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Sample records for radar reflectivity profiles

  1. Identification and uncertainty estimation of vertical reflectivity profiles using a Lagrangian approach to support quantitative precipitation measurements by weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Delrieu, G.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to estimate the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) from volumetric weather radar data using both a traditional Eulerian as well as a newly proposed Lagrangian implementation. For this latter implementation, the recently developed Rotational Carpenter Square Cluster Algorithm (RoCaSCA) is used to delineate precipitation regions at different reflectivity levels. A piecewise linear VPR is estimated for either stratiform or neither stratiform/convective precipitation. As a second aspect of this paper, a novel approach is presented which is able to account for the impact of VPR uncertainty on the estimated radar rainfall variability. Results show that implementation of the VPR identification and correction procedure has a positive impact on quantitative precipitation estimates from radar. Unfortunately, visibility problems severely limit the impact of the Lagrangian implementation beyond distances of 100 km. However, by combining this procedure with the global Eulerian VPR estimation procedure for a given rainfall type (stratiform and neither stratiform/convective), the quality of the quantitative precipitation estimates increases up to a distance of 150 km. Analyses of the impact of VPR uncertainty shows that this aspect accounts for a large fraction of the differences between weather radar rainfall estimates and rain gauge measurements.

  2. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  3. Rain cell-based identification of the vertical profile of reflectivity as observed by weather radar and its use for precipitation uncertainty estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-04-01

    The wide scale implementation of weather radar systems over the last couple of decades has increased our understanding concerning spatio-temporal precipitation dynamics. However, the quantitative estimation of precipitation by these devices is affected by many sources of error. A very dominant source of error results from vertical variations in the hydrometeor size distribution known as the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). Since the height of the measurement as well as the beam volume increases with distance from the radar, for stratiform precipitation this results in a serious underestimation (overestimation) of the surface reflectivity while sampling within the snow (bright band) region. This research presents a precipitation cell-based implementation to correct volumetric weather radar measurements for VPR effects. Using the properties of a flipping carpenter square, a contour-based identification technique was developed, which is able to identify and track precipitation cells in real time, distinguishing between convective, stratiform and undefined precipitation. For the latter two types of systems, for each individual cell, a physically plausible vertical profile of reflectivity is estimated using a Monte Carlo optimization method. Since it can be expected that the VPR will vary within a given precipitation cell, a method was developed to take the uncertainty of the VPR estimate into account. As a result, we are able to estimate the amount of precipitation uncertainty as observed by weather radar due to VPR for a given precipitation type and storm cell. We demonstrate the possibilities of this technique for a number of winter precipitation systems observed within the Belgian Ardennes. For these systems, in general, the precipitation uncertainty estimate due to vertical reflectivity profile variations varies between 10-40%.

  4. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  5. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  6. Quantification of Reflection Patterns in Ground-Penetrating Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysey, S.; Knight, R. J.; Jol, H. M.; Allen-King, R. M.; Gaylord, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Radar facies analysis provides a way of interpreting the large-scale structure of the subsurface from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. Radar facies are often distinguished from each other by the presence of patterns, such as flat-lying, dipping, or chaotic reflections, in different regions of a radar image. When these patterns can be associated with radar facies in a repeated and predictable manner we refer to them as `radar textures'. While it is often possible to qualitatively differentiate between radar textures visually, pattern recognition tools, like neural networks, require a quantitative measure to discriminate between them. We investigate whether currently available tools, such as instantaneous attributes or metrics adapted from standard texture analysis techniques, can be used to improve the classification of radar facies. To this end, we use a neural network to perform cross-validation tests that assess the efficacy of different textural measures for classifying radar facies in GPR data collected from the William River delta, Saskatchewan, Canada. We found that the highest classification accuracies (>93%) were obtained for measures of texture that preserve information about the spatial arrangement of reflections in the radar image, e.g., spatial covariance. Lower accuracy (87%) was obtained for classifications based directly on windows of amplitude data extracted from the radar image. Measures that did not account for the spatial arrangement of reflections in the image, e.g., instantaneous attributes and amplitude variance, yielded classification accuracies of less than 65%. Optimal classifications were obtained for textural measures that extracted sufficient information from the radar data to discriminate between radar facies but were insensitive to other facies specific characteristics. For example, the rotationally invariant Fourier-Mellin transform delivered better classification results than the spatial covariance because dip angle of the

  7. Objective Classification of Radar Profile Types, and Their Relationship to Lightning Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    A cluster analysis technique is used to identify 16 "archetypal" vertical radar profile types from a large, globally representative sample of profiles from the TRMM Precipitation Radar. These include nine convective types (7 of these deep convective) and seven stratiform types (5 of these clearly glaciated). Radar profile classification provides an alternative to conventional deep convective storm metrics, such as 30 dBZ echo height, maximum reflectivity or VIL. As expected, the global frequency of occurrence of deep convective profile types matches satellite-observed total lightning production, including to very small scall local features. Each location's "mix" of profile types provides an objective description of the local convective spectrum, and in turn, is a first step in objectively classifying convective regimes. These classifiers are tested as inputs to a neural network which attempts to predict lightning occurrence based on radar-only storm observations, and performance is compared with networks using traditional radar metrics as inputs.

  8. Effects of target shape and reflection on laser radar cross sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, O

    2000-08-20

    Laser radar cross sections have been evaluated for a number of ideal targets such as cones, spheres, paraboloids, and cylinders by use of different reflection characteristics. The time-independent cross section is the ratio of the cross section of one of these forms to that of a plate with the same maximum radius. The time-dependent laser radar cross section involves the impulse response from the object shape multiplied by the beam's transverse profile and the surface bidirectional reflection distribution function. It can be clearly seen that knowledge of the combined effect of object shape and reflection characteristics is important for determining the shape and the magnitude of the laser radar return. The results of this study are of interest for many laser radar applications such as ranging, three-dimensional imaging-modeling, tracking, antisensor lasers, and target recognition.

  9. Raindrop size distribution and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlenhoet, R.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of the radar reflectivity factor Z (mm6m-3) to rain rate R (mm h-1) is a crucial step in the hydrological application of weather radar measurements. It has been common practice for over 50 years now to take for this conversion a simple power law relationship between Z and R. It is the

  10. Reducing Surface Clutter in Cloud Profiling Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Pak, Kyung; Durden, Stephen; Im, Eastwood

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm has been devised to reduce ground clutter in the data products of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), which is a nadir-looking radar instrument, in orbit around the Earth, that measures power backscattered by clouds as a function of distance from the instrument. Ground clutter contaminates the CPR data in the lowest 1 km of the atmospheric profile, heretofore making it impossible to use CPR data to satisfy the scientific interest in studying clouds and light rainfall at low altitude. The algorithm is based partly on the fact that the CloudSat orbit is such that the geodetic altitude of the CPR varies continuously over a range of approximately 25 km. As the geodetic altitude changes, the radar timing parameters are changed at intervals defined by flight software in order to keep the troposphere inside a data-collection time window. However, within each interval, the surface of the Earth continuously "scans through" (that is, it moves across) a few range bins of the data time window. For each radar profile, only few samples [one for every range-bin increment ((Delta)r = 240 m)] of the surface-clutter signature are available around the range bin in which the peak of surface return is observed, but samples in consecutive radar profiles are offset slightly (by amounts much less than (Delta)r) with respect to each other according to the relative change in geodetic altitude. As a consequence, in a case in which the surface area under examination is homogenous (e.g., an ocean surface), a sequence of consecutive radar profiles of the surface in that area contains samples of the surface response with range resolution (Delta)p much finer than the range-bin increment ((Delta)p 10 dB and a reduction of the contaminated altitude over ocean from about 1 km to about 0.5 km (over the ocean). The algorithm has been embedded in CloudSat L1B processing as of Release 04 (July 2007), and the estimated flat surface clutter is removed in L2B-GEOPROF product from the

  11. High-resolution humidity profiles retrieved from wind profiler radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïd, Frédérique; Campistron, Bernard; Di Girolamo, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    The retrieval of humidity profiles from wind profiler radars has already been documented in the past 30 years and is known to be neither as straightforward and nor as robust as the retrieval of the wind velocity. The main constraint to retrieve the humidity profile is the necessity to combine measurements from the wind profiler and additional measurements (such as observations from radiosoundings at a coarser time resolution). Furthermore, the method relies on some assumptions and simplifications that restrict the scope of its application. The first objective of this paper is to identify the obstacles and limitations and solve them, or at least define the field of applicability. To improve the method, we propose using the radar capacity to detect transition levels, such as the top level of the boundary layer, marked by a maximum in the radar reflectivity. This forces the humidity profile from the free troposphere and from the boundary layer to coincide at this level, after an optimization of the calibration coefficients, and reduces the error. The resulting mean bias affecting the specific humidity profile never exceeds 0.25 g kg-1. The second objective is to explore the capability of the algorithm to retrieve the humidity vertical profiles for an operational purpose by comparing the results with observations from a Raman lidar.

  12. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  13. Comparison of FPS-16 radar/jimsphere and NASA's 50-MHz radar wind profiler turbulence indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the wind and turbulent regions from the surface to 16 km by the FPS-11 radar/jimsphere system are reported with particular attention given to the use of these turbulence and wind assessments to validate the NASA 50-MHz radar wind profiler. Wind profile statistics were compared at 150-m wavelengths, a wavelength validated from 20 jimspheres, simultaneously tracked by FPS-16 and FPQ-14 radar, and the resulting analysis of auto spectra, cross-spectra, and coherence squared spectra of the wind profiles. Results demonstrate that the NASA prototype wind profiler is an excellent monitoring device illustrating the measurements of the winds within 1/2 hour of launch zero.

  14. Sparse Representation Denoising for Radar High Resolution Range Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profile has attracted considerable attention in radar automatic target recognition. In practice, radar return is usually contaminated by noise, which results in profile distortion and recognition performance degradation. To deal with this problem, in this paper, a novel denoising method based on sparse representation is proposed to remove the Gaussian white additive noise. The return is sparsely described in the Fourier redundant dictionary and the denoising problem is described as a sparse representation model. Noise level of the return, which is crucial to the denoising performance but often unknown, is estimated by performing subspace method on the sliding subsequence correlation matrix. Sliding window process enables noise level estimation using only one observation sequence, not only guaranteeing estimation efficiency but also avoiding the influence of profile time-shift sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the return, leading to a high-quality profile.

  15. Wind profile radar for study of Antarctic air circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, E.; Sarango, M.F.; Vasquez, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief discussion of meteorological methods used in the Antarctic, the paper gives an outline of a coordinated international research project whose objective is to set up a wind profiler radar station that would give meteorologists information regarding Antarctic atmospheric dynamics useful in their investigation of the causes and effects of the hole in the ozone layer. The radar instrumentation is to provide continuous readings of wind velocity at varying altitudes above the polar continent

  16. UAV-Borne Profiling Radar for Forest Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave Radar is an attractive solution for forest mapping and inventories because microwave signals penetrates into the forest canopy and the backscattering signal can provide information regarding the whole forest structure. Satellite-borne and airborne imaging radars have been used in forest resources mapping for many decades. However, their accuracy with respect to the main forest inventory attributes substantially varies depending on the wavelength and techniques used in the estimation. Systems providing canopy backscatter as a function of canopy height are, practically speaking, missing. Therefore, there is a need for a radar system that would enable the scientific community to better understand the radar backscatter response from the forest canopy. Consequently, we undertook a research study to develop an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-borne profiling (i.e., waveform radar that could be used to improve the understanding of the radar backscatter response for forestry mapping and inventories. A frequency modulation continuous waveform (FMCW profiling radar, termed FGI-Tomoradar, was introduced, designed and tested. One goal is the total weight of the whole system is less than 7 kg, including the radar system and georeferencing system, with centimetre-level positioning accuracy. Achieving this weight goal would enable the FGI-Tomoradar system to be installed on the Mini-UAV platform. The prototype system had all four linear polarization measuring capabilities, with bistatic configuration in Ku-band. In system performance tests in this study, FGI-Tomoradar was mounted on a manned helicopter together with a Riegl VQ-480-U laser scanner and tested in several flight campaigns performed at the Evo site, Finland. Airborne laser scanning data was simultaneously collected to investigate the differences and similarities of the outputs for the same target area for better understanding the penetration of the microwave signal into the forest canopy

  17. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  18. Quantitative precipitation estimation in complex orography using quasi-vertical profiles of dual polarization radar variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Baldini, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Weather radars are nowadays a unique tool to estimate quantitatively the rain precipitation near the surface. This is an important task for a plenty of applications. For example, to feed hydrological models, mitigate the impact of severe storms at the ground using radar information in modern warning tools as well as aid the validation studies of satellite-based rain products. With respect to the latter application, several ground validation studies of the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) products have recently highlighted the importance of accurate QPE from ground-based weather radars. To date, a plenty of works analyzed the performance of various QPE algorithms making use of actual and synthetic experiments, possibly trained by measurement of particle size distributions and electromagnetic models. Most of these studies support the use of dual polarization variables not only to ensure a good level of radar data quality but also as a direct input in the rain estimation equations. Among others, one of the most important limiting factors in radar QPE accuracy is the vertical variability of particle size distribution that affects at different levels, all the radar variables acquired as well as rain rates. This is particularly impactful in mountainous areas where the altitudes of the radar sampling is likely several hundred of meters above the surface. In this work, we analyze the impact of the vertical profile variations of rain precipitation on several dual polarization radar QPE algorithms when they are tested a in complex orography scenario. So far, in weather radar studies, more emphasis has been given to the extrapolation strategies that make use of the signature of the vertical profiles in terms of radar co-polar reflectivity. This may limit the use of the radar vertical profiles when dual polarization QPE algorithms are considered because in that case all the radar variables used in the rain estimation process should be consistently extrapolated at the surface

  19. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  20. Improved estimation of heavy rainfall by weather radar after reflectivity correction and accounting for raindrop size distribution variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2015-04-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands, locally giving rise to rainfall accumulations exceeding 150 mm. Correctly measuring the amount of precipitation during such an extreme event is important, both from a hydrological and meteorological perspective. Unfortunately, the operational weather radar measurements were affected by multiple sources of error and only 30% of the precipitation observed by rain gauges was estimated. Such an underestimation of heavy rainfall, albeit generally less strong than in this extreme case, is typical for operational weather radar in The Netherlands. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two groups: (1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements (e.g. ground clutter, radar calibration, vertical profile of reflectivity) and (2) errors resulting from variations in the raindrop size distribution that in turn result in incorrect rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates from observed reflectivity measurements. A stepwise procedure to correct for the first group of errors leads to large improvements in the quality of the estimated precipitation, increasing the radar rainfall accumulations to about 65% of those observed by gauges. To correct for the second group of errors, a coherent method is presented linking the parameters of the radar reflectivity-rain rate (Z-R) and radar reflectivity-specific attenuation (Z-k) relationships to the normalized drop size distribution (DSD). Two different procedures were applied. First, normalized DSD parameters for the whole event and for each precipitation type separately (convective, stratiform and undefined) were obtained using local disdrometer observations. Second, 10,000 randomly generated plausible normalized drop size distributions were used for rainfall estimation, to evaluate whether this Monte Carlo method would improve the quality of weather radar rainfall products. Using the

  1. Microphysical retrievals from simultaneous polarimetric and profiling radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Morris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The character of precipitation detected at the surface is the final product of many microphysical interactions in the cloud above, the combined effects of which may be characterized by the observed drop size distribution (DSD. This necessitates accurate retrieval of the DSD from remote sensing data, especially radar as it offers large areal coverage, high spatial resolution, and rigorous quality control and testing. Combined instrument observations with a UHF wind profiler, an S-band polarimetric weather radar, and a video disdrometer are analyzed for two squall line events occuring during the calendar year 2007. UHF profiler Doppler velocity spectra are used to estimate the DSD aloft, and are complemented by DSDs retrieved from an exponential model applied to polarimetric data. Ground truth is provided by the disdrometer. A complicating factor in the retrieval from UHF profiler spectra is the presence of ambient air motion, which can be corrected using the method proposed by Teshiba et al. (2009, in which a comparison between idealized Doppler spectra calculated from the DSDs retrieved from KOUN and those retrieved from contaminated wind profiler spectra is performed. It is found that DSDs measured using the distrometer at the surface and estimated using the wind profiler and polarimetric weather radar generally showed good agreement. The DSD retrievals using the wind profiler were improved when the estimates of the vertical wind were included into the analysis, thus supporting the method of Teshiba et al. (2009. Furthermore, the the study presents a method of investigating the time and height structure of DSDs.

  2. Modeled Radar Attenuation Rate Profile at the Vostok 5G Ice Core Site, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a modeled radar attenuation rate profile, showing the predicted contributions from pure ice and impurities to radar attenuation at the Vostok...

  3. 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (915RWP) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R

    2005-01-01

    The 915 MHz radar wind profiler/radio acoustic sounding system (RWP/RASS) measures wind profiles and backscattered signal strength between (nominally) 0.1 km and 5 km and virtual temperature profiles between 0.1 km and 2.5 km. It operates by transmitting electromagnetic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and frequency of backscattered energy. Virtual temperatures are recovered by transmitting an acoustic signal vertically and measuring the electromagnetic energy scattered from the acoustic wavefront. Because the propagation speed of the acoustic wave is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature of the air, the virtual temperature can be recovered by measuring the Doppler shift of the scattered electromagnetic wave.

  4. AIRS-CloudSat cloud mask, radar reflectivities, and cloud classification matchups V3.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is AIRS-CloudSat collocated subset, in NetCDF 4 format. These data contain collocated: AIRS Level 1b radiances spectra, CloudSat radar reflectivities, and MODIS...

  5. A comparison on radar range profiles between in-flight measurements and RCS-predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are nut available. In this paper we present the results of a comparison on one-dimensional signatures, i.e. radar range profiles. The profiles

  6. Wind profile radar for study of Antarctic air circulation. Progetto di un radar 'wind-profiler' per lo studio della circolazione atmosferica antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaini, E.; Sarango, M.F.; Vasquez, E.H.

    1992-10-01

    After a brief discussion of meteorological methods used in the Antarctic, the paper gives an outline of a coordinated international research project whose objective is to set up a wind profiler radar station that would give meteorologists information regarding Antarctic atmospheric dynamics useful in their investigation of the causes and effects of the hole in the ozone layer. The radar instrumentation is to provide continuous readings of wind velocity at varying altitudes above the polar continent.

  7. High Ice Water Content at Low Radar Reflectivity near Deep Convection. Part I ; Consistency of In Situ and Remote-Sensing Observations with Stratiform Rain Column Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.; Williams, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Occurrences of jet engine power loss and damage have been associated with flight through fully glaciated deep convection at -10 to -50 degrees Centigrade. Power loss events commonly occur during flight through radar reflectivity (Zeta (sub e)) less than 20-30 decibels relative to Zeta (dBZ - radar returns) and no more than moderate turbulence, often overlying moderate to heavy rain near the surface. During 2010-2012, Airbus carried out flight tests seeking to characterize the highest ice water content (IWC) in such low-radar-reflectivity regions of large, cold-topped storm systems in the vicinity of Cayenne, Darwin, and Santiago. Within the highest IWC regions encountered, at typical sampling elevations (circa 11 kilometers), the measured ice size distributions exhibit a notably narrow concentration of mass over area-equivalent diameters of 100-500 micrometers. Given substantial and poorly quantified measurement uncertainties, here we evaluate the consistency of the Airbus in situ measurements with ground-based profiling radar observations obtained under quasi-steady, heavy stratiform rain conditions in one of the Airbus-sampled locations. We find that profiler-observed radar reflectivities and mean Doppler velocities at Airbus sampling temperatures are generally consistent with those calculated from in situ size-distribution measurements. We also find that column simulations using the in situ size distributions as an upper boundary condition are generally consistent with observed profiles of radar reflectivity (Ze), mean Doppler velocity (MDV), and retrieved rain rate. The results of these consistency checks motivate an examination of the microphysical pathways that could be responsible for the observed size-distribution features in Ackerman et al. (2015).

  8. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  9. Assimilation of radar reflectivity into the LM COSMO model with a high horizontal resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Řezáčová, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2006), s. 317-330 ISSN 1350-4827 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : precipitation forecast * assimilation * radar reflectivity * NWP model * local storm Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2006

  10. Design and Manufacture of a Low-Profile Radar Retro-Reflector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bird, Dudley

    2005-01-01

    .... Radar retro-reflectors are often passive, but active elements can be included to enhance the backscattered signal, or to modify it in some way, such as by the introduction of modulation or simulation of range profiles...

  11. An assimilation test of Doppler radar reflectivity and radial velocity from different height layers in improving the WRF rainfall forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiyang; Liu, Jia; Yan, Denghua; Li, Chuanzhe; Chu, Zhigang; Yu, Fuliang

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological forecasts require high-resolution and accurate rainfall information, which is one of the most difficult variables to be captured by the mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems. Radar data assimilation is an effective method for improving rainfall forecasts by correcting the initial and lateral boundary conditions of the NWP system. The aim of this study is to explore an efficient way of utilizing the Doppler radar observations for data assimilation, which is implemented by exploring the effect of assimilating radar data from different height layers on the improvement of the NWP rainfall accuracy. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for numerical rainfall forecast in the Zijingguan catchment located in the ;Jing-Jin-Ji; (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) Region of Northern China, and the three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3-DVar) technique is adopted to assimilate the radar data. Radar reflectivity and radial velocity are assimilated separately and jointly. Each type of radar data is divided into seven data sets according to the height layers: (1) 2000 m, and (7) all layers. The results show that radar reflectivity assimilation leads to better results than radial velocity assimilation. The accuracy of the forecasted rainfall deteriorates with the rise of the height of the assimilated radar reflectivity. The same results can be found when assimilating radar reflectivity and radial velocity at the same time. The conclusions of this study provide a reference for efficient assimilation of the radar data in improving the NWP rainfall products.

  12. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  13. The impact of reflectivity correction and accounting for raindrop size distribution variability to improve precipitation estimation by weather radar for an extreme low-land mesoscale convective system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-11-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands, locally giving rise to rainfall accumulations exceeding 150 mm. Correctly measuring the amount of precipitation during such an extreme event is important, both from a hydrological and meteorological perspective. Unfortunately, the operational weather radar measurements were affected by multiple sources of error and only 30% of the precipitation observed by rain gauges was estimated. Such an underestimation of heavy rainfall, albeit generally less strong than in this extreme case, is typical for operational weather radar in The Netherlands. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two groups: (1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements (e.g. ground clutter, radar calibration, vertical profile of reflectivity) and (2) errors resulting from variations in the raindrop size distribution that in turn result in incorrect rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates from observed reflectivity measurements. A stepwise procedure to correct for the first group of errors leads to large improvements in the quality of the estimated precipitation, increasing the radar rainfall accumulations to about 65% of those observed by gauges. To correct for the second group of errors, a coherent method is presented linking the parameters of the radar reflectivity-rain rate (Z - R) and radar reflectivity-specific attenuation (Z - k) relationships to the normalized drop size distribution (DSD). Two different procedures were applied. First, normalized DSD parameters for the whole event and for each precipitation type separately (convective, stratiform and undefined) were obtained using local disdrometer observations. Second, 10,000 randomly generated plausible normalized drop size distributions were used for rainfall estimation, to evaluate whether this Monte Carlo method would improve the quality of weather radar rainfall products. Using the

  14. Machine Learing Applications on a Radar Wind Profiler Deployment During the ARM GoAmazon2014/5 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, S. E.; WANG, D.; Hardin, J. C.; Mitchell, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the 2 year Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) campaign, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) collected a unique set of observations in a region of strong climatic significance near Manacapuru, Brazil. An important example for the beneficial observational record obtained by ARM during this campaign was that of the Radar Wind Profiler (RWP). This dataset has been previously documented for providing critical convective cloud vertical air velocity retrievals and precipitation properties (e.g., calibrated reflectivity factor Z, rainfall rates) under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Vertical air motion estimates to within deep convective cores such as those available from this RWP system have been previously identified as critical constraints for ongoing global climate modeling activities and deep convective cloud process studies. As an extended deployment within this `green ocean' region, the RWP site and collocated AMF surface gauge instrumentation experienced a unique hybrid of tropical and continental precipitation conditions, including multiple wet and dry season precipitation regimes, convective and organized stratiform storm dynamics and contributions to rainfall accumulation, pristine aerosol conditions of the locale, as well as the effects of the Manaus, Brazil, mega city pollution plume. For hydrological applications and potential ARM products, machine learning methods developed using this dataset are explored to demonstrate advantages in geophysical retrievals when compared to traditional methods. Emphasis is on performance improvements when providing additional information on storm structure and regime or echo type classifications. Since deep convective cloud dynamic insights (core updraft/downdraft properties) are difficult to obtain directly by conventional radars that also observe radar reflectivity factor profiles similar to RWP systems, we also

  15. Estimating radar reflectivity - snowfall rate relationships and their uncertainties over Antarctica by combining disdrometer and radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Lhermitte, Stef; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Kneifel, Stefan; Maahn, Maximilian; Bliven, Francis; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) is the largest ice body on earth, having a volume equivalent to 58.3 m global mean sea level rise. Precipitation is the dominant source term in the surface mass balance of the AIS. However, this quantity is not well constrained in both models and observations. Direct observations over the AIS are also not coherent, as they are sparse in space and time and acquisition techniques differ. As a result, precipitation observations stay mostly limited to continent-wide averages based on satellite radar observations. Snowfall rate (SR) at high temporal resolution can be derived from the ground-based radar effective reflectivity factor (Z) using information about snow particle size and shape. Here we present reflectivity snowfall rate relations (Z = aSRb) for the East Antarctic escarpment region using the measurements at the Princess Elisabeth (PE) station and an overview of their uncertainties. A novel technique is developed by combining an optical disdrometer (NASA's Precipitation Imaging Package; PIP) and a vertically pointing 24 GHz FMCW micro rain radar (Metek's MRR) in order to reduce the uncertainty in SR estimates. PIP is used to obtain information about snow particle characteristics and to get an estimate of Z, SR and the Z-SR relation. For PE, located 173 km inland, the relation equals Z = 18SR1.1. The prefactor (a) of the relation is sensitive to the median diameter of the particles. Larger particles, found closer to the coast, lead to an increase of the value of the prefactor. More inland locations, where smaller snow particles are found, obtain lower values for the prefactor. The exponent of the Z-SR relation (b) is insensitive to the median diameter of the snow particles. This dependence of the prefactor of the Z-SR relation to the particle size needs to be taken into account when converting radar reflectivities to snowfall rates over Antarctica. The uncertainty on the Z-SR relations is quantified using a bootstrapping approach

  16. Detection of hail signatures from single-polarization C-band radar reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Michael; Kugel, Petra I. S.

    2015-02-01

    Five different criteria that estimate hail signatures from single-polarization radar data are statistically evaluated over a 15-year period by categorical verification against loss data provided by a building insurance company. The criteria consider different levels or thresholds of radar reflectivity, some of them complemented by estimates of the 0 °C level or cloud top temperature. Applied to reflectivity data from a single C-band radar in southwest Germany, it is found that all criteria are able to reproduce most of the past damage-causing hail events. However, the criteria substantially overestimate hail occurrence by up to 80%, mainly due to the verification process using damage data. Best results in terms of highest Heidke Skill Score HSS or Critical Success Index CSI are obtained for the Hail Detection Algorithm (HDA) and the Probability of Severe Hail (POSH). Radar-derived hail probability shows a high spatial variability with a maximum on the lee side of the Black Forest mountains and a minimum in the broad Rhine valley.

  17. A brief history of the development of wind-profiling or MST radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Van Zandt

    Full Text Available The history of the development of the wind-profiling or MST radar technique is reviewed from its inception in the late 1960s to the present. Extensions of the technique by the development of boundary-layer radars and the radio-acoustic sounding system (RASS technique to measure temperature are documented. Applications are described briefly, particularly practical applications to weather forecasting, with data from networks of radars, and scientific applications to the study of rapidly varying atmospheric phenomena such as gravity waves and turbulence.

    Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques · Radio science (remote sensing; instruments and techniques

  18. A brief history of the development of wind-profiling or MST radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Van Zandt

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the development of the wind-profiling or MST radar technique is reviewed from its inception in the late 1960s to the present. Extensions of the technique by the development of boundary-layer radars and the radio-acoustic sounding system (RASS technique to measure temperature are documented. Applications are described briefly, particularly practical applications to weather forecasting, with data from networks of radars, and scientific applications to the study of rapidly varying atmospheric phenomena such as gravity waves and turbulence.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques · Radio science (remote sensing; instruments and techniques

  19. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  20. Active laser radar (lidar) for measurement of corresponding height and reflectance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Christoph; Mettenleiter, M.; Haertl, F.

    1997-08-01

    For the survey and inspection of environmental objects, a non-tactile, robust and precise imaging of height and depth is the basis sensor technology. For visual inspection,surface classification, and documentation purposes, however, additional information concerning reflectance of measured objects is necessary. High-speed acquisition of both geometric and visual information is achieved by means of an active laser radar, supporting consistent 3D height and 2D reflectance images. The laser radar is an optical-wavelength system, and is comparable to devices built by ERIM, Odetics, and Perceptron, measuring the range between sensor and target surfaces as well as the reflectance of the target surface, which corresponds to the magnitude of the back scattered laser energy. In contrast to these range sensing devices, the laser radar under consideration is designed for high speed and precise operation in both indoor and outdoor environments, emitting a minimum of near-IR laser energy. It integrates a laser range measurement system and a mechanical deflection system for 3D environmental measurements. This paper reports on design details of the laser radar for surface inspection tasks. It outlines the performance requirements and introduces the measurement principle. The hardware design, including the main modules, such as the laser head, the high frequency unit, the laser beam deflection system, and the digital signal processing unit are discussed.the signal processing unit consists of dedicated signal processors for real-time sensor data preprocessing as well as a sensor computer for high-level image analysis and feature extraction. The paper focuses on performance data of the system, including noise, drift over time, precision, and accuracy with measurements. It discuses the influences of ambient light, surface material of the target, and ambient temperature for range accuracy and range precision. Furthermore, experimental results from inspection of buildings, monuments

  1. AIRS-AMSU variables-CloudSat cloud mask, radar reflectivities, and cloud classification matchups V3.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is AIRS-CloudSat collocated subset, in NetCDF 4 format. These data contain collocated: AIRS/AMSU retrievals at AMSU footprints, CloudSat radar reflectivities,...

  2. Radar-based rainfall estimation: Improving Z/R relations through comparison of drop size distributions, rainfall rates and radar reflectivity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuper, Malte; Ehret, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    The relation between the measured radar reflectivity factor Z and surface rainfall intensity R - the Z/R relation - is profoundly complex, so that in general one speaks about radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) rather than exact measurement. Like in Plato's Allegory of the Cave, what we observe in the end is only the 'shadow' of the true rainfall field through a very small backscatter of an electromagnetic signal emitted by the radar, which we hope has been actually reflected by hydrometeors. The meteorological relevant and valuable Information is gained only indirectly by more or less justified assumptions. One of these assumptions concerns the drop size distribution, through which the rain intensity is finally associated with the measured radar reflectivity factor Z. The real drop size distribution is however subject to large spatial and temporal variability, and consequently so is the true Z/R relation. Better knowledge of the true spatio-temporal Z/R structure therefore has the potential to improve radar-based QPE compared to the common practice of applying a single or a few standard Z/R relations. To this end, we use observations from six laser-optic disdrometers, two vertically pointing micro rain radars, 205 rain gauges, one rawindsonde station and two C-band Doppler radars installed or operated in and near the Attert catchment (Luxembourg). The C-band radars and the rawindsonde station are operated by the Belgian and German Weather Services, the rain gauge data was partly provided by the French, Dutch, Belgian, German Weather Services and the Ministry of Agriculture of Luxembourg and the other equipment was installed as part of the interdisciplinary DFG research project CAOS (Catchment as Organized Systems). With the various data sets correlation analyzes were executed. In order to get a notion on the different appearance of the reflectivity patterns in the radar image, first of all various simple distribution indices (for example the

  3. Radar observations of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the radar altimetry profiles of Mercury obtained on the basis of data from the Arecibo Observatory are presented. In these measurements, the delay-Doppler method was used to measure altitudes along the Doppler equator, rather than to map radar reflectivity. The profiles, derived from observations made over a 6-yr period, provide extensive coverage over a restricted equatorial band and permit the identification of radar signatures for features as small as 50-km diameter craters and 1-km-high arcuate scarps. The data allowed identification of large-scale topographic features such as smooth plains subsidence zones and major highland regions

  4. Dynamic Gesture Recognition with a Terahertz Radar Based on Range Profile Sequences and Doppler Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Cao, Zongjie; Pi, Yiming

    2017-12-21

    The frequency of terahertz radar ranges from 0.1 THz to 10 THz, which is higher than that of microwaves. Multi-modal signals, including high-resolution range profile (HRRP) and Doppler signatures, can be acquired by the terahertz radar system. These two kinds of information are commonly used in automatic target recognition; however, dynamic gesture recognition is rarely discussed in the terahertz regime. In this paper, a dynamic gesture recognition system using a terahertz radar is proposed, based on multi-modal signals. The HRRP sequences and Doppler signatures were first achieved from the radar echoes. Considering the electromagnetic scattering characteristics, a feature extraction model is designed using location parameter estimation of scattering centers. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) extended to multi-modal signals is used to accomplish the classifications. Ten types of gesture signals, collected from a terahertz radar, are applied to validate the analysis and the recognition system. The results of the experiment indicate that the recognition rate reaches more than 91%. This research verifies the potential applications of dynamic gesture recognition using a terahertz radar.

  5. Characterization of tropical precipitation using drop size distribution and rain rate-radar reflectivity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Maitra, Animesh

    2018-04-01

    Characterization of precipitation is important for proper interpretation of rain information from remotely sensed data. Rain attenuation and radar reflectivity (Z) depend directly on the drop size distribution (DSD). The relation between radar reflectivity/rain attenuation and rain rate (R) varies widely depending upon the origin, topography, and drop evolution mechanism and needs further understanding of the precipitation characteristics. The present work utilizes 2 years of concurrent measurements of DSD using a ground-based disdrometer at five diverse climatic conditions in Indian subcontinent and explores the possibility of rain classification based on microphysical characteristics of precipitation. It is observed that both gamma and lognormal distributions are performing almost similar for Indian region with a marginally better performance by one model than other depending upon the locations. It has also been found that shape-slope relationship of gamma distribution can be a good indicator of rain type. The Z-R relation, Z = ARb, is found to vary widely for different precipitation systems, with convective rain that has higher values of A than the stratiform rain for two locations, whereas the reverse is observed for the rest of the three locations. Further, the results indicate that the majority of rainfall (>50%) in Indian region is due to the convective rain although the occurrence time of convective rain is low (<10%).

  6. Comparisons between high-resolution profiles of squared refractive index gradient M2 measured by the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs during the Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment 2015 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New comparisons between the square of the generalized potential refractive index gradient M2, estimated from the very high-frequency (VHF Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU Radar, located at Shigaraki, Japan, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV measurements are presented. These comparisons were performed at unprecedented temporal and range resolutions (1–4 min and  ∼  20 m, respectively in the altitude range  ∼  1.27–4.5 km from simultaneous and nearly collocated measurements made during the ShUREX (Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment 2015 campaign. Seven consecutive UAV flights made during daytime on 7 June 2015 were used for this purpose. The MU Radar was operated in range imaging mode for improving the range resolution at vertical incidence (typically a few tens of meters. The proportionality of the radar echo power to M2 is reported for the first time at such high time and range resolutions for stratified conditions for which Fresnel scatter or a reflection mechanism is expected. In more complex features obtained for a range of turbulent layers generated by shear instabilities or associated with convective cloud cells, M2 estimated from UAV data does not reproduce observed radar echo power profiles. Proposed interpretations of this discrepancy are presented.

  7. The impact of reflectivity correction and conversion methods to improve precipitation estimation by weather radar for an extreme low-land Mesoscale Convective System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands. For most of the country this led to over 15 hours of near-continuous precipitation, which resulted in total event accumulations exceeding 150 mm in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Such accumulations belong to the largest sums ever recorded in this country and gave rise to local flooding. Measuring precipitation by weather radar within such mesoscale convective systems is known to be a challenge, since measurements are affected by multiple sources of error. For the current event the operational weather radar rainfall product only estimated about 30% of the actual amount of precipitation as measured by rain gauges. In the current presentation we will try to identify what gave rise to such large underestimations. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two different groups: 1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements taken, and 2) errors related to the conversion of reflectivity values in rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates. To correct for the first group of errors, the quality of the weather radar reflectivity data was improved by successively correcting for 1) clutter and anomalous propagation, 2) radar calibration, 3) wet radome attenuation, 4) signal attenuation and 5) the vertical profile of reflectivity. Such consistent corrections are generally not performed by operational meteorological services. Results show a large improvement in the quality of the precipitation data, however still only ~65% of the actual observed accumulations was estimated. To further improve the quality of the precipitation estimates, the second group of errors are corrected for by making use of disdrometer measurements taken in close vicinity of the radar. Based on these data the parameters of a normalized drop size distribution are estimated for the total event as well as for each precipitation type separately (convective

  8. Modelling of ground penetrating radar data in stratified media using the reflectivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Armando R; Sen, Mrinal K; Stoffa, Paul L

    2008-01-01

    Horizontally layered media are often encountered in shallow exploration geophysics. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data in these environments can be modelled by techniques that are more efficient than finite difference (FD) or finite element (FE) schemes because the lateral homogeneity of the media allows us to reduce the dependence on the horizontal spatial variables through Fourier transforms on these coordinates. We adapt and implement the invariant embedding or reflectivity technique used to model elastic waves in layered media to model GPR data. The results obtained with the reflectivity and FDTD modelling techniques are in excellent agreement and the effects of the air–soil interface on the radiation pattern are correctly taken into account by the reflectivity technique. Comparison with real wide-angle GPR data shows that the reflectivity technique can satisfactorily reproduce the real GPR data. These results and the computationally efficient characteristics of the reflectivity technique (compared to FD or FE) demonstrate its usefulness in interpretation and possible model-based inversion schemes of GPR data in stratified media

  9. Quality Control of Wind Data from 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Upper-level wind profiles obtained from a 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) instrument at Kennedy Space Center are incorporated in space launch vehicle design and day-of-launch operations to assess wind effects on the vehicle during ascent. Automated and manual quality control (QC) techniques are implemented to remove spurious data in the upper-level wind profiles caused from atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts over the 2010-2012 period of record (POR). By adding the new quality controlled profiles with older profiles from 1997-2009, a robust database will be constructed of upper-level wind characteristics. Statistical analysis will determine the maximum, minimum, and 95th percentile of the wind components from the DRWP profiles over recent POR and compare against the older database. Additionally, this study identifies specific QC flags triggered during the QC process to understand how much data is retained and removed from the profiles.

  10. Using pattern recognition to automatically localize reflection hyperbolas in data from ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Christian; Schmalzl, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used for the localization of supply lines, land mines, pipes and many other buried objects. These objects can be recognized in the recorded data as reflection hyperbolas with a typical shape depending on depth and material of the object and the surrounding material. To obtain the parameters, the shape of the hyperbola has to be fitted. In the last years several methods were developed to automate this task during post-processing. In this paper we show another approach for the automated localization of reflection hyperbolas in GPR data by solving a pattern recognition problem in grayscale images. In contrast to other methods our detection program is also able to immediately mark potential objects in real-time. For this task we use a version of the Viola-Jones learning algorithm, which is part of the open source library "OpenCV". This algorithm was initially developed for face recognition, but can be adapted to any other simple shape. In our program it is used to narrow down the location of reflection hyperbolas to certain areas in the GPR data. In order to extract the exact location and the velocity of the hyperbolas we apply a simple Hough Transform for hyperbolas. Because the Viola-Jones Algorithm reduces the input for the computational expensive Hough Transform dramatically the detection system can also be implemented on normal field computers, so on-site application is possible. The developed detection system shows promising results and detection rates in unprocessed radargrams. In order to improve the detection results and apply the program to noisy radar images more data of different GPR systems as input for the learning algorithm is necessary.

  11. Numerical analysis on the absorption, reflection and transmission of radar waves by a uniform magnetized plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Deli; Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    The absorption, reflection, and transmission of radar waves by a uniform and magnetized plasma slab are studied. The effect of various plasma parameters and different values of magnetic field intensity on the absorbed, reflected and transmitted power are discussed. The calculated results show that the effects of magnetic field on the absorbed power as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant. More than 90% of radar wave power can be absorbed and the resonant absorption band is about 2G Hz

  12. Using radar wind profilers and RASS data to calculate power plant plume rise and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Y.J.; Gaynor, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    As the number of 915-MHz radar wind profilers and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS) increases, their number of uses also increases. These systems have demonstrated particular utility in air quality studies and, more specifically, in complex terrain. One data set from the radar profilers that has not, to date, been utilized to any large extent is represented by the temperature profiles derived from the RASS. Normally, these profiles represent a 5-min average every hour with a height resolution of about 60 m, a minimum range of about 100 m, and a maximum range of about 1.5 km, although this varies substantially with meterological conditions. Such profiles have several potential applications. Among them are determinations of mixing height and stability. In this work, we use the stability, along with the hour-averaged wind profiles, to estimate plume rise heights at a power plant site in Laughlin, Nevada, about 200 km south of Lake Mead. The profiles are first stratified according to season and synoptic categories so that the calculated plume rise heights could be separated by background transport conditions. The data were taken during Project Measurement of Haze and Visual Effects (MOHAVE), which took place in 1992. This project is briefly discussed in the next section, along with the instrumentation and data used in this study

  13. Using radar wind profilers and RASS data to calculate power plant plume rise and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Y.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gaynor, J.E. [NOAA/ERL Wave Propagation Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    As the number of 915-MHz radar wind profilers and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS) increases, their number of uses also increases. These systems have demonstrated particular utility in air quality studies and, more specifically, in complex terrain. One data set from the radar profilers that has not, to date, been utilized to any large extent is represented by the temperature profiles derived from the RASS. Normally, these profiles represent a 5-min average every hour with a height resolution of about 60 m, a minimum range of about 100 m, and a maximum range of about 1.5 km, although this varies substantially with meterological conditions. Such profiles have several potential applications. Among them are determinations of mixing height and stability. In this work, we use the stability, along with the hour-averaged wind profiles, to estimate plume rise heights at a power plant site in Laughlin, Nevada, about 200 km south of Lake Mead. The profiles are first stratified according to season and synoptic categories so that the calculated plume rise heights could be separated by background transport conditions. The data were taken during Project Measurement of Haze and Visual Effects (MOHAVE), which took place in 1992. This project is briefly discussed in the next section, along with the instrumentation and data used in this study.

  14. Simulador de radar meteorológico basado en modelo de Reflectividades en el espacio; Weather radar simulator based on space Reflectivity distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladímir Rodríguez Diez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los radares meteorológicos son potentes instrumentos de medición de potencia eléctrica. Los simuladores de radar permiten estudiar la influencia de todos sus parámetros en las mediciones que realiza. Su aplicación en laactualidad comprende el estudio de la influencia de las propiedades físicas de los hidrometeoros y la configuración del radar en la observación; y el estudio del desempeño de los modelos climáticos a partir de la confrontación de lasalida del simulador con la observación real. En este trabajo se utiliza como entrada al simulador una distribución de Reflectividades (parámetro proporcional a la potencia retornada en la atmósfera; obviando la compleja relación que existe entre esta última y las propiedades físicas del blanco meteorológico. El resultado es un simulador que posibilita el estudio de los efectos de patrón de escaneo de la atmósfera y el esquema de adquisición yprocesamientos de los datos, sobre la percepción de un blanco meteorológico. Weather radar are powerful measurement instruments for electric power. Radar simulators allows to investigate the influence of its parameter on measurements.Its application comprehend the study of influence of hydrometeor's physical properties and radar configurations in observation; and the study of climate model performance upon the confrontation of simulator output versus actual observations. In this work simulator input is given as a spacial reflectivity (proportional to returned power distribution in atmosphere, obviating the complex relation between this and physical properties of meteorological target. The result is a simulator for the study of volume scan pattern and acquisition and processing scheme effects on weather target observation.

  15. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.W. Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, Greg; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna. Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m. Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures. Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  16. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  17. Quantitative detection of mass concentration of sand-dust storms via wind-profiling radar and analysis of Z- M relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minzhong; Ming, Hu; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Lianhui; Yang, Di

    2018-02-01

    With the aim to achieve quantitative monitoring of sand-dust storms in real time, wind-profiling radar is applied to monitor and study the process of four sand-dust storms in the Tazhong area of the Taklimakan Desert. Through evaluation and analysis of the spatial-temporal distribution of reflectivity factor, it is found that reflectivity factor ranges from 2 to 18 dBz under sand-dust storm weather. Using echo power spectrum of radar vertical beams, sand-dust particle spectrum and sand-dust mass concentration at the altitude of 600 ˜ 1500 m are retrieved. This study shows that sand-dust mass concentration reaches 700 μg/m3 under blowing sand weather, 2000 μg/m3 under sand-dust storm weather, and 400 μg/m3 under floating dust weather. The following equations are established to represent the relationship between the reflectivity factor and sand-dust mass concentration: Z = 20713.5 M 0.995 under floating dust weather, Z = 22988.3 M 1.006 under blowing sand weather, and Z = 24584.2 M 1.013 under sand-dust storm weather. The retrieval results from this paper are almost consistent with previous monitoring results achieved by former researchers; thus, it is implied that wind-profiling radar can be used as a new reference device to quantitatively monitor sand-dust storms.

  18. Mesoscale kinematics derived from X-band Doppler radar observations of convective versus stratiform precipitation and comparison with GPS radiosonde profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sachin M.; Dhangar, N.; Das, S. K.; Kalapureddy, M. C. R.; Chakravarty, K.; Sonbawne, S.; Konwar, M.

    2015-11-01

    Single Doppler analysis techniques known as velocity azimuth display (VAD) and volume velocity processing (VVP) are used to analyze kinematics of mesoscale flow such as horizontal wind and divergence using X-band Doppler weather radar observations, for selected cases of convective, stratiform, and shallow cloud systems near tropical Indian sites Pune (18.58°N, 73.92°E, above sea level (asl) 560 m) and Mandhardev (18.51°N, 73.85°E, asl 1297 m). The vertical profiles of horizontal wind estimated from radar VVP/VAD methods agree well with GPS radiosonde profiles, with the low-level jet at about 1.5 km during monsoon season well depicted in both. The vertical structure and temporal variability of divergence and reflectivity profiles are indicative of the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of shallow convective, deep convective, and stratiform cloud systems. In shallow convective systems, vertical development of reflectivity profiles is limited below 5 km. In deep convective systems, reflectivity values as large as 55 dBZ were observed above freezing level. The stratiform system shows the presence of a reflectivity bright band (~35 dBZ) near the melting level. The diagnosed vertical profiles of divergence in convective and stratiform systems are distinct. In shallow convective conditions, convergence was seen below 4 km with divergence above. Low-level convergence and upper level divergence are observed in deep convective profiles, while stratiform precipitation has midlevel convergence present between lower level and upper level divergence. The divergence profiles in stratiform precipitation exhibit intense shallow layers of "melting convergence" at 0°C level, near 4.5 km altitude, with a steep gradient on the both sides of the peak. The level of nondivergence in stratiform situations is lower than that in convective situations. These observed vertical structures of divergence are largely indicative of latent heating profiles in the atmosphere, an

  19. Ground-Based Observations and Modeling of the Visibility and Radar Reflectivity in a Radiation Fog Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, R.; Baltink, K.H.; Hemink, H.J.; Bosveld, F.C.; Moerman, M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a radiation fog layer at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research(51.97°N, 4.93°E) on 23 March 2011 was observed with ground-based in situ and remote sensing observationsto investigate the relationship between visibility and radar reflectivity. The fog layer thickness

  20. Interpretation of the distortion of ground-penetrating radar propagated and reflected waves - development of a multi-frequency tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollender, F.

    1999-01-01

    Within the framework of research for waste disposal in deep geological formations, the French agency for nuclear waste management (ANDRA) has to dispose of non-destructive investigation methods to characterize the medium. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) could be used for this purpose in the case of granitic sites. The work presented here deals with this geophysical method. The classical interpretation of GPR data consists in the localization of geological discontinuities by signal amplitude or arrival time analysis. The main objective of our studies is the interpretation of the radar wave distortion (due to propagation and reflection phenomena), not only to localize discontinuities but also to contribute to their identification. Three preliminary studies have been carried out in order to understand on the one hand, the complexity of the electromagnetic phenomena in the geological medium at radar frequency, and on the other hand, the radar equipment constraints. First, the dispersion and the attenuation characterized by a Q variable factor of the GPR waves are shown with the support of dielectric laboratory measurements. A model, which only requires three parameters, is proposed in order to describe this behavior. Second, the radiation patterns of borehole radar antenna are studied. We show that the amplitude and frequency content of the emitted signal are variable versus the emission angle. An analytical method is proposed to study these phenomena. Finally, instrumental drifts of GPR equipment are studied. Emission time, sampling frequency and amplitude fluctuations are described. These elements are taken into account for the processing of propagated signals by tomographic inversion. Medium anisotropy and borehole trajectory errors are inserted in algorithms in order to cancel artifacts which compromised the previous interpretation. A pre-processing method, based on wave separation algorithm, is applied on data in order to increase tomogram resolution. A new

  1. Three-dimensional fusion of spaceborne and ground radar reflectivity data using a neural network-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Leilei; Wang, Zhuihui; Xu, Fen

    2018-03-01

    The spaceborne precipitation radar onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM PR) can provide good measurement of the vertical structure of reflectivity, while ground radar (GR) has a relatively high horizontal resolution and greater sensitivity. Fusion of TRMM PR and GR reflectivity data may maximize the advantages from both instruments. In this paper, TRMM PR and GR reflectivity data are fused using a neural network (NN)-based approach. The main steps included are: quality control of TRMM PR and GR reflectivity data; spatiotemporal matchup; GR calibration bias correction; conversion of TRMM PR data from Ku to S band; fusion of TRMM PR and GR reflectivity data with an NN method; interpolation of reflectivity data that are below PR's sensitivity; blind areas compensation with a distance weighting-based merging approach; combination of three types of data: data with the NN method, data below PR's sensitivity and data within compensated blind areas. During the NN fusion step, the TRMM PR data are taken as targets of the training NNs, and gridded GR data after horizontal downsampling at different heights are used as the input. The trained NNs are then used to obtain 3D high-resolution reflectivity from the original GR gridded data. After 3D fusion of the TRMM PR and GR reflectivity data, a more complete and finer-scale 3D radar reflectivity dataset incorporating characteristics from both the TRMM PR and GR observations can be obtained. The fused reflectivity data are evaluated based on a convective precipitation event through comparison with the high resolution TRMM PR and GR data with an interpolation algorithm.

