WorldWideScience

Sample records for radar mmcr spectral

  1. The Status of the ACRF Millimeter Wave Cloud Radars (MMCRs), the Path Forward for Future MMCR Upgrades, the Concept of 3D Volume Imaging Radar and the UAV Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Kollias; MA Miller; KB Widener; RT Marchand; TP Ackerman

    2005-12-30

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) operates millimeter wavelength cloud radars (MMCRs) in several climatological regimes. The MMCRs, are the primary observing tool for quantifying the properties of nearly all radiatively important clouds over the ACRF sites. The first MMCR was installed at the ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP) site nine years ago and its original design can be traced to the early 90s. Since then, several MMCRs have been deployed at the ACRF sites, while no significant hardware upgrades have been performed. Recently, a two-stage upgrade (first C-40 Digital Signal Processors [DSP]-based, and later the PC-Integrated Radar AcQuisition System [PIRAQ-III] digital receiver) of the MMCR signal-processing units was completed. Our future MMCR related goals are: 1) to have a cloud radar system that continues to have high reliability and uptime and 2) to suggest potential improvements that will address increased sensitivity needs, superior sampling and low cost maintenance of the MMCRs. The Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) technology, the frequency (35-GHz), the radio frequency (RF) layout, antenna, the calibration and radar control procedure and the environmental enclosure of the MMCR remain assets for our ability to detect the profile of hydrometeors at all heights in the troposphere at the ACRF sites.

  2. Multitaper spectral analysis of atmospheric radar signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Anandan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Multitaper spectral analysis using sinusoidal taper has been carried out on the backscattered signals received from the troposphere and lower stratosphere by the Gadanki Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST radar under various conditions of the signal-to-noise ratio. Comparison of study is made with sinusoidal taper of the order of three and single tapers of Hanning and rectangular tapers, to understand the relative merits of processing under the scheme. Power spectra plots show that echoes are better identified in the case of multitaper estimation, especially in the region of a weak signal-to-noise ratio. Further analysis is carried out to obtain three lower order moments from three estimation techniques. The results show that multitaper analysis gives a better signal-to-noise ratio or higher detectability. The spectral analysis through multitaper and single tapers is subjected to study of consistency in measurements. Results show that the multitaper estimate is better consistent in Doppler measurements compared to single taper estimates. Doppler width measurements with different approaches were studied and the results show that the estimation was better in the multitaper technique in terms of temporal resolution and estimation accuracy.

  3. Spectral Properties of Homogeneous and Nonhomogeneous Radar Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of a two-dimensional, nonstationary white noisemodel for the complex radar backscatter, the spectral properties ofa one-look synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system is derived. It isshown that the power spectrum of the complex SAR image is sceneindependent. It is also shown that the sp......On the basis of a two-dimensional, nonstationary white noisemodel for the complex radar backscatter, the spectral properties ofa one-look synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system is derived. It isshown that the power spectrum of the complex SAR image is sceneindependent. It is also shown...... that the spectrum of the intensityimage is in general related to the radar scene spectrum by a linearintegral equation, a Fredholm's integral equation of the third kind.Under simplifying assumptions, a closed-form equation giving theradar scene spectrum as a function of the SAR image spectrum canbe derived....

  4. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the

  5. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to

  6. Spectral broadening of planetary radar signals by the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Coles, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The microturbulence spectrum of the solar wind is estimated using the spectral broadening of planetary radar signals. Observations were made with the two radars (12.6 cm and 70 cm) at Arecibo Observatory during the 1979 and 1981 superior conjunctions of Venus. These observations, which span the solar distance range of 5.4 to 25.5 R/sub sun/, are the first of their type to be reported. The data are consistent with earlier observations where comparisons can be made. The flattening of the high-frequency portion of the spectrum near the Sun reported by Woo and Armstrong is confirmed. In one case clear evidence for an inner scale in the vicinity of 2 km is found. Two transients, 1979 August 15 and 1981 April 24-25, with rather different characteristics were observed

  7. Detection Range Estimation of UV Spectral Band Laser Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, has come into existence an interest in the systems operating in the ultra-violet (UF band of wavelengths, which use other spectral information (coefficients of reflection or radiation in UF range about location objects, than laser systems in the visible, near or average infrared bands. Thus, a point is not only to receive additional (in another spectral range information on location objects. Laser radiation in the UF spectral band of 0.315 – 0.4 microns is safer than laser radiation with the wavelengths of 0.38 – 1.4 microns.The work presents a comparative estimation of the detection systems range of laser radars in the UV and visible spectral bands for the following wavelengths of radiation:- UF band: 0.266 microns (the fourth harmonic of YAG-laser activated by neodymium ions, 0.308 microns (the XeCl-excimer laser, 0.355 microns (the third harmonic of YAG-laser activated by neodymium ions;- visible band: 0.532 microns (the second harmonic of YAG-laser activated by neodymium ions.Results of calculations show that for the horizontal pathway in the terrestrial atmosphere at the selected radiation wavelengths a detection range is in the range of 2510m – 5690 m.The maximum range of detection corresponds to the visible spectral band. A sweep range decreases with transition to the UF band. This is caused by the fact that with transition to the UF band there is a rise of atmosphere attenuation (generally, because of absorption by ozone, this effect being smoothed by reducing background radiation.In the UF band a wavelength of 0.355 microns is the most acceptable. For this wavelength a detection range is about 1,5 times less (in comparison with the visible band of 0.532 microns. However, this is the much more eye-safe wavelength. With transition to the UV band a detection range decreases not that much and can be compensated by changing parameters of transmitting or receiving channels of laser radar.

