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Sample records for radar processing center

  1. The NASA radar entomology program at Wallops Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    NASA contribution to radar entomology is presented. Wallops Flight Center is described in terms of its radar systems. Radar tracking of birds and insects was recorded from helicopters for airspeed and vertical speed.

  2. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahafza, Bassem R

    2008-01-01

    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  3. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  4. Radar signal processing and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Robert; Stoica, Petre; Zelnio, Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Radar Signal Processing and Its Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast-moving area. In twelve selected chapters, it describes the latest advances in architectures, design methods, and applications of radar signal processing. The contributors to this work were selected from the leading researchers and practitioners in the field. This work, originally published as Volume 14, Numbers 1-3 of the journal, Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, will be valuable to anyone working or researching in the field of radar signal processing. It serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging issues being examined today.

  5. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar Developments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, Seung Kuk; Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Perrine, Martin; Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, Guoqing; Deshpande, Manohar; Beck, Jaclyn; hide

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Digital Beamforming (DBF) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology is an area of research and development pursued at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Advanced SAR architectures enhances radar performance and opens a new set of capabilities in radar remote sensing. DBSAR-2 and EcoSAR are two state-of-the-art radar systems recently developed and tested. These new instruments employ multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) architectures characterized by multi-mode operation, software defined waveform generation, digital beamforming, and configurable radar parameters. The instruments have been developed to support several disciplines in Earth and Planetary sciences. This paper describes the radars advanced features and report on the latest SAR processing and calibration efforts.

  6. Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.

  7. Radar micro-doppler signatures processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Victor C; Miceli, William J

    2014-01-01

    Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures: Processing and applications concentrates on the processing and application of radar micro-Doppler signatures in real world situations, providing readers with a good working knowledge on a variety of applications of radar micro-Doppler signatures.

  8. Fourier transforms in radar and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Brandwood, David

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transforms are used widely, and are of particular value in the analysis of single functions and combinations of functions found in radar and signal processing. Still, many problems that could have been tackled by using Fourier transforms may have gone unsolved because they require integration that is difficult and tedious. This newly revised and expanded edition of a classic Artech House book provides you with an up-to-date, coordinated system for performing Fourier transforms on a wide variety of functions. Along numerous updates throughout the book, the Second Edition includes a crit

  9. Advancements on Radar Polarization Information Acquisition and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Dahai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on radar polarization information acquisition and processing has currently been one important part of radar techniques. The development of the polarization theory is simply reviewed firstly. Subsequently, some key techniques which include polarization measurement, polarization anti-jamming, polarization recognition, imaging and parameters inversion using radar polarimetry are emphatically analyzed in this paper. The basic theories, the present states and the development trends of these key techniques are presented and some meaningful conclusions are derived.

  10. Research at the Stanford Center for Radar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The research is reported in the applications of radar and radio techniques to the study of the solar system, and to space programs. Experiments reported include: bistatic-radar on Apollo missions, development of an unmanned geophysical observatory in the Antartic, Bragg scattering probes of sea states, characteristics of dense solar wind disturbances, and satellite communications for Alaska.

  11. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2012-01-01

    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented. These ...

  12. Experiment in Onboard Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Single event upsets (SEUs) are a threat to any computing system running on hardware that has not been physically radiation hardened. In addition to mandating the use of performance-limited, hardened heritage equipment, prior techniques for dealing with the SEU problem often involved hardware-based error detection and correction (EDAC). With limited computing resources, software- based EDAC, or any more elaborate recovery methods, were often not feasible. Synthetic aperture radars (SARs), when operated in the space environment, are interesting due to their relevance to NASAs objectives, but problematic in the sense of producing prodigious amounts of raw data. Prior implementations of the SAR data processing algorithm have been too slow, too computationally intensive, and require too much application memory for onboard execution to be a realistic option when using the type of heritage processing technology described above. This standard C-language implementation of SAR data processing is distributed over many cores of a Tilera Multicore Processor, and employs novel Radiation Hardening by Software (RHBS) techniques designed to protect the component processes (one per core) and their shared application memory from the sort of SEUs expected in the space environment. The source code includes calls to Tilera APIs, and a specialized Tilera compiler is required to produce a Tilera executable. The compiled application reads input data describing the position and orientation of a radar platform, as well as its radar-burst data, over time and writes out processed data in a form that is useful for analysis of the radar observations.

  13. A fast autofocus algorithm for synthetic aperture radar processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    High-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging requires the motion of the radar platform to be known very accurately. Otherwise, phase errors are induced in the processing of the raw SAR data, and bad focusing results. In particular, a constant error in the measured along-track velocity o...... of magnitude lower than that of other algorithms providing comparable accuracies is presented. The algorithm has been tested on data from the Danish Airborne SAR, and the performance is compared with that of the traditional map drift algorithm...

  14. Quality Control Algorithms for the Kennedy Space Center 50-Megahertz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Winds Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the process used by the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) to quality control (QC) data from the Kennedy Space Center's 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler for use in vehicle wind loads and steering commands. The database has been built to mitigate limitations of using the currently archived databases from weather balloons. The DRWP database contains wind measurements from approximately 2.7-18.6 km altitude at roughly five minute intervals for the August 1997 to December 2009 period of record, and the extensive QC process was designed to remove spurious data from various forms of atmospheric and non-atmospheric artifacts. The QC process is largely based on DRWP literature, but two new algorithms have been developed to remove data contaminated by convection and excessive first guess propagations from the Median Filter First Guess Algorithm. In addition to describing the automated and manual QC process in detail, this paper describes the extent of the data retained. Roughly 58% of all possible wind observations exist in the database, with approximately 100 times as many complete profile sets existing relative to the EV44 balloon databases. This increased sample of near-continuous wind profile measurements may help increase launch availability by reducing the uncertainty of wind changes during launch countdown

  15. Consolidated Copayment Processing Center (CCPC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Consolidated Copayment Processing Center (CCPC) database contains Veteran patient contact and billing information in order to support the printing and mailing of...

  16. Doppler Processing with Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Radar Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    REPORT TYPE Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) December 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Doppler Processing with Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Radar...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This technical note revisits previous work performed at the US Army Research Laboratory related to...target considered previously is proportional to a delayed version of the transmitted signal, up to a complex constant factor. We write the received

  17. Application of optical processing to adaptive phased array radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, C. W.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the applicability of optical processing to Adaptive Phased Array Radar (APAR) data processing will be summarized. Subjects that are covered include: (1) new iterative Fourier transform based technique to determine the array antenna weight vector such that the resulting antenna pattern has nulls at desired locations; (2) obtaining the solution of the optimal Wiener weight vector by both iterative and direct methods on two laboratory Optical Linear Algebra Processing (OLAP) systems; and (3) an investigation of the effects of errors present in OLAP systems on the solution vectors.

  18. Radar data processing using a distributed computational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Gilberto F.

    1992-06-01

    This research specifies and validates a new concurrent decomposition scheme, called Confined Space Search Decomposition (CSSD), to exploit parallelism of Radar Data Processing algorithms using a Distributed Computational System. To formalize the specification, we propose and apply an object-oriented methodology called Decomposition Cost Evaluation Model (DCEM). To reduce the penalties of load imbalance, we propose a distributed dynamic load balance heuristic called Object Reincarnation (OR). To validate the research, we first compare our decomposition with an identified alternative using the proposed DCEM model and then develop a theoretical prediction of selected parameters. We also develop a simulation to check the Object Reincarnation Concept.

  19. Coherent and non-coherent processing of multiband radar sensor data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tejero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing resolution is an attractive goal for all types of radar sensor applications. Obtaining high radar resolution is strongly related to the signal bandwidth which can be used. The currently available frequency bands however, restrict the available bandwidth and consequently the achievable range resolution. As nowadays more sensors become available e.g. on automotive platforms, methods of combining sensor information stemming from sensors operating in different and not necessarily overlapping frequency bands are of concern. It will be shown that it is possible to derive benefit from perceiving the same radar scenery with two or more sensors in distinct frequency bands. Beyond ordinary sensor fusion methods, radar information can be combined more effectively if one compensates for the lack of mutual coherence, thus taking advantage of phase information. At high frequencies, complex scatterers can be approximately modeled as a group of single scattering centers with constant delay and slowly varying amplitude, i.e. a set of complex exponentials buried in noise. The eigenanalysis algorithms are well known for their capability to better resolve complex exponentials as compared to the classical spectral analysis methods. These methods exploit the statistical properties of those signals to estimate their frequencies. Here, two main approaches to extend the statistical analysis for the case of data collected at two different subbands are presented. One method relies on the use of the band gap information (and therefore, coherent data collection is needed and achieves an increased resolution capability compared with the single-band case. On the other hand, the second approach does not use the band gap information and represents a robust way to process radar data collected with incoherent sensors. Combining the information obtained with these two approaches a robust estimator of the target locations with increased resolution can be built.

  20. Real-time radar signal processing using GPGPU (general-purpose graphic processing unit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanxing; Zhang, Yan Rockee; Cai, Jingxiao; Palmer, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    This study introduces a practical approach to develop real-time signal processing chain for general phased array radar on NVIDIA GPUs(Graphical Processing Units) using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) libraries such as cuBlas and cuFFT, which are adopted from open source libraries and optimized for the NVIDIA GPUs. The processed results are rigorously verified against those from the CPUs. Performance benchmarked in computation time with various input data cube sizes are compared across GPUs and CPUs. Through the analysis, it will be demonstrated that GPGPUs (General Purpose GPU) real-time processing of the array radar data is possible with relatively low-cost commercial GPUs.

  1. wradlib - an Open Source Library for Weather Radar Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Jacobi, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Even though weather radar holds great promise for the hydrological sciences, offering precipitation estimates with unrivaled spatial and temporal resolution, there are still problems impeding its widespread use, among which are: almost every radar data set comes with a different data format with public reading software being available only rarely. standard products as issued by the meteorological services often do not serve the needs of original research, having either too many or too few corrections applied. Especially when new correction methods are to be developed, researchers are often forced to start from scratch having to implement many corrections in addition to those they are actually interested in. many algorithms published in the literature cannot be recreated using the corresponding article only. Public codes, providing insight into the actual implementation and how an approach deals with possible exceptions are rare. the radial scanning setup of weather radar measurements produces additional challenges, when it comes to visualization or georeferencing of this type of data. Based on these experiences, and in the hope to spare others at least some of these tedious tasks, wradlib offers the results of the author's own efforts and a growing number of community-supplied methods. wradlib is designed as a Python library of functions and classes to assist users in their analysis of weather radar data. It provides solutions for all tasks along a typical processing chain leading from raw reflectivity data to corrected, georeferenced and possibly gauge adjusted quantitative precipitation estimates. There are modules for data input/output, data transformation including Z/R transformation, clutter identification, attenuation correction, dual polarization and differential phase processing, interpolation, georeferencing, compositing, gauge adjustment, verification and visualization. The interpreted nature of the Python programming language makes wradlib an ideal tool

  2. Dynamical processes in galaxy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Francoise

    2012-01-01

    How does the gas get in nuclear regions to fuel black holes? How efficient is the feedback? The different processes to cause rapid gas inflow (or outflow) in galaxy centers are reviewed. Non axisymmetries can be created or maintained by internal disk instabilities, or galaxy interactions. Simulations and observations tell us that the fueling is a chaotic and intermittent process, with different scenarios and time-scales, according to the various radial scales across a galaxy.

  3. A soft-core processor architecture optimised for radar signal processing applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broich, R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available -performance soft-core processing architecture is proposed. To develop such a processing architecture, data and signal-flow characteristics of common radar signal processing algorithms are analysed. Each algorithm is broken down into signal processing...

  4. Process Engineering Technology Center Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Martha A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing as a world-class Spaceport Technology Center (STC). From a process engineering (PE) perspective, the facilities used for flight hardware processing at KSC are NASA's premier factories. The products of these factories are safe, successful shuttle and expendable vehicle launches carrying state-of-the-art payloads. PE is devoted to process design, process management, and process improvement, rather than product design. PE also emphasizes the relationships of workers with systems and processes. Thus, it is difficult to speak of having a laboratory for PE at K.S.C. because the entire facility is practically a laboratory when observed from a macro level perspective. However, it becomes necessary, at times, to show and display how K.S.C. has benefited from PE and how K.S.C. has contributed to the development of PE; hence, it has been proposed that a Process Engineering Technology Center (PETC) be developed to offer a place with a centralized focus on PE projects, and a place where K.S.C.'s PE capabilities can be showcased, and a venue where new Process Engineering technologies can be investigated and tested. Graphics for showcasing PE capabilities have been designed, and two initial test beds for PE technology research have been identified. Specifically, one test bed will look into the use of wearable computers with head mounted displays to deliver work instructions; the other test bed will look into developing simulation models that can be assembled into one to create a hierarchical model.

  5. A Simple Signal Processing Architecture for Instantaneous Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Stephen D. Howard, A. Robert Calderbank, Fellow, IEEE, and William Moran, Member, IEEE Abstract—This paper describes a new radar primitive that en...Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems, 3rd ed. New York: Mc- Graw -Hill, 2001. [14] S. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless

  6. Processing of 3D Weather Radar Data with Application for Assimilation in the NWP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ośródka Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the processing of 3D weather radar data to minimize the impact of a number of errors from different sources, both meteorological and non-meteorological. The data is also quantitatively characterized in terms of its quality. A set of dedicated algorithms based on analysis of the reflectivity field pattern is described. All the developed algorithms were tested on data from the Polish radar network POLRAD. Quality control plays a key role in avoiding the introduction of incorrect information into applications using radar data. One of the quality control methods is radar data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models to estimate initial conditions of the atmosphere. The study shows an experiment with quality controlled radar data assimilation in the COAMPS model using the ensemble Kalman filter technique. The analysis proved the potential of radar data for such applications; however, further investigations will be indispensable.

  7. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  8. Apodization of spurs in radar receivers using multi-channel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2017-11-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to identification and mitigation of spurious energies or signals (aka "spurs") in radar imaging. Spurious energy in received radar data can be a consequence of non-ideal component and circuit behavior. Such behavior can result from I/Q imbalance, nonlinear component behavior, additive interference (e.g. cross-talk, etc.), etc. The manifestation of the spurious energy in a radar image (e.g., a range-Doppler map) can be influenced by appropriate pulse-to-pulse phase modulation. Comparing multiple images which have been processed using the same data but of different signal paths and modulations enables identification of undesired spurs, with subsequent cropping or apodization of the undesired spurs from a radar image. Spurs can be identified by comparison with a threshold energy. Removal of an undesired spur enables enhanced identification of true targets in a radar image.

  9. Sparsity-Based Space-Time Adaptive Processing Using OFDM Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We propose a sparsity-based space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithm to detect a slowly-moving target using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radar. We observe that the target and interference spectra are inherently sparse in the spatio-temporal domain, and hence we exploit that sparsity to develop an efficient STAP technique. In addition, the use of an OFDM signal increases the frequency diversity of our system, as different scattering centers of a target resonate at different frequencies, and thus improves the target detectability. First, we formulate a realistic sparse-measurement model for an OFDM radar considering both the clutter and jammer as the interfering sources. Then, we show that the optimal STAP-filter weight-vector is equal to the generalized eigenvector corresponding to the minimum generalized eigenvalue of the interference and target covariance matrices. To estimate the target and interference covariance matrices, we apply a residual sparse-recovery technique that enables us to incorporate the partially known support of the sparse vector. Our numerical results demonstrate that the sparsity-based STAP algorithm, with considerably lesser number of secondary data, produces an equivalent performance as the other existing STAP techniques.

  10. OFDM Radar Space-Time Adaptive Processing by Exploiting Spatio-Temporal Sparsity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    We propose a sparsity-based space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithm to detect a slowly-moving target using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radar. We observe that the target and interference spectra are inherently sparse in the spatio-temporal domain. Hence, we exploit that sparsity to develop an efficient STAP technique that utilizes considerably lesser number of secondary data and produces an equivalent performance as the other existing STAP techniques. In addition, the use of an OFDM signal increases the frequency diversity of our system, as different scattering centers of a target resonate at different frequencies, and thus improves the target detectability. First, we formulate a realistic sparse-measurement model for an OFDM radar considering both the clutter and jammer as the interfering sources. Then, we apply a residual sparse-recovery technique based on the LASSO estimator to estimate the target and interference covariance matrices, and subsequently compute the optimal STAP-filter weights. Our numerical results demonstrate a comparative performance analysis of the proposed sparse-STAP algorithm with four other existing STAP methods. Furthermore, we discover that the OFDM-STAP filter-weights are adaptable to the frequency-variabilities of the target and interference responses, in addition to the spatio-temporal variabilities. Hence, by better utilizing the frequency variabilities, we propose an adaptive OFDM-waveform design technique, and consequently gain a significant amount of STAP-performance improvement.

  11. Modulation, resolution and signal processing in radar, sonar and related systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, R; Costrell, L

    1966-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 35: Modulation, Resolution and Signal Processing in Radar, Sonar and Related Systems presents the practical limitations and potentialities of advanced modulation systems. This book discusses the concepts and techniques in the radar context, but they are equally essential to sonar and to a wide range of signaling and data-processing applications, including seismology, radio astronomy, and band-spread communications.Organized into 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal developments sought in pulse radar. This text then provides a

  12. Soft-core dataflow processor architecture optimised for radar signal processing: Article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broich, R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Current radar signal processors lack either performance or flexibility. Custom soft-core processors exhibit potential in high-performance signal processing applications, yet remain relatively unexplored in research literature. In this paper, we use...

  13. Analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Radar Signals Using Cyclostationary Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lime, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    ... problem in the battle space To detect these types of radar, new digital receivers that use sophisticated signal processing techniques are required This thesis investigates the use of cyclostationary...

  14. A Processing Technique for OFDM-Modulated Wideband Radar Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigrek, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a multicarrier spread-spectrum technique which finds wide-spread use in communications. The OFDM pulse compression method that utilizes an OFDM communication signal for radar tasks has been developed and reported in this dissertation. Using

  15. Processing of dual-orthogonal cw polarimetric radar signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babur, G.

    2009-01-01

    The thesis consists of two parts. The first part is devoted to the theory of dual-orthogonal polarimetric radar signals with continuous waveforms. The thesis presents a comparison of the signal compression techniques, namely correlation and de-ramping methods, for the dual-orthogonal sophisticated

  16. Nearshore Processes, Currents and Directional Wave Spectra Monitoring Using Coherent and Non-coherent Imaging Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizna, D.; Hathaway, K.

    2007-05-01

    Two new radar systems have been developed for real-time measurement of near-shore processes, and results are presented for measurements of ocean wave spectra, near-shore sand bar structure, and ocean currents. The first is a non-coherent radar based on a modified version of the Sitex radar family, with a data acquisition system designed around an ISR digital receiver card. The card operates in a PC computer with inputs from a Sitex radar modified for extraction of analogue signals for digitization. Using a 9' antenna and 25 kW transmit power system, data were collected during 2007 at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC during winter and spring of 2007. The directional wave spectrum measurements made are based on using a sequence of 64 to 640 antenna rotations to form a snapshot series of radar images of propagating waves. A square window is extracted from each image, typically 64 x 64 pixels at 3-m resolution. Then ten sets of 64 windows are submitted to a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform process to generate radar image spectra in the frequency-wavenumber space. The relation between the radar image spectral intensity and wave spectral intensity derived from the FRF pressure gauge array was used for a test set of data, in order to establish a modulation transfer function (MTF) for each frequency component. For 640 rotations, 10 of such spectra are averaged for improved statistics. The wave spectrum so generated was compared for extended data sets beyond those used to establish the MTF, and those results are presented here. Some differences between the radar and pressure sensor data that are observed are found to be due to the influence of the wind field, as the radar echo image weakens for light winds. A model is developed to account for such an effect to improve the radar estimate of the directional wave spectrum. The radar ocean wave imagery is severely influenced only by extremely heavy rain-fall rates, so that

  17. Improved Micro Rain Radar snow measurements using Doppler spectra post-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Micro Rain Radar 2 (MRR is a compact Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW system that operates at 24 GHz. The MRR is a low-cost, portable radar system that requires minimum supervision in the field. As such, the MRR is a frequently used radar system for conducting precipitation research. Current MRR drawbacks are the lack of a sophisticated post-processing algorithm to improve its sensitivity (currently at +3 dBz, spurious artefacts concerning radar receiver noise and the lack of high quality Doppler radar moments. Here we propose an improved processing method which is especially suited for snow observations and provides reliable values of effective reflectivity, Doppler velocity and spectral width. The proposed method is freely available on the web and features a noise removal based on recognition of the most significant peak. A dynamic dealiasing routine allows observations even if the Nyquist velocity range is exceeded. Collocated observations over 115 days of a MRR and a pulsed 35.2 GHz MIRA35 cloud radar show a very high agreement for the proposed method for snow, if reflectivities are larger than −5 dBz. The overall sensitivity is increased to −14 and −8 dBz, depending on range. The proposed method exploits the full potential of MRR's hardware and substantially enhances the use of Micro Rain Radar for studies of solid precipitation.

  18. Introduction to ground penetrating radar inverse scattering and data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Persico, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatment of ground penetrating radar using both forward and inverse scattering mathematical techniques. Use of field data instead of laboratory data enables readers to envision real-life underground imaging; a full color insert further clarifies understanding. Along with considering the practical problem of achieving interpretable underground images, this book also features significant coverage of the problem's mathematical background. This twofold approach provides a resource that will appeal both to application oriented geologists and testing specialists,

  19. FPGA based hardware optimized implementation of signal processing system for LFM pulsed radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Noor ul; Jun, Wang

    2016-11-01

    Signal processing is one of the main parts of any radar system. Different signal processing algorithms are used to extract information about different parameters like range, speed, direction etc, of a target in the field of radar communication. This paper presents LFM (Linear Frequency Modulation) pulsed radar signal processing algorithms which are used to improve target detection, range resolution and to estimate the speed of a target. Firstly, these algorithms are simulated in MATLAB to verify the concept and theory. After the conceptual verification in MATLAB, the simulation is converted into implementation on hardware using Xilinx FPGA. Chosen FPGA is Xilinx Virtex-6 (XC6LVX75T). For hardware implementation pipeline optimization is adopted and also other factors are considered for resources optimization in the process of implementation. Focusing algorithms in this work for improving target detection, range resolution and speed estimation are hardware optimized fast convolution processing based pulse compression and pulse Doppler processing.

  20. Tracking radar advanced signal processing and computing for Kwajalein Atoll (KA) application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrill, Stanley D.

    1992-11-01

    Two means are examined whereby the operations of KMR during mission execution may be improved through the introduction of advanced signal processing techniques. In the first approach, the addition of real time coherent signal processing technology to the FPQ-19 radar is considered. In the second approach, the incorporation of the MMW radar, with its very fine range precision, to the MMS system is considered. The former appears very attractive and a Phase 2 SBIR has been proposed. The latter does not appear promising enough to warrant further development.

  1. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar Recent Advances @ the ELEDIA Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salucci, Marco; Tenuti, Lorenza; Nardin, Cristina; Oliveri, Giacomo; Viani, Federico; Rocca, Paolo; Massa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The application of non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE) methodologies in civil engineering has raised a growing interest during the last years because of its potential impact in several different scenarios. As a consequence, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technologies have been widely adopted as an instrument for the inspection of the structural stability of buildings and for the detection of cracks and voids. In this framework, the development and validation of GPR algorithms and methodologies represents one of the most active research areas within the ELEDIA Research Center of the University of Trento. More in detail, great efforts have been devoted towards the development of inversion techniques based on the integration of deterministic and stochastic search algorithms with multi-focusing strategies. These approaches proved to be effective in mitigating the effects of both nonlinearity and ill-posedness of microwave imaging problems, which represent the well-known issues arising in GPR inverse scattering formulations. More in detail, a regularized multi-resolution approach based on the Inexact Newton Method (INM) has been recently applied to subsurface prospecting, showing a remarkable advantage over a single-resolution implementation [1]. Moreover, the use of multi-frequency or frequency-hopping strategies to exploit the information coming from GPR data collected in time domain and transformed into its frequency components has been proposed as well. In this framework, the effectiveness of the multi-resolution multi-frequency techniques has been proven on synthetic data generated with numerical models such as GprMax [2]. The application of inversion algorithms based on Bayesian Compressive Sampling (BCS) [3][4] to GPR is currently under investigation, as well, in order to exploit their capability to provide satisfactory reconstructions in presence of single and multiple sparse scatterers [3][4]. Furthermore, multi-scaling approaches exploiting level

  2. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-01-01

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented

  3. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-01

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented.

  4. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handayani, Gunawan [The Earth Physics and Complex Systems Research Group (Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung Indonesia) gunawanhandayani@gmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented.

  5. Frequency Diverse Array Radar Signal Processing via Space-Range-Doppler Focus (SRDF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaolong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the urgent demand of low-observable moving target detection in complex environments, a novel method of Frequency Diverse Array (FDA radar signal processing method based on Space-Rang-Doppler Focusing (SRDF is proposed in this paper. The current development status of the FDA radar, the design of the array structure, beamforming, and joint estimation of distance and angle are systematically reviewed. The extra degrees of freedom provided by FDA radar are fully utilizsed, which include the Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs of the transmitted waveform, the location of array elements, correlation of beam azimuth and distance, and the long dwell time, which are also the DOFs in joint spatial (angle, distance, and frequency (Doppler dimensions. Simulation results show that the proposed method has the potential of improving target detection and parameter estimation for weak moving targets in complex environments and has broad application prospects in clutter and interference suppression, moving target refinement, etc..

  6. Database development for understanding the wet deposition and dispersion processes after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Takara, Kaoru; Ishihara, Masahito; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Akira; Murata, Ken T.

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes datasets of meteorological information being developed for understanding the dispersion and deposition process of radionuclides associated with the Fukushima accident in March 2011. Among several products, this paper reports mainly our original radar data images including the X-band radar data from Fukushima University as well as the three-dimensional reflectivity data from the Japan Meteorological Agency C-band radar network. (author)

  7. Advanced signal processing theory and implementation for sonar, radar, and non-invasive medical diagnostic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stergiopoulos, Stergios

    2009-01-01

    Integrates topics of signal processing from sonar, radar, and medical system technologies by identifying their concept similarities. This book covers non-invasive medical diagnostic system applications, including intracranial ultrasound, a technology that attempts to address non-invasive detection on brain injuries and stroke.

  8. Quality-Controlled Wind Data from the Kennedy Space Center 915 Megahertz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has installed a five-instrument 915-Megahertz (MHz) Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) system that records atmospheric wind profile properties. The purpose of these profilers is to fill data gaps between the top of the KSC wind tower network and the lowest measurement altitude of the KSC 50-MHz DRWP. The 915-MHz DRWP system has the capability to generate three-dimensional wind data outputs from approximately 150 meters (m) to 6,000 m at roughly 15-minute (min) intervals. NASA s long-term objective is to combine the 915-MHz and 50-MHz DRWP systems to create complete vertical wind profiles up to 18,300 m to be used in trajectory and loads analyses of space vehicles and by forecasters on day-of-launch (DOL). This analysis utilizes automated and manual quality control (QC) processes to remove erroneous and unrealistic wind data returned by the 915-MHz DRWP system. The percentage of data affected by each individual QC check in the period of record (POR) (i.e., January to April 2006) was computed, demonstrating the variability in the amount of data affected by the QC processes. The number of complete wind profiles available at given altitude thresholds for each profiler in the POR was calculated and outputted graphically, followed by an assessment of the number of complete wind profiles available for any profiler in the POR. A case study is also provided to demonstrate the QC process on a day of a known weather event.

  9. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  10. New Processing of Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Gracheva, V.; Arko, S. A.; Labelle-Hamer, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was a radar system, which successfully operated on two separate shuttle missions in April and October 1994. During these two missions, a total of 143 hours of radar data were recorded. SIR-C was the first multifrequency and polarimetric spaceborne radar system, operating in dual frequency (L- and C- band) and with quad-polarization. SIR-C had a variety of different operating modes, which are innovative even from today's point of view. Depending on the mode, it was possible to acquire data with different polarizations and carrier frequency combinations. Additionally, different swaths and bandwidths could be used during the data collection and it was possible to receive data with two antennas in the along-track direction.The United States Geological Survey (USGS) distributes the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images as single-look complex (SLC) and multi-look complex (MLC) products. Unfortunately, since June 2005 the SIR-C processor has been inoperable and not repairable. All acquired SLC and MLC images were processed with a course resolution of 100 m with the goal of generating a quick look. These images are however not well suited for scientific analysis. Only a small percentage of the acquired data has been processed as full resolution SAR images and the unprocessed high resolution data cannot be processed any more at the moment.At the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) a new processor was developed to process binary SIR-C data to full resolution SAR images. ASF is planning to process the entire recoverable SIR-C archive to full resolution SLCs, MLCs and high resolution geocoded image products. ASF will make these products available to the science community through their existing data archiving and distribution system.The final paper will describe the new processor and analyze the challenges of reprocessing the SIR-C data.

  11. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H

    1988-01-01

    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  12. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars. Part II: Data Quality Control and Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen L.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2014-03-01

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the HS-RHI SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  13. Rethinking exploitation: a process-centered account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Exploitation has become an important topic in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer's path-breaking work on the subject. This paper presents some objections to Wertheimer's account of the concept. The objections attempt to show that his account places too much emphasis on outcome-based considerations and too little on process-based considerations. Building on these objections, the paper develops an alternative process-centered account of the concept. This alternative account of exploitation takes as its point of departure the broadly Kantian notion that it is wrong to use another as an instrument for the advancement of one's own ends. It sharpens this slippery notion and adds a number of refinements to it. The paper concludes by arguing that process-centered accounts of exploitation better illuminate the ethical challenges posed by research on human subjects than outcome-centered accounts.

  14. A digital signal processing system for coherent laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Diana M.; Jones, William D.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1991-01-01

    A data processing system for use with continuous-wave lidar is described in terms of its configuration and performance during the second survey mission of NASA'a Global Backscatter Experiment. The system is designed to estimate a complete lidar spectrum in real time, record the data from two lidars, and monitor variables related to the lidar operating environment. The PC-based system includes a transient capture board, a digital-signal processing (DSP) board, and a low-speed data-acquisition board. Both unprocessed and processed lidar spectrum data are monitored in real time, and the results are compared to those of a previous non-DSP-based system. Because the DSP-based system is digital it is slower than the surface-acoustic-wave signal processor and collects 2500 spectra/s. However, the DSP-based system provides complete data sets at two wavelengths from the continuous-wave lidars.

  15. Photonics-based real-time ultra-high-range-resolution radar with broadband signal generation and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Guo, Qingshui; Pan, Shilong

    2017-10-23

    Real-time and high-resolution target detection is highly desirable in modern radar applications. Electronic techniques have encountered grave difficulties in the development of such radars, which strictly rely on a large instantaneous bandwidth. In this article, a photonics-based real-time high-range-resolution radar is proposed with optical generation and processing of broadband linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals. A broadband LFM signal is generated in the transmitter by photonic frequency quadrupling, and the received echo is de-chirped to a low frequency signal by photonic frequency mixing. The system can operate at a high frequency and a large bandwidth while enabling real-time processing by low-speed analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing. A conceptual radar is established. Real-time processing of an 8-GHz LFM signal is achieved with a sampling rate of 500 MSa/s. Accurate distance measurement is implemented with a maximum error of 4 mm within a range of ~3.5 meters. Detection of two targets is demonstrated with a range-resolution as high as 1.875 cm. We believe the proposed radar architecture is a reliable solution to overcome the limitations of current radar on operation bandwidth and processing speed, and it is hopefully to be used in future radars for real-time and high-resolution target detection and imaging.

  16. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  17. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Yun-Ze; Li, Han; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected.

  18. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Li Han; Dai Shun; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Ji Yi-Cai; Zhou Bin; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected

  19. Ambiguity Function Analysis and Processing for Passive Radar Based on CDR Digital Audio Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China Digital Radio (CDR broadcasting is a new standard of digital audio broadcasting of FM frequency (87–108 MHz based on our research and development efforts. It is compatible with the frequency spectrum in analog FM radio and satisfies the requirements for smooth transition from analog to digital signal in FM broadcasting in China. This paper focuses on the signal characteristics and processing methods of radio-based passive radar. The signal characteristics and ambiguity function of a passive radar illumination source are analyzed. The adverse effects on the target detection of the side peaks owing to cyclic prefix, the Doppler ambiguity strips because of signal synchronization, and the range of side peaks resulting from the signal discontinuous spectrum are then studied. Finally, methods for suppressing these side peaks are proposed and their effectiveness is verified by simulations.

  20. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part II. Data Quality Control and Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Jo, Ieng [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Borque, Paloma [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Tatarevic, Aleksandra [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Lamer, Katia [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Bharadwaj, Nitin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widener, Kevin B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Karen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Clothiaux, Eugene E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2013-10-04

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the Hemispherical Sky – Range Height Indicator SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  1. The Processing of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-2B Data from Chang'E-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Zhao, N.; Yang, K.; Yuan, Y.; Guo, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) carried by Chang'E-3 has imaged the shallow subsurface of the landing site at the northern Mare Imbrium. The antenna B of the Channel-2 onboard the LPR (LPR Channel-2B) has collected more than 20000 traces of raw data. The raw LPR data could not be directly used for geological interpretation because of the operation mode of the LPR, noise and fast attenuation of radar wave. This study focuses data preprocessing and processing methods to obtain higher quality data. A section of usable LPR data of over 2000 traces is gained after the preprocessing of selecting, splicing, removing delay time and fine-correcting to raw data, but only a few shallow geological structures are visible. To further improve the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of the LPR data, we have processed the LPR data including amplitude compensation, filtering, and deconvolution processes based on electromagnetic wave theory. The processing results reveal that (1) the spherical spreading compensation and auto gain control enhance the amplitude of reflection echoes from deeper strata and make the geological structures more obvious, (2) the spiking deconvolution applied to narrow reflection events down makes it possible to identify thin layers with 30% improved resolution, and (3) the band-pass filtering removes the multiple reflections and, consequently, improves the signal-to-noise ratio of LPR data. The processing results will lay the foundation for the subsequent geological interpretation and physical property inversion of lunar materials.

  2. A New Tool for Intelligent Parallel Processing of Radar/SAR Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castillo Atoche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel parallel tool for large-scale image enhancement/reconstruction and postprocessing of radar/SAR sensor systems is addressed. The proposed parallel tool performs the following intelligent processing steps: image formation, for the application of different system-level effects of image degradation with a particular remote sensing (RS system and simulation of random noising effects, enhancement/reconstruction by employing nonparametric robust high-resolution techniques, and image postprocessing using the fuzzy anisotropic diffusion technique which incorporates a better edge-preserving noise removal effect and faster diffusion process. This innovative tool allows the processing of high-resolution images provided with different radar/SAR sensor systems as required by RS endusers for environmental monitoring, risk prevention, and resource management. To verify the performance implementation of the proposed parallel framework, the processing steps are developed and specifically tested on graphic processing units (GPU, achieving considerable speedups compared to the serial version of the same techniques implemented in C language.

  3. The TESS Science Processing Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Twicken, Joseph D.; McCauliff, Sean; Campbell, Jennifer; Sanderfer, Dwight; Lung, David; Mansouri-Samani, Masoud; Girouard, Forrest; Tenenbaum, Peter; Klaus, Todd; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will conduct a search for Earth's closest cousins starting in early 2018 and is expected to discover approximately 1,000 small planets with R(sub p) less than 4 (solar radius) and measure the masses of at least 50 of these small worlds. The Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center based on the Kepler science pipeline and will generate calibrated pixels and light curves on the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division's Pleiades supercomputer. The SPOC will also search for periodic transit events and generate validation products for the transit-like features in the light curves. All TESS SPOC data products will be archived to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  4. Data Processing and Primary results of Lunar Penetrating Radar on Board the Chinese Yutu Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Xing, Shuguo; Feng, Jianqing; Dai, Shun; Ding, Chunyu; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Li, Chunlai

    2015-04-01

    Radar is an attractive and powerful technique to observe the Moon. Radar mapping of the Moon's topography was first done by the Arecibo telescope at a wave- length of 70 cm in 1964 (Thompson & Dyce 1966). Chang'e-3 (CE-3) was successfully launched on 2013 December 2, and the landing place is in Mare Imbrium, about 40km south of the 6km diameter Laplace F crater, at 44.1214ON, 19.5116OW. The Lunar ground-Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of scientific payloads of the Yutu rover, aiming to achieve the first direct measurements and explore the lunar subsurface structure. Compared with ALSE and LRS, LPR works at higher frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Thus it can probe regions with shallower depth including the regolith and lunar crust at higher range resolution. The LPR uses one transmitting and one receiving dipole antenna for 60 MHz which are installed at the back of the rover. For 500 MHz, one transmitting and two bow-tie receiving antennas are attached to the bottom of the rover. It transmits a pulsed signal and receives the radar echo signal along the path that the Yutu rover traverses. The free space range resolutions are ~ 50 cm and ~ 25 m for 60 MHz and 500 MHz respectively. The radar data stop being sampled and are sent back to Earth when Yutu is stationary. Observations are simultaneously carried out at frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Since the Yutu rover had severe problems during its second lunar day, it is pity that the Yutu rover only transversed a limited distance of 114.8m. In total, 566 MB of data were obtained. The scientific data are archived and distributed by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Data processing has been done in order to eliminate the effect of the instrument. To obtain clear radar images, more data processing need to be applied such as coordinate transformation, data editing, background removal, the operations of smoothing and gain resetting. The radar signal could detect hundreds of meters deep at

  5. Digital signal processing at GEND's data center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion and recording of analog signals in digital form has been an active element in the manufacturing operations of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) since 1966. The first computerized data system for these digitized waveforms was implemented at GEND's data center approximately two years later during 1968. The evolution and integration of these two activities at GEND are addressed in this paper. Beginning with the tester--data center interface, emphasis is placed on previous approaches, current capabilities, near-term trends, and future requirements. The digitizing process has developed into a firmly established set of hardware and associated software techniques which has proven itself as an accurate, reliable procedure for capturing waveform characteristics. The most important aspect of this process is the recent trend toward increased sampling rates and a greater number of digitized parameters per operation. The combined effect is a tremendous increase in output data volumes. Since digital signal processing carries the potential for significant contributions to manufacturing quality and reliability, as well as engineering design and development, increased activity in this area appears extremely desirable. 11 figures

  6. The Processing and Analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-1 Data from Chang'E-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yun-ze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR, which is one of the most important science payloads onboard the Chang'E-3 (CE-3 rover, is used to obtain electromagnetic image less than 100 m beneath the lunar surface. This paper describes the system composition and working mechanism of the LPR and presents a detailed analysis of its data. We investigated special signal-processing methods and present the result of channel-1 data. The result shows that the effective echo occurs at depths greater than 100 m. Moreover, an unusual reflection exists at depth of 40 m, which may be the boundary of two geological units beneath the lunar surface.

  7. The Processing and Analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-1 Data from Chang'E-3

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yun-ze; Dong Ze-hua; Fang Guang-you; Ji Yi-cai; Zhou Bin

    2015-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR), which is one of the most important science payloads onboard the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) rover, is used to obtain electromagnetic image less than 100 m beneath the lunar surface. This paper describes the system composition and working mechanism of the LPR and presents a detailed analysis of its data. We investigated special signal-processing methods and present the result of channel-1 data. The result shows that the effective echo occurs at depths greater than 100 m. Mo...

  8. Apodization of Spurs in Radar Receivers Using Multi-Channel Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Mission Engineering; Bickel, Douglas Lloyd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Analysis and Applications

    2014-03-01

    Spurious energy in received radar data is a consequence of nonideal component and circuit behavior. This might be due to I/Q imbalance, nonlinear component behavior, additive interference (e.g. cross-talk, etc.), or other sources. The manifestation of the spurious energy in a range-Doppler map or image can be influenced by appropriate pulse-to-pulse phase modulation. Comparing multiple images having been processed with the same data but different signal paths and modulations allows identifying undesired spurs and then cropping or apodizing them.