  2. Vertical Cloud Climatology During TC4 Derived from High-Altitude Aircraft Merged Lidar and Radar Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, Dennis; Tian, Lin; Hart, William; Li, Lihua; McGill, Matthew; Heymsfield, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Aircraft lidar works by shooting laser pulses toward the earth and recording the return time and intensity of any of the light returning to the aircraft after scattering off atmospheric particles and/or the Earth s surface. The scattered light signatures can be analyzed to tell the exact location of cloud and aerosol layers and, with the aid of a few optical assumptions, can be analyzed to retrieve estimates of optical properties such as atmospheric transparency. Radar works in a similar fashion except it sends pulses toward earth at a much larger wavelength than lidar. Radar records the return time and intensity of cloud or rain reflection returning to the aircraft. Lidar can measure scatter from optically thin cirrus and aerosol layers whose particles are too small for the radar to detect. Radar can provide reflection profiles through thick cloud layers of larger particles that lidar cannot penetrate. Only after merging the two instrument products can accurate measurements of the locations of all layers in the full atmospheric column be achieved. Accurate knowledge of the vertical distribution of clouds is important information for understanding the Earth/atmosphere radiative balance and for improving weather/climate forecast models. This paper describes one such merged data set developed from the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment based in Costa Rica in July-August 2007 using the nadir viewing Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) and the Cloud Radar System (CRS) on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Statistics were developed concerning cloud probability through the atmospheric column and frequency of the number of cloud layers. These statistics were calculated for the full study area, four sub-regions, and over land compared to over ocean across all available flights. The results are valid for the TC4 experiment only, as preferred cloud patterns took priority during mission planning. The TC4 Study Area was a very cloudy region, with cloudy

  3. Seismic-reflection and ground penetrating radar for environmental site characterization. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumb, R.; Steeples, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    'The project''s goals are threefold: (1) to examine the complementary site-characterization capabilities of modern, three-component shallow-seismic techniques and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methods at depths ranging from 2 to 8 m at an existing test site; (2) to demonstrate the usefulness of the two methods when used in concert to characterize, in three-dimensions, the cone of depression of a pumping well, which will serve as a proxy site for fluid-flow at an actual, polluted site; and (3) to use the site as an outdoor mesoscale laboratory to validate existing three-dimensional ground-penetrating radar and seismic-reflection computer models developed at the Univ. of Kansas. To do this, useful seismic and GPR data are being collected along the same line(s) and within the same depth range. The principal investigators selected a site in central Kansas as a primary location and, although the site itself is not environmentally sensitive, the location chosen offers particularly useful attributes for this research and will serve as a proxy site for areas that are contaminated. As part of an effort to evaluate the strengths of each method, the authors will repeat the seismic and GPR surveys on a seasonal basis to establish how the complementary information obtained varies over time. Because the water table fluctuates at this site on a seasonal basis, variations in the two types of data over time also can be observed. Such noninvasive in-situ methods of identifying and characterizing the hydrologic flow regimes at contaminated sites support the prospect of developing effective, cost-conscious cleanup strategies in the near future. As of the end of May 1998, the project is on schedule. The first field work was conducted using both of the geophysical survey methods in October of 1997, and the second field survey employed both methods in March of 1998. One of the stated tasks is to reoccupy the same survey line on a quarterly basis for two years to examine change in both

  4. HRR Profiling on Integrated Radar-Communication Systems Using OFDM-PCSF Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanxuan Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve both the transmission data rate and the range resolution simultaneously in integrated radar-communication (RadCom systems, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing with phase-coded and stepped-frequency (OFDM-PCSF waveform is proposed. A corresponding high resolution range (HRR profile generation method is also presented. We first perform OFDM-PCSF waveform design by combining the intrapulse phase coding with the interpulse stepped-frequency modulation. We then give the ambiguity function (AF based on the presented waveforms. Then, the synthetic range profile (SRP processing to achieve HRR performance is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed methods can achieve HRR profiles of the targets and high data rate transmissions, while a relative low computational complexity can be achieved.

  5. Hardware requirements: A new generation partial reflection radar for studies of the equatorial mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A new partial reflection (PR) radar is being developed for operation at the proposed Equatorial Observatory. The system is being designed to make maximum use of recent advances in solid-state technology in order to minimize the power requirements. In particular, it is planned to use a solid-state transmitter in place of the tube transmitters previously used in PR systems. Solid-state transmitters have the advantages that they do not need high voltage supplies, they do not require cathode heaters with a corresponding saving in power consumption and parts are readily available and inexpensive. It should be possible to achieve 15 kW peak powers with recently announced fast switching transistors. Since high mean powers are desirable for obtaining good signal-to-noise ratios, it is also planned to phase code the transmitted pulses and decode after coherent integration. All decoding and signal processing will be carried out in dedicated microprocessors before the signals are passed to a microcomputer for on-line analysis. Recent tests have shown that an Olivetti M24 micro (an IBM compatible) running an 8-MHz clock with a 8087 coprocessor can analyze data at least as fast as the minicomputers presently being used with the Adelaide PR rad ar and at a significantly lower cost. The processed winds data will be stored in nonvolatile CMOS RAM modules; about 0.5 to 1 Mbyte is required to store one week's information.

  6. Quantifying uncertainties in radar forward models through a comparison between CloudSat and SPartICus reflectivity factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascio, Jeana; Mace, Gerald G.

    2017-02-01

    Interpretations of remote sensing measurements collected in sample volumes containing ice-phase hydrometeors are very sensitive to assumptions regarding the distributions of mass with ice crystal dimension, otherwise known as mass-dimensional or m-D relationships. How these microphysical characteristics vary in nature is highly uncertain, resulting in significant uncertainty in algorithms that attempt to derive bulk microphysical properties from remote sensing measurements. This uncertainty extends to radar reflectivity factors forward calculated from model output because the statistics of the actual m-D in nature is not known. To investigate the variability in m-D relationships in cirrus clouds, reflectivity factors measured by CloudSat are combined with particle size distributions (PSDs) collected by coincident in situ aircraft by using an optimal estimation-based (OE) retrieval of the m-D power law. The PSDs were collected by 12 flights of the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet during the Small Particles in Cirrus campaign. We find that no specific habit emerges as preferred, and instead, we find that the microphysical characteristics of ice crystal populations tend to be distributed over a continuum-defying simple categorization. With the uncertainties derived from the OE algorithm, the uncertainties in forward-modeled backscatter cross section and, in turn, radar reflectivity is calculated by using a bootstrapping technique, allowing us to infer the uncertainties in forward-modeled radar reflectivity that would be appropriately applied to remote sensing simulator algorithms.

  7. The effect of recombination and attachment on meteor radar diffusion coefficient profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Younger, J. P.; Reid, I. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, J.-H.

    2013-04-01

    Estimates of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient producedusing meteor radar echo decay times display an increasing trend below 80-85 km, which is inconsistent with a diffusion-only theory of the evolution of meteor trails. Data from the 33 MHz meteor radar at King Sejong Station, Antarctica, have been compared with observations from the Aura Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder satellite instrument. It has been found that the height at which the diffusion coefficient gradient reverses follows the height of a constant neutral atmospheric density surface. Numerical simulations of meteor trail diffusion including dissociative recombination with atmospheric ions and three-body attachment of free electrons to neutral molecules indicate that three-body attachment is responsible for the distortion of meteor radar diffusion coefficient profiles at heights below 90 km, including the gradient reversal below 80-85 km. Further investigation has revealed that meteor trails with low initial electron line density produce decay times more consistent with a diffusion-only model of meteor trail evolution.

  8. Assimilation of extrapolated radar reflectivity into a NWP model and its impact on a precipitation forecast at high resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 100, 2-3 (2011), s. 201-212 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905; GA MŠk ME09033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Precipitation forecast * Nowcasting * Assimilation of radar reflectivity * Numerical weather prediction * Convective storms Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809510002462

  9. 2002/2003 IfSAR data for Southern California: Radar Reflectance Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of topographic elevation point data derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR)...

  10. Low complexity joint estimation of reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift for MIMO-radar by exploiting 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation yields the best performance. For this problem, the ML estimation requires

  11. AirMOSS P-Band Radar Retrieval of Subcanopy Soil Moisture Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Burgin, M. S.; Duan, X.; Moghaddam, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture, as a key variable of the Earth system, plays an important role in our under-standing of the global water, energy, and carbon cycles. The importance of such knowledge has led NASA to fund missions such as Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS). The AirMOSS mission seeks to improve the estimates of the North American Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) by providing high-resolution observations of the root zone soil moisture (RZSM) over regions representative of the major North American biomes. AirMOSS flies a P-band SAR to penetrate vegetation and into the root zone to provide estimates of RZSM. The flights cover areas containing flux tower sites in regions from the boreal forests in Saskatchewan, Canada, to the tropical forests in La Selva, Costa Rica. The radar snapshots are used to generate estimates of RZSM via inversion of a scattering model of vegetation overlying soils with variable moisture profiles. These retrievals will be used to generate a time record of RZSM, which will be integrated with an ecosystem demography model in order to estimate the respiration and photosynthesis carbon fluxes. The aim of this work is the retrieval of the moisture profile over AirMOSS sites using the collected P-band radar data. We have integrated layered-soil scattering models into a forest scattering model; for the backscattering from ground and for the trunk-ground double-bounce mechanism, we have used a layered small perturbation method and a coherent scattering model of layered soil, respectively. To estimate the soil moisture profile, we represent it as a second-order polynomial in the form of az2 + bz + c, where z is the depth and a, b, and c are the coefficients to be retrieved from radar measurements. When retrieved, these coefficients give us the soil moisture up to a prescribed depth of validity. To estimate the unknown coefficients of the polynomial, we use simulated

  12. Development of a Climatology of Vertically Complete Wind Profiles from Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the QC and splicing methodology for KSC's 50- and 915-MHz DRWP measurements that generates an extensive archive of vertically complete profiles from 0.20-18.45 km. The concurrent POR from each archive extends from April 2000 to December 2009. MSFC NE applies separate but similar QC processes to each of the 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives. DRWP literature and data examination provide the basis for developing and applying the automated and manual QC processes on both archives. Depending on the month, the QC'ed 50- and 915-MHz DRWP archives retain 52-65% and 16-30% of the possible data, respectively. The 50- and 915-MHz DRWP QC archives retain 84-91% and 85-95%, respectively, of all the available data provided that data exist in the non- QC'ed archives. Next, MSFC NE applies an algorithm to splice concurrent measurements from both DRWP sources. Last, MSFC NE generates a composite profile from the (up to) five available spliced profiles to effectively characterize boundary layer winds and to utilize all possible 915-MHz DRWP measurements at each timestamp. During a given month, roughly 23,000-32,000 complete profiles exist from 0.25-18.45 km from the composite profiles' archive, and approximately 5,000- 27,000 complete profiles exist from an archive utilizing an individual 915-MHz DRWP. One can extract a variety of profile combinations (pairs, triplets, etc.) from this sample for a given application. The sample of vertically complete DRWP wind measurements not only gives launch vehicle customers greater confidence in loads and trajectory assessments versus using balloon output, but also provides flexibility to simulate different DOL situations across applicable altitudes. In addition to increasing sample size and providing more flexibility for DOL simulations in the vehicle design phase, the spliced DRWP database provides any upcoming launch vehicle program with the capability to utilize DRWP profiles on DOL to compute vehicle steering

  13. Efficiency of four-plasmon interaction in the reflection of a radar signal from the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    The problem, whether electromagnetic scattering by plasma turbulence pulsations of the solar corona can provide the necessary power of radar echo, is investigated. Expressions for the effective scattering cross-section have been obtained for two cases: 1) when the electromagnetic wave is scattered by Langmuir turbulence of an isotropic plasma; 2) when the wave is scattered on the ion-acoustic waves. The numerical estimates obtained show that four-plasmon interactions of the electromagnetic radiation and the coronal turbulent pulsations are an effective mechanism which can explain the results of radar observations of the Sun

  14. Quality Control Algorithms for the Kennedy Space Center 50-Megahertz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Winds Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the process used by the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) to quality control (QC) data from the Kennedy Space Center's 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler for use in vehicle wind loads and steering commands. The database has been built to mitigate limitations of using the currently archived databases from weather balloons. The DRWP database contains wind measurements from approximately 2.7-18.6 km altitude at roughly five minute intervals for the August 1997 to December 2009 period of record, and the extensive QC process was designed to remove spurious data from various forms of atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts. The QC process is largely based on DRWP literature, but two new algorithms have been developed to remove data contaminated by convection and excessive first guess propagations from the Median Filter First Guess Algorithm. In addition to describing the automated and manual QC process in detail, this paper describes the extent of the data retained. Roughly 58% of all possible wind observations exist in the database, with approximately 100 times as many complete profile sets existing relative to the EV44 balloon databases. This increased sample of near-continuous wind profile measurements may help increase launch availability by reducing the uncertainty of wind changes during launch countdown

  15. Nowcasting of precipitation by an NWP model using assimilation of extrapolated radar reflectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr, jr.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 665 (2012), s. 1072-1082 ISSN 0035-9009 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation forecast * radar extrapolation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/qj.970/abstract

  16. TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EDOP provides vertically profiled reflectivity and Doppler velocity at aircraft nadir along the flight track. The ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) is an X-band (9.6...

  17. The Earthcare Cloud Profiling Radar, its PFM development status (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Hirotaka; Tomita, Eichi; Aida, Yoshihisa; Seki, Yoshihiro; Okada, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Kenta; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Tomiyama, Nobuhiro; Ohno, Yuichi; Horie, Hiroaki; Sato, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    The Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission is joint mission between Europe and Japan for the launch year of 2018. Mission objective is to improve scientific understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation interactions that is one of the biggest uncertain factors for numerical climate and weather predictions. The EarthCARE spacecraft equips four instruments such as an ultra violet lidar (ATLID), a cloud profiling radar (CPR), a broadband radiometer (BBR), and a multi-spectral imager (MSI) and perform complete synergy observation to observe aerosols, clouds and their interactions simultaneously from the orbit. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is responsible for development of the CPR in this EarthCARE mission and the CPR will be the first space-borne W-band Doppler radar. The CPR is defined with minimum radar sensitivity of -35dBz (6dB better than current space-borne cloud radar, i.e. CloudSat, NASA), radiometric accuracy of 2.7 dB, and Doppler velocity measurement accuracy of less than 1.3 m/s. These specifications require highly accurate pointing technique in orbit and high power source with large antenna dish. JAXA and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) have been jointly developed this CPR to meet these strict requirements so far and then achieved the development such as new CFRP flex-core structure, long life extended interaction klystron, low loss quasi optical feed technique, and so on. Through these development successes, CPR development phase has been progressed to critical design phase. In addition, new ground calibration technique is also being progressed for launch of EarthCARE/CPR. The unique feature of EarthCARE CPR is vertical Doppler velocity measurement capability. Vertical Doppler velocity measurement is very attractive function from the science point of view, because vertical motions of cloud particles are related with cloud microphysics and dynamics. However, from engineering point of

  18. Fast comparison of IS radar code sequences for lag profile inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lehtinen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A fast method for theoretically comparing the posteriori variances produced by different phase code sequences in incoherent scatter radar (ISR experiments is introduced. Alternating codes of types 1 and 2 are known to be optimal for selected range resolutions, but the code sets are inconveniently long for many purposes like ground clutter estimation and in cases where coherent echoes from lower ionospheric layers are to be analyzed in addition to standard F-layer spectra.

    The method is used in practice for searching binary code quads that have estimation accuracy almost equal to that of much longer alternating code sets. Though the code sequences can consist of as few as four different transmission envelopes, the lag profile estimation variances are near to the theoretical minimum. Thus the short code sequence is equally good as a full cycle of alternating codes with the same pulse length and bit length. The short code groups cannot be directly decoded, but the decoding is done in connection with more computationally expensive lag profile inversion in data analysis.

    The actual code searches as well as the analysis and real data results from the found short code searches are explained in other papers sent to the same issue of this journal. We also discuss interesting subtle differences found between the different alternating codes by this method. We assume that thermal noise dominates the incoherent scatter signal.

  19. Analysis of X-band radar images for the detection of the reflected and diffracted waves in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Natale, Antonio; Soldovieri, Francesco; Vicinanza, Diego; Serafino, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The observation of nearshore waves and the knowledge of the sea state parameters can play a crucial role for the safety of harbors and ocean engineering. In the last two decades, different algorithms for the estimation of sea state parameters, surface currents and bathymetry from X-band radar data have been developed and validated [1, 2]. The retrieval of ocean wave parameters such as significant height, period, direction and wavelength of the dominant wave is based on the spectral analysis of data sequences collected by nautical X-band radars [3]. In particular, the reconstruction of the wave motion is carried out through the inversion procedure explained in [1-3], which exploits the dispersion relationship to define a band pass filter used to separate the energy associated with the ocean waves from the background noise. It is worth to note that the shape of such a band pass filter depends upon the value of both the surface currents and bathymetry; in our reconstruction algorithm these parameters are estimated through the (Normalized Scalar Product) procedure [1], which outperforms other existing methods (e.g., the Least Squares) [4]. From the reconstructed wave elevation sequences we can get the directional spectrum that provides useful information (i.e., wavelength, period, direction and amplitude) relevant to the main waves contributing to the wave motion. Of course, in coastal zones a number of diffraction and reflection phenomena can be observed, due to sea-waves impinging obstacles as jetties, breakwaters and boats. In the present paper we want to show the capability to detect reflected and diffracted sea-waves offered by the processing of X-band radar data. Further details relevant to the obtained results will be provided in the full paper and at the conference time. References [1] F. Serafino, C. Lugni, F. Soldovieri, "A novel strategy for the surface current determination from marine X-Band radar data", IEEE Geosci. and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 7, no

  20. Retrieval of convective boundary layer wind field statistics from radar profiler measurements in conjunction with large eddy simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Scipión

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The daytime convective boundary layer (CBL is characterized by strong turbulence that is primarily forced by buoyancy transport from the heated underlying surface. The present study focuses on an example of flow structure of the CBL as observed in the U.S. Great Plains on June 8, 2007. The considered CBL flow has been reproduced using a numerical large eddy simulation (LES, sampled with an LES-based virtual boundary layer radar (BLR, and probed with an actual operational radar profiler. The LES-generated CBL flow data are then ingested by the virtual BLR and treated as a proxy for prevailing atmospheric conditions. The mean flow and turbulence parameters retrieved via each technique (actual radar profiler, virtual BLR, and LES have been cross-analyzed and reasonable agreement was found between the CBL wind parameters obtained from the LES and those measured by the actual radar. Averaged vertical velocity variance estimates from the virtual and actual BLRs were compared with estimates calculated from the LES for different periods of time. There is good agreement in the estimates from all three sources. Also, values of the vertical velocity skewness retrieved by all three techniques have been inter-compared as a function of height for different stages of the CBL evolution, showing fair agreement with each other. All three retrievals contain positively skewed vertical velocity structure throughout the main portion of the CBL. Radar estimates of the turbulence kinetic energy (eddy dissipation rate (ε have been obtained based on the Doppler spectral width of the returned signal for the vertical radar beam. The radar estimates were averaged over time in the same fashion as the LES output data. The agreement between estimates was generally good, especially within the mixing layer. Discrepancies observed above the inversion layer may be explained by a weak turbulence signal in particular flow configurations. The virtual BLR produces voltage

  1. Performance of the first European 482 MHz wind profiler radar with RASS under operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, H.; Engelbart, D.; Goersdorf, U.; Lehmann, V.; Neisser, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium; Dibbern, J.; Neuschaefer, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    The first 482 MHz wind profiler radar (WPR) in Europe completed with a radio-acoustic sounding system (RASS) has been operated at the meteorological observatory Lindenberg since July 3rd, 1996 after a comprehensive study regarding the investigation of frequency compatibility between the WPR and the television channel 22 (478-486 MHz). The WPR can operate with different height and time resolutions (e.g. 250 m in the so-called low mode or 500 m in the high mode). A height range of up to approximately 16 km can be realized in the high mode. The installed WPR/RASS combination allows also the measurement of profiles of the virtual temperature with the low mode resolution in the height range from 500 m up to approximately 4000 m. The main objective of this contribution is the investigation of the accuracy and the availability of this new remote sensing system. First results of the accuracy can be given on the base of about 1000 intercomparisons between WPR/RASS and rawinsonde data. The bias of the horizontal wind velocities is less than 0.4 m/s in the low mode and 0.7 m/s in the high mode (from 3 to 10 km) and therefore smaller than the average accuracy of both systems. The bias of the temperature measurements is less than 1 K and can be improved by some corrections in future. A first statistics of the data availability can be shown based on nearly 6000 profiles of wind and temperature. The 80% availability of the WPR/RASS was determined with 12.8 km for wind and 2.3 km for temperature measurements. The new possibilities of investigating the troposphere as well as the lowest part of the stratosphere are presented by measurement examples from February and March 1997. (orig.) 22 refs.

  2. Synthetic range profiling, ISAR imaging of sea vessels and feature extraction, using a multimode radar to classify targets: initial results from field trials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdul Gaffar, MY

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available tanazi@kacst.edu.sa, aazamil@kacst.edu.sa Abstract?This paper describes the design and working principles of an experimental multimode radar with a stepped-frequency Synthetic Range Profiling (SRP) and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR...

  3. In-flight measurements and RCS-predictions: A comparison on broad-side radar range profiles of a Boeing 737

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are not available. In this paper we present the first results of a comparison on one dimensional images, i.e., radar range profiles. The

  4. High-resolution geophysical profiling using a stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noon, D; Longstaff, D [The University of Queensland, (Australia)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) system which uses stepped-frequency waveforms to obtain high-resolution geophysical profiles. The main application for this system is the high-resolution mapping of thin coal seam structures, in order to assist surface mining operations in open-cut coal mines. The required depth of penetration is one meter which represents the maximum thickness of coal seams that are designated `thin`. A resolution of five centimeters is required to resolve the minimum thickness of coal (or shale partings) which can be economically recovered in an open-cut coal mine. For this application, a stepped-frequency GPR system has been developed, because of its ultrawide bandwidth (1 to 2 GHz) and high external loop sensitivity (155 dB). The field test results of the stepped-frequency GPR system on a concrete pavement and at two Australian open-cut coal mines are also presented. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Attention-Based Recurrent Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine for Radar High Resolution Range Profile Sequence Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP recognition has attracted great concern in the field of Radar Automatic Target Recognition (RATR. However, traditional HRRP recognition methods failed to model high dimensional sequential data efficiently and have a poor anti-noise ability. To deal with these problems, a novel stochastic neural network model named Attention-based Recurrent Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine (ARTRBM is proposed in this paper. RTRBM is utilized to extract discriminative features and the attention mechanism is adopted to select major features. RTRBM is efficient to model high dimensional HRRP sequences because it can extract the information of temporal and spatial correlation between adjacent HRRPs. The attention mechanism is used in sequential data recognition tasks including machine translation and relation classification, which makes the model pay more attention to the major features of recognition. Therefore, the combination of RTRBM and the attention mechanism makes our model effective for extracting more internal related features and choose the important parts of the extracted features. Additionally, the model performs well with the noise corrupted HRRP data. Experimental results on the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR dataset show that our proposed model outperforms other traditional methods, which indicates that ARTRBM extracts, selects, and utilizes the correlation information between adjacent HRRPs effectively and is suitable for high dimensional data or noise corrupted data.

  6. Integration of seismic reflection and geologically balanced profiles; Integration reflexionsseismischer und geologisch bilanzierter Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, A. [Trappe Erdoel Erdgas Consultant, Isernhagen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Geophysics and geology employ different kinds of techniques in order to preserve the underground structure. These techniques are based on different sets of data, i.e. seismic or geological data. A sensible combination of the two techniques should produce a better model of the ground structure. This study attempts to integrate geologically balanced profiles and seismic reflection data. A balanced geological profile can than be compared with seismic reflection data measured in the field. The geological model is then changed into a seismic model of the underground by means of seismic modeling. Synthetic modeling is based on the acquisition of available field data. The synthetic stack section or the synthetic migration image are then compared to the field data. Deviations between the two can be attributed to speed errors and the fact that balances will never give an unequivocal solution but always present a group of solutions. (orig. MSK). [Deutsch] In der Geophysik und der Geologie werden verschiedene Techniken verwendet, um die Untergrundstruktur zu erhalten. Diese Techniken basieren auf verschiedenen Datensaetzen, z.B. seismische und geologische Daten. Eine sinnvolle Kombination der Techniken sollte ein besseres Abbild des Untergrundes liefern. In dieser Studie wird ein Versuch unternommen geologisch bilanzierte Profile und reflexionsseismische Daten zu integrieren. Soll ein bilanziertes geologisches Profil mit im Feld gemessenen reflexionsseismischen Daten verglichen werden, dann wird das geologische Modell mit Hilfe der seismischen Modellierung in ein seismisches Abbild des Untergrundes verwandelt. Dabei wird die synthetische Modellierung entsprechend der Aquisition der vorliegenden Felddaten durchgefuehrt. Die synthetische Stapelsektion oder das synthetische Migrationsimage werden anschliessend mit den Felddaten verglichen. Abweichungen zwischen beobachteten und Felddaten haben ihre Ursachen sowohl in Geschwindigkeitsfehlern, als auch in der Tatsache, dass eine

  7. Combined wind profiler-weather radar observations of orographic rainband around Kyushu, Japan in the Baiu season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Umemoto

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A special observation campaign (X-BAIU, using various instruments (wind profilers, C-band weather radars, X-band Doppler radars, rawinsondes, etc., was carried out in Kyushu (western Japan during the Baiu season, from 1998 to 2002. In the X-BAIU-99 and -02 observations, a line-shaped orographic rainband extending northeastward from the Koshikijima Islands appeared in the low-level strong wind with warm-moist airs. The weather radar observation indicated that the rainband was maintained for 11h. The maximum length and width of the rainband observed in 1999 was ~200km and ~20km, respectively. The rainband observed in 2002 was not so developed compared with the case in 1999. The Froude number averaged from sea level to the top of the Koshikijima Islands (~600m was large (>1, and the lifting condensation level was below the tops of the Koshikijima Islands. Thus, it is suggested that the clouds organizing the rainband are formed by the triggering of the mountains on the airflow passing over them. The vertical profile of horizontal wind in/around the rainband was investigated in the wind profiler observations. In the downdraft region 60km from the Koshikijima Islands, strong wind and its clockwise rotation with increasing height was observed below 3km altitude. In addition, a strong wind component perpendicular to the rainband was observed when the rainband was well developed. These wind behaviors were related to the evolution of the rainband.

  8. Ice thickness profile surveying with ground penetrating radar at Artesonraju Glacier, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Rabatel, Antoine; McKinney, Daene; Condom, Thomas; Cochacin, Alejo; Davila Roller, Luzmilla

    2014-05-01

    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resource systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glaciers in terms of thickness changes. In the upper Paron Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Peru), an emerging lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Artesonraju Glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create slides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Artesonraju Glacier and underlying bedrock can give us an idea of how the lake is likely to evolve in the coming decades. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2013 at the Artesonraju Glacier as part of a collaboration between the Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos (UGRH) of Peru, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of France and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) of the United States of America. Two different GPR units belonging to UGRH and UT were used for subsurface imaging to create ice thickness profiles and to characterize the total volume of ice in the glacier. A common midpoint

  9. Characterizing the degree of convective clustering using radar reflectivity and its application to evaluating model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W. Y.; Kim, D.; Rowe, A.; Park, S.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the impact of mesoscale convective organization on the properties of convection (e.g., mixing between updrafts and environment), parameterizing the degree of convective organization has only recently been attempted in cumulus parameterization schemes (e.g., Unified Convection Scheme UNICON). Additionally, challenges remain in determining the degree of convective organization from observations and in comparing directly with the organization metrics in model simulations. This study addresses the need to objectively quantify the degree of mesoscale convective organization using high quality S-PolKa radar data from the DYNAMO field campaign. One of the most noticeable aspects of mesoscale convective organization in radar data is the degree of convective clustering, which can be characterized by the number and size distribution of convective echoes and the distance between them. We propose a method of defining contiguous convective echoes (CCEs) using precipitating convective echoes identified by a rain type classification algorithm. Two classification algorithms, Steiner et al. (1995) and Powell et al. (2016), are tested and evaluated against high-resolution WRF simulations to determine which method better represents the degree of convective clustering. Our results suggest that the CCEs based on Powell et al.'s algorithm better represent the dynamical properties of the convective updrafts and thus provide the basis of a metric for convective organization. Furthermore, through a comparison with the observational data, the WRF simulations driven by the DYNAMO large-scale forcing, similarly applied to UNICON Single Column Model simulations, will allow us to evaluate the ability of both WRF and UNICON to simulate convective clustering. This evaluation is based on the physical processes that are explicitly represented in WRF and UNICON, including the mechanisms leading to convective clustering, and the feedback to the convective properties.

  10. Ground-Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways: Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Table, and Thaw Settlement over Ice-Rich Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    along either massive ice surfaces or within sections of segregated ice. The uninsulated ice surface at Tok in Figure 17B is irregular. All of the...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 14 ERDC’s Center-Directed Research Program Ground -Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways...August 2016 Ground -Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Table, and Thaw

  11. The Comparison of Canopy Height Profiles Extracted from Ku-band Profile Radar Waveforms and LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An airborne Ku-band frequency-modulated continuous waveform (FM-CW profiling radar, Tomoradar, records the backscatter signal from the canopy surface and the underlying ground in the southern boreal forest zone of Finland. The recorded waveforms are transformed into canopy height profiles (CHP with a similar methodology utilized in large-footprint light detection and ranging (LiDAR. The point cloud data simultaneously collected by a Velodyne® VLP-16 LiDAR on-board the same platform represent the frequency of discrete returns, which are also applied to the extraction of the CHP by calculating the gap probability and incremental distribution. To thoroughly explore the relationships of the CHP derived from Tomoradar waveforms and LiDAR data we utilized the effective waveforms of one-stripe field measurements and comparison them with four indicators, including the correlation coefficient, the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the difference, and the coefficient of determination and the RMSE of residuals of linear regression. By setting the Tomoradar footprint as 20 degrees to contain over 95% of the transmitting energy of the main lobe, the results show that 88.17% of the CHPs derived from Tomoradar waveforms correlated well with those from the LiDAR data; 98% of the RMSEs of the difference ranged between 0.002 and 0.01; 79.89% of the coefficients of determination were larger than 0.5; and 98.89% of the RMSEs of the residuals ranged from 0.001 to 0.01. Based on the investigations, we discovered that the locations of the greatest CHP derived from the Tomoradar were obviously deeper than those from the LiDAR, which indicated that the Tomoradar microwave signal had a stronger penetration capability than the LiDAR signal. Meanwhile, there are smaller differences (the average RMSEs of differences is only 0.0042 when the total canopy closure is less than 0.5 and better linear regression results in an area with a relatively open canopy than with a denser

  12. Profile reconstruction from neutron reflectivity data and a priori knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeb, H.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of incomplete and noisy information in profile reconstruction from neutron reflectometry data is considered. In particular methods of Bayesian statistics in combination with modelling or inverse scattering techniques are considered in order to properly include the required a priori knowledge to obtain quantitatively reliable estimates of the reconstructed profiles. Applying Bayes theorem the results of different experiments on the same sample can be consistently included in the profile reconstruction

  13. Constraining mass-diameter relations from hydrometeor images and cloud radar reflectivities in tropical continental and oceanic convective anvils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, E.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Delanoë, J.; Wobrock, W.; Leroy, D.; Dupuy, R.; Gourbeyre, C.; Protat, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this study the density of ice hydrometeors in tropical clouds is derived from a combined analysis of particle images from 2-D-array probes and associated reflectivities measured with a Doppler cloud radar on the same research aircraft. Usually, the mass-diameter m(D) relationship is formulated as a power law with two unknown coefficients (pre-factor, exponent) that need to be constrained from complementary information on hydrometeors, where absolute ice density measurement methods do not apply. Here, at first an extended theoretical study of numerous hydrometeor shapes simulated in 3-D and arbitrarily projected on a 2-D plan allowed to constrain the exponent βof the m(D) relationship from the exponent σ of the surface-diameterS(D)relationship, which is likewise written as a power law. Since S(D) always can be determined for real data from 2-D optical array probes or other particle imagers, the evolution of the m(D) exponent can be calculated. After that, the pre-factor α of m(D) is constrained from theoretical simulations of the radar reflectivities matching the measured reflectivities along the aircraft trajectory. The study was performed as part of the Megha-Tropiques satellite project, where two types of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) were investigated: (i) above the African continent and (ii) above the Indian Ocean. For the two data sets, two parameterizations are derived to calculate the vertical variability of m(D) coefficients α and β as a function of the temperature. Originally calculated (with T-matrix) and also subsequently parameterized m(D) relationships from this study are compared to other methods (from literature) of calculating m(D) in tropical convection. The significant benefit of using variable m(D) relations instead of a single m(D) relationship is demonstrated from the impact of all these m(D) relations on Z-CWC (Condensed Water Content) and Z-CWC-T-fitted parameterizations.

  14. Non-Cooperative Target Recognition by Means of Singular Value Decomposition Applied to Radar High Resolution Range Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising.

  15. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Olivier; Ritz, Catherine; Parrenin, Frédéric; Urbini, Stefano; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF), which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice-bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km × 130 km area, with a N-S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m-2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  16. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Passalacqua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF, which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice–bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km  ×  130 km area, with a N–S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m−2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  17. Modified Hitschfeld-Bordan Equations for Attenuation-Corrected Radar Rain Reflectivity: Application to Nonuniform Beamfilling at Off-Nadir Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Liao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    As shown by Takahashi et al., multiple path attenuation estimates over the field of view of an airborne or spaceborne weather radar are feasible for off-nadir incidence angles. This follows from the fact that the surface reference technique, which provides path attenuation estimates, can be applied to each radar range gate that intersects the surface. This study builds on this result by showing that three of the modified Hitschfeld-Bordan estimates for the attenuation-corrected radar reflectivity factor can be generalized to the case where multiple path attenuation estimates are available, thereby providing a correction to the effects of nonuniform beamfilling. A simple simulation is presented showing some strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  18. Application of wind-profiling radar data to the analysis of dust weather in the Taklimakan Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minzhong; Wei, Wenshou; Ruan, Zheng; He, Qing; Ge, Runsheng

    2013-06-01

    The Urumqi Institute of Desert Meteorology of the China Meteorological Administration carried out an atmospheric scientific experiment to detect dust weather using a wind-profiling radar in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert in April 2010. Based on the wind-profiling data obtained from this experiment, this paper seeks to (a) analyze the characteristics of the horizontal wind field and vertical velocity of a breaking dust weather in a desert hinterland; (b) calculate and give the radar echo intensity and vertical distribution of a dust storm, blowing sand, and floating dust weather; and (c) discuss the atmosphere dust counts/concentration derived from the wind-profiling radar data. Studies show that: (a) A wind-profiling radar is an upper-air atmospheric remote sensing system that effectively detects and monitors dust. It captures the beginning and ending of a dust weather process as well as monitors the sand and dust being transported in the air in terms of height, thickness, and vertical intensity. (b) The echo intensity of a blowing sand and dust storm weather episode in Taklimakan is about -1~10 dBZ while that of floating dust -1~-15 dBZ, indicating that the dust echo intensity is significantly weaker than that of precipitation but stronger than that of clear air. (c) The vertical shear of horizontal wind and the maintenance of low-level east wind are usually dynamic factors causing a dust weather process in Taklimakan. The moment that the low-level horizontal wind field finds a shear over time, it often coincides with the onset of a sand blowing and dust storm weather process. (d) When a blowing sand or dust storm weather event occurs, the atmospheric vertical velocity tends to be of upward motion. This vertical upward movement of the atmosphere supported with a fast horizontal wind and a dry underlying surface carries dust particles from the ground up to the air to form blown sand or a dust storm.

  19. Reconstruction of fiber grating refractive-index profiles from complex bragg reflection spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D W; Yang, C C

    1999-07-20

    Reconstruction of the refractive-index profiles of fiber gratings from their complex Bragg reflection spectra is experimentally demonstrated. The amplitude and phase of the complex reflection spectrum were measured with a balanced Michelson interferometer. By integrating the coupled-mode equations, we built the relationship between the complex coupling coefficient and the complex reflection spectrum as an iterative algorithm for reconstructing the index profile. This method is expected to be useful for reconstructing the index profiles of fiber gratings with any apodization, chirp, or dc structures. An apodized chirped grating and a uniform grating with a depression of index modulation were used to demonstrate the technique.

  20. Metabolite profiling of CHO cells: Molecular reflections of bioprocessing effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellick, C.A.; Croxford, A.S.; Maqsood, A.R.; Stephens, G.M.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Goodacre, R.; Dickson, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Whilst development of medium and feeds has provided major advances in recombinant protein production in CHO cells, the fundamental understanding is limited. We have applied metabolite profiling with established robust (GC-MS) analytics to define the molecular loci by which two yield-enhancing feeds

  1. Evaluation of radar reflectivity factor simulations of ice crystal populations from in situ observations for the retrieval of condensed water content in tropical mesoscale convective systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fontaine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evaluation of a technique to estimate cloud condensed water content (CWC in tropical convection from airborne cloud radar reflectivity factors at 94 GHz and in situ measurements of particle size distributions (PSDs and aspect ratios of ice crystal populations. The approach is to calculate from each 5 s mean PSD and flight-level reflectivity the variability of all possible solutions of m(D relationships fulfilling the condition that the simulated radar reflectivity factor (T-matrix method matches the measured radar reflectivity factor. For the reflectivity simulations, ice crystals were approximated as oblate spheroids, without using a priori assumptions on the mass–size relationship of ice crystals. The CWC calculations demonstrate that individual CWC values are in the range ±32 % of the retrieved average CWC value over all CWC solutions for the chosen 5 s time intervals. In addition, during the airborne field campaign performed out of Darwin in 2014, as part of the international High Altitude Ice Crystals/High Ice Water Content (HAIC/HIWC projects, CWCs were measured independently with the new IKP-2 (isokinetic evaporator probe instrument along with simultaneous particle imagery and radar reflectivity. Retrieved CWCs from the T-matrix radar reflectivity simulations are on average 16 % higher than the direct CWCIKP measurements. The differences between the CWCIKP and averaged retrieved CWCs are found to be primarily a function of the total number concentration of ice crystals. Consequently, a correction term is applied (as a function of total number concentration that significantly improves the retrieved CWC. After correction, the retrieved CWCs have a median relative error with respect to measured values of only −1 %. Uncertainties in the measurements of total concentration of hydrometeors are investigated in order to calculate their contribution to the relative error of calculated CWC with respect to

  2. 4-D-VAR assimilation of disdrometer data and radar spectral reflectivities for raindrop size distribution and vertical wind retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, François; Chazottes, Aymeric; Barthès, Laurent; Mallet, Cécile

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for retrieving the vertical raindrop size distribution (DSD) and vertical wind profiles during light rain events. This is also intended as a tool to better characterize rainfall microphysical processes. It consists in coupling K band Doppler spectra and ground disdrometer measurements (raindrop fluxes) in a 2-D numerical model propagating the DSD from the clouds to the ground level. The coupling is done via a 4-D-VAR data assimilation algorithm. As a first step, in this paper, the dynamical model and the geometry of the problem are quite simple. They do not allow the complexity implied by all rain microphysical processes to be encompassed (evaporation, coalescence breakup and horizontal air motion are not taken into account). In the end, the model is limited to the fall of droplets under gravity, modulated by the effects of vertical winds. The framework is thus illustrated with light, stratiform rain events. We firstly use simulated data sets (data assimilation twin experiment) to show that the algorithm is able to retrieve the DSD profiles and vertical winds. It also demonstrates the ability of the algorithm to deal with the atmospheric turbulence (broadening of the Doppler spectra) and the instrumental noise. The method is then applied to a real case study which was conducted in the southwest of France during the autumn 2013. The data set collected during a long, quiet event (6 h duration, rain rate between 2 and 7 mm h-1) comes from an optical disdrometer and a 24 GHz vertically pointing Doppler radar. We show that the algorithm is able to reproduce the observations and retrieve realistic DSD and vertical wind profiles, when compared to what could be expected for such a rain event. A goal for this study is to apply it to extended data sets for a validation with independent data, which could not be done with our limited 2013 data. Other data sets would also help to parameterize more processes needed in the model (evaporation

  3. Quality-Controlled Wind Data from the Kennedy Space Center 915 Megahertz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has installed a five-instrument 915-Megahertz (MHz) Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) system that records atmospheric wind profile properties. The purpose of these profilers is to fill data gaps between the top of the KSC wind tower network and the lowest measurement altitude of the KSC 50-MHz DRWP. The 915-MHz DRWP system has the capability to generate three-dimensional wind data outputs from approximately 150 meters (m) to 6,000 m at roughly 15-minute (min) intervals. NASA s long-term objective is to combine the 915-MHz and 50-MHz DRWP systems to create complete vertical wind profiles up to 18,300 m to be used in trajectory and loads analyses of space vehicles and by forecasters on day-of-launch (DOL). This analysis utilizes automated and manual quality control (QC) processes to remove erroneous and unrealistic wind data returned by the 915-MHz DRWP system. The percentage of data affected by each individual QC check in the period of record (POR) (i.e., January to April 2006) was computed, demonstrating the variability in the amount of data affected by the QC processes. The number of complete wind profiles available at given altitude thresholds for each profiler in the POR was calculated and outputted graphically, followed by an assessment of the number of complete wind profiles available for any profiler in the POR. A case study is also provided to demonstrate the QC process on a day of a known weather event.

  4. Site investigation SFR. Reprocessing of reflection seismic profiles 5b and 8, Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Zhang, Fengjiao (Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Reflection seismic profiles 5b and 8 in the northern Forsmark area have been reprocessed with the aim of improving the images in the uppermost 500 metres in the SFR area. The main conclusion is that a new reflection (B10) has been identified that may extend below the SFR site. This reflection was not clearly observed in the previous processing. The reflection strikes approximately N25E and dips at about 35 degrees to the southeast. This orientation is similar to the set B group identified earlier /Juhlin and Palm 2005/. Note that the dip of the reflection is uncertain. On shot gathers it appears to dip at a slightly shallower angle while on the stacked sections it appears to dip at a greater angle. This discrepancy is probably due to the crooked nature of the profiles. However, reflections are clearly observed in shot gathers and its presence below SFR is highly probable. Two new reflections were also identified further north along profile 5b (A11 and A12). These dip to the south-southeast, but would be found at a depth of 1-2 km below SFR if they extend to below the site. There are also signs of a 3rd reflection with similar orientation to the set A group identified earlier, A13, but its existence is very speculative. This reflector would intersect the surface within the SFR area. South of the Singoe deformation zone on profile 5b, another new reflection has been found, N1. The orientation of this reflection is speculative since it is not clearly seen on profile 8. It has been modelled as dipping to the north at about 35 degrees and projects to the surface south of the main SFR area. In addition, the orientation of reflection B7 has been revised as has the lateral extent of A1. Most importantly, A1 is now interpreted not to extend to the surface and not cross the Singoe deformation zone

  5. Monitoring structure development in milk acidification using diffuse reflectance profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Andersen, Ulf; Møller, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    are needed so that the production can be carried out consistently, regardless of day-to-day variations in the raw materials. Casein micelles aggregate during milk acidification, which leads to formation of a gel network. This change of structure is important for the development of a range of dairy products......, protein, and temperature in the acidification process is conducted. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate how the change of these parameters affects the diffuse reflectance properties as well as to demonstrate the relation between the optical parameters and structure formation in milk......The structure of dairy products is important for the consumer, and milk acidification plays a central role for structural development. To ensure the best possible consumer experience, it is important that a product’s structural properties are stable. Therefore process and quality control tools...

  6. Latent Heating Profiles Derived from ARM Radar Observations in MC3E and GoAmazon Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Q.; Li, R.; Mu, Z.; Giangrande, S. E.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Atmosphere latent heating (LH) is released through water phase change processes in the atmosphere. There is a physical connection between LH rate and updraft velocity (ω) inside clouds. In this study, we develop a new LH algorithm based on a quantified LH-ω relationship found in cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations. The self-consistency check with CRM simulations shows that the retrievals correctly replicate the main features of LH profiles, including their total and individual components (i.e. condensation-evaporation heating rate, deposition-sublimation heating rate, and freezing-melting heating rate). Further, the algorithm is applied to real cases from the DOE-ARM MC3E and GoAmazon2014/6 Field Campaigns using available UHF (915 and 1290 MHz) zenith radar retrievals of vertical velocity and rain rate as input. The retrieved LH profiles in the deep convective rains show positive heating throughout the column, the LH profiles in the stratiform rains with well-defined bright-band showing clear dipole patterns with positive heating above and negative cooling below the freezing level. The altitudes of maximum heating in the widespread stratiform regimes are clearly higher than those found within deep convective regions. Overall, these Latent heating rate profiles, as an important geophysical quantity of interest, can provide useful climate diagnostic data, and ultimately, constraints for model-based analyses of large-scale heating distributions.

  7. A Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Profile to Reflect Temporal Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Beiser, Alexa; McLure, Leslie A.; Wolf, Philip A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Howard, Virginia J; Westwood, Andrew J.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Sullivan, Lisa; Aparicio, Hugo J.; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Ritchie, Karen; Kase, Carlos S.; Pikula, Aleksandra; Romero, Jose R.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Samieri, Cécilia; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Chêne, Genevieve; Howard, George; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Background Age-adjusted stroke incidence has decreased over the past 50 years, likely due to changes in the prevalence and impact of various stroke risk factors. An updated version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) might better predict current risks in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and other cohorts. We compared the accuracy of the standard (Old), and of a revised (New) version of the FSRP in predicting the risk of all-stroke and ischemic stroke, and validated this new FSRP in two external cohorts, the 3 Cities (3C) and REGARDS studies. Methods We computed the old FSRP as originally described, and a new model that used the most recent epoch-specific risk factors' prevalence and hazard-ratios for persons ≥ 55 years and for the subsample ≥ 65 years (to match the age range in REGARDS and 3C studies respectively), and compared the efficacy of these models in predicting 5- and 10-year stroke risks. Results The new FSRP was a better predictor of current stroke risks in all three samples than the old FSRP (Calibration chi-squares of new/old FSRP: in men 64.0/12.1, 59.4/30.6 and 20.7/12.5; in women 42.5/4.1, 115.4/90.3 and 9.8/6.5 in FHS, REGARDS and 3C, respectively). In the REGARDS, the new FSRP was a better predictor among whites compared to blacks. Conclusions A more contemporaneous, new FSRP better predicts current risks in 3 large community samples and could serve as the basis for examining geographic and racial differences in stroke risk and the incremental diagnostic utility of novel stroke risk factors. PMID:28159800

  8. Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Profile to Reflect Temporal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Beiser, Alexa; McLure, Leslie A; Wolf, Philip A; Tzourio, Christophe; Howard, Virginia J; Westwood, Andrew J; Himali, Jayandra J; Sullivan, Lisa; Aparicio, Hugo J; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Ritchie, Karen; Kase, Carlos S; Pikula, Aleksandra; Romero, Jose R; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Samieri, Cécilia; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Chêne, Genevieve; Howard, George; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-03-21

    Age-adjusted stroke incidence has decreased over the past 50 years, likely as a result of changes in the prevalence and impact of various stroke risk factors. An updated version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) might better predict current risks in the FHS (Framingham Heart Study) and other cohorts. We compared the accuracy of the standard (old) and of a revised (new) version of the FSRP in predicting the risk of all-stroke and ischemic stroke and validated this new FSRP in 2 external cohorts, the 3C (3 Cities) and REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) studies. We computed the old FSRP as originally described and a new model that used the most recent epoch-specific risk factor prevalence and hazard ratios for individuals ≥55 years of age and for the subsample ≥65 years of age (to match the age range in REGARDS and 3C studies, respectively) and compared the efficacy of these models in predicting 5- and 10-year stroke risks. The new FSRP was a better predictor of current stroke risks in all 3 samples than the old FSRP (calibration χ 2 of new/old FSRP: in men: 64.0/12.1, 59.4/30.6, and 20.7/12.5; in women: 42.5/4.1, 115.4/90.3, and 9.8/6.5 in FHS, REGARDS, and 3C, respectively). In the REGARDS, the new FSRP was a better predictor among whites compared with blacks. A more contemporaneous, new FSRP better predicts current risks in 3 large community samples and could serve as the basis for examining geographic and racial differences in stroke risk and the incremental diagnostic utility of novel stroke risk factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Application of model-based spectral analysis to wind-profiler radar observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, E. [ENS, Cachan (France). LESiR; Petitdidier, M.; Corneil, W. [CETP, Velizy (France); Adnet, C. [THALES Air Dfense, Bagneux (France); Larzabal, P. [ENS, Cachan (France). LESiR; IUT, Cachan (France). CRIIP

    2001-08-01

    A classical way to reduce a radar's data is to compute the spectrum using FFT and then to identify the different peak contributions. But in case an overlapping between the different echoes (atmospheric echo, clutter, hydrometer echo..) exists, Fourier-like techniques provide poor frequency resolution and then sophisticated peak-identification may not be able to detect the different echoes. In order to improve the number of reduced data and their quality relative to Fourier spectrum analysis, three different methods are presented in this paper and applied to actual data. Their approach consists of predicting the main frequency-components, which avoids the development of very sophisticated peak-identification algorithms. The first method is based on cepstrum properties generally used to determine the shift between two close identical echoes. We will see in this paper that this method cannot provide a better estimate than Fourier-like techniques in an operational use. The second method consists of an autoregressive estimation of the spectrum. Since the tests were promising, this method was applied to reduce the radar data obtained during two thunderstorms. The autoregressive method, which is very simple to implement, improved the Doppler-frequency data reduction relative to the FFT spectrum analysis. The third method exploits a MUSIC algorithm, one of the numerous subspace-based methods, which is well adapted to estimate spectra composed of pure lines. A statistical study of performances of this method is presented, and points out the very good resolution of this estimator in comparison with Fourier-like techniques. Application to actual data confirms the good qualities of this estimator for reducing radar's data. (orig.)