  8. Spectral Polarimetric Features Analysis of Wind Turbine Clutter in Weather Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, J.; Krasnov, O.A.; Unal, C.M.H.; Medagli, S.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Wind turbine clutter has gradually become a concern for the radar community for its increasing size and quantity worldwide. Based on the S-band polarimetric Doppler PARSAX radar measurements, this paper demonstrates the micro-Doppler features and spectral-polarimetric characteristic of wind turbine

  9. An inter-hemispheric, statistical study of nightside spectral width distributions from coherent HF scatter radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the Doppler spectral width parameter routinely observed by HF coherent radars has been conducted between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the nightside ionosphere. Data from the SuperDARN radars at Thykkvibær, Iceland and Syowa East, Antarctica have been employed for this purpose. Both radars frequently observe regions of high (>200 ms-1 spectral width polewards of low (<200 ms-1 spectral width. Three years of data from both radars have been analysed both for the spectral width and line of sight velocity. The pointing direction of these two radars is such that the flow reversal boundary may be estimated from the velocity data, and therefore, we have an estimate of the open/closed field line boundary location for comparison with the high spectral widths. Five key observations regarding the behaviour of the spectral width on the nightside have been made. These are (i the two radars observe similar characteristics on a statistical basis; (ii a latitudinal dependence related to magnetic local time is found in both hemispheres; (iii a seasonal dependence of the spectral width is observed by both radars, which shows a marked absence of latitudinal dependence during the summer months; (iv in general, the Syowa East spectral width tends to be larger than that from Iceland East, and (v the highest spectral widths seem to appear on both open and closed field lines. Points (i and (ii indicate that the cause of high spectral width is magnetospheric in origin. Point (iii suggests that either the propagation of the HF radio waves to regions of high spectral width or the generating mechanism(s for high spectral width is affected by solar illumination or other seasonal effects. Point (iv suggests that the radar beams from each of the radars are subject either to different instrumental or propagation effects, or different geophysical conditions due to their locations, although we suggest that this result is more likely to

  10. Bi-Spectral Method for Radar Target Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeo, Jiunn W

    2006-01-01

    .... Since World War II, the Identification of Friend or Foe (IFF) systems installed in radar systems have served as the primary cooperative target identification techniques based on the "question and answer" interrogation loop of unidentified aircraft...

  11. Radar Precoder Design for Spectral Coexistence with Coordinated Multi-point (CoMP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahal, Jasmin A.; Khawar, Awais; Abdelhadi, Ahmed; Clancy, T. Charles

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the design of precoders for a MIMO radar spectrally coexistent with a MIMO cellular network. We focus on a coordinated multi-point (CoMP) system where a cluster of base stations (BSs) coordinate their transmissions to the intended user. The radar operates in two modes, interference-mitigation mode when it avoids interference with the CoMP system and cooperation mode when it exchanges information with it. Using either the conventional Switched Null Space Projection (SNSP) or...

  12. A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  13. A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  14. Ionospheric propagation effects on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vallières

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SuperDARN HF radars provide a global survey of the large-scale convection transversely to the Earth's magnetic field in the high-latitude ionosphere. In addition to the mean plasma velocity, this network also provides measurements of spectral widths which are related to the level of turbulence of the sounded plasma. There is an increasing interest in using spectral widths in geophysical studies, since they are used to monitor the footprints of several magnetospheric regions. In the present paper, we show the effect of radio wave propagation through a typical turbulent ionosphere on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN radars. This effect has already been evidenced experimentally in a previous paper. Here, we model the effects of meso-scale structures on a radar wave front and study their impact on a typical measurement. Numerical simulations reproduce the effect evidenced experimentally and show the role of meso-scale structures (1-10km in the systematic bias that affects spectral width values. As in experimental data, this effect is shown to be increasing with decreasing radar frequency.

  15. Ionospheric propagation effects on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vallières

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SuperDARN HF radars provide a global survey of the large-scale convection transversely to the Earth's magnetic field in the high-latitude ionosphere. In addition to the mean plasma velocity, this network also provides measurements of spectral widths which are related to the level of turbulence of the sounded plasma. There is an increasing interest in using spectral widths in geophysical studies, since they are used to monitor the footprints of several magnetospheric regions. In the present paper, we show the effect of radio wave propagation through a typical turbulent ionosphere on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN radars. This effect has already been evidenced experimentally in a previous paper. Here, we model the effects of meso-scale structures on a radar wave front and study their impact on a typical measurement. Numerical simulations reproduce the effect evidenced experimentally and show the role of meso-scale structures (1-10km in the systematic bias that affects spectral width values. As in experimental data, this effect is shown to be increasing with decreasing radar frequency.