  9. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  10. [Imaging center - optimization of the imaging process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, H-P

    2013-04-01

    Hospitals around the world are under increasing pressure to optimize the economic efficiency of treatment processes. Imaging is responsible for a great part of the success but also of the costs of treatment. In routine work an excessive supply of imaging methods leads to an "as well as" strategy up to the limit of the capacity without critical reflection. Exams that have no predictable influence on the clinical outcome are an unjustified burden for the patient. They are useless and threaten the financial situation and existence of the hospital. In recent years the focus of process optimization was exclusively on the quality and efficiency of performed single examinations. In the future critical discussion of the effectiveness of single exams in relation to the clinical outcome will be more important. Unnecessary exams can be avoided, only if in addition to the optimization of single exams (efficiency) there is an optimization strategy for the total imaging process (efficiency and effectiveness). This requires a new definition of processes (Imaging Pathway), new structures for organization (Imaging Center) and a new kind of thinking on the part of the medical staff. Motivation has to be changed from gratification of performed exams to gratification of process quality (medical quality, service quality, economics), including the avoidance of additional (unnecessary) exams. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Signal processing techniques for damage detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors and embedded ultrasonic structural radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyu; Bao, Jingjing; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2004-07-01

    Embedded ultrasonic structural radar (EUSR) algorithm is developed for using piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) array to detect defects within a large area of a thin-plate specimen. Signal processing techniques are used to extract the time of flight of the wave packages, and thereby to determine the location of the defects with the EUSR algorithm. In our research, the transient tone-burst wave propagation signals are generated and collected by the embedded PWAS. Then, with signal processing, the frequency contents of the signals and the time of flight of individual frequencies are determined. This paper starts with an introduction of embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm. Then we will describe the signal processing methods used to extract the time of flight of the wave packages. The signal processing methods being used include the wavelet denoising, the cross correlation, and Hilbert transform. Though hardware device can provide averaging function to eliminate the noise coming from the signal collection process, wavelet denoising is included to ensure better signal quality for the application in real severe environment. For better recognition of time of flight, cross correlation method is used. Hilbert transform is applied to the signals after cross correlation in order to extract the envelope of the signals. Signal processing and EUSR are both implemented by developing a graphical user-friendly interface program in LabView. We conclude with a description of our vision for applying EUSR signal analysis to structural health monitoring and embedded nondestructive evaluation. To this end, we envisage an automatic damage detection application utilizing embedded PWAS, EUSR, and advanced signal processing.

  12. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  13. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard

    2017-08-01

    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  14. Earth-based radar and LRO Diviner constraints on the recent rate of lunar ejecta processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, Rebecca R.; Hayne, Paul O.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Allen, Carlton

    2013-04-01

    Many large craters on the lunar nearside show radar circular polarization ratio (CPR) signatures consistent with the presence of blocky ejecta blankets, to distances of 0.5 to 1.5 crater radii. However, most of these surfaces show very low surface rock concentration values and only limited enhancements in regolith temperatures calculated from Diviner nighttime infrared observations. Because the radar signal is integrated over the radar penetration depth (up to several meters), but the Diviner signal is sensitive only to rocks within the upper meter of the surface, this indicates that ejecta blocks on the surface and in the shallow subsurface are quickly removed by continued bombardment. Deeper subsurface rocks, which are clearly evident in radar CPR maps but are covered by a sufficiently thick layer of thermally insulating regolith material to render them invisible to Diviner, persist for much longer. By matching the results of one-dimensional thermal models to Diviner nighttime temperatures, we can constrain the thermophysical properties of the upper 1 meter of regolith. We find that Diviner nighttime cooling curves are best fit by a density profile that varies exponentially with depth, consistent with a mixture of rocks and regolith fines, with increasing rock content with depth. Using this density profile together with the surface rock abundance, we can estimate the excess rock mass represented by rocks on the surface and within the upper meter of regolith for individual craters. We find that for craters of known age younger than ~1.7Ga, a robust correlation exists between ejecta mass and crater age, which yields the first observational estimate of the rate of lunar ejecta processing. Our results show that crater ejecta are initially removed very quickly (perhaps up to ~1cm / m.y.), with the rate slowing over a short period of time to less than 1 mm / m.y., as the number of blocks on the surface decreases and the volume of protective regolith material increases

  15. Disribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, Giuseppe; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, Tom; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ~350 m to ~2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30 degrees), with no dunes being present above 60 degrees. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30 degrees and 60 degrees north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial

  16. Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, Giuseppe; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, Tom; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ???350 m to ???2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30??), with no dunes being present above 60??. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30?? and 60?? north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes are the

  17. Research on Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing for the Spaceborne Sliding Spotlight Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shijian; Nie, Xin; Zhang, Xinggan

    2018-02-03

    Gaofen-3 (GF-3) is China' first C-band multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite, which also provides the sliding spotlight mode for the first time. Sliding-spotlight mode is a novel mode to realize imaging with not only high resolution, but also wide swath. Several key technologies for sliding spotlight mode in spaceborne SAR with high resolution are investigated in this paper, mainly including the imaging parameters, the methods of velocity estimation and ambiguity elimination, and the imaging algorithms. Based on the chosen Convolution BackProjection (CBP) and PFA (Polar Format Algorithm) imaging algorithms, a fast implementation method of CBP and a modified PFA method suitable for sliding spotlight mode are proposed, and the processing flows are derived in detail. Finally, the algorithms are validated by simulations and measured data.

  18. Research on Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing for the Spaceborne Sliding Spotlight Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijian Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaofen-3 (GF-3 is China’ first C-band multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite, which also provides the sliding spotlight mode for the first time. Sliding-spotlight mode is a novel mode to realize imaging with not only high resolution, but also wide swath. Several key technologies for sliding spotlight mode in spaceborne SAR with high resolution are investigated in this paper, mainly including the imaging parameters, the methods of velocity estimation and ambiguity elimination, and the imaging algorithms. Based on the chosen Convolution BackProjection (CBP and PFA (Polar Format Algorithm imaging algorithms, a fast implementation method of CBP and a modified PFA method suitable for sliding spotlight mode are proposed, and the processing flows are derived in detail. Finally, the algorithms are validated by simulations and measured data.

  19. The Assessment Methodology RADAR – A Theoretical Approach of a Methodology for Coordinating the Efforts to Improve the Organizational Processes to Achieve Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper “The Assessment Methodology RADAR – A Theoretical Approach of a Methodology for Coordinating the Efforts to Improve the Organizational Processes to Achieve Excellence” the authors present the basic features of the assessment methodology RADAR that is designed to coordinate the efforts to improve the organizational processes in order to achieve excellence.

  20. Observation of Whole Flushing Process of a River Sand Bar by a Flood Using X-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takewaka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological changes during a flood event in July 2010 were observed with X-band marine radar at the mouth of Tenryu River, Shizuoka, Japan. Radar images were collected hourly for more than 72 h from the beginning of the flood and processed into time-averaged images. Changes in the morphology of the area were interpreted from the time-averaged images, revealing that the isolated river dune was washed away by the flood, the width of the river mouth increased gradually, and the river mouth terrace expanded radially. Furthermore, image analysis of the radar images was applied to estimate the migration speed of the brightness pattern, which is assumed to be a proxy of bottom undulation of the river bed. The migration was observed to be faster when the water level gradient between the river channel and sea increased.

  1. High Resolution Radar Imaging using Coherent MultiBand Processing Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Ebeling, R.P.; Huizing, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    High resolution radar imaging techniques can be used in ballistic missile defence systems to determine the type of ballistic missile during the boost phase (threat typing) and to discriminate different parts of a ballistic missile after the boost phase. The applied radar imaging technique is 2D

  2. Scanning Radar Investigations to Characterize Cloud and Precipitation Processes for ASR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalam, Chandrasekar [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Cooperative Inst. for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA)

    2016-12-17

    The project conducted investigations in the following areas related to scanning radar retrievals: a) Development for Cloud drizzle separation studies for the ENA site based on Doppler Spectra b) Advanced radar retrieval for the SGP site c) Characterizing falling snow using multifrequency dual-polarization measurements d) BAECC field experiment. More details about these investigations can be found within each subtopic within the report.

  3. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  4. Software Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the definition and the key features of Software Radar, which is a new concept, are proposed and discussed. We consider the development of modern radar system technology to be divided into three stages: Digital Radar, Software radar and Intelligent Radar, and the second stage is just commencing now. A Software Radar system should be a combination of various modern digital modular components conformed to certain software and hardware standards. Moreover, a software radar system with an open system architecture supporting to decouple application software and low level hardware would be easy to adopt "user requirements-oriented" developing methodology instead of traditional "specific function-oriented" developing methodology. Compared with traditional Digital Radar, Software Radar system can be easily reconfigured and scaled up or down to adapt to the changes of requirements and technologies. A demonstration Software Radar signal processing system, RadarLab 2.0, which has been developed by Tsinghua University, is introduced in this paper and the suggestions for the future development of Software Radar in China are also given in the conclusion.

  5. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  6. Center for the Study of Rhythmic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Mathematical modeling Neuromodulators . Regaerti-n Sensory feedback -9. A35𔄁ACT (Convtinue an reverse if necesusy and4 4onTify by WJoo number) The Center for...activation and movement, and the ability of the network to regenerate. Work on the STG included results on neuromodulators that change the output of the

  7. Advanced radar-interpretation of InSAR time series for mapping and characterization of geological processes

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna, F.; Del Ventisette, C.; Liguori, V.; Casagli, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new post-processing methodology for the analysis of InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) multi-temporal measures, based on the temporal under-sampling of displacement time series, the identification of potential changes occurring during the monitoring period and, eventually, the classification of different deformation behaviours. The potentials of this approach for the analysis of geological processes were tested on the case study of Naro (Italy), specifically selected...

  8. Combining millimeter-wave radar and communication paradigms for automotive applications : a signal processing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    As driving becomes more automated, vehicles are being equipped with more sensors generating even higher data rates. Radars (RAdio Detection and Ranging) are used for object detection, visual cameras as virtual mirrors, and LIDARs (LIght Detection and...

  9. Frequency Adaptability and Waveform Design for OFDM Radar Space-Time Adaptive Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Glover, Charles Wayne [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We propose an adaptive waveform design technique for an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radar signal employing a space-time adaptive processing (STAP) technique. We observe that there are inherent variabilities of the target and interference responses in the frequency domain. Therefore, the use of an OFDM signal can not only increase the frequency diversity of our system, but also improve the target detectability by adaptively modifying the OFDM coefficients in order to exploit the frequency-variabilities of the scenario. First, we formulate a realistic OFDM-STAP measurement model considering the sparse nature of the target and interference spectra in the spatio-temporal domain. Then, we show that the optimal STAP-filter weight-vector is equal to the generalized eigenvector corresponding to the minimum generalized eigenvalue of the interference and target covariance matrices. With numerical examples we demonstrate that the resultant OFDM-STAP filter-weights are adaptable to the frequency-variabilities of the target and interference responses, in addition to the spatio-temporal variabilities. Hence, by better utilizing the frequency variabilities, we propose an adaptive OFDM-waveform design technique, and consequently gain a significant amount of STAP-performance improvement.

  10. Sparse Representation Based Range-Doppler Processing for Integrated OFDM Radar-Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In an integrated radar-communication network, multiuser access techniques with minimal performance degradation and without range-Doppler ambiguities are required, especially in a dense user environment. In this paper, a multiuser access scheme with random subcarrier allocation mechanism is proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM based integrated radar-communication networks. The expression of modulation Symbol-Domain method combined with sparse representation (SR for range-Doppler estimation is introduced and a parallel reconstruction algorithm is employed. The radar target detection performance is improved with less spectrum occupation. Additionally, a Doppler frequency detector is exploited to decrease the computational complexity. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional modulation Symbol-Domain method under ideal and realistic nonideal scenarios.

  11. The Synthetic Aperture Radar Science Data Processing Foundry Concept for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hua, H.; Norton, C. D.; Little, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and the Advanced Information Systems Technology Program have invested in two technology evolutions to meet the needs of the community of scientists exploiting the rapidly growing database of international synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. JPL, working with the science community, has developed the InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE), a next-generation interferometric SAR processing system that is designed to be flexible and extensible. ISCE currently supports many international space borne data sets but has been primarily focused on geodetic science and applications. A second evolutionary path, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) science data system, uses ISCE as its core science data processing engine and produces automated science and response products, quality assessments and metadata. The success of this two-front effort has been demonstrated in NASA's ability to respond to recent events with useful disaster support. JPL has enabled high-volume and low latency data production by the re-use of the hybrid cloud computing science data system (HySDS) that runs ARIA, leveraging on-premise cloud computing assets that are able to burst onto the Amazon Web Services (AWS) services as needed. Beyond geodetic applications, needs have emerged to process large volumes of time-series SAR data collected for estimation of biomass and its change, in such campaigns as the upcoming AfriSAR field campaign. ESTO is funding JPL to extend the ISCE-ARIA model to a "SAR Science Data Processing Foundry" to on-ramp new data sources and to produce new science data products to meet the needs of science teams and, in general, science community members. An extension of the ISCE-ARIA model to support on-demand processing will permit PIs to leverage this Foundry to produce data products from accepted data sources when they need them. This paper will describe each of the elements of the SAR SDP Foundry and describe their

  12. Developing Dual Polarization Applications For 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) New Weather Radar: A Cooperative Project With The National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, W.P.; Peterson, W.A.; Carey, L.D.; Deierling, W.; McNamara, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar includes dual polarization capability, which has not been available to 45 WS previously. The 45 WS has teamed with NSSTC with funding from NASA Marshall Spaceflight Flight Center to improve their use of this new dual polarization capability when it is implemented operationally. The project goals include developing a temperature profile adaptive scan strategy, developing training materials, and developing forecast techniques and tools using dual polarization products. The temperature profile adaptive scan strategy will provide the scan angles that provide the optimal compromise between volume scan rate, vertical resolution, phenomena detection, data quality, and reduced cone-of-silence for the 45 WS mission. The mission requirements include outstanding detection of low level boundaries for thunderstorm prediction, excellent vertical resolution in the atmosphere electrification layer between 0 C and -20 C for lightning forecasting and Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, good detection of anvil clouds for Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, reduced cone-of-silence, fast volume scans, and many samples per pulse for good data quality. The training materials will emphasize the appropriate applications most important to the 45 WS mission. These include forecasting the onset and cessation of lightning, forecasting convective winds, and hopefully the inference of electrical fields in clouds. The training materials will focus on annotated radar imagery based on products available to the 45 WS. Other examples will include time sequenced radar products without annotation to simulate radar operations. This will reinforce the forecast concepts and also allow testing of the forecasters. The new dual polarization techniques and tools will focus on

  13. Improving mine recognition through processing and Dempster-Shafer fusion of ground-penetrating radar data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milisavljević, N.; Bloch, I.; Broek, S.P. van den; Acheroy, M.

    2003-01-01

    A methodfor modeling andcombination of measures extractedfrom a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in terms of belief functions within the Dempster-Shafer framework is presentedandillustratedon a real GPR data set. A starting point in the analysis is a preprocessed C-scan of a sand-lane containing some

  14. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  15. Radar Chart

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Radar Chart collection is an archived product of summarized radar data. The geographic coverage is the 48 contiguous states of the United States. These hourly...

  16. Random migration processes between two stochastic epidemic centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Igor; Kelbert, Mark; Gravenor, Michael B

    2016-04-01

    We consider the epidemic dynamics in stochastic interacting population centers coupled by random migration. Both the epidemic and the migration processes are modeled by Markov chains. We derive explicit formulae for the probability distribution of the migration process, and explore the dependence of outbreak patterns on initial parameters, population sizes and coupling parameters, using analytical and numerical methods. We show the importance of considering the movement of resident and visitor individuals separately. The mean field approximation for a general migration process is derived and an approximate method that allows the computation of statistical moments for networks with highly populated centers is proposed and tested numerically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Online Multisensor Data Fusion Framework for Radar Emitter Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar emitter classification is a special application of data clustering for classifying unknown radar emitters in airborne electronic support system. In this paper, a novel online multisensor data fusion framework is proposed for radar emitter classification under the background of network centric warfare. The framework is composed of local processing and multisensor fusion processing, from which the rough and precise classification results are obtained, respectively. What is more, the proposed algorithm does not need prior knowledge and training process; it can dynamically update the number of the clusters and the cluster centers when new pulses arrive. At last, the experimental results show that the proposed framework is an efficacious way to solve radar emitter classification problem in networked warfare.

  18. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the 'Valley Island' of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds. The light blue and yellow areas in the lowlands near the center are sugar cane fields. The three major population centers, Lahaina on the left at the western tip of island, Wailuku left of center, and Kihei in the lower center appear as small yellow, white or purple mottled areas. West Maui volcano, in the lower left, is 1800 meters high (5900 feet) and is considered extinct. The entire eastern half of the island consists of East Maui volcano, which rises to an elevation of 3200 meters (10,500 feet) and features a spectacular crater called Haleakala at its summit. Haleakala Crater was produced by erosion during previous ice ages rather than by volcanic activity, although relatively recent small eruptions have produced the numerous volcanic cones and lava flows that can be seen on the floor of the crater. The most recent eruption took place near the coast at the southwestern end of East Maui volcano in the late 1700s. Such a time frame indicates that East Maui should be considered a dormant, rather than an extinct volcano. A new eruption is therefore possible in the next few hundred years. The multi-wavelength capability of the SIR-C radar also permits differences in the vegetation cover on the middle flanks of East Maui to be identified. Rain forests appear in yellow, while grassland is shown in dark green, pink and blue. Radar images such as this one are being used by scientists to understand volcanic processes and to assess potential threats that future activity may pose to local populations. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image is 73.7 kilometers by 48.7 kilometers (45.7 miles by 30.2 miles) and is centered at 20

  19. Digital processing of orbital radar data to enhance geologic structure - Examples from the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, Penny M.; Harris, Jeff; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Blodget, Herbert W.

    1988-01-01

    Various digital enhancement techniques for SAR are compared using SIR-B and Seasat images of the Canadian Shield. The three best methods for enhancing geological structure were found to be: (1) a simple linear contrast stretch; (2) a mean or median low-pass filter to reduce speckle prior to edge enhancement or a K nearest-neighbor average to cosmetically reduce speckle; and (3) a modification of the Moore-Waltz (1983) technique. Three look directions were coregistered and several means of data display were investigated as means of compensating for radar azimuth biasing.

  20. Multi-Gigahertz radar range processing of baseband and RF carrier modulated signals in Tm:YAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, K.D.; Krishna Mohan, R.; Cole, Z.; Chang, T.; Olson, A.; Babbitt, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    An optical device is described and demonstrated that uses a spatial-spectral holographic material to perform coherent signal processing operations on analog, high-bandwidth optical signals with large time-bandwidth-products. Signal processing is performed as the material records the coherent spectral interference (or cross-power spectrum) of modulated optical signals as a spatial-spectral population grating between electronic transition states. Multiple exposures of processing pulse sequences are integrated with increasing grating strength. The device, coined as the Spatial-Spectral Coherent Holographic Integrating Processor (or S 2 -CHIP), is described as currently envisioned for a broadband, mid-to-high pulse repetition frequency range-Doppler radar signal processing system. Experiments were performed in Tm:YAG (0.1 at% at 5 K) to demonstrate time delay variation, integration dynamics, and effects of coding as applied to a radar range processor. These demonstrations used baseband modulation with a 1 gigabit per second (GPBS) bit rate and code length of 512 bits (512 ns), where delays up to 1.0 μs were resolved with greater than a 40 dB peak to RMS sidelobe ratio after 800 processing shots. Multi-GHz processing was demonstrated using a bit rate of 2.5 GBPS (baseband modulation) and code length of 2048 bits (819.2 ns). Processing of double-sideband modulated signals on a radio frequency (RF) carrier was demonstrated, where 512 bit, 1.0 GBPS codes were modulated on a 1.75 GHz carrier and then modulated on the optical carrier

  1. The Preliminary Processing and Geological Interpretation of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-1 Data from Chang'E-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Zhu, P.; Zhao, N.; Guo, S.; Xiao, L.; Xiao, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This is the first time to obtain the subsurface profiles using the lunar penetrating radar (LPR) on the Moon surface. Two types of antennas, channel-1 and channel-2, with different resolutions were equipped on the LPR, which detected the lunar subsurface structure with low frequency and the thickness of regolith with high frequency, respectively. We focus on the study of the lunar subsurface structure using channel-1 data. Considering the propagation characteristics of radar wave, the processing of amplitude compensation and filtering are applied to improve the imaging quality, and the processed profile clearly represents deeper than 300 meters of layered information. Based on the geological background around landing site, we present the preliminary geological interpretation for the lunar subsurface structure. More than 5 obvious reflecting events should be concerned along the track of the Yutu rover, which infer different lava sequences, including the Eratosthenian basalts, paleo-regolith formed between Eratosthenian and Imbrium, and multistage infilled lavas formed inter-layers among the Imbrium basalts.

  2. Radar Fundamentals, Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Topics include: introduction, radar functions, antennas basics, radar range equation, system parameters, electromagnetic waves, scattering mechanisms, radar cross section and stealth, and sample radar systems.

  3. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K

    2012-01-01

    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  4. Capturing User Needs to Improve Processes at EOSDIS Data Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofinowski, E. J.; Boquist, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2004 the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has conducted an annual comprehensive survey of user satisfaction using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). Customer satisfaction ratings for EOSDIS consistently rate better than the overall government ratings. As part of the survey users are asked to submit comments concerning their experiences and interests. These user comments provide valuable insight into the effect of data center processes on users' experiences. Although user satisfaction has remained high, their preferences have changed with the rapid advances in web-based services. This analysis investigates the correlation between user comments, process changes or capability improvements at the individual data centers, and whether the changes at the data centers and web sites show a corresponding increase in user satisfaction. We will evaluate the comments in the areas of Product Search, Product Selection and Order, Delivery, Product Quality and Customer Support.

  5. Marketing for Special Libraries and Information Centers: The Positioning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterngold, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    The positioning process of marketing used by special libraries and information centers involves two key decisions from which other decisions are derived: to which user groups marketing programs and services will be directed; and which information needs will be served. Two cases are discussed and a bibliography is provided. (EJS)

  6. Multiple-Parameter Estimation Method Based on Spatio-Temporal 2-D Processing for Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouguo Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel spatio-temporal 2-dimensional (2-D processing method that can jointly estimate the transmitting-receiving azimuth and Doppler frequency for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar in the presence of spatial colored noise and an unknown number of targets is proposed. In the temporal domain, the cross-correlation of the matched filters’ outputs for different time-delay sampling is used to eliminate the spatial colored noise. In the spatial domain, the proposed method uses a diagonal loading method and subspace theory to estimate the direction of departure (DOD and direction of arrival (DOA, and the Doppler frequency can then be accurately estimated through the estimation of the DOD and DOA. By skipping target number estimation and the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD of the data covariance matrix estimation and only requiring a one-dimensional search, the proposed method achieves low computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposed method is suitable for bistatic MIMO radar with an arbitrary transmitted and received geometrical configuration. The correction and efficiency of the proposed method are verified by computer simulation results.

  7. Some considerations for different time-domain signal processing of pulse compression radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graciela Molina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radar technology has for a long time used various systems that allow detection under high-resolution conditions, while emitting at the same time low peak power. Among these systems, transmitted pulse encoding by means of biphasic codes has been used for the advanced ionospheric sounder that was developed by the AIS-INGV ionosonde. In the receiving process, suitable decoding of the signal must be accomplished. This can be achieved in both the time and the frequency domains. Focusing on the time domain, different approaches are possible. In this study, two of these approaches have been compared, using data acquired by the AIS-INGV and processed by means of software tools (mainly Mathcad©. The analysis reveals the differences under both noiseless and noisy conditions, although this does not allow the conclusive establishment as to which method is better, as each of them has benefits and drawbacks.

  1. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  2. Microwave Magnetic Materials for Radar and Signal Processing Devices - Thin Film and Bulk Oxides and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-29

    field regime.’ This is V. HIGH FIELD EFFECTIVE LINEWIDTH the applicable situation here. The sample is placed in the center of a TEO ,, cavity with a high...order of 20 /Am. been considered previously. The cavity is the same as in Ref. 1, a TEO ,I cylindrical The above HFE linewidth results also lead to...coupling terms in the equation of motion. The main contri- dt+ Cikck(t) = (OkCk(t) + 60, kC (t) + &A0kCO(t), k * 0. bution to the two magnon

  3. Collection, processing, and interpretation of ground-penetrating radar data to determine sediment thickness at selected locations in Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Johnson, Carole D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected geophysical data in Deep Creek Lake in Garrett County, Maryland, between September 17 through October 4, 2007 to assist the Maryland Department of Natural Resources to better manage resources of the Lake. The objectives of the geophysical surveys were to provide estimates of sediment thickness in shallow areas around the Lake and to test the usefulness of three geophysical methods in this setting. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR), continuous seismic-reflection profiling (CSP), and continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) were attempted. Nearly 90 miles of GPR radar data and over 70 miles of CSP data were collected throughout the study area. During field deployment and testing, CRP was determined not to be practical and was not used on a large scale. Sediment accumulation generally could be observed in the radar profiles in the shallow coves. In some seismic profiles, a thin layer of sediment could be observed at the water bottom. The radar profiles appeared to be better than the seismic profiles for the determination of sediment thickness. Although only selected data profiles were processed, all data were archived for future interpretation.

  4. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  5. Simultaneous Range-Velocity Processing and SNR Analysis of AFIT’s Random Noise Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    reducing the overall processing time. Two computers, equipped with NVIDIA ® GPUs, were used to process the col- 45 lected data. The specifications for each...gather the results back to the CPU. Another company , AccelerEyes®, has developed a product called Jacket® that claims to be better than the parallel...Number of Processing Cores 4 8 Processor Speed 3.33 GHz 3.07 GHz Installed Memory 48 GB 48 GB GPU Make NVIDIA NVIDIA GPU Model Tesla 1060 Tesla C2070 GPU

  6. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Airborne radar ice sounding is challenged by surface clutter masking the depth signal of interest. Surface clutter may even be prohibitive for potential space-based ice sounding radars. To some extent the radar antenna suppresses the surface clutter, and a multi-phase-center antenna in combination...... with coherent signal processing techniques can improve the suppression, in particular if the direction of arrival (DOA) of the clutter signal is estimated accurately. This paper deals with data-driven DOA estimation. By using P-band data from the ice shelf in Antarctica it is demonstrated that a varying...

  7. Status of the TESS Science Processing Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Campbell, Jennifer; Tenebaum, Peter; Sanderfer, Dwight; Davies, Misty D.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Morris, Rob; Mansouri-Samani, Masoud; Girouardi, Forrest; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) science pipeline is being developed by the Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) at NASA Ames Research Center based on the highly successful Kepler Mission science pipeline. Like the Kepler pipeline, the TESS science pipeline will provide calibrated pixels, simple and systematic error-corrected aperture photometry, and centroid locations for all 200,000+ target stars, observed over the 2-year mission, along with associated uncertainties. The pixel and light curve products are modeled on the Kepler archive products and will be archived to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). In addition to the nominal science data, the 30-minute Full Frame Images (FFIs) simultaneously collected by TESS will also be calibrated by the SPOC and archived at MAST. The TESS pipeline will search through all light curves for evidence of transits that occur when a planet crosses the disk of its host star. The Data Validation pipeline will generate a suite of diagnostic metrics for each transit-like signature discovered, and extract planetary parameters by fitting a limb-darkened transit model to each potential planetary signature. The results of the transit search will be modeled on the Kepler transit search products (tabulated numerical results, time series products, and pdf reports) all of which will be archived to MAST.

  8. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  9. Knowledge Discovery Process: Case Study of RNAV Adherence of Radar Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    This talk is an introduction to the knowledge discovery process, beginning with: identifying the problem, choosing data sources, matching the appropriate machine learning tools, and reviewing the results. The overview will be given in the context of an ongoing study that is assessing RNAV adherence of commercial aircraft in the national airspace.

  10. The Center for Environmental Technology Innovative Technology Screening Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, C.M.

    1995-02-01

    The Center for Environmental Technology's (CET) mission is to provide a fully integrated system for accelerated evaluation, development, commercialization, and public acceptance of creative environmental solutions which match the foremost demands in today's environmentally sensitive world. In short, CET will create a means to provide quick, effective solutions for environmental needs. To meet this mission objective, CET has created a unique and innovative approach to eliminating the usual barriers in developing and testing environmental technologies. The approach paves the way for these emerging, cutting-edge technologies by coordinating environmental restoration and waste management activities of industry, universities, and the government to: efficiently and effectively transfer technology to these users, provide market-driven, cost-effective technology programs to the public and DOE, and aid in developing innovative ideas by initiating efforts between DOE facilities and private industry. The central part to this mission is selecting and evaluating specific innovative technologies for demonstration and application at United States Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The methodology and criteria used for this selection, which is called the CET Innovative Technology Screening Process, is the subject of this paper. The selection criteria used for the screening process were modeled after other DOE technology transfer programs and were further developed by CET's Technology Screening and Evaluation Board (TSEB). The process benefits both CET and the proposing vendors by providing objective selection procedures based on predefined criteria. The selection process ensures a rapid response to proposing vendors, all technologies will have the opportunity to enter the selection process, and all technologies are evaluated on the same scale and with identical criteria

  11. An enhanced Planetary Radar Operating Centre (PROC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallo, C.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using GPRs is an important role of Italy and numerous scientific international space programs are carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry) provided by ASI within a NASA/ESA/ASI joint venture framework are successfully operating: MARSIS on-board MEX, SHARAD on-board MRO and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft: the missions have been further extended . Three dedicated operational centers, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD are operating from the missions beginning to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution and even if they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). In order to harmonize operations either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view PROC is designed and developed for offering improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. PROC is, therefore, conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs, such as Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) The paper describes how the new PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation aiding scientists to increase their knowledge in the field of surface

  12. Bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Annotation his book is a major extension of a chapter on bistatic radar written by the author for the Radar Handbook, 2nd edition, edited by Merrill Skolnik. It provides a history of bistatic systems that points out to potential designers the applications that have worked and the dead-ends not worth pursuing. The text reviews the basic concepts and definitions, and explains the mathematical development of relationships, such as geometry, Ovals of Cassini, dynamic range, isorange and isodoppler contours, target doppler, and clutter doppler spread.Key Features * All development and analysis are

  13. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  14. Status of the TESS Science Processing Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon Michael; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Davies, Misty; Li, Jie; Morris, Robert L.; Rose, Mark; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Ting, Eric; Twicken, Joseph D.; Wohler, Bill

    2018-06-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) was selected by NASA’s Explorer Program to conduct a search for Earth’s closest cousins starting in 2018. TESS will conduct an all-sky transit survey of F, G and K dwarf stars between 4 and 12 magnitudes and M dwarf stars within 200 light years. TESS is expected to discover 1,000 small planets less than twice the size of Earth, and to measure the masses of at least 50 of these small worlds. The TESS science pipeline is being developed by the Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) at NASA Ames Research Center based on the highly successful Kepler science pipeline. Like the Kepler pipeline, the TESS pipeline provides calibrated pixels, simple and systematic error-corrected aperture photometry, and centroid locations for all 200,000+ target stars observed over the 2-year mission, along with associated uncertainties. The pixel and light curve products are modeled on the Kepler archive products and will be archived to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). In addition to the nominal science data, the 30-minute Full Frame Images (FFIs) simultaneously collected by TESS will also be calibrated by the SPOC and archived at MAST. The TESS pipeline searches through all light curves for evidence of transits that occur when a planet crosses the disk of its host star. The Data Validation pipeline generates a suite of diagnostic metrics for each transit-like signature, and then extracts planetary parameters by fitting a limb-darkened transit model to each potential planetary signature. The results of the transit search are modeled on the Kepler transit search products (tabulated numerical results, time series products, and pdf reports) all of which will be archived to MAST. Synthetic sample data products are available at https://archive.stsci.edu/tess/ete-6.html.Funding for the TESS Mission has been provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Netted LPI RADARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    CHALLENGES ............................66 1. Radar Processing Gain ........................66 2. High Sensitivity Requirement .................68 B...Relationship Between Network Space and Challenges .....................................127 Figure 42. Maneuverability................................129...virtually any kind of terrain. It has five modes: Normal, Weather, ECCM, LPI, and Very Low Clearance ( VLC ). Pictures of the LANTIRN pod aboard and F-16

  16. Three-State Locally Adaptive Texture Preserving Filter for Radar and Optical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko T. Astola

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Textural features are one of the most important types of useful information contained in images. In practice, these features are commonly masked by noise. Relatively little attention has been paid to texture preserving properties of noise attenuation methods. This stimulates solving the following tasks: (1 to analyze the texture preservation properties of various filters; and (2 to design image processing methods capable to preserve texture features well and to effectively reduce noise. This paper deals with examining texture feature preserving properties of different filters. The study is performed for a set of texture samples and different noise variances. The locally adaptive three-state schemes are proposed for which texture is considered as a particular class. For “detection” of texture regions, several classifiers are proposed and analyzed. As shown, an appropriate trade-off of the designed filter properties is provided. This is demonstrated quantitatively for artificial test images and is confirmed visually for real-life images.

  17. Operating The Central Process Systems At Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Carly P.

    2004-01-01

    As a research facility, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) trusts and expects all the systems, controlling their facilities to run properly and efficiently in order for their research and operations to occur proficiently and on time. While there are many systems necessary for the operations at GRC, one of those most vital systems is the Central Process Systems (CPS). The CPS controls operations used by GRC's wind tunnels, propulsion systems lab, engine components research lab, and compressor, turbine and combustor test cells. Used widely throughout the lab, it operates equipment such as exhausters, chillers, cooling towers, compressors, dehydrators, and other such equipment. Through parameters such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc., it performs its primary operations on the major systems of Electrical Dispatch (ED), Central Air Dispatch (CAD), Central Air Equipment Building (CAEB), and Engine Research Building (ERB). In order for the CPS to continue its operations at Glenn, a new contract must be awarded. Consequently, one of my primary responsibilities was assisting the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) with the process of awarding the recertification contract of the CPS. The job of the SEB was to evaluate the proposals of the contract bidders and then to present their findings to the Source Selecting Official (SSO). Before the evaluations began, the Center Director established the level of the competition. For this contract, the competition was limited to those companies classified as a small, disadvantaged business. After an industry briefing that explained to qualified companies the CPS and type of work required, each of the interested companies then submitted proposals addressing three components: Mission Suitability, Cost, and Past Performance. These proposals were based off the Statement of Work (SOW) written by the SEB. After companies submitted their proposals, the SEB reviewed all three components and then presented their results to the SSO. While the

  18. Combination of monthly gravity field solutions from different processing centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Yoomin; Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. Combinations are well-established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), where regular comparisons and combinations of space-geodetic products have tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. In the frame of the recently started Horizon 2020 project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM), a scientific combination service shall therefore be established to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community. In a first step the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions shall be mutually compared spatially and spectrally. We assess the noise of the raw as well as filtered solutions and compare the secular and seasonal periodic variations fitted to the monthly solutions. In a second step we will explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the

  19. Analysis of the computational requirements of a pulse-doppler radar signal processor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broich, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find an optimal processing architecture for radar signal processing applications, the different algorithms that are typically used in a pulse-Doppler radar signal processor are investigated. Radar algorithms are broken down...

  20. Advancing Understanding of the Role of Belowground Processes in Terrestrial Carbon Sinks trhrough Ground-Penetrating Radar. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Frank P. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Coarse roots play a significant role in belowground carbon cycling and will likely play an increasingly crucial role in belowground carbon sequestration as atmospheric CO2 levels continue to rise, yet they are one of the most difficult ecosystem parameters to quantify. Despite promising results with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a nondestructive method of quantifying biomass of coarse roots, this application of GPR is in its infancy and neither the complete potential nor limitations of the technology have been fully evaluated. The primary goals and questions of this study fell into four groups: (1) GPR methods: Can GPR detect change in root biomass over time, differentiate live roots from dead roots, differentiate between coarse roots, fine roots bundled together, and a fine root mat, remain effective with varied soil moisture, and detect shadowed roots (roots hidden below larger roots); (2) CO2 enrichment study at Kennedy Space Center in Brevard County, Florida: Are there post-fire legacy effects of CO2 fertilization on plant carbon pools following the end of CO2application ? (3) Disney Wilderness Study: What is the overall coarse root biomass and potential for belowground carbon storage in a restored longleaf pine flatwoods system? Can GPR effectively quantify coarse roots in soils that are wetter than the previous sites and that have a high percentage of saw palmetto rhizomes present? (4) Can GPR accurately represent root architecture in a three-dimensional model? When the user is familiar with the equipment and software in a setting that minimizes unsuitable conditions, GPR is a relatively precise, non-destructive, useful tool for estimating coarse root biomass. However, there are a number of cautions and guidelines that should be followed to minimize inaccuracies or situations that are untenable for GPR use. GPR appears to be precise as it routinely predicts highly similar values for a given area across multiple

  1. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those

  2. Signal compression in radar using FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla Hemández, Enrique; Kravchenko, Víctor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr; Duchen Sánchez, Gonzalo; Hernández Sánchez, David

    2010-01-01

    We present the hardware implementation of radar real time processing procedures using a simple, fast technique based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) architecture. This processing includes different window procedures during pulse compression in synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar signal compression processing is realized using matched filter, and classical and novel window functions, where we focus on better solution for minimum values of sidelobes. The proposed architecture expl...

  3. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  4. Imaging of concrete specimens using inverse synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhim, Hong C.; Buyukozturk, Oral

    2000-01-01

    Radar Measurement results of laboratory size concrete specimens are presented in this paper. The purpose of this research work is to study various aspects of the radar method in an effort to develop an improved radar system for nondestructive testing of concrete structures. The radar system used for the study is an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR), which is capable of transmitting microwaves at three different frequency ranges of 2-3.4, 3.4-5.8, and 8-12 GHz. Radar measurement setup is such that the radar is locates 14.4 m away from a concrete target to satisfy a far-field criterion. The concrete target is rotated for 20 degrees during the measurements for the generation of two-dimensional (cross-range) imagery. Concrete targets used for the measurements have the dimensions of 305 mm (width)x305 mm (height)x92 mm (thickness) with different inside configurations. Comparisons are made for dry and wet specimens, specimens with and without inclusions. Each specimen is made to model various situations that a concrete structure can have in reality. Results show that center frequency, frequency bandwidth, and polarization of the incident wave have different effects on identifying the thickness or inclusions inside concrete specimens. Results also suggest that a certain combination of measurement parameters is suitable for a specific application area. Thus, measurement parameters can be optimized for a specific problem. The findings are presented and discussed in details in the paper. Signal processing schemes implemented for imaging of the specimens are also discussed

  5. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  6. AVIRIS and TIMS data processing and distribution at the land processes distributed active archive center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, G. R.; Myers, J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Government has initiated the Global Change Research program, a systematic study of the Earth as a complete system. NASA's contribution of the Global Change Research Program is the Earth Observing System (EOS), a series of orbital sensor platforms and an associated data processing and distribution system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the archiving, production, and distribution system for data collected by the EOS space segment and uses a multilayer architecture for processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data. The first layer consists of the spacecraft ground stations and processing facilities that receive the raw data from the orbiting platforms and then separate the data by individual sensors. The second layer consists of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) that process, distribute, and archive the sensor data. The third layer consists of a user science processing network. The EOSDIS is being developed in a phased implementation. The initial phase, Version 0, is a prototype of the operational system. Version 0 activities are based upon existing systems and are designed to provide an EOSDIS-like capability for information management and distribution. An important science support task is the creation of simulated data sets for EOS instruments from precursor aircraft or satellite data. The Land Processes DAAC, at the EROS Data Center (EDC), is responsible for archiving and processing EOS precursor data from airborne instruments such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), and Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS, TIMS, and TMS are flown by the NASA-Ames Research Center ARC) on an ER-2. The ER-2 flies at 65000 feet and can carry up to three sensors simultaneously. Most jointly collected data sets are somewhat boresighted and roughly registered. The instrument data are being used to construct data sets that simulate the spectral and spatial

  7. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 30: International School on Atmospheric Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, Shoichiro (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Broad, tutorial coverage is given to the technical and scientific aspects of mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) meteorological radar systems. Control issues, signal processing, atmospheric waves, the historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics, incoherent scatter radars, radar echoes, radar targets, and gravity waves are among the topics covered.