  10. Examples of application of electrical tomographies and radar profiling to cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an integrated application of the self-potential and resistivity methods to the recognition of buried remains in the archaeological site of Sumhuram (Khor-Rouri, Oman, and of the self-potential, resistivity and radar methods to the assessment of the state of conservation of the Aksum obelisk (Rome, Italy. A tomographic approach based on the concept of anomaly source occurrence probability was used for the analysis of the self-potential and resistivity data. Tomographic imaging provided reliable space patterns of the most probable specific target boundaries and notably improved the information quality of each single geophysical method.

  11. Analysis of the profile characteristics of corn and soybeans using field reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    The typical patterns of spectral development (profiles) for corn and soybeans are presented, based on field-collected reflectance data transformed to correspond to LANDSAT-MSS Tasseled Cap coordinates. Reasonable variations in field conditions and cultural practices are shown to significantly influence profile features. The separability of the two crops is determined to be primarily related to the maximum value of the reflectance equivalent of Greenness, and to the plateau effect seen in corn Greenness profiles. The impact of changes in conditions on separability is described. In addition, association is made between profile features and stages of development for corn and soybeans. Corn is shown to peak at a stage well before tasseling or maximum LAI, while the characteristics of the soybean profile are shown to be unrelated to any particular stage of development.

  12. High resolution vertical profiles of wind, temperature and humidity obtained by computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data from the ITCZ experiment of 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, E. F.; Hipskind, R. S.; Gaines, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data obtained during the ITCZ experiment when coordinated measurements were taken daily over a 16 day period across the Panama Canal Zone. The temperature relative humidity and wind velocity profiles are discussed.

  13. Ab initio study of intrinsic profiles of liquid metals and their reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, B. G.; Souto, J.; Alemany, M. M. G.; González, L. E.

    2017-08-01

    The free surfaces of liquid metals are known to exhibit a stratified profile that, in favourable cases, shows up in experiments as a peak in the ratio between the reflectivity function and that of an ideal step-like profile. This peak is located at a wave-vector related to the distance between the layers of the profile. In fact the surface roughness produced by thermally induced capillary waves causes a depletion of the previous so called intrinsic reflectivity by a damping factor that may hinder the observation of the peak. The behaviour of the intrinsic reflectivity below the layering peak is however far from being universal, with systems as Ga or In where the reflectiviy falls uniformly towards the q → 0 value, others like Sn or Bi where a shoulder appears at intermediate wavevectors, and others like Hg which show a minimum. We have performed extensive ab initio simulations of the free liquid surfaces of Bi, Pb and Hg, that yield direct information on the structure of the profiles and found that the macroscopic capillary wave theory usually employed in order to remove the capillary wave components fails badly in some cases for the typical sample sizes affordable in ab initio simulations. However, a microscopic method for the determination of the intrinsic profile is shown to be succesful in obtaining meaningful intrinsic profiles and corresponding reflectivities which reproduce correctly the qualitative behaviour observed experimentally.

  14. TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) Level 2 Rainfall Rate and Profile Product (TRMM Product 2A25) V6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), the first of its kind in space, is an electronically scanning radar, operating at 13.8 GHz that measures the 3-D rainfall...

  15. Utilizing the Vertical Variability of Precipitation to Improve Radar QPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Patrick N.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of the melting layer and raindrop size distribution can be exploited to further improve radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). Using dual-polarimetric radar and disdrometers, we found that the characteristic size of raindrops reaching the ground in stratiform precipitation often varies linearly with the depth of the melting layer. As a result, a radar rainfall estimator was formulated using D(sub m) that can be employed by polarimetric as well as dual-frequency radars (e.g., space-based radars such as the GPM DPR), to lower the bias and uncertainty of conventional single radar parameter rainfall estimates by as much as 20%. Polarimetric radar also suffers from issues associated with sampling the vertical distribution of precipitation. Hence, we characterized the vertical profile of polarimetric parameters (VP3)-a radar manifestation of the evolving size and shape of hydrometeors as they fall to the ground-on dual-polarimetric rainfall estimation. The VP3 revealed that the profile of ZDR in stratiform rainfall can bias dual-polarimetric rainfall estimators by as much as 50%, even after correction for the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). The VP3 correction technique that we developed can improve operational dual-polarimetric rainfall estimates by 13% beyond that offered by a VPR correction alone.

  16. Evidence of the influence of reflections on the Zeff profile measurements and their mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunke, B.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.

    2004-01-01

    There is a significant interest in the reconstruction of the mean effective charge (Zeff) profile to assess the control of the plasma impurities. On Tore-Supra a modified Abel inversion of the visible Bremsstrahlung allows the calculation of the Zeff profile. Although the total number of viewing lines of the Bremsstrahlung diagnostic is small, the method gives acceptable accuracy due to the high poloidal symmetry (circularity) of the Tore-Supra plasma. It has been noticed that the outer channels were often over-estimated, giving unphysical high Zeff at the edge of 20 or more. An experimental set-up using dedicated discharges has showed that reflections on the vacuum vessel wall are responsible for the additional signal component. It was attempted to model the impact of these reflections on the calculated profile but it appeared that the choice of the model depends strongly on the accurate value of the reflection coefficient of the vacuum wall of Tore-Supra

  17. Evidence of the influence of reflections on the Zeff profile measurements and their mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunke, B.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P

    2004-07-01

    There is a significant interest in the reconstruction of the mean effective charge (Zeff) profile to assess the control of the plasma impurities. On Tore-Supra a modified Abel inversion of the visible Bremsstrahlung allows the calculation of the Zeff profile. Although the total number of viewing lines of the Bremsstrahlung diagnostic is small, the method gives acceptable accuracy due to the high poloidal symmetry (circularity) of the Tore-Supra plasma. It has been noticed that the outer channels were often over-estimated, giving unphysical high Zeff at the edge of 20 or more. An experimental set-up using dedicated discharges has showed that reflections on the vacuum vessel wall are responsible for the additional signal component. It was attempted to model the impact of these reflections on the calculated profile but it appeared that the choice of the model depends strongly on the accurate value of the reflection coefficient of the vacuum wall of Tore-Supra.

  18. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  19. Impact of multiple radar reflectivity data assimilation on the numerical simulation of a flash flood event during the HyMeX campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Ida; Gentile, Sabrina; Ferretti, Rossella; Baldini, Luca; Roberto, Nicoletta; Picciotti, Errico; Alberoni, Pier Paolo; Silvio Marzano, Frank

    2017-11-01

    An analysis to evaluate the impact of multiple radar reflectivity data with a three-dimensional variational (3-D-Var) assimilation system on a heavy precipitation event is presented. The main goal is to build a regionally tuned numerical prediction model and a decision-support system for environmental civil protection services and demonstrate it in the central Italian regions, distinguishing which type of observations, conventional and not (or a combination of them), is more effective in improving the accuracy of the forecasted rainfall. In that respect, during the first special observation period (SOP1) of HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment) campaign several intensive observing periods (IOPs) were launched and nine of which occurred in Italy. Among them, IOP4 is chosen for this study because of its low predictability regarding the exact location and amount of precipitation. This event hit central Italy on 14 September 2012 producing heavy precipitation and causing several cases of damage to buildings, infrastructure, and roads. Reflectivity data taken from three C-band Doppler radars running operationally during the event are assimilated using the 3-D-Var technique to improve high-resolution initial conditions. In order to evaluate the impact of the assimilation procedure at different horizontal resolutions and to assess the impact of assimilating reflectivity data from multiple radars, several experiments using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are performed. Finally, traditional verification scores such as accuracy, equitable threat score, false alarm ratio, and frequency bias - interpreted by analysing their uncertainty through bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) - are used to objectively compare the experiments, using rain gauge data as a benchmark.

  20. Crustal structure in the Kiruna area, northern Sweden, based on seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhojuntti, Niklas; Bergman, Stefan; Olsson, Sverker

    2013-04-01

    Northernmost Sweden is currently one of the most active mining areas in Europe. In order to better understand the regional three-dimensional crustal structure and to support deep ore exploration, we have acquired a 74 km long seismic reflection profile in the Kiruna area. The upper crust in this area is largely composed of various supracrustal units, which are dominated by metabasalts, acidic metavolcanics and clastic metasedimentary rocks, resting on an Archaean metagranitoid complex. All of these units have been intruded by plutonic rocks, and to variable degrees folded, sheared and metamorphosed, during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The profile crosses several steep ductile shear zones, some of which extend for hundreds of kilometres along strike. Many of the lithological contacts and deformation zones are expected to be seismically reflective. The profile is located only a few kilometres from the world's largest underground iron-ore mine in Kiruna, and closer to the profile there are several known ore bodies, some of which are active exploration targets. For the seismic recording we used approximately 350 geophones in split-spread configuration, at a separation of 25 m. The main seismic source was the Vibsist system (an impact source), which normally was employed at every geophone station. We also fired explosive charges (8-16 kg) at a few locations distributed along the profile to image deeper structures, although at very low resolution. Wireless seismometers were placed along and to the side of the profile, mainly in order to achieve better velocity control and to study out-of-the-plane reflections. Some mining blasts in Kiruna were also recorded. The upper crust in the area is quite reflective, most clearly demonstrated by the dynamite shot records. Some of the reflections appear to originate from steeply dipping structures. The dynamite shot records show a set of reflections at 3-4 s twt, corresponding to a depth of roughly 10 km, the explanation for which is

  1. Application of model-based spectral analysis to wind-profiler radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boyer

    Full Text Available A classical way to reduce a radar’s data is to compute the spectrum using FFT and then to identify the different peak contributions. But in case an overlapping between the different echoes (atmospheric echo, clutter, hydrometeor echo. . . exists, Fourier-like techniques provide poor frequency resolution and then sophisticated peak-identification may not be able to detect the different echoes. In order to improve the number of reduced data and their quality relative to Fourier spectrum analysis, three different methods are presented in this paper and applied to actual data. Their approach consists of predicting the main frequency-components, which avoids the development of very sophisticated peak-identification algorithms. The first method is based on cepstrum properties generally used to determine the shift between two close identical echoes. We will see in this paper that this method cannot provide a better estimate than Fourier-like techniques in an operational use. The second method consists of an autoregressive estimation of the spectrum. Since the tests were promising, this method was applied to reduce the radar data obtained during two thunder-storms. The autoregressive method, which is very simple to implement, improved the Doppler-frequency data reduction relative to the FFT spectrum analysis. The third method exploits a MUSIC algorithm, one of the numerous subspace-based methods, which is well adapted to estimate spectra composed of pure lines. A statistical study of performances of this method is presented, and points out the very good resolution of this estimator in comparison with Fourier-like techniques. Application to actual data confirms the good qualities of this estimator for reducing radar’s data.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology- Radio science (signal processing- General (techniques applicable in three or more fields

  2. Installation and Initial Operation of DOE's 449-MHz Wind Profiling Radars on the U.S. West Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Victor R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, J. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, A. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ayers, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); King, Clark W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has recently completed the installation of three new wind profiling radars on the Washington and Oregon coasts. These systems operate at a frequency of 449 MHz and provide mean wind profiles to a height of roughly 8 km, with the maximum measurement height depending on time-varying atmospheric conditions. This is roughly half the depth of the troposphere at these latitudes. Each system is also equipped with a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), which provides a measure of the temperature profile to heights of approximately 2 km. Other equipment deployed alongside the radar includes a surface meteorological station and GPS for column water vapor. This project began in fiscal year 2014, starting with equipment procurements and site selection. In addition, environmental reviews, equipment assembly and testing, site access agreements, and infrastructure preparations have been performed. Finally, with equipment deployment with data collection and dissemination, the primary tasks of this project have been completed. The three new wind profiling radars have been deployed at airports near Coos Bay, OR, and Astoria, OR, and at an industrial park near Forks, WA. Data are available through the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory Data Display website, and will soon be made available through the DOE Atmosphere to Electrons data archive and portal as well.

  3. Similarities and Improvements of GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR upon TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR in Global Precipitation Rate Estimation, Type Classification and Vertical Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne precipitation radars are powerful tools used to acquire adequate and high-quality precipitation estimates with high spatial resolution for a variety of applications in hydrological research. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM mission, which deployed the first spaceborne Ka- and Ku-dual frequency radar (DPR, was launched in February 2014 as the upgraded successor of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. This study matches the swath data of TRMM PR and GPM DPR Level 2 products during their overlapping periods at the global scale to investigate their similarities and DPR’s improvements concerning precipitation amount estimation and type classification of GPM DPR over TRMM PR. Results show that PR and DPR agree very well with each other in the global distribution of precipitation, while DPR improves the detectability of precipitation events significantly, particularly for light precipitation. The occurrences of total precipitation and the light precipitation (rain rates < 1 mm/h detected by GPM DPR are ~1.7 and ~2.53 times more than that of PR. With regard to type classification, the dual-frequency (Ka/Ku and single frequency (Ku methods performed similarly. In both inner (the central 25 beams and outer swaths (1–12 beams and 38–49 beams of DPR, the results are consistent. GPM DPR improves precipitation type classification remarkably, reducing the misclassification of clouds and noise signals as precipitation type “other” from 10.14% of TRMM PR to 0.5%. Generally, GPM DPR exhibits the same type division for around 82.89% (71.02% of stratiform (convective precipitation events recognized by TRMM PR. With regard to the freezing level height and bright band (BB height, both radars correspond with each other very well, contributing to the consistency in stratiform precipitation classification. Both heights show clear latitudinal dependence. Results in this study shall contribute to future development of spaceborne

  4. Observability of plant metabolic networks is reflected in the correlation of metabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwahn, Kevin; Küken, Anika; Kliebenstein, Daniel James

    2016-01-01

    to obtain information about the entire system. Yet, the extent to which the data profiles reflect the role of components in the observability of the system remains unexplored. Here we first identify the sensor metabolites in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by employing state...... with in silico generated metabolic profiles from a medium-size kinetic model of plant central carbon metabolism. Altogether, due to the small number of identified sensors, our study implies that targeted metabolite analyses may provide the vast majority of relevant information about plant metabolic systems....

  5. From Intensity Profile to Surface Normal: Photometric Stereo for Unknown Light Sources and Isotropic Reflectances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Imari; Okabe, Takahiro; Sato, Yoichi

    2015-10-01

    We propose an uncalibrated photometric stereo method that works with general and unknown isotropic reflectances. Our method uses a pixel intensity profile, which is a sequence of radiance intensities recorded at a pixel under unknown varying directional illumination. We show that for general isotropic materials and uniformly distributed light directions, the geodesic distance between intensity profiles is linearly related to the angular difference of their corresponding surface normals, and that the intensity distribution of the intensity profile reveals reflectance properties. Based on these observations, we develop two methods for surface normal estimation; one for a general setting that uses only the recorded intensity profiles, the other for the case where a BRDF database is available while the exact BRDF of the target scene is still unknown. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations are conducted using both synthetic and real-world scenes, which show the state-of-the-art accuracy of smaller than 10 degree without using reference data and 5 degree with reference data for all 100 materials in MERL database.

  6. A Standardized Narrative Profile Approach to Self-Reflection and Assessment of Cross-Cultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J Wilby

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 to explore clinical assessor’s values regarding behaviours related to cultural aspects of care, 2 to generate standardized narrative profiles regarding cultural behavioural outcomes within clinical teaching settings, and 3 to rank order standardized narrative profiles according to performance expectations. Methods: Ten interviews were completed with clinicians to determine values and performance expectations for culturally competent behaviours. Transcripts were produced and coded. Six narrative profiles were developed based on data obtained. Twenty clinicians categorized profiles according to performance expectations and rank ordered. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs determined inter-rater reliability. Clinicians rated usability of profiles in clinical training settings. Results: Eighteen categories were coded with communication, awareness and ability most frequently reported with each ranging from 9.6-11.5% of the utterances. Consensus for categorization of all profiles was achieved at a level of 70% (ICC = 0.837, 95% CI 0.654-0.969. High inter-rater reliability was achieved for rank ordering (ICC = 0.815, 95% CI 0.561 to 0.984. Seventeen (85% clinicians agreed that the profiles would be usable in clinical training settings. Conclusions: Standardized narrative profiles may aid assessment and self-reflection for student performance within culturally diverse interactions. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Original Research

  7. Low complexity joint estimation of reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift for MIMO-radar by exploiting 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-10-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation yields the best performance. For this problem, the ML estimation requires the joint estimation of spatial location and Doppler shift, which is a two dimensional search problem. Therefore, the computational complexity of ML estimation is prohibitively high. In this work, to estimate the parameters of a target, a reduced complexity optimum performance algorithm is proposed, which allow two dimensional fast Fourier transform to jointly estimate the spatial location and Doppler shift. To asses the performances of the proposed estimators, the Cramér-Rao-lower-bound (CRLB) is derived. Simulation results show that the mean square estimation error of the proposed estimators achieve the CRLB. © 2014 IEEE.

  8. Experimental analysis of bruises in human volunteers using radiometric depth profiling and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2015-07-01

    We combine pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) depth profiling with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) measurements for a comprehensive analysis of bruise evolution in vivo. While PPTR enables extraction of detailed depth distribution and concentration profiles of selected absorbers (e.g. melanin, hemoglobin), DRS provides information in a wide range of visible wavelengths and thus offers an additional insight into dynamics of the hemoglobin degradation products. Combining the two approaches enables us to quantitatively characterize bruise evolution dynamics. Our results indicate temporal variations of the bruise evolution parameters in the course of bruise self-healing process. The obtained parameter values and trends represent a basis for a future development of an objective technique for bruise age determination.

  9. Seismic reflection profile of the Blake Ridge near sites 994, 995, and 997: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Drury, Rebecca M.

    1996-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles near Sites 994, 995, and 997 were collected with seismic sources that provide maximum resolution with adequate power to image the zone of gas hydrate stability and the region direction beneath it. The overall structure of the sediment drift deposit that constitutes the Blake Ridge consists of southwestward-dipping strata. These strata are approximately conformal to the seafloor on the southwest side of the ridge and are truncated by erosion on the northeast side. A bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) marks the velocity contrast between gas hydrate-bearing sediment and regions containing free gas beneath the zone of gas hydrate stability. The BSR is strong and continuous near the ridge crest but becomes discontinuous on the flanks, where concentration of gas is reduced and dipping strata pass through the level of the base o fgas hydrate stability or the strata are disrupted by faults. Seismic reflection amplitudes appear to be reduced in the region of gas hydrate formation compared to normal amplitudes. A faulted zone ~0.5-0.6 s thick parallels reflections from strata. We infer that this may represent a formerly gas hydrate-bearing zone that was faulted because of a breakdown of hydrate near its phase limit (at the base of the zone). Strong reflections at the top of the faulted zone are caused by free-gas acccumulation at Site 994. Similar strong reflections probably are caused by free-gas accumulations where the top of the faulted zone rises above the BSR, although this would require local free gas within the hydrate-stable zone.

  10. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  11. Combined analysis of surface reflection imaging and vertical seismic profiling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.; Karageorgi, E.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents results from surface and borehole seismic profiling performed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on Yucca Mountain. This work was performed as part of the site characterization effort for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Their objective was to provide seismic imaging from the near surface (200 to 300 ft. depth) to the repository horizon and below, if possible. Among the issues addressed by this seismic imaging work are location and depth of fracturing and faulting, geologic identification of reflecting horizons, and spatial continuity of reflecting horizons. The authors believe their results are generally positive, with tome specific successes. This was the first attempt at this scale using modem seismic imaging techniques to determine geologic features on Yucca Mountain. The principle purpose of this report is to present the interpretation of the seismic reflection section in a geologic context. Three surface reflection profiles were acquired and processed as part of this study. Because of environmental concerns, all three lines were on preexisting roads. Line 1 crossed the mapped surface trace of the Ghost Dance fault and it was intended to study the dip and depth extent of the fault system. Line 2 was acquired along Drill Hole wash and was intended to help the ESF north ramp design activities. Line 3 was acquired along Yucca Crest and was designed to image geologic horizons which were thought to be less faulted along the ridge. Unfortunately, line 3 proved to have poor data quality, in part because of winds, poor field conditions and limited time. Their processing and interpretation efforts were focused on lines 1 and 2 and their associated VSP studies

  12. Radar Polarimetry: Theory, Analysis, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, John Clark

    delta is present. Algorithms are presented for estimating delta and K_{DP} from range profiles of Psi_ {CO}. Also discussed are procedures for the estimation and interpretation of other radar measurables such as reflectivity, Z_{HH}, differential reflectivity, Z_{DR }, the magnitude of the copolar correlation coefficient, rho_{HV}(0), and Doppler spectrum width, sigma _{v}. The techniques are again illustrated with data collected by POLDIRAD.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Source Wavelet and Velocity Profile Using Impulsive Point-Source Reflections from a Layered Fluid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bube, K; Lailly, P; Sacks, P; Santosa, F; Symes, W. W

    1987-01-01

    .... We show that a quasi-impulsive, isotropic point source may be recovered simultaneously with the velocity profile from reflection data over a layered fluid, in linear (perturbation) approximation...

  14. Interpretation of the distortion of ground-penetrating radar propagated and reflected waves - development of a multi-frequency tomography; Interpretation de la distorsion des signaux georadar propages et reflechis. Developpement d'une tomographie par bandes de frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollender, F

    1999-07-01

    Within the framework of research for waste disposal in deep geological formations, the French agency for nuclear waste management (ANDRA) has to dispose of non-destructive investigation methods to characterize the medium. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) could be used for this purpose in the case of granitic sites. The work presented here deals with this geophysical method. The classical interpretation of GPR data consists in the localization of geological discontinuities by signal amplitude or arrival time analysis. The main objective of our studies is the interpretation of the radar wave distortion (due to propagation and reflection phenomena), not only to localize discontinuities but also to contribute to their identification. Three preliminary studies have been carried out in order to understand on the one hand, the complexity of the electromagnetic phenomena in the geological medium at radar frequency, and on the other hand, the radar equipment constraints. First, the dispersion and the attenuation characterized by a Q variable factor of the GPR waves are shown with the support of dielectric laboratory measurements. A model, which only requires three parameters, is proposed in order to describe this behavior. Second, the radiation patterns of borehole radar antenna are studied. We show that the amplitude and frequency content of the emitted signal are variable versus the emission angle. An analytical method is proposed to study these phenomena. Finally, instrumental drifts of GPR equipment are studied. Emission time, sampling frequency and amplitude fluctuations are described. These elements are taken into account for the processing of propagated signals by tomographic inversion. Medium anisotropy and borehole trajectory errors are inserted in algorithms in order to cancel artifacts which compromised the previous interpretation. A pre-processing method, based on wave separation algorithm, is applied on data in order to increase tomogram resolution. A new

  15. Airborne Radar Observations of Severe Hailstorms: Implications for Future Spaceborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; McLinden, Matthew; Cervantes, Jaime I.

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-frequency (Ku and Ka band) nadir-pointing Doppler radar on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft, called the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), has collected data over severe thunderstorms in Oklahoma and Kansas during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The overarching motivation for this study is to understand the behavior of the dualwavelength airborne radar measurements in a global variety of thunderstorms and how these may relate to future spaceborne-radar measurements. HIWRAP is operated at frequencies that are similar to those of the precipitation radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (Ku band) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission satellite's dual-frequency (Ku and Ka bands) precipitation radar. The aircraft measurements of strong hailstorms have been combined with ground-based polarimetric measurements to obtain a better understanding of the response of the Ku- and Ka-band radar to the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors, including hail. Data from two flight lines on 24 May 2011 are presented. Doppler velocities were approx. 39m/s2at 10.7-km altitude from the first flight line early on 24 May, and the lower value of approx. 25m/s on a second flight line later in the day. Vertical motions estimated using a fall speed estimate for large graupel and hail suggested that the first storm had an updraft that possibly exceeded 60m/s for the more intense part of the storm. This large updraft speed along with reports of 5-cm hail at the surface, reflectivities reaching 70 dBZ at S band in the storm cores, and hail signals from polarimetric data provide a highly challenging situation for spaceborne-radar measurements in intense convective systems. The Ku- and Ka-band reflectivities rarely exceed approx. 47 and approx. 37 dBZ, respectively, in these storms.

  16. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  17. Quantitative analysis of ground penetrating radar data in the Mu Us Sandland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tianyang; Tan, Lihua; Wu, Yongqiu; Wen, Yanglei; Li, Dawei; Duan, Jinlong

    2018-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR), which can reveal the sedimentary structure and development process of dunes, is widely used to evaluate aeolian landforms. The interpretations for GPR profiles are mostly based on qualitative descriptions of geometric features of the radar reflections. This research quantitatively analyzed the waveform parameter characteristics of different radar units by extracting the amplitude and time interval parameters of GPR data in the Mu Us Sandland in China, and then identified and interpreted different sedimentary structures. The results showed that different types of radar units had specific waveform parameter characteristics. The main waveform parameter characteristics of sand dune radar facies and sandstone radar facies included low amplitudes and wide ranges of time intervals, ranging from 0 to 0.25 and 4 to 33 ns respectively, and the mean amplitudes changed gradually with time intervals. The amplitude distribution curves of various sand dune radar facies were similar as unimodal distributions. The radar surfaces showed high amplitudes with time intervals concentrated in high-value areas, ranging from 0.08 to 0.61 and 9 to 34 ns respectively, and the mean amplitudes changed drastically with time intervals. The amplitude and time interval values of lacustrine radar facies were between that of sand dune radar facies and radar surfaces, ranging from 0.08 to 0.29 and 11 to 30 ns respectively, and the mean amplitude and time interval curve was approximately trapezoidal. The quantitative extraction and analysis of GPR reflections could help distinguish various radar units and provide evidence for identifying sedimentary structure in aeolian landforms.

  18. DOE's 449 MHz Wind Profiling Radars on the U.S. West Coast: Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E.; Wilczak, J. M.; King, Clark W.; Shaw, William J.; White, A. B.; Ayers, Tom

    2016-09-30

    The three coastal wind profilers and associated meteorological instruments located in Forks, WA, Astoria, OR, and North Bend, OR, provide important observations at high temporal and vertical spatial resolution to characterize the meteorological inflow to the western region of the United States. These instruments have been operating for a year or more, and furnish boundary conditions for the modeling efforts of the WFIP2 project. The data have been delivered to archives at both NOAA and the DOE A2e DAP at a data recovery rate in excess of 98%. Site maintenance activities have been relatively minor, with a few component replacements and repairs to RASS foam. Bird mortality surveys have found no bird nests or carcasses, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has regularly been provided survey reports. This project represents a successful collaboration between PNNL and NOAA to procure, test, deploy, maintain, and operate three 449 MHz radar wind profilers.

  19. Radar imaging of Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Campbell, Donald B.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Black, Gregory J.; Salo, Heikki J.

    2005-09-01

    We present delay-Doppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1°⩽|B|⩽26.7°. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ˜77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the cross-section of the C ring and 9% on that of the Cassini Division. These results are consistent with those obtained by Ostro et al. [1982, Icarus 49, 367-381] from radar observations at |B|=21.4°, but provide higher resolution maps of the rings' reflectivity profile. The average cross-section of the A and B rings, normalized by their projected unblocked area, is found to have decreased from 1.25±0.31 to 0.74±0.19 as the rings have opened up, while the circular polarization ratio has increased from 0.64±0.06 to 0.77±0.06. The steep decrease in cross-section is at variance with previous radar measurements [Ostro et al., 1980, Icarus 41, 381-388], and neither this nor the polarization variations are easily understood within the framework of either classical, many-particle-thick or monolayer ring models. One possible explanation involves vertical size segregation in the rings, whereby observations at larger elevation angles which see deeper into the rings preferentially see the larger particles concentrated near the rings' mid-plane. These larger particles may be less reflective and/or rougher and thus more depolarizing than the smaller ones. Images from all four years show a strong m=2 azimuthal asymmetry in the reflectivity of the A ring, with an amplitude of ±20% and minima at longitudes of 67±4° and 247±4° from the sub-Earth point. We attribute the asymmetry to the presence of gravitational wakes in the A ring as invoked by Colombo et al. [1976, Nature 264, 344-345] to explain the similar asymmetry long seen at optical wavelengths. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the enhancement of the azimuthal

  20. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  1. Investigation of the winds and electron concentration variability in the D region of the ionosphere by the partial-reflection radar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, R.M.; Bowhill, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    The development and first observations of the partial-reflection drifts experiment at Urbana, Illinois (40 N) are described. The winds data from the drifts experiment are compared with electron concentration data obtained by the differential-absorption technique to study the possible meteorological causes of the winter anomaly in the mesosphere at midlatitudes. Winds data obtained by the meteor-radar experiment at Urbana are also compared with electron concentration data measured at Urban. A significant correlation is shown is both cases between southward winds and increasing electron concentration measured at the same location during winter. The possibility of stratospheric/mesospheric coupling is investigated by comparing satellite-measured 0.4 mbar geopotential data with mesospheric electron concentration data. No significant coupling was observed. The winds measured at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (52 N) are compared with the electron concentrations measured at Urban, yielding constant fixed relationship, but significant correlations for short segments of the winter. A significant coherence is observed at discrete frequencies during segments of the winter

  2. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  3. Diffraction efficiency of radially-profiled off-plane reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Marlowe, Hannah; Peterson, Thomas J.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Menz, Benedikt; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Future X-ray missions will require gratings with high throughput and high spectral resolution. Blazed off-plane reflection gratings are capable of meeting these demands. A blazed grating profile optimizes grating efficiency, providing higher throughput to one side of zero-order on the arc of diffraction. This paper presents efficiency measurements made in the 0.3 - 1.5 keV energy band at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) BESSY II facility for three holographically-ruled gratings, two of which are blazed. Each blazed grating was tested in both the Littrow configuration and anti-Littrow configuration in order to test the alignment sensitivity of these gratings with regard to throughput. This paper outlines the procedure of the grating experiment performed at BESSY II and discuss the resulting efficiency measurements across various energies. Experimental results are generally consistent with theory and demonstrate that the blaze does increase throughput to one side of zero-order. However, the total efficiency of the non-blazed, sinusoidal grating is greater than that of the blazed gratings, which suggests that the method of manufacturing these blazed profiles fails to produce facets with the desired level of precision. Finally, evidence of a successful blaze implementation from first diffraction results of prototype blazed gratings produce via a new fabrication technique at the University of Iowa are presented.

  4. Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence determination of interfering elements rubidium and uranium by profile fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Sangita; Khooha, Ajay; Singh, Ajit Kumar; Tiwari, M. K.; Misra, N. L.

    2018-06-01

    Systematic studies to assess the analytical parameters obtained in the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) determinations of interfering elements Rb and U using profile fitting are reported in the present manuscript. The X-ray lines Rb Kα and U Lα having serious spectral interference (ΔE = 218 eV), have been used as analytical lines. The intensities of these X-ray lines have been assessed using profile fitting. In order to compare the analytical results of Rb determinations in presence of U, with and without U excitation, synchrotron radiation was tuned to energy just above and below the U Labs edge. This approach shall excite both Rb Kα and U Lα simultaneously and Rb Kα selectively. Finally, the samples were also analyzed with a laboratory based TXRF spectrometer. The analytical results obtained in all these conditions were comparable. The authenticity of the results was assessed by analyzing U with respect to Rb in Rb2U(SO4)3, a standard reference material for U. The average precision obtained for TXRF determinations was below 3% (RSD, n = 3, 1σ) and the percent deviation of TXRF values from the expected values calculated on the basis of sample preparation was within 3%.

  5. Interpretation of shallow crustal structure of the Imperial Valley, California, from seismic reflection profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severson, L.K.

    1987-05-01

    Eight seismic reflection profiles (285 km total length) from the Imperial Valley, California, were provided to CALCRUST for reprocessing and interpretation. Two profiles were located along the western margin of the valley, five profiles were situated along the eastern margin and one traversed the deepest portion of the basin. These data reveal that the central basin contains a wedge of highly faulted sediments that thins to the east. Most of the faulting is strike-slip but there is evidence for block rotations on the scale of 5 to 10 kilometers within the Brawley Seismic Zone. These lines provide insight into the nature of the east and west edges of the Imperial Valley. The basement at the northwestern margin of the valley, to the north of the Superstition Hills, has been normal-faulted and blocks of basement material have ''calved'' into the trough. A blanket of sediments has been deposited on this margin. To the south of the Superstition Hills and Superstition Mountain, the top of the basement is a detachment surface that dips gently into the basin. This margin is also covered by a thick sequence sediments. The basement of the eastern margin consists of metamorphic rocks of the upper plate of the Chocolate Mountain Thrust system underlain by the Orocopia Schist. These rocks dip to the southeast and extend westward to the Sand Hills Fault but do not appear to cross it. Thus, the Sand Hills Fault is interpreted to be the southern extension of the San Andreas Fault. North of the Sand Hills Fault the East Highline Canal seismicity lineament is associated with a strike-slip fault and is probably linked to the Sand Hills Fault. Six geothermal areas crossed by these lines, in agreement with previous studies of geothermal reservoirs, are associated with ''faded'' zones, Bouguer gravity and heat flow maxima, and with higher seismic velocities than surrounding terranes.

  6. Radar Chart

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Radar Chart collection is an archived product of summarized radar data. The geographic coverage is the 48 contiguous states of the United States. These hourly...

  7. Applying volumetric weather radar data for rainfall runoff modeling: The importance of error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Delobbe, L.; Weerts, A.; Reggiani, P.

    2009-04-01

    In the current study half a year of volumetric radar data for the period October 1, 2002 until March 31, 2003 is being analyzed which was sampled at 5 minutes intervals by C-band Doppler radar situated at an elevation of 600 m in the southern Ardennes region, Belgium. During this winter half year most of the rainfall has a stratiform character. Though radar and raingauge will never sample the same amount of rainfall due to differences in sampling strategies, for these stratiform situations differences between both measuring devices become even larger due to the occurrence of a bright band (the point where ice particles start to melt intensifying the radar reflectivity measurement). For these circumstances the radar overestimates the amount of precipitation and because in the Ardennes bright bands occur within 1000 meter from the surface, it's detrimental effects on the performance of the radar can already be observed at relatively close range (e.g. within 50 km). Although the radar is situated at one of the highest points in the region, very close to the radar clutter is a serious problem. As a result both nearby and farther away, using uncorrected radar results in serious errors when estimating the amount of precipitation. This study shows the effect of carefully correcting for these radar errors using volumetric radar data, taking into account the vertical reflectivity profile of the atmosphere, the effects of attenuation and trying to limit the amount of clutter. After applying these correction algorithms, the overall differences between radar and raingauge are much smaller which emphasizes the importance of carefully correcting radar rainfall measurements. The next step is to assess the effect of using uncorrected and corrected radar measurements on rainfall-runoff modeling. The 1597 km2 Ourthe catchment lies within 60 km of the radar. Using a lumped hydrological model serious improvement in simulating observed discharges is found when using corrected radar

  8. Radar rainfall estimation in a hilly environment and implications for runoff modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2010-05-01

    Radars are known for their ability to obtain a wealth of information about the spatial stormfield characteristics. Unfortunately, rainfall estimates obtained by this instrument are known to be affected by multiple sources of error. Especially for stratiform precipitation systems, the quality of radar rainfall estimates starts to decrease at relatively close ranges. In the current study the hydrological potential of weather radar is analyzed during a winter half-year for the hilly region of the Belgian Ardennes. A correction algorithm is proposed taking into account attenuation, ground clutter, anomalous propagation, the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) and advection. No final bias correction with respect to rain gauge data were implemented, because that does not add to a better understanding of the quality of the radar. Largest quality improvements in the radar data are obtained by ground clutter removal. The influence of VPR correction and advection depends on the precipitation system observed. Overall, the radar shows an underestimation as compared to the rain gauges, which becomes smaller after averaging at the scale of the medium-sized Ourthe catchment. Remaining differences between both devices can mainly be attributed to an improper choice of the Z-R relationship. Conceptual rainfall-runoff simulations show similar results using either catchment average radar or rain gauge data, although the largest discharge peak observed, is seriously underestimated when applying radar data. Overall, for hydrological applications corrected weather radar information in a hilly environment can be used up to 70 km during a winter half-year.

  9. The polarized neutron reflectivity and X-ray reflectivity studies of the magnetic profiles of epitaxial Ni80Fe20/Ru multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, H.-C.; Peir, J.-J.; Lee, C.-H.; Lin, M.-Z.; Wu, P.-T.; Huang, J.C.A.; Tun Zin

    2005-01-01

    The depth profiles of the epitaxial Ni 80 Fe 20 (1 1 1)/Ru(0 0 0 1) multilayers were studied by polarized neutron reflectivity and X-ray reflectivity. At the Ru thickness that the anti-ferromagnetic coupling was found, the magnetic moments between two Ni 80 Fe 20 interlayers show a biquadratic coupling effect with a double unit cell at low applied fields. A magnetic dead layer of about 0.3 nm was also found at the interface boundaries. The maximal polarization effect applied to the Ru layer is less than 0.03μ B

  10. Classification and correction of the radar bright band with polarimetric radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Will; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel; Kramer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The annular region of enhanced radar reflectivity, known as the Bright Band (BB), occurs when the radar beam intersects a layer of melting hydrometeors. Radar reflectivity is related to rainfall through a power law equation and so this enhanced region can lead to overestimations of rainfall by a factor of up to 5, so it is important to correct for this. The BB region can be identified by using several techniques including hydrometeor classification and freezing level forecasts from mesoscale meteorological models. Advances in dual-polarisation radar measurements and continued research in the field has led to increased accuracy in the ability to identify the melting snow region. A method proposed by Kitchen et al (1994), a form of which is currently used operationally in the UK, utilises idealised Vertical Profiles of Reflectivity (VPR) to correct for the BB enhancement. A simpler and more computationally efficient method involves the formation of an average VPR from multiple elevations for correction that can still cause a significant decrease in error (Vignal 2000). The purpose of this research is to evaluate a method that relies only on analysis of measurements from an operational C-band polarimetric radar without the need for computationally expensive models. Initial results show that LDR is a strong classifier of melting snow with a high Critical Success Index of 97% when compared to the other variables. An algorithm based on idealised VPRs resulted in the largest decrease in error when BB corrected scans are compared to rain gauges and to lower level scans with a reduction in RMSE of 61% for rain-rate measurements. References Kitchen, M., R. Brown, and A. G. Davies, 1994: Real-time correction of weather radar data for the effects of bright band, range and orographic growth in widespread precipitation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1231-1254. Vignal, B. et al, 2000: Three methods to determine profiles of reflectivity from volumetric radar data to correct

  11. Seismarmara experiment: results from reprocessing of selected multi-channel seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, S.; Voogd, B.; Carton, H.; Laigle, M.; Becel, A.; Saatcilar, R.; Singh, S.; Hirn, A.

    2003-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) has been responsible for the earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999. The occurrence of these earthquakes has drawn scientific attention into the Sea of Marmara since the NAF enters into the Sea of Marmara where the latest Izmit earthquake rupture stopped. The SEISMARMARA-2001 survey is a combined seismic reflection, refraction and earthquake experiment carried out in 2001 in the Marmara Region in Turkey by French-Turkish scientific cooperation. The objectives of this survey were to image the various branches of the NAF and related other fault systems. R/V Le Nadir was equipped with a 4.5 km long streamer with 360 channels and a large airgun source. During Leg 1, a grid of large regional lines encompassing the whole Marmara trough was shot. For part of them a strong 8100 cu.in. source for deepest penetration was used, with a 150 m shot interval giving a 15-fold coverage. Another part was shot for a higher resolution with a 2900 cu. in. array at a 50m or 38 m interval to give a 45 or 60-fold coverage. The latter acquisition parameters were used for Leg 2 that was devoted to a very dense grid of lines in the Cinarcik Basin Reprocessing of the multi-channel seismic data is currently being undertaken in several Institutions using different seismic processing softwares (GeoVecteur, ProMAX, Focus), to take advantage of the diverse acquisitions and cope with their limitations, for instance high fold-order for Leg 2 and strength of signal but loose spatial sampling for the bigger source. The main objectives of the reprocessing of the selected profiles are to do a detailed velocity analysis and stacking after deconvolution, filtering to remove or suppress deep sea bottom multiples and out of plane reflections, and time-migration and depth conversion and thus reveal both the shallow and deeper reflection image of the crust in the Sea of Marmara. We show that choosing an appropriate processing sequence for different sources and acquisition

  12. Use of radars to monitor stream discharge by noncontact methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J.E.; Cheng, R.T.; Haeni, F.P.; Melcher, N.; Spicer, K.R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.; Hayes, K.; Teague, C.; Barrick, D.

    2006-01-01

    . Time series of surface velocity obtained by different radars in the Cowlitz River experiment also show small‐amplitude pulsations not found in stage records that reflect tidal energy at the gauging station. Noncontact discharge measurements made during a flood on 30 January 2004 agreed with the rated discharge to within 5%. Measurement at both field sites confirm that lognormal velocity profiles exist for a wide range of flows in these rivers, and mean velocity is approximately 0.85 times measured surface velocity. Noncontact methods of flow measurement appear to (1) be as accurate as conventional methods, (2) obtain data when standard contact methods are dangerous or cannot be obtained, and (3) provide insight into flow dynamics not available from detailed stage records alone.

  13. Observation of a tropopause fold by MARA VHF wind-profiler radar and ozonesonde at Wasa, Antarctica: comparison with ECMWF analysis and a WRF model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihalikova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tropopause folds are one of the mechanisms of stratosphere–troposphere exchange, which can bring ozone rich stratospheric air to low altitudes in the extra-tropical regions. They have been widely studied at northern mid- or high latitudes, but so far almost no studies have been made at mid- or high southern latitudes. The Moveable Atmospheric Radar for Antarctica (MARA, a 54.5 MHz wind-profiler radar, has operated at the Swedish summer station Wasa, Antarctica (73° S, 13.5° W during austral summer seasons from 2007 to 2011 and has observed on several occasions signatures similar to those caused by tropopause folds at comparable Arctic latitudes. Here a case study is presented of one of these events when an ozonesonde successfully sampled the fold. Analysis from European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF is used to study the circumstances surrounding the event, and as boundary conditions for a mesoscale simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The fold is well resolved by the WRF simulation, and occurs on the poleward side of the polar jet stream. However, MARA resolves fine-scale layering associated with the fold better than the WRF simulation.

  14. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, S.

    1991-05-01

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole

  15. Radar Fundamentals, Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Topics include: introduction, radar functions, antennas basics, radar range equation, system parameters, electromagnetic waves, scattering mechanisms, radar cross section and stealth, and sample radar systems.

  16. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, A.S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  17. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N. [Vibrometric Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  18. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B.; Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N.

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  19. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K

    2012-01-01

    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  20. Intercomparison of Vertical Structure of Storms Revealed by Ground-Based (NMQ and Spaceborne Radars (CloudSat-CPR and TRMM-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Fall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne radars provide great opportunities to investigate the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. Two typical spaceborne radars for such a study are the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR and Ku-band Precipitation Radar (PR, which are onboard NASA’s CloudSat and TRMM satellites, respectively. Compared to S-band ground-based radars, they have distinct scattering characteristics for different hydrometeors in clouds and precipitation. The combination of spaceborne and ground-based radar observations can help in the identification of hydrometeors and improve the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE. This study analyzes the vertical structure of the 18 January, 2009 storm using data from the CloudSat CPR, TRMM PR, and a NEXRAD-based National Mosaic and Multisensor QPE (NMQ system. Microphysics above, within, and below the melting layer are studied through an intercomparison of multifrequency measurements. Hydrometeors’ type and their radar scattering characteristics are analyzed. Additionally, the study of the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR reveals the brightband properties in the cold-season precipitation and its effect on the radar-based QPE. In all, the joint analysis of spaceborne and ground-based radar data increases the understanding of the vertical structure of storm systems and provides a good insight into the microphysical modeling for weather forecasts.

  1. Seasonal Variation in Meteor Decay Time Profiles Measured by a Meteor Radar at King Sejong Station (62°S, 58°W), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Lee, C.; Jee, G.

    2008-12-01

    A VHF meteor radar at King Sejong Station (62°S, 58°W), Antarctica has been detecting echoes from more than 20,000 meteors per day since March 2007. Meteor echoes are decayed typically within seconds as meteor trail plasma spread away or are neutralized. Assuming that diffusion is the only process for decay of meteor echo signals, the atmospheric temperatures and pressures have been inferred from the measured meteor decay times at the peak meteor altitudes around 90 km. In this study, we analyze altitude profiles of meteor decay times in each month, which clearly show a maximum at 80 ~ 85 km. The maximum appears at higher altitude during austral summer than winter. The fast decay of meteor signals below the maximum cannot be explained by atmospheric diffusion which decreases with increasing atmospheric densities. We find that the measured meteor decay time profiles can be fitted with a loss rate profile, in addition to diffusion, with a peak altitude of 55 ~ 73 km and a peak rate of 4 ~ 15 sec- 1. The additional loss of meteor plasma may be due to electron absorption by icy particles in the mesosphere, but the estimated peak altitudes are much lower than the layers of NLC or PME. The estimated peak loss rates seem to be too large to be accounted by absorption by icy or dust particles. We will discuss other processes to explain the fast meteor times and their variation over season.

  2. Modification of UV absorption profile of polymer film reflectors to increase solar-weighted reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Gary; Gee, Randall C.; White, David

    2017-05-02

    Provided are reflective thin film constructions including a reduced number of layers, which provides for increased solar-weighted hemispherical reflectance and durability. Reflective films include those comprising an ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coating over a metal layer. Also provided are ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coatings and methods for optimizing the ultraviolet absorption of an abrasion resistant coating. Reflective films disclosed herein are useful for solar reflecting, solar collecting, and solar concentrating applications, such as for the generation of electrical power.

  3. Lipid profiles reflecting high and low risk for coronary heart disease : Contribution of apolipoprotein E polymorphism and lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.M.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Kromhout, D.

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the role of modifiable factors and the apolipoprotein E polymorphism in explaining lipid profiles reflecting low, average and high risk for coronary heart disease, we selected subjects from a large population-based study. Subjects with low total cholesterol (TC) (< 15th percentile) and

  4. Lipid profiles reflecting high and low risk for coronary heart disease: contribution of apolipoprotein E polymorphism and lifestyle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.M.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Kromhout, D.