  16. Statistical characteristics of Doppler spectral width as observed by the conjugate SuperDARN radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hosokawa

    Full Text Available We performed a statistical analysis of the occurrence distribution of Doppler spectral width around the day-side high-latitude ionosphere using data from the conjugate radar pair composed of the CUTLASS Iceland-East radar in the Northern Hemisphere and the SENSU Syowa-East radar in the Southern Hemisphere. Three types of spectral width distribution were identified: (1 an exponential-like distribution in the lower magnetic latitudes (below 72°, (2 a Gaussian-like distribution around a few degrees magnetic latitude, centered on 78°, and (3 another type of distribution in the higher magnetic latitudes (above 80°. The first two are considered to represent the geophysical regimes such as the LLBL and the cusp, respectively, because they are similar to the spectral width distributions within the LLBL and the cusp, as classified by Baker et al. (1995. The distribution found above 80° magnetic latitude has been clarified for the first time in this study. This distribution has similarities to the exponential-like distribution in the lower latitude part, although clear differences also exist in their characteristics. These three spectral width distributions are commonly identified in conjugate hemispheres. The latitudinal transition from one distribution to another exhibits basically the same trend between two hemispheres. There is, however, an interhemispheric difference in the form of the distribution around the cusp latitudes, such that spectral width values obtained from Syowa-East are larger than those from Iceland-East. On the basis of the spectral width characteristics, the average locations of the cusp and the open/closed field line boundary are estimated statistically.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere inter-actions; plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers

  17. Anisotropy of Doppler spectral parameters in the VHF radar observations at MU and White Sands

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    G. D. Nastrom

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Significant differences are found between the mean spectral widths from beams in the meridional plane and in the zonal plane at both the MU and the White Sands VHF radars. The spectral width in the beam directed perpendicular to the prevailing wind is greater than that in the beam parallel to the wind. The magnitudes of the differences in spectral width show a linear relationship with wind speed, with the greatest differences at the greatest wind speeds. The differences in spectral width show a positive correlation with the differences in backscattered power. The anisotropy in backscattered power is well-known and is usually attributed to aspect sensitivity effects. However, the anisotropy in spectral width does not appear to be due to the same mechanism, and while several hypotheses to account for this are considered, including finite range-volume effects, effects from the tilting of isentropic layers, and anisotropic turbulence effects, it is seen that each of these suggestions has its shortcomings.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques

  18. Multi-layer composite structure covered polytetrafluoroethylene for visible-infrared-radar spectral Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dong; Cheng, Yongzhi; Wang, Xian; Wang, Fang; Li, Bowen; Gong, Rongzhou

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) top-covered multi-layer composite structure PTFE/H s/(Ge/ZnS)3 (H s represents the surface layer ZnS with various thicknesses) for spectral compatibility is proposed and investigated theoretically and experimentally. A substantial decline of glossiness from over 200 Gs to 74.2 Gs could be realized, due to high roughness and interface reflection of the 800 nm PTFE protection layer. In addition, similar to the structure of H s/(Ge/ZnS)3, the designed structure with a certain color exhibits ultra-low emissivity of average 0.196 at 8-14 µm and highly transparent performance of 96.45% in the radar frequency range of 2-18 GHz. Our design will provide an important reference for the practical applications of the spectral compatible multilayer films.

  19. The Effects of High Frequency ULF Wave Activity on the Spectral Characteristics of Coherent HF Radar Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. M.; Yeoman, T. K.; Woodfield, E. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is now a common practice to employ ground-based radars in order to distinguish between those regions of the Earth's upper atmosphere which are magnetically conjugate to open and closed field lines. Radar returns from ionospheric irregularities inside the polar cap and cusp regions generally exhibit large spectral widths in contrast to those which exist on closed field lines at lower latitudes. It has been suggested that the so-called Spectral Width Boundary (SWB) might act as a proxy for the open-closed field line boundary (OCFLB), which would then be an invaluable tool for investigating reconnection rates in the magnetosphere. The exact cause of the increased spectral widths observed at very high latitudes is still subject to considerable debate. Several mechanisms have been proposed. This paper compares a dusk-sector interval of coherent HF radar data with measurements made by an induction coil magnetometer located at Tromso, Norway (66° N geomagnetic). On this occasion, a series of transient regions of radar backscatter exhibiting large spectral widths are accompanied by increases in spectral power of ULF waves in the Pc1-2 frequency band. These observations would then, seem to support the possibility that high frequency magnetospheric wave activity at least contribute to the observed spectral characteristics and that such wave activity might play a significant role in the cusp and polar cap ionospheres.

  20. Combined High Spectral Resolution Lidar and Millimeter Wavelength Radar Measurement of Ice Crystal Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, Edwin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The goal of this research has been to improve measurements of snowfall using a combination of millimeter-wavelength radar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Observations. Snowflakes are large compared to the 532nm HSRL wavelength and small compared to the 3.2 and 8.6 mm wavelength radars used in this study. This places the particles in the optical scattering regime of the HSRL, where extinction cross-section is proportional to the projected area of the particles, and in the Rayleigh regime for the radar, where the backscatter cross-section is proportional to the mass-squared of the particles. Forming a ratio of the radar measured cross-section to the HSRL measured cross section eliminates any dependence on the number of scattering particles, yielding a quantity proportional to the average mass-squared of the snowflakes over the average area of the flakes. Using simultaneous radar measurements of particle fall velocities, which are dependent particle mass and cross-sectional area it is possible to derive the average mass of the snow flakes, and with the radar measured fall velocities compute the snowfall rate. Since this retrieval requires the optical extinction cross-section we began by considering errors this quantity. The HSRL is particularly good at measuring the backscatter cross-section. In previous studies of snowfall in the high Arctic were able to estimate the extinction cross-section directly as a fixed ratio to the backscatter cross-section. Measurements acquired in the STORMVEX experiment in Colorado showed that this approach was not valid in mid-latitude snowfalls and that direct measurement of the extinction cross-section is required. Attempts to measure the extinction directly uncovered shortcomings in thermal regulation and mechanical stability of the newly deployed DOE HSRL systems. These problems were largely mitigated by modifications installed in both of the DOE systems. We also investigated other sources of error in the HSRL direct

  1. Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment: Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2012-01-01

    The main theme for our research is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars, shortwave spectrometers, and microwave radiometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools developed by our group. In particular, we define first a large number of cloudy test cases spanning all 3D possibilities not just the customary uniform-overcast ones. Second, for each case, we define a "Best Estimate of Clouds That Affect Shortwave Radiation" using all relevant ARM instruments, notably the new scanning radars, and contribute this to the ARM Archive. Third, we test the ASR-signature radiative transfer model RRTMG_SW for those cases, focusing on the near-IR because of long-standing problems in this spectral region, and work with the developers to improve RRTMG_SW in order to increase its penetration into the modeling community.