  8. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  9. System Engineering Processes at Kennedy Space Center for Development of the SLS and Orion Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    There are over 40 subsystems being developed for the future SLS and Orion Launch Systems at Kennedy Space Center. These subsystems developed at the Kennedy Space Center Engineering Directorate follow a comprehensive design process which requires several different product deliverables during each phase of each of the subsystems. This Paper describes this process and gives an example of where the process has been applied.

  10. System Engineering Processes at Kennedy Space Center for Development of SLS and Orion Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Eric; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    There are over 40 subsystems being developed for the future SLS and Orion Launch Systems at Kennedy Space Center. These subsystems are developed at the Kennedy Space Center Engineering Directorate. The Engineering Directorate at Kennedy Space Center follows a comprehensive design process which requires several different product deliverables during each phase of each of the subsystems. This Presentation describes this process with examples of where the process has been applied.

  11. Analysis of Fleet Readiness Center Southwest Concept Integration: New-Employee Orientation and Communication Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clemmons, Francini R; Falconieri, Holly M

    2007-01-01

    Fleet Readiness Center Southwest has embraced integration of personnel and processes from Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Departments and Naval Aviation Depots supporting Naval Aviation Maintenance...

  12. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  13. Intelligent Processing Equipment Developments Within the Navy's Manufacturing Technology Centers of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanzetta, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Navy has had an active Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program aimed at developing advanced production processes and equipment since the late-1960's. During the past decade, however, the resources of the MANTECH program were concentrated in Centers of Excellence. Today, the Navy sponsors four manufacturing technology Centers of Excellence: the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (AMRF); the Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF); the National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology (NCEMT); and the Center of Excellence for Composites Manufacturing Technology (CECMT). This paper briefly describes each of the centers and summarizes typical Intelligent Equipment Processing (IEP) projects that were undertaken.

  14. Radar Scan Methods in Modern Multifunctional Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Skosyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered urgent task of organizing the review space in modern multifunctional radar systems shall review the space in a wide range of elevation angles from minus 5 to 60-80 degrees and 360 degrees azimuth. MfRLS this type should provide an overview of the zone for a limited time (2-3 sec, detecting a wide range of subtle high and low-flying targets. The latter circumstance requires the organization to select targets against the background of reflections from the underlying surface and local objects (MP. When providing an overview of the space taken into account the need to increase not only the noise immunity, and survivability.Two variants of the review of space in the elevation plane in the solid-state AESA radar. In the first case the overview space narrow beam by one beam. In the second - the transfer of DNA is formed, covering the whole sector of responsibility in elevation and at the reception beam is formed in spetsvychislitele (CB as a result of the signal processing of digitized after emitters antenna web. The estimations of the parameters specific to the multifunction radar SAM air and missile defense. It is shown that in a number of practically important cases, preference should be given clearly one of the methods described review of space.The functional scheme with AESA radar for both variants of the review. Necessary to analyze their differences. Contains the problem of increasing the cost of MfRLS with digital beamforming DNA with increasing bandwidth probing signal being processed.Noted drawbacks of MfRLS with digital beamforming beam. Including: reduced accuracy of the coordinates at low elevation angles, the complexity of the organization of thermal regime of the solid element base using quasi-continuous signal with a low duty cycle. Shows their fundamentally unavoidable in the steppe and desert areas with uneven terrain (Kazakhstan, China, the Middle East.It is shown that for MfRLS working in strong clutter, more preferably

  15. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  16. Textural features for radar image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugan, K. S.; Narayanan, V.; Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Texture is seen as an important spatial feature useful for identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. While textural features have been widely used in analyzing a variety of photographic images, they have not been used in processing radar images. A procedure for extracting a set of textural features for characterizing small areas in radar images is presented, and it is shown that these features can be used in classifying segments of radar images corresponding to different geological formations.

  17. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bartsch; F. Fitzek; R. H. Rasshofer

    2012-01-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insight...

  18. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  19. CREATIVE MEDITATION CENTERED ON NATURAL ELEMENTS: CONSEQUENCES ON COGNITIVE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores some of the effects of a creative meditation centered on a natural element (fire on different aspects of cognitive functioning, commonly associated with well-being, either positively (self-esteem, or negatively (automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. The results showed that while self-esteem improves after the creative meditation, automatic negative thinking and thought suppression do not decrease significantly. The conclusion is that the creative meditation helps in getting in touch with Self, supporting a healthy self-esteem when taking into consideration the social standards, but this also means accepting both positive and negative aspects of self, including the automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. This recommends the technique as a useful tool for psychotherapeutic and personal development use, as the vulnerabilities may become the focus without unnecessary self-blame, but with an intuitive solution in mind to turn them into personal resources.

  20. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  1. Minimum redundancy MIMO radars

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chun-Yang; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    2008-01-01

    The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar concept has drawn considerable attention recently. In the traditional single-input multiple-output (SIMO) radar system, the transmitter emits scaled versions of a single waveform. However, in the MIMO radar system, the transmitter transmits independent waveforms. It has been shown that the MIMO radar can be used to improve system performance. Most of the MIMO radar research so far has focused on the uniform array. However, i...

  2. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    second half of the L1 cal/val period, the RFI removal algorithm will be tuned for optimal performance, and the Faraday rotation corrections used in radar processing will be further developed and validated. This work is supported by the SMAP project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  3. A Cask Processing Enclosure for the TRU Waste Processing Center - 13408

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, John T.; Mendez, Nicholas [IP Systems, Inc., 2685 Industrial Lane, Broomfield, Colorado 80020 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper will discuss the key elements considered in the design, construction, and use of an enclosure system built for the TRU Waste Processing Center (TWPC). The TWPC system is used for the repackaging and volume reduction of items contaminated with radioactive material, hazardous waste and mixed waste. The modular structural steel frame and stainless steel skin was designed for rapid field erection by the use of interchangeable self-framing panel sections to allow assembly of a sectioned containment building and for ease of field mobility. The structure was installed on a concrete floor inside of an outer containment building. The major sections included an Outer Cask Airlock, Inner Cask Airlock, Cask Process Area, and Personnel Airlocks. Casks in overpacks containing transuranic waste are brought in via an inter-site transporter. The overpack lid is removed and the cask/overpack is transferred into the Outer Cask Airlock. A contamination cover is installed on the overpack body and the Outer Cask Airlock is closed. The cask/overpack is transferred into the Inner Cask Airlock on a cask bogie and the Inner Cask Airlock is closed. The cask lid is removed and the cask is transferred into the Cask Process Area where it is placed on a cask tilting station. Once the Cask Processing Area is closed, the cask tilt station is activated and wastes are removed, size reduced, then sorted and re-packaged into drums and standard waste boxes through bag ports. The modular system was designed and built as a 'Fast Track' project at IP Systems in Broomfield Colorado and then installed and is currently in use at the DOE TWPC located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (authors)

  4. Baselining the New GSFC Information Systems Center: The Foundation for Verifiable Software Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, A.; Schultz, D.; Boger, J.; Condon, S.; Webby, R.; Morisio, M.; Yakimovich, D.; Carver, J.; Stark, M.; Basili, V.; hide

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed at the Information System Center (ISC) in NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The ISC was set up in 1998 as a core competence center in information technology. The study aims at characterizing people, processes and products of the new center, to provide a basis for proposing improvement actions and comparing the center before and after these actions have been performed. The paper presents the ISC, goals and methods of the study, results and suggestions for improvement, through the branch-level portion of this baselining effort.

  5. SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) Data Collection and Processing Summary - 1984 SARSEX (SAR Internal Wave Signature Experiment) Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    DIVISION ;! -0 N xr-0 n 0n4 1 1 I- C) 0 Ic 0 C WIx W Qr - - r -r 01............................. I Cq I1 -a I- I X 0’ an w I w kI~r 1 0r- r- r . 0~~~ Cs CW 1...object from the SAR platform . Ground range, the 102 ~RIM RADAR DIVISION 0 0 sc 0’. C4 C4 Xn en % >4-4 441i V-u -- - W 1-11 04 v4 0o 0 4 0 (A~U Go 4J...Rg = rRF -hy ,(3) for the flat earth or low-altitude case, where h is the platform altitude. Because the range and azimuth scales are not the same

  6. Biological Inspired Stochastic Optimization Technique (PSO for DOA and Amplitude Estimation of Antenna Arrays Signal Processing in RADAR Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Hammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stochastic global optimization technique known as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO for joint estimation of amplitude and direction of arrival of the targets in RADAR communication system. The proposed scheme is an excellent optimization methodology and a promising approach for solving the DOA problems in communication systems. Moreover, PSO is quite suitable for real time scenario and easy to implement in hardware. In this study, uniform linear array is used and targets are supposed to be in far field of the arrays. Formulation of the fitness function is based on mean square error and this function requires a single snapshot to obtain the best possible solution. To check the accuracy of the algorithm, all of the results are taken by varying the number of antenna elements and targets. Finally, these results are compared with existing heuristic techniques to show the accuracy of PSO.

  7. A Case Study Documenting the Process by Which Biology Instructors Transition from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. PMID:27856550

  8. Sea clutter scattering, the K distribution and radar performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Keith; Watts, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Sea Clutter: Scattering, the K Distribution and Radar Performance, 2nd Edition gives an authoritative account of our current understanding of radar sea clutter. Topics covered include the characteristics of radar sea clutter, modelling radar scattering by the ocean surface, statistical models of sea clutter, the simulation of clutter and other random processes, detection of small targets in sea clutter, imaging ocean surface features, radar detection performance calculations, CFAR detection, and the specification and measurement of radar performance. The calculation of the performance of pract

  9. GA based CNC turning center exploitation process parameters optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Car

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents machining parameters (turning process optimization based on the use of artificial intelligence. To obtain greater efficiency and productivity of the machine tool, optimal cutting parameters have to be obtained. In order to find optimal cutting parameters, the genetic algorithm (GA has been used as an optimal solution finder. Optimization has to yield minimum machining time and minimum production cost, while considering technological and material constrains.

  10. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  11. Synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) a novel multi-frequency MIMO radar

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Baixiao

    2014-01-01

    Analyzes and discusses the operating principle, signal processing method, and experimental results of this advanced radar technology This book systematically discusses the operating principle, signal processing method, target measurement technology, and experimental results of a new kind of radar called synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR). The purpose is to help readers acquire an insight into the concept and principle of the SIAR, to know its operation mode, signal processing method, the difference between the traditional radar and itself, the designing ideals, and the developing me

  12. Radioactive alpha wastes processing at the nuclear center of Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de

    1978-01-01

    This process is based on calcination at very high temperature (1500 0 C) of wastes, mainly burnable, with selected non-burnable wastes, such as glass, metal, sludge, ion echanger, etc. Incineration wastes melt at this temperature and an insoluble granitic mass is obtained. This operation is performed in a special oven equipped with a gas purification device installed in a place like alpha bearing wastes treatment working spot where the staff can work in an air-supplied suit. Two incineration units are planned, the first one with a capacity of 150 kg/hr in view to treat a large amount of wastes with a low plutonium content (max. 10 mg/l), the second smaller with a capacity of 10 kg/hr, specially designed to process wastes with a high Pu content. This project for the first unit, at least is now tested with beta gamma wastes processing. Alpha bearing wastes pocessing will start at the end of 1978, we are now building the second unit [fr

  13. Comet radar explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  14. CMS Experiment Data Processing at RDMS CMS Tier 2 Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, V; Korenkov, V; Tikhonenko, E; Shmatov, S; Zhiltsov, V; Ilyin, V; Kodolova, O; Levchuk, L

    2012-01-01

    Russia and Dubna Member States (RDMS) CMS collaboration was founded in the year 1994 [1]. The RDMS CMS takes an active part in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Collaboration [2] at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [3] at CERN [4]. RDMS CMS Collaboration joins more than twenty institutes from Russia and Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) member states. RDMS scientists, engineers and technicians were actively participating in design, construction and commissioning of all CMS sub-detectors in forward regions. RDMS CMS physics program has been developed taking into account the essential role of these sub-detectors for the corresponding physical channels. RDMS scientists made large contribution for preparation of study QCD, Electroweak, Exotics, Heavy Ion and other physics at CMS. The overview of RDMS CMS physics tasks and RDMS CMS computing activities are presented in [5-11]. RDMS CMS computing support should satisfy the LHC data processing and analysis requirements at the running phase of the CMS experime...

  15. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology

  16. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  17. Radar and ARPA manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bole, A G

    2013-01-01

    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  18. Measurements of the center-of-mass energies at BESIII via the di-muon process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuhn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin (Lin), D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    From 2011 to 2014, the BESIII experiment collected about 5 fb(-1) data at center-of-mass energies around 4 GeV for the studies of the charmonium-like and higher excited charmonium states. By analyzing the di-muon process e(+)e(-)->gamma ISR/FSR mu(+)mu(-), the center-of-mass energies of the data

  19. A Case Study Documenting the Process by Which Biology Instructors Transition from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. © 2016 G. Marbach-Ad and C. H. Rietschel. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Analysing the Outbound logistics process enhancements in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center

    OpenAIRE

    Marjeta, Katri

    2011-01-01

    Marjeta, Katri. 2011. Analysing the outbound logistics process enhancements in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center. Master´s thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 57. Due to confidentiality issues, this work has been modified from its original form. The aim of this Master Thesis work is to describe and analyze the outbound logistics process enhancement projects executed in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center after the N...

  1. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  2. ISTEF Laser Radar Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stryjewski, John

    1998-01-01

    The BMDO Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (BMDO/ISTEF) laser radar program is engaged in an ongoing program to develop and demonstrate advanced laser radar concepts for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...

  3. Weather Radar Impact Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent an inventory of the national impacts of wind turbine interference with NEXRAD radar stations. This inventory was developed by the NOAA Radar...

  4. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Nickel, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Real aperture array radar; Imaging radar and Passive and multistatic radar.

  5. Detection and Classification of Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Using Parallel Filter Arrays and Higher Order Statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taboada, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    ... intercept devices such as radar warning, electronic support and electronic intelligence receivers, In order to detect LPI radar waveforms new signal processing techniques are required This thesis first...

  6. Stepped-frequency radar sensors theory, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the theory, analysis and design of microwave stepped-frequency radar sensors. Stepped-frequency radar sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require fine resolution. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter describes the fundamentals of radar sensors including applications followed by a review of ultra-wideband pulsed, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), and stepped-frequency radar sensors. The second chapter discusses a general analysis of radar sensors including wave propagation in media and scattering on targets, as well as the radar equation. The third chapter addresses the analysis of stepped-frequency radar sensors including their principles and design parameters. Chapter 4 presents the development of two stepped-frequency radar sensors at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies based on microwave integrated circuits (MICs), microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and printed-circuit antennas, and discusses their signal processing....

  7. Subcarrier-based Processing for Clutter Rejection in CP-OFDM Signal-based Passive Radar Using SFN Configuration (in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jian-xin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Clutter rejection is a key technique used by passive radars for target detection. Especially when using Single Frequency Network (SFN configuration, the multipath clutter and ground clutter increase several times more than during a single illuminator situation, which means that the clutter extends in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. The high amount of clutter occupies numerous degrees of freedom when conventional spatial or temporal processing is used, leading to a large array requirement, a huge computational cost, or even a complete failure. This paper investigates a novel subcarrier-based processing technique that is tailored for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM modulation with a Cyclic Prefix (CP-OFDM to avoid the abovementioned predicament. The algorithm principle is initially illustrated and followed by a discussion about the unique characteristics of Subcarrier-based Spatial Adaptive Processing (SSAP, which include the Doppler response and its unusual main-lobe clutter case. Then, the robustness is researched by evaluating the performance under relaxed basic assumptions. The conclusions are demonstrated by conducting test using simulated and real data sets.

  8. Inside the Black Box: The Case Review Process of an Elder Abuse Forensic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E; Wysong, Julia; DeLiema, Marguerite; Schwartz, Elizabeth L; Nichol, Michael B; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2016-08-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that elder abuse forensic centers improve victim welfare by increasing necessary prosecutions and conservatorships and reducing the recurrence of protective service referrals. Center team members gather information and make decisions designed to protect clients and their assets, yet the collective process of how these case reviews are conducted remains unexamined. The purpose of this study is to present a model describing the interprofessional approach of investigation and response to financial exploitation (FE), a frequent and complex type of abuse of vulnerable adults. To develop an understanding of the case review process at the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center (Center), a quasi-Delphi field study approach was used involving direct observations of meetings, surveying team members, and review from the Center's Advisory Council. The goal of this iterative analysis was to understand the case review process for suspected FE in Los Angeles County. A process map of key forensic center elements was developed that may be useful for replication in other settings. The process map includes: (a) multidisciplinary data collection, (b) key decisions for consideration, and (c) strategic actions utilized by an interprofessional team focused on elder justice. Elder justice relies on a complex system of providers. Elder abuse forensic centers provide a process designed to efficiently address client safety, client welfare, and protection of assets. Study findings provide a process map that may help other communities replicate an established multidisciplinary team, one experienced with justice system outcomes designed to protect FE victims. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Understanding radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley, Simon

    1999-01-01

    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  10. Seeking Humanizing Care in Patient-Centered Care Process: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Esmaeili, Maryam; Salsali, Mahvash

    Patient-centered care is both a goal in itself and a tool for enhancing health outcomes. The application of patient-centered care in health care services globally however is diverse. This article reports on a study that sought to introduce patient-centered care. The aim of this study is to explore the process of providing patient-centered care in critical care units. The study used a grounded theory method. Data were collected on 5 critical care units in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Purposive and theoretical sampling directed the collection of data using 29 semistructured interviews with 27 participants (nurses, patients, and physician). Data obtained were analyzed according to the analysis stages of grounded theory and constant comparison to identify the concepts, context, and process of the study. The core category of this grounded theory is "humanizing care," which consisted of 4 interrelated phases, including patient acceptance, purposeful patient assessment and identification, understanding patients, and patient empowerment. A core category of humanizing care integrated the theory. Humanizing care was an outcome and process. Patient-centered care is a dynamic and multifaceted process provided according to the nurses' understanding of the concept. Patient-centered care does not involve repeating routine tasks; rather, it requires an all-embracing understanding of the patients and showing respect for their values, needs, and preferences.

  11. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...... necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall...... estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...

  12. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...... applications. The paper also reviews how the focus in urban hydrology research has shifted over the last decade to fields such as climate change impacts, resilience of urban areas to hydrological extremes, and online prediction/warning systems. It is discussed how radar rainfall data can add value......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...

  13. Space Radar Image of Flevoland, Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the radar signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the image. This false-color image was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by

  14. A study on call/contact centers' inbound and outbound management process in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Llanos Reynoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One challenge related to contact center management involves determining which process best serves customers, inbound or outbound. Such decisions impact the number of service agents available for operations, affecting costs. The size of the call centers market worldwide is estimated to reach $337 billion dollars by 2018. This industry employs 670,000 people in Mexico. A series of equations for calculating the difference in the number of service agents required by the two processes is determined using the direct demo method. Developed theorems and corollary may help simplify decision-making processes. The findings demonstrate that the number of agents required for both processes depends on the percentage of customers served at each location and on service agent occupation rates. The study recommends some best practices to the Mexican call center industry in order to improve its profits and quality within the inbound outbound services.

  15. The governance of green IT The role of processes in reducing data center energy requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Spafford, George

    2008-01-01

    To sustain support, IT must implement processes to ensure proper value creation and protection of organizational goals.  To this end, this book sets forth a Green IT process that will enable value creation and protection in the areas of data center power and cooling.

  16. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the frontend for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the dataformatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and specific

  17. The Next Generation of Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar: NCAR/EOL Airborne Phased Array Radar (APAR) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Grubišić, Vanda; Tsai, Peisang; Dixon, Mike; Emmett, Jonathan; Lord, Mark; Lussier, Louis; Hwang, Kyuil; Ranson, James

    2017-04-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth observing Laboratory (EOL) is entering the third year of preliminary system design studies, engineering prototype testing and project management plan preparation for the development of a novel Airborne Phased Array Radar (APAR). This system being designed by NCAR/EOL will be installed and operated on the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft. The APAR system will consist of four removable C-band Active Electronically Scanned Arrays (AESA) strategically placed on the fuselage of the aircraft. Each AESA measures approximately 1.5 x 1.9 m and is composed of 3000 active radiating elements arranged in an array of line replaceable units (LRU) to simplify maintenance. APAR will provide unprecedented observations, and in conjunction with the advanced radar data assimilation schema, will be able to address the key science questions to improve understanding and predictability of significant and high-impact weather APAR, operating at C-band, allows the measurement of 3-D kinematics of the more intense portions of storms (e.g. thunderstorm dynamics and tornadic development, tropical cyclone rainband structure and evolution) with less attenuation compared with current airborne Doppler radar systems. Polarimetric measurements are not available from current airborne tail Doppler radars. However, APAR, with dual-Doppler and dual polarization diversity at a lesser attenuating C-band wavelength, will further advance the understanding of the microphysical processes within a variety of precipitation systems. The radar is sensitive enough to provide high resolution measurements of winter storm dynamics and microphysics. The planned APAR development that would bring the system to operational readiness for research community use aboard the C-130 is expected to take 8 years once major funding support is realized. The authors will review the overall APAR design and provide new details of the system based on our Technical Requirements Document

  18. Flood Monitoring using X-band Dual-polarization Radar Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Wang, Y.; Maki, M.; Nakane, K.

    2009-09-01

    A dense weather radar network is an emerging concept advanced by the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA). Using multiple radars observing over a common will create different data outcomes depending on the characteristics of the radar units employed and the network topology. To define this a general framework is developed to describe the radar network space, and formulations are obtained that can be used for weather radar network characterization. Current weather radar surveillance networks are based upon conventional sensing paradigm of widely-separated, standalone sensing systems using long range radars that operate at wavelengths in 5-10 cm range. Such configuration has limited capability to observe close to the surface of the earth because of the earth's curvature but also has poorer resolution at far ranges. The dense network radar system, observes and measures weather phenomenon such as rainfall and severe weather close to the ground at higher spatial and temporal resolution compared to the current paradigm. In addition the dense network paradigm also is easily adaptable to complex terrain. Flooding is one of the most common natural hazards in the world. Especially, excessive development decreases the response time of urban watersheds and complex terrain to rainfall and increases the chance of localized flooding events over a small spatial domain. Successful monitoring of urban floods requires high spatiotemporal resolution, accurate precipitation estimation because of the rapid flood response as well as the complex hydrologic and hydraulic characteristics in an urban environment. This paper reviews various aspects in radar rainfall mapping in urban coverage using dense X-band dual-polarization radar networks. By reducing the maximum range and operating at X-band, one can ensure good azimuthal resolution with a small-size antenna and keep the radar beam closer to the ground. The networked topology helps to achieve satisfactory

  19. [Outline and effectiveness of support system in the surgical center by supply, processing and distribution center (SPD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuko; Chinzei, Mieko; Fujiwara, Haruko; Usui, Hisako; Hanaoka, Kazuo; Saitoh, Eisho

    2006-04-01

    Supply, Processing and Distribution system had been introduced to surgical center (the University of Tokyo Hospital) since October of 2002. This system had reduced stock for medicine and materials and decreased medical cost dramatically. We designed some kits for therapeutic drugs related to anesthesia. They were prepared for general anesthesia, epidural and spinal anesthesia, and cardiovascular anesthesia, respectively. One kit had been used for one patient, and new kits were prepared in the anesthesia preparation room by pharmaceutical department staffs. Equipment, for general anesthesia as well as epidural and spinal anesthesia, and central catheter set were also designed and provided for each patient by SPD system. According to the questionnaire of anesthesia residents before and after introduction of SPD system, the time spent for anesthesia preparation had been reduced and 92.3% residents had answered that preparation for anesthesia on the previous day was getting easier. Most of the anesthesia residents had been less stressed after introduction of SPD system. Beside the dramatic economical effect, coordination with SPD system and pharmaceutical department reduced anesthesia preparation time and stress of the staff. Introduction of Support system of SPD to surgical center is important for safe and effective management of operating rooms.

  20. CRISIS UNDER THE RADAR: ILLICIT AMPHETAMINE USE IS REACHING EPIDEMIC PROPORTIONS AND CONTRIBUTING TO RESOURCE OVER-UTILIZATION AT A LEVEL 1 TRAUMA CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemma, Vincent A; Chapple, Kristina A; Goslar, Pamela W; Israr, Sharjeel; Petersen, Scott R; Weinberg, Jordan A

    2018-05-21

    Trauma centers reported illicit amphetamine use in approximately 10% of trauma admissions in the previous decade. From experience at a trauma center located in a southwestern metropolis, our perception is that illicit amphetamine use is on the rise, and that these patients utilize in-hospital resources beyond what would be expected for their injuries. The purpose of this study was to document the incidence of illicit amphetamine use among our trauma patients and to evaluate its impact on resource utilization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 7 consecutive years of data (starting July 2010) from our institution's trauma registry. Toxicology screenings were used to categorize patients into one of three groups: illicit amphetamine, other drugs, or drug free. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to predict hospital cost, length of stay, ICU admission and ventilation between drug groups. Models were conducted with combined injury severity (ISS) and then repeated for ISS <9, ISS 9-15 and ISS 16 and above. 8,589 patients were categorized into the following three toxicology groups: 1255 (14.6%) illicit amphetamine, 2214 (25.8%) other drugs, and 5120 (59.6%) drug free. Illicit amphetamine use increased threefold over the course of the study (from 7.85% to 25.0% of annual trauma admissions). Adjusted linear models demonstrated that illicit amphetamine among patients with ISS<9 was associated with 4.6% increase in hospital cost (P=.019) and 7.4% increase in LOS (P=.043). Logistic models revealed significantly increased odds of ventilation across all ISS groups and increased odds of ICU admission when all ISS groups were combined (P=.001) and within the ISS<9 group (P=.002). Hospital resource utilization of amphetamine patients with minor injuries is significant. Trauma centers with similar epidemic growth in proportion of amphetamine patients face a potentially significant resource strain relative to other centers. Prognostic and

  1. Development of a Software-Defined Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    disrupt desired radar operation. The cognitive radar system discussed herein mitigates the effects of RFI by sensing and adapting the transmitted...present received data, and plot processed data. Top right: Calculates a “ flicker ” rate caused by an unknown issue where blank data are received due to...and plot processed data. Top right: Calculates a “ flicker ” rate caused by an unknown issue where blank data are received due to missed

  2. Building the Support for Radar Processing across Memory Hierarchies: On the Development of an Array Class with Shapes using Expression Templates in C++̂

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullin, Lenore

    2004-01-01

    ...), could be used to develop software for radar and other DSP applications. This software needs to be tuned to use the levels of memory hierarchies efficiently without the materialization of array valued temporaries 3...

  3. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  4. Using phase for radar scatterer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda J.; Rigling, Brian D.; Penno, Robert P.; Zelnio, Edmund G.

    2017-04-01

    Traditional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems tend to discard phase information of formed complex radar imagery prior to automatic target recognition (ATR). This practice has historically been driven by available hardware storage, processing capabilities, and data link capacity. Recent advances in high performance computing (HPC) have enabled extremely dense storage and processing solutions. Therefore, previous motives for discarding radar phase information in ATR applications have been mitigated. First, we characterize the value of phase in one-dimensional (1-D) radar range profiles with respect to the ability to correctly estimate target features, which are currently employed in ATR algorithms for target discrimination. These features correspond to physical characteristics of targets through radio frequency (RF) scattering phenomenology. Physics-based electromagnetic scattering models developed from the geometrical theory of diffraction are utilized for the information analysis presented here. Information is quantified by the error of target parameter estimates from noisy radar signals when phase is either retained or discarded. Operating conditions (OCs) of signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth are considered. Second, we investigate the value of phase in 1-D radar returns with respect to the ability to correctly classify canonical targets. Classification performance is evaluated via logistic regression for three targets (sphere, plate, tophat). Phase information is demonstrated to improve radar target classification rates, particularly at low SNRs and low bandwidths.

  5. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  6. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  7. U.S. Experience and practices associated with the use of centralized rad waste processing centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, James D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the experience and current practices employed within the United States (US) associated with the use of Centralized Rad waste Processing Centers for the processing of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLRW). Information is provided on the methods, technologies, and practices employed by Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG), which is the worlds largest processor of LLRW. SEG processes over 80,000 cubic meters of waste annually and achieves an overall volume reduction of 12 : 1. LLRW processing in the United States is currently performed primarily at Centralized Rad waste Processing Centers, such as SEG's Central Volume Reduction Facility (CVRF) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This is primarily due to the superior economical application of advanced waste processing technologies, equipment, and personnel maintained at these centers. Information is provided on how SEG uses supercompaction, incineration, metals recycling, vitrification, and various other waste processing techniques to process both dry and wet wastes from over 90 commercial nuclear power plants, government operated facilities, hospitals, universities, and various small generators of radioactive waste

  8. Using C-Band Dual-Polarization Radar Signatures to Improve Convective Wind Forecasting at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Corey G.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Roeder, William P.; McNamara, Todd M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Air Force's 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) is the organization responsible for monitoring atmospheric conditions at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center (CCAFS/KSC) and issuing warnings for hazardous weather conditions when the need arises. One such warning is issued for convective wind events, for which lead times of 30 and 60 minutes are desired for events with peak wind gusts of 35 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-1) and 50 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-2), respectively (Roeder et al. 2014).

  9. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  10. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  11. Research and development of laser radar for environmental measurement. 2; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This project was received by Optoelectronic Industry and Technology Development Association from NEDO, and aims to contribute to the improvement of Indonesia's environmental administration through the development of an air pollution observing laser radar (LR) and of an environmental information network system fit for use in the country in cooperation with Indonesian engineers. LRs will be installed at several sites in an urban area where environmental problems are increasingly serious, and a observation network system will be constructed to link the laser radar sites. The observed data will be collected, analyzed, and processed by an observation data processing center for the investigation of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of air pollution to determine the actual state of air pollution over an urban area. The laser radars and the network will be placed in the city of Djakarta. The Indonesian authority responsible for the project is Indonesian Institute of Sciences. In fiscal 1994, part of the equipment (difference absorbing LR) was designed and manufactured, the design of the environmental information network system was developed, and various researches required in this connection were conducted. (NEDO)

  12. Radar, sonar, and holography an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kock, Winston E

    1974-01-01

    Radar, Sonar, and Holography: An Introduction provides an introduction to the technology of radar and sonar. Because the new science of holography is affecting both these fields quite strongly, the book includes an explanation of the fundamental principles underlying this new art (including the subjects of wave coherence, interference, and diffraction) and of the hologram process itself. Finally, numerous examples are discussed which show how holography is providing new horizons to radar and sonar systems. The book thus also provides a simple approach to the new technology of holography. The

  13. Image Registration Methode in Radar Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chelbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for the determination of the registration of an Interferometric Synthetic radar (InSAR pair images with half pixel precision. Using the two superposed radar images Single Look complexes (SLC [1-4], we developed an iterative process to superpose these two images according to their correlation coefficient with a high coherence area. This work concerns the exploitation of ERS Tandem pair of radar images SLC of the Algiers area acquired on 03 January and 04 January 1994. The former is taken as a master image and the latter as a slave image.

  14. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  15. Precursory strong-signal characteristics of the convective clouds of the Central Tibetan Plateau detected by radar echoes with respect to the evolutionary processes of an eastward-moving heavy rainstorm belt in the Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Xiangde; Ruan, Zheng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Fang

    2018-03-01

    The integrated analysis of the data from a C-band frequency-modulated continuous-wave (C-FMCW) radar site in Naqu obtained during a rainstorm over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the data concerning the three-dimensional structure of the circulation of the precipitation system that occurred over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin during the Third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Atmospheric Experiment from August 15th to 19th, 2014, was carried out. The changes in the echo intensity at the C-FMCW radar site in Naqu were of regional indicative significance for the characteristics of the whole-layer apparent heat source Q1 in local areas and the region of the adjacent river source area, including the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Lancang River (hereinafter referred to as the "source area of three rivers"), as well as to the vertical speeds due to the development of convection. This study indicates that the C-FMCW radar echo intensity of the plateau convection zone and the related power structures of the coupled dipole circulations in the middle layer of the atmosphere, as well as in the upper atmospheric level divergence and lower atmospheric level convergence, are important stimuli for convective clouds in this region. Furthermore, these radar data provided a physical image of the development and maintenance mechanisms of an eastward-moving heavy rainstorm belt. This study also shows that changes in the echo intensities at the C-FMCW radar site of Naqu can provide strong signals related to heavy rainstorm processes in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.

  16. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  17. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  18. Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed a review room in its headquarters building where, in the graphical style that prevailed in the 1960's, Ames leadership could review progress against schedule, budget and performance measures. Shown, in October 1965 is Merrill Mead chief of Ames' program and resources office. (for H Julian Allen Retirement album)

  19. Student-Centered Transformative Learning in Leadership Education: An Examination of the Teaching and Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber-Curran, Paige; Tillapaugh, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Innovative and learner-centered approaches to teaching and learning are vital for the applied field of leadership education, yet little research exists on such pedagogical approaches within the field. Using a phenomenological approach in analyzing 26 students' reflective narratives, the authors explore students' experiences of and process of…

  20. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  1. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  2. Co-Prime Frequency and Aperture Design for HF Surveillance, Wideband Radar Imaging, and Nonstationary Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-10

    circuit boards. A computational electromagnetics software package, FEKO [24], is used to model the antenna arrays, and the RMIM [12] is used to...Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems, Chengdu, China, 2010. [24] FEKO Suite 6.3, EM Software & Systems- S.A. (Pty) Ltd...including suggestions for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and

  3. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  4. New look at radar auroral motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, R.A.; Ecklund, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    During October 1974, three modifications were temporarily added to the NOAA radar auroral backscatter facility located at Anchorage, Alaska. These modifications included (1) a multiple azimuth antenna system. (2) an on-line computer for processing amplitude and mean Doppler profiles of the radar backscatter, and (3) a 13-baud Barker coder. In combination with the radar these modifications provided data relevant to understanding both the microscopic and the macroscopic nature of the radar aurora. Appreciable structure was often found in the Doppler velocity profiles of radar auroral irregularities. Doppler velocities of nearly 2000 m/s were observed. By combining scatter amplitude profiles and mean Doppler profiles from the five azimuths we have produced contour maps of the scatter intensity and the Doppler velocity. The scatter intensity maps often indicate appreciable temporal and spatial structure in the radar auroral irregularities, corroborating the results of Tsunoda et al. (1974). The mean Doppler contour maps indicate that there is also appreciable temporal and spatial structure in the flow velocities of radar auroral irregularities. At those times when there appears to be large-scale uniformity in the irregularity flow, the Doppler velocity varies with azimuth in a manner that is consistent with a cosine-dependent azimuthal variation

  5. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  6. The role of the right superior temporal gyrus in stimulus-centered spatial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Basak, Priyanka P; Chen, Peii; Caulfield, Kevin; Medina, Jared; Hamilton, Roy H

    2018-05-01

    Although emerging neuropsychological evidence supports the involvement of temporal areas, and in particular the right superior temporal gyrus (STG), in allocentric neglect deficits, the role of STG in healthy spatial processing remains elusive. While several functional brain imaging studies have demonstrated involvement of the STG in tasks involving explicit stimulus-centered judgments, prior rTMS studies targeting the right STG did not find the expected neglect-like rightward bias in size judgments using the conventional landmark task. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether disruption of the right STG using inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could impact stimulus-centered, allocentric spatial processing in healthy individuals. A lateralized version of the landmark task was developed to accentuate the dissociation between viewer-centered and stimulus-centered reference frames. We predicted that inhibiting activity in the right STG would decrease accuracy because of induced rightward bias centered on the line stimulus irrespective of its viewer-centered or egocentric locations. Eleven healthy, right-handed adults underwent the lateralized landmark task. After viewing each stimulus, participants had to judge whether the line was bisected, or whether the left (left-long trials) or the right segment (right-long trials) of the line was longer. Participants repeated the task before (pre-rTMS) and after (post-rTMS) receiving 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the right STG, the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and the vertex (a control site) during three separate visits. Linear mixed models for binomial data were generated with either accuracy or judgment errors as dependent variables, to compare 1) performance across trial types (bisection, non-bisection), and 2) pre- vs. post-rTMS performance between the vertex and the STG and the vertex and the SMG. Line eccentricity (z = 4.31, p right-long type by 10.7% on bisection

  7. [The Psychosocial Adaptation Process of Psychiatric Nurses Working in Community Mental Health Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, So Young

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify psychosocial issues faced by psychiatric and community mental health nurse practitioners (PCMHNP) working in community mental health centers, and to identify the adaptation processes used to resolve the issues. Data were collected through in-depth interviews between December 2013 and August 2014. Participants were 11 PCMHNP working in community mental health centers. Analysis was done using the grounded theory methodology. The first question was "How did you start working at a community mental health center; what were the difficulties you faced during your employment and how did you resolve them?" The core category was 'regulating within relationships.' The adaptation process was categorized into three sequential stages: 'nesting,' 'hanging around the nest,' and 'settling into the nest.' Various action/interaction strategies were employed in these stages. The adaptation results from using these strategies were 'psychiatric nursing within life' and 'a long way to go.' The results of this study are significant as they aid in understanding the psychosocial adaptation processes of PCMHNP working in community mental health centers, and indicate areas to be addressed in the future in order for PCMHNP to fulfill their professional role in the local community.

  8. Human Systems Engineering for Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gena; Stambolian, Damon B.; Stelges, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is primarily accomplished by human users of expensive and specialized equipment. In order to reduce the likelihood of human error, to reduce personal injuries, damage to hardware, and loss of mission the design process for the hardware needs to include the human's relationship with the hardware. Just as there is electrical, mechanical, and fluids, the human aspect is just as important. The focus of this presentation is to illustrate how KSC accomplishes the inclusion of the human aspect in the design using human centered hardware modeling and engineering. The presentations also explain the current and future plans for research and development for improving our human factors analysis tools and processes.

  9. Aspects of Radar Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    LÜNEBURG, Ernst

    2002-01-01

    This contribution is a tutorial introduction to the phenomenological theory of radar polarimetry for the coherent scatter case emphasizing monostatic backscattering and forward scattering (transmission). Characteristic similarities and differences between radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry and the role of linear and antilinear operators (time-reversal) are pointed out and typical polarimetric invariants are identified.