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the role of modifiable factors and the apolipoprotein E polymorphism in explaining lipid profiles reflecting low, average and high risk for coronary heart disease, we selected subjects from a large population-based study. Subjects with low total cholesterol (TC) (<15th percentile)

  5. Social Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    RTA HFM-201/RSM PAPER 3 - 1 © 2012 The MITRE Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Social Radar Barry Costa and John Boiney MITRE Corporation...defenders require an integrated set of capabilities that we refer to as a “ social radar.” Such a system would support strategic- to operational-level...situation awareness, alerting, course of action analysis, and measures of effectiveness for each action undertaken. Success of a social radar

  6. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  7. Effects of near surface soil moisture profiles during evaporation on far-field ground-penetrating radar data: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the effect of vapor flow on the drying front that develops in soils when water evaporates from the soil surface and on GPR data. The results suggest the integration of the full-wave GPR model with a coupled water, vapor, and heat flow model to accurately estimate the soil hydraulic properties. We investigated the Effects of a drying front that emerges below an evaporating soil surface on the far-field ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. First, we performed an analysis of the width of the drying front in soils with 12 different textures by using an analytical model. Then, we numerically simulated vertical soil moisture profiles that develop during evaporation for the soil textures. We performed the simulations using a Richards flow model that considers only liquid water flow and a model that considers coupled water, vapor, and heat flows. The GPR signals were then generated from the simulated soil water content profiles taking into account the frequency dependency of apparent electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity. The analytical approach indicated that the width of the drying front at the end of Stage I of the evaporation was larger in silty soils than in other soil textures and smaller in sandy soils. We also demonstrated that the analytical estimate of the width of the drying front can be considered as a proxy for the impact that a drying front could have on far-field GPR data. The numerical simulations led to the conclusion that vapor transport in soil resulted in S-shaped soil moisture profiles, which clearly influenced the GPR data. As a result, vapor flow needs to be considered when GPR data are interpreted in a coupled inversion approach. Moreover, the impact of vapor flow on the GPR data was larger for silty than for sandy soils. These Effects on the GPR data provide promising perspectives regarding the use of radars for evaporation monitoring. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI

  8. Architectural element analysis within the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic) using ground-probing radar and sedimentological profiling, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark

    1994-05-01

    A well exposed outcrop in the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic) in southwestern Colorado was examined in order to delineate the stratigraphy in the subsurface and test the usefulness of ground-probing radar (GPR) in three-dimensional architectural studies. Two fluvial styles are present within the Kayenta Formation. Sandbodies within the lower third of the outcrop are characterized by parallel laminations that can be followed in the cliff-face for well over 300 m. These sandbodies are sheet-like in appearance, and represent high-energy flood deposits that most likely resulted from episodic floods. The remainder of the outcrop is characterized by concave-up channel deposits with bank-attached and mid-channel macroforms. Their presence suggests a multiple channel river system. The GPR data collected on the cliff-top, together with sedimentological data, provided a partial three-dimensional picture of the paleo-river system within the Kayenta Formation. The 3-D picture consists of stacked channel-bar lenses approximately 50 m in diameter. The GPR technique offers a very effective means of delineating the subsurface stratigraphy. Its high resolution capabilities, easy mobility, and rapid rate of data collection make it a useful tool. Its shallow penetration depth and limitation to low-conductivity environments are its only drawbacks.

  9. Profile of male-field dependent (FD) prospective teacher's reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustan, S.; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2017-08-01

    Reflective thinking is an important component in the world of education, especially in professional education of teachers. In learning mathematics, reflective thinking is one way to solve mathematical problem because it can improve student's curiosity when student faces a mathematical problem. Reflective thinking is also a future competence that should be taught to students to face the challenges and to respond of demands of the 21st century. There are many factors which give impact toward the student's reflective thinking when student solves mathematical problem. One of them is cognitive style. For this reason, reflective thinking and cognitive style are important things in solving contextual mathematical problem. This research paper describes aspect of reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem involved solution by using some mathematical concept, namely linear program, algebra arithmetic operation, and linear equations of two variables. The participant, in this research paper, is a male-prospective teacher who has Field Dependent. The purpose of this paper is to describe aspect of prospective teachers' reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem. This research paper is a descriptive by using qualitative approach. To analyze the data, the researchers focus in four main categories which describe prospective teacher's activities using reflective thinking, namely; (a) formulation and synthesis of experience, (b) orderliness of experience, (c) evaluating the experience and (d) testing the selected solution based on the experience.

  10. A COMPARISON BETWEEN ZERO-OFFSET AND VERTICAL RADAR PROFILING GPR TECHNIQUES WITH EMPHASIS ON PROBLEMATIC BOREHOLE EFFECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Vignoli, Giulio; Cassiani, Giorgio

    that the dielectric relative permittivity profiles recovered from ZOP and VRP first-break inversions are in strong disagreement, providing very different permittivity profiles. The analysis of synthetic radargrams shows the presence of an electromagnetic (EM) wave established by the joint presence of the air...... of the first recorded event depends on the ratio between the wave length in air and the finite dimension of the borehole. Once these arrivals in the simulated VRP radargrams are recognized, their contribution can be removed by picking the “direct”ù arrivals, that correspond to the waves that directly...... characterizations. Thus, VRP surveys in vadose zone must be accurately interpreted, as the electromagnetic waves may propagate via guided modes along the borehole. Neglecting this phenomenon might generate misleading estimations of geophysical properties and the subsequently translation in hydrological quantities...

  11. A preliminary investigation of radar rainfall estimation in the Ardennes region and a first hydrological application for the Ourthe catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berne, A.D.; Heggeler, ten M.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Delobbe, L.; Dierickx, P.; Wit, de M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the hydrometeorological potential of a C-band doppler weather radar recently installed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium near the village of Wideumont in the southern Ardennes region. An analysis of the vertical profile of reflectivity for two

  12. Diurnal Evolution and Annual Variability of Boundary Layer Height in the Columbia River Gorge through the `Eye' of Wind Profiling Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, L.; Djalalova, I.; Konopleva-Akish, E.; Kenyon, J.; Olson, J. B.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2) is a DoE- and NOAA-sponsored program whose goal is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts in complex terrain. WFIP2 consists of an 18-month (October 2015 - March 2017) field campaign held in the Columbia River basin, in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. As part of WFIP2 a large suite of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation has been deployed, including, among several others, a network of eight 915-MHz wind profiling radars (WPRs) equipped with radio acoustic sounding systems (RASSs), and many surface meteorological stations. The diurnal evolution and annual variability of boundary layer height in the area of WFIP2 will be investigated through the `eye' of WPRs, employing state-of-the-art automated algorithms, based on fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence. The results will be used to evaluate possible errors in NWP models in this area of complex terrain.

  13. Turbulence Dissipation Rates in the Planetary Boundary Layer from Wind Profiling Radars and Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Models during WFIP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, L.; McCaffrey, K.; Wilczak, J. M.; Olson, J. B.; Kenyon, J.

    2016-12-01

    When forecasting winds at a wind plant for energy production, the turbulence parameterizations in the forecast models are crucial for understanding wind plant performance. Recent research shows that the turbulence (eddy) dissipation rate in planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes introduces significant uncertainty in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Thus, developing the capability to measure dissipation rates in the PBL will allow for identification of weaknesses in, and improvements to the parameterizations. During a preliminary field study at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in spring 2015, a 915-MHz wind profiling radar (WPR) measured dissipation rates concurrently with sonic anemometers mounted on a 300-meter tower. WPR set-up parameters (e.g., spectral resolution), post-processing techniques (e.g., filtering for non-atmospheric signals), and spectral averaging were optimized to capture the most accurate Doppler spectra for measuring spectral widths for use in the computation of the eddy dissipation rates. These encouraging results lead to the implementation of the observing strategy on a 915-MHz WPR in Wasco, OR, operating as part of the Wind Forecasting Improvement Project 2 (WFIP2). These observations are compared to dissipation rates calculated from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh model, a WRF-based mesoscale numerical weather prediction model run for WFIP2 at 3000 m horizontal grid spacing and with a nest, which has 750-meter horizontal grid spacing, in the complex terrain region of the Columbia River Gorge. The observed profiles of dissipation rates are used to evaluate the PBL parameterization schemes used in the HRRR model, which are based on the modeled turbulent kinetic energy and a tunable length scale.

  14. Radar absorbing properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This research is devoted to the study of radar absorbing properties of the composites, based on the epoxy binder and ... Radar absorbing materials; carbon nanotubes; nanocomposites; reflection loss. 1. ..... So, for example, the papers of [3–5 ...

  15. Radar rainfall estimation of stratiform winter precipitation in the Belgian Ardennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2011-02-01

    Radars are known for their ability to obtain a wealth of information about spatial storm field characteristics. Unfortunately, rainfall estimates obtained by this instrument are known to be affected by multiple sources of error. Especially for stratiform precipitation systems, the quality of radar rainfall estimates starts to decrease at relatively close ranges. In the current study, the hydrological potential of weather radar is analyzed during a winter half-year for the hilly region of the Belgian Ardennes. A correction algorithm is proposed which corrects the radar data for errors related to attenuation, ground clutter, anomalous propagation, the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR), and advection. No final bias correction with respect to rain gauge data was implemented because such an adjustment would not add to a better understanding of the quality of the radar data. The impact of the different corrections is assessed using rainfall information sampled by 42 hourly rain gauges. The largest improvement in the quality of the radar data is obtained by correcting for ground clutter. The impact of VPR correction and advection depends on the spatial variability and velocity of the precipitation system. Overall during the winter period, the radar underestimates the amount of precipitation as compared to the rain gauges. Remaining differences between both instruments can be attributed to spatial and temporal variability in the type of precipitation, which has not been taken into account.

  16. Aercibo S-band radar program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    The high powered 12.6 cm wavelength radar on the 1000-ft Arecibo reflector is utilized for a number of solar system studies. Chief among these are: (1) surface reflectivity mapping of Venus, Mercury and the Moon. Resolutions achievable on Venus are less than 1.5 km over some areas, for Mercury about 30 km and for the Moon 200 m at present, (2) high time resolution ranging measurements to the surfaces of the terrestrial planets. These measurements are used to obtain profiles and scattering parameters in the equatorial region. They can also be used to test relativistic and gravitational theories by monitoring the rate of advance of the perihelion of the orbit of Mercury and placing limits on the stability of the gravitational constant, (3) measurements of the orbital parameters, figure, spin vector and surface properties of asteroids and comets, and (4) observations of the Galilean Satellites of Jupiter and the satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. The Galilean Satellites of Jupiter were re-observed with the 12.6 cm radar for the first time since 1981. Much more accurate measurements of the scattering properties of the three icy satellites were obtained that generally confirmed previous observations. Unambiguous measurements of the cross section and circular polarizations ratio of Io were also obtained for the first time. The radar scattering properties of four mainbelt asteroids and one near-earth asteroid were studied

  17. The cuticular hydrocarbons profiles in the stingless bee Melipona marginata reflect task-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Caliman, M J; Nascimento, F S; Turatti, I C; Mateus, S; Lopes, N P; Zucchi, R

    2010-07-01

    Members of social insect colonies employ a large variety of chemical signals during their life. Of these, cuticular hydrocarbons are of primary importance for social insects since they allow for the recognition of conspecifics, nestmates and even members of different castes. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the variation of the chemical profiles among workers of the stingless bee Melipona marginata, and (2) to investigate the dependence of the chemical profiles on the age and on the behavior of the studied individuals. The results showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers were composed of alkanes, alkenes and alkadienes that varied quantitatively and qualitatively according to function of workers in the colony. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Swept source optical coherence tomography of objects with arbitrary reflectivity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgebo, Biniyam; Nagib, Karim; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-03-01

    Swept Source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) has become a well established imaging modality for both medical and industrial diagnostic applications. A cross-sectional SS-OCT image is obtained by applying an inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to axial interferogram measured in the frequency domain (k-space). Fourier inversion of the obtained interferogram typically produces a potentially overlapping conjugate mirror image, whose overlap could be avoided by restricting the object to have its highest reflectivity at its surface. However, this restriction may not be fulfilled when imaging a very thin object that is placed on a highly reflective surface, or imaging an object containing a contrast agent with high reflectivity. In this paper, we show that oversampling of the SS-OCT signal in k-space would overcome the need for such restriction on the object. Our result is demonstrated using SS-OCT images of Axolotl salamander eggs.

  19. Ground magnetic studies along a regional seismic-reflection profile across Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ground magnetic data were collected along a 26-km-long regional seismic-reflection profile in southwest Nevada that starts in the Amargosa Desert, crosses Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and ends in Midway Valley. Parallel ground magnetic profiles were also collected about 100 m to either side of the western half of the seismic-reflection line. The magnetic data indicate that the eastern half of Crater Flat is characterized by closely-spaced faulting (1--2 km) in contrast to the western half of Crater Flat. Modeling of the data indicates that the Topopah Spring Tuff is offset about 250 m on the Solitario Canyon fault and about 50 m on the Ghost Dance fault. These estimates of fault offset are consistent with seismic-reflection data and geologic mapping. A broad magnetic high of about 500--600 nT is centered over Crater Flat. Modeling of the magnetic data indicates that the source of this high is not thickening and doming of the Bullfrog Tuff, but more likely lies below the Bullfrog Tuff. Possible source lithologies for this magnetic high include altered argillite of the Eleana Formation, Cretaceous or Tertiary intrusions, and mafic sills

  20. Design and fabrication of optical thin film layers with variable thickness profile for producing variable reflectivity mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R fallah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available   The design method and fabrication of mirrors with variable reflectivity are presented. To fabricate such a mirror a fixed mask with a circular aperture is used. The circular aperture is considered as an extended source with cosx(θas its diffusion distribution function and is the parameter for the distribution function of the particles through the aperture. The thickness profile of deposited layer is a function of this distribution. In this work, the coating system is calibrated for the materials which are used and then the parameter of the diffusion distribution function of the particles through the circular aperture is defined by experiments. Using these results, a graph is presented which connects the parameter of the circular aperture to the parameters of the thickness profile. It is then possible to deposit any type of variable reflectivity mirror using this graph. Finally, the effect of the uncertainty in measuring layer thicknesses on the phase of reflected wave and transmitted wave is investigated.

  1. Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Observation Period (RCS-IOP) millimeter-wave radar calibration and data intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    During April 1994, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) fielded two millimeter-wave atmospheric radars in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Operation Period (RCS-IOP) experiment. The UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) operates simultaneously at 33.12 GHz and 94.92 GHz through a single antenna. The Penn State radar operates at 93.95 GHz and has separate transmitting and receiving antennas. The two systems were separated by approximately 75 meters and simultaneously observed a variety of cloud types at verticle incidence over the course of the experiment. This abstract presents some initial results from our calibration efforts. An absolute calibration of the UMass radar was made from radar measurements of a trihedral corner reflector, which has a known radar cross-section. A relative calibration of between the Penn State and UMass radars is made from the statistical comparison of zenith pointing measurements of low altitude liquid clouds. Attenuation is removed with the aid of radiosonde data, and the difference in the calibration between the UMass and Penn State radars is determined by comparing the ratio of 94-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity values to a model that accounts for parallax effects of the two antennas used in the Penn State system.

  2. Millimeter-Wave Radar Field Measurements and Inversion of Cloud Parameters for the 1999 Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Andrew L.; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Mount Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) was a multi-investigator experiment with participants from Quadrant Engineering, NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL), the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) of the University of Massachusetts (UMass), and others. Radar systems from UMass and NOAA/ETL were used to measure X-, Ka-, and W-band backscatter data from the base of Mt. Washington, while simultaneous in-situ particle measurements were made from aircraft and from the observatory at the summit. This report presents range and time profiles of liquid water content and particle size parameters derived from range profiles of radar reflectivity as measured at X-, Ka-, and W-band (9.3, 33.1, and 94.9 GHz) using an artificial neural network inversion algorithm. In this report, we provide a brief description of the experiment configuration, radar systems, and a review of the artificial neural network used to extract cloud parameters from the radar data. Time histories of liquid water content (LWC), mean volume diameter (MVD) and mean Z diameter (MZD) are plotted at 300 m range intervals for slant ranges between 1.1 and 4 km. Appendix A provides details on the extraction of radar reflectivity from measured radar power, and Appendix B provides summary logs of the weather conditions for each day in which we processed data.

  3. Use of the X-Band Radar to Support the Detection of In-Flight Icing Hazards by the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serke, David J.; Politovich, Marcia K.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Gaydos, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The Alliance Icing Research Study-II (AIRS-II) field program was conducted near Montreal, Canada during the winter of 2003. The NASA Icing Remote Detection System (NIRSS) was deployed to detect in-flight icing hazards and consisted of a vertically pointing multichannel radiometer, a ceilometer and an x-band cloud radar. The radiometer was used to derive atmospheric temperature soundings and integrated liquid water, while the ceilometer and radar were used only to define cloud boundaries. The purpose of this study is to show that the radar reflectivity profiles from AIRS-II case studies could be used to provide a qualitative icing hazard.

  4. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  5. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital ISIS-2 Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Vertical Electron-Density Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, R. F.; Truhlik, V.; Huang, X.; Wang, Y.; Bilitza, D.

    2011-01-01

    The topside-sounders on the four satellites of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35-mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the TOPside Ionogram Scalar with True-height (TOPIST) algorithm has been produced that enables the automatic inversion of ISIS-2 ionogram reflection traces into topside vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). More than million digital Alouette/ISIS topside ionograms have been produced and over 300,000 are from ISIS 2. Many of these ISIS-2 ionograms correspond to a passive mode of operation for the detection of natural radio emissions and thus do not contain ionospheric reflection traces. TOPIST, however, is not able to produce Ne(h) profiles from all of the ISIS-2 ionograms with reflection traces because some of them did not contain frequency information. This information was missing due to difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame-sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. Of the many digital topside ionograms that TOPIST was able to process, over 200 were found where direct comparisons could be made with Ne(h) profiles that were produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. While many of these comparisons indicated excellent agreement (inversion process: (1) improve the quality of the digital ionogram database by remedying the missing frequency-information problem when possible, and (2) using the above-mentioned comparisons as teaching examples of how to improve the original TOPIST software.

  6. Contribution of corner reflections from oriented ice crystals to backscattering and depolarization characteristics for off-zenith lidar profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, Anatoli G.; Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Veselovskii, Igor A.

    2018-06-01

    Backscattering Mueller matrix and the depolarization and color ratios for quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal ice plates have been calculated within the framework of the physical optics approximation. In the case of a tilted lidar, the dependence of the color and depolarization ratios on polarization of the incident light has been analyzed. It is shown that the corner reflection effect inherent to the pristine hexagonal ice crystals results in sharp peaks of both the backscattering cross section and depolarization ratio at the lidar tilts of about 30° off zenith. The experimental results obtained recently by Veselovskii et al. [13] at the lidar tilt of 43° have been interpreted as a partial manifestation of the corner reflection effect. The retrieval of the vertical profile of the ice crystal fraction consisting of quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal plates has been demonstrated.

  7. Circulating, Cell-Free Micro-RNA Profiles Reflect Discordant Development of Dementia in Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Rønne, Mette E; Carlsen, Anting L

    2018-01-01

    We aim to examine if circulating micro-RNA and cytokine levels associate with dementia diagnosis and cognitive scores. To test our hypothesis, we use plasma donated from 48 monozygotic twin pairs in 1997 and 46 micro-RNAs and 10 cytokines were quantified using microfluidic RT-qPCR and multiplex...... solid-phase immunoassays, respectively. Micro-RNA and cytokine profiling were examined for associations with dementia diagnoses in a longitudinal registry study or with cognitive scores at baseline. Thirty-six micro-RNAs and all cytokines were detected consistently. Micro-RNA profiles associate...... with diagnoses and cognitive scores at statistically significant levels while cytokine only showed trends pointing at chronic inflammation in twins having or developing dementia. The most notable findings were decreased miR-106a and miR-210, and increased miR-106b expression in twins with a dementia diagnosis...

  8. Using Reflectance Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Network to Assess Water Infiltration Rate into the Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftali Goldshleger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effect of raindrop energy on both water infiltration into soil and the soil's NIR-SWIR spectral reflectance (1200–2400 nm. Seven soils with different physical and morphological properties from Israel and the US were subjected to an artificial rainstorm. The spectral properties of the crust formed on the soil surface were analyzed using an artificial neural network (ANN. Results were compared to a study with the same population in which partial least-squares (PLS regression was applied. It was concluded that both models (PLS regression and ANN are generic as they are based on properties that correlate with the physical crust, such as clay content, water content and organic matter. Nonetheless, better results for the connection between infiltration rate and spectral properties were achieved with the non-linear ANN technique in terms of statistical values (RMSE of 17.3% for PLS regression and 10% for ANN. Furthermore, although both models were run at the selected wavelengths and their accuracy was assessed with an independent external group of samples, no pre-processing procedure was applied to the reflectance data when using ANN. As the relationship between infiltration rate and soil reflectance is not linear, ANN methods have the advantage for examining this relationship when many soils are being analyzed.

  9. Profiling Radar Observations and Numerical Simulations of a Downslope Wind Storm and Rotor on the Lee of the Medicine Bow Mountains in Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Pokharel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a downslope wind storm event observed over the Medicine Bow range (Wyoming, USA on 11 January 2013. The University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA made four along-wind passes over a five-hour period over the mountain of interest. These passes were recognized as among the most turbulent ones encountered in many years by crew members. The MacCready turbulence meter aboard the UWKA measured moderate to severe turbulence conditions on each pass in the lee of the mountain range, with eddy dissipation rate values over 0.5 m2/3 s−1. Three rawinsondes were released from an upstream location at different times. This event is simulated using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model at an inner- domain resolution of 1 km. The model produces a downslope wind storm, notwithstanding some discrepancies between model and rawinsonde data in terms of upstream atmospheric conditions. Airborne Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR vertical-plane Doppler velocity data from two beams, one pointing to the nadir and one pointing slant forward, are synthesized to obtain a two-dimensional velocity field in the vertical plane below flight level. This synthesis reveals the fine-scale details of an orographic wave breaking event, including strong, persistent downslope acceleration, a strong leeside updraft (up to 10 m·s−1 flanked by counter-rotating vortices, and deep turbulence, extending well above flight level. The analysis of WCR-derived cross-mountain flow in 19 winter storms over the same mountain reveals that cross-mountain flow acceleration and downslope wind formation are difficult to predict from upstream wind and stability profiles.

  10. Radar Observations of Convective Systems from a High-Altitude Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, G.; Geerts, B.; Tian, L.

    1999-01-01

    . Both TEFLUN-A and B were amply supported by surface data, in particular a dense raingauge network, a polarization radar, wind profilers, a mobile radiosonde system, a cloud physics aircraft penetrating the overflown storms, and a network of 10 cm Doppler radars(WSR-88D). This presentation will show some preliminary comparisons between TRMM, EDOP, and WSR-88D reflectivity fields in the case of an MCS, a hurricane, and less organized convection in central Florida. A validation of TRMM reflectivity is important, because TRMM's primary objective is to estimate the rainfall climatology with 35 degrees of the equator. Rainfall is estimated from the radar reflectivity, as well from TRMM's Microwave Imager, which measures at 10.7, 19.4, 21.3, 37, and 85.5 GHz over a broader swath (78 km). While the experiments lasted about three months the cumulative period of near simultaneous observations of storms by ground-based, airborne and space borne radars is only about an hour long. Therefore the comparison is case-study-based, not climatological. We will highlight fundamental differences in the typical reflectivity profiles in stratiform regions of MCS's, Florida convection and hurricanes and will explain why Z-R relationships based on ground-based radar data for convective systems over land should be different from those for hurricanes. These catastrophically intense rainfall from hurricane Georges in Hispaniola and from Mitch in Honduras highlights the importance of accurate Z-R relationships, It will be shown that a Z-R relationship that uses the entire reflectivity profile (rather than just a 1 level) works much better in a variety of cases, making an adjustment of the constants for different precipitation system categories redundant.

  11. Bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Annotation his book is a major extension of a chapter on bistatic radar written by the author for the Radar Handbook, 2nd edition, edited by Merrill Skolnik. It provides a history of bistatic systems that points out to potential designers the applications that have worked and the dead-ends not worth pursuing. The text reviews the basic concepts and definitions, and explains the mathematical development of relationships, such as geometry, Ovals of Cassini, dynamic range, isorange and isodoppler contours, target doppler, and clutter doppler spread.Key Features * All development and analysis are

  12. Interception of LPI radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jim P.

    1991-11-01

    Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile control, and power management that a radar may employ against current Electronic Warfare (EW) receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current intercept EW receivers. LPI operation is most easily achieved at close ranges and against a target with a large radar cross section. The general system sensitivity requirement for the detection of current and projected LPI radars is found to be on the order of -100 dBmi which cannot be met by current EW receivers. Finally, three potential LPI receiver architectures, using channelized, superhet, and acousto-optic receivers with narrow RF and video bandwidths are discussed. They have shown some potential in terms of providing the sensitivity and capability in an environment where both conventional and LPI signals are present.

  13. Variable post-Paleozoic deformation detected by seismic reflection profiling across the northwestern "prong" of New Madrid seismic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, J.H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; Devera, J.A.; Denny, F.B.; Woolery, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles across the northwesternmost part of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) and northwestern margin of the Reelfoot rift, near the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in the northern Mississippi embayment, reveal intense structural deformation that apparently took place during the late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic up to near the end of the Cretaceous Period. The seismic profiles were sited on both sides of the northeast-trending Olmsted fault, defined by varying elevations of the top of Mississippian (locally base of Cretaceous) bedrock. The trend of this fault is close to and parallel with an unusually straight segment of the Ohio River and is approximately on trend with the westernmost of two groups of northeast-aligned epicenters ("prongs") in the NMSZ. Initially suspected on the basis of pre-existing borehole data, the deformation along the fault has been confirmed by four seismic reflection profiles, combined with some new information from drilling. The new data reveal (1) many high-angle normal and reverse faults expressed as narrow grabens and anticlines (suggesting both extensional and compressional regimes) that involved the largest displacements during the late Cretaceous (McNairy); (2) a different style of deformation involving probably more horizontal displacements (i.e., thrusting) that occurred at the end of this phase near the end of McNairy deposition, with some fault offsets of Paleocene and younger units; (3) zones of steeply dipping faults that bound chaotic blocks similar to that observed previously from the nearby Commerce geophysical lineament (CGL); and (4) complex internal deformation stratigraphically restricted to the McNairy, suggestive of major sediment liquefaction or landsliding. Our results thus confirm the prevalence of complex Cretaceous deformations continuing up into Tertiary strata near the northern terminus of the NMSZ. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Probing the magnetic profile of diluted magnetic semiconductors using polarized neutron reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Tseng, L T; Lee, W T; Tan, T T; Bao, N N; Liu, R; Ding, J; Li, S; Lauter, V; Yi, J B

    2017-07-24

    Room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in the Cu doped ZnO films deposited under an oxygen partial pressure of 10 -3 and 10 -5 torr on Pt (200 nm)/Ti (45 nm)/Si (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Due to the deposition at relatively high temperature (873 K), Cu and Ti atoms diffuse to the surface and interface, which significantly affects the magnetic properties. Depth sensitive polarized neutron reflectometry method provides the details of the composition and magnetization profiles and shows that an accumulation of Cu on the surface leads to an increase in the magnetization near the surface. Our results reveal that the presence of the copper at Zn sites induces ferromagnetism at room temperature, confirming intrinsic ferromagnetism.

  15. A simple method for migrating narrow aperture, noisy seismic reflection data and application to Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya) deep seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, Doug

    1997-08-01

    Migration of deep seismic data is often hindered by a narrow recording aperture (line length by record length) and a low signal-to-noise ratio. The severity of typical migration artifacts (e.g., lateral smearing of discontinuous reflections into synforms, "smiles") increases with travel time such that interpreters of deep seismic data have often substituted migrated line drawings for the actual sections. As part of Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya), a new migration method was developed to address both the noise and migration issues. The method works in the time-space domain and uses the simple, constant velocity, straight ray path to perform the migration. First, only amplitudes within a given range are retained for migration, thus avoiding high-amplitude noise bursts and low-amplitude background noise. Then, the local dip of a reflection is found by automatically fitting a straight line to the highest amplitudes within a small window (several time samples by several traces) and calculating the dip of the line using a constant velocity. Finally, using this dip, the method migrates a selected amplitude value. The dips, lateral positions, and depths of the migrated events compare very well with output from more conventional algorithms (e.g.,fk-Stolt, finite difference, etc.). The advantages of the new method include fewer artifacts, fast computer run times, low memory use and the ability to migrate long profiles and travel times (e.g., 50 s). The output of the method is a grid of migrated amplitudes (not wavelets) or dip values which is particularly effective for making small figures, such as those needed for publication. The principal disadvantage is the use of a constant migration velocity.

  16. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital Alouette/ISIS Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Electron Density Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert F.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Huang, Xueqin; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The topside sounders of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35 mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the Topside Ionogram Scalar With True-Height (TOPIST) algorithm, has been produced and used for the automatic inversion of the ionogram reflection traces on more than 100,000 ISIS-2 digital topside ionograms into topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h). Here we present some topside ionospheric solar cycle variations deduced from the TOPIST database to illustrate the scientific benefit of improving and expanding the topside ionospheric Ne(h) database. The profile improvements will be based on improvements in the TOPIST software motivated by direct comparisons between TOPIST profiles and profiles produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. The database expansion will be based on new software designed to overcome limitations in the original digital topside ionogram database caused by difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. This improved and expanded TOPIST topside Ne(h) database will greatly enhance investigations into both short- and long-term ionospheric changes, e.g., the observed topside ionospheric responses to magnetic storms, induced by interplanetary magnetic clouds, and solar cycle variations, respectively.

  17. High Resolution Vertical Seismic Profile from the Chicxulub IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 Borehole: Wave Speeds and Seismic Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lofi, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Christeson, G. L.; Saustrup, S., Sr.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    We acquired a closely-spaced vertical seismic profile (VSP) in the Chicxulub K-Pg Impact Crater drilling program borehole to calibrate the existing surface seismic profiles and provide complementary measurements of in situ seismic wave speeds. Downhole seismic records were obtained at spacings ranging from 1.25 m to 5 m along the borehole from 47.5 m to 1325 mwsf (meters wireline below sea floor) (Fig 1a) using a Sercel SlimwaveTM geophone chain (University of Alberta). The seismic source was a 30/30ci Sercel Mini GI airgun (University of Texas), fired a minimum of 5 times per station. Seismic data processing used a combination of a commercial processing package (Schlumberger's VISTA) and MatlabTM codes. The VSP displays detailed reflectivity (Fig. 1a) with the strongest reflection seen at 600 mwsf (280 ms one-way time), geologically corresponding to the sharp contact between the post-impact sediments and the target peak ring rock, thus confirming the pre-drilling interpretations of the seismic profiles. A two-way time trace extracted from the separated up-going wavefield matches the major reflection both in travel time and character. In the granitic rocks that form the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater, we observe P-wave velocities of 4000-4500 m/s which are significantly less than the expected values of granitoids ( 6000 m/s) (Fig. 1b). The VSP measured wave speeds are confirmed against downhole sonic logging and in laboratory velocimetry measurements; these data provide additional evidence that the crustal material displaced by the impact experienced a significant amount of damage. Samples and data provided by IODP. Samples can be requested at http://web.iodp.tamu.edu/sdrm after 19 October 2017. Expedition 364 was jointly funded by ECORD, ICDP, and IODP with contributions and logistical support from the Yucatan State Government and UNAM. The downhole seismic chain and wireline system is funded by grants to DRS from the Canada Foundation for Innovation and

  18. Salmonella enterica Prophage Sequence Profiles Reflect Genome Diversity and Can Be Used for High Discrimination Subtyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Mottawea

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. Prompt and accurate identification of the sources of Salmonella responsible for disease outbreaks is crucial to minimize infections and eliminate ongoing sources of contamination. Current subtyping tools including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing may be inadequate, in some instances, to provide the required discrimination among epidemiologically unrelated Salmonella strains. Prophage genes represent the majority of the accessory genes in bacteria genomes and have potential to be used as high discrimination markers in Salmonella. In this study, the prophage sequence diversity in different Salmonella serovars and genetically related strains was investigated. Using whole genome sequences of 1,760 isolates of S. enterica representing 151 Salmonella serovars and 66 closely related bacteria, prophage sequences were identified from assembled contigs using PHASTER. We detected 154 different prophages in S. enterica genomes. Prophage sequences were highly variable among S. enterica serovars with a median ± interquartile range (IQR of 5 ± 3 prophage regions per genome. While some prophage sequences were highly conserved among the strains of specific serovars, few regions were lineage specific. Therefore, strains belonging to each serovar could be clustered separately based on their prophage content. Analysis of S. Enteritidis isolates from seven outbreaks generated distinct prophage profiles for each outbreak. Taken altogether, the diversity of the prophage sequences correlates with genome diversity. Prophage repertoires provide an additional marker for differentiating S. enterica subtypes during foodborne outbreaks.

  19. A New Ka-Band Scanning Radar Facility: Polarimetric and Doppler Spectra Measurements of Snow Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, M.; Kollias, P.; Luke, E. P.; Mead, J.

    2017-12-01

    Polarimetric radar analyses offer the capability of identification of ice hydrometeor species as well as their spatial distributions. In addition to polarimetric parameter observations, Doppler spectra measurements offer unique insights into ice particle properties according to particle fall velocities. In particular, millimeter-wavelength radar Doppler spectra can reveal supercooled liquid cloud droplets embedded in ice precipitation clouds. A Ka-band scanning polarimetric radar, named KASPR, was installed in an observation facility at Stony Brook University, located 22 km west of the KOKX NEXRAD radar at Upton, NY. The KASPR can measure Doppler spectra and full polarimetric variables, including radar reflectivity, differential reflectivity (ZDR), differential phase (φDP), specific differential phase (KDP), correlation coefficient (ρhv), and linear depolarization ratio (LDR). The facility also includes a micro-rain radar and a microwave radiometer capable of measuring reflectivity profiles and integrated liquid water path, respectively. The instruments collected initial datasets during two snowstorm events and two snow shower events in March 2017. The radar scan strategy was a combination of PPI scans at 4 elevation angles (10, 20, 45, and 60°) and RHI scans in polarimetry mode, and zenith pointing with Doppler spectra collection. During the snowstorm events the radar observed relatively larger ZDR (1-1.5 dB) and enhanced KDP (1-2 ° km-1) at heights corresponding to a plate/dendrite crystal growth regime. The Doppler spectra showed that slower-falling particles ( 1 m s-1). The weakly increased ZDR could be produced by large, faster falling particles such as quasi-spherical aggregates, while the enhanced KDP could be produced by highly-oriented oblate, slowly-falling particles. Below 2 km altitude, measurements of dual wavelength ratio (DWR) based on Ka and S-band reflectivities from the KASPR and NEXRAD radars were available. Larger DWR (>10 dB) suggested

  20. Antioxidant status and hormonal profile reflected by experimental feeding of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Magdy A; Moselhy, Said S

    2016-04-01

    Excessive production of free radicals can result in tissue damage, which mainly involves generation of hydroxyl radical and other oxidants. Such free radical-induced cell damage appears to play a major role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Probiotics have been used therapeutically to modulate immunity, improve digestive processes, lower cholesterol, treat rheumatoid arthritis, and prevent cancer. The proposed research was designed to evaluate the changes in oxidative and antioxidative profile in addition to metabolic-related hormones of living animal model, which may generally affect the health status. Two groups of rabbits (10 animals each) were allocated in hygienic cages of controlled animal house. Control group received standard diet, and the other group received the same diet containing one probiotic for 30 days. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in leukocytes, blood glucose, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were estimated in different tissues. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total proteins were also determined in different tissues. Certain hormones related to metabolism and growth were also evaluated. Leukocytic LDH activity was significantly increased along with nonsignificant increase of blood glucose in probiotics-fed animals. Results showed significant decreases in the levels of triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone but showed significant elevations in thyroxine, insulin, growth hormone, and testosterone levels in animals fed with probiotics. Total proteins content was highly significantly elevated in liver, kidneys, and muscles of probiotic-administered animals. Microsomal GSH level was significantly decreased only in skeletal muscles of probiotic-treated animals. MDA was significantly lowered in animal tissues fed with probiotics. GSH-Px activity was elevated in hepatic and muscular microsomes of probiotic-supplemented animals while it was nonsignificantly increased in renal

  1. A Dual-Wavelength Radar Technique to Detect Hydrometeor Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of a Ku- and Ka-band space/air-borne dual wavelength radar algorithm to discriminate various phase states of precipitating hydrometeors. A phase-state classification algorithm has been developed from the radar measurements of snow, mixed-phase and rain obtained from stratiform storms. The algorithm, presented in the form of the look-up table that links the Ku-band radar reflectivities and dual-frequency ratio (DFR) to the phase states of hydrometeors, is checked by applying it to the measurements of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Airborne Precipitation Radar Second Generation (APR-2). In creating the statistically-based phase look-up table, the attenuation corrected (or true) radar reflectivity factors are employed, leading to better accuracy in determining the hydrometeor phase. In practice, however, the true radar reflectivities are not always available before the phase states of the hydrometeors are determined. Therefore, it is desirable to make use of the measured radar reflectivities in classifying the phase states. To do this, a phase-identification procedure is proposed that uses only measured radar reflectivities. The procedure is then tested using APR-2 airborne radar data. Analysis of the classification results in stratiform rain indicates that the regions of snow, mixed-phase and rain derived from the phase-identification algorithm coincide reasonably well with those determined from the measured radar reflectivities and linear depolarization ratio (LDR).

  2. New look at radar auroral motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, R.A.; Ecklund, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    During October 1974, three modifications were temporarily added to the NOAA radar auroral backscatter facility located at Anchorage, Alaska. These modifications included (1) a multiple azimuth antenna system. (2) an on-line computer for processing amplitude and mean Doppler profiles of the radar backscatter, and (3) a 13-baud Barker coder. In combination with the radar these modifications provided data relevant to understanding both the microscopic and the macroscopic nature of the radar aurora. Appreciable structure was often found in the Doppler velocity profiles of radar auroral irregularities. Doppler velocities of nearly 2000 m/s were observed. By combining scatter amplitude profiles and mean Doppler profiles from the five azimuths we have produced contour maps of the scatter intensity and the Doppler velocity. The scatter intensity maps often indicate appreciable temporal and spatial structure in the radar auroral irregularities, corroborating the results of Tsunoda et al. (1974). The mean Doppler contour maps indicate that there is also appreciable temporal and spatial structure in the flow velocities of radar auroral irregularities. At those times when there appears to be large-scale uniformity in the irregularity flow, the Doppler velocity varies with azimuth in a manner that is consistent with a cosine-dependent azimuthal variation

  3. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  4. Radar-Derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Based on Precipitation Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for improving radar-derived quantitative precipitation estimation is proposed. Tropical vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPRs are first determined from multiple VPRs. Upon identifying a tropical VPR, the event can be further classified as either tropical-stratiform or tropical-convective rainfall by a fuzzy logic (FL algorithm. Based on the precipitation-type fields, the reflectivity values are converted into rainfall rate using a Z-R relationship. In order to evaluate the performance of this rainfall classification scheme, three experiments were conducted using three months of data and two study cases. In Experiment I, the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D default Z-R relationship was applied. In Experiment II, the precipitation regime was separated into convective and stratiform rainfall using the FL algorithm, and corresponding Z-R relationships were used. In Experiment III, the precipitation regime was separated into convective, stratiform, and tropical rainfall, and the corresponding Z-R relationships were applied. The results show that the rainfall rates obtained from all three experiments match closely with the gauge observations, although Experiment II could solve the underestimation, when compared to Experiment I. Experiment III significantly reduced this underestimation and generated the most accurate radar estimates of rain rate among the three experiments.

  5. Radar Scan Methods in Modern Multifunctional Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Skosyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered urgent task of organizing the review space in modern multifunctional radar systems shall review the space in a wide range of elevation angles from minus 5 to 60-80 degrees and 360 degrees azimuth. MfRLS this type should provide an overview of the zone for a limited time (2-3 sec, detecting a wide range of subtle high and low-flying targets. The latter circumstance requires the organization to select targets against the background of reflections from the underlying surface and local objects (MP. When providing an overview of the space taken into account the need to increase not only the noise immunity, and survivability.Two variants of the review of space in the elevation plane in the solid-state AESA radar. In the first case the overview space narrow beam by one beam. In the second - the transfer of DNA is formed, covering the whole sector of responsibility in elevation and at the reception beam is formed in spetsvychislitele (CB as a result of the signal processing of digitized after emitters antenna web. The estimations of the parameters specific to the multifunction radar SAM air and missile defense. It is shown that in a number of practically important cases, preference should be given clearly one of the methods described review of space.The functional scheme with AESA radar for both variants of the review. Necessary to analyze their differences. Contains the problem of increasing the cost of MfRLS with digital beamforming DNA with increasing bandwidth probing signal being processed.Noted drawbacks of MfRLS with digital beamforming beam. Including: reduced accuracy of the coordinates at low elevation angles, the complexity of the organization of thermal regime of the solid element base using quasi-continuous signal with a low duty cycle. Shows their fundamentally unavoidable in the steppe and desert areas with uneven terrain (Kazakhstan, China, the Middle East.It is shown that for MfRLS working in strong clutter, more preferably

  6. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  7. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  8. Beach-ridge architecture constrained by beach topography and Ground-Penetrating Radar, Itilleq (Lakse Bugt), Disko, Greenland – Implications for sea-level reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Kroon, Aart; Nielsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well-marked by......Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well...... beach-ridge GPR profiles. Most of them are located at the boundary between a unit with reflection characteristics representing palaeo foreshore deposits, and a deeper and more complex radar unit characterized by diffractions, which, however, is not penetrated to large depths by the GPR signals. Based...

  9. Comet radar explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  10. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars. Part II: Data Quality Control and Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen L.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2014-03-01

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the HS-RHI SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  11. Investigation of Weather Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Methodologies in Complex Orography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Montopoli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Near surface quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE from weather radar measurements is an important task for feeding hydrological models, limiting the impact of severe rain events at the ground as well as aiding validation studies of satellite-based rain products. To date, several works have analyzed the performance of various QPE algorithms using actual and synthetic experiments, possibly trained by measurement of particle size distributions and electromagnetic models. Most of these studies support the use of dual polarization radar variables not only to ensure a good level of data quality but also as a direct input to rain estimation equations. One of the most important limiting factors in radar QPE accuracy is the vertical variability of particle size distribution, which affects all the acquired radar variables as well as estimated rain rates at different levels. This is particularly impactful in mountainous areas, where the sampled altitudes are likely several hundred meters above the surface. In this work, we analyze the impact of the vertical profile variations of rain precipitation on several dual polarization radar QPE algorithms when they are tested in a complex orography scenario. So far, in weather radar studies, more emphasis has been given to the extrapolation strategies that use the signature of the vertical profiles in terms of radar co-polar reflectivity. This may limit the use of the radar vertical profiles when dual polarization QPE algorithms are considered. In that case, all the radar variables used in the rain estimation process should be consistently extrapolated at the surface to try and maintain the correlations among them. To avoid facing such a complexity, especially with a view to operational implementation, we propose looking at the features of the vertical profile of rain (VPR, i.e., after performing the rain estimation. This procedure allows characterization of a single variable (i.e., rain when dealing with

  12. Key Inflammatory Processes in Human NASH Are Reflected in Ldlr-/-.Leiden Mice: A Translational Gene Profiling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C; Kleemann, Robert; van Koppen, Arianne; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Verschuren, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic mechanisms requires the use of pre-clinical models, for instance for time-resolved studies. Such models must reflect molecular disease processes of importance in patients. Herein we characterized inflammation in NASH patients on the molecular level by transcriptomics and investigated whether key human disease pathways can be recapitulated experimentally in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice, an established pre-clinical model of NASH. Methods: Human molecular inflammatory processes were defined using a publicly available NASH gene expression profiling dataset (GSE48452) allowing the comparison of biopsy-confirmed NASH patients with normal controls. Gene profiling data from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice (GSE109345) were used for assessment of the translational value of these mice. Results: In human NASH livers, we observed regulation of 65 canonical pathways of which the majority was involved in inflammation (32%), lipid metabolism (16%), and extracellular matrix/remodeling (12%). A similar distribution of pathways across these categories, inflammation (36%), lipid metabolism (24%) and extracellular matrix/remodeling (8%) was observed in HFD-fed Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice. Detailed evaluation of these pathways revealed that a substantial proportion (11 out of 13) of human NASH inflammatory pathways was recapitulated in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice. Furthermore, the activation state of identified master regulators of inflammation (i.e., specific transcription factors, cytokines, and growth factors) in human NASH was largely reflected in Ldlr -/- .Leiden mice, further substantiating its translational value. Conclusion: Human NASH is characterized by upregulation of specific

  13. Key Inflammatory Processes in Human NASH Are Reflected in Ldlr−/−.Leiden Mice: A Translational Gene Profiling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C.; Kleemann, Robert; van Koppen, Arianne; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Verschuren, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic mechanisms requires the use of pre-clinical models, for instance for time-resolved studies. Such models must reflect molecular disease processes of importance in patients. Herein we characterized inflammation in NASH patients on the molecular level by transcriptomics and investigated whether key human disease pathways can be recapitulated experimentally in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice, an established pre-clinical model of NASH. Methods: Human molecular inflammatory processes were defined using a publicly available NASH gene expression profiling dataset (GSE48452) allowing the comparison of biopsy-confirmed NASH patients with normal controls. Gene profiling data from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice (GSE109345) were used for assessment of the translational value of these mice. Results: In human NASH livers, we observed regulation of 65 canonical pathways of which the majority was involved in inflammation (32%), lipid metabolism (16%), and extracellular matrix/remodeling (12%). A similar distribution of pathways across these categories, inflammation (36%), lipid metabolism (24%) and extracellular matrix/remodeling (8%) was observed in HFD-fed Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice. Detailed evaluation of these pathways revealed that a substantial proportion (11 out of 13) of human NASH inflammatory pathways was recapitulated in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice. Furthermore, the activation state of identified master regulators of inflammation (i.e., specific transcription factors, cytokines, and growth factors) in human NASH was largely reflected in Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice, further substantiating its translational value. Conclusion: Human NASH is characterized by upregulation of specific

  14. Metabolite profiling identifies candidate markers reflecting the clinical adaptations associated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery is associated with weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, and a reduction in co-morbidities such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. To generate further insight into the numerous metabolic adaptations associated with RYGB surgery, we profiled serum metabolites before and after gastric bypass surgery and integrated metabolite changes with clinical data. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum metabolites were detected by gas and liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry before, and 3 and 6 months after RYGB in morbidly obese female subjects (n = 14; BMI = 46.2+/-1.7. Subjects showed decreases in weight-related parameters and improvements in insulin sensitivity post surgery. The abundance of 48% (83 of 172 of the measured metabolites changed significantly within the first 3 months post RYGB (p<0.05, including sphingosines, unsaturated fatty acids, and branched chain amino acids. Dividing subjects into obese (n = 9 and obese/diabetic (n = 5 groups identified 8 metabolites that differed consistently at all time points and whose serum levels changed following RYGB: asparagine, lysophosphatidylcholine (C18:2, nervonic (C24:1 acid, p-Cresol sulfate, lactate, lycopene, glucose, and mannose. Changes in the aforementioned metabolites were integrated with clinical data for body mass index (BMI and estimates for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Of these, nervonic acid was significantly and negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.001, R = -0.55. CONCLUSIONS: Global metabolite profiling in morbidly obese subjects after RYGB has provided new information regarding the considerable metabolic alterations associated with this surgical procedure. Integrating clinical measurements with metabolomics data is capable of identifying markers that reflect the metabolic adaptations following RYGB.

  15. Application of Volumetric Weather Radar Data and the Distributed Rainfall Runoff Model REW in the Ourthe Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Torfs, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Weerts, A.; Reggiani, P.; Delobbe, L.

    2008-12-01

    In the southern Ardennes region of Belgium near the border with Luxembourg, the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI) installed a C-band Doppler weather radar at an elevation of 600 m in the year 2001. This volumetric weather radar scans over multiple elevations at a temporal resolution of 5 minutes. The current study explores the possibility of using the volumetric information of the precipitation field to correct for the effects of the Vertical Profile of Reflectivity (VPR) over the period October 1, 2002 until March 31, 2003. During this winter half year storm events are mainly stratiform, giving rise to bright band effects which can decrease the performance of the radar. Previous studies have shown multiple drawbacks in applying a single estimated VPR profile to correct such reflectivity data. Therefore, the focus here is on the temporal variability of the VPR as measured by the radar and its variability over different spatial scales. This information is applied to generate a number of possible rainfall fields. These realizations are employed to try to quantify some of the discrepancies in precipitation intensities as estimated by the weather radar and those measured by a raingauge network. The final step then is to assess their potential within a distributed rainfall runoff model. The 1597 km2 Ourthe catchment lies within 60 km of the radar. Over this medium sized watershed ten raingauges measuring at an hourly interval are more or less equally distributed. Near the outlet discharge data are collected at the same time step. The distributed hydrological Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) model is applied to model the hydrological behavior of the Ourthe over the six month period. The benefits of the high spatial and temporal resolution of weather radar data compared to a conventional raingauge network plus the possibility of generating multiple realizations of the precipitation field are expected to yield more information about the hydrological

  16. Identification of sixteen peptides reflecting heat and/or storage induced processes by profiling of commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jennifer; Baum, Florian; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-09-16

    Peptide profiles of different drinking milk samples were examined to study how the peptide fingerprint of milk reflects processing conditions. The combination of a simple and fast method for peptide extraction using stage tips and MALDI-TOF-MS enabled the fast and easy generation and relative quantification of peptide fingerprints for high-temperature short-time (HTST), extended shelf life (ESL) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk of the same dairies. The relative quantity of 16 peptides changed as a function of increasing heat load. Additional heating experiments showed that among those, the intensity of peptide β-casein 196-209 (m/z 1460.9Da) was most heavily influenced by heat treatment indicating a putative marker peptide for milk processing conditions. Storage experiments with HTST- and UHT milk revealed that the differences between different types of milk samples were not only caused by the heating process. Relevant was also the proteolytic activity of enzymes during storage, which were differently influenced by the heat treatment. These results indicate that the peptide profile may be suitable to monitor processing as well as storage conditions of milk. In the present study, peptide profiling of different types of milk was carried out by MALDI-TOF-MS after stage-tip extraction and relative quantification using an internal reference peptide. Although MALDI-TOF-MS covers only part of the peptidome, the method is easy and quick and is, therefore, suited for routine analysis to address several aspects of food authenticity. Using this method, 16 native peptides were detected in milk that could be modulated by different industrial processes. Subsequent heating and storage experiments with pasteurized and UHT milk confirmed that these peptides are indeed related to the production or storage conditions of the respective products. Furthermore, the heating experiments revealed one peptide, namely the β-casein-derived sequence β-casein 196-209, which underwent

  17. Collection, processing, and interpretation of ground-penetrating radar data to determine sediment thickness at selected locations in Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Johnson, Carole D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected geophysical data in Deep Creek Lake in Garrett County, Maryland, between September 17 through October 4, 2007 to assist the Maryland Department of Natural Resources to better manage resources of the Lake. The objectives of the geophysical surveys were to provide estimates of sediment thickness in shallow areas around the Lake and to test the usefulness of three geophysical methods in this setting. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR), continuous seismic-reflection profiling (CSP), and continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) were attempted. Nearly 90 miles of GPR radar data and over 70 miles of CSP data were collected throughout the study area. During field deployment and testing, CRP was determined not to be practical and was not used on a large scale. Sediment accumulation generally could be observed in the radar profiles in the shallow coves. In some seismic profiles, a thin layer of sediment could be observed at the water bottom. The radar profiles appeared to be better than the seismic profiles for the determination of sediment thickness. Although only selected data profiles were processed, all data were archived for future interpretation.

