2007. Since rain gauge measurements are considered close to true rainfall, there are increasing needs for WegenerNet data for the validation of rainfall data products such as remote sensing based estimates or model outputs. Serving these needs, this paper aims at providing a clearer interpretation on WegenerNet rainfall data for users in hydro-meteorological communities. Five clusters - a cluster consists of one national weather station and its four closest WegenerNet stations - allowed us close comparison of datasets between the stations. Linear regression analysis and error estimation with statistical indices were conducted to quantitatively evaluate the WegenerNet daily rainfall data. It was found that rainfall data between the stations show good linear relationships with an average correlation coefficient (r) of 0.97 , while WegenerNet sensors tend to underestimate rainfall according to the regression slope (0.87). For the five clusters investigated, the bias and relative bias were - 0.97 mm d-1 and - 11.5 % on average (except data from new sensors). The average of bias and relative bias, however, could be reduced by about 80 % through a simple linear regression-slope correction, with the assumption that the underestimation in WegenerNet data was caused by systematic errors. The results from the study have been employed to improve WegenerNet data for user applications so that a new version of the data (v5) is now available at the WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org).

  16. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  17. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  18. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  19. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  20. Stochastic modelling of daily rainfall sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buishand, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:
    a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation

  1. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems:a danisk case study

    OpenAIRE

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.; Neve, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promis...

  2. Wageningen Urban Rainfall Experiment 2014 (WURex14): Experimental setup and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Thomas C.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Hazenberg, Pieter; Berne, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Microwave links from cellular communication networks have been shown to be able to provide valuable information concerning the space-time variability of rainfall. In particular over urban areas, where network densities are generally high, they have the potential to complement existing dedicated infrastructure to measure rainfall (gauges, radars). In addition, microwave links provide a great opportunity for ground-based rainfall measurement for those land surface areas of the world where gauges and radars are generally lacking. Such information is not only crucial for water management and agriculture, but also for instance for ground validation of space-borne rainfall estimates such as those provided by the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) mission. WURex14 is dedicated to address several errors and uncertainties associated with such quantitative precipitation estimates in detail. The core of the experiment is provided by three co-located microwave links installed between two major buildings on the Wageningen University campus, approximately 2 km apart: a 38 GHz commercial microwave link, provided by T-Mobile NL, and 26 GHz and 38 GHz (dual-polarization) research microwave links from RAL. Transmitting and receiving antennas have been attached to masts installed on the roofs of the two buildings, about 30 m above the ground. This setup has been complemented with a Scintec infrared Large-Aperture Scintillometer, installed over the same path, as well as 5 Parsivel optical disdrometers and an automated rain gauge positioned at several locations along the path. Temporal sampling of the received signals was performed at a rate of 20 Hz. The setup is being monitored by time-lapse cameras to assess the state of the antennas as well as the atmosphere. Finally, data is available from the KNMI weather radars and an automated weather station situated just outside Wageningen. The experiment has been active between August 2014 and December 2015. We give a global overview of

  3. Determination of meteoroid physical properties from tristatic radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we give a review of the meteor head echo observations carried out with the tristatic 930 MHz EISCAT UHF radar system during four 24 h runs between 2002 and 2005 and compare these with earlier observations. A total number of 410 tristatic meteors were observed. We describe a method to determine the position of a compact radar target in the common volume monitored by the three receivers and demonstrate its applicability for meteor studies. The inferred positions of the meteor targets have been utilized to estimate their velocities, decelerations and directions of arrival as well as their radar cross sections with unprecedented accuracy. The velocity distribution of the meteoroids is bimodal with peaks at 35–40 km/s and 55–60 km/s, and ranges from 19–70 km/s. The estimated masses are between 10−9–10−5.5 kg. There are very few detections below 30 km/s. The observations are clearly biased to high-velocity meteoroids, but not so biased against slow meteoroids as has been presumed from previous tristatic measurements. Finally, we discuss how the radial deceleration observed with a monostatic radar depends on the meteoroid velocity and the angle between the trajectory and the beam. The finite beamwidth leads to underestimated meteoroid masses if radial velocity and deceleration of meteoroids approaching the radar are used as estimates of the true quantities in a momentum equation of motion.

  4. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the frontend for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the dataformatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and specific

  5. Assessment of satellite rainfall products over the Andean plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satgé, Frédéric; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Gosset, Marielle; Molina, Jorge; Hernan Yuque Lima, Wilson; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Timouk, Franck; Garnier, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Nine satellite rainfall estimations (SREs) were evaluated for the first time over the South American Andean plateau watershed by comparison with rain gauge data acquired between 2005 and 2007. The comparisons were carried out at the annual, monthly and daily time steps. All SREs reproduce the salient pattern of the annual rain field, with a marked north-south gradient and a lighter east-west gradient. However, the intensity of the gradient differs among SREs: it is well marked in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 (TMPA-3B42), Precipitation Estimation from remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) products, and it is smoothed out in the Climate prediction center MORPHing (CMORPH) products. Another interesting difference among products is the contrast in rainfall amounts between the water surfaces (Lake Titicaca) and the surrounding land. Some products (TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and GSMaP) show a contradictory rainfall deficit over Lake Titicaca, which may be due to the emissivity contrast between the lake and the surrounding lands and warm rain cloud processes. An analysis differentiating coastal Lake Titicaca from inland pixels confirmed this trend. The raw or Real Time (RT) products have strong biases over the study region. These biases are strongly positive for PERSIANN (above 90%), moderately positive for TMPA-3B42 (28%), strongly negative for CMORPH (- 42%) and moderately negative for GSMaP (- 18%). The biases are associated with a deformation of the rain rate frequency distribution: GSMaP underestimates the proportion of rainfall events for all rain rates; CMORPH overestimates the proportion of rain rates below 2 mm day- 1; and the other products tend to overestimate the proportion of moderate to high rain rates. These biases are greatly reduced by the gauge adjustment in the TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and CMORPH products, whereas a

  6. Validation of new satellite rainfall products over the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye Ayehu, Getachew; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Gessesse, Berhan; Dinku, Tufa

    2018-04-01

    Accurate measurement of rainfall is vital to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation at various scales. However, the conventional rain gauge observations in many parts of the world such as Ethiopia are sparse and unevenly distributed. An alternative to traditional rain gauge observations could be satellite-based rainfall estimates. Satellite rainfall estimates could be used as a sole product (e.g., in areas with no (or poor) ground observations) or through integrating with rain gauge measurements. In this study, the potential of a newly available Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall product has been evaluated in comparison to rain gauge data over the Upper Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia for the period of 2000 to 2015. In addition, the Tropical Applications of Meteorology using SATellite and ground-based observations (TAMSAT 3) and the African Rainfall Climatology (ARC 2) products have been used as a benchmark and compared with CHIRPS. From the overall analysis at dekadal (10 days) and monthly temporal scale, CHIRPS exhibited better performance in comparison to TAMSAT 3 and ARC 2 products. An evaluation based on categorical/volumetric and continuous statistics indicated that CHIRPS has the greatest skills in detecting rainfall events (POD = 0.99, 1.00) and measure of volumetric rainfall (VHI = 1.00, 1.00), the highest correlation coefficients (r = 0.81, 0.88), better bias values (0.96, 0.96), and the lowest RMSE (28.45 mm dekad-1, 59.03 mm month-1) than TAMSAT 3 and ARC 2 products at dekadal and monthly analysis, respectively. CHIRPS overestimates the frequency of rainfall occurrence (up to 31 % at dekadal scale), although the volume of rainfall recorded during those events was very small. Indeed, TAMSAT 3 has shown a comparable performance with that of the CHIRPS product, mainly with regard to bias. The ARC 2 product was found to have the weakest performance underestimating rain gauge observed rainfall by

  7. Underwater Acoustic Measurements to Estimate Wind and Rainfall in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pensieri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic ambient noise measurements can be analyzed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about wind and rainfall phenomena over the ocean filling the existing gap of reliable meteorological observations at sea. The Ligurian Sea Acoustic Experiment was designed to collect long-term synergistic observations from a passive acoustic recorder and surface sensors (i.e., buoy mounted rain gauge and anemometer and weather radar to support error analysis of rainfall rate and wind speed quantification techniques developed in past studies. The study period included combination of high and low wind and rainfall episodes and two storm events that caused two floods in the vicinity of La Spezia and in the city of Genoa in 2011. The availability of high resolution in situ meteorological data allows improving data processing technique to detect and especially to provide effective estimates of wind and rainfall at sea. Results show a very good correspondence between estimates provided by passive acoustic recorder algorithm and in situ observations for both rainfall and wind phenomena and demonstrate the potential of using measurements provided by passive acoustic instruments in open sea for early warning of approaching coastal storms, which for the Mediterranean coastal areas constitutes one of the main causes of recurrent floods.

  8. Doppler radar flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  9. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  10. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  11. Performance indicators modern surveillance radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, P.N.C.; Theil, A.

    2014-01-01

    Blake chart computations are widely employed to rank detection coverage capabilities of competitive search radar systems. Developed for comparable 2D radar systems with a mechanically rotating reflector antenna, it was not necessary to regard update rate and plot quality in Blake's chart. To

  12. Validation of satellite daily rainfall estimates in complex terrain of Bali Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Novi; Lubczynski, Maciek W.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite rainfall products have different performances in different geographic regions under different physical and climatological conditions. In this study, the objective was to select the most reliable and accurate satellite rainfall products for specific, environmental conditions of Bali Island. The performances of four spatio-temporal satellite rainfall products, i.e., CMORPH25, CMORPH8, TRMM, and PERSIANN, were evaluated at the island, zonation (applying elevation and climatology as constraints), and pixel scales, using (i) descriptive statistics and (ii) categorical statistics, including bias decomposition. The results showed that all the satellite products had low accuracy because of spatial scale effect, daily resolution and the island complexity. That accuracy was relatively lower in (i) dry seasons and dry climatic zones than in wet seasons and wet climatic zones; (ii) pixels jointly covered by sea and mountainous land than in pixels covered by land or by sea only; and (iii) topographically diverse than uniform terrains. CMORPH25, CMORPH8, and TRMM underestimated and PERSIANN overestimated rainfall when comparing them to gauged rain. The CMORPH25 had relatively the best performance and the PERSIANN had the worst performance in the Bali Island. The CMORPH25 had the lowest statistical errors, the lowest miss, and the highest hit rainfall events; it also had the lowest miss rainfall bias and was relatively the most accurate in detecting, frequent in Bali, ≤ 20 mm day-1 rain events. Lastly, the CMORPH25 coarse grid better represented rainfall events from coastal to inlands areas than other satellite products, including finer grid CMORPH8.

  13. A method for combining passive microwave and infrared rainfall observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Christian; Giglio, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Because passive microwave instruments are confined to polar-orbiting satellites, rainfall estimates must interpolate across long time periods, during which no measurements are available. In this paper the authors discuss a technique that allows one to partially overcome the sampling limitations by using frequent infrared observations from geosynchronous platforms. To accomplish this, the technique compares all coincident microwave and infrared observations. From each coincident pair, the infrared temperature threshold is selected that corresponds to an area equal to the raining area observed in the microwave image. The mean conditional rainfall rate as determined from the microwave image is then assigned to pixels in the infrared image that are colder than the selected threshold. The calibration is also applied to a fixed threshold of 235 K for comparison with established infrared techniques. Once a calibration is determined, it is applied to all infrared images. Monthly accumulations for both methods are then obtained by summing rainfall from all available infrared images. Two examples are used to evaluate the performance of the technique. The first consists of a one-month period (February 1988) over Darwin, Australia, where good validation data are available from radar and rain gauges. For this case it was found that the technique approximately doubled the rain inferred by the microwave method alone and produced exceptional agreement with the validation data. The second example involved comparisons with atoll rain gauges in the western Pacific for June 1989. Results here are overshadowed by the fact that the hourly infrared estimates from established techniques, by themselves, produced very good correlations with the rain gauges. The calibration technique was not able to improve upon these results.

  14. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.

  15. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    classification and use a range of different techniques and input data. The first method uses external information from multispectral satellite images to detect clutter. The information in the visual, near-infrared, and infrared parts of the spectrum can be used to distinguish between cloud and cloud-free areas......Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...

  16. Evaluation of the value of radar QPE data and rain gauge data for hydrological modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xin; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Refsgaard, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    rainfall and subsequently the simulated hydrological responses. A headwater catchment located in western Denmark is chosen as the study site. Two hydrological models are built using the MIKE SHE code, where they have identical model structures expect for the rainfall forcing: one model is based on rain...... value of the extra information from radar when rain gauge density decreases; however it is not able to sustain the level of model performance preceding the reduction in number of rain gauges......Weather radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is in principle superior to the areal precipitation estimated by using rain gauge data only, and therefore has become increasingly popular in applications such as hydrological modeling. The present study investigates the potential...

  17. 100 years of radar

    CERN Document Server

    Galati, Gaspare

    2016-01-01

    This book offers fascinating insights into the key technical and scientific developments in the history of radar, from the first patent, taken out by Hülsmeyer in 1904, through to the present day. Landmark events are highlighted and fascinating insights provided into the exceptional people who made possible the progress in the field, including the scientists and technologists who worked independently and under strict secrecy in various countries across the world in the 1930s and the big businessmen who played an important role after World War II. The book encourages multiple levels of reading. The author is a leading radar researcher who is ideally placed to offer a technical/scientific perspective as well as a historical one. He has taken care to structure and write the book in such a way as to appeal to both non-specialists and experts. The book is not sponsored by any company or body, either formally or informally, and is therefore entirely unbiased. The text is enriched by approximately three hundred ima...

  18. Sensitivity of Distributed Hydrologic Simulations to Ground and Satellite Based Rainfall Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaiah Chintalapudi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven precipitation products (rain gauges, NEXRAD MPE, PERSIANN 0.25 degree, PERSIANN CCS-3hr, PERSIANN CCS-1hr, TRMM 3B42V7, and CMORPH were used to force a physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The model was driven by these products to simulate the hydrologic response of a 1232 km2 watershed in the Guadalupe River basin, Texas. Storm events in 2007 were used to analyze the precipitation products. Comparison with rain gauge observations reveals that there were significant biases in the satellite rainfall products and large variations in the estimated amounts. The radar basin average precipitation compared very well with the rain gauge product while the gauge-adjusted TRMM 3B42V7 precipitation compared best with observed rainfall among all satellite precipitation products. The NEXRAD MPE simulated streamflows matched the observed ones the best yielding the highest Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency correlation coefficient values for both the July and August 2007 events. Simulations driven by TRMM 3B42V7 matched the observed streamflow better than other satellite products for both events. The PERSIANN coarse resolution product yielded better runoff results than the higher resolution product. The study reveals that satellite rainfall products are viable alternatives when rain gauge or ground radar observations are sparse or non-existent.

  19. Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, USA using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soilwater flux will result in larger increases in soil-adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distributions of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading. 29 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Combining Radar and Daily Precipitation Data to Estimate Meaningful Sub-daily Precipitation Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, G. G. S.; Bardossy, A.