  10. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  11. Determination of radar MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  12. Variation in Structure and Process of Care in Traumatic Brain Injury: Provider Profiles of European Neurotrauma Centers Participating in the CENTER-TBI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryse C Cnossen

    Full Text Available The strength of evidence underpinning care and treatment recommendations in traumatic brain injury (TBI is low. Comparative effectiveness research (CER has been proposed as a framework to provide evidence for optimal care for TBI patients. The first step in CER is to map the existing variation. The aim of current study is to quantify variation in general structural and process characteristics among centers participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI study.We designed a set of 11 provider profiling questionnaires with 321 questions about various aspects of TBI care, chosen based on literature and expert opinion. After pilot testing, questionnaires were disseminated to 71 centers from 20 countries participating in the CENTER-TBI study. Reliability of questionnaires was estimated by calculating a concordance rate among 5% duplicate questions.All 71 centers completed the questionnaires. Median concordance rate among duplicate questions was 0.85. The majority of centers were academic hospitals (n = 65, 92%, designated as a level I trauma center (n = 48, 68% and situated in an urban location (n = 70, 99%. The availability of facilities for neuro-trauma care varied across centers; e.g. 40 (57% had a dedicated neuro-intensive care unit (ICU, 36 (51% had an in-hospital rehabilitation unit and the organization of the ICU was closed in 64% (n = 45 of the centers. In addition, we found wide variation in processes of care, such as the ICU admission policy and intracranial pressure monitoring policy among centers.Even among high-volume, specialized neurotrauma centers there is substantial variation in structures and processes of TBI care. This variation provides an opportunity to study effectiveness of specific aspects of TBI care and to identify best practices with CER approaches.

  13. Principles of modern radar radar applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scheer, James A

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Radar Applications is the third of the three-volume seriesof what was originally designed to be accomplished in one volume. As the final volumeof the set, it finishes the original vision of a complete yet bounded reference for radartechnology. This volume describes fifteen different system applications or class ofapplications in more detail than can be found in Volumes I or II.As different as the applications described, there is a difference in how these topicsare treated by the authors. Whereas in Volumes I and II there is strict adherence tochapter format and leve

  14. Energy Center Structure Optimization by using Smart Technologies in Process Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilkina, Svetlana V.

    2018-03-01

    The article deals with practical application of fuzzy logic methods in process control systems. A control object - agroindustrial greenhouse complex, which includes its own energy center - is considered. The paper analyzes object power supply options taking into account connection to external power grids and/or installation of own power generating equipment with various layouts. The main problem of a greenhouse facility basic process is extremely uneven power consumption, which forces to purchase redundant generating equipment idling most of the time, which quite negatively affects project profitability. Energy center structure optimization is largely based on solving the object process control system construction issue. To cut investor’s costs it was proposed to optimize power consumption by building an energy-saving production control system based on a fuzzy logic controller. The developed algorithm of automated process control system functioning ensured more even electric and thermal energy consumption, allowed to propose construction of the object energy center with a smaller number of units due to their more even utilization. As a result, it is shown how practical use of microclimate parameters fuzzy control system during object functioning leads to optimization of agroindustrial complex energy facility structure, which contributes to a significant reduction in object construction and operation costs.

  15. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Ben C.; Heacker, Fred K.; Shannon, Christopher [Wastren Advantage, Inc., Transuranic Waste Processing Center, 100 WIPP Road, Lenoir City, Tennessee 37771 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct

  16. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Ben C.; Heacker, Fred K.; Shannon, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct and install

  17. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Udayan

    2011-01-01

    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  18. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  19. Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2006-04-17

    This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

  20. Application of statistical process control and process capability analysis procedures in orbiter processing activities at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Robert R.; Jackson, Andrew E.; Swart, William W.; Barth, Timothy S.

    1994-01-01

    Successful ground processing at KSC requires that flight hardware and ground support equipment conform to specifications at tens of thousands of checkpoints. Knowledge of conformance is an essential requirement for launch. That knowledge of conformance at every requisite point does not, however, enable identification of past problems with equipment, or potential problem areas. This paper describes how the introduction of Statistical Process Control and Process Capability Analysis identification procedures into existing shuttle processing procedures can enable identification of potential problem areas and candidates for improvements to increase processing performance measures. Results of a case study describing application of the analysis procedures to Thermal Protection System processing are used to illustrate the benefits of the approaches described in the paper.

  1. Radar-to-Radar Interference Suppression for Distributed Radar Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar sensor networks, including bi- and multi-static radars, provide several operational advantages, like reduced vulnerability, good system flexibility and an increased radar cross-section. However, radar-to-radar interference suppression is a major problem in distributed radar sensor networks. In this paper, we present a cross-matched filtering-based radar-to-radar interference suppression algorithm. This algorithm first uses an iterative filtering algorithm to suppress the radar-to-radar interferences and, then, separately matched filtering for each radar. Besides the detailed algorithm derivation, extensive numerical simulation examples are performed with the down-chirp and up-chirp waveforms, partially overlapped or inverse chirp rate linearly frequency modulation (LFM waveforms and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM chirp diverse waveforms. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the simulation results.

  2. How do I provide leukapheresis products? Blood center experience and evidence for process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Yelena; Kessler, Debra; Narici, Manlio; Caltabiano, Melinda; Rebosa, Mark; Strauss, Donna; Shaz, Beth

    2013-10-01

    The past few decades have seen a resurgence of interest in leukapheresis products to improve the survival of infected patients with neutropenia. These products have a short shelf life and require donor stimulation with dexamethasone before collection. Additionally, a system with good communications and logistical support is essential. A recent survey of blood centers in North America revealed that the majority of centers collecting leukapheresis products use steroid-stimulated donors. The survey results suggested that an analysis of the process and potential process improvement would be of interest to the transfusion medicine community. Data from 2008 to 2011 regarding donor selection, donor dexamethasone stimulation, leukapheresis collection, and correlations between potentially pertinent variables for process improvement were analyzed. Results from an analysis of cost are also included. We evaluate 432 leukapheresis donations and demonstrate correlations between 1) pre- and poststimulation white blood cell (WBC) count (pproduct granulocyte yield (pimprovement in granulocyte quality and yield can be accomplished in dexamethasone-stimulated donors, by selecting eligible donors with relatively high normal prestimulation WBC counts and/or previously good responses to dexamethasone, increasing the duration between dexamethasone stimulation and granulocyte collection, and maintaining optimal hematocrit (5%-10%) in granulocyte collections. Because the majority of surveyed blood centers collecting stimulated granulocytes use steroids alone, modifications presented here may prove useful. Further assessment of correlation between granulocyte yield and clinical outcome will await results of additional studies. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Measurements of the center-of-mass energies at BESIII via the di-muon process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; N. Achasov, M.; C. Ai, X.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; J. Ambrose, D.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, Ferroli R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Y. Deng, Z.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Q. Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Cheng, Li; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Fang, Liu; Feng, Liu; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. Y.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A. A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, B. K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, A. Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; , S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    From 2011 to 2014, the BESIII experiment collected about 5 fb-1 data at center-of-mass energies around 4 GeV for the studies of the charmonium-like and higher excited charmonium states. By analyzing the di-muon process e+e- → γISR/FSRμ+μ-, the center-of-mass energies of the data samples are measured with a precision of 0.8 MeV. The center-of-mass energy is found to be stable for most of the time during data taking. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11125525, 11235011, 11322544, 11335008, 11425524, Y61137005C), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), Collaborative Innovation Center for Particles and Interactions (CICPI), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of NSFC and CAS (11179007, U1232201, U1332201), CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, National 1000 Talents Program of China, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), Swedish Research Council, U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0).

  4. Microphysical Structures of Hurricane Irma Observed by Polarimetric Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didlake, A. C.; Kumjian, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study examines dual-polarization radar observations of Hurricane Irma as its center passed near the WSR-88D radar in Puerto Rico, capturing needed microphysical information of a mature tropical cyclone. Twenty hours of observations continuously sampled the inner core precipitation features. These data were analyzed by annuli and azimuth, providing a bulk characterization of the primary eyewall, secondary eyewall, and rainbands as they varied around the storm. Polarimetric radar variables displayed distinct signatures of convective and stratiform precipitation in the primary eyewall and rainbands that were organized in a manner consistent with the expected kinematic asymmetry of a storm in weak environmental wind shear but with moderate low-level storm-relative flow. In the front quadrants of the primary eyewall, vertical profiles of differential reflectivity (ZDR) exhibit increasing values with decreasing height consistent with convective precipitation processes. In particular, the front-right quadrant exhibits a signature in reflectivity (ZH) and ZDR indicating larger, sparser drops, which is consistent with a stronger updraft present in this quadrant. In the rear quadrants, a sharply peaked ZDR maximum occurs within the melting layer, which is attributed of stratiform processes. In the rainbands, the convective to stratiform transition can be seen traveling from the front-right to the front-left quadrant. The front-right quadrant exhibits lower co-polar correlation coefficient (ρHV) values in the 3-8 km altitude layer, suggesting larger vertical spreading of various hydrometeors that occurs in convective vertical motions. The front-left quadrant exhibits larger ρHV values, suggesting less diversity of hydrometeor shapes, consistent with stratiform processes. The secondary eyewall did not exhibit a clear signature of processes preferred in a specific quadrant, and a temporal analysis of the secondary eyewall revealed a complex evolution of its structure

  5. Tenth Biennial Coherent Laser Radar Technology and Applications Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The tenth conference on coherent laser radar technology and applications is the latest in a series beginning in 1980 which provides a forum for exchange of information on recent events current status, and future directions of coherent laser radar (or lidar or lader) technology and applications. This conference emphasizes the latest advancement in the coherent laser radar field, including theory, modeling, components, systems, instrumentation, measurements, calibration, data processing techniques, operational uses, and comparisons with other remote sensing technologies.

  6. Radar remote sensing in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  7. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Koch, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Waveform diversity and cognitive radar and Target tracking and data fusion.

  8. The IRIS process and its industrial application at the CEA's Valduc Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Longuet, T.; Charvillat, J.P.; Chateauvieux, H.; Guiberteau, P.; Lorich, M.

    2000-01-01

    Following several years of laboratory research initiated in 1983 on a nonradioactive prototype unit at the CEA's (Atomic Energy Commission) Valrho/Marcoule Research Center, an innovative process, IRIS, has been developed to meet the need for processing nuclear glove box waste. It is to our knowledge the only high-capacity process in the world capable of dealing with highly chlorinated (25 wt% chlorine) alpha-contaminated waste. IRIS is based on a two-step incineration process combining pyrolysis and calcination with a specific off-gas treatment. The nonradioactive prototype at Marcoule has operated for over 5000 hours, demonstrating the following advantages: - Highly effective process control through regular, continuous feed of the rotating tubular kiln. - Very effective control of corrosion by pyrolytic decomposition of organo-chlorine compounds at 550 deg. C under inert atmosphere. - High ash quality (< 1% carbon, < 1% chlorine) compatible with online radionuclide recovery or vitrification processes. - High waste/ash weight and volume reduction factors (30 in both cases). - Very low gas flow rates limiting waste entrainment compared with direct incineration. - Very high efficiency off-gas treatment complying with gaseous emission standards. - Protection of system piping by substitution of stable phosphates for metal chlorides generated in the off-gas lines. - Flexible process capacity from a few kg/h for nuclear waste to 500 kg/h for conventional waste. In December 1991, the CEA's Valduc Center decided to build the first industrial facility based on the IRIS process. Construction work, equipment design and assembly, nonradioactive testing and preparation of the safety report lasted six years. The facility successfully began operating with radioactive waste on March 10, 1999, substantiating the R and D effort. Three other nuclear industrial operators around the world have adopted the IRIS process for future implementation. (authors)

  9. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  10. Wind farm radar study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report examines the possible degradations of radar performance that may be caused by the presence of a wind turbine generator within the radar coverage area. A brief literature survey reviews the previously published work, which is mainly concerned with degradation of broadcast TV reception. Estimates are made of wind turbine generator scattering cross-sections, and of the time and Doppler characteristics of the echo signals from representative wind turbine generator. The general characteristics of radar detection and tracking methods are described, and the behaviour of such systems in the presence of strong returns from a wind turbine generator (or an array of them) is discussed. (author)

  11. Radar observations of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the radar altimetry profiles of Mercury obtained on the basis of data from the Arecibo Observatory are presented. In these measurements, the delay-Doppler method was used to measure altitudes along the Doppler equator, rather than to map radar reflectivity. The profiles, derived from observations made over a 6-yr period, provide extensive coverage over a restricted equatorial band and permit the identification of radar signatures for features as small as 50-km diameter craters and 1-km-high arcuate scarps. The data allowed identification of large-scale topographic features such as smooth plains subsidence zones and major highland regions

  12. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  13. Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  14. SKB - PNC. Development of tunnel radar antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, L.

    1991-07-01

    Tunnel antennas for the RAMAC borehole radar system have been developed and tested in the field. The antennas are of the loaded dipole type and the receiver and transmitter electronics have been rebuilt to screen them from the antennas. A series of measurements has demonstrated that the radar pulse is short and well shaped and relatively free from ringing, even compared with the existing borehole antennas. Two antenna sets were tested: one centered at 60 MHz and another above 100 MHz. Both produced excellent radar pictures when tested in tunnels in Stripa mine. The antennas have been designed to be easy to carry, since the signal quality often depends on the way the antenna is held relative to electric conductors in the tunnels. (au) (46 figs., 57 refs.)

  15. Hardware in the loop simulation of arbitrary magnitude shaped correlated radar clutter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple process for the generation of arbitrary probability distributions of complex data with correlation from sample to sample, optimized for hardware in the loop radar environment simulation. Measured radar clutter is used...

  16. Modern Radar Techniques for Geophysical Applications: Two Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, B. J.; Bianchi, C.; Sciacca, U.; Tutone, G.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade of the evolution of radar was heavily influenced by the rapid increase in the information processing capabilities. Advances in solid state radio HF devices, digital technology, computing architectures and software offered the designers to develop very efficient radars. In designing modern radars the emphasis goes towards the simplification of the system hardware, reduction of overall power, which is compensated by coding and real time signal processing techniques. Radars are commonly employed in geophysical radio soundings like probing the ionosphere; stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast, GPR and radio-glaciology etc. In the laboratorio di Geofisica Ambientale of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy, we developed two pulse compression radars. The first is a HF radar called AIS-INGV; Advanced Ionospheric Sounder designed both for the purpose of research and for routine service of the HF radio wave propagation forecast. The second is a VHF radar called GLACIORADAR, which will be substituting the high power envelope radar used by the Italian Glaciological group. This will be employed in studying the sub glacial structures of Antarctica, giving information about layering, the bed rock and sub glacial lakes if present. These are low power radars, which heavily rely on advanced hardware and powerful real time signal processing. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  17. Determination of wafer center position during the transfer process by using the beam-breaking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Gen; Huang, Bo-Kai

    2014-01-01

    A wafer on a robot blade may slip due to inertia sliding during the acceleration or deceleration process. This study presents the implementation and experimental verification of a novel real-time wafer positioning system to be used during the transfer process. A system-integration computer program involving a human–machine interface (HMI) was also developed, exhibiting the following functions: (a) moving direction judgment; (b) notch-passing judgment; (c) indicating the sensor by which the notch passes; and (d) computing the wafer center in real time. The position of the wafer center is calculated based on the time-sequence of the beam-breaking signals from two optical sensors, and the geometric relations among the sensing points of the robot blade and wafer. When using eight-inch wafers, the experimental results indicated the capabilities of the proposed positioning system under various conditions, including distinct parameters regarding the moving direction, wafer displacement and notch-passing sensors. The accuracy and precision (repeatability) of the measurement in various conditions were calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the experimental results demonstrate that, after combining the novel wafer positioning system and HMI program, the proposed method can be used to compute the position of the wafer center in real time in various conditions. (paper)

  18. Improving emergency management through shared information processing - considerations in Emergency Operations Center design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBusk, R.E.; Walker, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    An Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is a shared information processing facility. Although seemingly obvious, many EOCs are designed and operated based on other criteria. The results, measured in terms of response effectiveness, are difficult to determine. A review of some recent disasters reveals a pattern of poor performance for the EOCs involved. These conclusions are tentative because so little research has been done on the design, operation, or evaluation of emergency operations centers. The EOC is not an onsite response command post but a facility removed from the response where tactical and strategic decisions are made based on information from the response site and elsewhere. The EOC is therefore the central focus of emergency information processing and higher-level decision making. Examining existing EOCs, several common functions emerge. These functions can be described in terms of shared information processing. However, many factors impact the design and operation of EOCs. Politics, budgets, and personal ambition are only a few such factors. Examining EOC design and operation in terms of shared information processing operationalized in the seven principal functions within the EOC provides a framework for establishing principles of EOC design and operation. In the response to emergencies such as Bhopal or Chernobyl the stakes are high. Applying new techniques and technologies of management systems can improve the probability of success. This research is a beginning step - to understand how EOCs function, to define the system. Predictive or prescriptive analysis must wait until sufficient empirical data is available to complete a descriptive model for EOC operations

  19. The software development process at the Chandra X-ray Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janet D.; Evans, Ian N.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    2008-08-01

    Software development for the Chandra X-ray Center Data System began in the mid 1990's, and the waterfall model of development was mandated by our documents. Although we initially tried this approach, we found that a process with elements of the spiral model worked better in our science-based environment. High-level science requirements are usually established by scientists, and provided to the software development group. We follow with review and refinement of those requirements prior to the design phase. Design reviews are conducted for substantial projects within the development team, and include scientists whenever appropriate. Development follows agreed upon schedules that include several internal releases of the task before completion. Feedback from science testing early in the process helps to identify and resolve misunderstandings present in the detailed requirements, and allows review of intangible requirements. The development process includes specific testing of requirements, developer and user documentation, and support after deployment to operations or to users. We discuss the process we follow at the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) to develop software and support operations. We review the role of the science and development staff from conception to release of software, and some lessons learned from managing CXC software development for over a decade.

  20. Modeling of load lifting process with unknown center of gravity position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanin, Y. N.; Zhukov, M. I.; Panichkin, A. V.; Redelin, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article proposes a new type of lifting beams that allows one to lift loads where the position of the center of gravity is unknown beforehand. The benefit of implementing this type of traverse is confirmed by the high demand for this product from the industrial enterprises and lack of their availability on the market. In conducted studies, the main kinematic and dynamic dependencies of the load lifting process with an unknown position of the center of gravity were described allowing for design and verification calculations of the traverse with flexible slings and an adjustable bail to be carried out. The obtained results can be useful to engineers and employees of enterprises engaged in the design and manufacturing of the lifting equipment and scientists doing research in “Carrying and lifting machines”.

  1. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  2. Improved Laser Vibration Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilaire, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...

  3. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  4. Radar detection of Vesta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, S.J.; Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.); Campbell, D.B.; Pettengill, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Asteroid 4 Vesta was detected on November 6, 1979 with the Arecibo Observatory's S-band (12.6-cm-wavelength) radar. The echo power spectrum, received in the circular polarization opposite to that transmitted, yields a radar cross section of (0.2 + or - 0.1)pi a-squared, for a 272 km. The data are too noisy to permit derivation of Vesta's rotation period

  5. Downhole pulse radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  6. Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration in the Redesign of Family-Centered Rounds Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale; Cartmill, Randi; Li, Yaqiong; Cox, Elizabeth D.; Plotkin, Julie A.; Kelly, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    A human factors approach to healthcare system redesign emphasizes the involvement of multiple healthcare stakeholders (e.g., patients and families, healthcare providers) in the redesign process. This study explores the experience of multiple stakeholders with collaboration in a healthcare system redesign project. Interviews were conducted with ten stakeholder representatives who participated in the redesign of the family-centered rounds process in a pediatric hospital. Qualitative interview data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A model of collaborative healthcare system redesign was developed, which defined four phases (i.e., setup of the redesign team, preparation for meetings, collaboration in meetings, follow-up after meetings) and two outcomes (i.e., team outcomes, redesign outcomes) of the collaborative process. Challenges to multi-stakeholder collaboration in healthcare system redesign, such as need to represent all relevant stakeholders, scheduling of meetings and managing different perspectives, were identified. PMID:25124394

  7. Experience in procurement and processing of heart valves at the Northwest Tissue Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.; O'Neal, P.D.; Gage, H.N.; Moogk, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Northwest Tissue Center established a human heart valve program in 199 1. It is one of four non-profit tissue banks and one for-profit program that recover and process heart valves in the United States. During the eight years in which the Northwest Tissue Center has been involved in heart valve banking, there have been a total of 673 hearts procured for processing. The age of the donors ranged from <1 to 44 years with a mean of 26.2 years, 66% werw male,and 6.5% of the hearts procered were discarded due to a variety of medical and criteria reason. The primary reasons for differal were questions of possible cancer and questions of high risk behavior/social history. Of the 1,264 cardiovascular tissues processed, 6% were lost because of donor history, 17% were lost because of microbiology results, and 5% were lost because of donor serology . There were total a total of 190 aortic valves and 48 pulmonic conduits transplanted over this time period. The mean age of the recipients was 23.4 with a median or 23 years; 102 of the recipients were less than one year of age. Males comprised 62% of the recipients. Since 1993, there has been a clear shift towards more use of pulmonic valves over aortic valves as a results of the acceptance of the Ross procedure. Early in the program, reports were received from surgeons that some heart valves appeared to have cracks in the conduits. Experimentations in the laboratory led to the discovery that thawing too rapidly would result in cracking of these materials. Packaging was designed to reduce the rate of thawing and this has resolved the problem with cracking. The heart valve program at the Northwest Tissue Center has been very successful in providing the necessary valves for patients in the Northwest Region of the United States

  8. Atomic-scale processes revealing dynamic twin boundary strengthening mechanisms in face-centered cubic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.Q.; Chisholm, M.F.; He, L.L.; Pennycook, S.J.; Ye, H.Q.

    2012-01-01

    We report experimental investigations on interactions/reactions between dislocations and twin boundaries in Al. The absorption of screw dislocations via cross-slip and the production of stair-rods via reactions with non-screw dislocations were verified by atomic resolution imaging. Importantly, the resulting partial dislocations moving along twin boundaries can produce secondary sessile defects. These immobile defects act as obstacles to other dislocations and also serve to pin the twin boundaries. These findings show the atomic-level dynamics of the dislocation–twin boundary processes and the unique strengthening mechanism of twin boundaries in face-centered cubic metals.

  9. Analysis of the drug formulary and the purchasing process at a Moroccan university medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachhab, Z; Serragui, S; Hassar, M; Cherrah, Y; Errougani, A; Ahid, S

    2018-05-31

    To give an overview of the pharmaceutical policy in the largest medical center in Morocco, a developing country in socio-economic transition. This is an analytical descriptive study of the drug formulary and the purchasing process carried out at the Ibn Sina University Medical Center. Our formulary included 830 drugs belonging to 14 classes according to the Anatomical, Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) Classification System. There was a respective predominance of class N (21.8%), class B (13.5%), and class J (12.6%). Injectable route was dominant (46%). Drugs had a significant actual benefit in 70% (according to the French Data), reimbursable in 42.8%, essential in 29.2% according to World Health Organization (WHO) list, and in 36.9% according to the Moroccan list. The calls for tenders included 542 drugs representing 65% of the formulary, and the attribution rate was 71%. The main reason for non-attribution was the lack of offers. Generics accounted for 45% by volume and 26.5% by value. With this first study, we were able to identify key indicators on drugs used in the largest medical center in Morocco. The current challenge is to introduce pharmacoeconomics in decision making concerning the updates of the drug formulary.

  10. Application of participatory ergonomics to the redesign of the family-centered rounds process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale; Cox, Elizabeth D.; Cartmill, Randi; Li, Yaqiong; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Kelly, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics (PE) can promote the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) principles to healthcare system redesign. This study applied a PE approach to redesigning the family-centered rounds (FCR) process to improve family engagement. Various FCR stakeholders (e.g., patients and families, physicians, nurses, hospital management) were involved in different stages of the PE process. HFE principles were integrated in both the content (e.g., shared mental model, usability, workload consideration, systems approach) and process (e.g., top management commitment, stakeholder participation, communication and feedback, learning and training, project management) of FCR redesign. We describe activities of the PE process (e.g., formation and meetings of the redesign team, data collection activities, intervention development, intervention implementation) and present data on PE process evaluation. To demonstrate the value of PE-based FCR redesign, future research should document its impact on FCR process measures (e.g., family engagement, round efficiency) and patient outcome measures (e.g., patient satisfaction). PMID:25777042

  11. A framework for evaluating electronic health record vendor user-centered design and usability testing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj M; Zachary Hettinger, A; Kosydar, Allison; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Hodgkins, Michael L

    2017-04-01

    Currently, there are few resources for electronic health record (EHR) purchasers and end users to understand the usability processes employed by EHR vendors during product design and development. We developed a framework, based on human factors literature and industry standards, to systematically evaluate the user-centered design processes and usability testing methods used by EHR vendors. We reviewed current usability certification requirements and the human factors literature to develop a 15-point framework for evaluating EHR products. The framework is based on 3 dimensions: user-centered design process, summative testing methodology, and summative testing results. Two vendor usability reports were retrieved from the Office of the National Coordinator's Certified Health IT Product List and were evaluated using the framework. One vendor scored low on the framework (5 pts) while the other vendor scored high on the framework (15 pts). The 2 scored vendor reports demonstrate the framework's ability to discriminate between the variabilities in vendor processes and to determine which vendors are meeting best practices. The framework provides a method to more easily comprehend EHR vendors' usability processes and serves to highlight where EHR vendors may be falling short in terms of best practices. The framework provides a greater level of transparency for both purchasers and end users of EHRs. The framework highlights the need for clearer certification requirements and suggests that the authorized certification bodies that examine vendor usability reports may need to be provided with clearer guidance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Precision Near-Field Reconstruction in the Time Domain via Minimum Entropy for Ultra-High Resolution Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoong Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high resolution (UHR radar imaging is used to analyze the internal structure of objects and to identify and classify their shapes based on ultra-wideband (UWB signals using a vector network analyzer (VNA. However, radar-based imaging is limited by microwave propagation effects, wave scattering, and transmit power, thus the received signals are inevitably weak and noisy. To overcome this problem, the radar may be operated in the near-field. The focusing of UHR radar signals over a close distance requires precise geometry in order to accommodate the spherical waves. In this paper, a geometric estimation and compensation method that is based on the minimum entropy of radar images with sub-centimeter resolution is proposed and implemented. Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging is used because it is applicable to several fields, including medical- and security-related applications, and high quality images of various targets have been produced to verify the proposed method. For ISAR in the near-field, the compensation for the time delay depends on the distance from the center of rotation and the internal RF circuits and cables. Required parameters for the delay compensation algorithm that can be used to minimize the entropy of the radar images are determined so that acceptable results can be achieved. The processing speed can be enhanced by performing the calculations in the time domain without the phase values, which are removed after upsampling. For comparison, the parameters are also estimated by performing random sampling in the data set. Although the reduced data set contained only 5% of the observed angles, the parameter optimization method is shown to operate correctly.

  13. Dynamical Processes Near the Super Massive Black Hole at the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Observations of the stellar environment near the Galactic center provide the strongest empirical evidence for the existence of massive black holes in the Universe. Theoretical models of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster fail to explain numerous properties of such environment, including the presence of very young stars close to the super massive black hole (SMBH) and the more recent discovery of a parsec-scale core in the central distribution of the bright late-type (old) stars. In this thesis we present a theoretical study of dynamical processes near the Galactic center, strongly related to these issues. Using different numerical techniques we explore the close environment of a SMBH as catalyst for stellar collisions and mergers. We study binary stars that remain bound for several revolutions around the SMBH, finding that in the case of highly inclined binaries the Kozai resonance can lead to large periodic oscillations in the internal binary eccentricity and inclination. Collisions and mergers of the binary elements are found to increase significantly for multiple orbits around the SMBH. In collisions involving a low-mass and a high-mass star, the merger product acquires a high core hydrogen abundance from the smaller star, effectively resetting the nuclear evolution clock to a younger age. This process could serve as an important source of young stars at the Galactic center. We then show that a core in the old stars can be naturally explained in a scenario in which the Milky Way nuclear star cluster (NSC) is formed via repeated inspiral of globular clusters into the Galactic center. We present results from a set of N -body simulations of this process, which show that the fundamental properties of the NSC, including its mass, outer density profile and velocity structure, are also reproduced. Chandrasekhar's dynamical friction formula predicts no frictional force on a test body in a low-density core, regardless of its density, due to the absence of stars moving

  14. Satellite-generated radar images of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanda, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on board of SEASAT was the first non-military satellite-borne radar producing high-resolution images of the earth. Several examples of European scenes are discussed to demonstrate the properties of presently available optically processes images. (orig.)

  15. Processes and Procedures of the Higher Education Programs at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Pamala D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of my research was to investigate the policies, processes, procedures and timelines for the higher education programs at Marshall Space Flight Center. The three higher education programs that comprised this research included: the Graduate Student Researchers Program (GSRP), the National Research Council/Resident Research Associateships Program (NRC/RRA) and the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP). The GSRP award fellowships each year to promising U.S. graduate students whose research interest coincides with NASA's mission. Fellowships are awarded for one year and are renewable for up to three years to competitively selected students. Each year, the award provides students the opportunity to spend a period in residence at a NASA center using that installation's unique facilities. This program is renewable for three years, students must reapply. The National Research Council conducts the Resident Research Associateships Program (NRC/RRA), a national competition to identify outstanding recent postdoctoral scientists and engineers and experience senior scientists and engineers, for tenure as guest researchers at NASA centers. The Resident Research Associateship Program provides an opportunity for recipients of doctoral degrees to concentrate their research in association with NASA personnel, often as a culmination to formal career preparation. The program also affords established scientists and engineers an opportunity for research without any interruptions and distracting assignments generated from permanent career positions. All opportunities for research at NASA Centers are open to citizens of the U.S. and to legal permanent residents. The Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP) is conducted each summer. NASA awards research fellowships to university faculty through the NASA/American Society for Engineering Education. The program is designed to promote an exchange of ideas between university faculties, NASA scientists and engineers. Selected

  16. Space Radar Image of Manaus region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    These L-band images of the Manaus region of Brazil were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The left image was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the middle image was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (top) and the Rio Solimoes (bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The differences in brightness between the images reflect changes in the scattering of the radar channel. In this case, the changes are indicative of flooding. A flooded forest has a higher backscatter at L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) than an unflooded river. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image, and corresponds to the annual, 10-meter (33-foot) rise and fall of the Amazon River. A third image at right shows the change in the April and October images and was created by determining which areas had significant decreases in the intensity of radar returns. These areas, which appear blue on the third image at right, show the dramatic decrease in the extent of flooded forest, as the level of the Amazon River falls. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. This demonstrates the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies obscure monitoring of floods. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas Estaciais, during

  17. Radar Polarimetry: Theory, Analysis, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, John Clark

    The fields of radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry are compared. The mathematics of optic polarimetry are formulated such that a local right handed coordinate system is always used to describe the polarization states. This is not done in radar polarimetry. Radar optimum polarization theory is redeveloped within the framework of optical polarimetry. The radar optimum polarizations and optic eigenvalues of common scatterers are compared. In addition a novel definition of an eigenpolarization state is given and the accompanying mathematics is developed. The polarization response calculated using optic, radar and novel definitions is presented for a variety of scatterers. Polarimetric transformation provides a means to characterize scatters in more than one polarization basis. Polarimetric transformation for an ensemble of scatters is obtained via two methods: (1) the covariance method and (2) the instantaneous scattering matrix (ISM) method. The covariance method is used to relate the mean radar parameters of a +/-45^circ linear polarization basis to those of a horizontal and vertical polarization basis. In contrast the ISM method transforms the individual time samples. Algorithms are developed for transforming the time series from fully polarimetric radars that switch between orthogonal states. The transformed time series are then used to calculate the mean radar parameters of interest. It is also shown that propagation effects do not need to be removed from the ISM's before transformation. The techniques are demonstrated using data collected by POLDIRAD, the German Aerospace Research Establishment's fully polarimetric C-band radar. The differential phase observed between two copolar states, Psi_{CO}, is composed of two phases: (1) differential propagation phase, phi_{DP}, and (2) differential backscatter phase, delta. The slope of phi_{DP } with range is an estimate of the specific differential phase, K_{DP}. The process of estimating K_{DP} is complicated when

  18. Implementation of a self-directed work team in a TLD Processing Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnwine, A.A.; Bogard, R.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Somers, D.E.; Souleyrette, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to maintain productivity with a decreasing work force, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has adopted the concept of Self-Directed Work Teams in various disciplines. The plant's Health Physics Department was able to eliminate a layer of front-line supervisors by establishing four self-directed work teams. Each team was able to choose their method of implementation. The TLD Processing Center Team chose to use project managment tools to ensure a smooth transition from the traditional work group to a self-directed approach. This process focused on establishing responsibilities, determining training requirements, determining a leadership style for the group, and performing a potential problem analysis for the transition. The transition also reviewed interface issues that could occur with upper management, matrix management, technical oversight, and organizational peers. The team's experience is also evaluated in comparison to other Self-Directed Work Teams

  19. Incineration as a radioactive waste volume reduction process for CEA nuclear centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabek, R.; Chaudon, L.

    1994-01-01

    Incineration processes represent a promising solution for waste volume reduction, and will be increasingly used in the future. The features and performance specifications of low-level waste incinerators with capacities ranging from 10 to 20 kg - h -1 at the Fontenay-aux-Roses, Grenoble and Cadarache nuclear centers in France are briefly reviewed. More extensive knowledge of low-level wastes produced in facilities operated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has allowed us to assess the volume reduction obtained by processing combustible waste in existing incinerators. Research and development work is in progress to improve management procedures for higher-level waste and to build facilities capable of incinerating α - contaminated waste. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. MABEL at IPAC: managing address books and email lists at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Gelino, Dawn; O'Leary, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology, is NASA's multi-mission data center for infrared astrophysics. Some of IPAC's services include administering data analysis funding awards to the astronomical community, organizing conferences and workshops, and soliciting and selecting fellowship and observing proposals. As most of these services are repeated annually or biannually, it becomes necessary to maintain multiple lists of email contacts associated with each service. MABEL is a PHP/MySQL web database application designed to facilitate this process. It serves as an address book containing up-to-date contact information for thousands of recipients. Recipients may be assigned to any number of email lists categorized by IPAC project and team. Lists may be public (viewable by all project members) or private (viewable only by team members). MABEL can also be used to send HTML or plain-text emails to multiple lists at once and prevents duplicate emails to a single recipient. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Predicting Factors of Drop Out Counseling Process in University Psychological Counseling and Guidance Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer OZER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predicting factors the drop out the counseling process. Methods: The study group consists of 555 college students admitted to a Counseling and Guidance Center (CGC and participated in at least one session of counseling after the first view in the 2013-2014 academic year. As a data collection tool, an “Application Form” on the demographic information and the “Brief Symptom Inventory” was applied to the students; and independent samples t-test and binary logistic regression techniques were used in the analysis of the collected data. Results: According to the analysis results, the age of the students attending the counseling process was found to be higher than those who drop out, but no significant difference was found in their psychometric properties in terms of continuation of the counseling process. Only the age of clients and their previous psychiatric help history was found to predict the dropping out counseling process early. Conclusion: Drop outs are less frequently observed in clients having a previous psychiatric help experience. In addition, it was determined that older clients less frequently drop out the counseling process

  2. Real-Time Data Processing Systems and Products at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) receives data from over 400 seismic sites located within the state boundaries and the surrounding regions and serves as a regional data center. In 2007, the AEIC reported ~20,000 seismic events, with the largest event of M6.6 in Andreanof Islands. The real-time earthquake detection and data processing systems at AEIC are based on the Antelope system from BRTT, Inc. This modular and extensible processing platform allows an integrated system complete from data acquisition to catalog production. Multiple additional modules constructed with the Antelope toolbox have been developed to fit particular needs of the AEIC. The real-time earthquake locations and magnitudes are determined within 2-5 minutes of the event occurrence. AEIC maintains a 24/7 seismologist-on-duty schedule. Earthquake alarms are based on the real- time earthquake detections. Significant events are reviewed by the seismologist on duty within 30 minutes of the occurrence with information releases issued for significant events. This information is disseminated immediately via the AEIC website, ANSS website via QDDS submissions, through e-mail, cell phone and pager notifications, via fax broadcasts and recorded voice-mail messages. In addition, automatic regional moment tensors are determined for events with M>=4.0. This information is posted on the public website. ShakeMaps are being calculated in real-time with the information currently accessible via a password-protected website. AEIC is designing an alarm system targeted for the critical lifeline operations in Alaska. AEIC maintains an extensive computer network to provide adequate support for data processing and archival. For real-time processing, AEIC operates two identical, interoperable computer systems in parallel.

  3. Age at introduction of ultra-processed food among preschool children attending day-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Silveira, Jonas Augusto C; Menezes, Rísia Cristina Egito de; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar

    To identify the age of introduction of ultra-processed food and its associated factors among preschool children. Cross-sectional study carried out from March to June 2014 with 359 preschool children aged 17 to 63 months attending day-care centers. Time until ultra-processed food introduction (outcome variable) was described by the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the log-rank test was used to compare the survival functions of independent variables. Factors associated with ultra-processed food introduction were investigated using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. The results were shown as hazard ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The median time until ultra-processed food introduction was six months. Between the 3rd and 6th months, there is a significant increase in the probability of introducing ultra-processed food in the children's diet; and while the probability in the 3rd month varies from 0.15 to 0.25, at six months the variation ranges from 0.6 to 1.0. The final Cox proportional hazards model showed that unplanned pregnancy (1.32 [1.05-1.65]), absence of prenatal care (2.50 [1.02-6.16]), and income >2 minimum wages (1, 50 [1.09-2.06]) were independent risk factors for the introduction of ultra-processed food. Up to the 6th month of life, approximately 75% of preschool children had received one or more ultra-processed food in their diet. In addition, it was observed that the poorest families, as well as unfavorable prenatal factors, were associated with early introduction of ultra-processed food. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. CAMEX-4 TOGA RADAR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TOGA radar dataset consists of browse and radar data collected from the TOGA radar during the CAMEX-4 experiment. TOGA is a C-band linear polarized doppler radar...

  5. MIMO-radar Waveform Covariance Matrices for High SINR and Low Side-lobe Levels

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    MIMO-radar has better parametric identifiability but compared to phased-array radar it shows loss in signal-to-noise ratio due to non-coherent processing. To exploit the benefits of both MIMO-radar and phased-array two transmit covariance matrices

  6. A review of the design and development processes of simulation for training in healthcare - A technology-centered versus a human-centered perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews literature about simulation systems for training in healthcare regarding the prevalence of human-centered approaches in the design and development of these systems, motivated by a tradition in this field of working technology-centered. The results show that the focus on human needs and context of use is limited. It is argued that a reduction of the focus on technical advancements in favor of the needs of the users and the healthcare community, underpinned by human factors and ergonomics theory, is favorable. Due to the low number of identified articles describing or discussing human-centered approaches it is furthermore concluded that the publication culture promotes technical descriptions and summative evaluations rather than descriptions and reflections regarding the design and development processes. Shifting the focus from a technology-centered approach to a human-centered one can aid in the process of creating simulation systems for training in healthcare that are: 1) relevant to the learning objectives, 2) adapted to the needs of users, context and task, and 3) not selected based on technical or fidelity criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  8. Radar Methods in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    and A. Nehorai, "A low-complexity multi-target tracking algorithm in urban environments using sparse modeling ,’’ Signal Processing, Vol. 92, pp. 2199...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0344 Radar Methods in Urban Environments Arye Nehorai WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY THE Final Report 10/26/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...of information   if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION . 1. REPORT DATE

  9. Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing - a GATE Center of Excellence at the University of Michigan-Dearborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, P. K.