  18. Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chloe V; Flint, James A; Lepper, Paul A

    2010-10-01

    Bat mortality resulting from actual or near-collision with operational wind turbine rotors is a phenomenon that is widespread but not well understood. Because bats rely on information contained in high-frequency echoes to determine the nature and movement of a target, it is important to consider how ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by bats for echolocation may be interacting with operational turbine rotor blades. By assessing the characteristics of reflected ultrasonic echoes, moving turbine blades operating under low wind speed conditions (<6 m s(-1)) were found to produce distinct Doppler shift profiles at different angles to the rotor. Frequency shifts of up to ±700-800 Hz were produced, which may not be perceptible by some bat species. Monte Carlo simulation of bat-like sampling by echolocation revealed that over 50 rotor echoes could be required by species such as Pipistrellus pipistrellus for accurate interpretation of blade movement, which may not be achieved in the bat's approach time-window. In summary, it was found that echoes returned from moving blades had features which could render them attractive to bats or which might make it difficult for the bat to accurately detect and locate blades in sufficient time to avoid a collision.

  19. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  20. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  1. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  2. Specification for a surface-search radar-detection-range model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattan, Claude P.

    1990-09-01

    A model that predicts surface-search radar detection range versus a variety of combatants has been developed at the Naval Ocean Systems Center. This model uses a simplified ship radar cross section (RCS) model and the U.S. Navy Oceanographic and Atmospheric Mission Library Standard Electromagnetic Propagation Model. It provides the user with a method of assessing the effects of the environment of the performance of a surface-search radar system. The software implementation of the model is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77, with MIL-STD-1753 extensions. The program provides the user with a table of expected detection ranges when the model is supplied with the proper environmental radar system inputs. The target model includes the variation in RCS as a function of aspect angle and the distribution of reflected radar energy as a function of height above the waterline. The modeled propagation effects include refraction caused by a multisegmented refractivity profile, sea-surface roughness caused by local winds, evaporation ducting, and surface-based ducts caused by atmospheric layering.

  3. Minimum redundancy MIMO radars

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chun-Yang; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    2008-01-01

    The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar concept has drawn considerable attention recently. In the traditional single-input multiple-output (SIMO) radar system, the transmitter emits scaled versions of a single waveform. However, in the MIMO radar system, the transmitter transmits independent waveforms. It has been shown that the MIMO radar can be used to improve system performance. Most of the MIMO radar research so far has focused on the uniform array. However, i...

  4. Specific Features of Destabilization of the Wave Profile During Reflection of an Intense Acoustic Beam from a Soft Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryabin, M. S.; Kasyanov, D. A.; Kurin, V. V.; Garasyov, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    We show that a significant energy redistribution occurs in the spectrum of reflected nonlinear waves, when an intense acoustic beam is reflected from an acoustically soft boundary, which manifests itself at short wave distances from a reflecting boundary. This effect leads to the appearance of extrema in the distributions of the amplitude and intensity of the field of the reflected acoustic beam near the reflecting boundary. The results of physical experiments are confirmed by numerical modeling of the process of transformation of nonlinear waves reflected from an acoustically soft boundary. Numerical modeling was performed by means of the Khokhlov—Zabolotskaya—Kuznetsov (KZK) equation.

  5. A radar-echo model for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.W.; Moore, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers developed a radar-echo model for Mars based on 12.6 cm continuous wave radio transmissions backscattered from the planet. The model broadly matches the variations in depolarized and polarized total radar cross sections with longitude observed by Goldstone in 1986 along 7 degrees S. and yields echo spectra that are generally similiar to the observed spectra. Radar map units in the model include an extensive cratered uplands unit with weak depolarized echo cross sections, average thermal inertias, moderate normal refelectivities, and moderate rms slopes; the volcanic units of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis regions with strong depolarized echo cross sections, low thermal inertia, low normal reflectivities, and large rms slopes; and the northern planes units with moderate to strong depolarized echo cross sections, moderate to very high thermal inertias, moderate to large normal reflectivities, and moderate rms slopes. The relevance of the model to the interpretation of radar echoes from Mars is discussed

  6. Physical working principles of medical radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-04-01

    There has been research interest in using radar for contactless measurements of the human heartbeat for several years. While many systems have been demonstrated, not much attention have been given to the actual physical causes of why this work. The consensus seems to be that the radar senses small body movements correlated with heartbeats, but whether only the movements of the body surface or reflections from internal organs are also monitored have not been answered definitely. There has recently been proposed another theory that blood perfusion in the skin could be the main reason radars are able to detect heartbeats. In this paper, an experimental approach is given to determine the physical causes. The measurement results show that it is the body surface reflections that dominate radar measurements of human heartbeats.

  7. Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) Radar - Diversity Means Superiority

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Jian

    2008-01-01

    .... It also uses multiple antennas to receive the reflected signals. It has been shown that by exploiting this waveform diversity, MIMO radar can overcome performance degradations caused by radar cross section (RCS...

  8. Initiation and evolution of the Oligo-Miocene rift basins of southwestern Europe: Contribution of deep seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, C.

    1993-11-01

    Southwestern European Oligo-Miocene rift basins have recently been investigated by deep seismic reflection profiling. The study of these data, together with other geophysical and geological data, shows that the rifts, which run from the Rhinegraben to the western Mediterranean, do not form a single clearcut system. The N-trending rifts (Rhinegraben, Bresse and Limagne) were developed on a cold and rigid lithosphere affected by the Alpine collision. The NE-trending rifts (southeastern France, Gulf of Lions and Valencia Trough) were formed slightly later in a backarc basin associated with an active segment of the European-Iberian plate that was heated, affected by widespread calcalkaline volcanism and probably weakened. All the southwestern European rifts and basins together may, however, be related to a common heritage represented by the boundary between the European-Iberian and African-Apulian plates that was created in the Jurassic with the initiation of the Tethys Ocean. The present features of the southwestern European Oligo-Miocène rift basins may be explained by a combination of three geodynamic mechanisms: mechanical stretching of the lithosphere, active mantle uplifting, and subordinate lithospheric flexuring. All the rifts were probably initiated by passive stretching. A systematic discrepancy between stretching derived from fault analysis and attenuation of the crust has been observed in all the rifts. This suggests that these rifts were subsequently reworked by one or several active mantle upwelling events associated with late shoulder uplift, asthenosphere upwelling and anomalous P-wave velocities in the lowermost crust and the uppermost mantle. Crustal attenuation may have been achieved by mantle intrusion, metamorphism of the deep crust and/or its delamination. Some of the rifts were affected by lithospheric flexuring. Combinations, in various proportions, of a small number of geodynamic mechanisms probably controlled many basins in the world. This

  9. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations. (paper)

  10. Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    This software enables easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. The software was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground based Sand C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite s Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument. The software is also applicable to other ground-based and space-based radars. The ground and space radar volume matching and comparison software was developed in response to requirements defined by the Ground Validation System (GVS) of Goddard s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) project. This software innovation is specifically concerned with simplifying the comparison of ground- and spacebased radar measurements for the purpose of GPM algorithm and data product validation. This software is unique in that it provides an operational environment to routinely create comparison products, and uses a direct geometric approach to derive common volumes of space- and ground-based radar data. In this approach, spatially coincident volumes are defined by the intersection of individual space-based Precipitation Radar rays with the each of the conical elevation sweeps of the ground radar. Thus, the resampled volume elements of the space and ground radar reflectivity can be directly compared to one another.

  11. Analysis of 35 GHz Cloud Radar polarimetric variables to identify stratiform and convective precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel; Illingworth, Anthony, J.; Stein, Thorwald

    2017-04-01

    This study is performed using vertical profiles of radar measurements at 35GHz, for the period going from 29th of February to 1rst October 2016, at the Chilbolton observatory in United Kingdom. During this period, more than 40 days with precipitation events are investigated. The investigation uses the synergy of radar reflectivity factors, vertical velocity, Doppler spectrum width, and linear depolarization ratio (LDR) to differentiate between stratiform and convective rain events. The depth of the layer with Doppler spectrum width values greater than 0.5 m s-1 is shown to be a suitable proxy to distinguish between convective and stratiform events. Using LDR to detect the radar bright band, bright band characteristics such as depth of the layer and maximum LDR are shown to vary with the amount of turbulence aloft. Profiles of radar measurements are also compared to rain gauge measurements to study the contribution of convective and stratiform rainfall to total rain duration and amount. To conclude, this study points out differences between convective and stratiform rains and quantifies their contributions over a precipitation event, highlighting that convective and stratiform rainfall should be considered as a continuum rather than a dichotomy.

  12. Radar-derived quantitative precipitation estimation in complex terrain over the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yabin; Ma, Yingzhao; Chen, Haonan; Wen, Yixin

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the important applications of weather radars. However, in complex terrain such as Tibetan Plateau, it is a challenging task to obtain an optimal Z-R relation due to the complex spatial and temporal variability in precipitation microphysics. This paper develops two radar QPE schemes respectively based on Reflectivity Threshold (RT) and Storm Cell Identification and Tracking (SCIT) algorithms using observations from 11 Doppler weather radars and 3264 rain gauges over the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP). These two QPE methodologies are evaluated extensively using four precipitation events that are characterized by different meteorological features. Precipitation characteristics of independent storm cells associated with these four events, as well as the storm-scale differences, are investigated using short-term vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) clusters. Evaluation results show that the SCIT-based rainfall approach performs better than the simple RT-based method for all precipitation events in terms of score comparison using validation gauge measurements as references. It is also found that the SCIT-based approach can effectively mitigate the local error of radar QPE and represent the precipitation spatiotemporal variability better than the RT-based scheme.

  13. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America ) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model. Review of other latent heating algorithms will be discussed in the workshop.

  14. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM rainfall products from December 1997 to November 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2001. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DE 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs. west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in strtaiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  15. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  16. The Ability of MM5 to Simulate Ice Clouds: Systematic Comparison between Simulated and Measured Fluxes and Lidar/Radar Profiles at SIRTA Atmospheric Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriaco, M.; Vautard, R.; Chepfer, H.; Haeffelin, M.; Wanherdrick, Y.; Morille, Y.; Protat, A.; Dudhia, J.

    2005-03-18

    Ice clouds play a major role in the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system (Liou 1986). Their radiative effect is governed primarily by the equilibrium between their albedo and greenhouse effects. Both macrophysical and microphysical properties of ice clouds regulate this equilibrium. For quantifying the effect of these clouds onto climate and weather systems, they must be properly characterized in atmospheric models. In this paper we use remote-sensing measurements from the SIRTA ground based atmospheric observatory (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Teledetection Atmospherique, http://sirta.lmd.polytechnique.fr). Lidar and radar observations taken over 18 months are used, in order to gain statistical confidence in the model evaluation. Along this period of time, 62 days are selected for study because they contain parts of ice clouds. We use the ''model to observations'' approach by simulating lidar and radar signals from MM5 outputs. Other more classical variables such as shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes are also used. Four microphysical schemes, among which that proposed by Reisner et al. (1998) with original or modified parameterizations of particle terminal fall velocities (Zurovac-Jevtic and Zhang 2003, Heymsfield and Donner 1990), and the simplified Dudhia (1989) scheme are evaluated in this study.

  17. Profiles of environmental contaminants in hawksbill turtle egg yolks reflect local to distant pollution sources among nesting beaches in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Cynthia C; Vermeiren, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of spatial variation in pollutant profiles among sea turtle nesting locations is limited. This poses challenges in identifying processes shaping this variability and sets constraints to the conservation management of sea turtles and their use as biomonitoring tools for environmental pollutants. We aimed to increase understanding of the spatial variation in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds among nesting beaches. We link the spatial variation to turtle migration patterns and the persistence of these pollutants. Specifically, using gas chromatography, we confirmed maternal transfer of a large number of compounds (n = 68 out of 69) among 104 eggs collected from 21 nests across three nesting beaches within the Yucatán Peninsula, one of the world's most important rookeries for hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). High variation in PAH profiles was observed among beaches, using multivariate correspondence analysis and univariate Peto-Prentice tests, reflecting local acquisition during recent migration movements. Diagnostic PAH ratios reflected petrogenic origins in Celestún, the beach closest to petroleum industries in the Gulf of Mexico. By contrast, pollution profiles of OCPs and PCBs showed high similarity among beaches, reflecting the long-term accumulation of these pollutants at regional scales. Therefore, spatial planning of protected areas and the use of turtle eggs in biomonitoring needs to account for the spatial variation in pollution profiles among nesting beaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulse compression radar reflectometry for density measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costley, A; Prentice, R [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Laviron, C [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France); Prentice, R [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d` Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements

    1994-07-01

    On tokamaks and other toroidal machines, reflectometry is a very rapidly developing technique for density profile measurements, particularly near the edge. Its principle relies on the total reflection of an electromagnetic wave at a cutoff layer, where the critical density is reached and the local refractive index goes to zero. With the new fast frequency synthesizers now available, a method based on pulse compression radar is proposed for plasma reflectometry, overcoming the limitations of the previous reflectometry methods. The measurement can be made on a time-scale which is effectively very short relatively to the plasma fluctuations, and the very high reproducibility and stability of the source allows an absolute calibration of the waveguides to be made, which corrects for the effects of the parasitic reflections. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  20. Radar and ARPA manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bole, A G

    2013-01-01

    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  1. Improving Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation over Complex Terrain in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study by the State of California's Department of Water Resources has emphasized that the San Francisco Bay Area is at risk of catastrophic flooding. Therefore, accurate quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and forecast (QPF) are critical for protecting life and property in this region. Compared to rain gauge and meteorological satellite, ground based radar has shown great advantages for high-resolution precipitation observations in both space and time domain. In addition, the polarization diversity shows great potential to characterize precipitation microphysics through identification of different hydrometeor types and their size and shape information. Currently, all the radars comprising the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network are operating in dual-polarization mode. Enhancement of QPE is one of the main considerations of the dual-polarization upgrade. The San Francisco Bay Area is covered by two S-band WSR-88D radars, namely, KMUX and KDAX. However, in complex terrain like the Bay Area, it is still challenging to obtain an optimal rainfall algorithm for a given set of dual-polarization measurements. In addition, the accuracy of rain rate estimates is contingent on additional factors such as bright band contamination, vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) correction, and partial beam blockages. This presentation aims to improve radar QPE for the Bay area using advanced dual-polarization rainfall methodologies. The benefit brought by the dual-polarization upgrade of operational radar network is assessed. In addition, a pilot study of gap fill X-band radar performance is conducted in support of regional QPE system development. This paper also presents a detailed comparison between the dual-polarization radar-derived rainfall products with various operational products including the NSSL's Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Quantitative evaluation of various rainfall products is achieved

  2. Probing ultrafast changes of spin and charge density profiles with resonant XUV magnetic reflectivity at the free-electron laser FERMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutt, C; Sant, T; Ksenzov, D; Capotondi, F; Pedersoli, E; Raimondi, L; Nikolov, I P; Kiskinova, M; Jaiswal, S; Jakob, G; Kläui, M; Zabel, H; Pietsch, U

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of resonant magnetic XUV reflectivity experiments performed at the XUV free-electron laser FERMI. Circularly polarized XUV light with the photon energy tuned to the Fe M 2,3 edge is used to measure resonant magnetic reflectivities and the corresponding Q -resolved asymmetry of a Permalloy/Ta/Permalloy trilayer film. The asymmetry exhibits ultrafast changes on 240 fs time scales upon pumping with ultrashort IR laser pulses. Depending on the value of the wavevector transfer Q z , we observe both decreasing and increasing values of the asymmetry parameter, which is attributed to ultrafast changes in the vertical spin and charge density profiles of the trilayer film.

  3. Investigations on the sensitivity of a stepped-frequency radar utilizing a vector network analyzer for Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schubert, Karsten; Schoebel, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    Employing a continuous-wave radar system, with the stepped-frequency radar being one type of this class, all reflections from the environment are present continuously and simultaneously at the receiver. Utilizing such a radar system for Ground Penetrating Radar purposes, antenna cross-talk and ground bounce reflection form an overall dominant signal contribution while reflections from objects buried in the ground are of quite weak amplitude due to attenuation in the ground. This requires a large dynamic range of the receiver which in turn requires high sensitivity of the radar system. In this paper we analyze the sensitivity of our vector network analyzer utilized as stepped-frequency radar system for GPR pipe detection. We furthermore investigate the performance of increasing the sensitivity of the radar by means of appropriate averaging and low-noise pre-amplification of the received signal. It turns out that the improvement in sensitivity actually achievable may differ significantly from theoretical expectations. In addition, we give a descriptive explanation why our appropriate experiments demonstrate that the sensitivity of the receiver is independent of the distance between the target object and the source of dominant signal contribution. Finally, our investigations presented in this paper lead to a preferred setting of operation for our vector network analyzer in order to achieve best detection capability for weak reflection amplitudes, hence making the radar system applicable for Ground Penetrating Radar purposes.

  4. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  5. ISTEF Laser Radar Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stryjewski, John

    1998-01-01

    The BMDO Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (BMDO/ISTEF) laser radar program is engaged in an ongoing program to develop and demonstrate advanced laser radar concepts for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...

  6. Weather Radar Impact Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent an inventory of the national impacts of wind turbine interference with NEXRAD radar stations. This inventory was developed by the NOAA Radar...

  7. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Nickel, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Real aperture array radar; Imaging radar and Passive and multistatic radar.

  8. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H

    1988-01-01

    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  9. Multiple-scattering in radar systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Alessandro; Tanelli, Simone; Kobayashi, Satoru; Zrnic, Dusan; Hogan, Robin J.; Simmer, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Although extensively studied within the lidar community, the multiple scattering phenomenon has always been considered a rare curiosity by radar meteorologists. Up to few years ago its appearance has only been associated with two- or three-body-scattering features (e.g. hail flares and mirror images) involving highly reflective surfaces. Recent atmospheric research aimed at better understanding of the water cycle and the role played by clouds and precipitation in affecting the Earth's climate has driven the deployment of high frequency radars in space. Examples are the TRMM 13.5 GHz, the CloudSat 94 GHz, the upcoming EarthCARE 94 GHz, and the GPM dual 13-35 GHz radars. These systems are able to detect the vertical distribution of hydrometeors and thus provide crucial feedbacks for radiation and climate studies. The shift towards higher frequencies increases the sensitivity to hydrometeors, improves the spatial resolution and reduces the size and weight of the radar systems. On the other hand, higher frequency radars are affected by stronger extinction, especially in the presence of large precipitating particles (e.g. raindrops or hail particles), which may eventually drive the signal below the minimum detection threshold. In such circumstances the interpretation of the radar equation via the single scattering approximation may be problematic. Errors will be large when the radiation emitted from the radar after interacting more than once with the medium still contributes substantially to the received power. This is the case if the transport mean-free-path becomes comparable with the instrument footprint (determined by the antenna beam-width and the platform altitude). This situation resembles to what has already been experienced in lidar observations, but with a predominance of wide- versus small-angle scattering events. At millimeter wavelengths, hydrometeors diffuse radiation rather isotropically compared to the visible or near infrared region where scattering is

  10. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Rahivere peat bog, eastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Plado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current case study presents results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR profiling at one of the Saadjärve drumlin field interstitial troughs, the Rahivere bog, eastern Estonia. The study was conducted in order to identify the bog morphology, and the thickness and geometry of the peat body. The method was also used to describe the applicability of GPR in the evaluation of the peat deposit reserve as the Rahivere bog belongs among the officially registered peat reserves. Fourteen GPR profiles, ~ 100 m apart and oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the depression, covering the bog and its surrounding areas, were acquired. In order to verify the radar image interpretation as well as to evaluate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in peat, a common source configuration was utilized and thirteen boreholes were drilled on the GPR profiles. A mean value of 0.036 m ns–1 corresponding to relative dielectric permittivity of 69.7 was used for the time–depth conversion. Radar images reveal major reflection from the peat–soil interface up to a depth of about 4 m, whereas drillings showed a maximum thickness of 4.5 m of peat. Minor reflections appear from the upper peat and mineral soil. According to the borehole data, undecomposed peat is underlain by decomposed one, but identifying them by GPR is complicated. Mineral soil consists of glaciolimnic silty sand in the peripheral areas of the trough, overlain by limnic clay in the central part. The calculated peat volumes (1 200 000 m3 were found to exceed the earlier estimation (979 000 m3 that was based solely on drilling data. Ground-penetrating radar, as a method that allows mapping horizontal continuity of the sub-peat interface in a non-destructive way, was found to provide detailed information for evaluating peat depth and extent.

  11. Software Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the definition and the key features of Software Radar, which is a new concept, are proposed and discussed. We consider the development of modern radar system technology to be divided into three stages: Digital Radar, Software radar and Intelligent Radar, and the second stage is just commencing now. A Software Radar system should be a combination of various modern digital modular components conformed to certain software and hardware standards. Moreover, a software radar system with an open system architecture supporting to decouple application software and low level hardware would be easy to adopt "user requirements-oriented" developing methodology instead of traditional "specific function-oriented" developing methodology. Compared with traditional Digital Radar, Software Radar system can be easily reconfigured and scaled up or down to adapt to the changes of requirements and technologies. A demonstration Software Radar signal processing system, RadarLab 2.0, which has been developed by Tsinghua University, is introduced in this paper and the suggestions for the future development of Software Radar in China are also given in the conclusion.

  12. Using phase for radar scatterer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda J.; Rigling, Brian D.; Penno, Robert P.; Zelnio, Edmund G.

    2017-04-01

    Traditional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems tend to discard phase information of formed complex radar imagery prior to automatic target recognition (ATR). This practice has historically been driven by available hardware storage, processing capabilities, and data link capacity. Recent advances in high performance computing (HPC) have enabled extremely dense storage and processing solutions. Therefore, previous motives for discarding radar phase information in ATR applications have been mitigated. First, we characterize the value of phase in one-dimensional (1-D) radar range profiles with respect to the ability to correctly estimate target features, which are currently employed in ATR algorithms for target discrimination. These features correspond to physical characteristics of targets through radio frequency (RF) scattering phenomenology. Physics-based electromagnetic scattering models developed from the geometrical theory of diffraction are utilized for the information analysis presented here. Information is quantified by the error of target parameter estimates from noisy radar signals when phase is either retained or discarded. Operating conditions (OCs) of signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth are considered. Second, we investigate the value of phase in 1-D radar returns with respect to the ability to correctly classify canonical targets. Classification performance is evaluated via logistic regression for three targets (sphere, plate, tophat). Phase information is demonstrated to improve radar target classification rates, particularly at low SNRs and low bandwidths.

  13. Advanced Covariance-Based Stochastic Inversion and Neuro-Genetic Optimization for Rosetta CONSERT Radar Data to Improve Spatial Resolution of Multi-Fractal Depth Profiles for Cometary Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenhofer, Peter; Ulamec, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    procedure of data inversion by combining inverted artificial neural networks of adequately chosen topology and learning routines for short access times with the concept of genetic algorithms enabling to achieve a multi-dimensional global optimum subject to a properly constructed and problem-oriented target function, ensemble selection rules, etc. Finally the paper discusses how the power of realistic simulation of the structures of the interior of a cometary nucleus can be improved by applying Benoit Mandelbrot's concept of fractal structures. It is shown how the fractal volumetric modelling of the nucleus of a comet can be accomplished by finite 3D elements of flexibility (serving topography and morphology as well) such as of tetrahedron shape with specific scaling factors of self similarity and a Maxwellian type of distribution function. By applying the widely accepted fBm-concept of fractal Brownian motion basically each of the corresponding Hurst exponents 0 (rough) < H < 1 (smooth) can be derived for the multi-fractal depth (and terrain) profiles of the equivalent dielectric constant per tomographic angular orbital segment of intersection by transmissive radar ray paths with the nucleus of the comet. Cooperative efforts and work are in progress to achieve numerical results of depth profiles for the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

  14. Diffusion Profiling via a Histogram Approach Distinguishes Low-grade from High-grade Meningiomas, Can Reflect the Respective Proliferative Potential and Progesterone Receptor Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gihr, Georg Alexander; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Garnov, Nikita; Kohlhof-Meinecke, Patricia; Ganslandt, Oliver; Henkes, Hans; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Surov, Alexey; Schob, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Presurgical grading, estimation of growth kinetics, and other prognostic factors are becoming increasingly important for selecting the best therapeutic approach for meningioma patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides microstructural information and reflects tumor biology. A novel DWI approach, histogram profiling of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volumes, provides more distinct information than conventional DWI. Therefore, our study investigated whether ADC histogram profiling distinguishes low-grade from high-grade lesions and reflects Ki-67 expression and progesterone receptor status. Pretreatment ADC volumes of 37 meningioma patients (28 low-grade, 9 high-grade) were used for histogram profiling. WHO grade, Ki-67 expression, and progesterone receptor status were evaluated. Comparative and correlative statistics investigating the association between histogram profiling and neuropathology were performed. The entire ADC profile (p10, p25, p75, p90, mean, median) was significantly lower in high-grade versus low-grade meningiomas. The lower percentiles, mean, and modus showed significant correlations with Ki-67 expression. Skewness and entropy of the ADC volumes were significantly associated with progesterone receptor status and Ki-67 expression. ROC analysis revealed entropy to be the most accurate parameter distinguishing low-grade from high-grade meningiomas. ADC histogram profiling provides a distinct set of parameters, which help differentiate low-grade versus high-grade meningiomas. Also, histogram metrics correlate significantly with histological surrogates of the respective proliferative potential. More specifically, entropy revealed to be the most promising imaging biomarker for presurgical grading. Both, entropy and skewness were significantly associated with progesterone receptor status and Ki-67 expression and therefore should be investigated further as predictors for prognostically relevant tumor biological features. Since absolute ADC

  15. Integrating ground-penetrating radar and borehole data from a Wadden Sea barrier island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Møller, I.; Nielsen, L. H.

    2009-01-01

    Sea level rise may have large implications for low-gradient barrier coastal systems. This problem motivated an integrated ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and sedimentological study of the Rømø Wadden Sea barrier island. Crossing W-E and N-S-oriented 100 MHz GPR reflection profiles with a total...... island. We document different standard processing steps which lead to increased signal-to-noise ratio, improved resolution and trustworthy GPR-to-borehole correlation. The GPR signals image the subsurface layering with a vertical resolution of ~ 0.2-0.3 m. The penetration depth of the GPR reflection...... conversion of the reflection profiles. The GPR reflections are correlated with sedimentological facies logs, and we test to which extent it is possible to map the architecture of different sedimentary units of the Rømø barrier island based on joint interpretation of the GPR and core data. Detailed...

  16. Understanding radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley, Simon

    1999-01-01

    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  17. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  18. Integrating Wind Profiling Radars and Radiosonde Observations with Model Point Data to Develop a Decision Support Tool to Assess Upper-Level Winds for Space Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Flinn, Clay

    2013-01-01

    On the day of launch, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers. During launch operations, the payload/launch team sometimes asks the LWOs if they expect the upper-level winds to change during the countdown. The LWOs used numerical weather prediction model point forecasts to provide the information, but did not have the capability to quickly retrieve or adequately display the upper-level observations and compare them directly in the same display to the model point forecasts to help them determine which model performed the best. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS) rawinsondes with point forecast wind profiles from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Mesoscale (NAM), Rapid Refresh (RAP) and Global Forecast System (GFS) models to assess the performance of these models. The AMU suggested adding observations from the NASA 50 MHz wind profiler and one of the US Air Force 915 MHz wind profilers, both located near the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility, to supplement the AMPS observations with more frequent upper-level profiles. Figure 1 shows a map of KSC/CCAFS with the locations of the observation sites and the model point forecasts.

  19. A simple biota removal algorithm for 35 GHz cloud radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapureddy, Madhu Chandra R.; Sukanya, Patra; Das, Subrata K.; Deshpande, Sachin M.; Pandithurai, Govindan; Pazamany, Andrew L.; Ambuj K., Jha; Chakravarty, Kaustav; Kalekar, Prasad; Krishna Devisetty, Hari; Annam, Sreenivas

    2018-03-01

    Cloud radar reflectivity profiles can be an important measurement for the investigation of cloud vertical structure (CVS). However, extracting intended meteorological cloud content from the measurement often demands an effective technique or algorithm that can reduce error and observational uncertainties in the recorded data. In this work, a technique is proposed to identify and separate cloud and non-hydrometeor echoes using the radar Doppler spectral moments profile measurements. The point and volume target-based theoretical radar sensitivity curves are used for removing the receiver noise floor and identified radar echoes are scrutinized according to the signal decorrelation period. Here, it is hypothesized that cloud echoes are observed to be temporally more coherent and homogenous and have a longer correlation period than biota. That can be checked statistically using ˜ 4 s sliding mean and standard deviation value of reflectivity profiles. The above step helps in screen out clouds critically by filtering out the biota. The final important step strives for the retrieval of cloud height. The proposed algorithm potentially identifies cloud height solely through the systematic characterization of Z variability using the local atmospheric vertical structure knowledge besides to the theoretical, statistical and echo tracing tools. Thus, characterization of high-resolution cloud radar reflectivity profile measurements has been done with the theoretical echo sensitivity curves and observed echo statistics for the true cloud height tracking (TEST). TEST showed superior performance in screening out clouds and filtering out isolated insects. TEST constrained with polarimetric measurements was found to be more promising under high-density biota whereas TEST combined with linear depolarization ratio and spectral width perform potentially to filter out biota within the highly turbulent shallow cumulus clouds in the convective boundary layer (CBL). This TEST technique is

  20. Cross Validation of Rain Drop Size Distribution between GPM and Ground Based Polarmetric radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, C. V.; Biswas, S.; Le, M.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) on board the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite has reflectivity measurements at two independent frequencies, Ku- and Ka- band. Dual-frequency retrieval algorithms have been developed traditionally through forward, backward, and recursive approaches. However, these algorithms suffer from "dual-value" problem when they retrieve medium volume diameter from dual-frequency ratio (DFR) in rain region. To this end, a hybrid method has been proposed to perform raindrop size distribution (DSD) retrieval for GPM using a linear constraint of DSD along rain profile to avoid "dual-value" problem (Le and Chandrasekar, 2015). In the current GPM level 2 algorithm (Iguchi et al. 2017- Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document) the Solver module retrieves a vertical profile of drop size distributionn from dual-frequency observations and path integrated attenuations. The algorithm details can be found in Seto et al. (2013) . On the other hand, ground based polarimetric radars have been used for a long time to estimate drop size distributions (e.g., Gorgucci et al. 2002 ). In addition, coincident GPM and ground based observations have been cross validated using careful overpass analysis. In this paper, we perform cross validation on raindrop size distribution retrieval from three sources, namely the hybrid method, the standard products from the solver module and DSD retrievals from ground polarimetric radars. The results are presented from two NEXRAD radars located in Dallas -Fort Worth, Texas (i.e., KFWS radar) and Melbourne, Florida (i.e., KMLB radar). The results demonstrate the ability of DPR observations to produce DSD estimates, which can be used subsequently to generate global DSD maps. References: Seto, S., T. Iguchi, T. Oki, 2013: The basic performance of a precipitation retrieval algorithm for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission's single/dual-frequency radar measurements. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and

  1. Retrieving Vertical Air Motion and Raindrop Size Distributions from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical evolution of falling raindrops is a result of evaporation, breakup, and coalescence acting upon those raindrops. Computing these processes using vertically pointing radar observations is a two-step process. First, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) and vertical air motion need to be estimated throughout the rain shaft. Then, the changes in DSD properties need to be quantified as a function of height. The change in liquid water content is a measure of evaporation, and the change in raindrop number concentration and size are indicators of net breakup or coalescence in the vertical column. The DSD and air motion can be retrieved using observations from two vertically pointing radars operating side-by-side and at two different wavelengths. While both radars are observing the same raindrop distribution, they measure different reflectivity and radial velocities due to Rayleigh and Mie scattering properties. As long as raindrops with diameters greater than approximately 2 mm are in the radar pulse volumes, the Rayleigh and Mie scattering signatures are unique enough to estimate DSD parameters using radars operating at 3- and 35-GHz (Williams et al. 2016). Vertical decomposition diagrams (Williams 2016) are used to explore the processes acting on the raindrops. Specifically, changes in liquid water content with height quantify evaporation or accretion. When the raindrops are not evaporating, net raindrop breakup and coalescence are identified by changes in the total number of raindrops and changes in the DSD effective shape as the raindrops. This presentation will focus on describing the DSD and air motion retrieval method using vertical profiling radar observations from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility in Northern Oklahoma.

  2. A novel approach for absolute radar calibration: formulation and theoretical validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Merker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework of a novel approach for absolute radar calibration is presented and its potential analysed by means of synthetic data to lay out a solid basis for future practical application. The method presents the advantage of an absolute calibration with respect to the directly measured reflectivity, without needing a previously calibrated reference device. It requires a setup comprising three radars: two devices oriented towards each other, measuring reflectivity along the same horizontal beam and operating within a strongly attenuated frequency range (e.g. K or X band, and one vertical reflectivity and drop size distribution (DSD profiler below this connecting line, which is to be calibrated. The absolute determination of the calibration factor is based on attenuation estimates. Using synthetic, smooth and geometrically idealised data, calibration is found to perform best using homogeneous precipitation events with rain rates high enough to ensure a distinct attenuation signal (reflectivity above ca. 30 dBZ. Furthermore, the choice of the interval width (in measuring range gates around the vertically pointing radar, needed for attenuation estimation, is found to have an impact on the calibration results. Further analysis is done by means of synthetic data with realistic, inhomogeneous precipitation fields taken from measurements. A calibration factor is calculated for each considered case using the presented method. Based on the distribution of the calculated calibration factors, the most probable value is determined by estimating the mode of a fitted shifted logarithmic normal distribution function. After filtering the data set with respect to rain rate and inhomogeneity and choosing an appropriate length of the considered attenuation path, the estimated uncertainty of the calibration factor is of the order of 1 to 11 %, depending on the chosen interval width. Considering stability and accuracy of the method, an interval of

  3. Microphysical Structures of Hurricane Irma Observed by Polarimetric Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didlake, A. C.; Kumjian, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study examines dual-polarization radar observations of Hurricane Irma as its center passed near the WSR-88D radar in Puerto Rico, capturing needed microphysical information of a mature tropical cyclone. Twenty hours of observations continuously sampled the inner core precipitation features. These data were analyzed by annuli and azimuth, providing a bulk characterization of the primary eyewall, secondary eyewall, and rainbands as they varied around the storm. Polarimetric radar variables displayed distinct signatures of convective and stratiform precipitation in the primary eyewall and rainbands that were organized in a manner consistent with the expected kinematic asymmetry of a storm in weak environmental wind shear but with moderate low-level storm-relative flow. In the front quadrants of the primary eyewall, vertical profiles of differential reflectivity (ZDR) exhibit increasing values with decreasing height consistent with convective precipitation processes. In particular, the front-right quadrant exhibits a signature in reflectivity (ZH) and ZDR indicating larger, sparser drops, which is consistent with a stronger updraft present in this quadrant. In the rear quadrants, a sharply peaked ZDR maximum occurs within the melting layer, which is attributed of stratiform processes. In the rainbands, the convective to stratiform transition can be seen traveling from the front-right to the front-left quadrant. The front-right quadrant exhibits lower co-polar correlation coefficient (ρHV) values in the 3-8 km altitude layer, suggesting larger vertical spreading of various hydrometeors that occurs in convective vertical motions. The front-left quadrant exhibits larger ρHV values, suggesting less diversity of hydrometeor shapes, consistent with stratiform processes. The secondary eyewall did not exhibit a clear signature of processes preferred in a specific quadrant, and a temporal analysis of the secondary eyewall revealed a complex evolution of its structure

  4. Whole Tumor Histogram-profiling of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images Reflects Tumorbiological Features of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schob, Stefan; Münch, Benno; Dieckow, Julia; Quäschling, Ulf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Richter, Cindy; Garnov, Nikita; Frydrychowicz, Clara; Krause, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Surov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) quantifies motion of hydrogen nuclei in biological tissues and hereby has been used to assess the underlying tissue microarchitecture. Histogram-profiling of DWI provides more detailed information on diffusion characteristics of a lesion than the standardly calculated values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-minimum, mean and maximum. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate, which parameters of histogram-profiling of DWI in primary central nervous system lymphoma can be used to specifically predict features like cellular density, chromatin content and proliferative activity. Pre-treatment ADC maps of 21 PCNSL patients (8 female, 13 male, 28-89 years) from a 1.5T system were used for Matlab-based histogram profiling. Results of histopathology (H&E staining) and immunohistochemistry (Ki-67 expression) were quantified. Correlations between histogram-profiling parameters and neuropathologic examination were calculated using SPSS 23.0. The lower percentiles (p10 and p25) showed significant correlations with structural parameters of the neuropathologic examination (cellular density, chromatin content). The highest percentile, p90, correlated significantly with Ki-67 expression, resembling proliferative activity. Kurtosis of the ADC histogram correlated significantly with cellular density. Histogram-profiling of DWI in PCNSL provides a comprehensible set of parameters, which reflect distinct tumor-architectural and tumor-biological features, and hence, are promising biomarkers for treatment response and prognosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Terahertz radar cross section measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-12-06

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.

  6. Investigation of hopped frequency waveforms for range and velocity measurements of radar targets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kathree, U

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the field of radar, High Range Resolution (HRR) profiles are often used to improve target tracking accuracy in range and to allow the radar system to produce an image of an object using techniques such as inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR...

  7. The penetrating depth analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard Chang’e-3 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shu-Guo; Su, Yan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Ding, Chun-Yu; Li, Chun-Lai

    2017-04-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) has successfully been used to acquire a large amount of scientific data during its in-situ detection. The analysis of penetrating depth can help to determine whether the target is within the effective detection range and contribute to distinguishing useful echoes from noise. First, this study introduces two traditional methods, both based on a radar transmission equation, to calculate the penetrating depth. The only difference between the two methods is that the first method adopts system calibration parameters given in the calibration report and the second one uses high-voltage-off radar data. However, some prior knowledge and assumptions are needed in the radar equation and the accuracy of assumptions will directly influence the final results. Therefore, a new method termed the Correlation Coefficient Method (CCM) is provided in this study, which is only based on radar data without any a priori assumptions. The CCM can obtain the penetrating depth according to the different correlation between reflected echoes and noise. To be exact, there is a strong correlation in the useful reflected echoes and a random correlation in the noise between adjacent data traces. In addition, this method can acquire a variable penetrating depth along the profile of the rover, but only one single depth value can be obtained from traditional methods. Through a simulation, the CCM has been verified as an effective method to obtain penetration depth. The comparisons and analysis of the calculation results of these three methods are also implemented in this study. Finally, results show that the ultimate penetrating depth of Channel 1 and the estimated penetrating depth of Channel 2 range from 136.9 m to 165.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=6.6) and from 13.0 m to 17.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=2.3), respectively.

  8. Time-dependent Second Order Scattering Theory for Weather Radar with a Finite Beam Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood; Ito, Shigeo; Oguchi, Tomohiro

    2006-01-01

    Multiple scattering effects from spherical water particles of uniform diameter are studied for a W-band pulsed radar. The Gaussian transverse beam-profile and the rectangular pulse-duration are used for calculation. An second-order analytical solution is derived for a single layer structure, based on a time-dependent radiative transfer theory as described in the authors' companion paper. When the range resolution is fixed, increase in footprint radius leads to increase in the second order reflectivity that is defined as the ratio of the second order return to the first order one. This feature becomes more serious as the range increases. Since the spaceborne millimeter-wavelength radar has a large footprint radius that is competitive to the mean free path, the multiple scattering effect must be taken into account for analysis.

  9. Geological affinity of reflecting boundaries in the intermediate structural stage of the Chu Sarysuyskiy depression based on results of vertical seismic profilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, N.G.; Kiselevskiy, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    A computer (EVM) and an ASOI-VSP-SK program complex are used to analyze data from seismic exploration and acoustical logging with interval by interval calculation of the velocity every four meters. Vertical seismic profilling (VSP) results are used to identify all the upper layers as reference layers. The basic reference level, the third, which corresponds to the floor of the carbonate middle to upper Visean series, is not sustained due to the thin layered state of the terrigeneous section. Based on data from vertical seismic profilling, the reflected wave method (MOV) and the common depth point method (MOGT), the reference 3-a and 6-a levels are identified. Deep reflections of the seventh, 7-a and Rf, approximately confined to the roof and floor of the lower Paleozoic deposits and the upper part of the upper reef series, are noted in the series of the Caledonian cap of the Prebaykal massifs based on vertical seismic profilling. Collector levels are noted on the basis of the frequency of the wave spectra and from the absorption coefficient in the Testas structure and in other low amplitude structures. The insufficiency of the depth capability of the common depth point method and the poor knowledge level of seismic exploration of the section of the lower Paleozoa and the upper Proterozoa of the Chu Sarysuyskiy depresion are noted.

  10. Multiple Convective Cell Identification and Tracking Algorithm for documenting time-height evolution of measured polarimetric radar and lightning properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, D.; Hu, J.; Zhang, P.; Snyder, J.; Orville, R. E.; Ryzhkov, A.; Zrnic, D.; Williams, E.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    A methodology to track the evolution of the hydrometeors and electrification of convective cells is presented and applied to various convective clouds from warm showers to super-cells. The input radar data are obtained from the polarimetric NEXRAD weather radars, The information on cloud electrification is obtained from Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMA). The development time and height of the hydrometeors and electrification requires tracking the evolution and lifecycle of convective cells. A new methodology for Multi-Cell Identification and Tracking (MCIT) is presented in this study. This new algorithm is applied to time series of radar volume scans. A cell is defined as a local maximum in the Vertical Integrated Liquid (VIL), and the echo area is divided between cells using a watershed algorithm. The tracking of the cells between radar volume scans is done by identifying the two cells in consecutive radar scans that have maximum common VIL. The vertical profile of the polarimetric radar properties are used for constructing the time-height cross section of the cell properties around the peak reflectivity as a function of height. The LMA sources that occur within the cell area are integrated as a function of height as well for each time step, as determined by the radar volume scans. The result of the tracking can provide insights to the evolution of storms, hydrometer types, precipitation initiation and cloud electrification under different thermodynamic, aerosol and geographic conditions. The details of the MCIT algorithm, its products and their performance for different types of storm are described in this poster.

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL-FREQUENCY DUAL-POLARIZED DOPPLER RADAR (D3R) IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual-frequency Dual-polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) IFloodS data set contain radar reflectivity and doppler velocity measurements. The D3R...

  12. Assimilation of Doppler weather radar observations in a mesoscale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research (PSU–NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) version 3.5.6. The variational data assimilation ... investigation of the direct assimilation of radar reflectivity data in 3DVAR system. The present ...... Results presented in this paper are based on.

  13. A preliminary investigation of radar rainfall estimation in the Ardennes region and a first hydrological application for the Ourthe catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first assessment of the hydrometeorological potential of a C-band doppler weather radar recently installed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium near the village of Wideumont in the southern Ardennes region. An analysis of the vertical profile of reflectivity for two contrasting rainfall events confirms the expected differences between stratiform and convective precipitation. The mean areal rainfall over the Ourthe catchment upstream of Tabreux estimated from the Wideumont weather radar using the standard Marshall-Palmer reflectivity-rain rate relation shows biases between +128% and –42% for six selected precipitation events. For two rainfall events the radar-estimated mean areal rainfall is applied to the gauge-calibrated (lumped HBV-model for the Ourthe upstream of Tabreux, resulting in a significant underestimation with respect to the observed discharge for one event and a closer match for another. A bootstrap analysis using the radar data reveals that the uncertainty in the hourly discharge from the ~1600km2} catchment associated with the sampling uncertainty of the mean areal rainfall estimated from 10 rain gauges evenly spread over the catchment amounts to ±25% for the two events analyzed. This uncertainty is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as that associated with the model variables describing the initial state of the model.

  14. Toward Exploring the Synergy Between Cloud Radar Polarimetry and Doppler Spectral Analysis in Deep Cold Precipitating Systems in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, Mariko; Kollias, Pavlos; Ryzhkov, Alexander; Luke, Edward P.

    2018-03-01

    The study of Arctic ice and mixed-phase clouds, which are characterized by a variety of ice particle types in the same cloudy volume, is challenging research. This study illustrates a new approach to qualitative and quantitative analysis of the complexity of ice and mixed-phase microphysical processes in Arctic deep precipitating systems using the combination of Ka-band zenith-pointing radar Doppler spectra and quasi-vertical profiles of polarimetric radar variables measured by a Ka/W-band scanning radar. The results illustrate the frequent occurrence of multimodal Doppler spectra in the dendritic/planar growth layer, where locally generated, slower-falling particle populations are well separated from faster-falling populations in terms of Doppler velocity. The slower-falling particle populations contribute to an increase of differential reflectivity (ZDR), while an enhanced specific differential phase (KDP) in this dendritic growth temperature range is caused by both the slower and faster-falling particle populations. Another area with frequent occurrence of multimodal Doppler spectra is in mixed-phase layers, where both populations produce ZDR and KDP values close to 0, suggesting the occurrence of a riming process. Joint analysis of the Doppler spectra and the polarimetric radar variables provides important insight into the microphysics of snow formation and allows the separation of the contributions of ice of different habits to the values of reflectivity and ZDR.

  15. Probing ultrafast changes of spin and charge density profiles with resonant XUV magnetic reflectivity at the free-electron laser FERMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gutt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of resonant magnetic XUV reflectivity experiments performed at the XUV free-electron laser FERMI. Circularly polarized XUV light with the photon energy tuned to the Fe M2,3 edge is used to measure resonant magnetic reflectivities and the corresponding Q-resolved asymmetry of a Permalloy/Ta/Permalloy trilayer film. The asymmetry exhibits ultrafast changes on 240 fs time scales upon pumping with ultrashort IR laser pulses. Depending on the value of the wavevector transfer Qz, we observe both decreasing and increasing values of the asymmetry parameter, which is attributed to ultrafast changes in the vertical spin and charge density profiles of the trilayer film.

  16. EM wave propagation analysis in plasma covered radar absorbing material

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Rawat, Harish Singh

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on EM propagation characteristics within multilayered plasma-dielectric-metallic media. The method used for analysis is impedance transformation method. Plasma covered radar absorbing material is approximated as a multi-layered dielectric medium. The plasma is considered to be bounded homogeneous/inhomogeneous medium. The reflection coefficient and hence return loss is analytically derived. The role of plasma parameters, such as electron density, collision frequency, plasma thickness, and plasma density profile in the absorption behavior of multi-layered plasma-RAM structure is described. This book provides a clearer picture of EM propagation within plasma. The reader will get an insight of plasma parameters that play significant role in deciding the absorption characteristics of plasma covered surfaces.

  17. An insight into subterranean flow proposition around Alleppey mudbank coastal sector, Kerala, India: Inferences from the subsurface profiles of ground penetrating radar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Dubey, R.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Nigam, R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    -1 Author Version: Environ. Earth Sci., vol.75(20); 2016; no.1361 doi:10.1007/s12665-016-6172-6 An insight into subterranean flow proposition around Alleppey mudbank coastal sector, Kerala, India: inferences from the subsurface profiles of Ground... and productivity, physical and chemical aspects of the sea, annual drift etc. (Bristow et al., 1938; Varma and Kurup 1969; Gopinath and Qasim 1974; Jacob and Qasim (1974), Ramachandran and Mallik, 1985).Similar occurrences of mud banks in few other countries...

  18. Use of ground-penetrating radar techniques in archaeological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, James A.; Miller, W. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques are increasingly being used to aid reconnaissance and pre-excavation surveys at many archaeological sites. As a 'remote sensing' tool, GPR provides a high resolution graphic profile of the subsurface. Radar profiles are used to detect, identify, and locate buried artifacts. Ground-penetrating radar provides a rapid, cost effective, and nondestructive method for identification and location analyses. The GPR can be used to facilitate excavation strategies, provide greater areal coverage per unit time and cost, minimize the number of unsuccessful exploratory excavations, and reduce unnecessary or unproductive expenditures of time and effort.

  19. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  20. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part II. Data Quality Control and Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Jo, Ieng [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Borque, Paloma [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Tatarevic, Aleksandra [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Lamer, Katia [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Bharadwaj, Nitin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widener, Kevin B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Karen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Clothiaux, Eugene E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2013-10-04

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the Hemispherical Sky – Range Height Indicator SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  1. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  2. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  3. Physical, biological, and chemical data from radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution as part of the SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS project from 13 September 1981 to 16 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, and chemical data were collected using radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from 13...