    2016-12-01

    Short duration extreme rainfalls are important for design. The purpose of this presentation is not to improve the day by day estimation of precipitation, but to obtain reasonable statistics for the subdaily extremes at gauge locations. We are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauge locations. We do not employ the common procedure of using time series of control station to determine the missing data values in a target. We are interested in individual rare events, not sequences. The idea is to use radar to disaggregate daily totals to sub-daily amounts. In South Arica, an S-band radar operated relatively continuously at Bethlehem from 1998 to 2003, whose scan at 1.5 km above ground [CAPPI] overlapped a dense (10 km spacing) set of 45 pluviometers recording in the same 6-year period. Using this valuable set of data, we are only interested in rare extremes, therefore small to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected, leaving 12 days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprised about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals in subdaily intervals down to 15 minutes in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall at each of 37 selected radar pixels [1 km square in plan] which contained one of the 45 pluviometers not masked out by the radar foot-print. The pluviometer data were aggregated to daily totals, to act as if they were daily read gauges; their only other task was to help in the cross-validation exercise. The extrema were obtained as quantiles by ordering the 12 daily maxima of each interval per year. The unusual and novel goal was not to obtain the reproduction of the precipitation matching in space and time, but to obtain frequency distributions of the gauge and radar extremes, by matching their ranks, which we found to be stable and meaningful in cross-validation tests. We provide and

  1. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  2. Simulation of the Indian summer monsoon onset-phase rainfall using a regional model

    KAUST Repository

    Srinivas, C. V.

    2015-09-11

    This study examines the ability of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) regional model to simulate Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall climatology in different climate zones during the monsoon onset phase in the decade 2000–2009. The initial and boundary conditions for ARW are provided from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP) global reanalysis. Seasonal onset-phase rainfall is compared with corresponding values from 0.25° IMD (India Meteorological Department) rainfall and NNRP precipitation data over seven climate zones (perhumid, humid, dry/moist, subhumid, dry/moist, semiarid and arid) of India to see whether dynamical downscaling using a regional model yields advantages over just using large-scale model predictions. Results show that the model could simulate the onset phase in terms of progression and distribution of rainfall in most zones (except over the northeast) with good correlations and low error metrics. The observed mean onset dates and their variability over different zones are well reproduced by the regional model over most climate zones. It has been found that the ARW performed similarly to the reanalysis in most zones and improves the onset time by 1 to 3 days in zones 4 and 7, in which the NNRP shows a delayed onset compared to the actual IMD onset times. The variations in the onset-phase rainfall during the below-normal onset (June negative) and above-normal onset (June positive) phases are well simulated. The slight underestimation of onset-phase rainfall in the northeast zone could be due to failure in resolving the wide extent of topographic variations and the associated multiscale interactions in that zone. Spatial comparisons showed improvement of pentad rainfall in both space and quantity in ARW simulations over NNRP data, as evident from a wider eastward distribution of pentad rainfall over the Western Ghats, central and eastern India, as in IMD observations. While NNRP under-represented the high pentad rainfall over northeast, east and

  3. Validation and evaluation of epistemic uncertainty in rainfall thresholds for regional scale landslide forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Iovine, Giulio; Melillo, Massimo; Peruccacci, Silvia; Terranova, Oreste Giuseppe; Vennari, Carmela; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Prediction of rainfall-induced landslides can rely on empirical rainfall thresholds. These are obtained from the analysis of past rainfall events that have (or have not) resulted in slope failures. Accurate prediction requires reliable thresholds, which need to be validated before their use in operational landslide warning systems. Despite the clear relevance of validation, only a few studies have addressed the problem, and have proposed and tested robust validation procedures. We propose a validation procedure that allows for the definition of optimal thresholds for early warning purposes. The validation is based on contingency table, skill scores, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. To establish the optimal threshold, which maximizes the correct landslide predictions and minimizes the incorrect predictions, we propose an index that results from the linear combination of three weighted skill scores. Selection of the optimal threshold depends on the scope and the operational characteristics of the early warning system. The choice is made by selecting appropriately the weights, and by searching for the optimal (maximum) value of the index. We discuss weakness in the validation procedure caused by the inherent lack of information (epistemic uncertainty) on landslide occurrence typical of large study areas. When working at the regional scale, landslides may have occurred and may have not been reported. This results in biases and variations in the contingencies and the skill scores. We introduce two parameters to represent the unknown proportion of rainfall events (above and below the threshold) for which landslides occurred and went unreported. We show that even a very small underestimation in the number of landslides can result in a significant decrease in the performance of a threshold measured by the skill scores. We show that the variations in the skill scores are different for different uncertainty of events above or below the threshold. This

  4. Simulation of the Indian summer monsoon onset-phase rainfall using a regional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Srinivas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the ability of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW regional model to simulate Indian summer monsoon (ISM rainfall climatology in different climate zones during the monsoon onset phase in the decade 2000–2009. The initial and boundary conditions for ARW are provided from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP global reanalysis. Seasonal onset-phase rainfall is compared with corresponding values from 0.25° IMD (India Meteorological Department rainfall and NNRP precipitation data over seven climate zones (perhumid, humid, dry/moist, subhumid, dry/moist, semiarid and arid of India to see whether dynamical downscaling using a regional model yields advantages over just using large-scale model predictions. Results show that the model could simulate the onset phase in terms of progression and distribution of rainfall in most zones (except over the northeast with good correlations and low error metrics. The observed mean onset dates and their variability over different zones are well reproduced by the regional model over most climate zones. It has been found that the ARW performed similarly to the reanalysis in most zones and improves the onset time by 1 to 3 days in zones 4 and 7, in which the NNRP shows a delayed onset compared to the actual IMD onset times. The variations in the onset-phase rainfall during the below-normal onset (June negative and above-normal onset (June positive phases are well simulated. The slight underestimation of onset-phase rainfall in the northeast zone could be due to failure in resolving the wide extent of topographic variations and the associated multiscale interactions in that zone. Spatial comparisons showed improvement of pentad rainfall in both space and quantity in ARW simulations over NNRP data, as evident from a wider eastward distribution of pentad rainfall over the Western Ghats, central and eastern India, as in IMD observations. While NNRP under-represented the high pentad rainfall over

  5. Interception of LPI radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jim P.

    1991-11-01

    Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile control, and power management that a radar may employ against current Electronic Warfare (EW) receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current intercept EW receivers. LPI operation is most easily achieved at close ranges and against a target with a large radar cross section. The general system sensitivity requirement for the detection of current and projected LPI radars is found to be on the order of -100 dBmi which cannot be met by current EW receivers. Finally, three potential LPI receiver architectures, using channelized, superhet, and acousto-optic receivers with narrow RF and video bandwidths are discussed. They have shown some potential in terms of providing the sensitivity and capability in an environment where both conventional and LPI signals are present.

  6. The development rainfall forecasting using kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfi, Mohammad; Hasan, Moh.; Dwidja Purnomo, Kosala

    2018-04-01

    Rainfall forecasting is very interesting for agricultural planing. Rainfall information is useful to make decisions about the plan planting certain commodities. In this studies, the rainfall forecasting by ARIMA and Kalman Filter method. Kalman Filter method is used to declare a time series model of which is shown in the form of linear state space to determine the future forecast. This method used a recursive solution to minimize error. The rainfall data in this research clustered by K-means clustering. Implementation of Kalman Filter method is for modelling and forecasting rainfall in each cluster. We used ARIMA (p,d,q) to construct a state space for KalmanFilter model. So, we have four group of the data and one model in each group. In conclusions, Kalman Filter method is better than ARIMA model for rainfall forecasting in each group. It can be showed from error of Kalman Filter method that smaller than error of ARIMA model.

  7. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahafza, Bassem R

    2008-01-01

    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  8. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered

  9. Deforestation and rainfall recycling in Brazil: Is decreased forest cover connectivity associated with decreased rainfall connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adera, S.; Larsen, L.; Levy, M. C.; Thompson, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone, deforestation has the potential to significantly affect rainfall by disrupting rainfall recycling, the process by which regional evapotranspiration contributes to regional rainfall. Understanding rainfall recycling in this region is important not only for sustaining Amazon and Cerrado ecosystems, but also for cattle ranching, agriculture, hydropower generation, and drinking water management. Simulations in previous studies suggest complex, scale-dependent interactions between forest cover connectivity and rainfall. For example, the size and distribution of deforested patches has been found to affect rainfall quantity and spatial distribution. Here we take an empirical approach, using the spatial connectivity of rainfall as an indicator of rainfall recycling, to ask: as forest cover connectivity decreased from 1981 - 2015, how did the spatial connectivity of rainfall change in the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone? We use satellite forest cover and rainfall data covering this period of intensive forest cover loss in the region (forest cover from the Hansen Global Forest Change dataset; rainfall from the Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset). Rainfall spatial connectivity is quantified using transfer entropy, a metric from information theory, and summarized using network statistics. Networks of connectivity are quantified for paired deforested and non-deforested regions before deforestation (1981-1995) and during/after deforestation (2001-2015). Analyses reveal a decline in spatial connectivity networks of rainfall following deforestation.

  10. [Effects of rainfall intensity on rainfall infiltration and redistribution in soil on Loess slope land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Shao, Ming'an

    2006-12-01

    With simulation test, this paper studied the patterns of rainfall infiltration and redistribution in soil on typical Loess slope land, and analyzed the quantitative relations between the infiltration and redistribution and the movement of soil water and mass, with rainfall intensity as the main affecting factor. The results showed that rainfall intensity had significant effects on the rainfall infiltration and water redistribution in soil, and the microcosmic movement of soil water. The larger the rainfall intensity, the deeper the wetting front of rainfall infiltration and redistribution was, and the wetting front of soil water redistribution had a slower increase velocity than that of rainfall infiltration. The power function of the wetting front with time, and also with rainfall intensity, was fitted well. There was also a quantitative relation between the wetting front of rainfall redistribution and the duration of rainfall. The larger the rainfall intensity, the higher the initial and steady infiltration rates were, and the cumulative infiltration increased faster with time. Moreover, the larger the rainfall intensity, the smaller the wetting front difference was at the top and the end of the slope. With the larger rainfall intensity, both the difference of soil water content and its descending trend between soil layers became more obvious during the redistribution process on slope land.

  11. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  12. Radar observations of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes echoes from 33 main-belt asteroids (MBAs) and 19 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have provided a wealth of new information about these objects such as sizes, shapes, spin vectors, and such surface characteristics as decimeter-scale morphology, topographic relief, regolith porosity and metal concentrations. On average, small NEAs are much rougher at decimeter scales than MBAs, comets or terrestrial planets. Some of the largest MBAs (e.g., 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas ) are smoother than the moon at decimeter scales but much rougher than the Moon at some much larger scale. There is at least a five-fold variation in the radar albedos of MBAs, implying substantial variations in the surface porosities or metal concentrations of these objects. The highest MBA albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a metal concentration near unity and lunar porosities

  13. Under the Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, WM

    2010-01-01

    This is the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott (1912 to 1981). As the first female radio astronomer (and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy), she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. She also played a major role in the design of the Australian government's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research radars, which were in turn of vital importance in the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II and were used by Australian, US and New Zealand personnel. From a sociological perspective, her career also offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs this book gives a fascinating insight into the beginning of radio astronomy and the role of a pioneering woman in astronomy.

  14. Material integrity verification radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the need for verification of 'as-built' spent fuel-dry storage containers and other concrete structures. The IAEA has tasked the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) to fabricate, test, and deploy a stepped-frequency Material Integrity Verification Radar (MIVR) system to nondestructively verify the internal construction of these containers. The MIVR system is based on previously deployed high-frequency, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems that have been developed by STL for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Whereas GPR technology utilizes microwave radio frequency energy to create subsurface images, MTVR is a variation for which the medium is concrete instead of soil. The purpose is to nondestructively verify the placement of concrete-reinforcing materials, pipes, inner liners, and other attributes of the internal construction. The MIVR system underwent an initial field test on CANDU reactor spent fuel storage canisters at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada, in October 1995. A second field test at the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant in Embalse, Argentina, was completed in May 1996. The DOE GPR also was demonstrated at the site. Data collection and analysis were performed for the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN). IAEA and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Control and Accounting of Nuclear Material (ABACC) personnel were present as observers during the test. Reinforcing materials were evident in the color, two-dimensional images produced by the MIVR system. A continuous pattern of reinforcing bars was evident and accurate estimates on the spacing, depth, and size were made. The potential uses for safeguard applications were jointly discussed. The MIVR system, as successfully demonstrated in the two field tests, can be used as a design verification tool for IAEA safeguards. A deployment of MIVR for Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ

  15. Air and spaceborne radar systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lacomme, Philippe; Hardange, Jean-Philippe; Normant, Eric

    2001-01-01

    A practical tool on radar systems that will be of major help to technicians, student engineers and engineers working in industry and in radar research and development. The many users of radar as well as systems engineers and designers will also find it highly useful. Also of interest to pilots and flight engineers and military command personnel and military contractors. """"This introduction to the field of radar is intended for actual users of radar. It focuses on the history, main principles, functions, modes, properties and specific nature of modern airborne radar. The book examines radar's

  16. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  17. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  18. How spatial and temporal rainfall variability affect runoff across basin scales: insights from field observations in the (semi-)urbanised Charlotte watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Smith, J. A.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of rainfall variability on runoff response are highly scale-dependent. Sensitivity analyses based on hydrological model simulations have shown that impacts are likely to depend on combinations of storm type, basin versus storm scale, temporal versus spatial rainfall variability. So far, few of these conclusions have been confirmed on observational grounds, since high quality datasets of spatially variable rainfall and runoff over prolonged periods are rare. Here we investigate relationships between rainfall variability and runoff response based on 30 years of radar-rainfall datasets and flow measurements for 16 hydrological basins ranging from 7 to 111 km2. Basins vary not only in scale, but also in their degree of urbanisation. We investigated temporal and spatial variability characteristics of rainfall fields across a range of spatial and temporal scales to identify main drivers for variability in runoff response. We identified 3 ranges of basin size with different temporal versus spatial rainfall variability characteristics. Total rainfall volume proved to be the dominant agent determining runoff response at all basin scales, independent of their degree of urbanisation. Peak rainfall intensity and storm core volume are of secondary importance. This applies to all runoff parameters, including runoff volume, runoff peak, volume-to-peak and lag time. Position and movement of the storm with respect to the basin have a negligible influence on runoff response, with the exception of lag times in some of the larger basins. This highlights the importance of accuracy in rainfall estimation: getting the position right but the volume wrong will inevitably lead to large errors in runoff prediction. Our study helps to identify conditions where rainfall variability matters for correct estimation of the rainfall volume as well as the associated runoff response.

  19. Analysis of 35 GHz Cloud Radar polarimetric variables to identify stratiform and convective precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel; Illingworth, Anthony, J.; Stein, Thorwald

    2017-04-01

    This study is performed using vertical profiles of radar measurements at 35GHz, for the period going from 29th of February to 1rst October 2016, at the Chilbolton observatory in United Kingdom. During this period, more than 40 days with precipitation events are investigated. The investigation uses the synergy of radar reflectivity factors, vertical velocity, Doppler spectrum width, and linear depolarization ratio (LDR) to differentiate between stratiform and convective rain events. The depth of the layer with Doppler spectrum width values greater than 0.5 m s-1 is shown to be a suitable proxy to distinguish between convective and stratiform events. Using LDR to detect the radar bright band, bright band characteristics such as depth of the layer and maximum LDR are shown to vary with the amount of turbulence aloft. Profiles of radar measurements are also compared to rain gauge measurements to study the contribution of convective and stratiform rainfall to total rain duration and amount. To conclude, this study points out differences between convective and stratiform rains and quantifies their contributions over a precipitation event, highlighting that convective and stratiform rainfall should be considered as a continuum rather than a dichotomy.