  2. RADARS, a bioinformatics solution that automates proteome mass spectral analysis, optimises protein identification, and archives data in a relational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Helen I; Fenyö, David; Beavis, Ronald C

    2002-01-01

    RADARS, a rapid, automated, data archiving and retrieval software system for high-throughput proteomic mass spectral data processing and storage, is described. The majority of mass spectrometer data files are compatible with RADARS, for consistent processing. The system automatically takes unprocessed data files, identifies proteins via in silico database searching, then stores the processed data and search results in a relational database suitable for customized reporting. The system is robust, used in 24/7 operation, accessible to multiple users of an intranet through a web browser, may be monitored by Virtual Private Network, and is secure. RADARS is scalable for use on one or many computers, and is suited to multiple processor systems. It can incorporate any local database in FASTA format, and can search protein and DNA databases online. A key feature is a suite of visualisation tools (many available gratis), allowing facile manipulation of spectra, by hand annotation, reanalysis, and access to all procedures. We also described the use of Sonar MS/MS, a novel, rapid search engine requiring 40 MB RAM per process for searches against a genomic or EST database translated in all six reading frames. RADARS reduces the cost of analysis by its efficient algorithms: Sonar MS/MS can identifiy proteins without accurate knowledge of the parent ion mass and without protein tags. Statistical scoring methods provide close-to-expert accuracy and brings robust data analysis to the non-expert user.

  3. Covert, Intelligent, and Spectrally-Efficient MIMO-Based Noise Radar Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-31

    differentiate signals from various transmitters. Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) and Tapped Delay Line (TDL) beamforming were integrated. 2. RF tag...signjH From Tx 1 XCORR otfeljtion’ • y b«jmfotftiiri9 exx Eft . i igriji2 Ftorn T*2 (b) Fig. 8: MIMO radar using orthogonal sequences: (a...water-filling approach further. Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test and Tapped Delay Line Beamforming: Multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) radar

  4. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of fluctuations in the spectral distribution of near range meteor echoes in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The Doppler shifts of meteor echoes measured by the SuperDARN HF radar network have been used in several studies to observe neutral winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In the absence of accurate height information for individual meteors, it has been necessary to assume a statistical mean meteor layer where the variations in altitude were not correlated to changes in the horizontal winds. Observations of spectral width distribution variations made by the radars allow an independent determination of the systematic error in the height. We have investigated the dependence of this distribution on a number of factors including the radar geometry, diurnal and seasonal cycles, variations in solar UV irradiance and geomagnetic activity. Changes in the altitude of the mean meteor layer observed at different radar ranges provide us with some insight into the structure of the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere within which the meteors are being ablated. An examination of the spectral widths, as measured by the CUT-LASS Finland radar, in the days preceding and following a Storm Sudden Commencement in April 1997, illustrates how the spectral properties of the observed region can be affected. The variations in the widths were consistent with model calculations of the changes to the temperature profile over this interval. Further refinements in the determination of the spectral width are outlined for future experiments.Key words. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; instruments and techniques

  5. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of fluctuations in the spectral distribution of near range meteor echoes in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available The Doppler shifts of meteor echoes measured by the SuperDARN HF radar network have been used in several studies to observe neutral winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In the absence of accurate height information for individual meteors, it has been necessary to assume a statistical mean meteor layer where the variations in altitude were not correlated to changes in the horizontal winds. Observations of spectral width distribution variations made by the radars allow an independent determination of the systematic error in the height. We have investigated the dependence of this distribution on a number of factors including the radar geometry, diurnal and seasonal cycles, variations in solar UV irradiance and geomagnetic activity. Changes in the altitude of the mean meteor layer observed at different radar ranges provide us with some insight into the structure of the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere within which the meteors are being ablated. An examination of the spectral widths, as measured by the CUT-LASS Finland radar, in the days preceding and following a Storm Sudden Commencement in April 1997, illustrates how the spectral properties of the observed region can be affected. The variations in the widths were consistent with model calculations of the changes to the temperature profile over this interval. Further refinements in the determination of the spectral width are outlined for future experiments.

    Key words. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; instruments and techniques

  6. A Statistical study of the Doppler spectral width of high-latitude ionospheric F-region echoes recorded with SuperDARN coherent HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Villain

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provide measurements of the E × B drift of ionospheric plasma over extended regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. We have conducted a statistical study of the associated Doppler spectral width of ionospheric F-region echoes. The study has been conducted with all available radars from the Northern Hemisphere for 2 specific periods of time. Period 1 corresponds to the winter months of 1994, while period 2 covers October 1996 to March 1997. The distributions of data points and average spectral width are presented as a function of Magnetic Latitude and Magnetic Local Time. The databases are very consistent and exhibit the same features. The most stringent features are: a region of very high spectral width, collocated with the ionospheric LLBL/cusp/mantle region; an oval shaped region of high spectral width, whose equator-ward boundary matches the poleward limit of the Holzworth and Meng auroral oval. A simulation has been conducted to evaluate the geometrical and instrumental effects on the spectral width. It shows that these effects cannot account for the observed spectral features. It is then concluded that these specific spectral width characteristics are the signature of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling phenomena.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  7. A Statistical study of the Doppler spectral width of high-latitude ionospheric F-region echoes recorded with SuperDARN coherent HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Villain