  4. Coupling X-band dual-polarized mini-radars and hydro-meteorological forecast models: the HYDRORAD project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picciotti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-meteorological hazards like convective outbreaks leading to torrential rain and floods are among the most critical environmental issues world-wide. In that context weather radar observations have proven to be very useful in providing information on the spatial distribution of rainfall that can support early warning of floods. However, quantitative precipitation estimation by radar is subjected to many limitations and uncertainties. The use of dual-polarization at high frequency (i.e. X-band has proven particularly useful for mitigating some of the limitation of operational systems, by exploiting the benefit of easiness to transport and deploy and the high spatial and temporal resolution achievable at small antenna sizes. New developments on X-band dual-polarization technology in recent years have received the interest of scientific and operational communities in these systems. New enterprises are focusing on the advancement of cost-efficient mini-radar network technology, based on high-frequency (mainly X-band and low-power weather radar systems for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological forecasting. Within the above context, the main objective of the HYDRORAD project was the development of an innovative mbox{integrated} decision support tool for weather monitoring and hydro-meteorological applications. The integrated system tool is based on a polarimetric X-band mini-radar network which is the core of the decision support tool, a novel radar products generator and a hydro-meteorological forecast modelling system that ingests mini-radar rainfall products to forecast precipitation and floods. The radar products generator includes algorithms for attenuation correction, hydrometeor classification, a vertical profile reflectivity correction, a new polarimetric rainfall estimators developed for mini-radar observations, and short-term nowcasting of convective cells. The hydro-meteorological modelling system includes the Mesoscale Model 5

  5. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  6. The Comet Radar Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Farnham, Tony; Gim, Yonggyu; Grimm, Robert; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Oberst, Juergen; Orosei, Roberto; Piqueux, Sylvain; Plaut, Jeff; Robinson, Mark; Sava, Paul; Heggy, Essam; Kurth, William; Scheeres, Dan; Denevi, Brett; Turtle, Elizabeth; Weissman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Missions to cometary nuclei have revealed major geological surprises: (1) Global scale layers - do these persist through to the interior? Are they a record of primary accretion? (2) Smooth regions - are they landslides originating on the surface? Are they cryovolcanic? (3) Pits - are they impact craters or sublimation pits, or rooted in the interior? Unambiguous answers to these and other questions can be obtained by high definition 3D radar reflection imaging (RRI) of internal structure. RRI can answer many of the great unknowns in planetary science: How do primitive bodies accrete? Are cometary nuclei mostly ice? What drives their spectacular activity and evolution? The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) mission will image the detailed internal structure of the nucleus of 10P/Tempel 2. This ~16 x 8 x 7 km Jupiter Family Comet (JFC), or its parent body, originated in the outer planets region possibly millions of years before planet formation. CORE arrives post-perihelion and observes the comet’s waning activity from safe distance. Once the nucleus is largely dormant, the spacecraft enters a ~20-km dedicated Radar Mapping Orbit (RMO). The exacting design of the RRI experiment and the precise navigation of RMO will achieve a highly focused 3D radar reflection image of internal structure, to tens of meters resolution, and tomographic images of velocity and attenuation to hundreds of meters resolution, tied to the gravity model and shape. Visible imagers will produce maps of the surface morphology, albedo, color, texture, and photometric response, and images for navigation and shape determination. The cameras will also monitor the structure and dynamics of the coma, and its dusty jets, allowing their correlation in 3D with deep interior structures and surface features. Repeated global high-resolution thermal images will probe the near-surface layers heated by the Sun. Derived maps of thermal inertia will be correlated with the radar boundary response, and photometry and

  7. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard

    2017-08-01

    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  8. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingerle, D., E-mail: dingerle@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Meirer, F. [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D. [MiNALab, CMM-irst, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted

  9. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other.

    Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  10. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other. Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  11. Aspects of Radar Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    LÜNEBURG, Ernst

    2002-01-01

    This contribution is a tutorial introduction to the phenomenological theory of radar polarimetry for the coherent scatter case emphasizing monostatic backscattering and forward scattering (transmission). Characteristic similarities and differences between radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry and the role of linear and antilinear operators (time-reversal) are pointed out and typical polarimetric invariants are identified.

  12. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  13. Determination of radar MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  14. Application of a Snow Growth Model to Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, E.; Mitchell, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Microphysical growth processes of diffusion, aggregation and riming are incorporated analytically in a steady-state snow growth model (SGM) to solve the zeroth- and second- moment conservation equations with respect to mass. The SGM is initiated by radar reflectivity (Zw), supersaturation, temperature, and a vertical profile of the liquid water content (LWC), and it uses a gamma size distribution (SD) to predict the vertical evolution of size spectra. Aggregation seems to play an important role in the evolution of snowfall rates and the snowfall rates produced by aggregation, diffusion and riming are considerably greater than those produced by diffusion and riming alone, demonstrating the strong interaction between aggregation and riming. The impact of ice particle shape on particle growth rates and fall speeds is represented in the SGM in terms of ice particle mass-dimension (m-D) power laws (m = αDβ). These growth rates are qualitatively consistent with empirical growth rates, with slower (faster) growth rates predicted for higher (lower) β values. In most models, β is treated constant for a given ice particle habit, but it is well known that β is larger for the smaller crystals. Our recent work quantitatively calculates β and α for cirrus clouds as a function of D where the m-D expression is a second-order polynomial in log-log space. By adapting this method to the SGM, the ice particle growth rates and fall speeds are predicted more accurately. Moreover, the size spectra predicted by the SGM are in good agreement with those from aircraft measurements during Lagrangian spiral descents through frontal clouds, indicating the successful modeling of microphysical processes. Since the lowest Zw over complex topography is often significantly above cloud base, the precipitation is often underestimated by radar quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE). Our SGM is capable of being initialized with Zw at the lowest reliable radar echo and consequently improves

  15. Multifractal analysis of different hydrological products of X-band radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouri-Plakali, Ilektra; Da Silva Rocha Paz, Igor; Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall is widely considered as the hydrological process that triggers all the others. Its accurate measurements are crucial especially when they are used afterwards for the hydrological modeling of urban and peri-urban catchments for decision-making. Rainfall is a complex process and is scale dependent in space and time. Hence a high spatial and temporal resolution of the data is more appropriate for urban modeling. Therefore, a great interest of high-resolution measurements of precipitation in space and time is manifested. Radar technologies have not stopped evolving since their first appearance about the mid-twentieth. Indeed, the turning point work by Marshall-Palmer (1948) has established the Z - R power-law relation that has been widely used, with major scientific efforts being devoted to find "the best choice" of the two associated parameters. Nowadays X-band radars, being provided with dual-polarization and Doppler means, offer more accurate data of higher resolution. The fact that drops are oblate induces a differential phase shift between the two polarizations. The quantity most commonly used for the rainfall rate computation is actually the specific differential phase shift, which is the gradient of the differential phase shift along the radial beam direction. It is even stronger correlated to the rain rate R than reflectivity Z. Hence the rain rate can be computed with a different power-law relation, which again depends on only two parameters. Furthermore, an attenuation correction is needed to adjust the loss of radar energy due to the absorption and scattering as it passes through the atmosphere. Due to natural variations of reflectivity with altitude, vertical profile of reflectivity should be corrected as well. There are some other typical radar data filtering procedures, all resulting in various hydrological products. In this work, we use the Universal Multifractal framework to analyze and to inter-compare different products of X-band radar

  16. Principles of modern radar radar applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scheer, James A

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Radar Applications is the third of the three-volume seriesof what was originally designed to be accomplished in one volume. As the final volumeof the set, it finishes the original vision of a complete yet bounded reference for radartechnology. This volume describes fifteen different system applications or class ofapplications in more detail than can be found in Volumes I or II.As different as the applications described, there is a difference in how these topicsare treated by the authors. Whereas in Volumes I and II there is strict adherence tochapter format and leve

  17. A study on the use of radar and lidar for characterizing ultragiant aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, F.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Pappalardo, G.

    2013-09-01

    19 April to 19 May 2010, volcanic aerosol layers originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano were observed at the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of the National Research Council of Italy Atmospheric Observatory, named CIAO (40.60°N, 15.72°E, 760 m above sea level), in Southern Italy with a multiwavelength Raman lidar. During this period, ultragiant aerosols were also observed at CIAO using a colocated 8.45 mm wavelength Doppler radar. The Ka-band radar signatures observed in four separate days (19 April and 7, 10, and 13 May) are consistent with the observation of nonspherical ultragiant aerosols characterized by values of linear depolarization ratio (LDR) higher than -4 dB. Air mass back trajectory analysis suggests a volcanic origin of the ultragiant aerosols observed by the radar. The observed values of the radar reflectivity (Ze) are consistent with a particle effective radius (r) larger than 50-75 µm. Scattering simulations based on the T-matrix approach show that the high LDR values can be explained if the observed particles have an absolute aspect ratio larger than 3.0 and consist of an internal aerosol core and external ice shell, with a variable radius ratio ranging between 0.2 and 0.7 depending on the shape and aspect ratio. Comparisons between daytime vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient (β) as measured by lidar and radar LDR reveal a decrease of β where ultragiant particles are observed. Scattering simulations based on Mie theory show how the lidar capability in typing ultragiant aerosols could be limited by low number concentrations or by the presence of an external ice shell covering the aerosol particles. Preferential vertical alignment of the particles is discussed as another possible reason for the decrease of β.

  18. Progress in coherent laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.

  19. A technique to obtain a multiparameter radar rainfall algorithm using the probability matching procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgucci, E.; Scarchilli, G.

    1997-01-01

    The natural cumulative distributions of rainfall observed by a network of rain gauges and a multiparameter radar are matched to derive multiparameter radar algorithms for rainfall estimation. The use of multiparameter radar measurements in a statistical framework to estimate rainfall is resented in this paper, The techniques developed in this paper are applied to the radar and rain gauge measurement of rainfall observed in central Florida and central Italy. Conventional pointwise estimates of rainfall are also compared. The probability matching procedure, when applied to the radar and surface measurements, shows that multiparameter radar algorithms can match the probability distribution function better than the reflectivity-based algorithms. It is also shown that the multiparameter radar algorithm derived matching the cumulative distribution function of rainfall provides more accurate estimates of rainfall on the ground in comparison to any conventional reflectivity-based algorithm

  20. The physical basis for estimating wave-energy spectra with the radar ocean-wave spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Frederick C.

    1987-01-01

    The derivation of the reflectivity modulation spectrum of the sea surface for near-nadir-viewing microwave radars using geometrical optics is described. The equations required for the derivation are presented. The derived reflectivity modulation spectrum provides data on the physical basis of the radar ocean-wave spectrometer measurements of ocean-wave directional spectra.

  1. Sensitivity of power functions to aggregation: Bias and uncertainty in radar rainfall retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall retrieval using weather radar relies on power functions between radar reflectivity Z and rain rate R. The nonlinear nature of these relations complicates the comparison of rainfall estimates employing reflectivities measured at different scales. Transforming Z into R using relations that

  2. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  3. Radar-to-Radar Interference Suppression for Distributed Radar Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar sensor networks, including bi- and multi-static radars, provide several operational advantages, like reduced vulnerability, good system flexibility and an increased radar cross-section. However, radar-to-radar interference suppression is a major problem in distributed radar sensor networks. In this paper, we present a cross-matched filtering-based radar-to-radar interference suppression algorithm. This algorithm first uses an iterative filtering algorithm to suppress the radar-to-radar interferences and, then, separately matched filtering for each radar. Besides the detailed algorithm derivation, extensive numerical simulation examples are performed with the down-chirp and up-chirp waveforms, partially overlapped or inverse chirp rate linearly frequency modulation (LFM waveforms and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM chirp diverse waveforms. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the simulation results.

  4. Synergetic Combination of Radar Information and Gauge Measurements - with the Conflict between Two Types of Data Being Removed via Displacement and Downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Bardossy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Rain gauges are the foundation in hydrology to collect rainfall data, however, gauge measurements alone are limited at representing the complete rainfall distribution. On the other hand, the reliability of radar data is often limited because of the errors in the radar signal (e.g. clutter, variation of the vertical reflectivity profile, beam blockage, attenuation, etc). Thus, merging radar information and gauge rainfall measurements is in an area of active research. The merging method proposed here is to use the radar data in its [0, 1] format (p-value). The actual precipitation values come from the gauge measurements. At each measurement location, two types of data are available, the radar p-value and the gauge measurement in mm. It happens very frequently that there exists a contradiction between these two types of data. A very likely reason is the influence of the unknown process between the radar measurement height and the surface onto which the hydrometeors fall. A method for quantification of the impact of the unknown process is proposed to fix the conflict, but only to a certain degree. Another possible source that can explain the discrepancy between these two types of data is discretization, i.e., the spatial variability cannot be identified by coarse discretization. Thus, downscaling is also considered to further remove the conflict. Based on the p-value from the radar data and the precipitation from the gauge measurements, a distribution function can be built up. The ultimate goal is to simulate the precipitation field for nowcasting purpose. The conditions to be fulfilled by the simulated field is as the following: honoring the measurements at the gauge locations; sharing a similar pattern with the radar image; preserving the inherent covariance structure. The simulation approach employed here is random mixing. The study domain is located in Reutlingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (Latitude 48.49N, Longitude 9.20E). The radar data are obtained from a C

  5. Plasma metabolomic profiles reflective of glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic obese African-American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Fiehn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance progressing to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is marked by a broad perturbation of macronutrient intermediary metabolism. Understanding the biochemical networks that underlie metabolic homeostasis and how they associate with insulin action will help unravel diabetes etiology and should foster discovery of new biomarkers of disease risk and severity. We examined differences in plasma concentrations of >350 metabolites in fasted obese T2DM vs. obese non-diabetic African-American women, and utilized principal components analysis to identify 158 metabolite components that strongly correlated with fasting HbA1c over a broad range of the latter (r = -0.631; p<0.0001. In addition to many unidentified small molecules, specific metabolites that were increased significantly in T2DM subjects included certain amino acids and their derivatives (i.e., leucine, 2-ketoisocaproate, valine, cystine, histidine, 2-hydroxybutanoate, long-chain fatty acids, and carbohydrate derivatives. Leucine and valine concentrations rose with increasing HbA1c, and significantly correlated with plasma acetylcarnitine concentrations. It is hypothesized that this reflects a close link between abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, amino acid catabolism, and efficiency of fuel combustion in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. It is speculated that a mechanism for potential TCA cycle inefficiency concurrent with insulin resistance is "anaplerotic stress" emanating from reduced amino acid-derived carbon flux to TCA cycle intermediates, which if coupled to perturbation in cataplerosis would lead to net reduction in TCA cycle capacity relative to fuel delivery.

  6. Radar remote sensing in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  7. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Koch, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Waveform diversity and cognitive radar and Target tracking and data fusion.

  8. A variational technique to estimate snowfall rate from coincident radar, snowflake, and fall-speed observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Steven J.; Wood, Norman B.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2017-07-01

    Estimates of snowfall rate as derived from radar reflectivities alone are non-unique. Different combinations of snowflake microphysical properties and particle fall speeds can conspire to produce nearly identical snowfall rates for given radar reflectivity signatures. Such ambiguities can result in retrieval uncertainties on the order of 100-200 % for individual events. Here, we use observations of particle size distribution (PSD), fall speed, and snowflake habit from the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to constrain estimates of snowfall derived from Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope Alaska (NSA) Climate Research Facility site at Barrow. MASC measurements of microphysical properties with uncertainties are introduced into a modified form of the optimal-estimation CloudSat snowfall algorithm (2C-SNOW-PROFILE) via the a priori guess and variance terms. Use of the MASC fall speed, MASC PSD, and CloudSat snow particle model as base assumptions resulted in retrieved total accumulations with a -18 % difference relative to nearby National Weather Service (NWS) observations over five snow events. The average error was 36 % for the individual events. Use of different but reasonable combinations of retrieval assumptions resulted in estimated snowfall accumulations with differences ranging from -64 to +122 % for the same storm events. Retrieved snowfall rates were particularly sensitive to assumed fall speed and habit, suggesting that in situ measurements can help to constrain key snowfall retrieval uncertainties. More accurate knowledge of these properties dependent upon location and meteorological conditions should help refine and improve ground- and space-based radar estimates of snowfall.

  9. Aspects of the Quaternary evolution of the Southern Kattegat and the central North Sea based on interpretation of 2D and 3D marine reflection seismic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina

    In this PhD study interpretation of 2D shallow seismic data in the Kattegat region (Pinger, Sparker and Innomar parametric sub-bottom profiler), 3D conventional seismic data in the central North Sea, combined with sediment core interpretation and radiocarbon dating has been carried out in order...... to outline the geological development of the southwestern part of the Kattegat region, from the Late Weichselian to Early Holocene and to investigate the potential of using 3D seismic in Quaternary geology. Within the study area of the Kattegat region Late Weichselian (Lateglacial - LG) sediments...... are widespread and seen as semi-transparent reflections. The LG deposits drape the surface of the underlying till and were deposited during a period of relative high sea level (highstand system tract). The following postglacial (PG - Holocene) sediments represent a full depositional sequence including lowstand...

  10. Experimentelles FMCW-Radar zur hochfrequenten Charakterisierung von Windenergieanlagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Karsten; Werner, Jens; Schwartau, Fabian

    2017-09-01

    During the increasing dissemination of renewable energy sources the potential and actual interference effects of wind turbine plants became obvious. Turbines reflect the signals of weather radar and other radar systems. In addition to the static radar echoes, in particular the Doppler echoes are to be mentioned as an undesirable impairment Keränen (2014). As a result, building permit is refused for numerous new wind turbines, as the potential interference can not be reliably predicted. As a contribution to the improvement of this predictability, measurements are planned which aim at the high-frequency characterisation of wind energy installations. In this paper, a cost-effective FMCW radar is presented, which is operated in the same frequency band (C-band) as the weather radars of the German weather service. Here, the focus is on the description of the hardware design including the considerations used for its dimensioning.

  11. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  12. Wind farm radar study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report examines the possible degradations of radar performance that may be caused by the presence of a wind turbine generator within the radar coverage area. A brief literature survey reviews the previously published work, which is mainly concerned with degradation of broadcast TV reception. Estimates are made of wind turbine generator scattering cross-sections, and of the time and Doppler characteristics of the echo signals from representative wind turbine generator. The general characteristics of radar detection and tracking methods are described, and the behaviour of such systems in the presence of strong returns from a wind turbine generator (or an array of them) is discussed. (author)

  13. Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  14. Wideband Radar Echo Frequency-domain Simulation and Analysis for High Speed Moving Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A frequency-domain method is proposed for wideband radar echo simulation of high-speed moving targets. Based on the physical process of electromagnetic waves observing a moving target, a frequency-domain echo model of wideband radar is constructed, and the block diagram of the radar echo simulation in frequency-domain is presented. Then, the impacts of radial velocity and slant range on the matching filtering of LFM radar are analyzed, and some quantitative conclusions on the shift and expansion of the radar profiles are obtained. Simulation results illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. Monitoring soil moisture dynamics via ground-penetrating radar survey of agriculture fields after irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is possible to examine the quality of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a measure of soil moisture content in the shallow vadose zone, where roots are most abundant and water conservation best management practices are critical in active agricultural fields. By analyzing temporal samplings of 100 Mhz reflection profiles and common-midpoint (CMP) soundings over a full growing season, the variability of vertical soil moisture distribution directly after irrigation events are characterized throughout the lifecycle of a production crop. Reflection profiles produce high-resolution travel time data and summed results of CMP sounding data provide sampling depth estimates for the weak, but coherent reflections amid strong point scatterers. The high ratio of clay in the soil limits the resolution of downward propagation of infiltrating moisture after irrigation; synthetic data analysis compared against soil moisture lysimeter logs throughout the profile allow identification of the discrete soil moisture content variation in the measured GPR data. The nature of short duration irrigation events, evapotranspiration, and drainage behavior in relation to root depths observed in the GPR temporal data allow further examination and comparison with the variable saturation model HYDRUS-1D. After retrieving soil hydraulic properties derived from laboratory measured soil samples and simplified assumptions about boundary conditions, the project aims to achieve good agreement between simulated and measured soil moisture profiles without the need for excessive model calibration for GPR-derived soil moisture estimates in an agricultural setting.

  16. Phased Array Radar Network Experiment for Severe Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushio, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Mega, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Mizutani, F.; Takahashi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Phased Array Weather Radar (PAWR) was firstly developed in 2012 by Osaka University and Toshiba under a grant of NICT using the Digital Beamforming Technique, and showed a impressive thunderstorm behavior with 30 second resolution. After that development, second PAWR was installed in Kobe city about 60 km away from the first PAWR site, and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Osaka Univeristy, Toshiba and the Osaka Local Government started a new project to develop the Osaka Urban Demonstration Network. The main sensor of the Osaka Network is a 2-node Phased Array Radar Network and lightning location system. Data products that are created both in local high performance computer and Toshiba Computer Cloud, include single and multi-radar data, vector wind, quantitative precipitation estimation, VIL, nowcasting, lightning location and analysis. Each radar node is calibarated by the baloon measurement and through the comparison with the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)/ DPR (Dual Frequency Space borne Radar) within 1 dB. The attenuated radar reflectivities obtained by the Phased Array Radar Network at X band are corrected based on the bayesian scheme proposed in Shimamura et al. [2016]. The obtained high resolution (every 30 seconds/ 100 elevation angles) 3D reflectivity and rain rate fields are used to nowcast the surface rain rate up to 30 minutes ahead. These new products are transferred to Osaka Local Government in operational mode and evaluated by several section in Osaka Prefecture. Furthermore, a new Phased Array Radar with polarimetric function has been developed in 2017, and will be operated in the fiscal year of 2017. In this presentation, Phased Array Radar, network architecuture, processing algorithm, evalution of the social experiment and first Multi-Prameter Phased Array Radar experiment are presented.

  17. Estimating soil water evaporation using radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali M.; Scott, H. D.; Waite, W. P.; Asrar, G.

    1988-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the application of radar reflectivity as compared with the shortwave reflectivity (albedo) used in the Idso-Jackson equation for the estimation of daily evaporation under overcast sky and subhumid climatic conditions. Soil water content, water potential, shortwave and radar reflectivity, and soil and air temperatures were monitored during three soil drying cycles. The data from each cycle were used to calculate daily evaporation from the Idso-Jackson equation and from two other standard methods, the modified Penman and plane of zero-flux. All three methods resulted in similar estimates of evaporation under clear sky conditions; however, under overcast sky conditions, evaporation fluxes computed from the Idso-Jackson equation were consistently lower than the other two methods. The shortwave albedo values in the Idso-Jackson equation were then replaced with radar reflectivities and a new set of total daily evaporation fluxes were calculated. This resulted in a significant improvement in computed soil evaporation fluxes from the Idso-Jackson equation, and a better agreement between the three methods under overcast sky conditions.

  18. Improved Laser Vibration Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilaire, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...

  19. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  20. Radar detection of Vesta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, S.J.; Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.); Campbell, D.B.; Pettengill, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Asteroid 4 Vesta was detected on November 6, 1979 with the Arecibo Observatory's S-band (12.6-cm-wavelength) radar. The echo power spectrum, received in the circular polarization opposite to that transmitted, yields a radar cross section of (0.2 + or - 0.1)pi a-squared, for a 272 km. The data are too noisy to permit derivation of Vesta's rotation period

  1. Downhole pulse radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  2. A statistical model for radar images of agricultural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.; Stiles, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The presently derived and validated statistical model for radar images containing many different homogeneous fields predicts the probability density functions of radar images of entire agricultural scenes, thereby allowing histograms of large scenes composed of a variety of crops to be described. Seasat-A SAR images of agricultural scenes are accurately predicted by the model on the basis of three assumptions: each field has the same SNR, all target classes cover approximately the same area, and the true reflectivity characterizing each individual target class is a uniformly distributed random variable. The model is expected to be useful in the design of data processing algorithms and for scene analysis using radar images.

  3. Reduction of radar cross-section of a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Brock, Billy C.; Clem, Paul G.; Loui, Hung; Allen, Steven E.

    2016-08-02

    The various technologies presented herein relate to formation of a wind turbine blade having a reduced radar signature in comparison with a turbine blade fabricated using conventional techniques. Various techniques and materials are presented to facilitate reduction in radar signature of a wind turbine blade, where such techniques and materials are amenable for incorporation into existing manufacturing techniques without degradation in mechanical or physical performance of the blade or major alteration of the blade profile.

  4. Ground Radar Polarimetric Observations of High-Frequency Earth-Space Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.; Benjamin, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Strategic roadmaps for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS) enterprise support near-term high-frequency communication systems that provide moderate to high data rates with dependable service. Near-earth and human planetary exploration will baseline Ka-Band, but may ultimately require the use of even higher frequencies. Increased commercial demand on low-frequency earth-space bands has also led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like K u - and K,- band. Data is taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), which operates at 13.8 GHz, and the true radar reflectivity profile is determined along the PR beam via low-frequency ground based polarimetric observations. The specific differential phase (Kdp) is measured along the beam and a theoretical model is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k). This technique, called the k-Kdp method, uses a Fuzzy-Logic model to determine the hydrometeor type along the PR beam from which the appropriate k-Kdp relationship is used to determine k and, ultimately, the total path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on PR measurements. Measurements from PR and the NCAR S-POL radar were made during the TEFLUN-B experiment that took place near Melbourne, FL in 1998, and the TRMM-LBA campaign near Ji-Parana, Brazil in 1999.

  5. Bias adjustment and advection interpolation of long-term high resolution radar rainfall series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that in order to apply radar rainfall data for hydrological proposes adjustment against ground observations are crucial. Traditionally, radar reflectivity is transformed into rainfall rates applying a fixed reflectivity – rainfall rate relationship even though...... this is known to depend on the changing drop size distribution of the specific rain. This creates a transient bias between the radar rainfall and the ground observations due to seasonal changes of the drop size distribution as well as other atmospheric effects and effects related to the radar observational...

  6. Arecibo Radar Observation of Near-Earth Asteroids: Expanded Sample Size, Determination of Radar Albedos, and Measurements of Polarization Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoly, Cassandra; Howell, Ellen S.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Springmann, Alessondra; Virkki, Anne; Nolan, Michael C.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.

    2017-10-01

    The Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population ranges in size from a few meters to more than 10 kilometers. NEAs have a wide variety of taxonomic classes, surface features, and shapes, including spheroids, binary objects, contact binaries, elongated, as well as irregular bodies. Using the Arecibo Observatory planetary radar system, we have measured apparent rotation rate, radar reflectivity, apparent diameter, and radar albedos for over 350 NEAs. The radar albedo is defined as the radar cross-section divided by the geometric cross-section. If a shape model is available, the actual cross-section is known at the time of the observation. Otherwise we derive a geometric cross-section from a measured diameter. When radar imaging is available, the diameter was measured from the apparent range depth. However, when radar imaging was not available, we used the continuous wave (CW) bandwidth radar measurements in conjunction with the period of the object. The CW bandwidth provides apparent rotation rate, which, given an independent rotation measurement, such as from lightcurves, constrains the size of the object. We assumed an equatorial view unless we knew the pole orientation, which gives a lower limit on the diameter. The CW also provides the polarization ratio, which is the ratio of the SC and OC cross-sections.We confirm the trend found by Benner et al. (2008) that taxonomic types E and V have very high polarization ratios. We have obtained a larger sample and can analyze additional trends with spin, size, rotation rate, taxonomic class, polarization ratio, and radar albedo to interpret the origin of the NEAs and their dynamical processes. The distribution of radar albedo and polarization ratio at the smallest diameters (≤50 m) differs from the distribution of larger objects (>50 m), although the sample size is limited. Additionally, we find more moderate radar albedos for the smallest NEAs when compared to those with diameters 50-150 m. We will present additional trends we

  7. 5 year radar-based rainfall statistics: disturbances analysis and development of a post-correction scheme for the German radar composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A.; Seltmann, J.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-02-01

    A radar-based rainfall statistic demands high quality data that provide realistic precipitation amounts in space and time. Instead of correcting single radar images, we developed a post-correction scheme for long-term composite radar data that corrects corrupted areas, but preserves the original precipitation patterns. The post-correction scheme is based on a 5 year statistical analysis of radar composite data and its constituents. The accumulation of radar images reveals artificial effects that are not visible in the individual radar images. Some of them are already inherent to single radar data such as the effect of increasing beam height, beam blockage or clutter remnants. More artificial effects are introduced in the process of compositing such as sharp gradients at the boundaries of overlapping areas due to different beam heights and resolution. The cause of these disturbances, their behaviour with respect to reflectivity level, season or altitude is analysed based on time-series of two radar products: the single radar reflectivity product PX for each of the 16 radar systems of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) for the time span 2000 to 2006 and the radar composite product RX of DWD from 2005 through to 2009. These statistics result in additional quality information on radar data that is not available elsewhere. The resulting robust characteristics of disturbances, e.g. the dependency of the frequencies of occurrence of radar reflectivities on beam height, are then used as a basis for the post-correction algorithm. The scheme comprises corrections for shading effects and speckles, such as clutter remnants or overfiltering, as well as for systematic differences in frequencies of occurrence of radar reflectivities between the near and the far ranges of individual radar sites. An adjustment to rain gauges is also included. Applying this correction, the Root-Mean-Square-Error for the comparison of radar derived annual rain amounts with rain gauge data

  8. Venus: radar determination of gravity potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, I I; Pettengill, G H; Sherman, G N; Rogers, A E; Ingalls, R P

    1973-02-02

    We describe a method for the determination of the gravity potential of Venus from multiple-frequency radar measurements. The method is based on the strong frequency dependence of the absorption of radio waves in Venus' atmosphere. Comparison of the differing radar reflection intensities at several frequencies yields the height of the surface relative to a reference pressure contour; combination with measurements of round-trip echo delays allows the pressure, and hence the gravity potential contour, to be mapped relative to the mean planet radius. Since calibration data from other frequencies are unavailable, the absorption-sensitive Haystack Observatory data have been analyzed under the assumption of uniform surface reflectivity to yield a gravity equipotential contour for the equatorial region and a tentative upper bound of 6 x 10(-4) on the fractional difference of Venus' principal equatorial moments of inertia. The minima in the equipotential contours appear to be associated with topographic minima.

  9. Radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation for the identification of debris flow occurrence over earthquake-affected regions in Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhao; Wei, Fangqiang; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2018-03-01

    Both Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on 12 May 2008 and Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake on 20 April 2013 occurred in the province of Sichuan, China. In the earthquake-affected mountainous area, a large amount of loose material caused a high occurrence of debris flow during the rainy season. In order to evaluate the rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) threshold of the debris flow in the earthquake-affected area, and to fill up the observational gaps caused by the relatively scarce and low-altitude deployment of rain gauges in this area, raw data from two S-band China New Generation Doppler Weather Radar (CINRAD) were captured for six rainfall events that triggered 519 debris flows between 2012 and 2014. Due to the challenges of radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) over mountainous areas, a series of improvement measures are considered: a hybrid scan mode, a vertical reflectivity profile (VPR) correction, a mosaic of reflectivity, a merged rainfall-reflectivity (R - Z) relationship for convective and stratiform rainfall, and rainfall bias adjustment with Kalman filter (KF). For validating rainfall accumulation over complex terrains, the study areas are divided into two kinds of regions by the height threshold of 1.5 km from the ground. Three kinds of radar rainfall estimates are compared with rain gauge measurements. It is observed that the normalized mean bias (NMB) is decreased by 39 % and the fitted linear ratio between radar and rain gauge observation reaches at 0.98. Furthermore, the radar-based I-D threshold derived by the frequentist method is I = 10.1D-0.52 and is underestimated by uncorrected raw radar data. In order to verify the impacts on observations due to spatial variation, I-D thresholds are identified from the nearest rain gauge observations and radar observations at the rain gauge locations. It is found that both kinds of observations have similar I-D thresholds and likewise underestimate I-D thresholds due to undershooting at the core of convective

  10. CAMEX-4 TOGA RADAR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TOGA radar dataset consists of browse and radar data collected from the TOGA radar during the CAMEX-4 experiment. TOGA is a C-band linear polarized doppler radar...

  11. THE IMAGES OF SUBSURFACE TERTIARY – QUARTENARY DEPOSITS BASED ON GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RECORDS OF SUBI KECIL ISLAND COAST, NATUNA DISTRICT, RIAU ARCHIPELAGO PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Budiono

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Tertiary to Quaternary deposits from coast of Subi Kecil Island, Natuna Distric, Riau Archipelago Province, were imaged with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR. The GPR survey was carried out by using GSSI Surveyor III/20 with 270 MHz and 40 MHz of 3200 MLF antennas. GPR data were processed using software GSSI’s RADAN for Windows NT™. The interpretation were done by using the radar facies as a groups of radar reflections. The GPR images of study area can be recoqnized in to several facies such as parallel, sub parallel, chaotic, oblique, mound and reflection-free. The calibration were done with geological data along the coast (cliff and outcrop. Unit A is the uppermost layer which is characterized by continous to non continous pararel reflection, srong reflector and high amplitude and is interpreted as alluvium deposits. Below the unit A is unit B which is characterized by non continous sub parallel, chaotic and mound reflector, strong reflector and high amplitude. Unit C and D (Mio-Oligocene are overlain by unit A and B include chaotic, reflection-free and, locally, discontinuous parallel, oblique mound reflector radar facies, correlatable at the cliff face to massive sands, mostly representing near coastal deposits. These units are bounded by continuous, high amplitude reflections that can be easily correlatable throughout the GPR profiles, serving as important stratigraphic markers. The GPR survey may improve the reconstruction of the depositional environments through the recognition of massive and unconsolidated sand deposits within unit A and B (Holocene. The stratigraphic framework was also improved through the recognition of the discontinuity surface between Units C and D.

  12. Typhoon 9707 observations with the MU radar and L-band boundary layer radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teshiba

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon 9707 (Opal was observed with the VHF-band Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, an L-band boundary layer radar (BLR, and a vertical-pointing C-band meteorological radar at the Shigaraki MU Observatory in Shiga prefecture, Japan on 20 June 1997. The typhoon center passed about 80 km southeast from the radar site. Mesoscale precipitating clouds developed due to warm-moist airmass transport from the typhoon, and passed over the MU radar site with easterly or southeasterly winds. We primarily present the wind behaviour including the vertical component which a conventional meteorological Doppler radar cannot directly observe, and discuss the relationship between the wind behaviour of the typhoon and the precipitating system. To investigate the dynamic structure of the typhoon, the observed wind was divided into radial and tangential wind components under the assumption that the typhoon had an axi-symmetric structure. Altitude range of outflow ascended from 1–3 km to 2–10 km with increasing distance (within 80–260 km range from the typhoon center, and in-flow was observed above and below the outflow. Outflow and inflow were associated with updraft and downdraft, respectively. In the tangential wind, the maximum speed of counterclockwise winds was confirmed at 1–2 km altitudes. Based on the vertical velocity and the reflectivity obtained with the MU radar and the C-band meteorological radar, respectively, precipitating clouds, accompanied by the wind behaviour of the typhoon, were classified into stratiform and convective precipitating clouds. In the stratiform precipitating clouds, a vertical shear of radial wind and the maximum speed of counterclockwise wind were observed. There was a strong reflectivity layer called a ‘bright band’ around the 4.2 km altitude. We confirmed strong updrafts and down-drafts below and above it, respectively, and the existence of a relatively dry layer around the bright band level from radiosonde

  13. Typhoon 9707 observations with the MU radar and L-band boundary layer radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teshiba

    Full Text Available Typhoon 9707 (Opal was observed with the VHF-band Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, an L-band boundary layer radar (BLR, and a vertical-pointing C-band meteorological radar at the Shigaraki MU Observatory in Shiga prefecture, Japan on 20 June 1997. The typhoon center passed about 80 km southeast from the radar site. Mesoscale precipitating clouds developed due to warm-moist airmass transport from the typhoon, and passed over the MU radar site with easterly or southeasterly winds. We primarily present the wind behaviour including the vertical component which a conventional meteorological Doppler radar cannot directly observe, and discuss the relationship between the wind behaviour of the typhoon and the precipitating system. To investigate the dynamic structure of the typhoon, the observed wind was divided into radial and tangential wind components under the assumption that the typhoon had an axi-symmetric structure. Altitude range of outflow ascended from 1–3 km to 2–10 km with increasing distance (within 80–260 km range from the typhoon center, and in-flow was observed above and below the outflow. Outflow and inflow were associated with updraft and downdraft, respectively. In the tangential wind, the maximum speed of counterclockwise winds was confirmed at 1–2 km altitudes. Based on the vertical velocity and the reflectivity obtained with the MU radar and the C-band meteorological radar, respectively, precipitating clouds, accompanied by the wind behaviour of the typhoon, were classified into stratiform and convective precipitating clouds. In the stratiform precipitating clouds, a vertical shear of radial wind and the maximum speed of counterclockwise wind were observed. There was a strong reflectivity layer called a ‘bright band’ around the 4.2 km altitude. We confirmed strong updrafts and down-drafts below and above it, respectively, and the existence of a relatively dry layer around the bright band level from radiosonde

  14. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  15. Statistical analysis and modelling of weather radar beam propagation conditions in the Po Valley (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornasiero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground clutter caused by anomalous propagation (anaprop can affect seriously radar rain rate estimates, particularly in fully automatic radar processing systems, and, if not filtered, can produce frequent false alarms. A statistical study of anomalous propagation detected from two operational C-band radars in the northern Italian region of Emilia Romagna is discussed, paying particular attention to its diurnal and seasonal variability. The analysis shows a high incidence of anaprop in summer, mainly in the morning and evening, due to the humid and hot summer climate of the Po Valley, particularly in the coastal zone. Thereafter, a comparison between different techniques and datasets to retrieve the vertical profile of the refractive index gradient in the boundary layer is also presented. In particular, their capability to detect anomalous propagation conditions is compared. Furthermore, beam path trajectories are simulated using a multilayer ray-tracing model and the influence of the propagation conditions on the beam trajectory and shape is examined. High resolution radiosounding data are identified as the best available dataset to reproduce accurately the local propagation conditions, while lower resolution standard TEMP data suffers from interpolation degradation and Numerical Weather Prediction model data (Lokal Model are able to retrieve a tendency to superrefraction but not to detect ducting conditions. Observing the ray tracing of the centre, lower and upper limits of the radar antenna 3-dB half-power main beam lobe it is concluded that ducting layers produce a change in the measured volume and in the power distribution that can lead to an additional error in the reflectivity estimate and, subsequently, in the estimated rainfall rate.

  16. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  17. Synergistic Use of Spacecraft Telecom Links for Collection of Planetary Radar Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, S.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Decrossas, E.; Dobreva, T.; Duncan, C.; Ellliot, H.; Jin, C.; Lazio, J.; Miller, J.; Preston, R.

    2017-12-01

    On multiple solar system missions, radar instruments have been used to probe subsurface geomorphology and to infer chemical composition based on the dielectric signature derived from the reflected signal. Example spacecraft radar instruments are the 90 MHz CONSERT radar used to probe the interior of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to a depth of 760m, the 20 MHz SHARAD instrument used to investigate Mars subsurface ice features from Mars orbit at depths of 300 to 3000 meters and the upcoming RIMFAX 150 MHz to 1200 MHz ground penetrating radar that will ride on the Mars 2020 rover investigating to a depth of 10m below the rover. In all of these applications, the radar frequency and signal structures were chosen to match science goals of desired depth of penetration and spatial resolution combined with the expected subsurface materials and structures below the surface. Recently, JPL investigators have proposed a new radar science paradigm, synergistic use of the telecom hardware and telecom links to collect bistatic or monostatic radar signatures. All JPL spacecraft employ telecom hardware that operates at UHF (400 MHz and 900 MHz), X-band (8 GHz) or Ka-band (32 GHz). Using existing open-loop record functions in these radios, the telecom hardware can be used to capture opportunistic radar signatures from telecom signals penetrating the surface and reflecting off of subsurface structures. This paper reports on telecom strategies, radar science applications and recent laboratory and field tests to demonstrate the effectiveness of telecom link based radar data collection.

  18. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  19. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed

  20. Results of the application of seismic-reflection and electromagnetic techniques for near-surface hydrogeologic and environmental investigations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Fine, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    increase in electromagnetic conductivity across shallow sampling EM31 and EM34 profiles provided corroborative evidence of the shallow, thickening clay units. Plots of raw EM31 and EM34 data provided no direct interpretable information to delineate sand and clay units in the shallow subsurface. At two sites, the ground-penetrating radar effectively delineated the lateral continuity of surficial sand units 5 to 25 feet in thickness and the tops of their underlying clay units. The effective exploration depth of the ground-penetrating radar was limited by the proximity of clay units to the subsurface and their thickness. The ground-penetrating radar delineated the areal extent and depth of cover at a previously unrecognized extension of a trench-like landfill underlying a vehicle salvage yard. Attenuation of the radar signal beneath the landfill cover and the adjacent subsurface clays made these two mediums indistinguishable by ground-penetrating radar; however, EM31 data indicated that the electrical conductivity of the landfill was higher than the subsurface material adjacent to the landfill. The EM31 and EM34 conductivity surveys defined the areal extent of a landfill whose boundaries were inaccurately mapped, and also identified the locations of an old dumpsite and waste incinerator site at another landfill. A follow-up ground-penetrating radar survey of the abandoned dumpsite showed incongruities in some of the shallow radar reflections interpreted as buried refuse dispersed throughout the landfill. The ground-penetrating radar and EM31 effectively delineated a shallow buried fuel-oil tank. Of the three electromagnetic instruments, the ground-penetrating radar with the shielded 100-megahertz antenna was the least affected by cultural noise followed, in order, by the EM31 and EM34. The combination of terrain- conductivity and ground-penetrating radar for the site assessment of the landfill provided a powerful means to identify the areal extent of the landfill, potenti

  1. Target scattering characteristics for OAM-based radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The target scattering characteristics are crucial for radar systems. However, there is very little study conducted for the recently developed orbital angular momentum (OAM based radar system. To illustrate the role of OAM-based radar cross section (ORCS, conventional radar equation is modified by taking characteristics of the OAM waves into account. Subsequently, the ORCS is defined in analogy to classical radar cross section (RCS. The unique features of the incident OAM-carrying field are analyzed. The scattered field is derived, and the analytical expressions of ORCSs for metal plate and cylinder targets are obtained. Furthermore, the ORCS and RCS are compared to illustrate the influences of OAM mode number, target size and signal frequency on the ORCS. Analytical studies demonstrate that the mirror-reflection phenomenon disappears and peak values of ORCS are in the non-specular direction. Finally, the ORCS features are summarized to show its advantages in radar target detection. This work can provide theoretical guidance to the design of OAM-based radar as well as the target detection and identification applications.

  2. Target scattering characteristics for OAM-based radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Gao, Yue; Li, Xiang; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2018-02-01

    The target scattering characteristics are crucial for radar systems. However, there is very little study conducted for the recently developed orbital angular momentum (OAM) based radar system. To illustrate the role of OAM-based radar cross section (ORCS), conventional radar equation is modified by taking characteristics of the OAM waves into account. Subsequently, the ORCS is defined in analogy to classical radar cross section (RCS). The unique features of the incident OAM-carrying field are analyzed. The scattered field is derived, and the analytical expressions of ORCSs for metal plate and cylinder targets are obtained. Furthermore, the ORCS and RCS are compared to illustrate the influences of OAM mode number, target size and signal frequency on the ORCS. Analytical studies demonstrate that the mirror-reflection phenomenon disappears and peak values of ORCS are in the non-specular direction. Finally, the ORCS features are summarized to show its advantages in radar target detection. This work can provide theoretical guidance to the design of OAM-based radar as well as the target detection and identification applications.

  3. Radar observations of field-aligned plasma irregularities in the SEEK-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saito

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Sporadic E Experiment over Kyushu 2 (SEEK-2 campaign, field-aligned irregularities (FAIs associated with midlatitude sporadic-E (Es layers were observed with two backscatter radars, the Lower Thermosphere Profiler Radar (LTPR and the Frequency Agile Radar (FAR, which were located 40 km apart in Tanegashima, Japan. We conducted observations of FAI echoes from 31 July to 24 August 2002, and the radar data were used to determine launch timing of two sounding rockets on 3 August 2002. Our comparison of echoes obtained by the LTPR and the FAR revealed that echoes often appeared at the FAR about 10min earlier than they did at the LTPR and were well correlated. This indicates that echoing regions drift with a southward velocity component that maintains the spatial shape. Interferometry observations that were conducted with the LTPR from 3 to 8 August 2002, revealed that the quasi-periodic (QP striations in the Range-Time-Intensity (RTI plots were due to the apparent motion of echoing regions across the radar beam including both main and side lobes. In most cases, the echo moved to the east-southeast at an almost constant altitude of 100–110 km, which was along the locus of perpendicularity of the radar line-of-sight to the geomagnetic field line. We found that the QP pattern on the RTI plot reflects the horizontal structure and motion of the (Es layer, and that echoing regions seemed to be in one-dimensionally elongated shapes or in chains of patches. Neutral wind velocities from 75 to 105 km altitude were simultaneously derived with meteor echoes from the LTPR. This is the first time-continuous simultaneous observation FAIs and neutral wind with interferometry measurements. Assuming that the echoing regions were drifting with an ambient neutral wind, we found that the echoing region was aligned east-northeast-west-southwest in eight out of ten QP echo events during the SEEK-2 campaign. A range rate was

  4. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP

  5. Dual-wavelength millimeter-wave radar measurements of cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In April 1994, the University of Massachusetts` 33-GHz/95-GHz Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) participated in the multi-sensor Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Intensive Operation Period (IOP), which was conducted at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART). During the 3-week experiment, CPRS measured a variety of cloud types and severe weather. In the context of global warming, the most significant measurements are dual-frequency observations of cirrus clouds, which may eventually be used to estimate ice crystal size and shape. Much of the cirrus data collected with CPRS show differences between 33-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity measurements that are correlated with Doppler estimates of fall velocity. Because of the small range of reflectivity differences, a precise calibration of the radar is required and differential attenuation must also be removed from the data. Depolarization, which is an indicator of crystal shape, was also observed in several clouds. In this abstract we present examples of Mie scattering from cirrus and estimates of differential attenuation due to water vapor and oxygen that were derived from CART radiosonde measurements.

  6. A Twin Spiral Planar Antenna for UWB Medical Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe A. Zito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A planar-spiral antenna to be used in an ultrawideband (UWB radar system for heart activity monitoring is presented. The antenna, named “twin,” is constituted by two spiral dipoles in a compact structure. The reflection coefficient at the feed point of the dipoles is lower than −8 dB over the 3–12 GHz band, while the two-dipoles coupling is about −20 dB. The radiated beam is perpendicular to the plane of the spiral, so the antenna is wearable and it may be an optimal radiator for a medical UWB radar for heart rate detection. The designed antenna has been also used to check some hypotheses about the UWB radar heart activity detection mechanism. The radiation impedance variation, caused by the thorax vibrations associated with heart activity, seems to be the most likely explanation of the UWB radar operation.

  7. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  8. Netted LPI RADARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    CHALLENGES ............................66 1. Radar Processing Gain ........................66 2. High Sensitivity Requirement .................68 B...Relationship Between Network Space and Challenges .....................................127 Figure 42. Maneuverability................................129...virtually any kind of terrain. It has five modes: Normal, Weather, ECCM, LPI, and Very Low Clearance ( VLC ). Pictures of the LANTIRN pod aboard and F-16

  9. Borehole radar survey at the granite quarry mine, Pocheon, Kyounggi province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Seong Jun; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il; Shin, In Chul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Borehole radar survey in combination with the reflection and tomography methods was conducted at the Donga granite quarry mine of Pocheon area in Kyounggi province. The purpose of radar survey in quarry mine is to delineate the inhomogeneities including fractures and to estimate the freshness of rock. 20 MHz was adopted as the central frequency for the radar reflection and tomography surveys for the longer distance of penetration. The reflection survey using the direction finding antenna was also conducted to get the information on the spatial orientation of reflectors. Besides the various kinds of radar borehole survey, two surface geophysical methods, dipole-dipole resistivity survey and ground penetrating radar, were also applied to delineate the hidden parts of geological structures which was confirmed by geological mapping. The reflection data processing package, RADPRO ver. 2.2, developed continuously through in this study, was used to process the borehole reflection radar data. The new programs to process radar reflection data using directional antenna were devised and used to calculate and image the orientation of reflectors. The major dip angle of fractured zones were determined from the radar reflection images. With the aid of direction finding antenna and the newly developed algorithm to image the orientation of reflectors, it was possible to get the three dimensional attitudes of reflectors. Detailed interpretation results of the surveyed area are included in this report. Through the interpretation of borehole reflection data using dipole and direction finding antenna, we could determine the orientation of the major fractured zone, the boundary of two mining areas. Many of hidden inhomogeneities were found by borehole radar methods. By the image of direction finding antenna, it was confirmed that nearly all of them were located at the outside of the planned mining area or were situated very deeply. Therefore, the surveyed area consists of very fresh and

  10. Effects of respiration depth on human body radar cross section Using 2.4GHz continuous wave radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexander; Xiaomeng Gao; Jia Xu; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2017-07-01

    In this study, it was tested whether deep and shallow breathing has an effect on the cardiopulmonary radar cross-section (RCS). Continuous wave radar with quadrature architecture at 2.4GHz was used to test 2 human subjects breathing deep and shallow for 30 seconds each while seated 2 meters away from the radar. A retro-reflective marker was placed on the sternum of each subject and measured by infrared motion capture cameras to accurately track displacement of the chest. The quadrature radar outputs were processed to find the radius of the arc on the IQ plot using a circle-fitting algorithm. Results showed that the effective RCS ratio of deep to shallow breathing for subjects 1 and 2 was 6.99 and 2.24 respectively.