  20. Assessment of probabilistic areal reduction factors of precipitations for the entire French territory with gridded rainfall data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchier, Catherine; Maire, Alexis; Arnaud, Patrick; Cantet, Philippe; Odry, Jean

    2016-04-01

    ., Bouvier C. and Lavabre J. (2003). Areal reduction factor probabilities for rainfall in Languedoc Roussillon. IAHS-AISH Publication (278): 276-283. Omolayo, A. S. (1993). On the transposition of areal reduction factors for rainfall frequency estimation. Journal of Hydrology 145 (1-2): 191-205. Overeem A., Buishand T. A., Holleman I. and Uijlenhoet R. (2010). Extreme value modeling of areal rainfall from weather radar. Water Resources Research 46(9): 10 p. Ramos M.-H., Leblois E., Creutin J.-D. (2006). From point to areal rainfall: Linking the different approaches for the frequency characterisation of rainfalls in urban areas. Water Science and Technology. 54(6-7): 33-40. Tabary P., Dupuy P., L'Henaff G., Gueguen C., Moulin L., Laurantin O., Merlier C., Soubeyroux J. M. (2012). A 10-year (1997-2006) reanalysis of Quantitative Precipitation Estimation over France: methodology and first results. IAHS-AISH Publication (351) : 255-260. Vidal J.-P., Martin E., Franchistéguy L., Baillon M. and Soubeyroux J.-M. (2010). A 50-year high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis over France with the Safran system. International Journal of Climatology 30(11): 1627-1644.

  1. Radar spectrum opportunities for cognitive communications transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; McGeehan, JP; Williams, C; Doufexi, A

    2008-01-01

    In relation to opportunistic access to radar spectrum, the impact of the radar on a communication system is investigated in this paper. This paper illustrates that by exploring the spatial and temporal opportunities in the radar spectrum and therefore improving the tolerance level to radar interference, a substantial increase on the throughput of a communication system is possible. Results are presented regarding the impact of swept radars on a WiMAX system. The results show the impact of SIR...

  2. An Updated TRMM Composite Climatology of Tropical Rainfall and Its Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Jian; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David

    2013-01-01

    An updated 15-yr Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) composite climatology (TCC) is presented and evaluated. This climatology is based on a combination of individual rainfall estimates made with data from the primaryTRMMinstruments: theTRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the precipitation radar (PR). This combination climatology of passive microwave retrievals, radar-based retrievals, and an algorithm using both instruments simultaneously provides a consensus TRMM-based estimate of mean precipitation. The dispersion of the three estimates, as indicated by the standard deviation sigma among the estimates, is presented as a measure of confidence in the final estimate and as an estimate of the uncertainty thereof. The procedures utilized by the compositing technique, including adjustments and quality-control measures, are described. The results give a mean value of the TCC of 4.3mm day(exp -1) for the deep tropical ocean beltbetween 10 deg N and 10 deg S, with lower values outside that band. In general, the TCC values confirm ocean estimates from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) analysis, which is based on passive microwave results adjusted for sampling by infrared-based estimates. The pattern of uncertainty estimates shown by sigma is seen to be useful to indicate variations in confidence. Examples include differences between the eastern and western portions of the Pacific Ocean and high values in coastal and mountainous areas. Comparison of the TCC values (and the input products) to gauge analyses over land indicates the value of the radar-based estimates (small biases) and the limitations of the passive microwave algorithm (relatively large biases). Comparison with surface gauge information from western Pacific Ocean atolls shows a negative bias (16%) for all the TRMM products, although the representativeness of the atoll gauges of open-ocean rainfall is still in question.

  3. Radar adjusted data versus modelled precipitation: a case study over Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casaioli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European VOLTAIRE project (Fifth Framework Programme, simulations of relatively heavy precipitation events, which occurred over the island of Cyprus, by means of numerical atmospheric models were performed. One of the aims of the project was indeed the comparison of modelled rainfall fields with multi-sensor observations. Thus, for the 5 March 2003 event, the 24-h accumulated precipitation BOlogna Limited Area Model (BOLAM forecast was compared with the available observations reconstructed from ground-based radar data and estimated by rain gauge data. Since radar data may be affected by errors depending on the distance from the radar, these data could be range-adjusted by using other sensors. In this case, the Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite was used to adjust the ground-based radar data with a two-parameter scheme. Thus, in this work, two observational fields were employed: the rain gauge gridded analysis and the observational analysis obtained by merging the range-adjusted radar and rain gauge fields. In order to verify the modelled precipitation, both non-parametric skill scores and the contiguous rain area (CRA analysis were applied. Skill score results show some differences when using the two observational fields. CRA results are instead quite in agreement, showing that in general a 0.27° eastward shift optimizes the forecast with respect to the two observational analyses. This result is also supported by a subjective inspection of the shifted forecast field, whose gross features agree with the analysis pattern more than the non-shifted forecast one. However, some open questions, especially regarding the effect of other range adjustment techniques, remain open and need to be addressed in future works.

  4. Nearshore Processes, Currents and Directional Wave Spectra Monitoring Using Coherent and Non-coherent Imaging Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizna, D.; Hathaway, K.

    2007-05-01

    Two new radar systems have been developed for real-time measurement of near-shore processes, and results are presented for measurements of ocean wave spectra, near-shore sand bar structure, and ocean currents. The first is a non-coherent radar based on a modified version of the Sitex radar family, with a data acquisition system designed around an ISR digital receiver card. The card operates in a PC computer with inputs from a Sitex radar modified for extraction of analogue signals for digitization. Using a 9' antenna and 25 kW transmit power system, data were collected during 2007 at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC during winter and spring of 2007. The directional wave spectrum measurements made are based on using a sequence of 64 to 640 antenna rotations to form a snapshot series of radar images of propagating waves. A square window is extracted from each image, typically 64 x 64 pixels at 3-m resolution. Then ten sets of 64 windows are submitted to a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform process to generate radar image spectra in the frequency-wavenumber space. The relation between the radar image spectral intensity and wave spectral intensity derived from the FRF pressure gauge array was used for a test set of data, in order to establish a modulation transfer function (MTF) for each frequency component. For 640 rotations, 10 of such spectra are averaged for improved statistics. The wave spectrum so generated was compared for extended data sets beyond those used to establish the MTF, and those results are presented here. Some differences between the radar and pressure sensor data that are observed are found to be due to the influence of the wind field, as the radar echo image weakens for light winds. A model is developed to account for such an effect to improve the radar estimate of the directional wave spectrum. The radar ocean wave imagery is severely influenced only by extremely heavy rain-fall rates, so that

  5. Feasibility Study on the Satellite Rainfall Data for Prediction of Sediment- Related Disaster by the Japanese Prediction Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Osanai, N.; Okazumi, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the sediment-related disaster prediction method which based ground gauged rainfall-data, currently practiced in Japan was coupled with satellite rainfall data and applied to domestic large-scale sediment-related disasters. The study confirmed the feasibility of this integrated method. In Asia, large-scale sediment-related disasters which can sweep away an entire settlement occur frequently. Leyte Island suffered from a huge landslide in 2004, and Typhoon Molakot in 2009 caused huge landslides in Taiwan. In the event of these sediment-related disasters, immediate responses by central and local governments are crucial in crisis management. In general, there are not enough rainfall gauge stations in developing countries. Therefore national and local governments have little information to determine the risk level of water induced disasters in their service areas. In the Japanese methodology, a criterion is set by combining two indices: the short-term rainfall index and long-term rainfall index. The short-term rainfall index is defined as the 60-minute total rainfall; the long-term rainfall index as the soil-water index, which is an estimation of the retention status of fallen rainfall in soil. In July 2009, a high-density sediment related disaster, or a debris flow, occurred in Hofu City of Yamaguchi Prefecture, in the western region of Japan. This event was calculated by the Japanese standard methodology, and then analyzed for its feasibility. Hourly satellite based rainfall has underestimates compared with ground based rainfall data. Long-term index correlates with each other. Therefore, this study confirmed that it is possible to deliver information on the risk level of sediment-related disasters such as shallow landslides and debris flows. The prediction method tested in this study is expected to assist for timely emergency responses to rainfall-induced natural disasters in sparsely gauged areas. As the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Plan

  6. Transfer of spatio-temporal multifractal properties of rainfall to simulated surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Richard, Julien; Abbes, Jean-Baptiste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Willinger, Bernard; Cardinal, Hervé; Thouvenot, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we suggest to use scaling laws and more specifically Universal Multifractals (UM) to analyse in a spatio-temporal framework both the radar rainfall and the simulated surface runoff. Such tools have been extensively used to analyse and simulate geophysical fields extremely variable over wide range of spatio-temporal scales such as rainfall, but have not often if ever been applied to surface runoff. Such novel combined analysis helps to improve the understanding of the rainfall-runoff relationship. Two catchments of the chair "Hydrology for resilient cities" sponsored by Véolia, and of the European Interreg IV RainGain project are used. They are both located in the Paris area: a 144 ha flat urban area in the Seine-Saint-Denis County, and a 250 ha urban area with a significant portion of forest located on a steep hillside of the Bièvre River. A fully distributed urban hydrological model currently under development called Multi-Hydro is implemented to represent the catchments response. It consists in an interacting core between open source software packages, each of them representing a portion of the water cycle in urban environment. The fully distributed model is tested with pixels of size 5, 10 and 20 m. In a first step the model is validated for three rainfall events that occurred in 2010 and 2011, for which the Météo-France radar mosaic with a resolution of 1 km in space and 5 min in time is available. These events generated significant surface runoff and some local flooding. The sensitivity of the model to the rainfall resolution is briefly checked by stochastically generating an ensemble of realistic downscaled rainfall fields (obtained by continuing the underlying cascade process which is observed on the available range of scales) and inputting them into the model. The impact is significant on both the simulated sewer flow and surface runoff. Then rainfall fields are generated with the help of discrete multifractal cascades and inputted in the

  7. Local influence of south-east France topography and land cover on the distribution and characteristics of intense rainfall cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Florent

    2017-04-01

    The Greater Lyon area is strongly built up, grouping 58 communes and a population of 1.3 million in approximately 500 km2. The flood risk is high as the territory is crossed by two large watercourses and by streams with torrential flow. Floods may also occur in case of runoff after heavy rain or because of a rise in the groundwater level. The whole territory can therefore be affected, and it is necessary to possess in-depth knowledge of the depths, causes and consequences of rainfall to achieve better management of precipitation in urban areas and to reduce flood risk. This study is thus focused on the effects of topography and land cover on the occurrence, intensity and area of intense rainfall cells. They are identified by local radar meteorology (C-band) combined with a processing algorithm running in a geographic information system (GIS) which identified 109,979 weighted mean centres of them in a sample composed of the five most intense rainfall events from 2001 to 2005. First, analysis of spatial distribution at an overall scale is performed, completed by study at a more detailed scale. The results show that the distribution of high-intensity rainfall cells is spread in cluster form. Subsequently, comparison of intense rainfall cells with the topography shows that cell density is closely linked with land slope but that, above all, urbanised zones feature nearly twice as many rainfall cells as farm land or forest, with more intense intensity.

  8. Identification and uncertainty estimation of vertical reflectivity profiles using a Lagrangian approach to support quantitative precipitation measurements by weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Delrieu, G.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to estimate the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) from volumetric weather radar data using both a traditional Eulerian as well as a newly proposed Lagrangian implementation. For this latter implementation, the recently developed Rotational Carpenter Square Cluster Algorithm (RoCaSCA) is used to delineate precipitation regions at different reflectivity levels. A piecewise linear VPR is estimated for either stratiform or neither stratiform/convective precipitation. As a second aspect of this paper, a novel approach is presented which is able to account for the impact of VPR uncertainty on the estimated radar rainfall variability. Results show that implementation of the VPR identification and correction procedure has a positive impact on quantitative precipitation estimates from radar. Unfortunately, visibility problems severely limit the impact of the Lagrangian implementation beyond distances of 100 km. However, by combining this procedure with the global Eulerian VPR estimation procedure for a given rainfall type (stratiform and neither stratiform/convective), the quality of the quantitative precipitation estimates increases up to a distance of 150 km. Analyses of the impact of VPR uncertainty shows that this aspect accounts for a large fraction of the differences between weather radar rainfall estimates and rain gauge measurements.

  9. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  10. The all-year rainfall region of South Africa: Satellite rainfall-estimate perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate predictability and variability studies over South Africa typically focus on the summer rainfall region and to a lesser extent on the winter rainfall region. The all-year rainfall region of South Africa, a narrow strip located along the Cape...

  11. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  12. A probabilistic approach of the Flash Flood Early Warning System (FF-EWS) in Catalonia based on radar ensemble generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, David; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Corral, Carles; Llort, Xavier; Velasco, Enrique

    2010-05-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are commonly identified as the most efficient tools in order to improve the preparedness and risk management against heavy rains and Flash Floods (FF) with the objective of reducing economical losses and human casualties. In particular, flash floods affecting torrential Mediterranean catchments are a key element to be incorporated within operational EWSs. The characteristic high spatial and temporal variability of the storms requires high-resolution data and methods to monitor/forecast the evolution of rainfall and its hydrological impact in small and medium torrential basins. A first version of an operational FF-EWS has been implemented in Catalonia (NE Spain) under the name of EHIMI system (Integrated Tool for Hydrometeorological Forecasting) with the support of the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) and the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC). Flash flood warnings are issued based on radar-rainfall estimates. Rainfall estimation is performed on radar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution (1km2 and 10 minutes) in order to adapt the warning scale to the 1-km grid of the EWS. The method is based on comparing observed accumulated rainfall against rainfall thresholds provided by the regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. The so-called "aggregated rainfall warning" at every river cell is obtained as the spatially averaged rainfall over its associated upstream draining area. Regarding the time aggregation of rainfall, the critical duration is thought to be an accumulation period similar to the concentration time of each cachtment. The warning is issued once the forecasted rainfall accumulation exceeds the rainfall thresholds mentioned above, which are associated to certain probability of occurrence. Finally, the hazard warning is provided and shown to the decision-maker in terms of exceeded return periods at every river cell covering the whole area of Catalonia. The objective of the present work includes the

  13. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  14. Analysis and simulation of mesoscale convective systems accompanying heavy rainfall: The goyang case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Young; Ha, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    2011-05-01

    We investigated a torrential rainfall case with a daily rainfall amount of 379 mm and a maximum hourly rain rate of 77.5 mm that took place on 12 July 2006 at Goyang in the middlewestern part of the Korean Peninsula. The heavy rainfall was responsible for flash flooding and was highly localized. High-resolution Doppler radar data from 5 radar sites located over central Korea were analyzed. Numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were also performed to complement the high-resolution observations and to further investigate the thermodynamic structure and development of the convective system. The grid nudging method using the Global Final (FNL) Analyses data was applied to the coarse model domain (30 km) in order to provide a more realistic and desirable initial and boundary conditions for the nested model domains (10 km, 3.3 km). The mesoscale convective system (MCS) which caused flash flooding was initiated by the strong low level jet (LLJ) at the frontal region of high equivalent potential temperature (θe) near the west coast over the Yellow Sea. The ascending of the warm and moist air was induced dynamically by the LLJ. The convective cells were triggered by small thermal perturbations and abruptly developed by the warm θe inflow. Within the MCS, several convective cells responsible for the rainfall peak at Goyang simultaneously developed with neighboring cells and interacted with each other. Moist absolutely unstable layers (MAULs) were seen at the lower troposphere with the very moist environment adding the instability for the development of the MCS.