    Full Text Available The HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provide measurements of the E × B drift of ionospheric plasma over extended regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. We have conducted a statistical study of the associated Doppler spectral width of ionospheric F-region echoes. The study has been conducted with all available radars from the Northern Hemisphere for 2 specific periods of time. Period 1 corresponds to the winter months of 1994, while period 2 covers October 1996 to March 1997. The distributions of data points and average spectral width are presented as a function of Magnetic Latitude and Magnetic Local Time. The databases are very consistent and exhibit the same features. The most stringent features are: a region of very high spectral width, collocated with the ionospheric LLBL/cusp/mantle region; an oval shaped region of high spectral width, whose equator-ward boundary matches the poleward limit of the Holzworth and Meng auroral oval. A simulation has been conducted to evaluate the geometrical and instrumental effects on the spectral width. It shows that these effects cannot account for the observed spectral features. It is then concluded that these specific spectral width characteristics are the signature of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling phenomena.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  8. Application of model-based spectral analysis to wind-profiler radar observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, E. [ENS, Cachan (France). LESiR; Petitdidier, M.; Corneil, W. [CETP, Velizy (France); Adnet, C. [THALES Air Dfense, Bagneux (France); Larzabal, P. [ENS, Cachan (France). LESiR; IUT, Cachan (France). CRIIP

    2001-08-01

    A classical way to reduce a radar's data is to compute the spectrum using FFT and then to identify the different peak contributions. But in case an overlapping between the different echoes (atmospheric echo, clutter, hydrometer echo..) exists, Fourier-like techniques provide poor frequency resolution and then sophisticated peak-identification may not be able to detect the different echoes. In order to improve the number of reduced data and their quality relative to Fourier spectrum analysis, three different methods are presented in this paper and applied to actual data. Their approach consists of predicting the main frequency-components, which avoids the development of very sophisticated peak-identification algorithms. The first method is based on cepstrum properties generally used to determine the shift between two close identical echoes. We will see in this paper that this method cannot provide a better estimate than Fourier-like techniques in an operational use. The second method consists of an autoregressive estimation of the spectrum. Since the tests were promising, this method was applied to reduce the radar data obtained during two thunderstorms. The autoregressive method, which is very simple to implement, improved the Doppler-frequency data reduction relative to the FFT spectrum analysis. The third method exploits a MUSIC algorithm, one of the numerous subspace-based methods, which is well adapted to estimate spectra composed of pure lines. A statistical study of performances of this method is presented, and points out the very good resolution of this estimator in comparison with Fourier-like techniques. Application to actual data confirms the good qualities of this estimator for reducing radar's data. (orig.)

  9. Use of high-order spectral moments in Doppler weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Vito, A.; Galati, G.; Veredice, A.

    Three techniques to estimate the skewness and curtosis of measured precipitation spectra are evaluated. These are: (1) an extension of the pulse-pair technique, (2) fitting the autocorrelation function with a least square polynomial and differentiating it, and (3) the autoregressive spectral estimation. The third technique provides the best results but has an exceedingly large computation burden. The first technique does not supply any useful results due to the crude approximation of the derivatives of the ACF. The second technique requires further study to reduce its variance.

  10. Application of model-based spectral analysis to wind-profiler radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boyer

    Full Text Available A classical way to reduce a radar’s data is to compute the spectrum using FFT and then to identify the different peak contributions. But in case an overlapping between the different echoes (atmospheric echo, clutter, hydrometeor echo. . . exists, Fourier-like techniques provide poor frequency resolution and then sophisticated peak-identification may not be able to detect the different echoes. In order to improve the number of reduced data and their quality relative to Fourier spectrum analysis, three different methods are presented in this paper and applied to actual data. Their approach consists of predicting the main frequency-components, which avoids the development of very sophisticated peak-identification algorithms. The first method is based on cepstrum properties generally used to determine the shift between two close identical echoes. We will see in this paper that this method cannot provide a better estimate than Fourier-like techniques in an operational use. The second method consists of an autoregressive estimation of the spectrum. Since the tests were promising, this method was applied to reduce the radar data obtained during two thunder-storms. The autoregressive method, which is very simple to implement, improved the Doppler-frequency data reduction relative to the FFT spectrum analysis. The third method exploits a MUSIC algorithm, one of the numerous subspace-based methods, which is well adapted to estimate spectra composed of pure lines. A statistical study of performances of this method is presented, and points out the very good resolution of this estimator in comparison with Fourier-like techniques. Application to actual data confirms the good qualities of this estimator for reducing radar’s data.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology- Radio science (signal processing- General (techniques applicable in three or more fields

  11. Signal Processing of Ground Penetrating Radar Using Spectral Estimation Techniques to Estimate the Position of Buried Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker Man Shrestha

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution is very important for the signal processing of GPR (ground penetration radar to resolve closely buried targets. However, it is not easy to get high resolution as GPR signals are very weak and enveloped by the noise. The MUSIC (multiple signal classification algorithm, which is well known for its super-resolution capacity, has been implemented for signal and image processing of GPR. In addition, conventional spectral estimation technique, FFT (fast Fourier transform, has also been implemented for high-precision receiving signal level. In this paper, we propose CPM (combined processing method, which combines time domain response of MUSIC algorithm and conventional IFFT (inverse fast Fourier transform to obtain a super-resolution and high-precision signal level. In order to support the proposal, detailed simulation was performed analyzing SNR (signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, a field experiment at a research field and a laboratory experiment at the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, were also performed for thorough investigation and supported the proposed method. All the simulation and experimental results are presented.