  11. 18th International Laser Radar Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Neuber, Roland; Rairoux, Patrick; Wandinger, Ulla

    1997-01-01

    Lidar or laser radar, the depth-resolved remote measurement of atmospheric parameters with optical means, has become an important tool in the field of atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. In this volume the latest progress in the development of lidar methods, experiments, and applications is described. The content is based on selected and thoroughly refereed papers presented at the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin, 22-26 July 1996. The book is divided into six parts which cover the topics of tropospheric aerosols and clouds, lidar in space, wind, water vapor, troposheric trace gases and plumes, and stratospheric and mesospheric profiling. As a supplement to fundamental lidar textbooks this volume may serve as a guide for scientists, engineers, and graduate students through the blossoming field of modern lidar techniques and their contribution to atmospheric and environmental research.

  12. Crosshole investigations - results from borehole radar investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Falk, L.; Sandberg, E.; Forslund, O.; Lundmark, L.

    1987-05-01

    A new borehole radar system has been designed, built and tested. The system consists of borehole transmitter and receiver probes, a signal control unit for communication with the borehole probes, and a computer unit for storage and display of data. The system can be used both in singlehole and crosshole modes and probing ranges of 115 m and 300 m, respectively, have been obtained at Stripa. The borehole radar is a short pulse system which uses center frequencies in the range 20 to 60 MHz. Single hole reflection measurements have been used to identify fracture zones and to determine their position and orientation. The travel time and amplitude of the first arrival measured in a crosshole experiment can be used as input data in a tomographic analysis. (orig./DG)

  13. Radar studies of the planets. [radar measurements of lunar surface, Mars, Mercury, and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, R. P.; Pettengill, G. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Sebring, P. B. (Editor); Shapiro, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    The radar measurements phase of the lunar studies involving reflectivity and topographic mapping of the visible lunar surface was ended in December 1972, but studies of the data and production of maps have continued. This work was supported by Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston. Topographic mapping of the equatorial regions of Mars has been carried out during the period of each opposition since that of 1967. The method comprised extended precise traveling time measurements to a small area centered on the subradar point. As measurements continued, planetary motions caused this point to sweep out extensive areas in both latitude and longitude permitting the development of a fairly extensive topographical map in the equatorial region. Radar observations of Mercury and Venus have also been made over the past few years. Refinements of planetary motions, reflectivity maps and determinations of rotation rates have resulted.

  14. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  15. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  16. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  17. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered bathymetric data. The paper reviews the concepts of bathymetry assessment by radar, the radar imaging mechanism, and the possibilities and limitations of the use of radar data in rapid assessment.

  18. Contribution of long-term accounting for raindrop size distribution variations on quantitative precipitation estimation by weather radar: Disdrometers vs parameter optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Leijnse, H.

    2015-12-01

    Volumetric weather radars provide information on the characteristics of precipitation at high spatial and temporal resolution. Unfortunately, rainfall measurements by radar are affected by multiple error sources, which can be subdivided into two main groups: 1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements (e.g. ground clutter, vertical profile of reflectivity, attenuation, etc.), and 2) errors related to the conversion of the observed reflectivity (Z) values into rainfall intensity (R) and specific attenuation (k). Until the recent wide-scale implementation of dual-polarimetric radar, this second group of errors received relatively little attention, focusing predominantly on precipitation type-dependent Z-R and Z-k relations. The current work accounts for the impact of variations of the drop size distribution (DSD) on the radar QPE performance. We propose to link the parameters of the Z-R and Z-k relations directly to those of the normalized gamma DSD. The benefit of this procedure is that it reduces the number of unknown parameters. In this work, the DSD parameters are obtained using 1) surface observations from a Parsivel and Thies LPM disdrometer, and 2) a Monte Carlo optimization procedure using surface rain gauge observations. The impact of both approaches for a given precipitation type is assessed for 45 days of summertime precipitation observed within The Netherlands. Accounting for DSD variations using disdrometer observations leads to an improved radar QPE product as compared to applying climatological Z-R and Z-k relations. However, overall precipitation intensities are still underestimated. This underestimation is expected to result from unaccounted errors (e.g. transmitter calibration, erroneous identification of precipitation as clutter, overshooting and small-scale variability). In case the DSD parameters are optimized, the performance of the radar is further improved, resulting in the best performance of the radar QPE product. However

  19. Forestry applications of ground-penetrating radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, H.; Perez-Gracia, V.; Novo, A.; Armesto, J.

    2010-07-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical and close-range remote sensing technique based on the use of radar pulses to obtain cross-section images of underground features. This method is characterized by the transmission of an electromagnetic short length pulse (1-2 ns), presenting a centre frequency ranging from 10 MHz to 2.5 GHz. The principles of GPR operation are based on the ability of low frequency radar waves to penetrate into a non-conductive medium, usually subsoil, but also walls, concrete or wood. Those waves are detected after suffering a reflection in electromagnetic discontinuities of the propagation medium. Therefore, this is a suitable method to study changes in those physical properties, and also to characterize different mediums and the reflective targets providing information about their physical properties. The aim of this work is to describe and demonstrate different applications of GPR in forestry, showing the obtained results together with their interpretation. Firstly, in this paper, it is illustrated how GPR is able to map shallow bedrock, subsoil stratigraphy and also to estimate shallow water table depth. Secondly, different tree trunks as well as dry timber are analyzed, evaluating the different radar data obtained in each particular case, and observing differences in their electromagnetic properties related to the GPR response. Finally, several measurements were taken in order to analyze the use of GPR to detect tree root systems using polarimetric techniques, being possible to detect medium and big size roots, together with groups of small roots. (Author) 39 refs.

  20. Intercomparison of attenuation correction algorithms for single-polarized X-band radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengfeld, K.; Berenguer, M.; Sempere Torres, D.

    2018-03-01

    Attenuation due to liquid water is one of the largest uncertainties in radar observations. The effects of attenuation are generally inversely proportional to the wavelength, i.e. observations from X-band radars are more affected by attenuation than those from C- or S-band systems. On the other hand, X-band radars can measure precipitation fields in higher temporal and spatial resolution and are more mobile and easier to install due to smaller antennas. A first algorithm for attenuation correction in single-polarized systems was proposed by Hitschfeld and Bordan (1954) (HB), but it gets unstable in case of small errors (e.g. in the radar calibration) and strong attenuation. Therefore, methods have been developed that restrict attenuation correction to keep the algorithm stable, using e.g. surface echoes (for space-borne radars) and mountain returns (for ground radars) as a final value (FV), or adjustment of the radar constant (C) or the coefficient α. In the absence of mountain returns, measurements from C- or S-band radars can be used to constrain the correction. All these methods are based on the statistical relation between reflectivity and specific attenuation. Another way to correct for attenuation in X-band radar observations is to use additional information from less attenuated radar systems, e.g. the ratio between X-band and C- or S-band radar measurements. Lengfeld et al. (2016) proposed such a method based isotonic regression of the ratio between X- and C-band radar observations along the radar beam. This study presents a comparison of the original HB algorithm and three algorithms based on the statistical relation between reflectivity and specific attenuation as well as two methods implementing additional information of C-band radar measurements. Their performance in two precipitation events (one mainly convective and the other one stratiform) shows that a restriction of the HB is necessary to avoid instabilities. A comparison with vertically pointing

  1. Imaging of active faults with the step continuous wave radar system. In case of Senzan faults in Awaji-island; Step shiki renzokuha chichu radar tansaho ni yoru katsudanso no imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, K; Hara, H; Kasai, H; Ito, M [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Validity of continuous wave radar exploration was verified when the said technique and some other probing methods were investigated at the Senzan Faults in Awaji Island. The signal transmitted by a continuous wave exploration system is a collection of sinusoidal waves different in frequency, and the frequencies are so controlled that they form steps relative to the sweep time. Exploration into great depths is carried out by prolonging the transmission signal sweep time, where high resolution is maintained by use of widened transmission frequency bandwidths. On-site measurements were made using a triplicated multichannel method, and electromagnetic wave propagation velocities required for depth conversion of the reflected cross section were determined in compliance with the wide angle method. On the basis of the analytical cross section using the profiles obtained by continuous radar reflection exploration conducted from the ground surface, interpretation was made of the geological structure. The presence and position and the geological development of the Senzan Faults were identified by the study of discontinuities in reflective structures such as the strata. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Quality assessment of water cycle parameters in REMO by radar-lidar synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hennemuth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison study of water cycle parameters derived from ground-based remote-sensing instruments and from the regional model REMO is presented. Observational data sets were collected during three measuring campaigns in summer/autumn 2003 and 2004 at Richard Aßmann Observatory, Lindenberg, Germany. The remote sensing instruments which were used are differential absorption lidar, Doppler lidar, ceilometer, cloud radar, and micro rain radar for the derivation of humidity profiles, ABL height, water vapour flux profiles, cloud parameters, and rain rate. Additionally, surface latent and sensible heat flux and soil moisture were measured. Error ranges and representativity of the data are discussed. For comparisons the regional model REMO was run for all measuring periods with a horizontal resolution of 18 km and 33 vertical levels. Parameter output was every hour. The measured data were transformed to the vertical model grid and averaged in time in order to better match with gridbox model values. The comparisons show that the atmospheric boundary layer is not adequately simulated, on most days it is too shallow and too moist. This is found to be caused by a wrong partitioning of energy at the surface, particularly a too large latent heat flux. The reason is obviously an overestimation of soil moisture during drying periods by the one-layer scheme in the model. The profiles of water vapour transport within the ABL appear to be realistically simulated. The comparison of cloud cover reveals an underestimation of low-level and mid-level clouds by the model, whereas the comparison of high-level clouds is hampered by the inability of the cloud radar to see cirrus clouds above 10 km. Simulated ABL clouds apparently have a too low cloud base, and the vertical extent is underestimated. The ice water content of clouds agree in model and observation whereas the liquid water content is unsufficiently derived from cloud radar reflectivity in the present study

  3. Processing of 3D Weather Radar Data with Application for Assimilation in the NWP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ośródka Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the processing of 3D weather radar data to minimize the impact of a number of errors from different sources, both meteorological and non-meteorological. The data is also quantitatively characterized in terms of its quality. A set of dedicated algorithms based on analysis of the reflectivity field pattern is described. All the developed algorithms were tested on data from the Polish radar network POLRAD. Quality control plays a key role in avoiding the introduction of incorrect information into applications using radar data. One of the quality control methods is radar data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models to estimate initial conditions of the atmosphere. The study shows an experiment with quality controlled radar data assimilation in the COAMPS model using the ensemble Kalman filter technique. The analysis proved the potential of radar data for such applications; however, further investigations will be indispensable.

  4. A technique for the radar cross-section estimation of axisymmetric plasmoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N D; Petrovskiy, V P; Sasinovskiy, Yu K; Shkatov, O Yu

    2015-01-01

    A model for the radio waves backscattering from both penetrable plasma and reflecting plasma is developed. The technique proposed is based on Huygens's principle and reduces the radar cross-section estimation to numerical integrations. (paper)

  5. Experiment for buried pipes by stepped FM-CW radar; Step shiki FM-CW radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Ito, M. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanabe, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    The underground radar exploration is adopted to surveys of cavity under the road and buried pipes since the result of high resolution is obtained. However, the explorative depth of the radar is shallow, 2-3m in soil basement, and its applicable field has been limited. The continuous wave radar (FM-CW radar) was devised to get deeper explorative depth, but has been used for the geological structure survey such as the fault survey since it is lower in resolution as compared with the pulse radar. Therefore, to make use of characteristics of the continuous wave radar and enhance resolution in the shallow part, an experiment on buried pipes was conducted for the purpose of assessing and improving the FM-CW radar. In this processing, the wave form treatment used in the reflection method seismic survey was adopted for the radar survey. There are some problems, but it is effective to adopt the same algorithm to that used in the seismic survey to the radar exploration. The explorative depth was discussed from the damping rate of electromagnetic waves and dynamic range of facilities of the experimental site, and 7m was obtained. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Structural and geological analysis of the northern Pescadero basin: preliminary results based on the analysis of 2D multichannel seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelz, R. M.; Ramirez-Zerpa, N. A.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Yarbuh, I.; Contreras, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Pacific-North America plate boundary along the Gulf of California is characterized by an array of right-stepping, right-lateral, transform faults connecting a series of pull-apart basins distributed along the gulf axis. Altogether, these structures accommodate an oblique-divergent component of deformation characterizing the modern tectonic regime along the gulf. The northern Pescadero complex, in the southern Gulf of California, is one of the deepest and probably least studied transtensional fault-termination basins in the gulf. The complex is bounded to the north and south by Atl and Farallon transform faults, respectively, and consists of two asymmetric, rhomboidal-shaped, basins with a series of intrabasinal high-angle normal faults and ramps connecting their depocenters. In this study we present preliminary results derived from the processing and analysis of 400 km of seismic reflection profiles, collected in 2006 onboard the R/V Francisco de Ulloa in northern Pescadero, providing new insights into the geology and internal structure of the basin. Northern Pescadero is a deep and narrow basin characterized by a maximum sedimentary infill of 1 km, and depths to the basin floor exceeding 3500 m. Deformation is chiefly accommodated by an array of self-parallel half-graben structures that appear to grow towards the northern flank of the basin. Faults-scarps located farther from the deformation axis appear to be more degraded, suggesting a progressively younger age of the half-grabens near the basin's depocenter. Another important feature revealed in the seismic images is the lack of sediments on top of the crystalline basement that floors the narrow central portion of the basin. In this area the reflectors at the basin's floor show a pronounced increase in amplitude and coherence, indicating the emplacement of magmatic extrusions. Likewise, in those areas with the greater sediment infill, the occurrence of high-amplitude reflectors, located 150 m below the

  7. Synthetic aperture radar imaging simulator for pulse envelope evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balster, Eric J.; Scarpino, Frank A.; Kordik, Andrew M.; Hill, Kerry L.

    2017-10-01

    A simulator for spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation is presented. The simulator produces radar returns from a virtual radar positioned at an arbitrary distance and altitude. The radar returns are produced from a source image, where the return is a weighted summation of linear frequency-modulated (LFM) pulse signals delayed by the distance of each pixel in the image to the radar. The imagery is resampled into polar format to ensure consistent range profiles to the position of the radar. The SAR simulator provides a capability enabling the objective analysis of formed SAR imagery, comparing it to an original source image. This capability allows for analysis of various SAR signal processing techniques previously determined by impulse response function (IPF) analysis. The results suggest that IPF analysis provides results that may not be directly related to formed SAR image quality. Instead, the SAR simulator uses image quality metrics, such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structured similarity index (SSIM), for formed SAR image quality analysis. To showcase the capability of the SAR simulator, it is used to investigate the performance of various envelopes applied to LFM pulses. A power-raised cosine window with a power p=0.35 and roll-off factor of β=0.15 is shown to maximize the quality of the formed SAR images by improving PSNR by 0.84 dB and SSIM by 0.06 from images formed utilizing a rectangular pulse, on average.

  8. Evaluation of turbulent dissipation rate retrievals from Doppler Cloud Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Shupe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent dissipation rate retrievals from cloud radar Doppler velocity measurements are evaluated using independent, in situ observations in Arctic stratocumulus clouds. In situ validation data sets of dissipation rate are derived using sonic anemometer measurements from a tethered balloon and high frequency pressure variation observations from a research aircraft, both flown in proximity to stationary, ground-based radars. Modest biases are found among the data sets in particularly low- or high-turbulence regimes, but in general the radar-retrieved values correspond well with the in situ measurements. Root mean square differences are typically a factor of 4–6 relative to any given magnitude of dissipation rate. These differences are no larger than those found when comparing dissipation rates computed from tethered-balloon and meteorological tower-mounted sonic anemometer measurements made at spatial distances of a few hundred meters. Temporal lag analyses suggest that approximately half of the observed differences are due to spatial sampling considerations, such that the anticipated radar-based retrieval uncertainty is on the order of a factor of 2–3. Moreover, radar retrievals are clearly able to capture the vertical dissipation rate structure observed by the in situ sensors, while offering substantially more information on the time variability of turbulence profiles. Together these evaluations indicate that radar-based retrievals can, at a minimum, be used to determine the vertical structure of turbulence in Arctic stratocumulus clouds.

  9. Methods and limitations in radar target imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, P.

    An analytical examination of the reflectivity of radar targets is presented for the two-dimensional case of flat targets. A complex backscattering coefficient is defined for the amplitude and phase of the received field in comparison with the emitted field. The coefficient is dependent on the frequency of the emitted signal and the orientation of the target with respect to the transmitter. The target reflection is modeled in terms of the density of illumined, colored points independent from one another. The target therefore is represented as an infinite family of densities indexed by the observational angle. Attention is given to the reflectivity parameters and their distribution function, and to the conjunct distribution function for the color, position, and the directivity of bright points. It is shown that a fundamental ambiguity exists between the localization of the illumined points and the determination of their directivity and color.

  10. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar Corrections Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toto, Tami [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Giangrande, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-10-15

    The KAZRCOR Value -added Product (VAP) performs several corrections to the ingested KAZR moments and also creates a significant detection mask for each radar mode. The VAP computes gaseous attenuation as a function of time and radial distance from the radar antenna, based on ambient meteorological observations, and corrects observed reflectivities for that effect. KAZRCOR also dealiases mean Doppler velocities to correct velocities whose magnitudes exceed the radar’s Nyquist velocity. Input KAZR data fields are passed through into the KAZRCOR output files, in their native time and range coordinates. Complementary corrected reflectivity and velocity fields are provided, along with a mask of significant detections and a number of data quality flags. This report covers the KAZRCOR VAP as applied to the original KAZR radars and the upgraded KAZR2 radars. Currently there are two separate code bases for the different radar versions, but once KAZR and KAZR2 data formats are harmonized, only a single code base will be required.

  11. Performance of high-resolution X-band radar for rainfall measurement in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. van de Beek

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of 195 rainfall events gathered with the X-band weather radar SOLIDAR and a tipping bucket rain gauge network near Delft, The Netherlands, between May 1993 and April 1994. The aim of this paper is to present a thorough analysis of a climatological dataset using a high spatial (120 m and temporal (16 s resolution X-band radar. This makes it a study of the potential for high-resolution rainfall measurements with non-polarimetric X-band radar over flat terrain. An appropriate radar reflectivity – rain rate relation is derived from measurements of raindrop size distributions and compared with radar – rain gauge data. The radar calibration is assessed using a long-term comparison of rain gauge measurements with corresponding radar reflectivities as well as by analyzing the evolution of the stability of ground clutter areas over time. Three different methods for ground clutter correction as well as the effectiveness of forward and backward attenuation correction algorithms have been studied. Five individual rainfall events are discussed in detail to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of high-resolution X-band radar and the effectiveness of the presented correction methods. X-band radar is found to be able to measure the space-time variation of rainfall at high resolution, far greater than what can be achieved by rain gauge networks or a typical operational C-band weather radar. On the other hand, SOLIDAR can suffer from receiver saturation, wet radome attenuation as well as signal loss along the path. During very strong convective situations the signal can even be lost completely. In combination with several rain gauges for quality control, high resolution X-band radar is considered to be suitable for rainfall monitoring over relatively small (urban catchments. These results offer great prospects for the new high resolution polarimetric doppler X-band radar IDRA.

  12. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  13. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  14. Stealth metamaterial objects characterized in the far field by Radar Cross Section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Fan, K.; Strikwerda, A. C.

    Reflection spectra and radar cross sections (RCS) at terahertz frequencies are measured on structures incorporating absorbing metamaterials. Reduction of the RCS by the factor of 375 at the resonant frequencies is observed.......Reflection spectra and radar cross sections (RCS) at terahertz frequencies are measured on structures incorporating absorbing metamaterials. Reduction of the RCS by the factor of 375 at the resonant frequencies is observed....

  15. Regime-dependence of Impacts of Radar Rainfall Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, G. C.; Keil, C.

    2009-04-01

    Experience from the first operational trials of assimilation of radar data in kilometre scale numerical weather prediction models (operating without cumulus parameterisation) shows that the positive impact of the radar data on convective precipitation forecasts typically decay within a few hours, although certain cases show much longer impacts. Here the impact time of radar data assimilation is related to characteristics of the meteorological environment. This QPF uncertainty is investigated using an ensemble of 10 forecasts at 2.8 km horizontal resolution based on different initial and boundary conditions from a global forecast ensemble. Control forecasts are compared with forecasts where radar reflectivity data is assimilated using latent heat nudging. Examination of different cases of convection in southern Germany suggests that the forecasts can be separated into two regimes using a convective timescale. Short impact times are associated with short convective timescales that are characteristic of equilibrium convection. In this regime the statistical properties of the convection are constrained by the large-scale forcing, and effects of the radar data are lost within a few hours as the convection rapidly returns to equilibrium. When the convective timescale is large (non-equilibrium conditions), the impact of the radar data is longer since convective systems are triggered by the latent heat nudging and are able to persist for many hours in the very unstable conditions present in these cases.

  16. Statistical Angular Resolution Limit for Ultrawideband MIMO Noise Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional angular resolution limit (ARL of elevation and azimuth for MIMO radar with ultrawideband (UWB noise waveforms is investigated using statistical resolution theory. First, the signal model of monostatic UWB MIMO noise radar is established in a 3D reference frame. Then, the statistical angular resolution limits (SARLs of two closely spaced targets are derived using the detection-theoretic and estimation-theoretic approaches, respectively. The detection-theoretic approach is based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT with given probabilities of false alarm and detection, while the estimation-theoretic approach is based on Smith’s criterion which involves the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB. Furthermore, the relationship between the two approaches is presented, and the factors affecting the SARL, that is, detection parameters, transmit waveforms, array geometry, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and parameters of target (i.e., radar cross section (RCS and direction, are analyzed. Compared with the conventional radar resolution theory defined by the ambiguity function, the SARL reflects the practical resolution ability of radar and can provide an optimization criterion for radar system design.

  17. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  18. The 3-D geological model around Chang'E-3 landing site based on lunar penetrating radar Channel 1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuefeng; Zhu, Peimin; Zhao, Na; Xiao, Long; Garnero, Edward; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jiannan; Qiao, Le

    2017-07-01

    High-frequency lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data from an instrument on the lunar rover Yutu, from the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) robotic lander, were used to build a three-dimensional (3-D) geological model of the lunar subsurface structure. The CE-3 landing site is in the northern Mare Imbrium. More than five significant reflection horizons are evident in the LPR profile, which we interpret as different period lava flow sequences deposited on the lunar surface. The most probable directions of these flows were inferred from layer depths, thicknesses, and other geological information. Moreover, the apparent Imbrian paleoregolith homogeneity in the profile supports the suggestion of a quiescent period of lunar surface evolution. Similar subsurface structures are found at the NASA Apollo landing sites, indicating that the cause and time of formation of the imaged phenomena may be similar between the two distant regions.

  19. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  20. The lidar dark band: An oddity of the radar bright band analogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Although much has sbeen learned from independent radar and lidar studies of atmospheric precipitations, occasionally supported by aircraft profiling, what has been lacking is combined optical, microwave, and insitu observations of the melting layer. Fortunately, the rainshowers on April 21, 1994, during the Remote Cloud Sensing intensive obervations Period (RCSIOP) at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation Testbed (CART) site provided an opportunity for coordinated dual-wavelength University of Utah Polarization Diversity Lidar, University of Massachusetts Cloud Profiling Radar System Doppler Radar, and the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft measurements.

  1. W-band spaceborne radar observations of atmospheric river events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    While the main objective of the world first W-band radar aboard the CloudSat satellite is to provide vertically resolved information on clouds, it proved to be a valuable tool for observing precipitation. The CloudSat radar is generally able to resolve precipitating cloud systems in their vertical entirety. Although measurements from the liquid hydrometer layer containing rainfall are strongly attenuated, special retrieval approaches can be used to estimate rainfall parameters. These approaches are based on vertical gradients of observed radar reflectivity factor rather than on absolute estimates of reflectivity. Concurrent independent estimations of ice cloud parameters in the same vertical column allow characterization of precipitating systems and provide information on coupling between clouds and rainfall they produce. The potential of CloudSat for observations atmospheric river events affecting the West Coast of North America is evaluated. It is shown that spaceborne radar measurements can provide high resolution information on the height of the freezing level thus separating areas of rainfall and snowfall. CloudSat precipitation rate estimates complement information from the surface-based radars. Observations of atmospheric rivers at different locations above the ocean and during landfall help to understand evolutions of atmospheric rivers and their structures.

  2. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  3. ASSIMILATION OF DOPPLER RADAR DATA INTO NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-15

    During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has

  4. Detection of buried pipes by polarimetric borehole radar; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru maisetsukan no kenshutsu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nakauchi, T. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    If the borehole radar is utilized for detection of buried pipes, the underground radar measurement becomes possible even in the situation where the mesurement on the earth surface is difficult, for example, such a place as under the road where there is much traffic. However, since buried pipes are horizontally installed and the existing borehole radar can send/receive only vertical polarization, the measurement conducted comes to be poor in efficiency from a viewpoint of the polarization utilization. Therefore, by introducing the polarimetric borehole radar to the detection of buried pipes, a basic experiment was conducted for the effective detection of horizontal buried pipes. Proposing the use of a slot antenna which can send/receive horizontal polarization in borehole in addition to a dipole antenna which sends/receives vertical polarization, developed was a step frequency type continuous wave radar of a network analyzer basis. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that reflection from buried pipes is largely dependent on polarization. Especially, it was found that in the slot dipole cross polarization mesurement, reflection from buried pipes can be emphasized. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Ground-Penetrating Radar Investigations along Hajipur Fault: Himalayan Frontal Thrust—Attempt to Identify Near Subsurface Displacement, NW Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed N. Malik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area falls in the mesoseismal zone of 1905 Kangra earthquake (Mw 7.8. To identify appropriate trenching site for paleoseismic investigation and to understand the faulting geometry, ground-penetrating radar (GPR survey was conducted across a Hajipur Fault (HF2 scarp, a branching out fault of Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT in a foot hill zone of NW Himalaya. Several 2D and 3D profiles were collected using 200 MHz antenna with SIR 3000 unit. A 2D GPR profile collected across the HF2 scarp revealed prominent hyperbolas and discontinuous-warped reflections, suggesting a metal pipe and a zone of deformation along a low-angle thrust fault, respectively. The 3D profile revealed remarkable variation in dip of the fault plane and pattern of deformation along the strike of the fault.

  6. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the frontend for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the dataformatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and specific

  7. Doppler radar flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  8. Interpretation of measured data and the resolution analysis of the RTP 4-channel pulsed radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlo, P.

    1993-01-01

    The resolution of a 4-channel pulsed radar being built at Rijnhuisen for the RTP tokamak is analyzed. The achievable resolution mainly depends on the accuracy of the time-of-flight measurements and the number of sampling frequencies; since the technological solution and the configuration have already been set, emphasis is put on interpretation of the measured data (the inversion problem) and minimization of the overall error. For this purpose, a specific neural network - the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) - has successfully been applied. Central density in the range of 0.2-0.6 x 10 20 m -3 was considered, i.e., one above the critical density for all four frequencies but not so high as to restrict the measurements to just the edge of the plasma. By balancing the inversion error and the time measurement error, for a wide class of density profiles the overall error in estimating the reflection point position of between 0.72 cm (for the lowest frequency) and 0.52 cm (for the highest frequency) root mean square was obtained, assuming an RMS error of 70 ps in the time of flight measurements. This is probably much better than what could be obtained by the Abel transform. Moreover, mapping with the MLP is considerably faster, and it should be considered for routine multichannel pulsed radar data processing. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 6 refs

  9. Database development for understanding the wet deposition and dispersion processes after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Takara, Kaoru; Ishihara, Masahito; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Akira; Murata, Ken T.

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes datasets of meteorological information being developed for understanding the dispersion and deposition process of radionuclides associated with the Fukushima accident in March 2011. Among several products, this paper reports mainly our original radar data images including the X-band radar data from Fukushima University as well as the three-dimensional reflectivity data from the Japan Meteorological Agency C-band radar network. (author)

  10. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  11. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  12. Performance indicators modern surveillance radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, P.N.C.; Theil, A.

    2014-01-01

    Blake chart computations are widely employed to rank detection coverage capabilities of competitive search radar systems. Developed for comparable 2D radar systems with a mechanically rotating reflector antenna, it was not necessary to regard update rate and plot quality in Blake's chart. To

  13. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    classification and use a range of different techniques and input data. The first method uses external information from multispectral satellite images to detect clutter. The information in the visual, near-infrared, and infrared parts of the spectrum can be used to distinguish between cloud and cloud-free areas......Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...

  14. 100 years of radar

    CERN Document Server

    Galati, Gaspare

    2016-01-01

    This book offers fascinating insights into the key technical and scientific developments in the history of radar, from the first patent, taken out by Hülsmeyer in 1904, through to the present day. Landmark events are highlighted and fascinating insights provided into the exceptional people who made possible the progress in the field, including the scientists and technologists who worked independently and under strict secrecy in various countries across the world in the 1930s and the big businessmen who played an important role after World War II. The book encourages multiple levels of reading. The author is a leading radar researcher who is ideally placed to offer a technical/scientific perspective as well as a historical one. He has taken care to structure and write the book in such a way as to appeal to both non-specialists and experts. The book is not sponsored by any company or body, either formally or informally, and is therefore entirely unbiased. The text is enriched by approximately three hundred ima...

  15. Characterizing vertical heterogeneity of permafrost soils in support of ABoVE radar retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Chen, R. H.; Silva, A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Moghaddam, M.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils, including the top active layer and underlying permafrost, have unique seasonal variations in terms of soil temperature, soil moisture, and freeze/thaw-state profiles. The presence of a perennially frozen and impermeable substrate maintains the required temperature gradient for the descending thawing front, and causes meltwater to accumulate and form the saturated zone in the active layer. Radar backscattering measurements are sensitive to dielectric properties of subsurface soils, which are strongly correlated with unfrozen water content and soil texture/composition. To enable accurate radar retrievals, we need to properly characterize soil profile heterogeneity, which can be modeled with layered soil or depth-dependent functions. To this end, we first cross compare the measured radar backscatter and model-predicted radar backscatter using in-situ dielectric profile measurements as well as mathematical or hydrologic-based profile functions. Since radar signal's backscatter has limited penetration, to fully capture the true heterogeneity profile, we determine the optimal profile function by minimizing the error between predicted and measured radar backscatter signals as well as between in-situ and fitted profiles. The in-situ soil profile data (temperature, dielectric constant, unfrozen water content, organic/mineral soils) are collected from the Soil Moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) sensor networks and from the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) field campaign in August 2017 (concurrent with the ABoVE August flights over Alaska North Slope) while the radar data are acquired by NASA's P-band AirMOSS and L-band UAVSAR as part of the ABoVE airborne campaign. The retrieval results using our new heterogeneity model will be compared with the results from retrievals that model soil as a layered medium. This analysis can advance the accuracy of retrieval of active layer properties using low-frequency SAR

  16. Orthogonal on-off control of radar pulses for the suppression of mutual interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Cheol

    1998-10-01

    Intelligent vehicles of the future will be guided by radars and other sensors to avoid obstacles. When multiple vehicles move simultaneously in autonomous navigational mode, mutual interference among car radars becomes a serious problem. An obstacle is illuminated with electromagnetic pulses from several radars. The signal at a radar receiver is actually a mixture of the self-reflection and the reflection of interfering pulses emitted by others. When standardized pulse- type radars are employed on vehicles for obstacle avoidance and so self-pulse and interfering pulses have identical pulse repetition interval, this SI (synchronous Interference) is very difficult to separate from the true reflection. We present a method of suppressing such a synchronous interference. By controlling the pulse emission of a radar in a binary orthogonal ON, OFF pattern, the true self-reflection can be separated from the false one. Two range maps are generated, TRM (true-reflection map) and SIM (synchronous- interference map). TRM is updated for every ON interval and SIM is updated for every OFF interval of the self-radar. SIM represents the SI of interfering radars while TRM keeps a record of a mixture of the true self-reflection and SI. Hence the true obstacles can be identified by the set subtraction operation. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the conventional M of N method. Bayesian analysis shows that the probability of false alarm is improved by order of 103 to approximately 106 while the deterioration in the probability of detection is negligible.

  17. Evaluation of Fog and Low Stratus Cloud Microphysical Properties Derived from In Situ Sensor, Cloud Radar and SYRSOC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Dupont

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The microphysical properties of low stratus and fog are analyzed here based on simultaneous measurement of an in situ sensor installed on board a tethered balloon and active remote-sensing instruments deployed at the Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research (SIRTA observatory (south of Paris, France. The study focuses on the analysis of 3 case studies where the tethered balloon is deployed for several hours in order to derive the relationship between liquid water content (LWC, effective radius (Re and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC measured by a light optical aerosol counter (LOAC in situ granulometer and Bistatic Radar System for Atmospheric Studies (BASTA cloud radar reflectivity. The well-known relationship Z = α × (LWCβ has been optimized with α ϵ [0.02, 0.097] and β ϵ [1.91, 2.51]. Similar analysis is done to optimize the relationship Re = f(Z and CDNC = f(Z. Two methodologies have been applied to normalize the particle-size distribution measured by the LOAC granulometer with a visible extinction closure (R² ϵ [0.73, 0.93] and to validate the LWC profile with a liquid water closure using the Humidity and Temperature Profiler (HATPRO microwave radiometer (R² ϵ [0.83, 0.91]. In a second step, these relationships are used to derive spatial and temporal variability of the vertical profile of LWC, Re and CDNC starting from BASTA measurement. Finally, the synergistic remote sensing of clouds (SYRSOC algorithm has been tested on three tethered balloon flights. Generally, SYRSOC CDNC and Re profiles agreed well with LOAC in situ and BASTA profiles for the studied fog layers. A systematic overestimation of LWC by SYRSOC in the top half of the fog layer was found due to fog processes that are not accounted for in the cloud algorithm SYRSOC.

  18. Radar-Assisted Mapping of Massive Ice in Western Utopia Planitia, Mars: Degradational Mechanisms and Implications for Surface Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuurman, C. M.; Levy, J. S.; Holt, J. W.; Harrison, T. N.; Osinski, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Western Utopia Planitia remains an enigmatic region of Mars. Radar and morphological analyses have framed the area as rich in ground ice, however there exist multiple theories regarding how the ice was emplaced. Here, we combine radar and morphological analyses to characterize the recent history of water ice in western Utopia Planitia. A radar reflective interface found in SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) data in Utopia Planitia is found to correlate with layered mesas 80-110 m thick. Discontinuities in the radar reflective interface relate to degradation of the layered mesas. This work uses the extent of the reflective interface to map the previous extent of the layered mesas, which we believe constitutes the remnants of a large ice sheet formed in the Late Amazonian. The past volume of the ice sheet is to be determined by the SHARAD-assisted mapping. This volume will be related to the recent climate history of western Utopia Planitia.

  19. The Preliminary Processing and Geological Interpretation of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-1 Data from Chang'E-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Zhu, P.; Zhao, N.; Guo, S.; Xiao, L.; Xiao, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This is the first time to obtain the subsurface profiles using the lunar penetrating radar (LPR) on the Moon surface. Two types of antennas, channel-1 and channel-2, with different resolutions were equipped on the LPR, which detected the lunar subsurface structure with low frequency and the thickness of regolith with high frequency, respectively. We focus on the study of the lunar subsurface structure using channel-1 data. Considering the propagation characteristics of radar wave, the processing of amplitude compensation and filtering are applied to improve the imaging quality, and the processed profile clearly represents deeper than 300 meters of layered information. Based on the geological background around landing site, we present the preliminary geological interpretation for the lunar subsurface structure. More than 5 obvious reflecting events should be concerned along the track of the Yutu rover, which infer different lava sequences, including the Eratosthenian basalts, paleo-regolith formed between Eratosthenian and Imbrium, and multistage infilled lavas formed inter-layers among the Imbrium basalts.

  20. Automatic Classification of Offshore Wind Regimes With Weather Radar Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Weather radar observations are called to play an important role in offshore wind energy. In particular, they can enable the monitoring of weather conditions in the vicinity of large-scale offshore wind farms and thereby notify the arrival of precipitation systems associated with severe wind...... and amplitude) using reflectivity observations from a single weather radar system. A categorical sequence of most likely wind regimes is estimated from a wind speed time series by combining a Markov-Switching model and a global decoding technique, the Viterbi algorithm. In parallel, attributes of precipitation...... systems are extracted from weather radar images. These attributes describe the global intensity, spatial continuity and motion of precipitation echoes on the images. Finally, a CART classification tree is used to find the broad relationships between precipitation attributes and wind regimes...

  1. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  2. Creating soil moisture maps based on radar satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatushenko, Volodymyr; Garkusha, Igor; Vasyliev, Volodymyr

    2017-10-01

    The presented work is related to a study of mapping soil moisture basing on radar data from Sentinel-1 and a test of adequacy of the models constructed on the basis of data obtained from alternative sources. Radar signals are reflected from the ground differently, depending on its properties. In radar images obtained, for example, in the C band of the electromagnetic spectrum, soils saturated with moisture usually appear in dark tones. Although, at first glance, the problem of constructing moisture maps basing on radar data seems intuitively clear, its implementation on the basis of the Sentinel-1 data on an industrial scale and in the public domain is not yet available. In the process of mapping, for verification of the results, measurements of soil moisture obtained from logs of the network of climate stations NOAA US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used. This network covers almost the entire territory of the United States. The passive microwave radiometers of Aqua and SMAP satellites data are used for comparing processing. In addition, other supplementary cartographic materials were used, such as maps of soil types and ready moisture maps. The paper presents a comparison of the effect of the use of certain methods of roughening the quality of radar data on the result of mapping moisture. Regression models were constructed showing dependence of backscatter coefficient values Sigma0 for calibrated radar data of different spatial resolution obtained at different times on soil moisture values. The obtained soil moisture maps of the territories of research, as well as the conceptual solutions about automation of operations of constructing such digital maps, are presented. The comparative assessment of the time required for processing a given set of radar scenes with the developed tools and with the ESA SNAP product was carried out.

  3. Coupling Between Doppler Radar Signatures and Tornado Damage Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carey, Lawrence; Carcione, Brian; Smith, Matthew; Schultz, Elise V.; Schultz, Christopher; Lafontaine, Frank

    2011-01-01

    On April 27, 2011, the southeastern United States was raked with several episodes of severe weather. Numerous tornadoes caused extensive damage, and tragically, the deaths of over 300 people. In Alabama alone, there were 61 confirmed tornados, 4 of them produced EF5 damage, and several were on the ground an hour or more with continuous damage tracks exceeding 80km. The use of Doppler radars covering the region provided reflectivity and velocity signatures that allowed forecasters to monitors the severe storms from beginning to end issuing hundreds of severe weather warnings throughout the day. Meteorologists from the the NWS performed extensive surveys to assess the intensity, duration, and ground track of tornadoes reported during the event. Survey activities included site visits to the affected locations, analysis of radar and satellite data, aerial surveys, and interviews with eyewitnesses. Satellite data from NASA's MODIS and ASTER instruments played a helpful role in determining the location of tornado damage paths and in the assessment. High resolution multispectral and temporal composites helped forecasters corroborate their damage assessments, determine starting and ending points for tornado touchdowns, and helped to provide forecasters with a better big-picture view of the damage region. The imagery also helped to separate damage from the April 27th tornados from severe weather that occurred earlier that month. In a post analysis of the outbreak, tornado damage path signatures observed in the NASA satellite data have been correlated to "debris ball" signatures in the NWS Doppler radars and a special ARMOR dual-polarization radar operated by the University of Alabama Huntsville during the event. The Doppler radar data indicates a circular enhanced reflectivity signal and rotational couplet in the radial velocity likely associated with the tornado that is spatially correlated with the damage tracks in the observed satellite data. An algorithm to detect and

  4. Polarimetric Radar Retrievals in Southeast Texas During Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, D. B.; Petersen, W. A.; Tokay, A.; Marks, D. A.; Pippitt, J. L.; Kirstetter, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey hit the Texas Gulf Coast as a major hurricane on August 25, 2017 before exiting the state as a tropical storm on September 1, 2017. In its wake, it left a flood of historic proportions, with some areas measuring 60 inches of rain over a five-day period. Although the storm center stayed west of the immediate Houston area training bands of precipitation impacted the Houston area for five full days. The National Weather Service (NWS) WSR88D dual-polarimetric radar (KHGX), located southeast of Houston, maintained operations for the entirety of the event. The Harris County Flood Warning System (HCFWS) had 150 rain gauges deployed in its network and seven NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) rain gauges are also located in the area. In this study, we used the full radar data set to retrieve daily and event-total precipitation estimates within 120 km of the KHGX radar for the period August 25-29, 2017. These estimates were then compared to the HCFWS and ASOS gauges. Three different polarimetric hybrid rainfall retrievals were used: Ciffeli et al. 2011; Bringi et al. 2004; and, Chen et al. 2017. Each of these hybrid retrievals have demonstrated robust performance in the past. However, both daily and event-total comparisons from each of these retrievals compared to those of HCFWS and ASOS rain gauge networks resulted in significant underestimates by the radar retrievals. These radar underestimates are concerning. Sources of error and variance will be investigated to understand the source of radar-gauge disagreement. One current hypothesis is that due to the large number of small drops often found in hurricanes, the differential reflectivity and specific differential phase are relatively small so that the hybrid algorithms use only the reflectivity/rain rate procedure (so called Z-R relationships), and hence rarely invoke the ZDR or KDP procedures. Thus, an alternative Z-R relationship must be invoked to retrieve accurate rain rate estimates.

  5. Derivation of Z-R equation using Mie approach for a 77 GHz radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldo, Silvano; Lucianaz, Claudio; Allegretti, Marco; Perona, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) defines the frequency band around 77 GHz as dedicated to automatic cruise control long-range radars. This work aims to demonstrate that, with specific assumption and the right theoretical background it is also possible to use a 77 GHz as a mini weather radar and/or a microwave rain gauge. To study the behavior of a 77 GHz meteorological radar, since the raindrop size are comparable to the wavelength, it is necessary to use the general Mie scattering theory. According to the Mie formulation, the radar reflectivity factor Z is defined as a function of the wavelength on the opposite of Rayleigh approximation in which is frequency independent. Different operative frequencies commonly used in radar meteorology are considered with both the Rayleigh and Mie scattering theory formulation. Comparing them it is shown that with the increasing of the radar working frequency the use of Rayleigh approximation lead to an always larger underestimation of rain. At 77 GHz such underestimation is up to 20 dB which can be avoided with the full Mie theory. The crucial derivation of the most suited relation between the radar reflectivity factor Z and rainfall rate R (Z-R equation) is necessary to achieve the best Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) possible. Making the use of Mie scattering formulation from the classical electromagnetic theory and considering different radar working frequencies, the backscattering efficiency and the radar reflectivity factor have been derived from a wide range of rain rate using specific numerical routines. Knowing the rain rate and the corresponding reflectivity factor it was possible to derive the coefficients of the Z-R equation for each frequency with the least square method and to obtain the best coefficients for each frequency. The coefficients are then compared with the ones coming from the scientific literature. The coefficients of a 77 GHz weather radar are then obtained. A

  6. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahafza, Bassem R

    2008-01-01

    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  7. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered

  8. Radar observations of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes echoes from 33 main-belt asteroids (MBAs) and 19 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have provided a wealth of new information about these objects such as sizes, shapes, spin vectors, and such surface characteristics as decimeter-scale morphology, topographic relief, regolith porosity and metal concentrations. On average, small NEAs are much rougher at decimeter scales than MBAs, comets or terrestrial planets. Some of the largest MBAs (e.g., 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas ) are smoother than the moon at decimeter scales but much rougher than the Moon at some much larger scale. There is at least a five-fold variation in the radar albedos of MBAs, implying substantial variations in the surface porosities or metal concentrations of these objects. The highest MBA albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a metal concentration near unity and lunar porosities

  9. Under the Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, WM

    2010-01-01

    This is the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott (1912 to 1981). As the first female radio astronomer (and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy), she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. She also played a major role in the design of the Australian government's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research radars, which were in turn of vital importance in the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II and were used by Australian, US and New Zealand personnel. From a sociological perspective, her career also offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs this book gives a fascinating insight into the beginning of radio astronomy and the role of a pioneering woman in astronomy.

  10. Material integrity verification radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the need for verification of 'as-built' spent fuel-dry storage containers and other concrete structures. The IAEA has tasked the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) to fabricate, test, and deploy a stepped-frequency Material Integrity Verification Radar (MIVR) system to nondestructively verify the internal construction of these containers. The MIVR system is based on previously deployed high-frequency, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems that have been developed by STL for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Whereas GPR technology utilizes microwave radio frequency energy to create subsurface images, MTVR is a variation for which the medium is concrete instead of soil. The purpose is to nondestructively verify the placement of concrete-reinforcing materials, pipes, inner liners, and other attributes of the internal construction. The MIVR system underwent an initial field test on CANDU reactor spent fuel storage canisters at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada, in October 1995. A second field test at the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant in Embalse, Argentina, was completed in May 1996. The DOE GPR also was demonstrated at the site. Data collection and analysis were performed for the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN). IAEA and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Control and Accounting of Nuclear Material (ABACC) personnel were present as observers during the test. Reinforcing materials were evident in the color, two-dimensional images produced by the MIVR system. A continuous pattern of reinforcing bars was evident and accurate estimates on the spacing, depth, and size were made. The potential uses for safeguard applications were jointly discussed. The MIVR system, as successfully demonstrated in the two field tests, can be used as a design verification tool for IAEA safeguards. A deployment of MIVR for Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ

  11. Ku-Band radar penetration into Snow over Arctic Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars; Helm, Veit

    is the snow/air interface, whereas radar waves interact with the variable physical properties of the snow cover on the Arctic sea ice. In addition, radar elevation measurements may vary for different retracker algorithms, which determine the track point of the scattered echo power distribution. Since accurate...... knowledge of the reflection horizon is critical for sea ice thickness retrieval, validation data is necessary to investigate the penetration of radar waves into the snow for the upcoming CryoSat-2 mission. Furthermore, the combination of both optical and RF wavelengths might be used to derive snow thickness......, if radar altimeters are capable of measuring the distance to the snow-ice interface reliably. We present the results of aircraft campaigns in the Arctic with a scanning laser altimeter and the Airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) of the European Space Agency. The elevation...

  12. Air and spaceborne radar systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lacomme, Philippe; Hardange, Jean-Philippe; Normant, Eric

    2001-01-01

    A practical tool on radar systems that will be of major help to technicians, student engineers and engineers working in industry and in radar research and development. The many users of radar as well as systems engineers and designers will also find it highly useful. Also of interest to pilots and flight engineers and military command personnel and military contractors. """"This introduction to the field of radar is intended for actual users of radar. It focuses on the history, main principles, functions, modes, properties and specific nature of modern airborne radar. The book examines radar's

  13. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  14. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  15. Radar spectrum opportunities for cognitive communications transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; McGeehan, JP; Williams, C; Doufexi, A

    2008-01-01

    In relation to opportunistic access to radar spectrum, the impact of the radar on a communication system is investigated in this paper. This paper illustrates that by exploring the spatial and temporal opportunities in the radar spectrum and therefore improving the tolerance level to radar interference, a substantial increase on the throughput of a communication system is possible. Results are presented regarding the impact of swept radars on a WiMAX system. The results show the impact of SIR...

  16. Inversion for atmosphere duct parameters using real radar sea clutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zheng; Fang Han-Xian

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the lower atmospheric refractivity (M profile) under nonstandard propagation conditions frequently encountered in low altitude maritime radar applications. The vertical structure of the refractive environment is modeled using five parameters and the horizontal structure is modeled using five parameters. The refractivity model is implemented with and without a priori constraint on the duct strength as might be derived from soundings or numerical weather-prediction models. An electromagnetic propagation model maps the refractivity structure into a replica field. Replica fields are compared with the observed clutter using a squared-error objective function. A global search for the 10 environmental parameters is performed using genetic algorithms. The inversion algorithm is implemented on the basis of S-band radar sea-clutter data from Wallops Island, Virginia (SPANDAR). Reference data are from range-dependent refractivity profiles obtained with a helicopter. The inversion is assessed (i) by comparing the propagation predicted from the radar-inferred refractivity profiles with that from the helicopter profiles, (ii) by comparing the refractivity parameters from the helicopter soundings with those estimated. This technique could provide near-real-time estimation of ducting effects. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  17. A quantitative analysis of the impact of wind turbines on operational Doppler weather radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, L.

    2015-02-01

    In many countries wind turbines are rapidly growing in numbers as the demand for energy from renewable sources increases. The continued deployment of wind turbines can, however, be problematic for many radar systems, which are easily disturbed by turbines located in the radar line of sight. Wind turbines situated in the vicinity of Doppler weather radars can lead to erroneous precipitation estimates as well as to inaccurate wind and turbulence measurements. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the impact of a wind farm, located in southeastern Sweden, on measurements from a nearby Doppler weather radar. The analysis is based on 6 years of operational radar data. In order to evaluate the impact of the wind farm, average values of all three spectral moments (the radar reflectivity factor, absolute radial velocity, and spectrum width) of the nearby Doppler weather radar were calculated, using data before and after the construction of the wind farm. It is shown that all spectral moments, from a large area at and downrange from the wind farm, were impacted by the wind turbines. It was also found that data from radar cells far above the wind farm (near 3 km altitude) were affected by the wind farm. It is shown that this in part can be explained by detection by the radar sidelobes and by scattering off increased levels of dust and turbulence. In a detailed analysis, using data from a single radar cell, frequency distributions of all spectral moments were used to study the competition between the weather signal and wind turbine clutter. It is shown that, when weather echoes give rise to higher reflectivity values than those of the wind farm, the negative impact of the wind turbines is greatly reduced for all spectral moments.