  15. Coupling X-band dual-polarized mini-radars and hydro-meteorological forecast models: the HYDRORAD project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picciotti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-meteorological hazards like convective outbreaks leading to torrential rain and floods are among the most critical environmental issues world-wide. In that context weather radar observations have proven to be very useful in providing information on the spatial distribution of rainfall that can support early warning of floods. However, quantitative precipitation estimation by radar is subjected to many limitations and uncertainties. The use of dual-polarization at high frequency (i.e. X-band has proven particularly useful for mitigating some of the limitation of operational systems, by exploiting the benefit of easiness to transport and deploy and the high spatial and temporal resolution achievable at small antenna sizes. New developments on X-band dual-polarization technology in recent years have received the interest of scientific and operational communities in these systems. New enterprises are focusing on the advancement of cost-efficient mini-radar network technology, based on high-frequency (mainly X-band and low-power weather radar systems for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological forecasting. Within the above context, the main objective of the HYDRORAD project was the development of an innovative mbox{integrated} decision support tool for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological applications. The integrated system tool is based on a polarimetric X-band mini-radar network which is the core of the decision support tool, a novel radar products generator and a hydro-meteorological forecast modelling system that ingests mini-radar rainfall products to forecast precipitation and floods. The radar products generator includes algorithms for attenuation correction, hydrometeor classification, a vertical profile reflectivity correction, a new polarimetric rainfall estimators developed for mini-radar observations, and short-term nowcasting of convective cells. The hydro-meteorological modelling system includes the Mesoscale Model 5

  16. Multifractal analysis of different hydrological products of X-band radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouri-Plakali, Ilektra; Da Silva Rocha Paz, Igor; Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall is widely considered as the hydrological process that triggers all the others. Its accurate measurements are crucial especially when they are used afterwards for the hydrological modeling of urban and peri-urban catchments for decision-making. Rainfall is a complex process and is scale dependent in space and time. Hence a high spatial and temporal resolution of the data is more appropriate for urban modeling. Therefore, a great interest of high-resolution measurements of precipitation in space and time is manifested. Radar technologies have not stopped evolving since their first appearance about the mid-twentieth. Indeed, the turning point work by Marshall-Palmer (1948) has established the Z - R power-law relation that has been widely used, with major scientific efforts being devoted to find "the best choice" of the two associated parameters. Nowadays X-band radars, being provided with dual-polarization and Doppler means, offer more accurate data of higher resolution. The fact that drops are oblate induces a differential phase shift between the two polarizations. The quantity most commonly used for the rainfall rate computation is actually the specific differential phase shift, which is the gradient of the differential phase shift along the radial beam direction. It is even stronger correlated to the rain rate R than reflectivity Z. Hence the rain rate can be computed with a different power-law relation, which again depends on only two parameters. Furthermore, an attenuation correction is needed to adjust the loss of radar energy due to the absorption and scattering as it passes through the atmosphere. Due to natural variations of reflectivity with altitude, vertical profile of reflectivity should be corrected as well. There are some other typical radar data filtering procedures, all resulting in various hydrological products. In this work, we use the Universal Multifractal framework to analyze and to inter-compare different products of X-band radar

  17. The Spatial Scaling of Global Rainfall Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devineni, N.; Xi, C.; Lall, U.; Rahill-Marier, B.

    2013-12-01

    Floods associated with severe storms are a significant source of risk for property, life and supply chains. These property losses tend to be determined as much by the duration of flooding as by the depth and velocity of inundation. High duration floods are typically induced by persistent rainfall (upto 30 day duration) as seen recently in Thailand, Pakistan, the Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers, France, and Germany. Events related to persistent and recurrent rainfall appear to correspond to the persistence of specific global climate patterns that may be identifiable from global, historical data fields, and also from climate models that project future conditions. A clear understanding of the space-time rainfall patterns for events or for a season will enable in assessing the spatial distribution of areas likely to have a high/low inundation potential for each type of rainfall forcing. In this paper, we investigate the statistical properties of the spatial manifestation of the rainfall exceedances. We also investigate the connection of persistent rainfall events at different latitudinal bands to large-scale climate phenomena such as ENSO. Finally, we present the scaling phenomena of contiguous flooded areas as a result of large scale organization of long duration rainfall events. This can be used for spatially distributed flood risk assessment conditional on a particular rainfall scenario. Statistical models for spatio-temporal loss simulation including model uncertainty to support regional and portfolio analysis can be developed.

  18. Relationship between rainfall and microbiological contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreaks of contamination events in many developing countries occur during periods of peak rainfall. This study presents evidence of direct pulse response of shallow groundwater contamination events to rainfall in Northern Mozambique. The objective of the paper is to establish both a statistical relationship between ...

  19. Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Chu (Lan-Fen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-C. Chang (Ching-Chung)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 are modelled for 18 stations in Taiwan. We fit the rainfall data with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions (GEV), and estimate their future behaviour based on the best fitting model.

  20. Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chu (LanFen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-H. Chang (Chu-Hsiang)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 are modelled for 18 stations in Taiwan. We fit the rainfall data with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions (GEV), and estimate their future behaviour based on the best fitting model.

  1. Rainfall and Development of Zika Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... between rainfall and incidence of arbovirus disease such as dengue is well demonstrated (2). For Zika virus an infection, a similar observation can be expected. A recent report from Thailand can also show the expected pattern of the prevalence of Zika virus infection in the areas with high rainfall (3).

  2. Developing empirical relationship between interrill erosion, rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to develop an empirical relationship for interrill erosion based on rainfall intensity, slope steepness and soil types, an interrill erosion experiment was conducted using laboratory rainfall simulator on three soil types (Vertisols, Cambisols and Leptosols) for the highlands of North Shewa Zone of Oromia Region.

  3. Spatial variability and rainfall characteristics of Kerala

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Geographical regions of covariability in precipitation over the Kerala state are exposed using factor analysis. The results suggest that Kerala can be divided into three unique rainfall regions, each region having a similar covariance structure of annual rainfall. Stations north of 10◦N (north. Kerala) fall into one group and they ...

  4. Radar Observations of Convective Systems from a High-Altitude Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, G.; Geerts, B.; Tian, L.

    1999-01-01

    Reflectivity data collected by the precipitation radar on board the tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, orbiting at 350 km altitude, are compared to reflectivity data collected nearly simultaneously by a doppler radar aboard the NASA ER-2 flying at 19-20 km altitude, i.e. above even the deepest convection. The TRMM precipitation radar is a scanning device with a ground swath width of 215 km, and has a resolution of about a4.4 km in the horizontal and 250 m in the vertical (125 m in the core swath 48 km wide). The TRMM radar has a wavelength of 217 cm (13.8 GHz) and the Nadir mirror echo below the surface is used to correct reflectivity for loss by attenuation. The ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) has two antennas, one pointing to the nadir, 34 degrees forward. The forward pointing beam receives both the normal and the cross-polarized echos, so the linear polarization ratio field can be monitored. EDOP has a wavelength of 3.12 cm (9.6 GHz), a vertical resolution of 37.5 m and a horizontal along-track resolution of about 100 m. The 2-D along track airflow field can be synthesized from the radial velocities of both beams, if a reflectivity-based hydrometer fall speed relation can be assumed. It is primarily the superb vertical resolution that distinguishes EDOP from other ground-based or airborne radars. Two experiments were conducted during 1998 into validate TRMM reflectivity data over convection and convectively-generated stratiform precipitation regions. The Teflun-A (TEXAS-Florida Underflight) experiment, was conducted in April and May and focused on mesoscale convective systems mainly in southeast Texas. TEFLUN-B was conducted in August-September in central Florida, in coordination with CAMEX-3 (Convection and Moisture Experiment). The latter was focused on hurricanes, especially during landfall, whereas TEFLUN-B concentrated on central; Florida convection, which is largely driven and organized by surface heating and ensuing sea breeze circulations

  5. The Perception of Time Is Underestimated in Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo M. Vicario

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has revealed reduced temporal discounting (i.e., increased capacity to delay reward and altered interoceptive awareness in anorexia nervosa (AN. In line with the research linking temporal underestimation with a reduced tendency to devalue a reward and reduced interoceptive awareness, we tested the hypothesis that time duration might be underestimated in AN. Our findings revealed that patients with AN displayed lower timing accuracy in the form of timing underestimation compared with controls. These results were not predicted by clinical, demographic factors, attention, and working memory performance of the participants. The evidence of a temporal underestimation bias in AN might be clinically relevant to explain their abnormal motivation in pursuing a long-term restrictive diet, in line with the evidence that increasing the subjective temporal proximity of remote future goals can boost motivation and the actual behavior to reach them.

  6. Stress Underestimation and Mental Health Outcomes in Male Japanese Workers: a 1-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Yamada, Kosuke Chris

    2016-12-01

    Being appropriately aware of the extent of stress experienced in daily life is essential in motivating stress management behaviours. Excessive stress underestimation obstructs this process, which is expected to exert adverse effects on health. We prospectively examined associations between stress underestimation and mental health outcomes in Japanese workers. Web-based surveys were conducted twice with an interval of 1 year on 2359 Japanese male workers. Participants were asked to complete survey items concerning stress underestimation, depressive symptoms, sickness absence, and antidepressant use. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high baseline levels of 'overgeneralization of stress' and 'insensitivity to stress' were significantly associated with new-onset depressive symptoms (OR = 2.66 [95 % CI, 1.54-4.59], p stress underestimation, including stress insensitivity and the overgeneralization of stress, could exert adverse effects on mental health.

  7. The Perception of Time Is Underestimated in Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Felmingham, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Research has revealed reduced temporal discounting (i.e., increased capacity to delay reward) and altered interoceptive awareness in anorexia nervosa (AN). In line with the research linking temporal underestimation with a reduced tendency to devalue a reward and reduced interoceptive awareness, we tested the hypothesis that time duration might be underestimated in AN. Our findings revealed that patients with AN displayed lower timing accuracy in the form of timing underestimation compared with controls. These results were not predicted by clinical, demographic factors, attention, and working memory performance of the participants. The evidence of a temporal underestimation bias in AN might be clinically relevant to explain their abnormal motivation in pursuing a long-term restrictive diet, in line with the evidence that increasing the subjective temporal proximity of remote future goals can boost motivation and the actual behavior to reach them.

  8. Automated Volumetric Mammographic Breast Density Measurements May Underestimate Percent Breast Density for High-density Breasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahbar, K.; Gubern Merida, A.; Patrie, J.T.; Harvey, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate discrepancy in breast composition measurements obtained from mammograms using two commercially available software methods for systematic trends in overestimation or underestimation compared to magnetic resonance-derived

  9. Weather radar performance monitoring using a metallic-grid ground-scatterer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconi, Marta Tecla; Montopoli, Mario; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca

    2017-10-01

    The use of ground return signals is investigated for checks on the calibration of power measurements of a polarimetric C-band radar. To this aim, a peculiar permanent single scatterer (PSS) consisting of a big metallic roof with a periodic mesh grid structure and having a hemisphere-like shape is considered. The latter is positioned in the near-field region of the weather radar and its use, as a reference calibrator, shows fairly good results in terms of reflectivity and differential reflectivity monitoring. In addition, the use of PSS indirectly allows to check for the radar antenna de-pointing which is another issue usually underestimated when dealing with weather radars. Because of the periodic structure of the considered PSS, simulations of its electromagnetic behavior were relatively easy to perform. To this goal, we used an electromagnetic Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) with an ad-hoc numerical implementation of a full-wave solution to model our PSS in terms of reflectivity and differential reflectivity factor. Comparison of model results and experimental measurements are then shown in this work. Our preliminary investigation can pave the way for future studies aiming at characterizing ground-clutter returns in a more accurate way for radar calibration purposes.

  10. Reducing Surface Clutter in Cloud Profiling Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Pak, Kyung; Durden, Stephen; Im, Eastwood

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm has been devised to reduce ground clutter in the data products of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), which is a nadir-looking radar instrument, in orbit around the Earth, that measures power backscattered by clouds as a function of distance from the instrument. Ground clutter contaminates the CPR data in the lowest 1 km of the atmospheric profile, heretofore making it impossible to use CPR data to satisfy the scientific interest in studying clouds and light rainfall at low altitude. The algorithm is based partly on the fact that the CloudSat orbit is such that the geodetic altitude of the CPR varies continuously over a range of approximately 25 km. As the geodetic altitude changes, the radar timing parameters are changed at intervals defined by flight software in order to keep the troposphere inside a data-collection time window. However, within each interval, the surface of the Earth continuously "scans through" (that is, it moves across) a few range bins of the data time window. For each radar profile, only few samples [one for every range-bin increment ((Delta)r = 240 m)] of the surface-clutter signature are available around the range bin in which the peak of surface return is observed, but samples in consecutive radar profiles are offset slightly (by amounts much less than (Delta)r) with respect to each other according to the relative change in geodetic altitude. As a consequence, in a case in which the surface area under examination is homogenous (e.g., an ocean surface), a sequence of consecutive radar profiles of the surface in that area contains samples of the surface response with range resolution (Delta)p much finer than the range-bin increment ((Delta)p 10 dB and a reduction of the contaminated altitude over ocean from about 1 km to about 0.5 km (over the ocean). The algorithm has been embedded in CloudSat L1B processing as of Release 04 (July 2007), and the estimated flat surface clutter is removed in L2B-GEOPROF product from the

  11. Stress underestimation and mental health literacy of depression in Japanese workers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Izawa, Shuhei; Yamada, Kosuke Chris

    2018-04-01

    Appropriately estimating stress levels in daily life is important for motivating people to undertake stress-management behaviors or seek out information on stress management and mental health. People who exhibit high stress underestimation might not be interested in information on mental health, and would therefore have less knowledge of it. We investigated the association between stress underestimation tendency and mental health literacy of depression (i.e., knowledge of the recognition, prognosis, and usefulness of resources of depression) in Japanese workers. We cross-sectionally surveyed 3718 Japanese workers using a web-based questionnaire on stress underestimation, mental health literacy of depression (vignettes on people with depression), and covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, income, and worksite size). After adjusting for covariates, high stress underestimation was associated with greater odds of not recognizing depression (i.e., choosing anything other than depression). Furthermore, these individuals had greater odds of expecting the case to improve without treatment and not selecting useful sources of support (e.g. talk over with friends/family, see a psychiatrist, take medication, see a counselor) compared to those with moderate stress underestimation. These relationships were all stronger among males than among females. Stress underestimation was related to poorer mental health literacy of depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in rainfall and rainfall-related extremes in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayowa, Olaniya Olusegun; Pour, Sahar Hadi; Shahid, Shamsuddin; Mohsenipour, Morteza; Harun, Sobri Bin; Heryansyah, Arien; Ismail, Tarmizi

    2015-12-01

    The coastlines have been identified as the most vulnerable regions with respect to hydrological hazards as a result of climate change and variability. The east of peninsular Malaysia is not an exception for this, considering the evidence of heavy rainfall resulting in floods as an annual phenomenon and also water scarcity due to long dry spells in the region. This study examines recent trends in rainfall and rainfall- related extremes such as, maximum daily rainfall, number of rainy days, average rainfall intensity, heavy rainfall days, extreme rainfall days, and precipitation concentration index in the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. Recent 40 years (1971-2010) rainfall records from 54 stations along the east coast of peninsular Malaysia have been analyzed using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and the Sen's slope method. The Monte Carlo simulation technique has been used to determine the field significance of the regional trends. The results showed that there was a substantial increase in the annual rainfall as well as the rainfall during the monsoon period. Also, there was an increase in the number of heavy rainfall days during the past four decades.