  12. Toward Exploring the Synergy Between Cloud Radar Polarimetry and Doppler Spectral Analysis in Deep Cold Precipitating Systems in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, Mariko; Kollias, Pavlos; Ryzhkov, Alexander; Luke, Edward P.

    2018-03-01

    The study of Arctic ice and mixed-phase clouds, which are characterized by a variety of ice particle types in the same cloudy volume, is challenging research. This study illustrates a new approach to qualitative and quantitative analysis of the complexity of ice and mixed-phase microphysical processes in Arctic deep precipitating systems using the combination of Ka-band zenith-pointing radar Doppler spectra and quasi-vertical profiles of polarimetric radar variables measured by a Ka/W-band scanning radar. The results illustrate the frequent occurrence of multimodal Doppler spectra in the dendritic/planar growth layer, where locally generated, slower-falling particle populations are well separated from faster-falling populations in terms of Doppler velocity. The slower-falling particle populations contribute to an increase of differential reflectivity (ZDR), while an enhanced specific differential phase (KDP) in this dendritic growth temperature range is caused by both the slower and faster-falling particle populations. Another area with frequent occurrence of multimodal Doppler spectra is in mixed-phase layers, where both populations produce ZDR and KDP values close to 0, suggesting the occurrence of a riming process. Joint analysis of the Doppler spectra and the polarimetric radar variables provides important insight into the microphysics of snow formation and allows the separation of the contributions of ice of different habits to the values of reflectivity and ZDR.

  13. 4-D-VAR assimilation of disdrometer data and radar spectral reflectivities for raindrop size distribution and vertical wind retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, François; Chazottes, Aymeric; Barthès, Laurent; Mallet, Cécile

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for retrieving the vertical raindrop size distribution (DSD) and vertical wind profiles during light rain events. This is also intended as a tool to better characterize rainfall microphysical processes. It consists in coupling K band Doppler spectra and ground disdrometer measurements (raindrop fluxes) in a 2-D numerical model propagating the DSD from the clouds to the ground level. The coupling is done via a 4-D-VAR data assimilation algorithm. As a first step, in this paper, the dynamical model and the geometry of the problem are quite simple. They do not allow the complexity implied by all rain microphysical processes to be encompassed (evaporation, coalescence breakup and horizontal air motion are not taken into account). In the end, the model is limited to the fall of droplets under gravity, modulated by the effects of vertical winds. The framework is thus illustrated with light, stratiform rain events. We firstly use simulated data sets (data assimilation twin experiment) to show that the algorithm is able to retrieve the DSD profiles and vertical winds. It also demonstrates the ability of the algorithm to deal with the atmospheric turbulence (broadening of the Doppler spectra) and the instrumental noise. The method is then applied to a real case study which was conducted in the southwest of France during the autumn 2013. The data set collected during a long, quiet event (6 h duration, rain rate between 2 and 7 mm h-1) comes from an optical disdrometer and a 24 GHz vertically pointing Doppler radar. We show that the algorithm is able to reproduce the observations and retrieve realistic DSD and vertical wind profiles, when compared to what could be expected for such a rain event. A goal for this study is to apply it to extended data sets for a validation with independent data, which could not be done with our limited 2013 data. Other data sets would also help to parameterize more processes needed in the model (evaporation

  14. Efficient Estimation of Spectral Moments and the Polarimetric Variables on Weather Radars, Sonars, Sodars, Acoustic Flow Meters, Lidars, and Similar Active Remote Sensing Instruments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method for estimation of Doppler spectrum, its moments, and polarimetric variables on pulsed weather radars which uses over sampled echo components at a rate...

  15. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  16. Radar Chart

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Radar Chart collection is an archived product of summarized radar data. The geographic coverage is the 48 contiguous states of the United States. These hourly...

  17. Radar Fundamentals, Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Topics include: introduction, radar functions, antennas basics, radar range equation, system parameters, electromagnetic waves, scattering mechanisms, radar cross section and stealth, and sample radar systems.

  18. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K

    2012-01-01

    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  19. Social Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    RTA HFM-201/RSM PAPER 3 - 1 © 2012 The MITRE Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Social Radar Barry Costa and John Boiney MITRE Corporation...defenders require an integrated set of capabilities that we refer to as a “ social radar.” Such a system would support strategic- to operational-level...situation awareness, alerting, course of action analysis, and measures of effectiveness for each action undertaken. Success of a social radar

  20. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  1. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  2. Bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Annotation his book is a major extension of a chapter on bistatic radar written by the author for the Radar Handbook, 2nd edition, edited by Merrill Skolnik. It provides a history of bistatic systems that points out to potential designers the applications that have worked and the dead-ends not worth pursuing. The text reviews the basic concepts and definitions, and explains the mathematical development of relationships, such as geometry, Ovals of Cassini, dynamic range, isorange and isodoppler contours, target doppler, and clutter doppler spread.Key Features * All development and analysis are

  3. HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Kohut

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities, the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements.