    2012-08-30

    The Center for Lightweighting Materials and Processing (CLAMP) was established in September 1998 with a grant from the Department of Energy’s Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program. The center received the second round of GATE grant in 2005 under the title “Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing”. Using the two grants, the Center has successfully created 10 graduate level courses on lightweight automotive materials, integrated them into master’s and PhD programs in Automotive Systems Engineering, and offered them regularly to the graduate students in the program. In addition, the Center has created a web-based lightweight automotive materials database, conducted research on lightweight automotive materials and organized seminars/symposia on lightweight automotive materials for both academia and industry. The faculty involved with the Center has conducted research on a variety of topics related to design, testing, characterization and processing of lightweight materials for automotive applications and have received numerous research grants from automotive companies and government agencies to support their research. The materials considered included advanced steels, light alloys (aluminum, magnesium and titanium) and fiber reinforced polymer composites. In some of these research projects, CLAMP faculty have collaborated with industry partners and students have used the research facilities at industry locations. The specific objectives of the project during the current funding period (2005 – 2012) were as follows: (1) develop new graduate courses and incorporate them in the automotive systems engineering curriculum (2) improve and update two existing courses on automotive materials and processing (3) upgrade the laboratory facilities used by graduate students to conduct research (4) expand the Lightweight Automotive Materials Database to include additional materials, design case studies and make it more

  10. The importance of establishing an international network of tissue banks and regional tissue processing centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    During the past four decades, many tissue banks have been established across the world with the aim of supplying sterilized tissues for clinical use and research purposes. Between 1972 and 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency supported the establishment of more than sixty of these tissue banks in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and Eastern Europe; promoted the use of the ionizing radiation technique for the sterilization of the processed tissues; and encouraged cooperation between the established tissue banks during the implementation of its program on radiation and tissue banking at national, regional and international levels. Taking into account that several of the established tissue banks have gained a rich experience in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and medical use of sterilized tissues, it is time now to strengthen further international and regional cooperation among interested tissue banks located in different countries. The purpose of this cooperation is to share the experience gained by these banks in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and used of different types of tissues in certain medical treatments and research activities. This could be done through the establishment of a network of tissue banks and a limited number of regional tissue processing centers in different regions of the world.

  11. The Atmospheric Data Acquisition And Interpolation Process For Center-TRACON Automation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, M. R.; Erzberger, H.; Denery, Dallas G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), an advanced new air traffic automation program, requires knowledge of spatial and temporal atmospheric conditions such as the wind speed and direction, the temperature and the pressure in order to accurately predict aircraft trajectories. Real-time atmospheric data is available in a grid format so that CTAS must interpolate between the grid points to estimate the atmospheric parameter values. The atmospheric data grid is generally not in the same coordinate system as that used by CTAS so that coordinate conversions are required. Both the interpolation and coordinate conversion processes can introduce errors into the atmospheric data and reduce interpolation accuracy. More accurate algorithms may be computationally expensive or may require a prohibitively large amount of data storage capacity so that trade-offs must be made between accuracy and the available computational and data storage resources. The atmospheric data acquisition and processing employed by CTAS will be outlined in this report. The effects of atmospheric data processing on CTAS trajectory prediction will also be analyzed, and several examples of the trajectory prediction process will be given.

  12. Waste Disposition Issues and Resolutions at the TRU Waste Processing Center at Oak Ridge TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper prepared for the Waste Management Conference 2009 provides lessons learned from the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) associated with development of approaches used to certify and ensure disposition of problematic TRU wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The TWPC is currently processing the inventory of available waste TRU waste at the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). During the processing effort several waste characteristics were identified/discovered that did not conform to the normal standards and processes for disposal at WIPP. Therefore, the TWPC and ORNL were challenged with determining a path forward for this problematic, special case TRU wastes to ensure that they can be processed, packaged, and shipped to WIPP. Additionally, unexpected specific waste characteristics have challenged the project to identify and develop processing methods to handle problematic waste. The TWPC has several issues that have challenged the projects ability to process RH Waste. High Neutron Dose Rate resulting from both Californium and Curium in the waste stream challenge the RH-TRU 72-B limit for dose rate measured from the side of the package under normal conditions of transport, as specified in Chapter 5.0 of the RH-TRU 72-B SAR (i.e., ≤10 mrem/hour at 2 meters). Difficult to process waste in the hot cell has introduced processing and handling difficulties included problems associated with the disposition of prohibited items that fall out of the waste stream such as liquids, aerosol cans, etc. Lastly, multiple waste streams require characterization and AK challenge the ability to generate dose-to curie models for the waste. Repackaging is one solution to the high neutron dose rate issue. In parallel, an effort is underway to request a change to the TRAMPAC requirements to allow shielding in the drum or canister to reduce the impact of the high neutron dose rates. Due diligence on supporting AK efforts is important in ensuring adequate

  13. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  14. BALTRAD Advanced Weather Radar Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Michelson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BALTRAD software exchanges weather-radar data internationally, operationally, and in real-time, and it processes the data using a common toolbox of algorithms available to every node in the decentralized radar network. This approach enables each node to access and process its own and international data to meet its local needs. The software system is developed collaboratively by the BALTRAD partnership, mostly comprising the national Meteorological and Hydrological institutes in the European Union’s Baltic Sea Region. The most important sub-systems are for data exchange, data management, scheduling and event handling, and data processing. C, Java, and Python languages are used depending on the sub-system, and sub-systems communicate using well-defined interfaces. Software is available from a dedicated Git server. BALTRAD software has been deployed throughout Europe and more recently in Canada. Funding statement: From 2009–2014, the BALTRAD and BALTRAD+ projects were part-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund and European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument, with project numbers #009 and #101, respectively.

  15. Organizational Processes and Patient Experiences in the Patient-centered Medical Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysola, Jaya; Schapira, Marilyn M; Huo, Hairong; Werner, Rachel M

    2018-06-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of patient-reported experience data to assess practice performance, particularly in the setting of patient-centered medical homes. Yet we lack understanding of what organizational processes relate to patient experiences. Examine associations between organizational processes practices adopt to become PCMH and patient experiences with care. We analyzed visit data from patients (n=8356) at adult primary care practices (n=22) in a large health system. We evaluated the associations between practice organizational processes and patient experience using generalized estimating equations (GEE) with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for patient clustering by practice in multivariate models, adjusting for several practice-level and patient-level characteristics. We evaluated if these associations varied by race/ethnicity, insurance type, and the degree of patient comorbidity MEASURES:: Predictors include overall PCMH adoption and adoption of six organizational processes: access and communications, patient tracking and registry, care management, test referral tracking, quality improvement and external coordination. Primary outcome was overall patient experience. In our full sample, overall PCMH adoption score was not significantly associated with patient experience outcomes. However, among subpopulations with higher comorbidities, the overall PCMH adoption score was positively associated with overall patient experience measures [0.2 (0.06, 0.4); P=0.006]. Differences by race/ethnicity and insurance type in associations between specific organizational processes and patient experience were noted. Although some organizational processes relate to patients' experiences with care irrespective of the background of the patient, further efforts are needed to align practice efforts with patient experience.

  16. Space radar image of Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This image of the Mauna Loa volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii shows the capability of imaging radar to map lava flows and other volcanic structures. Mauna Loa has erupted more than 35 times since the island was first visited by westerners in the early 1800s. The large summit crater, called Mokuaweoweo Caldera, is clearly visible near the center of the image. Leading away from the caldera (towards top right and lower center) are the two main rift zones shown here in orange. Rift zones are areas of weakness within the upper part of the volcano that are often ripped open as new magma (molten rock) approaches the surface at the start of an eruption. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in March and April 1984, when segments of the northeast rift zones were active. If the height of the volcano was measured from its base on the ocean floor instead of from sea level, Mauna Loa would be the tallest mountain on Earth. Its peak (center of the image) rises more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the ocean floor. The South Kona District, known for cultivation of macadamia nuts and coffee, can be seen in the lower left as white and blue areas along the coast. North is toward the upper left. The area shown is 41.5 by 75 kilometers (25.7 by 46.5 miles), centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.6 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 36th orbit on October 2, 1994. The radar illumination is from the left of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). The resulting color combinations in this radar image are caused by differences in surface roughness of the lava flows. Smoother flows

  17. An integrated methodology for process improvement and delivery system visualization at a multidisciplinary cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singprasong, Rachanee; Eldabi, Tillal

    2013-01-01

    Multidisciplinary cancer centers require an integrated, collaborative, and stream-lined workflow in order to provide high quality of patient care. Due to the complex nature of cancer care and continuing changes to treatment techniques and technologies, it is a constant struggle for centers to obtain a systemic and holistic view of treatment workflow for improving the delivery systems. Project management techniques, Responsibility matrix and a swim-lane activity diagram representing sequence of activities can be combined for data collection, presentation, and evaluation of the patient care. This paper presents this integrated methodology using multidisciplinary meetings and walking the route approach for data collection, integrated responsibility matrix and swim-lane activity diagram with activity time for data representation and 5-why and gap analysis approach for data analysis. This enables collection of right detail of information in a shorter time frame by identifying process flaws and deficiencies while being independent of the nature of the patient's disease or treatment techniques. A case study of a multidisciplinary regional cancer centre is used to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed methodology and demonstrates that the methodology is simple to understand, allowing for minimal training of staff and rapid implementation. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  18. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color radar image of Central Africa, showing the Virunga Volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. This C-band L-band image was acquired on April 12, 1994, on orbit 58 of space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The area is centered at about 1.75 degrees south latitude and 29.5 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 58 kilometers by 178 kilometers (48 miles by 178 miles). The false-color composite is created by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HH return in blue. The dark area in the bottom of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the left) and Rwanda (to the right). The airport at Goma, Zaire is shown as a dark line just above the lake in the bottom left corner of the image. Volcanic flows from the 1977 eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo are shown just north of the airport. Mt. Nyiragongo is not visible in this image because it is located just to the left of the image swath. Very fluid lava flows from the 1977 eruption killed 70 people. Mt. Nyiragongo is currently erupting (August 1994) and will be a target of observation during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The large volcano in the center of the image is Mt. Karisimbi (4,500 meters or 14,800 feet). This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation and volcanic flows of the region. The faint lines shown in the purple regions are believed to be the result of agriculture terracing by the people who live in the region. The vegetation types are an important factor in the habitat of the endangered mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce vegetation maps of the area to aid in their study of the remaining 650 gorillas in the region. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet

  19. Research and development cooperation project on environmental measurement using laser radar in fiscal 1995; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the environmental management in Indonesia, Japan made R and D of a laser radar to measure the urban air pollution and an environmental network jointly with Indonesia in compliance with the actual situation of the country. At present, in developing countries, air pollution is becoming a big problem because of increases in population and in energy consumption in urban areas according to the industrial/economic growth. As for the laser radar, it is an active sensor with laser as light source and can observe in high resolution the three-dimensional space distribution such as density and composition of air pollutants. Japan is a leader in the development of laser technology which is a core technology for the laser radar and the preceding research. The equipment is installed at several points of urban areas in Indonesia, and at the same time, the observation network is constructed to collect, analyze and process data at the central processing center. This is a 4-year plan from fiscal 1993 to 1996. In fiscal 1995, negotiations with Indonesia and field surveys were conducted to determine sites for installation. A plan for system improvement was also decided on. 38 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Borehole radar diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seong Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Tomography is widely used as imaging method for determining subsurface structure. Among the reconstruction algorithms for tomographic imaging, travel time tomography is almost applied to imaging subsurface. But isolated small body comparable with the wavelength could not be well recognized by travel time tomography. Other tomographic method are need to improve the imaging process. In the study of this year, diffraction tomography was investigated. The theory for diffraction tomography is based on the 1st-order Born approximation. Multisource holography, which is similar to Kirchihoff migration, is compared with diffraction tomography. To improve 1st-order Born diffraction tomography, two kinds of filter designed from multisource holography and 2-D green function, respectively, applied on the reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested for the numerical modeling data of which algorithm consists of the analytic computation of radar signal in transmitter and receiver regions and 2-D FDM scheme for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in media. The air-filled cavity model to show a typical diffraction pattern was applied to diffraction tomography imaging, and the result shows accurate location and area of cavity. But the calculated object function is not well matched the real object function, because the air-filled cavity model is not satisfied week scattered inhomogeneity for 1st born approximation, and the error term is included in estimating source wavelet from received signals. In spite of the object function error, the diffraction tomography assist for interpretation of subsurface as if conducted with travel time tomography. And the fracture model was tested, 1st born diffraction tomographic image is poor because of limited view angle coverage and violation of week scatter assumption, but the filtered image resolve the fracture somewhat better. The tested diffraction tomography image confirms effectiveness of filter for enhancing resolution. (author). 14

  1. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed

  2. Influence of environmental factors on some high dose dosimeter responses in Yazd Radiation Processing Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaie, F.; Tahami, S.M.; Zareshahi, H.; Lanjanian, H.; Durrani, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper attempt has been made to study the influence of temperature and UV light (exist in laboratory due to the fluorescent light or diffused sunlight) on some high dose dosimetry responses that are being used in Yazd Radiation Processing Center (YRPC). The CTA, FWT and B3 film dosimeters were used for this investigation. The correction of the read response of the dosimeters to the real absorbed dose values is very important especially while we need to measure the precise dose values in the medical devices and in foodstuff materials. Yazd city is near to the desert, and so temperature and UV light due to the sun are very different in compare to other cities. Therefore, we tried to investigate the temperature and UV light effects on the dosimeter response in different doses and obtain its variation as a function of temperature (up to ∼60 0 C) and exposure time (up to ∼1 year), respectively

  3. Water Pollution Control Legislation in Israel: Understanding Implementation Processes from an Actor-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Hophmayer-Tokich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for decades, with the main source of pollution being untreated or partially treated domestic wastewater. This has been mainly the result of lack of enforcement of the existing laws. During the 1990s and onwards, a shift to forceful enforcement has been observed and wastewater treatment substantially improved. The paper analyzes the implementation processes of the pollution control legislations (the lack-of and the shift to forceful enforcement based on an actor-centered approach, using the contextual interaction theory.

  4. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  5. Process of optical excitation and relaxation of color center in synthetic diamond and its application to optoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation of high-pressure synthesized diamond is carried out by using a nuclear reactor or a linac. Then, the effect of annealing on the color centers is observed. A study is made to identify different color centers and to provide techniques to control their introduction. Investigations cover the relation of color center formation with annealing temperature, dependence of color center formation on radiation dose, migration of H3 center and hydrogen, and applicability of five different color centers to optoelectronics. Next, a study is made of the formation and relaxation of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in a metastable excited state produced by optical excitation. An optical gain is essential to provide laser. Optical amplification is measured at the vibronic emission band of the NV center. An increase in absorption is detected, indicating that the NV center will not provide laser. In the optical excitation-relaxation process, the relaxation proceeds via a metastable state. Finally, hole burning of ZPL of the NV center is observed in the temperature range from 20K to 80K, and some of its features are described. (N.K.)

  6. Non-Cooperative Target Imaging and Parameter Estimation with Narrowband Radar Echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-mao Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the rotating target imaging and parameter estimation with narrowband radar echoes, which is essential for radar target recognition. First, a two-dimensional (2D imaging model with narrowband echoes is established in this paper, and two images of the target are formed on the velocity-acceleration plane at two neighboring coherent processing intervals (CPIs. Then, the rotating velocity (RV is proposed to be estimated by utilizing the relationship between the positions of the scattering centers among two images. Finally, the target image is rescaled to the range-cross-range plane with the estimated rotational parameter. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed using numerical simulations.

  7. Adventures in Private Cloud: Balancing Cost and Capability at the CloudSat Data Processing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, P.; Finley, S.; Fluke, J.; Haynes, J. M.; Cronk, H. Q.; Miller, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Since the beginning of the CloudSat Mission in 2006, The CloudSat Data Processing Center (DPC) at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) has been ingesting data from the satellite and other A-Train sensors, producing data products, and distributing them to researchers around the world. The computing infrastructure was specifically designed to fulfill the requirements as specified at the beginning of what nominally was a two-year mission. The environment consisted of servers dedicated to specific processing tasks in a rigid workflow to generate the required products. To the benefit of science and with credit to the mission engineers, CloudSat has lasted well beyond its planned lifetime and is still collecting data ten years later. Over that period requirements of the data processing system have greatly expanded and opportunities for providing value-added services have presented themselves. But while demands on the system have increased, the initial design allowed for very little expansion in terms of scalability and flexibility. The design did change to include virtual machine processing nodes and distributed workflows but infrastructure management was still a time consuming task when system modification was required to run new tests or implement new processes. To address the scalability, flexibility, and manageability of the system Cloud computing methods and technologies are now being employed. The use of a public cloud like Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud or Google Compute Engine was considered but, among other issues, data transfer and storage cost becomes a problem especially when demand fluctuates as a result of reprocessing and the introduction of new products and services. Instead, the existing system was converted to an on premises private Cloud using the OpenStack computing platform and Ceph software defined storage to reap the benefits of the Cloud computing paradigm. This work details the decisions that were made, the benefits that

  8. A two-center-oscillator-basis as an alternative set for heavy ion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, V.; Reinhard, P.G.; Drechsel, D.

    1977-01-01

    The two-center-oscillator-basis, which is constructed from harmonic oscillator wave functions developing about two different centers, suffers from numerical problems at small center separations due to the overcompleteness of the set. In order to overcome these problems we admix higer oscillator wave functions before the orthogonalization, or antisymmetrization resp. This yields a numerically stable basis set at each center separation. The results obtained for the potential energy suface are comparable with the results of more elaborate models. (orig.) [de

  9. Single Frequency Network Based Distributed Passive Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Xian-rong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and application of passive radar are heading from single transmitter-receiver pair to multiple transmitter-receiver pairs. As an important class of the illuminators of opportunity, most of modern digital broadcasting and television systems work on Single Frequency Network (SFN, which intrinsically determines that the passive radar based on such illuminators must be distributed and networked. In consideration of the remarkable working and processing mode of passive radar under SFN configuration, this paper proposes the concept of SFN-based Distributed Passive Radar (SDPR. The main characteristics and key problems of SDPR are first described. Then several potential solutions are discussed for part of the key technologies. The feasibility of SDPR is demonstrated by preliminary experimental results. Finally, the concept of four network convergence that includes the broadcast based passive radar network is conceived, and its application prospects are discussed.

  10. Arecibo Radar Observation of Near-Earth Asteroids: Expanded Sample Size, Determination of Radar Albedos, and Measurements of Polarization Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoly, Cassandra; Howell, Ellen S.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Springmann, Alessondra; Virkki, Anne; Nolan, Michael C.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.

    2017-10-01

    The Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population ranges in size from a few meters to more than 10 kilometers. NEAs have a wide variety of taxonomic classes, surface features, and shapes, including spheroids, binary objects, contact binaries, elongated, as well as irregular bodies. Using the Arecibo Observatory planetary radar system, we have measured apparent rotation rate, radar reflectivity, apparent diameter, and radar albedos for over 350 NEAs. The radar albedo is defined as the radar cross-section divided by the geometric cross-section. If a shape model is available, the actual cross-section is known at the time of the observation. Otherwise we derive a geometric cross-section from a measured diameter. When radar imaging is available, the diameter was measured from the apparent range depth. However, when radar imaging was not available, we used the continuous wave (CW) bandwidth radar measurements in conjunction with the period of the object. The CW bandwidth provides apparent rotation rate, which, given an independent rotation measurement, such as from lightcurves, constrains the size of the object. We assumed an equatorial view unless we knew the pole orientation, which gives a lower limit on the diameter. The CW also provides the polarization ratio, which is the ratio of the SC and OC cross-sections.We confirm the trend found by Benner et al. (2008) that taxonomic types E and V have very high polarization ratios. We have obtained a larger sample and can analyze additional trends with spin, size, rotation rate, taxonomic class, polarization ratio, and radar albedo to interpret the origin of the NEAs and their dynamical processes. The distribution of radar albedo and polarization ratio at the smallest diameters (≤50 m) differs from the distribution of larger objects (>50 m), although the sample size is limited. Additionally, we find more moderate radar albedos for the smallest NEAs when compared to those with diameters 50-150 m. We will present additional trends we

  11. Ground penetrating radar results at the Box Canyon Site - 1996 survey as part of infiltration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Williams, K.H.

    1997-08-01

    This data report presents a discussion of the borehole radar tomography experiment conducted at Box Canyon, Idaho. Discussion concentrates on the survey methodology, data acquisition procedures, and the resulting tomographic images and interpretations. The entire geophysics field effort for FY96 centered around the collection of the borehole radar data within the inclined boreholes R1, R2, R3, and R4 before, during, and after the ponded infiltration experiment. The well pairs R1-R2, R2-R4, and R3-R4 comprised the bulk of the field survey; however, additional data were collected between vertical boreholes within and around the infiltration basin. The intent of the inclined boreholes was to allow access beneath the infiltration basin and to enhance the ability of the radar method to image both vertical and horizontal features where flow may dominate. This data report will concentrate on the inclined borehole data and the resulting tomograms. The borehole radar method is one in which modified ground penetrating radar antennas are lowered into boreholes and high frequency electromagnetic signals are transmitted through subsurface material to a receiving antenna. The transmitted signals may be represented as multiple raypaths crossing through the zone of interest. If sufficient raypaths are recorded, a tomographic image may be obtained through computer processing. The data normally recorded are signal amplitude versus time. The information extracted from such data includes the following: (a) the transit time which depends on the wave velocity, (b) the amplitude which depends on the wave attenuation, the dispersion which indicates a change in velocity and attenuation with frequency

  12. Determination of management by labor competencies in the production process of the Isotope Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Centurión, Yoneiki; Fernández Rodríguez, Rosio

    2016-01-01

    The present research is carried out in the Center of Isotopes (CENTIS) belonging to the Agency of Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba (CITMA). Its mission is to develop, produce, and supply radiopharmaceuticals, clinical diagnostics and scientific and technical health services in the national and international markets. Based on a diagnosis of the organization through the GRH-DPC model, it was determined that the main problem is the Deficient Management of Human Resources, highlighting as main cause that the labor competencies are not identified at any of its three levels . As a result of this analysis the need to establish a procedure to carry out the process of identification and validation of the competency system, as well as the design of the profile of positions by competencies of the entity. For the development of this work, different tools and techniques were used in the field of research such as: bibliographical analysis, brainstorming, expert method, statistical tools, cause and effect diagram, SWOT matrix, flow diagram, among others. The main result of the research is the identification of the organization's distinctive competencies, those of the key production processes of 99 Mo-99mTc Generators and the profiles of the positions of the Production Management linked to the selected subprocesses.

  13. Filtering with the Centered Moving Median to Effectively Monitor Solution Processes for Safeguard Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richir, Patrice; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw [Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, Ispra, Varese (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    Reprocessing plants require continuous and integrated safeguards activities by inspectors of the IAEA and Euratom because of their proliferation-sensitivity as complex facilities handling large quantities of direct use nuclear material. In support of both organizations, the JRC has developed a solution monitoring software package (DAI, Data Analysis and Interpretation) which has been implemented in the main commercial European reprocessing plants and which allows enhanced monitoring of nuclear materials in the processed solutions. This tool treats data acquired from different sensor types (e.g. from pressure transducers monitoring the solution levels in tanks). Collected signals are often noisy because of the instrumentation itself and/or because of ambient and operational conditions (e.g. pumps, ventilation systems or electromagnetic interferences) and therefore require filtering. Filtering means reduction of information and has to be applied correctly to avoid misinterpretation of the process steps. This paper describes the study of some filters one of which is the centered moving median which has been revealed as a powerful tool for solution monitoring.

  14. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  15. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  16. Wind farms impact on radar aviation interests - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poupart, G.J.

    2003-09-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to determine the effects of siting wind turbines adjacent to primary air traffic control radar; to gather the information required for the generation of guidelines by civil, military and wind farm developer stakeholders; to determine the extent to which the design of wind turbines influences their effects on radar systems and to determine the extent to which design of the radar processing influences the effects of wind turbines on radar systems. A computer model was developed to predict the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of wind turbines and understand the interaction of radar energy and turbines. The model was designed to predict and simulate the impact of wind farms on the primary radar display. Validation of the model was carried out in a full-scale trial and modelling process, with data collected from a number of sources. The model was validated against a single turbine scenario and showed an accurate prediction capability. Further validation of the model could be gained through a multiple turbine trial. The knowledge gained from the development and validation of the predictive computer model has been used to conduct a sensitivity analysis (of the sub-elements of the radar and wind farm interaction) and to compile a list of the key factors influencing the radar signature of wind turbines. The result is a more detailed quantification of the complex interactions between wind turbines and radar systems than was previously available. The key findings of how the design, size and construction materials of wind turbines affect RCS are summarised.

  17. Evaluation of Student Care Process in Urban and Rural Health Care Centers and Health House in Tabriz Using Tracer Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Kabiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Tracer methodology is a novel evaluation method which its purpose is to provide an accurate assessment of systems and processes for the delivery of care, treatment, and services at a health care organization. This study aimed to assess student care process in Tabriz using Tracer methodology. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in autumn 1391. Population study consisted of all the students who were covered by Tabriz health care center and study sample included an urban health care center, a rural health care center, a health house, and two schools in urban and rural areas which were selected by simple sampling method. Also, all the complicated and problematic processes were chosen to be assessed. Data were collected by interviewing, observing, and surveying documents and were compared with current standards. Results : The results of this study declared the percentage of points that each target group gained from tracer evaluation in student care process was 77% in health house, 90% in rural health care center and 83% in urban health care center. Findings indicated that documentation was the main weak point. Conclusion : According to the results of this study, student care process is sufficient; despite the fact that there are some deficiencies in caring process, as it may be improved through appropriate strategies. Furthermore, tracer methodology seems to be a proper method to evaluate various levels of health care system. ​

  18. UAV-based Radar Sounding of Antarctic Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschen, Carl; Yan, Jie-Bang; Mahmood, Ali; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Hale, Rick; Camps-Raga, Bruno; Metz, Lynsey; Wang, Zongbo; Paden, John; Bowman, Alec; Keshmiri, Shahriar; Gogineni, Sivaprasad

    2014-05-01

    We developed a compact radar for use on a small UAV to conduct measurements over the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. It operates at center frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz with bandwidths of 1 MHz and 4 MHz, respectively. The radar weighs about 2 kgs and is housed in a box with dimensions of 20.3 cm x 15.2 cm x 13.2 cm. It transmits a signal power of 100 W at a pulse repletion frequency of 10 kHz and requires average power of about 20 W. The antennas for operating the radar are integrated into the wings and airframe of a small UAV with a wingspan of 5.3 m. We selected the frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz based on previous successful soundings of temperate ice in Alaska with a 12.5 MHz impulse radar [Arcone, 2002] and temperate glaciers in Patagonia with a 30 MHz monocycle radar [Blindow et al., 2012]. We developed the radar-equipped UAV to perform surveys over a 2-D grid, which allows us to synthesize a large two-dimensional aperture and obtain fine resolution in both the along- and cross-track directions. Low-frequency, high-sensitivity radars with 2-D aperture synthesis capability are needed to overcome the surface and volume scatter that masks weak echoes from the ice-bed interface of fast-flowing glaciers. We collected data with the radar-equipped UAV on sub-glacial ice near Lake Whillans at both 14 and 35 MHz. We acquired data to evaluate the concept of 2-D aperture synthesis and successfully demonstrated the first successful sounding of ice with a radar on an UAV. We are planning to build multiple radar-equipped UAVs for collecting fine-resolution data near the grounding lines of fast-flowing glaciers. In this presentation we will provide a brief overview of the radar and UAV, as well as present results obtained at both 14 and 35 MHz. Arcone, S. 2002. Airborne-radar stratigraphy and electrical structure of temperate firn: Bagley Ice Field, Alaska, U.S.A. Journal of Glaciology, 48, 317-334. Blindow, N., C. Salat, and G. Casassa. 2012. Airborne GPR sounding of

  19. The new Athens center on data processing from the neutron monitor network in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromichalaki

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The ground-based neutron monitors (NMs record galactic and solar relativistic cosmic rays which can play a useful key role in space weather forecasting, as a result of their interaction with interplanetary disturbances. The Earth's-based neutron monitor network has been used in order to produce a real-time prediction of space weather phenomena. Therefore, the Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center (ANMODAP takes advantage of this unique multi-directional device to solve problems concerning the diagnosis and forecasting of space weather. At this moment there has been a multi-sided use of neutron monitors. On the one hand, a preliminary alert for ground level enhancements (GLEs may be provided due to relativistic solar particles and can be registered around 20 to 30 min before the arrival of the main part of lower energy particles responsible for radiation hazard. To make a more reliable prognosis of these events, real time data from channels of lower energy particles and X-ray intensity from the GOES satellite are involved in the analysis. The other possibility is to search in real time for predictors of geomagnetic storms when they occur simultaneously with Forbush effects, using hourly, on-line accessible neutron monitor data from the worldwide network and applying a special method of processing. This chance of prognosis is only being elaborated and considered here as one of the possible uses of the Neutron Monitor Network for forecasting the arrival of interplanetary disturbance to the Earth. The achievements, the processes and the future results, are discussed in this work.

  20. Contamination Control and Hardware Processing Solutions at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, DeWitt H.; Hampton, Tammy; Huey, LaQuieta; Mitchell, Mark; Norwood, Joey; Lowrey, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    The Contamination Control Team of Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory supports many Programs/ Projects that design, manufacture, and test a wide range of hardware types that are sensitive to contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). Examples where contamination/FOD concerns arise include sensitive structural bondline failure, critical orifice blockage, seal leakage, and reactive fluid compatibility (liquid oxygen, hydrazine) as well as performance degradation of sensitive instruments or spacecraft surfaces such as optical elements and thermal control systems. During the design phase, determination of the sensitivity of a hardware system to different types or levels of contamination/FOD is essential. A contamination control and FOD control plan must then be developed and implemented through all phases of ground processing, and, sometimes, on-orbit use, recovery, and refurbishment. Implementation of proper controls prevents cost and schedule impacts due to hardware damage or rework and helps assure mission success. Current capabilities are being used to support recent and on-going activities for multiple Mission Directorates / Programs such as International Space Station (ISS), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Launch System (SLS) elements (tanks, engines, booster), etc. The team also advances Green Technology initiatives and addresses materials obsolescence issues for NASA and external customers, most notably in the area of solvent replacement (e.g. aqueous cleaners containing hexavalent chrome, ozone depleting chemicals (CFC s and HCFC's), suspect carcinogens). The team evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection and cleaning technologies (e.g. plasma cleaning), and maintains databases for processing support materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for spaceflight environments.

  1. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered bathymetric data. The paper reviews the concepts of bathymetry assessment by radar, the radar imaging mechanism, and the possibilities and limitations of the use of radar data in rapid assessment.

  2. Seamless Synthetic Aperture Radar Archive for Interferometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S.; Baru, C.; Bryson, G.; Buechler, B.; Crosby, C.; Fielding, E.; Meertens, C.; Nicoll, J.; Youn, C.

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archive (SSARA) project is a collaboration between UNAVCO, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and OpenTopography at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to design and implement a seamless distributed access system for SAR data and derived interferometric SAR (InSAR) data products. A unified application programming interface (API) has been created to search the SAR archives at ASF and UNAVCO, 30 and 90-m SRTM DEM data available through OpenTopography, and tropospheric data from the NASA OSCAR project at JPL. The federated query service provides users a single access point to search for SAR granules, InSAR pairs, and corresponding DEM and tropospheric data products from the four archives, as well as the ability to search and download pre-processed InSAR products from ASF and UNAVCO.

  3. Typhoon 9707 observations with the MU radar and L-band boundary layer radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teshiba

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon 9707 (Opal was observed with the VHF-band Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, an L-band boundary layer radar (BLR, and a vertical-pointing C-band meteorological radar at the Shigaraki MU Observatory in Shiga prefecture, Japan on 20 June 1997. The typhoon center passed about 80 km southeast from the radar site. Mesoscale precipitating clouds developed due to warm-moist airmass transport from the typhoon, and passed over the MU radar site with easterly or southeasterly winds. We primarily present the wind behaviour including the vertical component which a conventional meteorological Doppler radar cannot directly observe, and discuss the relationship between the wind behaviour of the typhoon and the precipitating system. To investigate the dynamic structure of the typhoon, the observed wind was divided into radial and tangential wind components under the assumption that the typhoon had an axi-symmetric structure. Altitude range of outflow ascended from 1–3 km to 2–10 km with increasing distance (within 80–260 km range from the typhoon center, and in-flow was observed above and below the outflow. Outflow and inflow were associated with updraft and downdraft, respectively. In the tangential wind, the maximum speed of counterclockwise winds was confirmed at 1–2 km altitudes. Based on the vertical velocity and the reflectivity obtained with the MU radar and the C-band meteorological radar, respectively, precipitating clouds, accompanied by the wind behaviour of the typhoon, were classified into stratiform and convective precipitating clouds. In the stratiform precipitating clouds, a vertical shear of radial wind and the maximum speed of counterclockwise wind were observed. There was a strong reflectivity layer called a ‘bright band’ around the 4.2 km altitude. We confirmed strong updrafts and down-drafts below and above it, respectively, and the existence of a relatively dry layer around the bright band level from radiosonde

  4. Typhoon 9707 observations with the MU radar and L-band boundary layer radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teshiba

    Full Text Available Typhoon 9707 (Opal was observed with the VHF-band Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, an L-band boundary layer radar (BLR, and a vertical-pointing C-band meteorological radar at the Shigaraki MU Observatory in Shiga prefecture, Japan on 20 June 1997. The typhoon center passed about 80 km southeast from the radar site. Mesoscale precipitating clouds developed due to warm-moist airmass transport from the typhoon, and passed over the MU radar site with easterly or southeasterly winds. We primarily present the wind behaviour including the vertical component which a conventional meteorological Doppler radar cannot directly observe, and discuss the relationship between the wind behaviour of the typhoon and the precipitating system. To investigate the dynamic structure of the typhoon, the observed wind was divided into radial and tangential wind components under the assumption that the typhoon had an axi-symmetric structure. Altitude range of outflow ascended from 1–3 km to 2–10 km with increasing distance (within 80–260 km range from the typhoon center, and in-flow was observed above and below the outflow. Outflow and inflow were associated with updraft and downdraft, respectively. In the tangential wind, the maximum speed of counterclockwise winds was confirmed at 1–2 km altitudes. Based on the vertical velocity and the reflectivity obtained with the MU radar and the C-band meteorological radar, respectively, precipitating clouds, accompanied by the wind behaviour of the typhoon, were classified into stratiform and convective precipitating clouds. In the stratiform precipitating clouds, a vertical shear of radial wind and the maximum speed of counterclockwise wind were observed. There was a strong reflectivity layer called a ‘bright band’ around the 4.2 km altitude. We confirmed strong updrafts and down-drafts below and above it, respectively, and the existence of a relatively dry layer around the bright band level from radiosonde

  5. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the image. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The image is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  6. Learning to Design Backwards: Examining a Means to Introduce Human-Centered Design Processes to Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    "Designing backwards" is presented here as a means to utilize human-centered processes in diverse educational settings to help teachers and students learn to formulate and operate design processes to achieve three sequential and interrelated goals. The first entails teaching them to effectively and empathetically identify, frame and…

  7. Research cooperation project for fiscal 1998. Research cooperation on the research and development of environment measuring laser radar (Follow-up); 1998 nendo kankyo keisokuyo laser reda no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku. Flow up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research and development of laser radars for observing urban atmospheric pollution is jointly conducted by Japan and Indonesia for the goal of contributing to the construction of an administrative system on environmental matters compatible with the actualities of Indonesia. Under this project, laser radars are installed at three sites in the city of Djakarta where environmental problems are increasingly serious, an observation network system is constructed connecting the laser radar sites, and the data are collected, analyzed, and processed by a data processing center. This enables the acquisition of information about the pollution of urban atmosphere through the observation of the 3-dimensional distribution of atmospheric pollution. In fiscal 1998, the last year for follow-up, engineers and researches are dispatched by 'ODA (official development assistance) laser radar observation assistance committee' for assistance in system maintenance and pollution observation. System maintenance is carried out so that the laser radar system may be utilized by the Indonesian party. Observation assistance involves Mie scattering, and the Indonesian party is engaged in a long-term continuous laser radar observation. (NEDO)

  8. The Process of Science Communications at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horack, John M.; Treise, Deborah

    1998-01-01

    The communication of new scientific knowledge and understanding is an integral component of science research, essential for its continued survival. Like any learning- based activity, science cannot continue without communication between and among peers so that skeptical inquiry and learning can take place. This communication provides necessary organic support to maintain the development of new knowledge and technology. However, communication beyond the peer-community is becoming equally critical for science to survive as an enterprise into the 21st century. Therefore, scientists not only have a 'noble responsibility' to advance and communicate scientific knowledge and understanding to audiences within and beyond the peer-community, but their fulfillment of this responsibility is necessary to maintain the survival of the science enterprise. Despite the critical importance of communication to the viability of science, the skills required to perform effective science communications historically have not been taught as a part of the training of scientist, and the culture of science is often averse to significant communication beyond the peer community. Thus scientists can find themselves ill equipped and uncomfortable with the requirements of their job in the new millennium. At NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, we have developed and implemented an integrated science communications process, providing an institutional capability to help scientist accurately convey the content and meaning of new scientific knowledge to a wide variety of audiences, adding intrinsic value to the research itself through communication, while still maintaining the integrity of the peer-review process. The process utilizes initial communication through the world-wide web at the site http://science.nasa.gov to strategically leverage other communications vehicles and to reach a wide-variety of audiences. Here we present and discuss the basic design of the science communications process, now in

  9. Wideband Radar Echo Frequency-domain Simulation and Analysis for High Speed Moving Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A frequency-domain method is proposed for wideband radar echo simulation of high-speed moving targets. Based on the physical process of electromagnetic waves observing a moving target, a frequency-domain echo model of wideband radar is constructed, and the block diagram of the radar echo simulation in frequency-domain is presented. Then, the impacts of radial velocity and slant range on the matching filtering of LFM radar are analyzed, and some quantitative conclusions on the shift and expansion of the radar profiles are obtained. Simulation results illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  10. Waveform design and diversity for advanced radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gini, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various algorithms for radar signal design, that rely heavily upon complicated processing and/or antenna architectures, have been suggested. These techniques owe their genesis to several factors, including revolutionary technological advances (new flexible waveform generators, high speed signal processing hardware, digital array radar technology, etc.) and the stressing performance requirements, often imposed by defence applications in areas such as airborne early warning and homeland security.Increasingly complex operating scenarios calls for sophisticated algorithms with the

  11. Radar Exploration of Cometary Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Yonggyu; Heggy, E.; Belton, M.; Weissman, P.; Asphaug, E.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a mission formulation, based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, to image the 3D internal structure of the nucleus of a Jupiter-family comet (JFC). Believed to originate in the outer solar system and to be delivered recently to the inner solar system from the Kuiper Belt, JFCs are among the most primitive bodies accessible by spacecraft, and are indicated in the 2010 Decadal Survey as primary targets for primitive bodies sample return. We consider a sounder design operating at dual frequencies, 5 and 15 MHz center frequencies with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths, respectively. Operating from close orbit about the nucleus of a spinning comet nucleus, CORE obtains a dense network of echoes that are used to image its interior structure to 10 m and to map the dielectric properties inside the nucleus to better than 200 m throughout. Clear images of internal structure and dielectric composition will reveal how the nucleus was formed and how it has evolved. Radiometric tracking of the spacecraft orbit will provide an interior mass distribution that constrains the radar-based models of interior composition. High-resolution visible and infrared color images provide surface and exterior boundary conditions for interior models and hypotheses. They present the geology and morphology of the nucleus surface at meter-scales, and the time-evolving activity, structure, and composition of the inner coma. By making global yet detailed connections from interior to exterior, the data from CORE will provide answers to fundamental questions about the earliest stages of planetesimal evolution and planet formation, will be an important complement to the Rosetta mission science, and will lay the foundation for comet nucleus sample return.

  12. Evaluation of radar imagery for geological and cartographic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gerald K.; Sheehan, Cynthia A.

    1981-01-01

    -cost method of reproducing the images. The images from modern, commercially available radar systems have good visual quality; they also have better geometric accuracy and higher information content than images from older systems. Images from modern systems, however, also have some of the same disadvantages as those from older systems. The most serious problem is that considerable information is lost in the process of recording the radar return on film. Another problem is that the oblique radar view of the landscape results in interpretations that are biased by look direction. A compromise antenna depression angle also commonly results in inadequate or excessive shadowing in parts of the image. There is a need for high-resolution digital data, not currently available from the private sector, to significantly improve the utility of radar data for geologic and cartographic applications.