  13. Mechanism of shallow disrupted slide induced by extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, O.; Fukuoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    On July 16, 2010, extreme rainfall attacked western Japan and it caused very intense rainfall in Shobara city, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan. This rainfall induced hundreds of shallow disrupted slides and many of those became debris flows. One of this debris flows attacked a house standing in front of the exit of a channel, and claimed a resident’s life. Western Japan had repeatedly similar disasters in the past. Last event took place from July 19 to 26, 2009, when western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes. Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. One of the unusual feature of both disaster was that landslides are distributed in very narrow area. In the 2010 Shobara city disaster, all of the landslides were distributed in 5 km x 3 km, and in the 2009 Hofu city disaster, most devastated zone of landslides were 10 km x 5 km. Rain radars of Meteorological Agency of Government of Japan detected the intense rainfall, however, the spatial resolution is usually larger than 5 km and the disaster area is too small to predict landslides nor issue warning. Furthermore, it was found that the growth rate of baby clouds was very quick. The geology of both areas are rhyolite (Shobara) and granite (Hofu), so the areal assessment of landslide hazard should be prepared before those intense rainfall will come. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called “masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except

  14. Rainfall height stochastic modelling as a support tool for landslides early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capparelli, G.; Giorgio, M.; Greco, R.; Versace, P.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of landslides is uneasy to predict, since it is affected by a number of variables, such as mechanical and hydraulic soil properties, slope morphology, vegetation coverage, rainfall spatial and temporal variability. Although heavy landslides frequently occurred in Campania, southern Italy, during the last decade, no complete data sets are available for natural slopes where landslides occurred. As a consequence, landslide risk assessment procedures and early warning systems in Campania still rely on simple empirical models based on correlation between daily rainfall records and observed landslides, like FLAIR model [Versace et al., 2003]. Effectiveness of such systems could be improved by reliable quantitative rainfall prediction. In mountainous areas, rainfall spatial and temporal variability are very pronounced due to orographic effects, making predictions even more complicated. Existing rain gauge networks are not dense enough to resolve the small scale spatial variability, and the same limitation of spatial resolution affects rainfall height maps provided by radar sensors as well as by meteorological physically based models. Therefore, analysis of on-site recorded rainfall height time series still represents the most effective approach for a reliable prediction of local temporal evolution of rainfall. Hydrological time series analysis is a widely studied field in hydrology, often carried out by means of autoregressive models, such as AR and ARMA [Box and Jenkins, 1976]. Sometimes exogenous information coming from additional series of observations is also taken into account, and the models are called ARX and ARMAX (e.g. Salas [1992]). Such models gave the best results when applied to the analysis of autocorrelated hydrological time series, like river flow or level time series. Conversely, they are not able to model the behaviour of intermittent time series, like point rainfall height series usually are, especially when recorded with short sampling time

  15. Historical and future seasonal rainfall variability in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Indonesia: Implications for the agriculture and water sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi G.C. Kirono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts are most likely to be felt by resource-dependent communities, and consequently locally-relevant data are necessary to inform livelihood adaptation planning. This paper presents information for historical and future seasonal rainfall variability in Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB Province, Indonesia, where rural livelihoods are highly vulnerable to current climate variability and future change. Historical rainfall variability is investigated using observational data from two stations located on the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa. Future rainfall is examined using an ensemble of six downscaled climate model simulations at a spatial resolution of 14 km for 1971–2100, applying the IPCC SRES-A2 ‘Business as Usual’ emissions scenario, and the six original global climate models (GCMs. Analyses of the observed seasonal rainfall data highlight cyclical variability and long-term declines. The observed periodicities are of about 2–4, 5, 8, 11, and 40–50 years. Furthermore, dry season rainfall is significantly correlated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, while wet season rainfall is weakly correlated with ENSO. The simulated rainfall data reproduce the observed seasonal cycle very well, but overestimate the magnitude of rainfall and underestimate inter-annual rainfall variability. The models also show that the observed rainfall periodicities will continue throughout the 21st century. The models project that rainfall will decline, although with wide ranges of uncertainty, depending on season and location. Crop water demand estimates show that the projected changes will potentially impact the first growing period for rice during November–March. Rainfall may also be insufficient to meet water demand for many crops in the second growing period of March–June, when high value commodities such as chillies and tobacco are produced. The results reinforce the importance to consider all uncertainties when utilizing climate

  16. Constraining relationships between rainfall and landsliding with satellite derived rainfall measurements and landslide inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Odin; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Stumpf, Andre; Gosset, Marielle

    2017-04-01

    In mountainous and hilly regions, landslides are an important source of damage and fatalities. Landsliding correlates with extreme rainfall events and may increase with climate change. Still, how precipitation drives landsliding at regional scales is poorly understood quantitatively in part because constraining simultaneously landsliding and rainfall across large areas is challenging. By combining optical images acquired from satellite observation platforms and rainfall measurements from satellite constellations we are building a database of landslide events caused by with single storm events. We present results from storm-induced landslides from Brazil, Taiwan, Micronesia, Central America, Europe and the USA. We present scaling laws between rainfall metrics derived by satellites (total rainfall, mean intensity, antecedent rainfall, ...) and statistical descriptors of landslide events (total area and volume, size distribution, mean runout, ...). Total rainfall seems to be the most important parameter driving non-linearly the increase in total landslide number, and area and volume. The maximum size of bedrock landslides correlates with the total number of landslides, and thus with total rainfall, within the limits of available topographic relief. In contrast, the power-law scaling exponent of the size distribution, controlling the relative abundance of small and large landslides, appears rather independent of the rainfall metrics (intensity, duration and total rainfall). These scaling laws seem to explain both the intra-storm pattern of landsliding, at the scale of satellite rainfall measurements ( 25kmx25km), and the different impacts observed for various storms. Where possible, we evaluate the limits of standard rainfall products (TRMM, GPM, GSMaP) by comparing them to in-situ data. Then we discuss how slope distribution and other geomorphic factors (lithology, soil presence,...) modulate these scaling laws. Such scaling laws at the basin scale and based only on a

  17. Estimation of Rainfall Erosivity via 1-Minute to Hourly Rainfall Data from Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Yin; Yang, Ssu-Yao; Jan, Chyan-Deng

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a natural process on hillslopes that threats people's life and properties, having a considerable environmental and economic implications for soil degradation, agricultural activity and water quality. The rainfall erosivity factor (R-factor) in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), composed of total kinetic energy (E) and the maximum 30-min rainfall intensity (I30), is widely used as an indicator to measure the potential risks of soil loss caused by rainfall at a regional scale. This R factor can represent the detachment and entrainment involved in climate conditions on hillslopes, but lack of 30-min rainfall intensity data usually lead to apply this factor more difficult in many regions. In recent years, fixed-interval, hourly rainfall data is readily available and widely used due to the development of automatic weather stations. Here we assess the estimations of R, E, and I30 based on 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, 60-minute rainfall data, and hourly rainfall data obtained from Taipei weather station during 2004 to 2010. Results show that there is a strong correlation among R-factors estimated from different interval rainfall data. Moreover, the shorter time-interval rainfall data (e.g., 1-min) yields larger value of R-factor. The conversion factors of rainfall erosivity (ratio of values estimated from the resolution lower than 30-min rainfall data to those estimated from 60-min and hourly rainfall data, respectively) range from 1.85 to 1.40 (resp. from 1.89 to 1.02) for 60-min (resp. hourly) rainfall data as the time resolution increasing from 30-min to 1-min. This paper provides useful information on estimating R-factor when hourly rainfall data is only available.

  18. Verification of the skill of numerical weather prediction models in forecasting rainfall from U.S. landfalling tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Beda; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study is the evaluation of the skill of five state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), UK Met Office (UKMO), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), China Meteorological Administration (CMA), and Canadian Meteorological Center (CMC)] in forecasting rainfall from North Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs). Analyses focus on 15 North Atlantic TCs that made landfall along the U.S. coast over the 2007-2012 period. As reference data we use gridded rainfall provided by the Climate Prediction Center (CPC). We consider forecast lead-times up to five days. To benchmark the skill of these models, we consider rainfall estimates from one radar-based (Stage IV) and four satellite-based [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA, both real-time and research version); Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN); the CPC MORPHing Technique (CMORPH)] rainfall products. Daily and storm total rainfall fields from each of these remote sensing products are compared to the reference data to obtain information about the range of errors we can expect from "observational data." The skill of the NWP models is quantified: (1) by visual examination of the distribution of the errors in storm total rainfall for the different lead-times, and numerical examination of the first three moments of the error distribution; (2) relative to climatology at the daily scale. Considering these skill metrics, we conclude that the NWP models can provide skillful forecasts of TC rainfall with lead-times up to 48 h, without a consistently best or worst NWP model.

  19. Predicting extreme rainfall events over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Impact of data assimilation with conventional and satellite observations

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu

    2015-08-20

    The impact of variational data assimilation for predicting two heavy rainfall events that caused devastating floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. On 25 November 2009 and 26 January 2011, the city was deluged with more than double the annual rainfall amount caused by convective storms. We used a high resolution, two-way nested domain WRF model to simulate the two rainfall episodes. Simulations include control runs initialized with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) data and 3-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) data assimilation experiments conducted by assimilating NCEP prepbufr and radiance observations. Observations from Automated Weather Stations (AWS), synoptic charts, radar reflectivity and satellite pictures from the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia are used to assess the forecasting results. To evaluate the impact of the different assimilated observational datasets on the simulation of the major flooding event of 2009, we conducted 3DVAR experiments assimilating individual sources and a combination of all data sets. Results suggest that while the control run had a tendency to predict the storm earlier than observed, the assimilation of profile observations greatly improved the model\\'s thermodynamic structure and lead to better representation of simulated rainfall both in timing and amount. The experiment with assimilation of all available observations compared best with observed rainfall in terms of timing of the storm and rainfall distribution, demonstrating the importance of assimilating different types of observations. Retrospective experiments with and without data assimilation, for three different model lead times (48, 72 and 96-h), were performed to examine the skill of WRF model to predict the heavy rainfall events. Quantitative rainfall analysis of these simulations suggests that 48-h lead time runs with

  20. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.

    2016-02-01

    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  1. prediction of rainfall in the southern highlands of tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    distribution at different places in the world. A study to ... climate indices influence rainfall. It has been observed .... Table 4: Summary of Predictors entered MLR and PCR models for MAM and OND rainfalls. .... from the cumulus clouds; rainfall is.

  2. Ostrich recruitment dynamics in relation to rainfall in the Mara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ostrich recruitment dynamics in relation to rainfall in the Mara–Serengeti ... To understand how rainfall influences ostriches, we related changes in ostrich recruitment in the Mara–Serengeti ecosystem to rainfall. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Identification of homogeneous regions for rainfall regional frequency analysis considering typhoon event in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Kjeldsen, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    South Korea is prone to large, and often disastrous, rainfall events caused by a mixture of monsoon and typhoon rainfall phenomena. However, traditionally, regional frequency analysis models did not consider this mixture of phenomena when fitting probability distributions, potentially underestimating the risk posed by the more extreme typhoon events. Using long-term observed records of extreme rainfall from 56 sites combined with detailed information on the timing and spatial impact of past typhoons from the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), this study developed and tested a new mixture model for frequency analysis of two different phenomena; events occurring regularly every year (monsoon) and events only occurring in some years (typhoon). The available annual maximum 24 hour rainfall data were divided into two sub-samples corresponding to years where the annual maximum is from either (1) a typhoon event, or (2) a non-typhoon event. Then, three-parameter GEV distribution was fitted to each sub-sample along with a weighting parameter characterizing the proportion of historical events associated with typhoon events. Spatial patterns of model parameters were analyzed and showed that typhoon events are less commonly associated with annual maximum rainfall in the North-West part of the country (Seoul area), and more prevalent in the southern and eastern parts of the country, leading to the formation of two distinct typhoon regions: (1) North-West; and (2) Southern and Eastern. Using a leave-one-out procedure, a new regional frequency model was tested and compared to a more traditional index flood method. The results showed that the impact of typhoon on design events might previously have been underestimated in the Seoul area. This suggests that the use of the mixture model should be preferred where the typhoon phenomena is less frequent, and thus can have a significant effect on the rainfall-frequency curve. This research was supported by a grant(2017-MPSS31

  4. Heavy rainfall equations for Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF relationships of rainfall events is extremely important to determine the dimensions of surface drainage structures and soil erosion control. The purpose of this study was to obtain IDF equations of 13 rain gauge stations in the state of Santa Catarina in Brazil: Chapecó, Urussanga, Campos Novos, Florianópolis, Lages, Caçador, Itajaí, Itá, Ponte Serrada, Porto União, Videira, Laguna and São Joaquim. The daily rainfall data charts of each station were digitized and then the annual maximum rainfall series were determined for durations ranging from 5 to 1440 min. Based on these, with the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall was estimated for durations ranging from 5 min to 24 h, considering return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 100 years,. Data agreement with the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, at 5 % significance level. For each rain gauge station, two IDF equations of rainfall events were adjusted, one for durations from 5 to 120 min and the other from 120 to 1440 min. The results show a high variability in maximum intensity of rainfall events among the studied stations. Highest values of coefficients of variation in the annual maximum series of rainfall were observed for durations of over 600 min at the stations of the coastal region of Santa Catarina.

  5. Borehole radar diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seong Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Tomography is widely used as imaging method for determining subsurface structure. Among the reconstruction algorithms for tomographic imaging, travel time tomography is almost applied to imaging subsurface. But isolated small body comparable with the wavelength could not be well recognized by travel time tomography. Other tomographic method are need to improve the imaging process. In the study of this year, diffraction tomography was investigated. The theory for diffraction tomography is based on the 1st-order Born approximation. Multisource holography, which is similar to Kirchihoff migration, is compared with diffraction tomography. To improve 1st-order Born diffraction tomography, two kinds of filter designed from multisource holography and 2-D green function, respectively, applied on the reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested for the numerical modeling data of which algorithm consists of the analytic computation of radar signal in transmitter and receiver regions and 2-D FDM scheme for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in media. The air-filled cavity model to show a typical diffraction pattern was applied to diffraction tomography imaging, and the result shows accurate location and area of cavity. But the calculated object function is not well matched the real object function, because the air-filled cavity model is not satisfied week scattered inhomogeneity for 1st born approximation, and the error term is included in estimating source wavelet from received signals. In spite of the object function error, the diffraction tomography assist for interpretation of subsurface as if conducted with travel time tomography. And the fracture model was tested, 1st born diffraction tomographic image is poor because of limited view angle coverage and violation of week scatter assumption, but the filtered image resolve the fracture somewhat better. The tested diffraction tomography image confirms effectiveness of filter for enhancing resolution. (author). 14

  6. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  7. Parental and Child Factors Associated with Under-Estimation of Children with Excess Weight in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Ingrid; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2017-11-01

    Objective Understanding obesity misperception and associated factors can improve strategies to increase obesity identification and intervention. We investigate underestimation of child excess weight with a broader perspective, incorporating perceptions, views, and psychosocial aspects associated with obesity. Methods This study used cross-sectional data from the Spanish National Health Survey in 2011-2012 for children aged 2-14 years who are overweight or obese. Percentages of parental misperceived excess weight were calculated. Crude and adjusted analyses were performed for both child and parental factors analyzing associations with underestimation. Results Two-five year olds have the highest prevalence of misperceived overweight or obesity around 90%. In the 10-14 year old age group approximately 63% of overweight teens were misperceived as normal weight and 35.7 and 40% of obese males and females. Child gender did not affect underestimation, whereas a younger age did. Aspects of child social and mental health were associated with under-estimation, as was short sleep duration. Exercise, weekend TV and videogames, and food habits had no effect on underestimation. Fathers were more likely to misperceive their child´s weight status; however parent's age had no effect. Smokers and parents with excess weight were less likely to misperceive their child´s weight status. Parents being on a diet also decreased odds of underestimation. Conclusions for practice This study identifies some characteristics of both parents and children which are associated with under-estimation of child excess weight. These characteristics can be used for consideration in primary care, prevention strategies and for further research.