  4. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  5. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  6. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  7. Minimum redundancy MIMO radars

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chun-Yang; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    2008-01-01

    The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar concept has drawn considerable attention recently. In the traditional single-input multiple-output (SIMO) radar system, the transmitter emits scaled versions of a single waveform. However, in the MIMO radar system, the transmitter transmits independent waveforms. It has been shown that the MIMO radar can be used to improve system performance. Most of the MIMO radar research so far has focused on the uniform array. However, i...

  8. Survey of Ultra-wideband Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokole, Eric L.; Hansen, Pete

    The development of UWB radar over the last four decades is very briefly summarized. A discussion of the meaning of UWB is followed by a short history of UWB radar developments and discussions of key supporting technologies and current UWB radars. Selected UWB radars and the associated applications are highlighted. Applications include detecting and imaging buried mines, detecting and mapping underground utilities, detecting and imaging objects obscured by foliage, through-wall detection in urban areas, short-range detection of suicide bombs, and the characterization of the impulse responses of various artificial and naturally occurring scattering objects. In particular, the Naval Research Laboratory's experimental, low-power, dual-polarized, short-pulse, ultra-high resolution radar is used to discuss applications and issues of UWB radar. Some crucial issues that are problematic to UWB radar are spectral availability, electromagnetic interference and compatibility, difficulties with waveform control/shaping, hardware limitations in the transmission chain, and the unreliability of high-power sources for sustained use above 2 GHz.

  9. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  10. Radar and ARPA manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bole, A G

    2013-01-01

    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  11. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  12. ISTEF Laser Radar Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stryjewski, John

    1998-01-01

    The BMDO Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (BMDO/ISTEF) laser radar program is engaged in an ongoing program to develop and demonstrate advanced laser radar concepts for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...

  13. Weather Radar Impact Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent an inventory of the national impacts of wind turbine interference with NEXRAD radar stations. This inventory was developed by the NOAA Radar...

  14. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Nickel, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Real aperture array radar; Imaging radar and Passive and multistatic radar.

  15. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H

    1988-01-01

    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  16. Software Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the definition and the key features of Software Radar, which is a new concept, are proposed and discussed. We consider the development of modern radar system technology to be divided into three stages: Digital Radar, Software radar and Intelligent Radar, and the second stage is just commencing now. A Software Radar system should be a combination of various modern digital modular components conformed to certain software and hardware standards. Moreover, a software radar system with an open system architecture supporting to decouple application software and low level hardware would be easy to adopt "user requirements-oriented" developing methodology instead of traditional "specific function-oriented" developing methodology. Compared with traditional Digital Radar, Software Radar system can be easily reconfigured and scaled up or down to adapt to the changes of requirements and technologies. A demonstration Software Radar signal processing system, RadarLab 2.0, which has been developed by Tsinghua University, is introduced in this paper and the suggestions for the future development of Software Radar in China are also given in the conclusion.

  17. Understanding radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley, Simon

    1999-01-01

    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  18. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  19. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B.S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results...... for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expected to yield even better detection accuracies. Weather radar data from three C-band Doppler weather radars...... Application Facility' of EUMETSAT and is based on multispectral images from the SEVIRI sensor of the Meteosat-8 platform. Of special interest is the 'Precipitating Clouds' product, which uses the spectral information coupled with surface temperatures from Numerical Weather Predictions to assign probabilities...

  20. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  1. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  2. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  3. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  4. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard

    2017-08-01

    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  5. Aspects of Radar Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    LÜNEBURG, Ernst

    2002-01-01

    This contribution is a tutorial introduction to the phenomenological theory of radar polarimetry for the coherent scatter case emphasizing monostatic backscattering and forward scattering (transmission). Characteristic similarities and differences between radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry and the role of linear and antilinear operators (time-reversal) are pointed out and typical polarimetric invariants are identified.

  6. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  7. Determination of radar MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  8. Principles of modern radar radar applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scheer, James A

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Radar Applications is the third of the three-volume seriesof what was originally designed to be accomplished in one volume. As the final volumeof the set, it finishes the original vision of a complete yet bounded reference for radartechnology. This volume describes fifteen different system applications or class ofapplications in more detail than can be found in Volumes I or II.As different as the applications described, there is a difference in how these topicsare treated by the authors. Whereas in Volumes I and II there is strict adherence tochapter format and leve

  9. Radar-to-Radar Interference Suppression for Distributed Radar Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar sensor networks, including bi- and multi-static radars, provide several operational advantages, like reduced vulnerability, good system flexibility and an increased radar cross-section. However, radar-to-radar interference suppression is a major problem in distributed radar sensor networks. In this paper, we present a cross-matched filtering-based radar-to-radar interference suppression algorithm. This algorithm first uses an iterative filtering algorithm to suppress the radar-to-radar interferences and, then, separately matched filtering for each radar. Besides the detailed algorithm derivation, extensive numerical simulation examples are performed with the down-chirp and up-chirp waveforms, partially overlapped or inverse chirp rate linearly frequency modulation (LFM waveforms and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM chirp diverse waveforms. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the simulation results.

  10. Radar remote sensing in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  11. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Koch, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Waveform diversity and cognitive radar and Target tracking and data fusion.