  18. Lightning Initiation Forecasting: An Operational Dual-Polarimetric Radar Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Crystal J.; Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Roeder, W. P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this NASA MSFC and NOAA CSTAR funded study is to develop and test operational forecast algorithms for the prediction of lightning initiation utilizing the C-band dual-polarimetric radar, UAHuntsville's Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR). Although there is a rich research history of radar signatures associated with lightning initiation, few studies have utilized dual-polarimetric radar signatures (e.g., Z(sub dr) columns) and capabilities (e.g., fuzzy-logic particle identification [PID] of precipitation ice) in an operational algorithm for first flash forecasting. The specific goal of this study is to develop and test polarimetric techniques that enhance the performance of current operational radar reflectivity based first flash algorithms. Improving lightning watch and warning performance will positively impact personnel safety in both work and leisure environments. Advanced warnings can provide space shuttle launch managers time to respond appropriately to secure equipment and personnel, while they can also provide appropriate warnings for spectators and players of leisure sporting events to seek safe shelter. Through the analysis of eight case dates, consisting of 35 pulse-type thunderstorms and 20 non-thunderstorm case studies, lightning initiation forecast techniques were developed and tested. The hypothesis is that the additional dual-polarimetric information could potentially reduce false alarms while maintaining high probability of detection and increasing lead-time for the prediction of the first lightning flash relative to reflectivity-only based techniques. To test the hypothesis, various physically-based techniques using polarimetric variables and/or PID categories, which are strongly correlated to initial storm electrification (e.g., large precipitation ice production via drop freezing), were benchmarked against the operational reflectivity-only based approaches to find the best compromise between

  19. Laser Range Profiling for Active Protection System Target Classification and Aim-Point Selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... The attractiveness of smaller, faster interceptors precipitated the investigation of a laser radar sensor augmentation for CIAPS that could quickly resolve the range profile of an incoming projectile...

  20. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  1. Translation compensation and micro-Doppler extraction for precession ballistic targets with a wideband terahertz radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; Zhang, Ye; Qin, Yuliang

    2018-01-01

    Imaging, classification, and recognition techniques of ballistic targets in midcourse have always been the focus of research in the radar field for military applications. However, the high velocity translation of ballistic targets will subject range profile and Doppler to translation, slope, and fold, which are especially severe in the terahertz region. Therefore, a two-step translation compensation method based on envelope alignment is presented. The rough compensation is based on the traditional envelope alignment algorithm in inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging, and the fine compensation is supported by distance fitting. Then, a wideband imaging radar system with a carrier frequency of 0.32 THz is introduced, and an experiment on a precession missile model is carried out. After translation compensation with the method proposed in this paper, the range profile and the micro-Doppler distributions unaffected by translation are obtained, providing an important foundation for the high-resolution imaging and micro-Doppler extraction of the terahertz radar.

  2. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  3. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  4. Interferometric Meteor Head Echo Observations using the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, D.; Hocking, W.; Pifko, S.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Fritts, D. C.; Brunini, C; Michell, R.; Samara, M.

    2013-01-01

    A radar meteor echo is the radar scattering signature from the free-electrons in a plasma trail generated by entry of extraterrestrial particles into the atmosphere. Three categories of scattering mechanisms exist: specular, nonspecular trails, and head-echoes. Generally, there are two types of radars utilized to detect meteors. Traditional VHF meteor radars (often called all-sky1radars) primarily detect the specular reflection of meteor trails traveling perpendicular to the line of sight of the scattering trail, while High Power and Large Aperture (HPLA) radars efficiently detect meteor head-echoes and, in some cases, non-specular trails. The fact that head-echo measurements can be performed only with HPLA radars limits these studies in several ways. HPLA radars are very sensitive instruments constraining the studies to the lower masses, and these observations cannot be performed continuously because they take place at national observatories with limited allocated observing time. These drawbacks can be addressed by developing head echo observing techniques with modified all-sky meteor radars. In addition, the fact that the simultaneous detection of all different scattering mechanisms can be made with the same instrument, rather than requiring assorted different classes of radars, can help clarify observed differences between the different methodologies. In this study, we demonstrate that such concurrent observations are now possible, enabled by the enhanced design of the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) deployed at the Estacion Astronomica Rio Grande (EARG) in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. The results presented here are derived from observations performed over a period of 12 days in August 2011, and include meteoroid dynamical parameter distributions, radiants and estimated masses. Overall, the SAAMER's head echo detections appear to be produced by larger particles than those which have been studied thus far using this technique.

  5. Combined Lidar-Radar Remote Sensing: Initial Results from CRYSTAL-FACE and Implications for Future Spaceflight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Li, Li-Hua; Hart, William D.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, David M.

    2003-01-01

    In the near future NASA plans to fly satellites carrying a multi-wavelength backscatter lidar and a 94-GHz cloud profiling radar in formation to provide complete global profiling of cloud and aerosol properties. The CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign, conducted during July 2002, provided the first high-altitude colocated measurements from lidar and cloud profiling radar to simulate these spaceborne sensors. The lidar and radar provide complementary measurements with varying degrees of measurement overlap. This paper presents initial results of the combined airborne lidar-radar measurements during CRYSTAL-FACE. The overlap of instrument sensitivity is presented, within the context of particular CRYSTAL-FACE conditions. Results are presented to quantify the portion of atmospheric profiles sensed independently by each instrument and the portion sensed simultaneously by the two instruments.

  6. Research on Radar Cross Section Measurement Based on Near-field Imaging of Cylindrical Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Shu-guang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method of Radar Cross Section (RCS measurement based on near-field imaging of cylindrical scanning surface is proposed. The method is based on the core assumption that the target consists of ideal isotropic scattered centers. Three-dimensional radar scattered images are obtained by using the proposed method, and then to obtain the RCS of the target, the scattered far field is calculated by summing the fields generated by the equivalent scattered centers. Not only three dimensional radar reflectivity images but also the RCS of targets in certain three dimensional angle areas can be obtained. Compared with circular scanning that can only obtain twodimensional radar reflectivity images and RCS results in two-dimensional angle areas, cylindrical scanning can provide more information about the scattering properties of the targets. The method has strong practicability and its validity is verified by simulations.

  7. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  8. Comparison of CloudSat and TRMM radar reflectivities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tropical deep convective clouds drive the large scale circulation of ... information concerning tropical clouds since 1998 ..... and CloudSat Data Processing Center, NASA for providing .... ical precipitating clouds ranging from shallow to deep.

  9. Use of reflective surfaces on roadway embankment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Doré, Guy

    2007-01-01

    adherence characteristics for roadway use. In Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to compare the variation of the frost table underneath a normal black asphalt surface and a more reflective surface (white paint). The GPR results have shown a clear...

  10. Improved Micro Rain Radar snow measurements using Doppler spectra post-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Micro Rain Radar 2 (MRR is a compact Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW system that operates at 24 GHz. The MRR is a low-cost, portable radar system that requires minimum supervision in the field. As such, the MRR is a frequently used radar system for conducting precipitation research. Current MRR drawbacks are the lack of a sophisticated post-processing algorithm to improve its sensitivity (currently at +3 dBz, spurious artefacts concerning radar receiver noise and the lack of high quality Doppler radar moments. Here we propose an improved processing method which is especially suited for snow observations and provides reliable values of effective reflectivity, Doppler velocity and spectral width. The proposed method is freely available on the web and features a noise removal based on recognition of the most significant peak. A dynamic dealiasing routine allows observations even if the Nyquist velocity range is exceeded. Collocated observations over 115 days of a MRR and a pulsed 35.2 GHz MIRA35 cloud radar show a very high agreement for the proposed method for snow, if reflectivities are larger than −5 dBz. The overall sensitivity is increased to −14 and −8 dBz, depending on range. The proposed method exploits the full potential of MRR's hardware and substantially enhances the use of Micro Rain Radar for studies of solid precipitation.

  11. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hajime; Saito, Fumiyo; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kg for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO + oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68 + microglia, MT + astrocytes, and TUNEL + apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68 + microglia, MT + astrocytes, and TUNEL + apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO + oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene expression profiling was performed. • CPZ

  12. Reflections on the professional profile in positions of academic libraries director / Reflexiones sobre el perfil profesional para la dirección de bibliotecas universitarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Gallo León

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the library paradigm in the last decade means that their professionals must acquire new skills and improve their increasingly demanding specific skills. This is especially critical in the case of management positions that are responsible for making decisions under the pressure of a changing and hostile environment. Therefore, it should be ensured that people accessing these positions correspond to a professional profile that enables them to perform properly. A proposal of competencies and skills that every director of university library should have is thus presented.

  13. MST radar and polarization lidar observations of tropical cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bhavani Kumar

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Significant gaps in our understanding of global cirrus effects on the climate system involve the role of frequently occurring tropical cirrus. Much of the cirrus in the atmosphere is largely due to frequent cumulus and convective activity in the tropics. In the Indian sub-tropical region, the deep convective activity is very prominent from April to December, which is a favorable period for the formation of deep cumulus clouds. The fibrous anvils of these clouds, laden with ice crystals, are one of the source mechanisms for much of the cirrus in the atmosphere. In the present study, several passages of tropical cirrus were investigated by simultaneously operating MST radar and a co-located polarization lidar at the National MST Radar Facility (NMRF, Gadanki (13.45° N, 79.18° E, India to understand its structure, the background wind field and the microphysics at the cloud boundaries. The lidar system used is capable of measuring the degree of depolarization in the laser backscatter. It has identified several different cirrus structures with a peak linear depolarization ratio (LDR in the range of 0.1 to 0.32. Simultaneous observations of tropical cirrus by the VHF Doppler radar indicated a clear enhancement of reflectivity detected in the vicinity of the cloud boundaries, as revealed by the lidar and are strongly dependent on observed cloud LDR. An inter-comparison of radar reflectivity observed for vertical and oblique beams reveals that the radar-enhanced reflectivity at the cloud boundaries is also accompanied by significant aspect sensitivity. These observations indicate the presence of anisotropic turbulence at the cloud boundaries. Radar velocity measurements show that boundaries of cirrus are associated with enhanced horizontal winds, significant vertical shear in the horizontal winds and reduced vertical velocity. Therefore, these measurements indicate that a circulation at the cloud boundaries suggest an entrainment taking place close to

  14. MST radar and polarization lidar observations of tropical cirrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bhavani Kumar

    Full Text Available Significant gaps in our understanding of global cirrus effects on the climate system involve the role of frequently occurring tropical cirrus. Much of the cirrus in the atmosphere is largely due to frequent cumulus and convective activity in the tropics. In the Indian sub-tropical region, the deep convective activity is very prominent from April to December, which is a favorable period for the formation of deep cumulus clouds. The fibrous anvils of these clouds, laden with ice crystals, are one of the source mechanisms for much of the cirrus in the atmosphere. In the present study, several passages of tropical cirrus were investigated by simultaneously operating MST radar and a co-located polarization lidar at the National MST Radar Facility (NMRF, Gadanki (13.45° N, 79.18° E, India to understand its structure, the background wind field and the microphysics at the cloud boundaries. The lidar system used is capable of measuring the degree of depolarization in the laser backscatter. It has identified several different cirrus structures with a peak linear depolarization ratio (LDR in the range of 0.1 to 0.32. Simultaneous observations of tropical cirrus by the VHF Doppler radar indicated a clear enhancement of reflectivity detected in the vicinity of the cloud boundaries, as revealed by the lidar and are strongly dependent on observed cloud LDR. An inter-comparison of radar reflectivity observed for vertical and oblique beams reveals that the radar-enhanced reflectivity at the cloud boundaries is also accompanied by significant aspect sensitivity. These observations indicate the presence of anisotropic turbulence at the cloud boundaries. Radar velocity measurements show that boundaries of cirrus are associated with enhanced horizontal winds, significant vertical shear in the horizontal winds and reduced vertical velocity. Therefore, these measurements indicate that a circulation at the cloud boundaries suggest an entrainment taking place close to

  15. Formulation and Analysis of the Quantum Radar Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.

    In radar, the amount of returns that an object sends back to the receiver after being struck by an electromagnetic wave is characterized by what is known as the radar cross section, denoted by sigma typically. There are many mechanisms that affect how much radiation is reflected back in the receiver direction, such as reflectivity, physical contours and dimensions, attenuation properties of the materials, projected cross sectional area and so on. All of these characteristics are lumped together in a single value of sigma, which has units of m2. Stealth aircrafts for example are designed to minimize its radar cross section and return the smallest amount of radiation possible in the receiver direction. A new concept has been introduced called quantum radar, that uses correlated quantum states of photons as well as the unique properties of quantum mechanics to ascertain information on a target at a distance. At the time of writing this dissertation, quantum radar is very much in its infancy. There still exist fundamental questions about the feasibility of its implementation, especially in the microwave spectrum. However, what has been theoretically determined, is that quantum radar has a fundamental advantage over classical radar in terms of resolution and returns in certain regimes. Analogous to the classical radar cross section (CRCS), the concept of the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) has been introduced. This quantity measures how an object looks to a quantum radar be describing how a single photon, or small cluster of photons scatter off of a macroscopic target. Preliminary simulations of the basic quantum radar cross section equation have yielded promising results showing an advantage in sidelobe response in comparison to the classical RCS. This document expands upon this idea by providing insight as to where this advantage originates, as well as developing more rigorous simulation analysis, and greatly expanding upon the theory. The expanded theory presented

  16. Observation of snowfall with a low-power FM-CW K-band radar (Micro Rain Radar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Stefan; Maahn, Maximilian; Peters, Gerhard; Simmer, Clemens

    2011-06-01

    Quantifying snowfall intensity especially under arctic conditions is a challenge because wind and snow drift deteriorate estimates obtained from both ground-based gauges and disdrometers. Ground-based remote sensing with active instruments might be a solution because they can measure well above drifting snow and do not suffer from flow distortions by the instrument. Clear disadvantages are, however, the dependency of e.g. radar returns on snow habit which might lead to similar large uncertainties. Moreover, high sensitivity radars are still far too costly to operate in a network and under harsh conditions. In this paper we compare returns from a low-cost, low-power vertically pointing FM-CW radar (Micro Rain Radar, MRR) operating at 24.1 GHz with returns from a 35.5 GHz cloud radar (MIRA36) for dry snowfall during a 6-month observation period at an Alpine station (Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus, UFS) at 2,650 m height above sea level. The goal was to quantify the potential and limitations of the MRR in relation to what is achievable by a cloud radar. The operational MRR procedures to derive standard radar variables like effective reflectivity factor ( Z e) or the mean Doppler velocity ( W) had to be modified for snowfall since the MRR was originally designed for rain observations. Since the radar returns from snowfall are weaker than from comparable rainfall, the behavior of the MRR close to its detection threshold has been analyzed and a method is proposed to quantify the noise level of the MRR based on clear sky observations. By converting the resulting MRR- Z e into 35.5 GHz equivalent Z e values, a remaining difference below 1 dBz with slightly higher values close to the noise threshold could be obtained. Due to the much higher sensitivity of MIRA36, the transition of the MRR from the true signal to noise can be observed, which agrees well with the independent clear sky noise estimate. The mean Doppler velocity differences between both radars

  17. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Halimshah; A. Yusup; Z. Mat Amin; M. D. Ghazalli

    2015-01-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and effic...

  18. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kg for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene expression

  19. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  20. Using bathymetry and reflective seismic profiles to tests a suspected link between melt flux and cumulative fault heave at mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, G.; Murton, B. J.; Le Bas, T.; Henstock, T.

    2017-12-01

    The interplay between magma supply and spreading rate is believed to play a major role in determining large scale seafloor morphology. Here we use bathymetry to test this relationship in areas with similar spreading rates and differing magma supplies. By using open source bathymetry data we have developed a repeatable, automated method for categorising seafloor cumulative fault heave and then attempt to identify the controlling variables. We measure the total apparent fault heave along axis and off-axis at 29°N and 60°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge then compare this to proxies for deformation and magma supply. Two approaches are adopted for identifying faults: one using bathymetry and the other spreading-parallel seismic reflection data. The first re-examines the orthogonally spreading Broken Spur segment (26°N) spreading at 23 mm yr-1 (full rate). The other examines the Reykjanes Ridge (60°N) spreading obliquely at 21 mm yr-1 (full rate), which may be influenced by the Icelandic hotspot. Each have contrasting residual depth and structure, with the former being typical of slow spreading ridges, with marked axial valleys, whereas the latter is more typical of fast spreading ridge morphology, with smooth axial rise. We find that high total heave (indicating high tectonic spreading) on the Broken Spur segment does not correlate with high mantle Bouguer anomalies (indicating thin crust and low melt flux). From this we hypothesise that total heave on the large scale at the Broken Spur segment is not controlled by crustal thickness or melt supply. At the Raykjanes Ridge, V-shaped ridges have thicker crust (measured seismically) which converge south of Iceland. These are thought to reflect transient (every 4-6 Myrs) pulses of hot mantle radiating away from the Iceland plume. We find ridge-symmetrical variation in fault heave but with a lower frequency (6-8 Myrs) and longer wavelength (3-7 Myrs) than the V-shaped ridges. Our analysis shows that plume pulses do not

  1. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans.

  2. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kalesse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediment through a supercooled liquid water (SLW layer. The focus is on the "golden sample" case study for this type of analysis based on observations collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland, during the Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyond the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are considered by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. This suggests that in situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.

  3. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Joachim Høg; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2017-01-01

    Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM) in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may...... provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling. Five ECM biomarkers (VICM, BGM, EL-NE, C5M, Pro-C5) were measured by competitive ELISAs in serum from 72 CD patients, 60 UC...... patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers. The ECM...

  4. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Høg Mortensen

    Full Text Available Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM in Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling.Five ECM biomarkers (VICM, BGM, EL-NE, C5M, Pro-C5 were measured by competitive ELISAs in serum from 72 CD patients, 60 UC patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers.The ECM remodelling was significantly different in UC compared to CD. The best biomarker combination to differentiate UC from CD and colonic CD was BGM and VICM (AUC = 0.98, P5mg/mL, correlation of Pro-C5 (r = 0.36 with CDAI was slightly improved compared to CRP (r = 0.27 corrected for the use of immunosuppressant. Furthermore, BGM and EL-NE biomarkers were highly associated with colon inflammation in CD patients.ECM fragments of tissue remodelling in IBD affect UC and CD differently, and may aid in differentiating IBD from IBS (EL-NE, BGM, Pro-C5, and UC from CD patients (BGM, VICM. Formation of type V collagen is related to the level of inflammation in CD and may reflect disease activity in CD.

  5. Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccormick, M.P.

    1992-07-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the 16th International Laser Radar Conference. One-hundred ninety-five papers were presented in both oral and poster sessions. The topics of the conference sessions were: (1) Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Dust Layer Observations; (2) Global Change/Ozone Measurements; (3) GLOBE/LAWS/LITE; (4) Mesospheric Measurements and Measurement Systems; (5) Middle Atmosphere; (6) Wind Measurements and Measurement Systems; (7) Imaging and Ranging; (8) Water Vapor Measurements; (9) Systems and Facilities; and (10) Laser Devices and Technology. This conference reflects the breadth of research activities being conducted in the lidar field. These abstracts address subjects from lidar-based atmospheric investigations relating to global change to the development of new lidar systems and technology

  6. Polarimetric borehole radar measurement near Nojima fault and its application to subsurface crack characterization; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru Nojima danso shuhen no chika kiretsu keisoku jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Miwa, T.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ikeda, R. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Makino, K. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Practical application of subsurface crack characterization by the borehole radar measurement to which the radar polarimetric method was introduced was attempted to measuring objects for which the borehole radar has not been much used, for example, the inside of low loss rock mass or fracture zone where cracks tightly exist. A system was trially manufactured which makes the radar polarimetric measurement possible in the borehole at a 1000m depth and with a about 10cm diameter, and a field experiment was conducted for realizing the subsurface crack characterization near the Nojima fault. For the measuring experiment by the polarimetric borehole radar, used were Iwaya borehole and Hirabayashi borehole drilled in the north of Awaji-shima, Hyogo-ken. In a comparison of both polarization systems of Hirabayashi borehole, reflected waves at depths of 1038m and 1047m are relatively stronger in both polarization systems than those with the same polarization form and at different depths, whereas reflected waves around a 1017m depth are strong only as to the parallel polarization system. Characteristics of the polarization in this experiment indirectly reflect crack structures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Borehole radar diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seong Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Tomography is widely used as imaging method for determining subsurface structure. Among the reconstruction algorithms for tomographic imaging, travel time tomography is almost applied to imaging subsurface. But isolated small body comparable with the wavelength could not be well recognized by travel time tomography. Other tomographic method are need to improve the imaging process. In the study of this year, diffraction tomography was investigated. The theory for diffraction tomography is based on the 1st-order Born approximation. Multisource holography, which is similar to Kirchihoff migration, is compared with diffraction tomography. To improve 1st-order Born diffraction tomography, two kinds of filter designed from multisource holography and 2-D green function, respectively, applied on the reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested for the numerical modeling data of which algorithm consists of the analytic computation of radar signal in transmitter and receiver regions and 2-D FDM scheme for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in media. The air-filled cavity model to show a typical diffraction pattern was applied to diffraction tomography imaging, and the result shows accurate location and area of cavity. But the calculated object function is not well matched the real object function, because the air-filled cavity model is not satisfied week scattered inhomogeneity for 1st born approximation, and the error term is included in estimating source wavelet from received signals. In spite of the object function error, the diffraction tomography assist for interpretation of subsurface as if conducted with travel time tomography. And the fracture model was tested, 1st born diffraction tomographic image is poor because of limited view angle coverage and violation of week scatter assumption, but the filtered image resolve the fracture somewhat better. The tested diffraction tomography image confirms effectiveness of filter for enhancing resolution. (author). 14

  8. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Wesson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  9. Copula-based assimilation of radar and gauge information to derive bias-corrected precipitation fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vogl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the problem of combining radar information and gauge measurements. Gauge measurements are the best available source of absolute rainfall intensity albeit their spatial availability is limited. Precipitation information obtained by radar mimics well the spatial patterns but is biased for their absolute values.

    In this study copula models are used to describe the dependence structure between gauge observations and rainfall derived from radar reflectivity at the corresponding grid cells. After appropriate time series transformation to generate "iid" variates, only the positive pairs (radar >0, gauge >0 of the residuals are considered. As not each grid cell can be assigned to one gauge, the integration of point information, i.e. gauge rainfall intensities, is achieved by considering the structure and the strength of dependence between the radar pixels and all the gauges within the radar image. Two different approaches, namely Maximum Theta and Multiple Theta, are presented. They finally allow for generating precipitation fields that mimic the spatial patterns of the radar fields and correct them for biases in their absolute rainfall intensities. The performance of the approach, which can be seen as a bias-correction for radar fields, is demonstrated for the Bavarian Alps. The bias-corrected rainfall fields are compared to a field of interpolated gauge values (ordinary kriging and are validated with available gauge measurements. The simulated precipitation fields are compared to an operationally corrected radar precipitation field (RADOLAN. The copula-based approach performs similarly well as indicated by different validation measures and successfully corrects for errors in the radar precipitation.

  10. European coordination for coastal HF radar data in EMODnet Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Julien; Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Griffa, Annalisa; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Montero, Pedro; Montovani, Carlo; Ayensa, Garbi; Vila, Begoña; Rubio, Anna; Sagarminaga, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    Historically, joint effort has been put on observing open ocean, organizing, homogenizing, sharing and reinforcing the impact of the acquired information based on one technology: ARGO with profilers Argo floats, EuroSites, ESONET-NoE, FixO3 for deep water platforms, Ferrybox for stations in ships of opportunities, and GROOM for the more recent gliders. This kind of networking creates synergies and makes easier the implementation of this source of data in the European Data exchange services like EMODnet, ROOSs portals, or any applied services in the Blue economy. One main targeted improvement in the second phase of EMODnet projects is the assembling of data along coastline. In that sense, further coordination is recommended between platform operators around a specific technology in order to make easier the implementation of the data in the platforms (4th EuroGOOS DATAMEQ WG). HF radar is today recognized internationally as a cost-effective solution to provide high spatial and temporal resolution current maps (depending on the instrument operation frequency, covering from a few kilometres offshore up to 200 km) that are needed for many applications for issues related to ocean surface drift or sea state characterization. Significant heterogeneity still exists in Europe concerning technological configurations, data processing, quality standards and data availability. This makes more difficult the development of a significant network for achieving the needed accessibility to HF Radar data for a pan European use. EuroGOOS took the initiative to lead and coordinate activities within the various observation platforms by establishing a number of Ocean Observing Task Teams such as HF-Radars. The purpose is to coordinate and join the technological, scientific and operational HF radar communities at European level. The goal of the group is on the harmonization of systems requirements, systems design, data quality, improvement and proof of the readiness and standardization of

  11. Structure across the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap, offshore Newfoundland from Erable multichannel seismic reflection profiles: evidence for a transtensional rifting environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, J. Kim; Hall, Jeremy; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Srivastava, Shiri P.

    2010-11-01

    We present the results from processing and interpreting nine multichannel seismic reflection lines collected during the 1992 Erable experiment over the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap offshore Newfoundland. These lines, combined into five cross-sections, provide increased seismic coverage over this lightly probed section of the margin and reveal tectonically significant along-strike variations in the degree and compartmentalization of crustal thinning. Similar to the southeastern margins of Flemish Cap and the Grand Banks, a transitional zone of exhumed serpentinized mantle is interpreted between thinned continental and oceanic crust. The 25 km wide transitional zone bears similarities to the 120 km wide transitional zone interpreted as exhumed serpentinized mantle on the conjugate Irish Atlantic margin but the significant width difference is suggestive of an asymmetric conjugate pair. A 40-50 km wide zone of inferred strike-slip shearing is interpreted and observed to extend along most of the northeastern margin of Flemish Cap. Individual shear zones (SZs) may represent extensions of SZs and normal faults within the Orphan Basin providing further evidence for the rotation and displacement of Flemish Cap out of Orphan Basin. The asymmetry between the Flemish Cap and Irish conjugate pairs is likely due in large part to the rotation and displacement of Flemish Cap which resulted in the Flemish Cap margin displaying features of both a strike-slip margin and an extensional margin.

  12. Field campaign for the comparison of SOUSY radar wind measurements with rawinsonde and model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Steinhagen

    Full Text Available A field campaign was carried out from 26 October to 7 November 1992, using the SOUSY-VHF radar and a mobile rawinsonde system installed and operated nearby to produce vertical wind profiles. The purpose of this campaign was to compare the two types of wind measurements with one another and with results from forecast models. Numerical algorithms were developed and applied to the radar data in order to eliminate random errors, correct for velocity aliasing, and calculate the effective zenith angle of the off-vertical beams. Differences between wind profiler data and rawinsonde or model results depend not only upon the errors of the different systems, but also on temporal and spatial variations of the wind field. Therefore, methods for the comparison of radar and rawinsonde data were developed which take into consideration these variations. The practical potential of these methods is demonstrated by comparisons of rawinsonde and radar wind profiles. The comparison of radar data and model output shows excellent agreement in the direction and in the speed of the wind at virtually all altitudes. An evaluation of the quality of wind profiler measurements is possible using the estimation of variance and variability of wind components.

  13. Field campaign for the comparison of SOUSY radar wind measurements with rawinsonde and model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Steinhagen

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available A field campaign was carried out from 26 October to 7 November 1992, using the SOUSY-VHF radar and a mobile rawinsonde system installed and operated nearby to produce vertical wind profiles. The purpose of this campaign was to compare the two types of wind measurements with one another and with results from forecast models. Numerical algorithms were developed and applied to the radar data in order to eliminate random errors, correct for velocity aliasing, and calculate the effective zenith angle of the off-vertical beams. Differences between wind profiler data and rawinsonde or model results depend not only upon the errors of the different systems, but also on temporal and spatial variations of the wind field. Therefore, methods for the comparison of radar and rawinsonde data were developed which take into consideration these variations. The practical potential of these methods is demonstrated by comparisons of rawinsonde and radar wind profiles. The comparison of radar data and model output shows excellent agreement in the direction and in the speed of the wind at virtually all altitudes. An evaluation of the quality of wind profiler measurements is possible using the estimation of variance and variability of wind components.

  14. Radar Rainfall Bias Correction based on Deep Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.

    2017-04-01

    Radar rainfall measurement errors can be considerably attributed to various sources including intricate synoptic regimes. Temperature, humidity and wind are typically acknowledged as critical meteorological factors in inducing the precipitation discrepancies aloft and on the ground. The conventional practices mainly use the radar-gauge or geostatistical techniques by direct weighted interpolation algorithms as bias correction schemes whereas rarely consider the atmospheric effects. This study aims to comprehensively quantify those meteorological elements' impacts on radar-gauge rainfall bias correction based on a deep learning approach. The deep learning approach employs deep convolutional neural networks to automatically extract three-dimensional meteorological features for target recognition based on high range resolution profiles. The complex nonlinear relationships between input and target variables can be implicitly detected by such a scheme, which is validated on the test dataset. The proposed bias correction scheme is expected to be a promising improvement in systematically minimizing the synthesized atmospheric effects on rainfall discrepancies between radar and rain gauges, which can be useful in many meteorological and hydrological applications (e.g., real-time flood forecasting) especially for regions with complex atmospheric conditions.

  15. Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS. Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  16. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.

    1984-01-01

    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  17. NOAA NEXt-Generation RADar (NEXRAD) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level III weather radar products collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska,...

  18. MST radar data-base management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwar, V. B.

    1983-01-01

    Data management for Mesospheric-Stratospheric-Tropospheric, (MST) radars is addressed. An incoherent-scatter radar data base is discussed in terms of purpose, centralization, scope, and nature of the data base management system.

  19. Design of multi-frequency CW radars

    CERN Document Server

    Jankiraman, Mohinder

    2007-01-01

    This book deals with the basic theory for design and analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radar systems. The design of one such multi-frequency high resolution LPI radar, PANDORA, is covered.

  20. Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab

  1. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described

  2. USING GROUND PENETRATING RADAR TO DETERMINE THE TUNNEL LOCATION BURIED UNDER THE GLACIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryuga Andrey Mikhaylovich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The works were carried out with the help of ground penetrating radar “Grot-10”. Doublet broadband antennas with the central frequency of 100 MHz were used. Georadar measures the speed of EM waves v in ice-saturated soil and then the value ε′ is calculated. The radargrams received as a result of georadar survey, which represents stacked data (the two-way time is indicated on vertical scale, were transformed into depth sections, which reflect the space structure located below ground. The distance between the bottom landing and buried mountain road near the north tunnel portal is 78,5 m (profile # 1, and the distance from the upper landing is 84,5 m (profile no. 2. Later, in the April 2003 during the hole boring with the diameter 1,2 m the vertical distance between the upper landing, where ground penetrating works were carried out, and the carpet road of the tunnel was calculated. This distance appeared to be 83 m, that means, the discrepancy between boring and georadar data (84,5 m was only 1,5 m. Thus, the results of ground penetrating investigations helped the workers of glacier to make the correct conclusion on time about the location and burial depth of the tunnel.

  3. Analysis of Radar Doppler Signature from Human Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANDRIĆ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of time (autocorrelation and time-frequency (spectrogram analyses of radar signals returned from the moving human targets. When a radar signal falls on the human target which is moving toward or away from the radar, the signals reflected from different parts of his body produce a Doppler shift that is proportional to the velocity of those parts. Moving parts of the body causes the characteristic Doppler signature. The main contribution comes from the torso which causes the central Doppler frequency of target. The motion of arms and legs induces modulation on the returned radar signal and generates sidebands around the central Doppler frequency, referred to as micro-Doppler signatures. Through analyses on experimental data it was demonstrated that the human motion signature extraction is better using spectrogram. While the central Doppler frequency can be determined using the autocorrelation and the spectrogram, the extraction of the fundamental cadence frequency using the autocorrelation is unreliable when the target is in the clutter presence. It was shown that the fundamental cadence frequency increases with increasing dynamic movement of people and simultaneously the possibility of its extraction is proportional to the degree of synchronization movements of persons in the group.

  4. Challenges for Greenland-wide mass balance from Cryosat-2 radar-altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    As the Greenland ice sheet warms, a change in the structure of the upper snow/firn occurs. This change further induces changes in the reflective properties of the firn seen from satellite radar altimetry. If not identified as changes in the reflective properties of the firn, these may be interpre......As the Greenland ice sheet warms, a change in the structure of the upper snow/firn occurs. This change further induces changes in the reflective properties of the firn seen from satellite radar altimetry. If not identified as changes in the reflective properties of the firn, these may...... be interpreted as actual surface elevation changes seen from the satellite radar altimetry (Nilsson et al., 2015).Here, we investigate how to correct the elevation change observed from the ESA Cryosat-2 radar altimetry mission to derive elevation change of the air/snow interface of the Greenland ice sheet....... The elevation change of this “real” physical surface is crucial, if the goal is to derive Greenland mass balance as done for LiDAR missions.The investigations look into waveform parameters to correct for the observed bias between Radar and LiDAR observations when using Croysat-2 level-2 data. Based...

  5. Weather radar performance monitoring using a metallic-grid ground-scatterer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconi, Marta Tecla; Montopoli, Mario; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca

    2017-10-01

    The use of ground return signals is investigated for checks on the calibration of power measurements of a polarimetric C-band radar. To this aim, a peculiar permanent single scatterer (PSS) consisting of a big metallic roof with a periodic mesh grid structure and having a hemisphere-like shape is considered. The latter is positioned in the near-field region of the weather radar and its use, as a reference calibrator, shows fairly good results in terms of reflectivity and differential reflectivity monitoring. In addition, the use of PSS indirectly allows to check for the radar antenna de-pointing which is another issue usually underestimated when dealing with weather radars. Because of the periodic structure of the considered PSS, simulations of its electromagnetic behavior were relatively easy to perform. To this goal, we used an electromagnetic Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) with an ad-hoc numerical implementation of a full-wave solution to model our PSS in terms of reflectivity and differential reflectivity factor. Comparison of model results and experimental measurements are then shown in this work. Our preliminary investigation can pave the way for future studies aiming at characterizing ground-clutter returns in a more accurate way for radar calibration purposes.

  6. Surveying glacier bedrock topography with a helicopter-borne dual-polarization ground-penetrating radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, L.; Rabenstein, L.; Schmid, L.; Bauder, A.; Schaer, P.; Maurer, H.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier mass estimations are crucial for future run-off projections in the Swiss Alps. Traditionally, ice thickness modeling approaches and ground-based radar transects have been the tools of choice for estimating glacier volume in high mountain areas, but these methods either contain high uncertainties or are logistically expensive and offer mostly only sparse subsurface information. We have developed a helicopter-borne dual-polarization ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system, which enhances operational feasibility in rough, high-elevation terrain and increases the data output per acquisition campaign significantly. Our system employs a prototype pulseEKKO device with two broadside 25-MHz antenna pairs fixed to a helicopter-towed wooden frame. Additionally attached to the system are a laser altimeter for measuring the flight height above ground, three GPS receivers for accurate positioning and a GoPro camera for obtaining visual images of the surface. Previous investigations have shown the significant impact of the antenna dipole orientation on the detectability of the bedrock reflection. For optimal results, the dipoles of the GPR should be aligned parallel to the strike direction of the surrounding mountain walls. In areas with a generally unknown bedrock topography, such as saddle areas or diverging zones, a dual-polarization system is particularly useful. This could be demonstrated with helicopter-borne GPR profiles acquired on more than 25 glaciers in the Swiss Alps. We observed significant differences in ice-bedrock interface visibility depending on the orientation of the antennas.

  7. Analysis of the Convective Storm using Meteosat Second Generation and SPOL Radar over a Megacity, on May 18, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, Ivon Wilson; José Pereira Filho, Augusto; Alves Barbosa, Humberto

    2017-04-01

    The rapid populational growth in urban areas of Southeast and South Brazil has increased anthropic effects on severe weather caused by thunderstorms whose impacts require mitigation on a small space-time scale more susceptible to natural disasters such as flooding. The 18 May 2015 thunderstorms in The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) caused many losses due to heavy rain, gusty winds and falling hail. The local press reported 310 tons of ice removed from the surface. Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) images, polarimetric weather radar measurements, radiosondes and surface weather variables data sets were used to analyze the event. The environmental thermodynamic analysis showed a dry layer at mid levels with wind shear at upper levels. Diabatic heating increased throughout the day and made the atmosphere very unstable at the end of the afternoon with greater potential energy induced by the local sea breeze. The 0 °C isotherm was at 3781 m. Initially, the rapid horizontal expansion of the storm caused by environmental wind shear was observed at 10.8 mm IR MSG channel brightness temperature (BT) was of -57 ° C. The brightness temperature differences (BTD) between WV and IR MSG channels evidenced vertical moisture transport from near the surface to the upper levels during convection. In the mature stage, radar reflectivity showed widespread multi cellular storm structures. Vertical cross-section indicated reflectivities between 45 dBZ to 55 dBZ with cloud tops with reflectivity greater than 30 dBZ at 14 km altitude when updrafts were more intense. Vertical profiles of differential reflectivity (ZDR) showed a deep column from to +2 to +4 dB between 6 km to 12 km altitude where intense vertical transport of large drops and a mixture of water and ice well above the 0 ° C isotherm level. This environment increased efficiency of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen type microphysics with rapid ice crystal growth to hail with later precipitation at the surface that lasted

  8. Comparison of cloud top heights derived from FY-2 meteorological satellites with heights derived from ground-based millimeter wavelength cloud radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zhenhui; Cao, Xiaozhong; Tao, Fa

    2018-01-01

    Clouds are currently observed by both ground-based and satellite remote sensing techniques. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses depending on the observation method, instrument performance and the methods used for retrieval. It is important to study synergistic cloud measurements to improve the reliability of the observations and to verify the different techniques. The FY-2 geostationary orbiting meteorological satellites continuously observe the sky over China. Their cloud top temperature product can be processed to retrieve the cloud top height (CTH). The ground-based millimeter wavelength cloud radar can acquire information about the vertical structure of clouds-such as the cloud base height (CBH), CTH and the cloud thickness-and can continuously monitor changes in the vertical profiles of clouds. The CTHs were retrieved using both cloud top temperature data from the FY-2 satellites and the cloud radar reflectivity data for the same time period (June 2015 to May 2016) and the resulting datasets were compared in order to evaluate the accuracy of CTH retrievals using FY-2 satellites. The results show that the concordance rate of cloud detection between the two datasets was 78.1%. Higher consistencies were obtained for thicker clouds with larger echo intensity and for more continuous clouds. The average difference in the CTH between the two techniques was 1.46 km. The difference in CTH between low- and mid-level clouds was less than that for high-level clouds. An attenuation threshold of the cloud radar for rainfall was 0.2 mm/min; a rainfall intensity below this threshold had no effect on the CTH. The satellite CTH can be used to compensate for the attenuation error in the cloud radar data.

  9. SAR Ambiguity Study for the Cassini Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Im, Eastwood; Johnson, William T. K.

    1993-01-01

    The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.

  10. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-03-01

    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  11. Spatial and temporal distributions of surface mass balance between Concordia and Vostok stations, Antarctica, from combined radar and ice core data: first results and detailed error analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Le Meur

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Results from ground-penetrating radar (GPR measurements and shallow ice cores carried out during a scientific traverse between Dome Concordia (DC and Vostok stations are presented in order to infer both spatial and temporal characteristics of snow accumulation over the East Antarctic Plateau. Spatially continuous accumulation rates along the traverse are computed from the identification of three equally spaced radar reflections spanning about the last 600 years. Accurate dating of these internal reflection horizons (IRHs is obtained from a depth–age relationship derived from volcanic horizons and bomb testing fallouts on a DC ice core and shows a very good consistency when tested against extra ice cores drilled along the radar profile. Accumulation rates are then inferred by accounting for density profiles down to each IRH. For the latter purpose, a careful error analysis showed that using a single and more accurate density profile along a DC core provided more reliable results than trying to include the potential spatial variability in density from extra (but less accurate ice cores distributed along the profile. The most striking feature is an accumulation pattern that remains constant through time with persistent gradients such as a marked decrease from 26 mm w.e. yr−1 at DC to 20 mm w.e. yr−1 at the south-west end of the profile over the last 234 years on average (with a similar decrease from 25 to 19 mm w.e. yr−1 over the last 592 years. As for the time dependency, despite an overall consistency with similar measurements carried out along the main East Antarctic divides, interpreting possible trends remains difficult. Indeed, error bars in our measurements are still too large to unambiguously infer an apparent time increase in accumulation rate. For the proposed absolute values, maximum margins of error are in the range 4 mm w.e. yr−1 (last 234 years to 2 mm w.e. yr−1 (last 592 years, a

  12. Thick deltaic sedimentation and detachment faulting delay the onset of continental rupture in the Northern Gulf of California: Analysis of seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Pacheco, M.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The transition from distributed continental extension to the rupture of continental lithosphere is imaged in the northern Gulf of California across the obliquely conjugate Tiburón-Upper Delfín basin segment. Structural mapping on a 5-20 km grid of seismic reflection lines of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) demonstrates that ~1000% extension is accommodated on a series of NNE-striking listric-normal faults that merge at depth into a detachment fault. The detachment juxtaposes a late-Neogene marine sequence over thinned continental crust and contains an intrabasinal divide due to footwall uplift. Two northwest striking, dextral-oblique faults bound both ends of the detachment and shear the continental crust parallel to the tectonic transport. A regional unconformity in the upper 0.5 seconds (TWTT) and crest erosion of rollover anticlines above the detachment indicates inversion and footwall uplift during the lithospheric rupture in the Upper Delfin and Lower Delfin basins. The maximum length of new crust in both Delfin basins is less than 40 km based on the lack of an acoustic basement and the absence of a lower sedimentary sequence beneath a wedge shaped upper sequence that reaches >5 km in thickness. A fundamental difference exists between the Tiburón-Delfin segment and the Guaymas segment to the south in terms of presence of low angle normal faults and amount of new oceanic lithosphere, which we attribute to thermal insulation, diffuse upper-plate extension, and slip on low angle normal faults engendered by a thick sedimentary lid.

  13. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  14. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  15. Lamont Doherty Seismic Reflection Scanned Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains single channel seismic reflection profiles as provided to NGDC by Lamont Doherty Earh Observatory (LDEO). The profiles were originally...

  16. Preliminary Analysis of X-Band and Ka-Band Radar for Use in the Detection of Icing Conditions Aloft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Koenig, George G.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. Radar has been identified as a strong tool for this work. However, since the remote detection of icing conditions with the intent to identify areas of icing hazard is a new and evolving capability, there are no set requirements for radar sensitivity. This work is an initial attempt to quantify, through analysis, the sensitivity requirements for an icing remote sensing radar. The primary radar of interest for cloud measurements is Ka-band, however, since NASA is currently using an X-band unit, this frequency is also examined. Several aspects of radar signal analysis were examined. Cloud reflectivity was calculated for several forms of cloud using two different techniques. The Air Force Geophysical Laboratory (AFGL) cloud models, with different drop spectra represented by a modified gamma distribution, were utilized to examine several categories of cloud formation. Also a fundamental methods approach was used to allow manipulation of the cloud droplet size spectra. And an analytical icing radar simulator was developed to examine the complete radar system response to a configurable multi-layer cloud environment. Also discussed is the NASA vertical pointing X-band radar. The radar and its data system are described, and several summer weather events are reviewed.

  17. Principles of modern radar advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Melvin, William

    2012-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Advanced Techniques is a professional reference for practicing engineers that provides a stepping stone to advanced practice with in-depth discussions of the most commonly used advanced techniques for radar design. It will also serve advanced radar academic and training courses with a complete set of problems for students as well as solutions for instructors.

  18. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  19. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  20. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... within one mile of land must be fitted with a FCC Type Accepted general marine radar system for surface... Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  1. Comparison of HF radar measurements with Eulerian and Lagrangian surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrs, Johannes; Sperrevik, Ann Kristin; Christensen, Kai Håkon; Broström, Göran; Breivik, Øyvind

    2015-05-01

    High-frequency (HF) radar-derived ocean currents are compared with in situ measurements to conclude if the radar observations include effects of surface waves that are of second order in the wave amplitude. Eulerian current measurements from a high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler and Lagrangian measurements from surface drifters are used as references. Directional wave spectra are obtained from a combination of pressure sensor data and a wave model. Our analysis shows that the wave-induced Stokes drift is not included in the HF radar-derived currents, that is, HF radars measure the Eulerian current. A disputed nonlinear correction to the phase velocity of surface gravity waves, which may affect HF radar signals, has a magnitude of about half the Stokes drift at the surface. In our case, this contribution by nonlinear dispersion would be smaller than the accuracy of the HF radar currents, hence no conclusion can be made. Finally, the analysis confirms that the HF radar data represent an exponentially weighted vertical average where the decay scale is proportional to the wavelength of the transmitted signal.

  2. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  3. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  4. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  5. Pseudo-radar algorithms with two extremely wet months of disdrometer data in the Paris area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

    2018-05-01

    Disdrometer data collected during the two extremely wet months of May and June 2016 at the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech are used to get insights on radar algorithms. The rain rate and pseudo-radar quantities (horizontal and vertical reflectivity, specific differential phase shift) are all estimated over several durations with the help of drop size distributions (DSD) collected at 30 s time steps. The pseudo-radar quantities are defined with simplifying hypotheses, in particular on the DSD homogeneity. First it appears that the parameters of the standard radar relations Zh - R, R - Kdp and R - Zh - Zdr for these pseudo-radar quantities exhibit strong variability between events and even within an event. Second an innovative methodology that relies on checking the ability of a given algorithm to reproduce the good scale invariant multifractal behaviour (on scales 30 s - few h) observed on rainfall time series is implemented. In this framework, the classical hybrid model (Zh - R for low rain rates and R - Kdp for great ones) performs best, as well as the local estimates of the radar relations' parameters. However, we emphasise that due to the hypotheses on which they rely these observations cannot be straightforwardly extended to real radar quantities.

  6. Recommendation on Transition from Primary/Secondary Radar to Secondary- Only Radar Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Radar Beacon Performance Monitor RCIU Remote Control Interface Unit RCL Remote Communications Link R E&D Research, Engineering and Development RML Radar...rate. 3.1.2.5 Maintenance The current LRRs have limited remote maintenance monitoring (RMM) capabilities via the Remote Control Interface Unit ( RCIU ...1, -2 and FPS-20 radars required an upgrade of some of the radar subsystems, namely the RCIU to respond as an RMS and the CD to interface with radar

  7. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  8. The use of airborne laser data to calibrate satellite radar altimetry data over ice sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Simon; Bamber, J.L.; Krabill, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry is the most important data source for ice sheet elevation modeling but it is well established that the accuracy of such data from satellite borne radar altimeters degrade seriously with increasing surface slope and level of roughness. A significant fraction of the slope......-precision airborne laser profiling data from the so-called Arctic Ice Mapping project as a tool to determine that bias and to calibrate the satellite altimetry. This is achieved by a simple statistical analysis of the airborne laser profiles, which defines the mean amplitude of the local surface undulations...

  9. A Novel Motion Compensation Method for Random Stepped Frequency Radar with M-sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhikun; Hu, Jiemin; Lu, Dawei; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The random stepped frequency radar is a new kind of synthetic wideband radar. In the research, it has been found that it possesses a thumbtack-like ambiguity function which is considered to be the ideal one. This also means that only a precise motion compensation could result in the correct high resolution range profile. In this paper, we will introduce the random stepped frequency radar coded by M-sequence firstly and briefly analyse the effect of relative motion between target and radar on the distance imaging, which is called defocusing problem. Then, a novel motion compensation method, named complementary code cancellation, will be put forward to solve this problem. Finally, the simulated experiments will demonstrate its validity and the computational analysis will show up its efficiency.

  10. Multistatic Wireless Fidelity Network Based Radar – Results of the Chrcynno Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzewuski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the theory and experimental result of passive radar using WIFI transmitters as illuminators of opportunity. As a result of experiments conducted on 17th August 2013 at airfield Chrcynno a Cessna C208 airplane was detected and tracked using multistatic passive radar system based on low power signal from WIFI network nodes, which were acting as non cooperative illuminators of opportunity. In the experiment 3 wireless access points were communicating with each other and illuminating the radar scene (airfield. The direct reference and reflected (surveillance signals have been acquired and processed using specially developed algorithm presented in the paper. After signal processing using Passive Coherent Location methods target has been detected. This paper describes in details the algorithms and the results of the experiment for the multistatic passive radar based on the WIFI signal.

  11. Radioprotection and radar: practical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepersack, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The author, on basis of his experience in radar-radioprotection, exposes the standard and security norms and recommendations to be applied for the preventive adapation of the work-areas as well as for the follow-up of the exposed workers. (author)

  12. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  13. Radar application in void and bar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2003-01-01

    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  14. Exploring inner structure of Titan's dunes from Cassini Radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.; Heggy, E.; Farr, T. G.

    2013-12-01

    correlation between the backscatter and elevation along dune <