  8. Spatiotemporal Interpolation of Rainfall by Combining BME Theory and Satellite Rainfall Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The accurate assessment of spatiotemporal rainfall variability is a crucial and challenging task in many hydrological applications, mainly due to the lack of a sufficient number of rain gauges. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the spatiotemporal variations of annual and monthly rainfall over Fujian province in China by combining the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME method and satellite rainfall estimates. Specifically, based on annual and monthly rainfall data at 20 meteorological stations from 2000 to 2012, (1 the BME method with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM estimates considered as soft data, (2 ordinary kriging (OK and (3 cokriging (CK were employed to model the spatiotemporal variations of rainfall in Fujian province. Subsequently, the performance of these methods was evaluated using cross-validation statistics. The results demonstrated that BME with TRMM as soft data (BME-TRMM performed better than the other two methods, generating rainfall maps that represented the local rainfall disparities in a more realistic manner. Of the three interpolation (mapping methods, the mean absolute error (MAE and root mean square error (RMSE values of the BME-TRMM method were the smallest. In conclusion, the BME-TRMM method improved spatiotemporal rainfall modeling and mapping by integrating hard data and soft information. Lastly, the study identified new opportunities concerning the application of TRMM rainfall estimates.

  9. Tropical intraseasonal rainfall variability in the CFSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiande [I.M. System Group Inc. at NOAA/NCEP/EMC, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Wang, Wanqiu [NOAA/NCEP/CPC, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Fu, Xiouhua [University of Hawaii at Manoa, IPRC, SOEST, Honolulu, HI (United States); Seo, Kyong-Hwan [Pusan National University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    While large-scale circulation fields from atmospheric reanalyses have been widely used to study the tropical intraseasonal variability, rainfall variations from the reanalyses are less focused. Because of the sparseness of in situ observations available in the tropics and strong coupling between convection and large-scale circulation, the accuracy of tropical rainfall from the reanalyses not only measures the quality of reanalysis rainfall but is also to some extent indicative of the accuracy of the circulations fields. This study analyzes tropical intraseasonal rainfall variability in the recently completed NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and its comparison with the widely used NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (R1) and NCEP/DOE reanalysis (R2). The R1 produces too weak rainfall variability while the R2 generates too strong westward propagation. Compared with the R1 and R2, the CFSR produces greatly improved tropical intraseasonal rainfall variability with the dominance of eastward propagation and more realistic amplitude. An analysis of the relationship between rainfall and large-scale fields using composites based on Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events shows that, in all three NCEP reanalyses, the moisture convergence leading the rainfall maximum is near the surface in the western Pacific but is above 925 hPa in the eastern Indian Ocean. However, the CFSR produces the strongest large-scale convergence and the rainfall from CFSR lags the column integrated precipitable water by 1 or 2 days while R1 and R2 rainfall tends to lead the respective precipitable water. Diabatic heating related to the MJO variability in the CFSR is analyzed and compared with that derived from large-scale fields. It is found that the amplitude of CFSR-produced total heating anomalies is smaller than that of the derived. Rainfall variability from the other two recently produced reanalyses, the ECMWF Re-Analysis Interim (ERAI), and the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and

  10. Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS. Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  11. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.

    1984-01-01

    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  12. NOAA NEXt-Generation RADar (NEXRAD) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level III weather radar products collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska,...

  13. MST radar data-base management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwar, V. B.

    1983-01-01

    Data management for Mesospheric-Stratospheric-Tropospheric, (MST) radars is addressed. An incoherent-scatter radar data base is discussed in terms of purpose, centralization, scope, and nature of the data base management system.

  14. Design of multi-frequency CW radars

    CERN Document Server

    Jankiraman, Mohinder

    2007-01-01

    This book deals with the basic theory for design and analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radar systems. The design of one such multi-frequency high resolution LPI radar, PANDORA, is covered.

  15. Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab

  16. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described

  17. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  18. Exogenous factors matter when interpreting the results of an impact evaluation: a case study of rainfall and child health programme intervention in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukabutera, Assumpta; Thomson, Dana R; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Atwood, Sidney; Basinga, Paulin; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Savage, Kevin P; Habimana, Marcellin; Murray, Megan

    2017-12-01

    Public health interventions are often implemented at large scale, and their evaluation seems to be difficult because they are usually multiple and their pathways to effect are complex and subject to modification by contextual factors. We assessed whether controlling for rainfall-related variables altered estimates of the efficacy of a health programme in rural Rwanda and have a quantifiable effect on an intervention evaluation outcomes. We conducted a retrospective quasi-experimental study using previously collected cross-sectional data from the 2005 and 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 2010 DHS oversampled data, monthly rainfall data collected from meteorological stations over the same period, and modelled output of long-term rainfall averages, soil moisture, and rain water run-off. Difference-in-difference models were used. Rainfall factors confounded the PIH intervention impact evaluation. When we adjusted our estimates of programme effect by controlling for a variety of rainfall variables, several effectiveness estimates changed by 10% or more. The analyses that did not adjust for rainfall-related variables underestimated the intervention effect on the prevalence of ARI by 14.3%, fever by 52.4% and stunting by 10.2%. Conversely, the unadjusted analysis overestimated the intervention's effect on diarrhoea by 56.5% and wasting by 80%. Rainfall-related patterns have a quantifiable effect on programme evaluation results and highlighted the importance and complexity of controlling for contextual factors in quasi-experimental design evaluations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Surface runoff and soil erosion by difference of surface cover characteristics using by an oscillating rainfall simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. K.; Kim, M. S.; Yang, D. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transfer within hill slope can be changed by the hydrologic characteristics of surface material on hill slope. To better understand sediment transfer of the past and future related to climate changes, studies for the changes of soil erosion due to hydrological characteristics changes by surface materials on hill slope are needed. To do so, on-situ rainfall simulating test was conducted on three different surface conditions, i.e. well covered with litter layer condition (a), undisturbed bare condition (b), and disturbed bare condition (c) and these results from rainfall simulating test were compared with that estimated using the Limburg Soil Erosion Model (LISEM). The result from the rainfall simulating tests showed differences in the infiltration rate (a > b > c) and the highest soil erosion rate was occurred on c condition. The result from model also was similar to those from rainfall simulating tests, however, the difference from the value of soil erosion rate between two results was quite large on b and c conditions. These results implied that the difference of surface conditions could change the surface runoff and soil erosion and the result from the erosion model might significantly underestimate on bare surface conditions rather than that from rainfall simulating test.

  20. Numerical simulation of rainfall and temperature over Kenya using weather research and forecasting-environmental modelling system (WRF-EMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagero Obaigwa Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on one of the high resolution models used for weather forecasting at Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD. It reviews the skill and accuracy of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF - Environmental Modeling System (EMS model, in simulating weather over Kenya. The study period was March to May 2011, during the rainy season over Kenya. The model output was compared with the observed data from 27 synoptic stations spread over the study area, to determine the performance of the model in terms of its skill and accuracy in forecasting. The spatial distribution of rainfall and temperature showed that the WRF model was capable of reproducing the observed general pattern especially for temperature. The model has skill in forecasting both rainfall and temperature over the study area. However, the model may underestimate rainfall of more than 10 mm/day and displace its location and overestimate rainfall of less than 1 mm/day. Therefore, during the period of enhanced rainfall especially in the month of April and part of May the model forecast needs to be complemented by other models or forecasting methods before giving a forecast. There is need to improve its performance over the domain through review of the parameterization of small scale physical processes and more observed data need to be simulated into the model.

  1. Academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety of the underestimated student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhahne, Detlef; Chao, Sheng-Han; Florineth, Maria Luise; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Teachers' judgments of student performance on a standardized achievement test often result in an overestimation of students' abilities. In the majority of cases, a larger group of overestimated students and a smaller group of underestimated students are formed by these judgments. AIMS. In this research study, the consequences of the underestimation of students' mathematical performance potential were examined. SAMPLE. Two hundred and thirty-five fourth grade students and their fourteen mathematics teachers took part in the investigation. METHOD. Students worked on a standardized mathematics achievement test and completed a self-description questionnaire about motivation and affect. Teachers estimated each individual student's potential with regard to mathematics test performance as well as students' expectancy for success, level of aspiration, academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety. The differences between teachers' judgments on students' test performance and students' actual performance were used to build groups of underestimated and overestimated students. RESULTS. Underestimated students displayed equal levels of test performance, learning motivation, and level of aspiration in comparison with overestimated students, but had lower expectancy for success, lower academic self-concept, and experienced more test anxiety. Teachers expected that underestimated students would receive lower grades on the next mathematics test, believed that students were satisfied with lower grades, and assumed that the students have weaker learning motivation than their overestimated classmates. CONCLUSION. Teachers' judgment error was not confined to test performance but generalized to motivational and affective traits of the students. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Application of SDSM and LARS-WG for simulating and downscaling of rainfall and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zulkarnain; Shamsudin, Supiah; Harun, Sobri

    2014-04-01

    Climate change is believed to have significant impacts on the water basin and region, such as in a runoff and hydrological system. However, impact studies on the water basin and region are difficult, since general circulation models (GCMs), which are widely used to simulate future climate scenarios, do not provide reliable hours of daily series rainfall and temperature for hydrological modeling. There is a technique named as "downscaling techniques", which can derive reliable hour of daily series rainfall and temperature due to climate scenarios from the GCMs output. In this study, statistical downscaling models are used to generate the possible future values of local meteorological variables such as rainfall and temperature in the selected stations in Peninsular of Malaysia. The models are: (1) statistical downscaling model (SDSM) that utilized the regression models and stochastic weather generators and (2) Long Ashton research station weather generator (LARS-WG) that only utilized the stochastic weather generators. The LARS-WG and SDSM models obviously are feasible methods to be used as tools in quantifying effects of climate change condition in a local scale. SDSM yields a better performance compared to LARS-WG, except SDSM is slightly underestimated for the wet and dry spell lengths. Although both models do not provide identical results, the time series generated by both methods indicate a general increasing trend in the mean daily temperature values. Meanwhile, the trend of the daily rainfall is not similar to each other, with SDSM giving a relatively higher change of annual rainfall compared to LARS-WG.

  3. SAR Ambiguity Study for the Cassini Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Im, Eastwood; Johnson, William T. K.

    1993-01-01

    The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.

  4. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-03-01

    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  5. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  6. Co-occurrence of viruses and mosquitoes at the vectors' optimal climate range: An underestimated risk to temperate regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Marcus S C; Caminade, Cyril; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Sutton, Elizabeth R; Wardeh, Maya; Baylis, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses have been estimated to cause over 100 million cases of human disease annually. Many methodologies have been developed to help identify areas most at risk from transmission of these viruses. However, generally, these methodologies focus predominantly on the effects of climate on either the vectors or the pathogens they spread, and do not consider the dynamic interaction between the optimal conditions for both vector and virus. Here, we use a new approach that considers the complex interplay between the optimal temperature for virus transmission, and the optimal climate for the mosquito vectors. Using published geolocated data we identified temperature and rainfall ranges in which a number of mosquito vectors have been observed to co-occur with West Nile virus, dengue virus or chikungunya virus. We then investigated whether the optimal climate for co-occurrence of vector and virus varies between "warmer" and "cooler" adapted vectors for the same virus. We found that different mosquito vectors co-occur with the same virus at different temperatures, despite significant overlap in vector temperature ranges. Specifically, we found that co-occurrence correlates with the optimal climatic conditions for the respective vector; cooler-adapted mosquitoes tend to co-occur with the same virus in cooler conditions than their warmer-adapted counterparts. We conclude that mosquitoes appear to be most able to transmit virus in the mosquitoes' optimal climate range, and hypothesise that this may be due to proportionally over-extended vector longevity, and other increased fitness attributes, within this optimal range. These results suggest that the threat posed by vector-competent mosquito species indigenous to temperate regions may have been underestimated, whilst the threat arising from invasive tropical vectors moving to cooler temperate regions may be overestimated.

  7. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  8. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  9. Evolution of rainfall in the Sahel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    In this note, a number of main meteorological stations has been chosen to analyse the rainfall during the last 30 years in the Sahel (1961 to 1990). Reliable climatological data have been used for this study. The concerned area is limited by the 200 mm isohyet in the north and 600 mm isohyet in the south in the Sahel countries (Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad). The evolution of rainfall has pointed out some similar and significant aspects for all stations studied. Established criteria have been used to characterize the annual rainfall and to determine the years with good rainfall and years of drought in the Sahel. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  10. Monsoon Rainfall and Landslides in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, R. K.; Hasegawa, S.; Bhandary, N. P.; Yatabe, R.

    2009-12-01

    A large number of human settlements on the Nepal Himalayas are situated either on old landslide mass or on landslide-prone areas. As a result, a great number of people are affected by large- and small-scale landslides all over the Himalayas especially during monsoon periods. In Nepal, only in the half monsoon period (June 10 to August 15), 70, 50 and 68 people were killed from landslides in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. In this context, this paper highlights monsoon rainfall and their implications in the Nepal Himalaya. In Nepal, monsoon is major source of rainfall in summer and approximately 80% of the annual total rainfall occurs from June to September. The measured values of mean annual precipitation in Nepal range from a low of approximately 250 mm at area north of the Himalaya to many areas exceeding 6,000 mm. The mean annual rainfall varying between 1500 mm and 2500 mm predominate over most of the country. In Nepal, the daily distribution of precipitation during rainy season is also uneven. Sometime 10% of the total annual precipitation can occur in a single day. Similarly, 50% total annual rainfall also can occur within 10 days of monsoon. This type of uneven distribution plays an important role in triggering many landslides in Nepal. When spatial distribution of landslides was evaluated from record of more than 650 landslides, it is found that more landslides events were concentrated at central Nepal in the area of high mean annual rainfall. When monsoon rainfall and landslide relationship was taken into consideration, it was noticed that a considerable number of landslides were triggered in the Himalaya by continuous rainfall of 3 to 90 days. It has been noticed that continuous rainfall of few days (5 days or 7 days or 10 days) are usually responsible for landsliding in the Nepal Himalaya. Monsoon rains usually fall with interruptions of 2-3 days and are generally characterized by low intensity and long duration. Thus, there is a strong role of

  11. Improving the understanding of rainfall distribution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... facilities and development of robust methods, especially geosta- tistically-based .... Cathedral Peak historical rainfall dataset, quality control pro- cedures .... used to assess the predictive power of the developed model. The.

  12. 10 Characterisation of Seasonal Rainfall.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    El Nino-South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon occurs in the Equatorial Eastern Pacific Ocean and has been noted to ... of crops. There is need for more research attention on the onset of rainfall and ... impacts of adverse weather conditions or.

  13. Maximum daily rainfall in South Korea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Dongseok Choi. 2. 1. School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD, UK. ... This paper provides the first application of extreme value distributions to rainfall data from South Korea. 1. ..... protection. This paper only ...

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall and their effects on hydrological response in urban areas – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cristiano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas, hydrological processes are characterized by high variability in space and time, making them sensitive to small-scale temporal and spatial rainfall variability. In the last decades new instruments, techniques, and methods have been developed to capture rainfall and hydrological processes at high resolution. Weather radars have been introduced to estimate high spatial and temporal rainfall variability. At the same time, new models have been proposed to reproduce hydrological response, based on small-scale representation of urban catchment spatial variability. Despite these efforts, interactions between rainfall variability, catchment heterogeneity, and hydrological response remain poorly understood. This paper presents a review of our current understanding of hydrological processes in urban environments as reported in the literature, focusing on their spatial and temporal variability aspects. We review recent findings on the effects of rainfall variability on hydrological response and identify gaps where knowledge needs to be further developed to improve our understanding of and capability to predict urban hydrological response.