  13. Crosshole investigations - results from borehole radar investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Falk, L.; Sandberg, E.; Forslund, O.; Lundmark, L.

    1987-05-01

    A new borehole radar system has been designed, built and tested. The system consists of borehole transmitter and receiver probes, a signal control unit for communication with the borehole probes, and a computer unit for storage and display of data. The system can be used both in singlehole and crosshole modes and probing ranges of 115 m and 300 m, respectively, have been obtained at Stripa. The borehole radar is a short pulse system which uses center frequencies in the range 20 to 60 MHz. Single hole reflection measurements have been used to identify fracture zones and to determine their position and orientation. The travel time and amplitude of the first arrival measured in a crosshole experiment can be used as input data in a tomographic analysis. (orig./DG)

  14. Documentation of the Federal Financial System Process at the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    .... In September 1994, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) transferred the responsibility for preparing the departmental accounting reports for Department 971 appropriations to the DFAS Indianapolis Center...

  15. Development of a Batch Fabrication Process for Chemical Nanosensors: Recent Advancements at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2014-01-01

    A major objective in aerospace sensor development is to produce sensors that are small in size, easy to batch fabricate and low in cost, and have low power consumption. Chemical sensors involving nanostructured materials can provide these characteristics as well as the potential for the development of sensor systems with unique properties and improved performance. However, the fabrication and processing of nanostructures for sensor applications currently is limited by the ability to control their location on the sensor platform, which in turn hinders the progress for batch fabrication. This presentation will discuss the following: the development of a novel room temperature methane (CH4) sensor fabricated using porous tin oxide (SnO2) nanorods as the sensing material, the advantages of using nanomaterials in sensor designs, the challenges encountered with the integration of nanostructures into microsensordevices, and the different methods that have been attempted to address these challenges. An approach for the mass production of sensors with nanostructures using a method developed by our group at the NASA Glenn Research Center to control the alignment of nanostructures onto a sensor platform will also be described.

  16. Using the World Wide Web for GIDEP Problem Data Processing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, John W.; Haraway, Sandra W.; Whirley, J. Don

    1999-01-01

    Since April 1997, Marshall Space Flight Center has been using electronic transfer and the web to support our processing of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA ALERT information. Specific aspects include: (1) Extraction of ASCII text information from GIDEP for loading into Word documents for e-mail to ALERT actionees; (2) Downloading of GIDEP form image formats in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) for internal storage display on the MSFC ALERT web page; (3) Linkage of stored GRDEP problem forms with summary information for access from the MSFC ALERT Distribution Summary Chart or from an html table of released MSFC ALERTs (4) Archival of historic ALERTs for reference by GIDEP ID, MSFC ID, or MSFC release date; (5) On-line tracking of ALERT response status using a Microsoft Access database and the web (6) On-line response to ALERTs from MSFC actionees through interactive web forms. The technique, benefits, effort, coordination, and lessons learned for each aspect are covered herein.

  17. Phased Array Radar Network Experiment for Severe Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushio, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Mega, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Mizutani, F.; Takahashi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Phased Array Weather Radar (PAWR) was firstly developed in 2012 by Osaka University and Toshiba under a grant of NICT using the Digital Beamforming Technique, and showed a impressive thunderstorm behavior with 30 second resolution. After that development, second PAWR was installed in Kobe city about 60 km away from the first PAWR site, and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Osaka Univeristy, Toshiba and the Osaka Local Government started a new project to develop the Osaka Urban Demonstration Network. The main sensor of the Osaka Network is a 2-node Phased Array Radar Network and lightning location system. Data products that are created both in local high performance computer and Toshiba Computer Cloud, include single and multi-radar data, vector wind, quantitative precipitation estimation, VIL, nowcasting, lightning location and analysis. Each radar node is calibarated by the baloon measurement and through the comparison with the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)/ DPR (Dual Frequency Space borne Radar) within 1 dB. The attenuated radar reflectivities obtained by the Phased Array Radar Network at X band are corrected based on the bayesian scheme proposed in Shimamura et al. [2016]. The obtained high resolution (every 30 seconds/ 100 elevation angles) 3D reflectivity and rain rate fields are used to nowcast the surface rain rate up to 30 minutes ahead. These new products are transferred to Osaka Local Government in operational mode and evaluated by several section in Osaka Prefecture. Furthermore, a new Phased Array Radar with polarimetric function has been developed in 2017, and will be operated in the fiscal year of 2017. In this presentation, Phased Array Radar, network architecuture, processing algorithm, evalution of the social experiment and first Multi-Prameter Phased Array Radar experiment are presented.

  18. Space Radar Image of Harvard Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the area surrounding the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts that has been operated as a ecological research facility by Harvard University since 1907. At the center of the image is the Quabbin Reservoir, and the Connecticut River is at the lower left of the image. The Harvard Forest itself is just above the reservoir. Researchers are comparing the naturally occurring physical disturbances in the forest and the recent and projected chemical disturbances and their effects on the forest ecosystem. Agricultural land appears dark blue/purple, along with low shrub vegetation and some wetlands. Urban development is bright pink; the yellow to green tints are conifer-dominated vegetation with the pitch pine sand plain at the middle left edge of the image appearing very distinctive. The green tint may indicate pure pine plantation stands, and deciduous broadleaf trees appear gray/pink with perhaps wetter sites being pinker. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 42.50 degrees North latitude and 72.33 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 53 kilometers 63 by kilometers (33 miles by 39 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received.

  19. 35-GHz radar sensor for automotive collision avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a radar sensor system used for automotive collision avoidance. Because the heavy truck may have great larger radar cross section than a motorcyclist has, the radar receiver may have a large dynamic range. And multi-targets at different speed may confuse the echo spectrum causing the ambiguity between range and speed of target. To get more information about target and background and to adapt to the large dynamic range and multi-targets, a frequency modulated and pseudo- random binary sequences phase modulated continuous wave radar system is described. The analysis of this double- modulation system is given. A high-speed signal processing and data processing component are used to process and combine the data and information from echo at different direction and at every moment.

  20. Radar studies of the planets. [radar measurements of lunar surface, Mars, Mercury, and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, R. P.; Pettengill, G. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Sebring, P. B. (Editor); Shapiro, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    The radar measurements phase of the lunar studies involving reflectivity and topographic mapping of the visible lunar surface was ended in December 1972, but studies of the data and production of maps have continued. This work was supported by Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston. Topographic mapping of the equatorial regions of Mars has been carried out during the period of each opposition since that of 1967. The method comprised extended precise traveling time measurements to a small area centered on the subradar point. As measurements continued, planetary motions caused this point to sweep out extensive areas in both latitude and longitude permitting the development of a fairly extensive topographical map in the equatorial region. Radar observations of Mercury and Venus have also been made over the past few years. Refinements of planetary motions, reflectivity maps and determinations of rotation rates have resulted.

  1. Patient-Centered Drug Approval: The Role of Patient Advocacy in the Drug Approval Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, T Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Recent approval of eteplirsen for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a rare disease with few treatment alternatives, has reignited the debate over the U.S. drug approval process. The evolution of legal and regulatory restrictions to the marketing and sale of pharmaceuticals has spanned more than a century, and throughout this history, patient advocacy has played a significant role. Scientific evidence from clinical trials serves as the foundation for drug approval, but the patient voice has become increasingly influential. Although the gold standard for establishing safety and efficacy through randomized controlled trials has been in place for more than 50 years, it poses several limitations for rare disorders where patient recruitment for traditional clinical trials is a major barrier. Organized efforts by patient advocacy groups to help patients with rare diseases access investigational therapy have had a legislative and regulatory effect. After approval by the FDA, patient access to therapy may still be limited by cost. A managed care organization (MCO) with the fiduciary responsibility of managing the health of a population must weigh coverage decisions for costly therapies with questionable effectiveness against alternatives within the constraint of a finite budget. Even when the FDA deems a drug safe and effective, an MCO may determine that the drug should only be made available at a tier level where out-of-pocket costs are still too high for many patients. This limitation of availability may be due to cost, other treatment alternatives, or outcomes from existing clinical evidence. However, if the MCO makes a costly new treatment for a rare disease readily available, it may temporarily satisfy a small contingency at the cost of all of its members. This article examines the risks and benefits of patient-centered drug approval and the potential economic effect of patient-centered drug approval on population health. There is no funding to disclose. Mattingly

  2. The Effect of Person Centered Planning Activities on the IEP/Transition Planning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Craig A.; Bates, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 22 students with mental retardation and their families evaluated the impact of person-centered planning activities on several variables related to a student's individual education program/transition planning meeting. Person-centered planning had a significant effect on parent participation in meetings, but not on discussion of…

  3. A systematic strategic planning process focused on improved community engagement by an academic health center: the University of Kansas Medical Center's story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C; Nelson, Eve-Lynn; Ast, Cori; Lillis, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    A growing number of academic health centers (AHCs) are considering approaches to expand collaboration with their communities in order to address complex and multisystem health concerns. In 2010, internal leaders at the University of Kansas Medical Center undertook a strategic planning process to enhance both community engagement activities and the scholarship resulting from these engagement activities. The authors describe the strategic planning process, recommendations, and actions associated with elevating community engagement within the AHC's mission and priorities. The strategic planning process included conducting an inventory of community engagement activities within the AHC; analyzing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for community engagement work; and identifying goals and strategies to improve future community engagement activities and scholarship. The resulting road map for enhancing community engagement at their institution through 2015 consists of four main strategies: emphasize scholarship in community engagement, revise organizational structures to better facilitate community engagement, prioritize current engagement activities to ensure appropriate use of resources, and enhance communication of engagement initiatives to further develop stakeholder relationships.The authors also discuss implementation of the plan to date and highlight lessons learned that may inform other AHCs as they enhance and expand similar endeavors.

  4. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  5. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  6. Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Anthony; Schottel, Matthew; Lee, David; Scully, Robert; Hamilton, Joseph; Kent, Brian; Thomas, Christopher; Benson, Jonathan; Branch, Eric; Hardman, Paul; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software (DEBRIS) program was developed to provide rapid and accurate analysis of debris observed by the NASA Debris Radar (NDR). This software provides a greatly improved analysis capacity over earlier manual processes, allowing for up to four times as much data to be analyzed by one-quarter of the personnel required by earlier methods. There are two applications that comprise the DEBRIS system: the Automated Radar Debris Examination Tool (ARDENT) and the primary DEBRIS tool.

  7. A statistical model for radar images of agricultural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.; Stiles, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The presently derived and validated statistical model for radar images containing many different homogeneous fields predicts the probability density functions of radar images of entire agricultural scenes, thereby allowing histograms of large scenes composed of a variety of crops to be described. Seasat-A SAR images of agricultural scenes are accurately predicted by the model on the basis of three assumptions: each field has the same SNR, all target classes cover approximately the same area, and the true reflectivity characterizing each individual target class is a uniformly distributed random variable. The model is expected to be useful in the design of data processing algorithms and for scene analysis using radar images.

  8. Frequency domain, waveform inversion of laboratory crosswell radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Mazzella, Aldo T.; Horton, Robert J.; McKenna, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    A new waveform inversion for crosswell radar is formulated in the frequency-domain for a 2.5D model. The inversion simulates radar waves using the vector Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves. The objective function is minimized using a backpropagation method suitable for a 2.5D model. The inversion is tested by processing crosswell radar data collected in a laboratory tank. The estimated model is consistent with the known electromagnetic properties of the tank. The formulation for the 2.5D model can be extended to inversions of acoustic and elastic data.

  9. Study on Effectiveness of the chaos laser radar

    OpenAIRE

    成田, 義之; 津田, 紀生; 山田, 諄

    2003-01-01

    A laser is widely applied for measurements, since it is invented. There are two types of laser distance meter for short and long distance. For long distance, a laser radar using propagation time of laser light is used. Generally, a distance is measured from delay time using either a periodic signal or a single pulse. But the signal becomes to be buried in noise with increasing distance. A new type of chaos laser radar which processes by only an addition is proposed. This radar can quickly pro...

  10. Slope stability radar for monitoring mine walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Bryan; Noon, David A.; Stickley, Glen F.; Longstaff, Dennis

    2001-11-01

    Determining slope stability in a mining operation is an important task. This is especially true when the mine workings are close to a potentially unstable slope. A common technique to determine slope stability is to monitor the small precursory movements, which occur prior to collapse. The slope stability radar has been developed to remotely scan a rock slope to continuously monitor the spatial deformation of the face. Using differential radar interferometry, the system can detect deformation movements of a rough wall with sub-millimeter accuracy, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. The effects of atmospheric variations and spurious signals can be reduced via signal processing means. The advantage of radar over other monitoring techniques is that it provides full area coverage without the need for mounted reflectors or equipment on the wall. In addition, the radar waves adequately penetrate through rain, dust and smoke to give reliable measurements, twenty-four hours a day. The system has been trialed at three open-cut coal mines in Australia, which demonstrated the potential for real-time monitoring of slope stability during active mining operations.

  11. Web Services Implementations at Land Process and Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M.; Bambacus, M.; Lynnes, C.; Sauer, B.; Falke, S.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's vast array of scientific data within its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is especially valuable to both traditional research scientists as well as the emerging market of Earth Science Information Partners. For example, the air quality science and management communities are increasingly using satellite derived observations in their analyses and decision making. The Air Quality Cluster in the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) uses web infrastructures of interoperability, or Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), to extend data exploration, use, and analysis and provides a user environment for DAAC products. In an effort to continually offer these NASA data to the broadest research community audience, and reusing emerging technologies, both NASA's Goddard Earth Science (GES) and Land Process (LP) DAACs have engaged in a web services pilot project. Through these projects both GES and LP have exposed data through the Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) Web Services standards. Reusing several different existing applications and implementation techniques, GES and LP successfully exposed a variety data, through distributed systems to be ingested into multiple end-user systems. The results of this project will enable researchers world wide to access some of NASA's GES & LP DAAC data through OGC protocols. This functionality encourages inter-disciplinary research while increasing data use through advanced technologies. This paper will concentrate on the implementation and use of OGC Web Services, specifically Web Map and Web Coverage Services (WMS, WCS) at GES and LP DAACs, and the value of these services within scientific applications, including integration with the DataFed air quality web infrastructure and in the development of data analysis web applications.

  12. The BSC implanting process in a nuclear research center in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cezar Augusto de; Guimaraes, Regia Ruth Ramirez; Filgueiras, Sergio Almeida Cunha

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of the economical development founded due to the markets globalization and also to the increasing of the competition based on innovation, whose leadership belongs to the richest countries, presses for changes and moves the national and regional innovating systems. In a world of constant change, getting along with the external changes became one of the most relevant factors of the organizational success. Knowing and interpreting the external reality; monitoring the transformations; finding the opportunities and being able to answer fast and adequately; neutralize or minimize the threats: these and other abilities are constantly done by the most successful organizations, as part of a structured and conscious process focused on results . The technological research institutes were created in order to support the industries in their effort to overcome the competition by innovating. It is related, in last instance, to be an integrating part of the national or local innovating system, essential to the economical development and also to the improvement of life quality. However, they are put in this mutation atmosphere and fight for adapting to the new premises of the organizational success in order to have their mission fulfilled. In this context, the Development Center for Nuclear Technology - CDTN, makes an effort to adequate its strategically planning, by introducing and adapting the best administrating practices known nowadays. Among them, the Balanced Scorecard - BSC. This paper presents a brief form of each elaborating form of the strategic planning and also of the BSC implantation, it also clears up the level achieved by the organization and discusses the difficulties it faced. (author)

  13. Measuring the value of process improvement initiatives in a preoperative assessment center using time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katy E; Albright, Heidi W; Frenzel, John C; Incalcaterra, James R; Rubio, Augustin C; Jones, Jessica F; Feeley, Thomas W

    2013-12-01

    The value and impact of process improvement initiatives are difficult to quantify. We describe the use of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) in a clinical setting to quantify the value of process improvements in terms of cost, time and personnel resources. Difficulty in identifying and measuring the cost savings of process improvement initiatives in a Preoperative Assessment Center (PAC). Use TDABC to measure the value of process improvement initiatives that reduce the costs of performing a preoperative assessment while maintaining the quality of the assessment. Apply the principles of TDABC in a PAC to measure the value, from baseline, of two phases of performance improvement initiatives and determine the impact of each implementation in terms of cost, time and efficiency. Through two rounds of performance improvements, we quantified an overall reduction in time spent by patient and personnel of 33% that resulted in a 46% reduction in the costs of providing care in the center. The performance improvements resulted in a 17% decrease in the total number of full time equivalents (FTE's) needed to staff the center and a 19% increase in the numbers of patients assessed in the center. Quality of care, as assessed by the rate of cancellations on the day of surgery, was not adversely impacted by the process improvements. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Measuring the three process segments of a customer's service experience for an out-patient surgery center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Angela M; Chin, Wynne W

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an alternative method of measuring out-patient satisfaction where satisfaction is the central construct. The Gap Model operationalized by SERVQUAL is widely used to measure service quality. However, the SERVQUAL instrument only measures expectations (resulting from the pre-process segment of the service experience) and perceptions (resulting from the post-process segment). All three segments should be measured. The lack of proper segmentation and methodological criticisms in the literature motivated this study. A partial least squares (PLS) approach, a form of structural equation modeling, is used to develop a framework to evaluate patient satisfaction in three service process segments: pre-process, process, and post-process service experiences. Results indicate that each process stage mediates subsequent stages, that the process segment is the most important to the patient and that the antecedents have differing impacts on patient satisfaction depending where in the process the antecedent is evaluated. Only one out-patient surgery center was evaluated. Patient satisfaction criteria specific to hospital selection are not included in this study. Results indicate what is important to patients in each service process segment that focus where ambulatory surgery centers should allocate resources. This study is the first to evaluate patient satisfaction with all three process segments.

  15. Programming and Process in Prisoner Rehabilitation: A Prison Mental Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A., III; Faubert, Marie

    1990-01-01

    Reviews literature concerning men in prisons. Describes specific program at a prison mental health center which prepares men for reentry into society. Closes with reflections on one man's struggle to grow and prepare for the outside. (CM)

  16. National Space Transportation System telemetry distribution and processing, NASA-JFK Space Center/Cape Canaveral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, George

    1986-01-01

    Prelaunch, launch, mission, and landing distribution of RF and hardline uplink/downlink information between Space Shuttle Orbiter/cargo elements, tracking antennas, and control centers at JSC, KSC, MSFC, GSFC, ESMC/RCC, and Sunnyvale are presented as functional block diagrams. Typical mismatch problems encountered during spacecraft-to-project control center telemetry transmissions are listed along with new items for future support enhancement.

  17. Developing Lightning Prediction Tools for the CCAFS Dual-Polarimetric Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, W. A.; Carey, L. D.; Deierling, W.; Johnson, E.; Bateman, M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama Huntsville are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) to develop improved lightning prediction capabilities for the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar being acquired for use by 45WS and launch weather forecasters at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). In particular, these algorithms will focus on lightning onset, cessation and combined lightning-radar applications for convective winds assessment. Research using radar reflectivity (Z) data for prediction of lightning onset has been extensively discussed in the literature and subsequently applied by launch weather forecasters as it pertains to lightning nowcasting. Currently the forecasters apply a relatively straight forward but effective temperature-Z threshold algorithm for assessing the likelihood of lightning onset in a given storm. In addition, a layered VIL above the freezing level product is used as automated guidance for the onset of lightning. Only limited research and field work has been conducted on lightning cessation using Z and vertically-integrated Z for determining cessation. Though not used operationally vertically-integrated Z (basis for VIL) has recently shown promise as a tool for use in nowcasting lightning cessation. The work discussed herein leverages and expands upon these and similar reflectivity-threshold approaches via the application/addition of over two decades of polarimetric radar research focused on distinct multi-parameter radar signatures of ice/mixed-phase initiation and ice-crystal orientation in highly electrified convective clouds. Specifically, our approach is based on numerous previous studies that have observed repeatable patterns in the behavior of the vertical hydrometeor column as it relates to the temporal evolution of differential reflectivity and depolarization (manifested in either LDR or p(sub hv)), development of in-situ mixed and ice phase microphysics, electric fields, and

  18. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  19. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  20. Micropower impulse radar technology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, J., LLNL

    1998-04-15

    The LLNL-developed Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology has quickly gone from laboratory concept to embedded circuitry in numerous government and commercial systems in the last few years[l]. The main ideas behind MIR, invented by T. McEwan in the Laser Program, are the generation and detection systems for extremely low- power ultra-wideband pulses in the gigaHertz regime using low-cost components. These ideas, coupled with new antenna systems, timing and radio-frequency (RF) circuitry, computer interfaces, and signal processing, have provided the catalyst for a new generation of compact radar systems. Over the past several years we have concentrated on a number of applications of MIR which address a number of remote-sensing applications relevant to emerging programs in defense, transportation, medical, and environmental research. Some of the past commercial successes have been widely publicized [2] and are only now starting to become available for market. Over 30 patents have been filed and over 15 licenses have been signed on various aspects of the MIR technology. In addition, higher performance systems are under development for specific laboratory programs and government reimbursables. The MIR is an ultra- wideband, range-gated radar system that provides the enabling hardware technology used in the research areas mentioned above. It has numerous performance parameters that can be Selected by careful design to fit the requirements. We have improved the baseline, short- range, MIR system to demonstrate its effectiveness. The radar operates over the hand from approximately I to 4 GHz with pulse repetition frequencies up to 10 MHz. It provides a potential range resolution of I cm at ranges of greater than 20 m. We have developed a suite of algorithms for using MIR for image formation. These algorithms currently support Synthetic aperture and multistate array geometries. This baseline MIR radar imaging system has been used for several programmatic applications.

  1. Doppler radar flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  2. Reconfigurable signal processor designs for advanced digital array radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Hernan; Zhang, Yan (Rockee); Yu, Xining

    2017-05-01

    The new challenges originated from Digital Array Radar (DAR) demands a new generation of reconfigurable backend processor in the system. The new FPGA devices can support much higher speed, more bandwidth and processing capabilities for the need of digital Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). This study focuses on using the latest Altera and Xilinx devices in an adaptive beamforming processor. The field reprogrammable RF devices from Analog Devices are used as analog front end transceivers. Different from other existing Software-Defined Radio transceivers on the market, this processor is designed for distributed adaptive beamforming in a networked environment. The following aspects of the novel radar processor will be presented: (1) A new system-on-chip architecture based on Altera's devices and adaptive processing module, especially for the adaptive beamforming and pulse compression, will be introduced, (2) Successful implementation of generation 2 serial RapidIO data links on FPGA, which supports VITA-49 radio packet format for large distributed DAR processing. (3) Demonstration of the feasibility and capabilities of the processor in a Micro-TCA based, SRIO switching backplane to support multichannel beamforming in real-time. (4) Application of this processor in ongoing radar system development projects, including OU's dual-polarized digital array radar, the planned new cylindrical array radars, and future airborne radars.

  3. Controlling the Instructional Development Process. Training Development and Research Center Project Number Fifteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Swanson, Richard A.

    Process control is a way of training managers in business and industry to plan, monitor, and communicate the instructional development process of training projects. Two simple and useful tools that managers use in controlling the process of instructional development are the Process Control Planning Sheet and the Process Control Record. The Process…

  4. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  5. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  6. Performance indicators modern surveillance radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, P.N.C.; Theil, A.

    2014-01-01

    Blake chart computations are widely employed to rank detection coverage capabilities of competitive search radar systems. Developed for comparable 2D radar systems with a mechanically rotating reflector antenna, it was not necessary to regard update rate and plot quality in Blake's chart. To

  7. The National Air Intelligence Center Software Process Improvement Effort (NAIC SPI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blankenship, Donald

    2001-01-01

    ...) Software Process Improvements effort. The objective of this effort was for the contractor to provide engineering and software process improvement for NAIC/SCD to reach SEI's CMM Level 2 in process maturity...

  8. Interdisciplinarity in work process at a Psychosocial Attention Center - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Salete Bessa Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the work process of mental health professionals from a Psychosocial Attention Center (CAPS, from the knowledge and the practices applied in the production of care and its interface with user’s demands and the service offering. Methods: A case study with qualitative approach. Twenty-eight subjects joined in and were divided into three groups: I (eleven mental health workers, II (eleven users e III (six family members. The semistructured interview was used besides systematic observation, in the search for data about the work process of the professionals of the Psychosocial Attention Center, the relationship between team and user, offering and demand, access, technologies of care, knowledge and practices and interdisciplinarity. The investigation was based upon critical content analysis and was oriented by the flowchart analyzer. Results: The service organization and its work process are directed to the immediate supply of the population’s demands, which depicts a care based on prescriptive practices. Thus, the flow of assistance and the service offering complement each other in the need of a procedure and in its exhaustive offering by the service, dissolving interdisciplinary conductions of intervention shared with the user. Conclusion: Mental health care is still surrounded by biomedical hegemony centered in procedures directed to pharmacological prescription. Despite this reality, the work centered on the user and the utilization of soft technologies – communication, link, welcoming – begin to take part of the daily CAPS service offering, although it is only present in specific activities of certain procedures.

  9. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    classification and use a range of different techniques and input data. The first method uses external information from multispectral satellite images to detect clutter. The information in the visual, near-infrared, and infrared parts of the spectrum can be used to distinguish between cloud and cloud-free areas......Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...

  10. Demonstration of Sparse Signal Reconstruction for Radar Imaging of Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heister, Anton; Scheiber, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Conventional processing of ice-sounder data produces 2-D images of the ice sheet and bed, where the two dimensions are along-track and depth, while the across-track direction is fixed to nadir. The 2-D images contain information about the topography and radar reflectivity of the ice sheet's surface, bed, and internal layers in the along-track direction. Having multiple antenna phase centers in the across-track direction enables the production of 3-D images of the ice sheet and bed. Compared to conventional 2-D images, these contain additional information about the surface and bed topography, and orientation of the internal layers over a swath in the across-track direction. We apply a 3-D SAR tomographic ice-sounding method based on sparse signal reconstruction [1] to the data collected by Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) in 2008 in Greenland [2] using their multichannel coherent radar depth sounder (MCoRDS). The MCoRDS data have 16 effective phase centers which allows us to better understand the performance of the method. Lastly we offer sparsity improvement by including wavelet dictionaries into the reconstruction.The results show improved scene feature resolvability in across-track direction compared to MVDR beamformer. References: [1] A. Heister, R. Scheiber, "First Analysis of Sparse Signal Reconstruction for Radar Imaging of Ice Sheets". In: Proceedings of EUSAR, pp. 788-791, June 2016. [2] X. Wu, K. C. Jezek, E. Rodriguez, S. Gogineni, F. Rodriguez-Morales, and A. Freeman, "Ice sheet bed mapping with airborne SAR tomography". IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 49, no. 10 Part 1, pp. 3791-3802, 2011.

  11. 100 years of radar

    CERN Document Server

    Galati, Gaspare

    2016-01-01

    This book offers fascinating insights into the key technical and scientific developments in the history of radar, from the first patent, taken out by Hülsmeyer in 1904, through to the present day. Landmark events are highlighted and fascinating insights provided into the exceptional people who made possible the progress in the field, including the scientists and technologists who worked independently and under strict secrecy in various countries across the world in the 1930s and the big businessmen who played an important role after World War II. The book encourages multiple levels of reading. The author is a leading radar researcher who is ideally placed to offer a technical/scientific perspective as well as a historical one. He has taken care to structure and write the book in such a way as to appeal to both non-specialists and experts. The book is not sponsored by any company or body, either formally or informally, and is therefore entirely unbiased. The text is enriched by approximately three hundred ima...

  12. Electromagnetic behavior of radar absorbing materials based on Ca hexaferrite modified with Co-Ti ions and doped with La

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Aparecida da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM are compounds that absorb incidental electromagnetic radiation in tuned frequencies and dissipate it as heat. Its preparation involves the adequate processing of polymeric matrices filled with compounds that act as radar absorbing centers in the microwave range. This work shows the electromagnetic evaluation of RAM based on CoTi and La doped Ca hexaferrite. Vibrating Sample Magnetization analyses show that ion substitution promoted low values for the parameters of saturation magnetization (123.65 Am2/kg and coercive field (0.07 T indicating ferrite softening. RAM samples obtained using different hexaferrite concentrations (40-80 per cent, w/w show variations in complex permeability and permittivity parameters and also in the performance of incidental radiation attenuation. Microwave attenuation values between 40 and 98 per cent were obtained.

  13. Compressive Detection Using Sub-Nyquist Radars for Sparse Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the compression detection problem using sub-Nyquist radars, which is well suited to the scenario of high bandwidths in real-time processing because it would significantly reduce the computational burden and save power consumption and computation time. A compressive generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT detector for sparse signals is proposed for sub-Nyquist radars without ever reconstructing the signal involved. The performance of the compressive GLRT detector is analyzed and the theoretical bounds are presented. The compressive GLRT detection performance of sub-Nyquist radars is also compared to the traditional GLRT detection performance of conventional radars, which employ traditional analog-to-digital conversion (ADC at Nyquist sampling rates. Simulation results demonstrate that the former can perform almost as well as the latter with a very small fraction of the number of measurements required by traditional detection in relatively high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR cases.

  14. SAR-EDU - An education initiative for applied Synthetic Aperture Radar remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Robert; Richter, Nicole; Auer, Stefan; Eineder, Michael; Roth, Achim; Hajnsek, Irena; Walter, Diana; Braun, Matthias; Motagh, Mahdi; Pathe, Carsten; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Thiel, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Since the 1970s, radar remote sensing techniques have evolved rapidly and are increasingly employed in all fields of earth sciences. Applications are manifold and still expanding due to the continuous development of new instruments and missions as well as the availability of very high-quality data. The trend worldwide is towards operational employment of the various algorithms and methods that have been developed. However, the utilization of operational services does not keep up yet with the rate of technical developments and the improvements in sensor technology. With the enhancing availability and variety of space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and a growing number of analysis algorithms the need for a vital user community is increasing. Therefore the German Aerospace Center (DLR) together with the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (FSU) and the Technical University Munich (TUM) launched the education initiative SAR-EDU. The aim of the project is to facilitate access to expert knowledge in the scientific field of radar remote sensing. Within this effort a web portal will be created to provide seminar material on SAR basics, methods and applications to support both, lecturers and students. The overall intension of the project SAR-EDU is to provide seminar material for higher education in radar remote sensing covering the topic holistically from the very basics to the most advanced methods and applications that are available. The principles of processing and interpreting SAR data are going to be taught using test data sets and open-source as well as commercial software packages. The material that is provided by SAR-EDU will be accessible at no charge from a DLR web portal. The educational tool will have a modular structure, consisting of separate modules that broach the issue of a particular topic. The aim of the implementation of SAR-EDU as application-oriented radar remote sensing educational tool is to advocate the development and wider use of

  15. a Study of Precipitation Using Dual-Frequency and Interferometric Doppler Radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilson, Phillip Bruce

    The primary focus of this dissertation involves the investigation of precipitation using Doppler radar but using distinctly different methods. Each method will be treated separately. The first part describes an investigation of a tropical thunderstorm that occurred in the summer of 1991 over the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Observations were made using a vertically pointing, dual-wavelength, collinear beam Doppler radar which permits virtually simultaneous observations of the same pulse volume using transmission and reception of coherent UHF and VHF signals on alternate pulses. This made it possible to measure directly the vertical wind within the sampling volume using the VHF signal while using the UHF signal to study the nature of the precipitation. The observed storm showed strong similarities with systems observed in the Global Atmospheric Research Program's (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) study. The experiment provided a means of determining various parameters associated with the storm, such as the vertical air velocity, the mean fall speeds of the precipitation, and the reflectivity. Rogers proposed a means of deducing the mean fall speed of precipitation particles using the radar reflectivity factor. Using the data from our experiment, the mean precipitation fall speeds were calculated and compared with those that would be inferred from Rogers' method. The results suggest the Rogers method of estimating mean precipitation fall speeds to be unreliable in turbulent environments. The second part reports observations made with the 50 MHz Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) radar located at Shigaraki, Japan during May of 1992. The facility was operated in a spatial interferometry (SI) mode while observing frontal precipitation. The data suggest that the presence of precipitation can produce a bias in the SI cross-spectral phase that in turn creates an overestimation of the horizontal wind. The process is likened to

  16. Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science Center for Computational Imaging XNAT: A multimodal data archive and processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L; Yvernault, Benjamin C; Boyd, Brian D; Damon, Stephen M; Gibney, Kyla David; Conrad, Benjamin N; Phillips, Nicholas S; Rogers, Baxter P; Gao, Yurui; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-01-01

    The Vanderbilt University Institute for Imaging Science (VUIIS) Center for Computational Imaging (CCI) has developed a database built on XNAT housing over a quarter of a million scans. The database provides framework for (1) rapid prototyping, (2) large scale batch processing of images and (3) scalable project management. The system uses the web-based interfaces of XNAT and REDCap to allow for graphical interaction. A python middleware layer, the Distributed Automation for XNAT (DAX) package, distributes computation across the Vanderbilt Advanced Computing Center for Research and Education high performance computing center. All software are made available in open source for use in combining portable batch scripting (PBS) grids and XNAT servers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radar image enhancement and simulation as an aid to interpretation and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.; Dellwig, L. F.; Held, D. N.

    1980-01-01

    Greatly increased activity in the field of radar image applications in the coming years demands that techniques of radar image analysis, enhancement, and simulation be developed now. Since the statistical nature of radar imagery differs from that of photographic imagery, one finds that the required digital image processing algorithms (e.g., for improved viewing and feature extraction) differ from those currently existing. This paper addresses these problems and discusses work at the Remote Sensing Laboratory in image simulation and processing, especially for systems comparable to the formerly operational SEASAT synthetic aperture radar.

  18. Evaluation of the new French operational weather radar product for the field of urban hydrology

    OpenAIRE

    EMMANUEL, Isabelle; ANDRIEU, Hervé; TABARY, P

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate, at the urban scale, the accuracy of the new French operational radar processing chain deployed within the French operational weather radar network. Such an evaluation is conducted by comparing radar data resulting from this processing chain (with a 1-km² resolution) to rain gauge data at four different time scales, i.e. 5,15, 30 and 60 min. These data are supplied by the Trappes Radar Station, located 30 km southwest of Paris. A total of 69 rai...

  19. 5 year radar-based rainfall statistics: disturbances analysis and development of a post-correction scheme for the German radar composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A.; Seltmann, J.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-02-01

    A radar-based rainfall statistic demands high quality data that provide realistic precipitation amounts in space and time. Instead of correcting single radar images, we developed a post-correction scheme for long-term composite radar data that corrects corrupted areas, but preserves the original precipitation patterns. The post-correction scheme is based on a 5 year statistical analysis of radar composite data and its constituents. The accumulation of radar images reveals artificial effects that are not visible in the individual radar images. Some of them are already inherent to single radar data such as the effect of increasing beam height, beam blockage or clutter remnants. More artificial effects are introduced in the process of compositing such as sharp gradients at the boundaries of overlapping areas due to different beam heights and resolution. The cause of these disturbances, their behaviour with respect to reflectivity level, season or altitude is analysed based on time-series of two radar products: the single radar reflectivity product PX for each of the 16 radar systems of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) for the time span 2000 to 2006 and the radar composite product RX of DWD from 2005 through to 2009. These statistics result in additional quality information on radar data that is not available elsewhere. The resulting robust characteristics of disturbances, e.g. the dependency of the frequencies of occurrence of radar reflectivities on beam height, are then used as a basis for the post-correction algorithm. The scheme comprises corrections for shading effects and speckles, such as clutter remnants or overfiltering, as well as for systematic differences in frequencies of occurrence of radar reflectivities between the near and the far ranges of individual radar sites. An adjustment to rain gauges is also included. Applying this correction, the Root-Mean-Square-Error for the comparison of radar derived annual rain amounts with rain gauge data

  20. Effects of respiration depth on human body radar cross section Using 2.4GHz continuous wave radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexander; Xiaomeng Gao; Jia Xu; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2017-07-01

    In this study, it was tested whether deep and shallow breathing has an effect on the cardiopulmonary radar cross-section (RCS). Continuous wave radar with quadrature architecture at 2.4GHz was used to test 2 human subjects breathing deep and shallow for 30 seconds each while seated 2 meters away from the radar. A retro-reflective marker was placed on the sternum of each subject and measured by infrared motion capture cameras to accurately track displacement of the chest. The quadrature radar outputs were processed to find the radius of the arc on the IQ plot using a circle-fitting algorithm. Results showed that the effective RCS ratio of deep to shallow breathing for subjects 1 and 2 was 6.99 and 2.24 respectively.

  1. Joint synthetic aperture radar plus ground moving target indicator from single-channel radar using compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas; Hallquist, Aaron; Anderson, Hyrum

    2017-10-17

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to utilizing an operational single-channel radar to collect and process synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) imagery from a same set of radar returns. In an embodiment, data is collected by randomly staggering a slow-time pulse repetition interval (PRI) over a SAR aperture such that a number of transmitted pulses in the SAR aperture is preserved with respect to standard SAR, but many of the pulses are spaced very closely enabling movers (e.g., targets) to be resolved, wherein a relative velocity of the movers places them outside of the SAR ground patch. The various embodiments of image reconstruction can be based on compressed sensing inversion from undersampled data, which can be solved efficiently using such techniques as Bregman iteration. The various embodiments enable high-quality SAR reconstruction, and high-quality GMTI reconstruction from the same set of radar returns.

  2. Feature Extraction in Radar Target Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kus

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of extracting features in the Radar Target Classification process using the J frequency band pulse radar. The feature extraction is based on frequency analysis methods, the discrete-time Fourier Transform (DFT and Multiple Signal Characterisation (MUSIC, based on the detection of Doppler effect. The analysis has turned to the preference of DFT with implemented Hanning windowing function. We assumed to classify targets-vehicles into two classes, the wheeled vehicle and tracked vehicle. The results show that it is possible to classify them only while moving. The feature of the class results from a movement of moving parts of the vehicle. However, we have not found any feature to classify the wheeled and tracked vehicles while non-moving, although their engines are on.

  3. The CNES Gaia Data Processing Center: A Challenge and its Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoul, Laurence; Valette, Veronique

    2011-08-01

    After a brief reminder of the ESA Gaia project, this paper presents the data processing consortium (DPAC) and then the CNES data processing centre (DPCC). We focus on the challenge in terms of organisational aspects, processing capabilities, databases volumetry, and how we deal with these topics.

  4. Interception of LPI radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jim P.

    1991-11-01

    Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile control, and power management that a radar may employ against current Electronic Warfare (EW) receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current intercept EW receivers. LPI operation is most easily achieved at close ranges and against a target with a large radar cross section. The general system sensitivity requirement for the detection of current and projected LPI radars is found to be on the order of -100 dBmi which cannot be met by current EW receivers. Finally, three potential LPI receiver architectures, using channelized, superhet, and acousto-optic receivers with narrow RF and video bandwidths are discussed. They have shown some potential in terms of providing the sensitivity and capability in an environment where both conventional and LPI signals are present.