  15. Water quality modelling in the San Antonio River Basin driven by radar rainfall data

    OpenAIRE

    Almoutaz Elhassan; Hongjie Xie; Ahmed A. Al-othman; James Mcclelland; Hatim O. Sharif

    2016-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of stream water quality is needed as it has significant impacts on human and ecological health and well-being. Estimating water quality between sampling dates requires model simulation based on the available geospatial and water quality data for a given watershed. Models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate the missing water quality data. In this study, SWAT was used to estimate water quality at a monitoring station near the outlet of...

  16. Weather models as virtual sensors to data-driven rainfall predictions in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Lorenzo; Galelli, Stefano; Pascal, Samuel Jolivet De Marc; Castelletti, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Weather and climate predictions are a key element of urban hydrology where they are used to inform water management and assist in flood warning delivering. Indeed, the modelling of the very fast dynamics of urbanized catchments can be substantially improved by the use of weather/rainfall predictions. For example, in Singapore Marina Reservoir catchment runoff processes have a very short time of concentration (roughly one hour) and observational data are thus nearly useless for runoff predictions and weather prediction are required. Unfortunately, radar nowcasting methods do not allow to carrying out long - term weather predictions, whereas numerical models are limited by their coarse spatial scale. Moreover, numerical models are usually poorly reliable because of the fast motion and limited spatial extension of rainfall events. In this study we investigate the combined use of data-driven modelling techniques and weather variables observed/simulated with a numerical model as a way to improve rainfall prediction accuracy and lead time in the Singapore metropolitan area. To explore the feasibility of the approach, we use a Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model as a virtual sensor network for the input variables (the states of the WRF model) to a machine learning rainfall prediction model. More precisely, we combine an input variable selection method and a non-parametric tree-based model to characterize the empirical relation between the rainfall measured at the catchment level and all possible weather input variables provided by WRF model. We explore different lead time to evaluate the model reliability for different long - term predictions, as well as different time lags to see how past information could improve results. Results show that the proposed approach allow a significant improvement of the prediction accuracy of the WRF model on the Singapore urban area.

  17. Contribution of tropical cyclones to global rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouakhi, Abdou; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel; Smith, James

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) can have both devastating and beneficial impacts in different parts of the world. In this work, daily precipitation and historical six-hour best track TC datasets are used to quantify the contribution of TCs to global rainfall. We select 18607 rain gauge stations with at least 25 complete (at least 330 measurements per year) years between 1970 and 2014. We consider rainfall associated with TCs if the center of circulation of the storm passed within a given distance from the rain gauge and within a given time window. Spatial and temporal sensitivity analyses are performed with varying time windows (same day, ±1 day) and buffer radii (400 km and 500 km) around each rain gauge. Results highlight regional differences in TC-induced rainfall. The highest TC-induced precipitation totals (400 to 600+ mm/year) are prevalent along eastern Asia, western and northeastern Australia, and in the western Pacific islands. Stations along the southeast of the U.S. coast and surrounding the Gulf of Mexico receive up to 200 mm/year of TC rainfall. The highest annual fractional contributions of TCs to total rainfall (from 35 to 50%) are recorded in stations located in northwestern Australia, southeastern China, the northern Philippines and the southern Mexico peninsula. Seasonally, the highest proportions (40 to 50%) are recorded along eastern Australia and Mauritius in winter, and in eastern Asia and Mexico in summer and autumn. Analyses of the relative contribution of TCs to extreme rainfall using annual maximum (AM) and peaks-over-threshold (POT) approaches indicate notable differences among regions. The highest TC-AM rainfall proportions (45 to 60%) are found in stations located in Japan, eastern China, the Philippines, eastern and western Australia. Substantial contributions (25 to 40% of extreme rainfall) are also recorded in stations located along the U.S. East Coast, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mexico peninsula. We find similar

  18. Principles of modern radar advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Melvin, William

    2012-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Advanced Techniques is a professional reference for practicing engineers that provides a stepping stone to advanced practice with in-depth discussions of the most commonly used advanced techniques for radar design. It will also serve advanced radar academic and training courses with a complete set of problems for students as well as solutions for instructors.

  19. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  20. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  1. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... within one mile of land must be fitted with a FCC Type Accepted general marine radar system for surface... Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  2. Wageningen Urban Rainfall Experiment 2014 (WURex14): Experimental Setup and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Thomas; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Hazenberg, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Microwave links from cellular communication networks have been shown to be able to provide valuable information concerning the space-time variability of rainfall. In particular over urban areas, where network densities are generally high, they have the potential to complement existing dedicated infrastructure to measure rainfall (gauges, radars). In addition, microwave links provide a great opportunity for ground-based rainfall measurement for those land surface areas of the world where gauges and radars are generally lacking, e.g. Africa, Latin America, and large parts of Asia. Such information is not only crucial for water management and agriculture, but also for instance for ground validation of space-borne rainfall estimates such as those provided by the recently launched core satellite of the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) mission. WURex14 is dedicated to address several errors and uncertainties associated with such quantitative precipitation estimates in detail. The core of the experiment is provided by two co-located microwave links installed between two major buildings on the Wageningen University campus, approximately 2 km apart: a 38 GHz commercial microwave link, kindly provided to us by T-Mobile NL, and a 38 GHz dual-polarization research microwave link from RAL. Transmitting and receiving antennas have been attached to masts installed on the roofs of the two buildings, about 30 m above the ground. This setup has been complemented with a Scintec infrared Large-Aperture Scintillometer, installed over the same path, as well as a Parsivel optical disdrometer, located close to the mast on the receiving end of the links. During the course of the experiment, a 26 GHz RAL research microwave link was added to the experimental setup. Temporal sampling of the received signals was performed at a rate of 20 Hz. In addition, two time-lapse cameras have been installed on either side of the path to monitor the wetness of the antennas as well as the state of

  3. Application of a Snow Growth Model to Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, E.; Mitchell, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Microphysical growth processes of diffusion, aggregation and riming are incorporated analytically in a steady-state snow growth model (SGM) to solve the zeroth- and second- moment conservation equations with respect to mass. The SGM is initiated by radar reflectivity (Zw), supersaturation, temperature, and a vertical profile of the liquid water content (LWC), and it uses a gamma size distribution (SD) to predict the vertical evolution of size spectra. Aggregation seems to play an important role in the evolution of snowfall rates and the snowfall rates produced by aggregation, diffusion and riming are considerably greater than those produced by diffusion and riming alone, demonstrating the strong interaction between aggregation and riming. The impact of ice particle shape on particle growth rates and fall speeds is represented in the SGM in terms of ice particle mass-dimension (m-D) power laws (m = αDβ). These growth rates are qualitatively consistent with empirical growth rates, with slower (faster) growth rates predicted for higher (lower) β values. In most models, β is treated constant for a given ice particle habit, but it is well known that β is larger for the smaller crystals. Our recent work quantitatively calculates β and α for cirrus clouds as a function of D where the m-D expression is a second-order polynomial in log-log space. By adapting this method to the SGM, the ice particle growth rates and fall speeds are predicted more accurately. Moreover, the size spectra predicted by the SGM are in good agreement with those from aircraft measurements during Lagrangian spiral descents through frontal clouds, indicating the successful modeling of microphysical processes. Since the lowest Zw over complex topography is often significantly above cloud base, the precipitation is often underestimated by radar quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE). Our SGM is capable of being initialized with Zw at the lowest reliable radar echo and consequently improves

  4. Recommendation on Transition from Primary/Secondary Radar to Secondary- Only Radar Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Radar Beacon Performance Monitor RCIU Remote Control Interface Unit RCL Remote Communications Link R E&D Research, Engineering and Development RML Radar...rate. 3.1.2.5 Maintenance The current LRRs have limited remote maintenance monitoring (RMM) capabilities via the Remote Control Interface Unit ( RCIU ...1, -2 and FPS-20 radars required an upgrade of some of the radar subsystems, namely the RCIU to respond as an RMS and the CD to interface with radar

  5. Is dream recall underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Denholm J; Delfabbro, Paul; Proeve, Michael

    2015-05-01

    There are two methods commonly used to measure dream recall in the home setting. The retrospective method involves asking participants to estimate their dream recall in response to a single question and the logbook method involves keeping a daily record of one's dream recall. Until recently, the implicit assumption has been that these measures are largely equivalent. However, this is challenged by the tendency for retrospective measures to yield significantly lower dream recall rates than logbooks. A common explanation for this is that retrospective measures underestimate dream recall. Another is that keeping a logbook enhances it. If retrospective measures underestimate dream recall and if logbooks enhance it they are both unlikely to reflect typical dream recall rates and may be confounded with variables associated with the underestimation and enhancement effects. To date, this issue has received insufficient attention. The present review addresses this gap in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Misery Has More Company Than People Think: Underestimating the Prevalence of Others’ Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Monin, Benoît; Dweck, Carol S.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; John, Oliver P.; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Four studies document underestimations of the prevalence of others’ negative emotions, and suggest causes and correlates of these erroneous perceptions. In Study 1A, participants reported that their negative emotions were more private or hidden than their positive emotions; in Study 1B, participants underestimated the peer prevalence of common negative, but not positive, experiences described in Study 1A. In Study 2, people underestimated negative emotions and overestimated positive emotions even for well-known peers, and this effect was partially mediated by the degree to which those peers reported suppression of negative (vs. positive) emotions. Study 3 showed that lower estimations of the prevalence of negative emotional experiences predicted greater loneliness and rumination and lower life satisfaction, and that higher estimations for positive emotional experiences predicted lower life satisfaction. Taken together, these studies suggest that people may think they are more alone in their emotional difficulties than they really are. PMID:21177878

  7. Quality Control and Calibration of the Dual-Polarization Radar at Kwajalein, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David A.; Wolff, David B.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Tokay, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Weather radars, recording information about precipitation around the globe, will soon be significantly upgraded. Most of today s weather radars transmit and receive microwave energy with horizontal orientation only, but upgraded systems have the capability to send and receive both horizontally and vertically oriented waves. These enhanced "dual-polarimetric" (DP) radars peer into precipitation and provide information on the size, shape, phase (liquid / frozen), and concentration of the falling particles (termed hydrometeors). This information is valuable for improved rain rate estimates, and for providing data on the release and absorption of heat in the atmosphere from condensation and evaporation (phase changes). The heating profiles in the atmosphere influence global circulation, and are a vital component in studies of Earth s changing climate. However, to provide the most accurate interpretation of radar data, the radar must be properly calibrated and data must be quality controlled (cleaned) to remove non-precipitation artifacts; both of which are challenging tasks for today s weather radar. The DP capability maximizes performance of these procedures using properties of the observed precipitation. In a notable paper published in 2005, scientists from the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma developed a method to calibrate radars using statistically averaged DP measurements within light rain. An additional publication by one of the same scientists at the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) in Norman, Oklahoma introduced several techniques to perform quality control of radar data using DP measurements. Following their lead, the Topical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite Validation Office at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center has fine-tuned these methods for specific application to the weather radar at Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, approximately 2100 miles

  8. Variability of rainfall over small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was made to determine estimates of the number of raingauges needed in order to measure the variability of rainfall in time and space over small areas (approximately 40 sq miles). The literature on rainfall variability was examined and the types of empirical relationships used to relate rainfall variations to meteorological and catchment-area characteristics were considered. Relations between the coefficient of variation and areal-mean rainfall and area have been used by several investigators. These parameters seemed reasonable ones to use in any future study of rainfall variations. From a knowledge of an appropriate coefficient of variation (determined by the above-mentioned relations) the number rain gauges needed for the precise determination of areal-mean rainfall may be calculated by statistical estimation theory. The number gauges needed to measure the coefficient of variation over a 40 sq miles area, with varying degrees of error, was found to range from 264 (10% error, mean precipitation = 0.1 in) to about 2 (100% error, mean precipitation = 0.1 in).

  9. Calorie Underestimation When Buying High-Calorie Beverages in Fast-Food Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Block, Jason P; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-07-01

    We asked 1877 adults and 1178 adolescents visiting 89 fast-food restaurants in New England in 2010 and 2011 to estimate calories purchased. Calorie underestimation was greater among those purchasing a high-calorie beverage than among those who did not (adults: 324 ±698 vs 102 ±591 calories; adolescents: 360 ±602 vs 198 ±509 calories). This difference remained significant for adults but not adolescents after adjusting for total calories purchased. Purchasing high-calorie beverages may uniquely contribute to calorie underestimation among adults.

  10. Estimating Reservoir Inflow Using RADAR Forecasted Precipitation and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, J.; Choi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Rainfall observation and forecasting using remote sensing such as RADAR(Radio Detection and Ranging) and satellite images are widely used to delineate the increased damage by rapid weather changeslike regional storm and flash flood. The flood runoff was calculated by using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, the data driven models and MAPLE(McGill Algorithm for Precipitation Nowcasting by Lagrangian Extrapolation) forecasted precipitation data as the input variables.The result of flood estimation method using neuro-fuzzy technique and RADAR forecasted precipitation data was evaluated by comparing it with the actual data.The Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy method was applied to the Chungju Reservoir basin in Korea. The six rainfall events during the flood seasons in 2010 and 2011 were used for the input data.The reservoir inflow estimation results were comparedaccording to the rainfall data used for training, checking and testing data in the model setup process. The results of the 15 models with the combination of the input variables were compared and analyzed. Using the relatively larger clustering radius and the biggest flood ever happened for training data showed the better flood estimation in this study.The model using the MAPLE forecasted precipitation data showed better result for inflow estimation in the Chungju Reservoir.

  11. Radioprotection and radar: practical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepersack, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The author, on basis of his experience in radar-radioprotection, exposes the standard and security norms and recommendations to be applied for the preventive adapation of the work-areas as well as for the follow-up of the exposed workers. (author)

  12. Rainfall measurement from the opportunistic use of an Earth–space link in the Ku band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Barthès

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the development of a low-cost microwave device devoted to the measurement of average rain rates observed along Earth–satellite links, the latter being characterized by a tropospheric path length of a few kilometres. The ground-based power measurements, which are made using the Ku-band television transmissions from several different geostationary satellites, are based on the principle that the atmospheric attenuation produced by rain encountered along each transmission path can be used to determine the path-averaged rain rate. This kind of device could be very useful in hilly areas where radar data are not available or in urban areas where such devices could be directly placed in homes by using residential TV antenna. The major difficulty encountered with this technique is that of retrieving rainfall characteristics in the presence of many other causes of received signal fluctuation, produced by atmospheric scintillation, variations in atmospheric composition (water vapour concentration, cloud water content or satellite transmission parameters (variations in emitted power, satellite pointing. In order to conduct a feasibility study with such a device, a measurement campaign was carried out over a period of five months close to Paris. The present paper proposes an algorithm based on an artificial neural network, used to identify dry and rainy periods and to model received signal variability resulting from effects not related to rain. When the altitude of the rain layer is taken into account, the rain attenuation can be inverted to obtain the path-averaged rain rate. The rainfall rates obtained from this process are compared with co-located rain gauges and radar measurements taken throughout the full duration of the campaign, and the most significant rainfall events are analysed.

  13. Rainfall measurement from the opportunistic use of an Earth-space link in the Ku band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthès, L.; Mallet, C.