  5. Repackaging of High Fissile TRU Waste at the Transuranic Waste Processing Center - 13240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Brian; Heacker, Fred [WAI, TRU Waste Processing Center, 100 WIPP Road Lenoir City, TN 37771 (United States); McMillan, Bill [DOE, Oak Ridge Operations, Bldg. 2714, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-six drums of high fissile transuranic (TRU) waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations were declared waste in the mid-1980's and placed in storage with the legacy TRU waste inventory for future treatment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Repackaging and treatment of the waste at the TRU Waste Packaging Center (TWPC) will require the installation of additional equipment and capabilities to address the hazards for handling and repackaging the waste compared to typical Contact Handled (CH) TRU waste that is processed at the TWPC, including potential hydrogen accumulation in legacy 6M/2R packaging configurations, potential presence of reactive plutonium hydrides, and significant low energy gamma radiation dose rates. All of the waste is anticipated to be repackaged at the TWPC and certified for disposal at WIPP. The waste is currently packaged in multiple layers of containers which presents additional challenges for repackaging activities due to the potential for the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the container headspace in quantities than could exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). The outer container for each waste package is a stainless steel 0.21 m{sup 3} (55-gal) drum which contains either a 0.04 m{sup 3} or 0.06 m{sup 3} (10-gal or 15-gal) 6M drum. The inner 2R container in each 6M drum is ∼12 cm (5 in) outside diameter x 30-36 cm (12-14 in) long and is considered to be a > 4 liter sealed container relative to TRU waste packaging criteria. Inside the 2R containers are multiple configurations of food pack cans, pipe nipples, and welded capsules. The waste contains significant quantities of high burn-up plutonium oxides and metals with a heavy weight percentage of higher atomic mass isotopes and the subsequent in-growth of significant quantities of americium. Significant low energy gamma radiation is expected to be present due to the americium in-growth. Radiation dose rates on inner containers are estimated

  6. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered

  7. Experiment for buried pipes by stepped FM-CW radar; Step shiki FM-CW radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Ito, M. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanabe, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    The underground radar exploration is adopted to surveys of cavity under the road and buried pipes since the result of high resolution is obtained. However, the explorative depth of the radar is shallow, 2-3m in soil basement, and its applicable field has been limited. The continuous wave radar (FM-CW radar) was devised to get deeper explorative depth, but has been used for the geological structure survey such as the fault survey since it is lower in resolution as compared with the pulse radar. Therefore, to make use of characteristics of the continuous wave radar and enhance resolution in the shallow part, an experiment on buried pipes was conducted for the purpose of assessing and improving the FM-CW radar. In this processing, the wave form treatment used in the reflection method seismic survey was adopted for the radar survey. There are some problems, but it is effective to adopt the same algorithm to that used in the seismic survey to the radar exploration. The explorative depth was discussed from the damping rate of electromagnetic waves and dynamic range of facilities of the experimental site, and 7m was obtained. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Radar observations of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes echoes from 33 main-belt asteroids (MBAs) and 19 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have provided a wealth of new information about these objects such as sizes, shapes, spin vectors, and such surface characteristics as decimeter-scale morphology, topographic relief, regolith porosity and metal concentrations. On average, small NEAs are much rougher at decimeter scales than MBAs, comets or terrestrial planets. Some of the largest MBAs (e.g., 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas ) are smoother than the moon at decimeter scales but much rougher than the Moon at some much larger scale. There is at least a five-fold variation in the radar albedos of MBAs, implying substantial variations in the surface porosities or metal concentrations of these objects. The highest MBA albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a metal concentration near unity and lunar porosities

  9. Under the Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, WM

    2010-01-01

    This is the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott (1912 to 1981). As the first female radio astronomer (and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy), she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. She also played a major role in the design of the Australian government's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research radars, which were in turn of vital importance in the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II and were used by Australian, US and New Zealand personnel. From a sociological perspective, her career also offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs this book gives a fascinating insight into the beginning of radio astronomy and the role of a pioneering woman in astronomy.

  10. Material integrity verification radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the need for verification of 'as-built' spent fuel-dry storage containers and other concrete structures. The IAEA has tasked the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) to fabricate, test, and deploy a stepped-frequency Material Integrity Verification Radar (MIVR) system to nondestructively verify the internal construction of these containers. The MIVR system is based on previously deployed high-frequency, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems that have been developed by STL for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Whereas GPR technology utilizes microwave radio frequency energy to create subsurface images, MTVR is a variation for which the medium is concrete instead of soil. The purpose is to nondestructively verify the placement of concrete-reinforcing materials, pipes, inner liners, and other attributes of the internal construction. The MIVR system underwent an initial field test on CANDU reactor spent fuel storage canisters at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada, in October 1995. A second field test at the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant in Embalse, Argentina, was completed in May 1996. The DOE GPR also was demonstrated at the site. Data collection and analysis were performed for the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN). IAEA and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Control and Accounting of Nuclear Material (ABACC) personnel were present as observers during the test. Reinforcing materials were evident in the color, two-dimensional images produced by the MIVR system. A continuous pattern of reinforcing bars was evident and accurate estimates on the spacing, depth, and size were made. The potential uses for safeguard applications were jointly discussed. The MIVR system, as successfully demonstrated in the two field tests, can be used as a design verification tool for IAEA safeguards. A deployment of MIVR for Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ

  11. Air and spaceborne radar systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lacomme, Philippe; Hardange, Jean-Philippe; Normant, Eric

    2001-01-01

    A practical tool on radar systems that will be of major help to technicians, student engineers and engineers working in industry and in radar research and development. The many users of radar as well as systems engineers and designers will also find it highly useful. Also of interest to pilots and flight engineers and military command personnel and military contractors. """"This introduction to the field of radar is intended for actual users of radar. It focuses on the history, main principles, functions, modes, properties and specific nature of modern airborne radar. The book examines radar's

  12. A User Guide for Smoothing Air Traffic Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Ralph E.; Paielli, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Matlab software was written to provide smoothing of radar tracking data to simulate ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) data in order to test a tactical conflict probe. The probe, called TSAFE (Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment), is designed to handle air-traffic conflicts left undetected or unresolved when loss-of-separation is predicted to occur within approximately two minutes. The data stream that is down-linked from an aircraft equipped with an ADS-B system would include accurate GPS-derived position and velocity information at sample rates of 1 Hz. Nation-wide ADS-B equipage (mandated by 2020) should improve surveillance accuracy and TSAFE performance. Currently, position data are provided by Center radar (nominal 12-sec samples) and Terminal radar (nominal 4.8-sec samples). Aircraft ground speed and ground track are estimated using real-time filtering, causing lags up to 60 sec, compromising performance of a tactical resolution tool. Offline smoothing of radar data reduces wild-point errors, provides a sample rate as high as 1 Hz, and yields more accurate and lag-free estimates of ground speed, ground track, and climb rate. Until full ADS-B implementation is available, smoothed radar data should provide reasonable track estimates for testing TSAFE in an ADS-B-like environment. An example illustrates the smoothing of radar data and shows a comparison of smoothed-radar and ADS-B tracking. This document is intended to serve as a guide for using the smoothing software.

  13. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through

  14. Creating Processes Associated with Providing Government Goods and Services Under the Commercial Space Launch Act at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Janet F.

    2011-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has decided to write its agreements under the Commercial Space Launch Act (CSLA) authority to cover a broad range of categories of support that KSC could provide to our commercial partner. Our strategy was to go through the onerous process of getting the agreement in place once and allow added specificity and final cost estimates to be documented on a separate Task Order Request (TOR). This paper is written from the implementing engineering team's perspective. It describes how we developed the processes associated with getting Government support to our emerging commercial partners, such as SpaceX and reports on our success to date.

  15. Prospective IS-MST radar. Potential and diagnostic capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potekhin A.P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the next few years, a new radar is planned to be built near Irkutsk. It should have capabilities of incoherent scatter (IS radars and mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST radars [Zherebtsov et al., 2011]. The IS-MST radar is a phased array of two separated antenna panels with a multichannel digital receiving system, which allows detailed space-time processing of backscattered signal. This paper describes characteristics, configuration, and capabilities of the antenna and transceiver systems of this radar. We estimate its potential in basic operating modes to study the ionosphere by the IS method at heights above 100 km and the atmosphere with the use of signals scattered from refractive index fluctuations, caused by turbulent mixing at heights below 100 km. The modeling shows that the radar will allow us to regularly measure neutral atmosphere parameters at heights up to 26 km as well as to observe mesosphere summer echoes at heights near 85 km in the presence of charged ice particles (an increase in Schmidt number and mesosphere winter echoes at heights near 65 km with increasing background electron density. Evaluation of radar resources at the IS mode in two height ranges 100–600 and 600–2000 km demonstrates that in the daytime and with the accumulation time of 10 min, the upper boundaries of electron density and ionospheric plasma temperature are ~1500 and ~1300 km respectively, with the standard deviation of no more than 10 %. The upper boundary of plasma drift velocity is ~1100 km with the standard deviation of 45 m/s. The estimation of interferometric capabilities of the MST radar shows that it has a high sensitivity to objects of angular size near 7.5 arc min, and its potential accuracy in determining target angles can reach 40 arc sec.

  16. Synthetic aperture radar imaging simulator for pulse envelope evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balster, Eric J.; Scarpino, Frank A.; Kordik, Andrew M.; Hill, Kerry L.

    2017-10-01

    A simulator for spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation is presented. The simulator produces radar returns from a virtual radar positioned at an arbitrary distance and altitude. The radar returns are produced from a source image, where the return is a weighted summation of linear frequency-modulated (LFM) pulse signals delayed by the distance of each pixel in the image to the radar. The imagery is resampled into polar format to ensure consistent range profiles to the position of the radar. The SAR simulator provides a capability enabling the objective analysis of formed SAR imagery, comparing it to an original source image. This capability allows for analysis of various SAR signal processing techniques previously determined by impulse response function (IPF) analysis. The results suggest that IPF analysis provides results that may not be directly related to formed SAR image quality. Instead, the SAR simulator uses image quality metrics, such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structured similarity index (SSIM), for formed SAR image quality analysis. To showcase the capability of the SAR simulator, it is used to investigate the performance of various envelopes applied to LFM pulses. A power-raised cosine window with a power p=0.35 and roll-off factor of β=0.15 is shown to maximize the quality of the formed SAR images by improving PSNR by 0.84 dB and SSIM by 0.06 from images formed utilizing a rectangular pulse, on average.

  17. [Radar as imaging tool in ecology and conservation biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjasiak, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Migrations and dispersal are among the most important ecological processes that shape ecosystems and influence our economy, health and safety. Movements of birds, bats and insects occur in a large spatial scale - regional, continental, or intercontinental. However, studies of these phenomena using classic methods are usually local. Breakthrough came with the development of radar technology, which enabled researchers to study animal movements in the atmosphere in a large spatial and temporal scale. The aim of this article was to present the radar imaging methods used in the research of aerial movements of birds, bats and insects. The types of radars used in research are described, and examples of the use of radar in basic research and in conservation biology are discussed. Radar visualizations are used in studies on the effect of meteorological conditions on bird migration, on spatial and temporal dynamics of movements of birds, bats and insects, and on the mechanism of orientation of migrating birds and insects. In conservation biology research radars are used in the monitoring of endangered species of birds and bats, to monitor bird activity at airports, as well as in assessing the impact of high constructions on flying birds and bats.

  18. Proceedings of the Goddard Space Flight Center Workshop on Robotics for Commercial Microelectronic Processes in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Potential applications of robots for cost effective commercial microelectronic processes in space were studied and the associated robotic requirements were defined. Potential space application areas include advanced materials processing, bulk crystal growth, and epitaxial thin film growth and related processes. All possible automation of these processes was considered, along with energy and environmental requirements. Aspects of robot capabilities considered include system intelligence, ROM requirements, kinematic and dynamic specifications, sensor design and configuration, flexibility and maintainability. Support elements discussed included facilities, logistics, ground support, launch and recovery, and management systems.

  19. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP

  20. Final Technical Report: The Incubation of Next-Generation Radar Technologies to Lower the Cost of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Hirth, Brian [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Guynes, Jerry [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The National Wind Institute (NWI) at Texas Tech University (TTU) has had an impressive and well documented 46-year history of wind related research activities (http://www.depts.ttu.edu/nwi/). In 2011 with funding from the United States Department of Energy (DOE), an NWI team applied radar technologies and techniques to document the complex flows occurring across a wind plant. The resulting efforts yielded measurements that exceeded the capabilities of commercial lidar technologies with respect to maximum range, range resolution and scan speed. The NWI team was also the first to apply dual-Doppler synthesis and objective analysis techniques to resolve the full horizontal wind field (i.e. not just the line-of-sight wind speeds) to successfully define turbine inflow and wake flows across large segments of wind plants. While these successes advanced wind energy interests, the existing research radar platforms were designed to serve a diversity of meteorological applications, not specifically wind energy. Because of this broader focus and the design choices made during their development, the existing radars experienced technical limitations that inhibited their commercial viability and wide spread adoption. This DOE project enabled the development of a new radar prototype specifically designed for the purpose of documenting wind farm complex flows. Relative to other “off the shelf” radar technologies, the specialized transmitter and receiver chains were specifically designed to enhance data availability in non-precipitating atmospheres. The new radar prototype was integrated at TTU using components from various suppliers across the world, and installed at the Reese Technology Center in May 2016. Following installation, functionality and performance testing were completed, and subsequent comparative analysis indicated that the new prototype greatly enhances data availability by a factor of 3.5-50 in almost all atmospheric conditions. The new prototype also provided

  1. Radar spectrum opportunities for cognitive communications transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; McGeehan, JP; Williams, C; Doufexi, A

    2008-01-01

    In relation to opportunistic access to radar spectrum, the impact of the radar on a communication system is investigated in this paper. This paper illustrates that by exploring the spatial and temporal opportunities in the radar spectrum and therefore improving the tolerance level to radar interference, a substantial increase on the throughput of a communication system is possible. Results are presented regarding the impact of swept radars on a WiMAX system. The results show the impact of SIR...

  2. Viability assessment of regional biomass pre-processing center based bioethanol value chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Joseph E.

    Petroleum accounts for 94% of all liquid fuels and 36% of the total of all energy consumed in the United States. Petroleum dependence is problematic because global petroleum reserves are estimated to last only for 40 to 60 years at current consumption rates; global supplies are often located in politically unstable or unfriendly regions; and fossil fuels have negative environmental footprints. Domestic policies have aimed at promoting alternative, renewable liquid fuels, specifically bio-fuels derived from organic matter. Cellulosic bio-ethanol is one promising alternative fuel that has featured prominently in federal bio-fuel mandates under the Energy Independence and Security Act, 2007. However, the cellulosic bio-ethanol industry faces several technical, physical and industrial organization challenges. This dissertation examines the concept of a network of regional biomass pre-treatment centers (RBPC) that form an extended biomass supply chain feeding into a simplified biorefinery as a way to overcome these challenges. The analyses conducted address the structural and transactional issues facing bio-ethanol value chain establishment; the technical and financial feasibility of a stand alone pre-treatment center (RBPC); the impact of distributed pre-treatment on biomass transport costs; a comparative systems cost evaluation of the performance of the RBPC chain versus a fully integrated biorefinery (gIBRh), followed by application of the analytical framework to three case study regions.

  3. Analysis of inventory strategies for blood components in a regional blood center using process simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesler, Felipe; Nemeth, Matías; Martínez, Cristina; Bastías, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The storage of blood components is an important concern in the blood supply chain. Because these are perishable products, the definition of good inventory policies is crucial to reduce shortages and spills. To analyze and propose inventory policies in a regional blood center, a discrete event simulation model was created using simulation software (Arena 12.0, Rockwell Software). The model replicates the activities that are performed along the supply chain including donation arrivals, testing, production, inventory management, and dispatching. Twelve different scenarios were analyzed, with each one representing different inventory policies composed of a combination of an optimal inventory, a reorder point, and a level of extra donations. The best scenario demonstrates that it is possible to decrease unsatisfied demand and wastage of red blood cell units by 2.5 and 3%, respectively, when compared to current practices. This study shows that simulation is an alternative that can be used to model inventory components in blood centers. A responsible selection of inventory variables can improve the capability of the system to respond to the final patient requirements. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    preparation , implementation, and operation of a Parts, Materials, and Processes (PMP) control program for use during the design, development...Processes List CDR Critical Design Review CDRL Contract Data Requirements List CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CONOPS Concept of Operations...Failure Review Board GFE Government Furnished Equipment GIDEP Government Industry Data Exchange Program HBT Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor IPT

  5. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 323 - Word Processing Center (WPC) Safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 323, App. D Appendix D to... (WPCs) operating independent of the customer's function. However, managers of word processing systems... addressed. C. Safeguarding Information During Receipt. 1. The word processing manager will establish...

  6. Explaining the accreditation process from the institutional isomorphism perspective: a case study of Jordanian primary healthcare centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyahya, Mohammad; Hijazi, Heba; Harvey, Heather

    2018-01-01

    While the main focus of accreditation initiatives has been on hospitals, the implementation of these programs is a relatively new notion among other types of healthcare facilities. Correspondingly, this study aims to understand how accreditation is perceived among primary public healthcare centers using an isomorphic institutional theory. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 56 healthcare professionals and administrative staff from seven non-profit healthcare centers in Jordan using an explanatory case-study approach. The informants' narratives revealed that all three components of institutional theory: coercive, mimetic, and normative pressure, were drivers for institutional change in seeking accreditation. There was an overlapping and blending between the three various types of pressure. While participants perceived that healthcare centers faced formal and informal pressures to achieve accreditation, health centers were reluctant about the time, amount of effort, and their ability to achieve the accreditation. Ambiguity and fear of failure forced them to model successful ones. Moreover, the findings revealed that normative values of health professionals enhanced institutional isomorphism and influenced the accreditation process. Identifying these isomorphic changes may help key stakeholders to develop plans, policies, and procedures that could improve the quality of healthcare and enhance accreditation as an organizational strategic plan. Moreover, the study provided explanations of why and how organizations move to adopt new interventions and grow over time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Goldstone solar system radar: A science instrument for planetary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorsky, J. D.; Renzetti, N. A.; Fulton, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) station at NASA's Deep Space Communications Complex in California's Mojave Desert is described. A short chronological account of the GSSR's technical development and scientific discoveries is given. This is followed by a basic discussion of how information is derived from the radar echo and how the raw information can be used to increase understanding of the solar system. A moderately detailed description of the radar system is given, and the engineering performance of the radar is discussed. The operating characteristics of the Arcibo Observatory in Puerto Rico are briefly described and compared with those of the GSSR. Planned and in-process improvements to the existing radar, as well as the performance of a hypothetical 128-m diameter antenna radar station, are described. A comprehensive bibliography of referred scientific and engineering articles presenting results that depended on data gathered by the instrument is provided.

  8. An adaptive angle-doppler compensation method for airborne bistatic radar based on PAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Xu; Jun, Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Adaptive angle-Doppler compensation method extract the requisite information based on the data itself adaptively, thus avoiding the problem of performance degradation caused by inertia system error. However, this method requires estimation and egiendecomposition of sample covariance matrix, which has a high computational complexity and limits its real-time application. In this paper, an adaptive angle Doppler compensation method based on projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) is studied. The method uses cyclic iterative processing to quickly estimate the positions of the spectral center of the maximum eigenvector of each range cell, and the computational burden of matrix estimation and eigen-decompositon is avoided, and then the spectral centers of all range cells is overlapped by two dimensional compensation. Simulation results show the proposed method can effectively reduce the no homogeneity of airborne bistatic radar, and its performance is similar to that of egien-decomposition algorithms, but the computation load is obviously reduced and easy to be realized.

  9. The second phase in creating the cardiac center for the next generation: beyond structure to process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J

    2001-01-01

    The third generation cardiac institute will build on the successes of the past in structuring the service line, re-organizing to assimilate specialist interests, and re-positioning to expand cardiac services into cardiovascular services. To meet the challenges of an increasingly competitive marketplace and complex delivery system, the focus for this new model will shift away from improved structures, and toward improved processes. This shift will require a sound methodology for statistically measuring and sustaining process changes related to the optimization of cardiovascular care. In recent years, GE Medical Systems has successfully applied Six Sigma methodologies to enable cardiac centers to control key clinical and market development processes through its DMADV, DMAIC and Change Acceleration processes. Data indicates Six Sigma is having a positive impact within organizations across the United States, and when appropriately implemented, this approach can serve as a solid foundation for building the next generation cardiac institute.

  10. Propagation of radar rainfall uncertainty in urban flood simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Sara; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    This work discusses the results of the implementation of a novel probabilistic system designed to improve ensemble sewer flow predictions for the drainage network of a small urban area in the North of England. The probabilistic system has been developed to model the uncertainty associated to radar rainfall estimates and propagate it through radar-based ensemble sewer flow predictions. The assessment of this system aims at outlining the benefits of addressing the uncertainty associated to radar rainfall estimates in a probabilistic framework, to be potentially implemented in the real-time management of the sewer network in the study area. Radar rainfall estimates are affected by uncertainty due to various factors [1-3] and quality control and correction techniques have been developed in order to improve their accuracy. However, the hydrological use of radar rainfall estimates and forecasts remains challenging. A significant effort has been devoted by the international research community to the assessment of the uncertainty propagation through probabilistic hydro-meteorological forecast systems [4-5], and various approaches have been implemented for the purpose of characterizing the uncertainty in radar rainfall estimates and forecasts [6-11]. A radar-based ensemble stochastic approach, similar to the one implemented for use in the Southern-Alps by the REAL system [6], has been developed for the purpose of this work. An ensemble generator has been calibrated on the basis of the spatial-temporal characteristics of the residual error in radar estimates assessed with reference to rainfall records from around 200 rain gauges available for the year 2007, previously post-processed and corrected by the UK Met Office [12-13]. Each ensemble member is determined by summing a perturbation field to the unperturbed radar rainfall field. The perturbations are generated by imposing the radar error spatial and temporal correlation structure to purely stochastic fields. A

  11. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  12. Creating soil moisture maps based on radar satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatushenko, Volodymyr; Garkusha, Igor; Vasyliev, Volodymyr

    2017-10-01

    The presented work is related to a study of mapping soil moisture basing on radar data from Sentinel-1 and a test of adequacy of the models constructed on the basis of data obtained from alternative sources. Radar signals are reflected from the ground differently, depending on its properties. In radar images obtained, for example, in the C band of the electromagnetic spectrum, soils saturated with moisture usually appear in dark tones. Although, at first glance, the problem of constructing moisture maps basing on radar data seems intuitively clear, its implementation on the basis of the Sentinel-1 data on an industrial scale and in the public domain is not yet available. In the process of mapping, for verification of the results, measurements of soil moisture obtained from logs of the network of climate stations NOAA US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used. This network covers almost the entire territory of the United States. The passive microwave radiometers of Aqua and SMAP satellites data are used for comparing processing. In addition, other supplementary cartographic materials were used, such as maps of soil types and ready moisture maps. The paper presents a comparison of the effect of the use of certain methods of roughening the quality of radar data on the result of mapping moisture. Regression models were constructed showing dependence of backscatter coefficient values Sigma0 for calibrated radar data of different spatial resolution obtained at different times on soil moisture values. The obtained soil moisture maps of the territories of research, as well as the conceptual solutions about automation of operations of constructing such digital maps, are presented. The comparative assessment of the time required for processing a given set of radar scenes with the developed tools and with the ESA SNAP product was carried out.

  13. High performance ground penetrating radar survey of TA-49/Area 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Rangel, M.J. III

    1994-09-01

    The results of high performance ground penetrating radar study of Area 2 at Technical Area 49 are presented. The survey was commissioned as part of Los Alamos Laboratory's continuing Environmental Remediation program and was completed and analyzed before borehole studies in Area 2 were started. Based upon the ground penetrating radar results, the location of one of the planned boreholes was moved to assure the drilling area was as safe as possible. While earlier attempts to use commercial radar devices at this facility had not been successful, the radar and digital processing system developed at Los Alamos were able to significantly improve the buried physical detail of the site

  14. The Transfer of Core-Based Hazardous Production Processes to the Export Processing Zones of the Periphery: The Maquiladora Centers of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scott Frey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transnational corporations appropriate 'carrying capacity" for the core by transferring the core's hazardous products, production processes, and wastes to the peripheral countries of the world-system. An increasingly important form of this reproduction process is the transfer of core-based hazardous industries to export processing zones (EPZs locatedin a number of peripheral countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. A specific case is examined in this paper: the transfer of hazardous industries to the maquiladora centers located on the Mexican side of the Mexico-U.S. border. Maquiladoras provide an excellent case for examining what is known about the causes, adverse consequences, and political responses associated with the transfer of core-based hazardous production processes to the EPZs of the periphery.

  15. Development of an image processing system at the Technology Applications Center, UNM: Landsat image processing in mineral exploration and related activities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budge, T.K.

    1980-09-01

    This project was a demonstration of the capabilities of Landsat satellite image processing applied to the monitoring of mining activity in New Mexico. Study areas included the Navajo coal surface mine, the Jackpile uranium surface mine, and the potash mining district near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Computer classifications of a number of land use categories in these mines were presented and discussed. A literature review of a number of case studies concerning the use of Landsat image processing in mineral exploration and related activities was prepared. Included in this review is a discussion of the Landsat satellite system and the basics of computer image processing. Topics such as destriping, contrast stretches, atmospheric corrections, ratioing, and classification techniques are addressed. Summaries of the STANSORT II and ELAS software packages and the Technology Application Center's Digital Image Processing System (TDIPS) are presented

  16. Joint Optimization of Receiver Placement and Illuminator Selection for a Multiband Passive Radar Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rui; Wan, Xianrong; Hong, Sheng; Yi, Jianxin

    2017-06-14

    The performance of a passive radar network can be greatly improved by an optimal radar network structure. Generally, radar network structure optimization consists of two aspects, namely the placement of receivers in suitable places and selection of appropriate illuminators. The present study investigates issues concerning the joint optimization of receiver placement and illuminator selection for a passive radar network. Firstly, the required radar cross section (RCS) for target detection is chosen as the performance metric, and the joint optimization model boils down to the partition p -center problem (PPCP). The PPCP is then solved by a proposed bisection algorithm. The key of the bisection algorithm lies in solving the partition set covering problem (PSCP), which can be solved by a hybrid algorithm developed by coupling the convex optimization with the greedy dropping algorithm. In the end, the performance of the proposed algorithm is validated via numerical simulations.

  17. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  18. Improving the Emergency Department's Processes of Coding and Billing at Brooke Army Medical Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lehning, Peter

    2003-01-01

    .... Beginning in October 2002, outpatient itemized billing was mandated for use in the AMEDD. This system shifted the process of billing for outpatient services from an allinclusive rate to one based on the actual care provided...

  19. Runoff Analysis Considering Orographical Features Using Dual Polarization Radar Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hui-seong; Shin, Hyun-seok; Kang, Na-rae; Lee, Choong-Ke; Kim, Hung-soo

    2013-04-01

    performed. Then hydrologic component of the runoff hydrographs, peak flows and total runoffs from the estimated rainfall and the observed rainfall are compared. The results show that hydrologic components have high fluctuations depending on storm rainfall event. Thus, it is necessary to choose appropriate radar rainfall data derived from the above radar rainfall transform formulas to analyze the runoff of radar rainfall. The simulated hydrograph by radar in the three basins of agricultural areas is more similar to the observed hydrograph than the other three basins of mountainous areas. Especially the peak flow and shape of hydrograph of the agricultural areas is much closer to the observed ones than that of mountainous areas. This result comes from the difference of radar rainfall depending on the basin elevation. Therefore we need the examination of radar rainfall transform formulas following rainfall event and runoff analysis based on basin elevation for the improvement of radar rainfall application. Acknowledgment This study was financially supported by the Construction Technology Innovation Program(08-Tech-Inovation-F01) through the Research Center of Flood Defence Technology for Next Generation in Korea Institute of Construction & Transportation Technology Evaluation and Planning(KICTEP) of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs(MLTM)

  20. Demonstration of base catalyzed decomposition process, Navy Public Works Center, Guam, Mariana Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Brown, M.D.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.N.; Wilcox, W.A.; Gano, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kim, B.C.; Gavaskar, A.R. [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) is a chemical dehalogenation process designed for treating soils and other substrate contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, dioxins, furans, and other hazardous organic substances. PCBs are heavy organic liquids once widely used in industry as lubricants, heat transfer oils, and transformer dielectric fluids. In 1976, production was banned when PCBs were recognized as carcinogenic substances. It was estimated that significant quantities (one billion tons) of U.S. soils, including areas on U.S. military bases outside the country, were contaminated by PCB leaks and spills, and cleanup activities began. The BCD technology was developed in response to these activities. This report details the evolution of the process, from inception to deployment in Guam, and describes the process and system components provided to the Navy to meet the remediation requirements. The report is divided into several sections to cover the range of development and demonstration activities. Section 2.0 gives an overview of the project history. Section 3.0 describes the process chemistry and remediation steps involved. Section 4.0 provides a detailed description of each component and specific development activities. Section 5.0 details the testing and deployment operations and provides the results of the individual demonstration campaigns. Section 6.0 gives an economic assessment of the process. Section 7.0 presents the conclusions and recommendations form this project. The appendices contain equipment and instrument lists, equipment drawings, and detailed run and analytical data.

  1. A Machine Learning-based Rainfall System for GPM Dual-frequency Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H.; Chandrasekar, V.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation measurement produced by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) plays an important role in researching the water circle and forecasting extreme weather event. Compare with its predecessor - Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), GRM DPR measures precipitation in two different frequencies (i.e., Ku and Ka band), which can provide detailed information on the microphysical properties of precipitation particles, quantify particle size distribution and quantitatively measure light rain and falling snow. This paper presents a novel Machine Learning system for ground-based and space borne radar rainfall estimation. The system first trains ground radar data for rainfall estimation using rainfall measurements from gauges and subsequently uses the ground radar based rainfall estimates to train GPM DPR data in order to get space based rainfall product. Therein, data alignment between space DPR and ground radar is conducted using the methodology proposed by Bolen and Chandrasekar (2013), which can minimize the effects of potential geometric distortion of GPM DPR observations. For demonstration purposes, rainfall measurements from three rain gauge networks near Melbourne, Florida, are used for training and validation purposes. These three gauge networks, which are located in Kennedy Space Center (KSC), South Florida Water Management District (SFL), and St. Johns Water Management District (STJ), include 33, 46, and 99 rain gauge stations, respectively. Collocated ground radar observations from the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) in Melbourne (i.e., KMLB radar) are trained with the gauge measurements. The trained model is then used to derive KMLB radar based rainfall product, which is used to train GPM DPR data collected from coincident overpasses events. The machine learning based rainfall product is compared against the GPM standard products

  2. Brain-computer interface signal processing at the Wadsworth Center: mu and sensorimotor beta rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J; Krusienski, Dean J; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    The Wadsworth brain-computer interface (BCI), based on mu and beta sensorimotor rhythms, uses one- and two-dimensional cursor movement tasks and relies on user training. This is a real-time closed-loop system. Signal processing consists of channel selection, spatial filtering, and spectral analysis. Feature translation uses a regression approach and normalization. Adaptation occurs at several points in this process on the basis of different criteria and methods. It can use either feedforward (e.g., estimating the signal mean for normalization) or feedback control (e.g., estimating feature weights for the prediction equation). We view this process as the interaction between a dynamic user and a dynamic system that coadapt over time. Understanding the dynamics of this interaction and optimizing its performance represent a major challenge for BCI research.

  3. Finding Order in Randomness: Single-Molecule Studies Reveal Stochastic RNA Processing | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing a functional eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) requires the coordinated activity of several large protein complexes to initiate transcription, elongate nascent transcripts, splice together exons, and cleave and polyadenylate the 3’ end. Kinetic competition between these various processes has been proposed to regulate mRNA maturation, but this model could lead to multiple, randomly determined, or stochastic, pathways or outcomes. Regulatory checkpoints have been suggested as a means of ensuring quality control. However, current methods have been unable to tease apart the contributions of these processes at a single gene or on a time scale that could provide mechanistic insight. To begin to investigate the kinetic relationship between transcription and splicing, Daniel Larson, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and his colleagues employed a single-molecule RNA imaging approach to monitor production and processing of a human β-globin reporter gene in living cells.

  4. Radar-Based Depth Area Reduction Factors for Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, D. C.; Humphrey, J. H.; Bare, D.

    2011-12-01

    More than 340,000 fifteen-minute storm cells, nearly 45,000 one-hour cells, and over 20,000 three-hour cells found in 21 months of gage adjusted radar-rainfall estimates (GARR) over El Paso County, CO, were identified and evaluated using TITAN (Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis and Nowcasting) software. TITAN's storm cell identification capability enabled the analysis of the geometric properties of storms, time step by time step. The gage-adjusted radar-rainfall data set was derived for months containing runoff producing events observed in the Fountain Creek Watershed within El Paso County from 1994-2008. Storm centered Depth Area Reduction Factors (DARFs) were computed and compared to DARFs published by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) in Technical Paper 29, which are widely used in stormwater infrastructure design. Radar-based storm centered DARFs decay much more sharply than the NWS standard curves. The results suggest lower watershed average rainfall inputs from radar-based storm centered DARFs than from standard NWS DARFs for a given watershed area. The results also suggest that DARFs are variable by return period and, perhaps, by location. Both findings could have significant impacts on design storm standards. Lower design volumes for a given return period translate to lower capacity requirements and lower cost infrastructure. Conversely, the higher volume requirements implied for the NWS DARFs translate to higher capacity requirements, higher costs, but lower risk of failure. Ultimately, a decision about which approach is to use depends on the risk tolerance of the decision maker. However, the growing volume of historical radar rainfall estimates coupled with the type of analysis described herein, supports a better understanding of risk and more informed decision-making by local officials.

  5. Evaluating Sensory Processing in Fragile X Syndrome: Psychometric Analysis of the Brain Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacz, Jacek; Raspa, Melissa; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), especially those co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), face many sensory processing challenges. However, sensory processing measures informed by neurophysiology are lacking. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a parent/caregiver report, the Brain-Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS), based on Polyvagal Theory. Parents/guardians reported on 333 individuals with FXS, 41% with ASD features. Factor structure using a split-sample exploratory-confirmatory design conformed to neurophysiological predictions. Internal consistency, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability were good to excellent. BBCSS subscales converged with the Sensory Profile and Sensory Experiences Questionnaire. However, data also suggest that BBCSS subscales reflect unique features related to sensory processing. Individuals with FXS and ASD features displayed more sensory challenges on most subscales.

  6. Proceedings of the Adaptive Sensor Array Processing (ASAP) Workshop 12-14 March 1997. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Donovan, G

    1997-01-01

    ... was included in the first and third ASAP workshops, ASAP has traditionally concentrated on radar core topics include airborne radar testbed systems, space time adaptive processing, multipath jamming...

  7. Living Slow and Being Moral : Life History Predicts the Dual Process of Other-Centered Reasoning and Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nan; Hawk, Skyler T; Chang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges (i.e., unpredictability and competition) and other-centered moral orientation (i.e., prioritizing the welfare of others). In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively (Study 1, N = 405), or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively (Study 2, N = 424), positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning (Study 1) and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition (Study 2). Cognitive processes were more closely related to rational aspects of other-centeredness, whereas the emotional processes were more closely related to the intuitive aspects of other-centeredness (Study 2). Finally, the cognitive and emotional processes also mediated negative effects of unpredictability (i.e., negative life events and childhood financial insecurity), as well as positive effects of individual-level, contest competition (i.e., educational and occupational competition) on other-centeredness. Overall, these findings support the view that cognitive and emotional processes do not necessarily contradict each other. Rather, they might work in concert to promote other-centeredness in various circumstances and might be attributed to humans' developmental flexibility in the face of environmental challenges.

  8. Digital Didactical Designs: Teachers' Integration of iPads for Learning-Centered Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Isa; Kumar, Swapna

    2014-01-01

    This research presents five examples of how teachers integrated iPads into their classrooms, as part of a larger study of 15 Danish classrooms. Classroom observations and interviews with teachers revealed the use of multiple apps and a focus on creativity, production, and collaboration in the learning process. We discuss the results in the context…

  9. Two step estimation for Neyman-Scott point process with inhomogeneous cluster centers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrkvička, T.; Muška, Milan; Kubečka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2014), s. 91-100 ISSN 0960-3174 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/1392 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bayesian method * clustering * inhomogeneous point process Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2014

  10. 76 FR 50230 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health 510(k) Clearance Process; Recommendations Proposed in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... develop and implement a program of continuous quality improvement to track regulatory decisions on medical devices, identify potential process improvements in the medical device regulatory framework, and address... software used in devices, software used as devices, and software used as a tool in producing devices. 8...

  11. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  12. Speeding up IA mechanically-steered multistatic radar scheduling with GP-GPUs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, RW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors investigate speeding up the execution time of Interval Algebra (IA) mechanically-steered multistatic and multisite radar scheduling using a general-purpose graphical processing unit (GP-GPU). Multistatic/multisite radar...

  13. SAR processing with stepped chirps and phased array antennas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Wideband radar signals are problematic for phased array antennas. Wideband radar signals can be generated from series or groups of narrow-band signals centered at different frequencies. An equivalent wideband LFM chirp can be assembled from lesser-bandwidth chirp segments in the data processing. The chirp segments can be transmitted as separate narrow-band pulses, each with their own steering phase operation. This overcomes the problematic dilemma of steering wideband chirps with phase shifters alone, that is, without true time-delay elements.

  14. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Rogers, A.Z.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethrope, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels

  15. Process and Outcomes of Patient-Centered Medical Care With Alaska Native People at Southcentral Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David L.; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Johnston, Janet M.; Norman, Sara; Reilly, Katie M.; Shaw, Jennifer; Smith, Julia; Szafran, Quenna N.; Dillard, Denise

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study describes key elements of the transition to a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model at Southcentral Foundation (SCF), a tribally owned and managed primary care system, and evaluates changes in emergency care use for any reason, for asthma, and for unintentional injuries, during and after the transition. METHODS We conducted a time series analyses of emergency care use from medical record data. We also conducted 45 individual, in-depth interviews with PCMH patients (customer-owners), primary care clinicians, health system employees, and tribal leaders. RESULTS Emergency care use for all causes was increasing before the PCMH implementation, dropped during and immediately after the implementation, and subsequently leveled off. Emergency care use for adult asthma dropped before, during, and immediately after implementation, subsequently leveling off approximately 5 years after implementation. Emergency care use for unintentional injuries, a comparison variable, showed an increasing trend before and during implementation and decreasing trends after implementation. Interview participants observed improved access to primary care services after the transition to the PCMH tempered by increased staff fatigue. Additional themes of PCMH transformation included the building of relationships for coordinated, team-based care, and the important role of leadership in PCMH implementation. CONCLUSIONS All reported measures of emergency care use show a decreasing trend after the PCMH implementation. Before the implementation, overall use and use for unintentional injuries had been increasing. The combined quantitative and qualitative results are consistent with decreased emergency care use resulting from a decreased need for emergency care services due to increased availability of primary care services and same-day appointments. PMID:23690385

  16. Changes in the processing of heavy α-contaminated equipment at the Marcoule center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfried, P.

    1969-01-01

    The processing of heavy α-contaminated equipment at the Marcoule Centre has been carried out for a long time by a rather expensive 'manual' method. It has become necessary to reduce these costs by using more automated methods. Two studies which have been carried out have shown that when the amount of waste to be treated is large and is composed mainly of plastic material, it is possible to design economic installations using cooling and shock demolition, conventional compaction leading to rather poor results. For average quantities, a cutting-up reservoir, used also for other purposes, makes it possible to solve these processing problems at Marcoule. The costs involved are much lower than those previously required in the case of so-called 'manual' methods. (author) [fr

  17. Research on Radar Cross Section Measurement Based on Near-field Imaging of Cylindrical Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Shu-guang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method of Radar Cross Section (RCS measurement based on near-field imaging of cylindrical scanning surface is proposed. The method is based on the core assumption that the target consists of ideal isotropic scattered centers. Three-dimensional radar scattered images are obtained by using the proposed method, and then to obtain the RCS of the target, the scattered far field is calculated by summing the fields generated by the equivalent scattered centers. Not only three dimensional radar reflectivity images but also the RCS of targets in certain three dimensional angle areas can be obtained. Compared with circular scanning that can only obtain twodimensional radar reflectivity images and RCS results in two-dimensional angle areas, cylindrical scanning can provide more information about the scattering properties of the targets. The method has strong practicability and its validity is verified by simulations.