    2013-08-01

    The present study deals with the development of a low-cost microwave device devoted to the measurement of average rain rates observed along Earth-satellite links, the latter being characterized by a tropospheric path length of a few kilometres. The ground-based power measurements, which are made using the Ku-band television transmissions from several different geostationary satellites, are based on the principle that the atmospheric attenuation produced by rain encountered along each transmission path can be used to determine the path-averaged rain rate. This kind of device could be very useful in hilly areas where radar data are not available or in urban areas where such devices could be directly placed in homes by using residential TV antenna. The major difficulty encountered with this technique is that of retrieving rainfall characteristics in the presence of many other causes of received signal fluctuation, produced by atmospheric scintillation, variations in atmospheric composition (water vapour concentration, cloud water content) or satellite transmission parameters (variations in emitted power, satellite pointing). In order to conduct a feasibility study with such a device, a measurement campaign was carried out over a period of five months close to Paris. The present paper proposes an algorithm based on an artificial neural network, used to identify dry and rainy periods and to model received signal variability resulting from effects not related to rain. When the altitude of the rain layer is taken into account, the rain attenuation can be inverted to obtain the path-averaged rain rate. The rainfall rates obtained from this process are compared with co-located rain gauges and radar measurements taken throughout the full duration of the campaign, and the most significant rainfall events are analysed.

  14. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  15. Radar application in void and bar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2003-01-01

    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  16. Temporal and spatial variability of rainfall distribution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainfall and evapotranspiration are the two major climatic factors affecting agricultural production. This study examined the extent and nature of rainfall variability from measured data while estimation of evapotranspiration was made from recorded weather data. Analysis of rainfall variability is made by the rainfall anomaly ...

  17. Satellite-based estimation of rainfall erosivity for Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Sterk, G.; Jong, S.M. de

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall erosivity is a measure for the erosive force of rainfall. Rainfall kinetic energy determines the erosivity and is in turn greatly dependent on rainfall intensity. Attempts for its large-scale mapping are rare. Most are based on interpolation of erosivity values derived from rain gauge

  18. Synergetic Combination of Radar Information and Gauge Measurements - with the Conflict between Two Types of Data Being Removed via Displacement and Downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Bardossy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Rain gauges are the foundation in hydrology to collect rainfall data, however, gauge measurements alone are limited at representing the complete rainfall distribution. On the other hand, the reliability of radar data is often limited because of the errors in the radar signal (e.g. clutter, variation of the vertical reflectivity profile, beam blockage, attenuation, etc). Thus, merging radar information and gauge rainfall measurements is in an area of active research. The merging method proposed here is to use the radar data in its [0, 1] format (p-value). The actual precipitation values come from the gauge measurements. At each measurement location, two types of data are available, the radar p-value and the gauge measurement in mm. It happens very frequently that there exists a contradiction between these two types of data. A very likely reason is the influence of the unknown process between the radar measurement height and the surface onto which the hydrometeors fall. A method for quantification of the impact of the unknown process is proposed to fix the conflict, but only to a certain degree. Another possible source that can explain the discrepancy between these two types of data is discretization, i.e., the spatial variability cannot be identified by coarse discretization. Thus, downscaling is also considered to further remove the conflict. Based on the p-value from the radar data and the precipitation from the gauge measurements, a distribution function can be built up. The ultimate goal is to simulate the precipitation field for nowcasting purpose. The conditions to be fulfilled by the simulated field is as the following: honoring the measurements at the gauge locations; sharing a similar pattern with the radar image; preserving the inherent covariance structure. The simulation approach employed here is random mixing. The study domain is located in Reutlingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (Latitude 48.49N, Longitude 9.20E). The radar data are obtained from a C

  19. Evaluation and correction of uncertainty due to Gaussian approximation in radar - rain gauge merging using kriging with external drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinati, F.; Wani, O.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    It is widely recognised that merging radar rainfall estimates (RRE) with rain gauge data can improve the RRE and provide areal and temporal coverage that rain gauges cannot offer. Many methods to merge radar and rain gauge data are based on kriging and require an assumption of Gaussianity on the variable of interest. In particular, this work looks at kriging with external drift (KED), because it is an efficient, widely used, and well performing merging method. Rainfall, especially at finer temporal scale, does not have a normal distribution and presents a bi-modal skewed distribution. In some applications a Gaussianity assumption is made, without any correction. In other cases, variables are transformed in order to obtain a distribution closer to Gaussian. This work has two objectives: 1) compare different transformation methods in merging applications; 2) evaluate the uncertainty arising when untransformed rainfall data is used in KED. The comparison of transformation methods is addressed under two points of view. On the one hand, the ability to reproduce the original probability distribution after back-transformation of merged products is evaluated with qq-plots, on the other hand the rainfall estimates are compared with an independent set of rain gauge measurements. The tested methods are 1) no transformation, 2) Box-Cox transformations with parameter equal to λ=0.5 (square root), 3) λ=0.25 (square root - square root), and 4) λ=0.1 (almost logarithmic), 5) normal quantile transformation, and 6) singularity analysis. The uncertainty associated with the use of non-transformed data in KED is evaluated in comparison with the best performing product. The methods are tested on a case study in Northern England, using hourly data from 211 tipping bucket rain gauges from the Environment Agency and radar rainfall data at 1 km/5-min resolutions from the UK Met Office. In addition, 25 independent rain gauges from the UK Met Office were used to assess the merged products.

  20. Modelling rainfall interception by a lowland tropical rain forest in northeastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, J.; Scatena, F. N.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Wickel, A. J.

    1999-12-01

    Recent surveys of tropical forest water use suggest that rainfall interception by the canopy is largest in wet maritime locations. To investigate the underlying processes at one such location—the Luquillo Experimental Forest in eastern Puerto Rico—66 days of detailed throughfall and above-canopy climatic data were collected in 1996 and analysed using the Rutter and Gash models of rainfall interception. Throughfall occurred on 80% of the days distributed over 80 rainfall events. Measured interception loss was 50% of gross precipitation. When Penman-Monteith based estimates for the wet canopy evaporation rate (0.11 mm h -1 on average) and a canopy storage of 1.15 mm were used, both models severely underestimated measured interception loss. A detailed analysis of four storms using the Rutter model showed that optimizing the model for the wet canopy evaporation component yielded much better results than increasing the canopy storage capacity. However, the Rutter model failed to properly estimate throughfall amounts during an exceptionally large event. The analytical model, on the other hand, was capable of representing interception during the extreme event, but once again optimizing wet canopy evaporation rates produced a much better fit than optimizing the canopy storage capacity. As such, the present results support the idea that it is primarily a high rate of evaporation from a wet canopy that is responsible for the observed high interception losses.

  1. Simulating runoff under changing climatic conditions: Revisiting an apparent deficiency of conceptual rainfall-runoff models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Keirnan J. A.; Peel, Murray C.; Western, Andrew W.; Zhang, Lu; Peterson, Tim J.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrologic models have potential to be useful tools in planning for future climate variability. However, recent literature suggests that the current generation of conceptual rainfall runoff models tend to underestimate the sensitivity of runoff to a given change in rainfall, leading to poor performance when evaluated over multiyear droughts. This research revisited this conclusion, investigating whether the observed poor performance could be due to insufficient model calibration and evaluation techniques. We applied an approach based on Pareto optimality to explore trade-offs between model performance in different climatic conditions. Five conceptual rainfall runoff model structures were tested in 86 catchments in Australia, for a total of 430 Pareto analyses. The Pareto results were then compared with results from a commonly used model calibration and evaluation method, the Differential Split Sample Test. We found that the latter often missed potentially promising parameter sets within a given model structure, giving a false negative impression of the capabilities of the model. This suggests that models may be more capable under changing climatic conditions than previously thought. Of the 282[347] cases of apparent model failure under the split sample test using the lower [higher] of two model performance criteria trialed, 155[120] were false negatives. We discuss potential causes of remaining model failures, including the role of data errors. Although the Pareto approach proved useful, our aim was not to suggest an alternative calibration strategy, but to critically assess existing methods of model calibration and evaluation. We recommend caution when interpreting split sample results.

  2. Effects of sample size on estimation of rainfall extremes at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, Berry; Bürger, Gerd; Heistermann, Maik

    2017-09-01

    High precipitation quantiles tend to rise with temperature, following the so-called Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling. It is often reported that the CC-scaling relation breaks down and even reverts for very high temperatures. In our study, we investigate this reversal using observational climate data from 142 stations across Germany. One of the suggested meteorological explanations for the breakdown is limited moisture supply. Here we argue that, instead, it could simply originate from undersampling. As rainfall frequency generally decreases with higher temperatures, rainfall intensities as dictated by CC scaling are less likely to be recorded than for moderate temperatures. Empirical quantiles are conventionally estimated from order statistics via various forms of plotting position formulas. They have in common that their largest representable return period is given by the sample size. In small samples, high quantiles are underestimated accordingly. The small-sample effect is weaker, or disappears completely, when using parametric quantile estimates from a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) fitted with L moments. For those, we obtain quantiles of rainfall intensities that continue to rise with temperature.

  3. Effects of sample size on estimation of rainfall extremes at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Boessenkool

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High precipitation quantiles tend to rise with temperature, following the so-called Clausius–Clapeyron (CC scaling. It is often reported that the CC-scaling relation breaks down and even reverts for very high temperatures. In our study, we investigate this reversal using observational climate data from 142 stations across Germany. One of the suggested meteorological explanations for the breakdown is limited moisture supply. Here we argue that, instead, it could simply originate from undersampling. As rainfall frequency generally decreases with higher temperatures, rainfall intensities as dictated by CC scaling are less likely to be recorded than for moderate temperatures. Empirical quantiles are conventionally estimated from order statistics via various forms of plotting position formulas. They have in common that their largest representable return period is given by the sample size. In small samples, high quantiles are underestimated accordingly. The small-sample effect is weaker, or disappears completely, when using parametric quantile estimates from a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD fitted with L moments. For those, we obtain quantiles of rainfall intensities that continue to rise with temperature.

  4. Trends analysis of rainfall and rainfall extremes in Sarawak, Malaysia using modified Mann-Kendall test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adi, Zulfaqar; Shahid, Shamsuddin; Ismail, Tarmizi; Chung, Eun-Sung; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-11-01

    This study assesses the spatial pattern of changes in rainfall extremes of Sarawak in recent years (1980-2014). The Mann-Kendall (MK) test along with modified Mann-Kendall (m-MK) test, which can discriminate multi-scale variability of unidirectional trend, was used to analyze the changes at 31 stations. Taking account of the scaling effect through eliminating the effect of autocorrelation, m-MK was employed to discriminate multi-scale variability of the unidirectional trends of the annual rainfall in Sarawak. It can confirm the significance of the MK test. The annual rainfall trend from MK test showed significant changes at 95% confidence level at five stations. The seasonal trends from MK test indicate an increasing rate of rainfall during the Northeast monsoon and a decreasing trend during the Southwest monsoon in some region of Sarawak. However, the m-MK test detected an increasing trend in annual rainfall only at one station and no significant trend in seasonal rainfall at any stations. The significant increasing trends of the 1-h maximum rainfall from the MK test are detected mainly at the stations located in the urban area giving concern to the occurrence of the flash flood. On the other hand, the m-MK test detected no significant trend in 1- and 3-h maximum rainfalls at any location. On the contrary, it detected significant trends in 6- and 72-h maximum rainfalls at a station located in the Lower Rajang basin area which is an extensive low-lying agricultural area and prone to stagnant flood. These results indicate that the trends in rainfall and rainfall extremes reported in Malaysia and surrounding region should be verified with m-MK test as most of the trends may result from scaling effect.

  5. Radar meteor rates and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikryl, P.

    1983-01-01

    The short-term variation of diurnal radar meteor rates with solar activity represented by solar microwave flux Fsub(10.7), and sunspots relative number Rsub(z), is investigated. Applying the superposed-epoch analysis to the observational material of radar meteor rates from Christchurch (1960-61 and 1963-65), a decrease in the recorded radar rates is found during days of enhanced solar activity. No effect of geomagnetic activity similar to the one reported for the Swedish and Canadian radar meteor data was found by the author in the Christchurch data. A possible explanation of the absence of the geomagnetic effect on radar meteor rates from New Zealand due to a lower echo ceiling height of the Christchurch radar is suggested. The variation of the atmospheric parameters as a possible cause of the observed variation in radar meteor rates is also discussed. (author)

  6. Improving rainfall representation for large-scale hydrological modelling of tropical mountain basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Onof, Christian; Lavado, Waldo; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-04-01

    Errors in the forcing data are sometimes overlooked in hydrological studies even when they could be the most important source of uncertainty. The latter particularly holds true in tropical countries with short historical records of rainfall monitoring and remote areas with sparse rain gauge network. In such instances, alternative data such as the remotely sensed precipitation from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite have been used. These provide a good spatial representation of rainfall processes but have been established in the literature to contain volumetric biases that may impair the results of hydrological modelling or worse, are compensated during model calibration. In this study, we analysed precipitation time series from the TMPA (TRMM Multiple Precipitation Algorithm, version 6) against measurements from over 300 gauges in the Andes and Amazon regions of Peru and Ecuador. We found moderately good monthly correlation between the pixel and gauge pairs but a severe underestimation of rainfall amounts and wet days. The discrepancy between the time series pairs is particularly visible over the east side of the Andes and may be attributed to localized and orographic-driven high intensity rainfall, which the satellite product may have limited skills at capturing due to technical and scale issues. This consequently results in a low bias in the simulated streamflow volumes further downstream. In comparison, with the recently released TMPA, version 7, the biases reduce. This work further explores several approaches to merge the two sources of rainfall measurements, each of a different spatial and temporal support, with the objective of improving the representation of rainfall in hydrological simulations. The methods used are (1) mean bias correction (2) data assimilation using Kalman filter Bayesian updating. The results are evaluated by means of (1) a comparison of runoff ratios (the ratio of the total runoff and the total precipitation over an

  7. Nowcasting of rainfall and of combined sewage flow in urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achleitner, Stefan; Fach, Stefan; Einfalt, Thomas; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Nowcasting of rainfall may be used additionally to online rain measurements to optimize the operation of urban drainage systems. Uncertainties quoted for the rain volume are in the range of 5% to 10% mean square error (MSE), where for rain intensities 45% to 75% MSE are noted. For larger forecast periods up to 3 hours, the uncertainties will increase up to some hundred percents. Combined with the growing number of real time control concepts in sewer systems, rainfall forecast is used more and more in urban drainage systems. Therefore it is of interest how the uncertainties influence the final evaluation of a defined objective function. Uncertainty levels associated with the forecast itself are not necessarily transferable to resulting uncertainties in the catchment's flow dynamics. The aim of this paper is to analyse forecasts of rainfall and specific sewer output variables. For this study the combined sewer system of the city of Linz in the northern part of Austria located on the Danube has been selected. The city itself represents a total area of 96 km2 with 39 municipalities connected. It was found that the available weather radar data leads to large deviations in the forecast for precipitation at forecast horizons larger than 90 minutes. The same is true for sewer variables such a CSO overflow for small sub-catchments. Although the results improve for larger spatial scales, acceptable levels at forecast horizons larger than 90 minutes are not reached.

  8. Potential of commercial microwave link network derived rainfall for river runoff simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiatek, Gerhard; Keis, Felix; Chwala, Christian; Fersch, Benjamin; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Commercial microwave link networks allow for the quantification of path integrated precipitation because the attenuation by hydrometeors correlates with rainfall between transmitter and receiver stations. The networks, operated and maintained by cellphone companies, thereby provide completely new and country wide precipitation measurements. As the density of traditional precipitation station networks worldwide is significantly decreasing, microwave link derived precipitation estimates receive increasing attention not only by hydrologists but also by meteorological and hydrological services. We investigate the potential of microwave derived precipitation estimates for streamflow prediction and water balance analyses, exemplarily shown for an orographically complex region in the German Alps (River Ammer). We investigate the additional value of link derived rainfall estimations combined with station observations compared to station and weather radar derived values. Our river runoff simulation system employs a distributed hydrological model at 100 ×