  18. A review of internal combustion engine combustion chamber process studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of internal combustion stratified-charge engines is highly dependent on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing processes occurring in these engines. Current research concerning the in-cylinder airflow characteristics of rotary and piston engines is presented. Results showing the output of multidimensional models, laser velocimetry measurements and the application of a holographic optical element are described. Models which simulate the four-stroke cycle and seal dynamics of rotary engines are also discussed.

  19. A typical R and D center on radiation processing in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jlazhen

    1995-01-01

    The industrial application of radiation processing has been growing rapidly in China since 1980s in such fields as producing radiation-crosslinked heat shrinkable materials and radiation-crosslinked wires and cables, sterilization of medical products and so on. Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (CIAC) as one of the earliest organizations in which the fundamental research works on polymer radiation chemistry have been carried out has played a major role for the R and D of the radiation processing of polymers. From the R and D activities at CIAC, it can be seen how a Chinese research institute transfers its results of fundamental research works into large scale production. The improvement of the weakness of fluoropolymers by radiation crosslinking, the modification of the Charlesby-Pinner equation that describes the relationship of sol fraction to irradiation dose, the radiation grafting for preparing functional materials, the radiation crosslinking of polymer blends and the effect of antioxidant on the radiation crosslinking of polymers are reported. Also applied research works and the radiation processing at CIAC are described. (K.I.)

  20. ASSIMILATION OF DOPPLER RADAR DATA INTO NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-15

    During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has

  1. Quantitative analysis of ground penetrating radar data in the Mu Us Sandland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tianyang; Tan, Lihua; Wu, Yongqiu; Wen, Yanglei; Li, Dawei; Duan, Jinlong

    2018-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR), which can reveal the sedimentary structure and development process of dunes, is widely used to evaluate aeolian landforms. The interpretations for GPR profiles are mostly based on qualitative descriptions of geometric features of the radar reflections. This research quantitatively analyzed the waveform parameter characteristics of different radar units by extracting the amplitude and time interval parameters of GPR data in the Mu Us Sandland in China, and then identified and interpreted different sedimentary structures. The results showed that different types of radar units had specific waveform parameter characteristics. The main waveform parameter characteristics of sand dune radar facies and sandstone radar facies included low amplitudes and wide ranges of time intervals, ranging from 0 to 0.25 and 4 to 33 ns respectively, and the mean amplitudes changed gradually with time intervals. The amplitude distribution curves of various sand dune radar facies were similar as unimodal distributions. The radar surfaces showed high amplitudes with time intervals concentrated in high-value areas, ranging from 0.08 to 0.61 and 9 to 34 ns respectively, and the mean amplitudes changed drastically with time intervals. The amplitude and time interval values of lacustrine radar facies were between that of sand dune radar facies and radar surfaces, ranging from 0.08 to 0.29 and 11 to 30 ns respectively, and the mean amplitude and time interval curve was approximately trapezoidal. The quantitative extraction and analysis of GPR reflections could help distinguish various radar units and provide evidence for identifying sedimentary structure in aeolian landforms.

  2. Integrated, Dual Orthogonal Antennas for Polarimetric Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Mario; Wiesbeck, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar systems are mostly equipped with single polarized antennas, for example with single linear polarization or with circular polarization. The radiated waves are partly reflected at the ground surface and very often the penetrating waves are distorted in their polarization. The distortion depends on the ground homogeneity and the orientation of the antennas relative to the ground structure. The received signals from the reflecting objects may most times only be classified according to their coverage and intensity. This makes the recognition of the objects difficult or impossible. In airborne and spaceborne Remote Sensing the systems are meanwhile mostly equipped with front ends with dual orthogonal polarized antennas for a full polarimetric operation. The received signals, registered in 2x2 scattering matrices according to co- and cross polarization, are processed for the evaluation of all features of the targets. Ground penetrating radars could also profit from the scientific results of Remote Sensing. The classification of detected objects for their structure and orientation requires more information in the reflected signal than can be measured with a single polarization [1, 2]. In this paper dual linear, orthogonal polarized antennas with a common single, frequency independent phase center, are presented [3]. The relative bandwidth of these antennas can be 1:3, up to 1:4. The antenna is designed to work in the frequency range between 3 GHz and 11 GHz, but can be easily adapted to the GPR frequency range by scaling. The size of the antenna scaled for operation in typical GPR frequencies would approximately be 20 by 20 cm2. By the implementation in a dielectric carrier it could be reduced in size if required. The major problem for ultra wide band, dual polarized antennas is the frequency independent feed network, realizing the required phase shifts. For these antennas a network, which is frequency independent over a wide range, has been

  3. Centering and alignment device of a fuel assembling under a heart upper sheet of a pressure water nuclear reactor and centering piece replacement process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougis, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The crossing opening of the heart upper sheet contains a central part and two end parts of which diameter is higher than the central part one. The centering piece contains a head putting down, thanks to a support part, on a retaining of the opening, a centering and positioning smooth part and a threaded part. The device also contains a nut screwed on the threaded part of the centering piece so far as to come supporting on a retaining of the opening. The nut is made not unscrewed thanks to a stopping washer soldered inside the end part of the crossing opening. (Author). 3 figs., 5 refs

  4. Application of HF Radar in Hazard Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mal Heron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A review is given of the impact that HF radars are having on the management of coastal hazards. Maps of surface currents can be produced every 10–20 minutes which, in real time, improve navigation safety in restricted areas commonly found near ports and harbours. The time sequence of surface current maps enables Lagrangian tracking of small parcels of surface water, which enables hazard mitigation in managing suspended sediments in dredging, in emergency situations where flotsam and other drifting items need to be found, and in pollution control. The surface current measurement capability is used to assist tsunami warnings as shown by the phased-array data from Chile following the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011. The newly launched Tsunami Warning Center in Oman includes a network of phased-array HF radars to provide real-time tsunami monitoring. Wind direction maps can be used to locate the position of cold fronts in the open ocean and to monitor the timing and strength of sea-breeze fronts in key locations.

  5. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  6. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Robotic Processing System Program Automation Systems, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Topics related to robot operated materials processing in space (RoMPS) are presented in view graph form. Some of the areas covered include: (1) mission requirements; (2) automation management system; (3) Space Transportation System (STS) Hitchhicker Payload; (4) Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) scripts; (5) SCL software components; (6) RoMPS EasyLab Command & Variable summary for rack stations and annealer module; (7) support electronics assembly; (8) SCL uplink packet definition; (9) SC-4 EasyLab System Memory Map; (10) Servo Axis Control Logic Suppliers; and (11) annealing oven control subsystem.

  7. A review of internal combustion engine combustion chamber process studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of internal combustion stratified-charge engines is highly dependent on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing processes occurring in these engines. Current research concerning the in-cylinder airflow characteristics of rotary and piston engines is presented. Results showing the output of multidimensional models, laser velocimetry measurements and the application of a holographic optical element are described. Models which simulate the four-stroke cycle and seal dynamics of rotary engines are also discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N84-24999

  8. Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox: Tools and Tutorial To Use Radar Altimetry For Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J. J.; Bronner, E.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B. M.; Rosmorduc, V.; Earith, D.

    2010-12-01

    Radar altimetry is very much a technique expanding its applications. If quite a lot of efforts have been made for oceanography users (including easy-to-use data), the use of those data for cryosphere application, especially with the new ESA CryoSat-2 mission data is still somehow tedious, especially for new Altimetry data products users. ESA and CNES thus had the Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox developed a few years ago, and are improving and upgrading it to fit new missions and the growing number of altimetry uses. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is an "all-altimeter" collection of tools, tutorials and documents designed to facilitate the use of radar altimetry data. The software is able: - to read most distributed radar altimetry data, from ERS-1 & 2, Topex/Poseidon, Geosat Follow-on, Jason-1, Envisat, Jason- 2, CryoSat and the future Saral missions, - to perform some processing, data editing and statistic, - and to visualize the results. It can be used at several levels/several ways: - as a data reading tool, with APIs for C, Fortran, Matlab and IDL - as processing/extraction routines, through the on-line command mode - as an educational and a quick-look tool, with the graphical user interface As part of the Toolbox, a Radar Altimetry Tutorial gives general information about altimetry, the technique involved and its applications, as well as an overview of past, present and future missions, including information on how to access data and additional software and documentation. It also presents a series of data use cases, covering all uses of altimetry over ocean, cryosphere and land, showing the basic methods for some of the most frequent manners of using altimetry data. It is an opportunity to teach remote sensing with practical training. It has been available from April 2007, and had been demonstrated during training courses and scientific meetings. About 1200 people downloaded it (Summer 2010), with many "newcomers" to altimetry among them, including teachers

  9. Detection of Lock on Radar System Based on Ultrasonic US 100 Sensor And Arduino Uno R3 With Image Processing GUI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoro, F.; Reynaldo, B. R.

    2018-04-01

    The development of electronics technology especially in the field of microcontroller occurs very rapidly. There have been many applications and useful use of microcontroller in everyday life as well as in laboratory research. In this study used Arduino Uno R3 as microcontroller-based platform ATMega328 as a sensor distance meter to know the distance of an object with high accuracy. The method used is to utilize the function Timer / Counter in Arduino UNO R3. On the Arduino Uno R3 platform, there is ATMEL ATmega328 microcontroller which has a frequency generating speed up to 20 MHz, 16-bit enumeration capability and using C language as its programming. With the Arduino Uno R3 platform, the ATmega328 microcontroller can be programmed with Arduino IDE software that is simpler and easier because it has been supported by libraries and many support programs. The result of this research is distance measurement to know the location of an object using US ultrasonic wave sensor US 100 with Arduino Uno R3 based on ATMega328 microcontroller which then the result will be displayed using Image Processing.

  10. Robust nonhomogeneous training samples detection method for space-time adaptive processing radar using sparse-recovery with knowledge-aided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihui; Liu, Hanwei; Zhang, Yongshun; Guo, Yiduo

    2017-10-01

    The performance of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) may degrade significantly when some of the training samples are contaminated by the signal-like components (outliers) in nonhomogeneous clutter environments. To remove the training samples contaminated by outliers in nonhomogeneous clutter environments, a robust nonhomogeneous training samples detection method using the sparse-recovery (SR) with knowledge-aided (KA) is proposed. First, the reduced-dimension (RD) overcomplete spatial-temporal steering dictionary is designed with the prior knowledge of system parameters and the possible target region. Then, the clutter covariance matrix (CCM) of cell under test is efficiently estimated using a modified focal underdetermined system solver (FOCUSS) algorithm, where a RD overcomplete spatial-temporal steering dictionary is applied. Third, the proposed statistics are formed by combining the estimated CCM with the generalized inner products (GIP) method, and the contaminated training samples can be detected and removed. Finally, several simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed KA-SR-GIP method.

  11. Polarimetric Radar Retrievals in Southeast Texas During Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, D. B.; Petersen, W. A.; Tokay, A.; Marks, D. A.; Pippitt, J. L.; Kirstetter, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey hit the Texas Gulf Coast as a major hurricane on August 25, 2017 before exiting the state as a tropical storm on September 1, 2017. In its wake, it left a flood of historic proportions, with some areas measuring 60 inches of rain over a five-day period. Although the storm center stayed west of the immediate Houston area training bands of precipitation impacted the Houston area for five full days. The National Weather Service (NWS) WSR88D dual-polarimetric radar (KHGX), located southeast of Houston, maintained operations for the entirety of the event. The Harris County Flood Warning System (HCFWS) had 150 rain gauges deployed in its network and seven NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) rain gauges are also located in the area. In this study, we used the full radar data set to retrieve daily and event-total precipitation estimates within 120 km of the KHGX radar for the period August 25-29, 2017. These estimates were then compared to the HCFWS and ASOS gauges. Three different polarimetric hybrid rainfall retrievals were used: Ciffeli et al. 2011; Bringi et al. 2004; and, Chen et al. 2017. Each of these hybrid retrievals have demonstrated robust performance in the past. However, both daily and event-total comparisons from each of these retrievals compared to those of HCFWS and ASOS rain gauge networks resulted in significant underestimates by the radar retrievals. These radar underestimates are concerning. Sources of error and variance will be investigated to understand the source of radar-gauge disagreement. One current hypothesis is that due to the large number of small drops often found in hurricanes, the differential reflectivity and specific differential phase are relatively small so that the hybrid algorithms use only the reflectivity/rain rate procedure (so called Z-R relationships), and hence rarely invoke the ZDR or KDP procedures. Thus, an alternative Z-R relationship must be invoked to retrieve accurate rain rate estimates.

  12. AMSNEXRAD-Automated detection of meteorite strewnfields in doppler weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Michael; Fries, Marc; Matson, Rob; Fries, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    For several years meteorite recovery in the United States has been greatly enhanced by using Doppler weather radar images to determine possible fall zones for meteorites produced by witnessed fireballs. While most fireball events leave no record on the Doppler radar, some large fireballs do. Based on the successful recovery of 10 meteorite falls 'under the radar', and the discovery of radar on more than 10 historic falls, it is believed that meteoritic dust and or actual meteorites falling to the ground have been recorded on Doppler weather radar (Fries et al., 2014). Up until this point, the process of detecting the radar signatures associated with meteorite falls has been a manual one and dependent on prior accurate knowledge of the fall time and estimated ground track. This manual detection process is labor intensive and can take several hours per event. Recent technological developments by NOAA now help enable the automation of these tasks. This in combination with advancements by the American Meteor Society (Hankey et al., 2014) in the tracking and plotting of witnessed fireballs has opened the possibility for automatic detection of meteorites in NEXRAD Radar Archives. Here in the processes for fireball triangulation, search area determination, radar interfacing, data extraction, storage, search, detection and plotting are explained.

  13. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Wesson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  14. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  15. A new automatic synthetic aperture radar-based flood mapping application hosted on the European Space Agency's Grid Processing of Demand Fast Access to Imagery environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matgen, Patrick; Giustarini, Laura; Hostache, Renaud

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces an automatic flood mapping application that is hosted on the Grid Processing on Demand (GPOD) Fast Access to Imagery (Faire) environment of the European Space Agency. The main objective of the online application is to deliver operationally flooded areas using both recent and historical acquisitions of SAR data. Having as a short-term target the flooding-related exploitation of data generated by the upcoming ESA SENTINEL-1 SAR mission, the flood mapping application consists of two building blocks: i) a set of query tools for selecting the "crisis image" and the optimal corresponding "reference image" from the G-POD archive and ii) an algorithm for extracting flooded areas via change detection using the previously selected "crisis image" and "reference image". Stakeholders in flood management and service providers are able to log onto the flood mapping application to get support for the retrieval, from the rolling archive, of the most appropriate reference image. Potential users will also be able to apply the implemented flood delineation algorithm. The latter combines histogram thresholding, region growing and change detection as an approach enabling the automatic, objective and reliable flood extent extraction from SAR images. Both algorithms are computationally efficient and operate with minimum data requirements. The case study of the high magnitude flooding event that occurred in July 2007 on the Severn River, UK, and that was observed with a moderateresolution SAR sensor as well as airborne photography highlights the performance of the proposed online application. The flood mapping application on G-POD can be used sporadically, i.e. whenever a major flood event occurs and there is a demand for SAR-based flood extent maps. In the long term, a potential extension of the application could consist in systematically extracting flooded areas from all SAR images acquired on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.

  16. MicroRadarNet: A network of weather micro radars for the identification of local high resolution precipitation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turso, S.; Paolella, S.; Gabella, M.; Perona, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, MicroRadarNet, a novel micro radar network for continuous, unattended meteorological monitoring is presented. Key aspects and constraints are introduced. Specific design strategies are highlighted, leading to the technological implementations of this wireless, low-cost, low power consumption sensor network. Raw spatial and temporal datasets are processed on-board in real-time, featuring a consistent evaluation of the signals from the sensors and optimizing the data loads to be transmitted. Network servers perform the final post-elaboration steps on the data streams coming from each unit. Final network products are meteorological mappings of weather events, monitored with high spatial and temporal resolution, and lastly served to the end user through any Web browser. This networked approach is shown to imply a sensible reduction of the overall operational costs, including management and maintenance aspects, if compared to the traditional long range monitoring strategy. Adoption of the TITAN storm identification and nowcasting engine is also here evaluated for in-loop integration within the MicroRadarNet data processing chain. A brief description of the engine workflow is provided, to present preliminary feasibility results and performance estimates. The outcomes were not so predictable, taking into account relevant operational differences between a Western Alps micro radar scenario and the long range radar context in the Denver region of Colorado. Finally, positive results from a set of case studies are discussed, motivating further refinements and integration activities.

  17. Environmental Management in the Process of Purification of Cuban Furfural in the Chemical Bioactive Center Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Liset Rodríguez-Machín

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to establish in the installed equipment, operating conditions and quality specifications in the purification of furfural produced in Cuba. To do this some literature review and experiments are carried out. The approved batches by the quality control are quantified as well as the heat and evaporation losses and the impact on workers health. Energy management is performed by identifying electricity as the energy source of higher consumption. Some measures are applied like coating the evaporator portions that are required together with condenser modification and improvement of the room ventilation. As a result it was shown that it is possible to purify the Cuban furfural in the installed equipment, the process efficiency increases in 5,5 %, the evaporation losses decrease and non-acceptance by quality control drops. If the imported furfural is replaced by the Cuban are saved about 39 000 • per year production.

  18. Tailoring Systems Engineering Processes in a Conceptual Design Environment: A Case Study at NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center's ACO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, John; Maples, C. Dauphne; Fabisinski, Leo, III

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Systems Engineering as it is applied in a conceptual design space systems department at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office (ACO). Engineering work performed in the NASA MFSC's ACO is targeted toward the Exploratory Research and Concepts Development life cycle stages, as defined in the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) System Engineering Handbook. This paper addresses three ACO Systems Engineering tools that correspond to three INCOSE Technical Processes: Stakeholder Requirements Definition, Requirements Analysis, and Integration, as well as one Project Process Risk Management. These processes are used to facilitate, streamline, and manage systems engineering processes tailored for the earliest two life cycle stages, which is the environment in which ACO engineers work. The role of systems engineers and systems engineering as performed in ACO is explored in this paper. The need for tailoring Systems Engineering processes, tools, and products in the ever-changing engineering services ACO provides to its customers is addressed.

  19. Study of midlatitude ionospheric irregularities and E- and F-region coupling based on rocket and radar observations from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    We have been studying ionspheric irregularities in mid-latitude region by using radars, sounding rockets, etc. The mid-latitude ionosphere was considered much stable than those in the equatorial or polar region in the past, but our studies for years have revealed that there are much active variabilities. We found variety of wave-like structures that are specific in the mid-latitudes. One of the phenomena is quasi-periodic echoes (QP echoes) first observed by the MU radar that reflects horizontal plasma-density structures associated to sporadic-E layers. Another phenomenon is medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID) in the F-region. In the generation mechanism we think that Ionospheric E- and F-region coupling process is important. In this presentation, we will discuss nature of mid-latitude ionosphere based on our observations; the MU radar, sounding rocket campaigns of SEEK-1/2, and recent MSTID rocket experiment from JAXA Uchinoura Space Center in July 2013.

  20. Usage Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinaltenkamp, Michael; Plewa, Carolin; Gudergan, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance extant theorizing around resourceintegration by conceptualizing and delineating the notion of a usage center. Ausage center consists of a combination of interdependent actors that draw onresources across their individual usage processes to create v...

  1. Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS. Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  2. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.

    1984-01-01

    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  3. NOAA NEXt-Generation RADar (NEXRAD) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level III weather radar products collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska,...

  4. MST radar data-base management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwar, V. B.

    1983-01-01

    Data management for Mesospheric-Stratospheric-Tropospheric, (MST) radars is addressed. An incoherent-scatter radar data base is discussed in terms of purpose, centralization, scope, and nature of the data base management system.

  5. Design of multi-frequency CW radars

    CERN Document Server

    Jankiraman, Mohinder

    2007-01-01

    This book deals with the basic theory for design and analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radar systems. The design of one such multi-frequency high resolution LPI radar, PANDORA, is covered.

  6. Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab

  7. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described

  8. Oscillatory-rotational processes in the Earth motion about the center of mass: Interpolation and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulenko, L. D.; Klimov, D. M.; Markov, Yu. G.; Perepelkin, V. V.

    2012-11-01

    The celestial-mechanics approach (the spatial version of the problem for the Earth-Moon system in the field of gravity of the Sun) is used to construct a mathematical model of the Earth's rotational-oscillatory motions. The fundamental aspects of the processes of tidal inhomogeneity in the Earth rotation and the Earth's pole oscillations are studied. It is shown that the presence of the perturbing component of gravitational-tidal forces, which is orthogonal to the Moon's orbit plane, also allows one to distinguish short-period perturbations in the Moon's motion. The obtained model of rotational-oscillatory motions of the nonrigid Earth takes into account both the basic perturbations of large amplitudes and the more complicated small-scale properties of the motion due to the Moon short-period perturbations with combination frequencies. The astrometric data of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) are used to perform numerical simulation (interpolation and forecast) of the Earth rotation parameters (ERP) on various time intervals.

  9. Wound Care Center of Excellence: A Process for Continuous Monitoring and Improvement of Wound Care Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Raelina S; Kohan, Lauren S; Woods, Jon S; Criscitelli, Theresa; Gillette, Brian M; Donovan, Virginia; Gorenstein, Scott

    2018-05-01

    To provide information about a study using a new process for continuous monitoring to improve chronic wound care quality.This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care.After completing this continuing education activity, you should be better able to:1. Recognize problems associated with chronic wound care.2. Identify methods used in this project to improve care.3. Illustrate the findings from this and similar projects and implications for providing improved wound care.Patients with chronic wounds require complex care because of comorbidities that can affect healing. Therefore, the goal of this project was to develop a system of reviewing all hospitalized patients seen by the study authors' wound care service on a weekly basis to decrease readmissions, morbidity, and mortality. Weekly multidisciplinary conferences were conducted to evaluate patient data and systematically assess for adherence to wound care protocols, as well as to create and modify patient care plans. This review of pathology and the performance of root-cause analyses often led to improved patient care.

  10. Community Opinion and Satisfaction with the Leadership at an Urban Community Educational Learning Center during an Organizational Transformation Process: A Frontline Perspective from Community Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study examined selected community stakeholders' perception of the current leadership at their local community educational learning center during an organizational transformation and cultural change process. The transition from a community college to an educational learning center, mandated in 2006 by the Accredition Commission and agreed on…

  11. Statistical quality control charts for liver transplant process indicators: evaluation of a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varona, M A; Soriano, A; Aguirre-Jaime, A; Barrera, M A; Medina, M L; Bañon, N; Mendez, S; Lopez, E; Portero, J; Dominguez, D; Gonzalez, A

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation, the best option for many end-stage liver diseases, is indicated in more candidates than the donor availability. In this situation, this demanding treatment must achieve excellence, accessibility and patient satisfaction to be ethical, scientific, and efficient. The current consensus of quality measurements promoted by the Sociedad Española de Trasplante Hepático (SETH) seeks to depict criteria, indicators, and standards for liver transplantation in Spain. According to this recommendation, the Canary Islands liver program has studied its experience. We separated the 411 cadaveric transplants performed in the last 15 years into 2 groups: The first 100 and the other 311. The 8 criteria of SETH 2010 were correctly fulfilled. In most indicators, the outcomes were favorable, with an actuarial survivals at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years of 84%, 79%, 76%, and 65%, respectively; excellent results in retransplant rates (early 0.56% and long-term 5.9%), primary nonfunction rate (0.43%), waiting list mortality (13.34%), and patient satisfaction (91.5%). On the other hand, some indicators of mortality were worse as perioperative, postoperative, and early mortality with normal graft function and reoperation rate. After the analyses of the series with statistical quality control charts, we observed an improvement in all indicators, even in the apparently worst, early mortality with normal graft functions in a stable program. Such results helped us to discover specific areas to improve the program. The application of the quality measurement, as SETH consensus recommends, has shown in our study that despite being a consuming time process, it is a useful tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SAR Ambiguity Study for the Cassini Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Im, Eastwood; Johnson, William T. K.

    1993-01-01

    The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.

  13. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-03-01

    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  14. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  15. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  16. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  17. Digital image transformation and rectification of spacecraft and radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The application of digital processing techniques to spacecraft television pictures and radar images is discussed. The use of digital rectification to produce contour maps from spacecraft pictures is described; images with azimuth and elevation angles are converted into point-perspective frame pictures. The digital correction of the slant angle of radar images to ground scale is examined. The development of orthophoto and stereoscopic shaded relief maps from digital terrain and digital image data is analyzed. Digital image transformations and rectifications are utilized on Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars.

  18. Principles of modern radar advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Melvin, William

    2012-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Advanced Techniques is a professional reference for practicing engineers that provides a stepping stone to advanced practice with in-depth discussions of the most commonly used advanced techniques for radar design. It will also serve advanced radar academic and training courses with a complete set of problems for students as well as solutions for instructors.

  19. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  20. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  1. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... within one mile of land must be fitted with a FCC Type Accepted general marine radar system for surface... Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  2. Technical study for the automation and control of processes of the chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste at Racso Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo D, M.; Ayala S, A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the development of an automation and control system in a chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity. The control system established for the chemical processing plant at RACSO Nuclear Center is described. It is an on-off sequential type system with feedback. This type of control has been chosen according to the volumes to be treated at the plant as processing is carried out by batches. The system will be governed by a programmable controller (PLC), modular, with a minimum of 24 digital inputs, 01 analog input, 16 digital outputs and 01 analog input. Digital inputs and outputs are specifically found at the level sensors of the tanks and at the solenoid-type electro valve control. Analog inputs and outputs have been considered at the pH control. The comprehensive system has been divided into three control bonds, The bonds considered for the operation of the plant are described, the plant has storing, fitting, processing and clarifying tanks. National Instruments' Lookout software has been used for simulation, constituting an important tool not only for a design phase but also for a practical one since this software will be used as SCADA system. Finally, the advantages and benefits of this automation system are analyzed, radiation doses received by occupationally exposed workers are reduced and reliability on the operation on the system is increased. (authors)

  3. Sparse Representation Denoising for Radar High Resolution Range Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profile has attracted considerable attention in radar automatic target recognition. In practice, radar return is usually contaminated by noise, which results in profile distortion and recognition performance degradation. To deal with this problem, in this paper, a novel denoising method based on sparse representation is proposed to remove the Gaussian white additive noise. The return is sparsely described in the Fourier redundant dictionary and the denoising problem is described as a sparse representation model. Noise level of the return, which is crucial to the denoising performance but often unknown, is estimated by performing subspace method on the sliding subsequence correlation matrix. Sliding window process enables noise level estimation using only one observation sequence, not only guaranteeing estimation efficiency but also avoiding the influence of profile time-shift sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the return, leading to a high-quality profile.

  4. A Systematic Comparison of Vertical GPS Time Series Calculated by Five Processing Centers for Detecting Climatic-Induced Crustal Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti Junior, P. D. T.; Wdowinski, S.

    2016-12-01

    Vertical crustal movements, as observed by continuous GPS measurements, are sensitive to load changes induced by atmospheric and hydrological processes, as lake level fluctuations, ice melt, groundwater depletion, or drought. These movements are often dominated by a seasonal signal but also by year-to-year changes, which reflect a long-term climatic signal. Recently, we developed a new technique that extracts the climatic signal by removing the seasonal signal from vertical GPS time series (Wdowinski et al., 2016). However, the method's results, which are the climatic signals, are very sensitive to the quality of the time series and the choice of reference frame (RF). In this study, we conduct a systematic comparison between eight vertical GPS time series calculated by five processing centers and evaluate their suitability to extract the climatic signal. We use the solutions produced by Central Washington University (CWU), New Mexico Institute of Technology (NMT), Nevada Geodetic Laboratory (NGL), Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), as well as combined solution calculated by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and GPS Explorer. We use the solutions constrained in the IGS08 RF and in the case of NGL, we also use the NA12 solutions. Three of the processing centers, CWU, NGL and JPL use the GIPSY software, whereas the other two, NMT and SOPAC, use GAMIT. Both combined solutions integrate between GIPSY and GAMIT solutions. We conducted our comparative analysis in two study areas, one in western US taking advantage of the two decades long time series of the Basin and Range network, and the other in eastern U.S. and Canada (Washington DC area, Newfoundland, and Ottawa area). Preliminary results suggest that the three GIPSY solutions (CWU, NGL and JPL) are more consistent between one another compared with the GAMIT solutions. The GIPSY solutions also yield climatic signal that is more consistent with regional climatic

  5. Recommendation on Transition from Primary/Secondary Radar to Secondary- Only Radar Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Radar Beacon Performance Monitor RCIU Remote Control Interface Unit RCL Remote Communications Link R E&D Research, Engineering and Development RML Radar...rate. 3.1.2.5 Maintenance The current LRRs have limited remote maintenance monitoring (RMM) capabilities via the Remote Control Interface Unit ( RCIU ...1, -2 and FPS-20 radars required an upgrade of some of the radar subsystems, namely the RCIU to respond as an RMS and the CD to interface with radar

  6. Utilizing Lean Six Sigma Methodology to Improve the Authored Works Command Approval Process at Naval Medical Center San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Michelle M; Liwanag, Maureen; Mount, Charles; Rodriguez, Rechell; Avalos-Reyes, Elisea; Smith, Andrew; Collette, David; Starsiak, Michael; Green, Richard

    2018-03-14

    Inefficiencies in the command approval process for publications and/or presentations negatively impact DoD Graduate Medical Education (GME) residency programs' ability to meet ACGME scholarly activity requirements. A preliminary review of the authored works approval process at Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD) disclosed significant inefficiency, variation in process, and a low level of customer satisfaction. In order to facilitate and encourage scholarly activity at NMCSD, and meet ACGME requirements, the Executive Steering Council (ESC) chartered an interprofessional team to lead a Lean Six Sigma (LSS) Rapid Improvement Event (RIE) project. Two major outcome metrics were identified: (1) the number of authored works submissions containing all required signatures and (2) customer satisfaction with the authored works process. Primary metric baseline data were gathered utilizing a Clinical Investigations database tracking publications and presentations. Secondary metric baseline data were collected via a customer satisfaction survey to GME faculty and residents. The project team analyzed pre-survey data and utilized LSS tools and methodology including a "gemba" (environment) walk, cause and effect diagram, critical to quality tree, voice of the customer, "muda" (waste) chart, and a pre- and post-event value stream map. The team selected an electronic submission system as the intervention most likely to positively impact the RIE project outcome measures. The number of authored works compliant with all required signatures improved from 52% to 100%. Customer satisfaction rated as "completely or mostly satisfied" improved from 24% to 97%. For both outcomes, signature compliance and customer satisfaction, statistical significance was achieved with a p methodology and tools to improve signature compliance and increase customer satisfaction with the authored works approval process, leading to 100% signature compliance, a comprehensive longitudinal repository of all

  7. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  8. Compressive Sensing and Fast Simulations : Applications to Radar Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.

    2012-01-01

    In most modern high-resolution multi-channel radar systems one of the major problems to deal with is the huge amount of data to be acquired, processed and/or stored. But why do we need all these data? According to the well known Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, real signals have to be sampled at at

  9. Modern devices of optimum filtration for the active radar system

    OpenAIRE

    V. E. Bychkov; O. D. Mrachkovskiy; V. I. Pravda

    2006-01-01

    The principle of construction the matched filter and correlator, for the active radar system operating with a broadband noise signal is esteemed. The example of construction a сhan-nel of processing on the basis of microcircuits of a programmed logic (PLD) is shown

  10. An estimation of water origins in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone's center and associated dynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Toshinari; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Kawano, Tetsuya; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Tanoue, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kei

    2018-01-01

    To clarify the time evolution of water origins in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone (TC)'s center, we have simulated Typhoon Man-yi (July 2007) in our case study, using an isotopic regional spectral model. The model results confirm that the replacement of water origins occurs successively as the TC develops and migrates northward over the western North Pacific. It is confirmed that, in this case, a significant proportion of total precipitable water around the cyclone center comes from external regions rather than the underlying ocean during the mature stage of a TC. Similar features can also be seen in the proportion of each oceanic origin to total condensation. Indian Ocean, South China Sea, and Maritime Continent water vapors begin to increase gradually at the developing stage and reach their peak at the decay stage when the TC approaches southwestern Japan. These remote ocean vapors are transported to the east of the cyclone via the moisture conveyor belt, a zone characterized by distinct low-level moisture flux that stretches from the Indian Ocean to the TC, and are further supplied into the inner region of the TC by inflow within the boundary layer associated with its secondary circulation. Since it takes time to undergo these two dynamic processes, the delayed influence of remote ocean vapors on the TC appears to become evident during the mature stage.

  11. Fpga based L-band pulse doppler radar design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savci, Kubilay

    As its name implies RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is an electromagnetic sensor used for detection and locating targets from their return signals. Radar systems propagate electromagnetic energy, from the antenna which is in part intercepted by an object. Objects reradiate a portion of energy which is captured by the radar receiver. The received signal is then processed for information extraction. Radar systems are widely used for surveillance, air security, navigation, weather hazard detection, as well as remote sensing applications. In this work, an FPGA based L-band Pulse Doppler radar prototype, which is used for target detection, localization and velocity calculation has been built and a general-purpose Pulse Doppler radar processor has been developed. This radar is a ground based stationary monopulse radar, which transmits a short pulse with a certain pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Return signals from the target are processed and information about their location and velocity is extracted. Discrete components are used for the transmitter and receiver chain. The hardware solution is based on Xilinx Virtex-6 ML605 FPGA board, responsible for the control of the radar system and the digital signal processing of the received signal, which involves Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detection and Pulse Doppler processing. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the Xilinx System Generator for DSP tool. The field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) implementation of the radar system provides the flexibility of changing parameters such as the PRF and pulse length therefore it can be used with different radar configurations as well. A VHDL design has been developed for 1Gbit Ethernet connection to transfer digitized return signal and detection results to PC. An A-Scope software has been developed with C# programming language to display time domain radar signals and detection results on PC. Data are processed both in FPGA chip and on PC. FPGA uses fixed

  12. An integrated radar model solution for mission level performance and cost trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, John; Duncan, Kerron; Zimmerman, Madeline; Drupp, Rob; Manno, Mike; Barrett, Donald; Smith, Amelia

    2017-05-01

    A fully integrated Mission-Level Radar model is in development as part of a multi-year effort under the Northrop Grumman Mission Systems (NGMS) sector's Model Based Engineering (MBE) initiative to digitally interconnect and unify previously separate performance and cost models. In 2016, an NGMS internal research and development (IR and D) funded multidisciplinary team integrated radio frequency (RF), power, control, size, weight, thermal, and cost models together using a commercial-off-the-shelf software, ModelCenter, for an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar system. Each represented model was digitally connected with standard interfaces and unified to allow end-to-end mission system optimization and trade studies. The radar model was then linked to the Air Force's own mission modeling framework (AFSIM). The team first had to identify the necessary models, and with the aid of subject matter experts (SMEs) understand and document the inputs, outputs, and behaviors of the component models. This agile development process and collaboration enabled rapid integration of disparate models and the validation of their combined system performance. This MBE framework will allow NGMS to design systems more efficiently and affordably, optimize architectures, and provide increased value to the customer. The model integrates detailed component models that validate cost and performance at the physics level with high-level models that provide visualization of a platform mission. This connectivity of component to mission models allows hardware and software design solutions to be better optimized to meet mission needs, creating cost-optimal solutions for the customer, while reducing design cycle time through risk mitigation and early validation of design decisions.

  13. Lessons learned from process incident databases and the process safety incident database (PSID) approach sponsored by the Center for Chemical Process Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepeda, Adrian L.

    2006-01-01

    Learning from the experiences of others has long been recognized as a valued and relatively painless process. In the world of process safety, this learning method is an essential tool since industry has neither the time and resources nor the willingness to experience an incident before taking corrective or preventative steps. This paper examines the need for and value of process safety incident databases that collect incidents of high learning value and structure them so that needed information can be easily and quickly extracted. It also explores how they might be used to prevent incidents by increasing awareness and by being a tool for conducting PHAs and incident investigations. The paper then discusses how the CCPS PSID meets those requirements, how PSID is structured and managed, and its attributes and features

  14. Human Factors Process Task Analysis Liquid Oxygen Pump Acceptance Test Procedure for the Advanced Technology Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    A process task analysis effort was undertaken by Dynacs Inc. commencing in June 2002 under contract from NASA YA-D6. Funding was provided through NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), Code M/HQ, and Industrial Engineering and Safety (IES). The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Engineering Development Contract (EDC) Task Order was 5SMA768. The scope of the effort was to conduct a Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA) of a hazardous activity and provide recommendations to eliminate or reduce the effects of errors caused by human factors. The Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Pump Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was selected for this analysis. The HF PFMEA table (see appendix A) provides an analysis of six major categories evaluated for this study. These categories include Personnel Certification, Test Procedure Format, Test Procedure Safety Controls, Test Article Data, Instrumentation, and Voice Communication. For each specific requirement listed in appendix A, the following topics were addressed: Requirement, Potential Human Error, Performance-Shaping Factors, Potential Effects of the Error, Barriers and Controls, Risk Priority Numbers, and Recommended Actions. This report summarizes findings and gives recommendations as determined by the data contained in appendix A. It also includes a discussion of technology barriers and challenges to performing task analyses, as well as lessons learned. The HF PFMEA table in appendix A recommends the use of accepted and required safety criteria in order to reduce the risk of human error. The items with the highest risk priority numbers should receive the greatest amount of consideration. Implementation of the recommendations will result in a safer operation for all personnel.

  15. Radioprotection and radar: practical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepersack, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The author, on basis of his experience in radar-radioprotection, exposes the standard and security norms and recommendations to be applied for the preventive adapation of the work-areas as well as for the follow-up of the exposed workers. (author)

  16. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  17. Radar application in void and bar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2003-01-01

    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  18. Design of an Ultra-wideband Pseudo Random Coded MIMO Radar Based on Radio Frequency Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO ultra-wideband radar can detect the range and azimuth information of targets in real time. It is widely used for geological surveys, life rescue, through-wall tracking, and other military or civil fields. This paper presents the design of an ultra-wideband pseudo random coded MIMO radar that is based on Radio Frequency (RF switches and implements a MIMO radar system. RF switches are employed to reduce cost and complexity of the system. As the switch pressure value is limited, the peak power of the transmitting signal is 18 dBm. The ultra-wideband radar echo is obtained by hybrid sampling, and pulse compression is computed by Digital Signal Processors (DSPs embedded in an Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA to simplify the signal process. The experiment illustrates that the radar system can detect the range and azimuth information of targets in real time.

  19. GMTI Direction of Arrival Measurements from Multiple Phase Centers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar attempts to detect and locate targets with unknown motion. Very slow-moving targets are difficult to locate in the presence of surrounding clutter. This necessitates multiple antenna phase centers (or equivalent) to offer independent Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements. DOA accuracy and precision generally remains dependent on target Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Clutter-toNoise Ratio (CNR), scene topography, interfering signals, and a number of antenna parameters. This is true even for adaptive techniques like Space-Time-AdaptiveProcessing (STAP) algorithms.

  20. Detection of hail through the three-body scattering signatures and its effects on radar algorithms observed in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    CARBUNARU, DANIEL VICTOR; SASU, MONICA; BURCEA, SORIN; BELL, AURORA

    2014-01-01

    The Romanian National Meteorological Administration (NMA) radar network consists of five S-band and four C-band radars. Observation of convection in Romania through the Doppler radar network offered a new perspective in understanding the climatologic risk of certain regions and mesoscale environments. Highly organized convective systems, such as supercells, are better observed and their subsequent threat can be better anticipated during the nowcasting process using Doppler velocity fields and...