  12. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  13. Wind farm radar study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report examines the possible degradations of radar performance that may be caused by the presence of a wind turbine generator within the radar coverage area. A brief literature survey reviews the previously published work, which is mainly concerned with degradation of broadcast TV reception. Estimates are made of wind turbine generator scattering cross-sections, and of the time and Doppler characteristics of the echo signals from representative wind turbine generator. The general characteristics of radar detection and tracking methods are described, and the behaviour of such systems in the presence of strong returns from a wind turbine generator (or an array of them) is discussed. (author)

  14. Radar observations of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the radar altimetry profiles of Mercury obtained on the basis of data from the Arecibo Observatory are presented. In these measurements, the delay-Doppler method was used to measure altitudes along the Doppler equator, rather than to map radar reflectivity. The profiles, derived from observations made over a 6-yr period, provide extensive coverage over a restricted equatorial band and permit the identification of radar signatures for features as small as 50-km diameter craters and 1-km-high arcuate scarps. The data allowed identification of large-scale topographic features such as smooth plains subsidence zones and major highland regions

  15. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  16. Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  17. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  18. Improved Laser Vibration Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilaire, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...

  19. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  20. Radar detection of Vesta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, S.J.; Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.); Campbell, D.B.; Pettengill, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Asteroid 4 Vesta was detected on November 6, 1979 with the Arecibo Observatory's S-band (12.6-cm-wavelength) radar. The echo power spectrum, received in the circular polarization opposite to that transmitted, yields a radar cross section of (0.2 + or - 0.1)pi a-squared, for a 272 km. The data are too noisy to permit derivation of Vesta's rotation period

  1. Downhole pulse radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  2. A quantitative analysis of the impact of wind turbines on operational Doppler weather radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, L.

    2015-02-01

    In many countries wind turbines are rapidly growing in numbers as the demand for energy from renewable sources increases. The continued deployment of wind turbines can, however, be problematic for many radar systems, which are easily disturbed by turbines located in the radar line of sight. Wind turbines situated in the vicinity of Doppler weather radars can lead to erroneous precipitation estimates as well as to inaccurate wind and turbulence measurements. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the impact of a wind farm, located in southeastern Sweden, on measurements from a nearby Doppler weather radar. The analysis is based on 6 years of operational radar data. In order to evaluate the impact of the wind farm, average values of all three spectral moments (the radar reflectivity factor, absolute radial velocity, and spectrum width) of the nearby Doppler weather radar were calculated, using data before and after the construction of the wind farm. It is shown that all spectral moments, from a large area at and downrange from the wind farm, were impacted by the wind turbines. It was also found that data from radar cells far above the wind farm (near 3 km altitude) were affected by the wind farm. It is shown that this in part can be explained by detection by the radar sidelobes and by scattering off increased levels of dust and turbulence. In a detailed analysis, using data from a single radar cell, frequency distributions of all spectral moments were used to study the competition between the weather signal and wind turbine clutter. It is shown that, when weather echoes give rise to higher reflectivity values than those of the wind farm, the negative impact of the wind turbines is greatly reduced for all spectral moments.

  3. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  4. CAMEX-4 TOGA RADAR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TOGA radar dataset consists of browse and radar data collected from the TOGA radar during the CAMEX-4 experiment. TOGA is a C-band linear polarized doppler radar...

  5. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The

  6. Radar Scan Methods in Modern Multifunctional Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Skosyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered urgent task of organizing the review space in modern multifunctional radar systems shall review the space in a wide range of elevation angles from minus 5 to 60-80 degrees and 360 degrees azimuth. MfRLS this type should provide an overview of the zone for a limited time (2-3 sec, detecting a wide range of subtle high and low-flying targets. The latter circumstance requires the organization to select targets against the background of reflections from the underlying surface and local objects (MP. When providing an overview of the space taken into account the need to increase not only the noise immunity, and survivability.Two variants of the review of space in the elevation plane in the solid-state AESA radar. In the first case the overview space narrow beam by one beam. In the second - the transfer of DNA is formed, covering the whole sector of responsibility in elevation and at the reception beam is formed in spetsvychislitele (CB as a result of the signal processing of digitized after emitters antenna web. The estimations of the parameters specific to the multifunction radar SAM air and missile defense. It is shown that in a number of practically important cases, preference should be given clearly one of the methods described review of space.The functional scheme with AESA radar for both variants of the review. Necessary to analyze their differences. Contains the problem of increasing the cost of MfRLS with digital beamforming DNA with increasing bandwidth probing signal being processed.Noted drawbacks of MfRLS with digital beamforming beam. Including: reduced accuracy of the coordinates at low elevation angles, the complexity of the organization of thermal regime of the solid element base using quasi-continuous signal with a low duty cycle. Shows their fundamentally unavoidable in the steppe and desert areas with uneven terrain (Kazakhstan, China, the Middle East.It is shown that for MfRLS working in strong clutter, more preferably

  7. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  8. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  9. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed

  10. Netted LPI RADARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    CHALLENGES ............................66 1. Radar Processing Gain ........................66 2. High Sensitivity Requirement .................68 B...Relationship Between Network Space and Challenges .....................................127 Figure 42. Maneuverability................................129...virtually any kind of terrain. It has five modes: Normal, Weather, ECCM, LPI, and Very Low Clearance ( VLC ). Pictures of the LANTIRN pod aboard and F-16

  11. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered bathymetric data. The paper reviews the concepts of bathymetry assessment by radar, the radar imaging mechanism, and the possibilities and limitations of the use of radar data in rapid assessment.

  12. On the collocation between dayside auroral activity and coherent HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    Full Text Available The 2D morphology of coherent HF radar and optical cusp aurora has been studied for conditions of predominantly southward IMF conditions, which favours low-latitude boundary layer reconnection. Despite the variability in shape of radar cusp Doppler spectra, the spectral width criterion of > 220 m s–1 proves to be a robust cusp discriminator. For extended periods of well-developed radar backscatter echoes, the equatorward boundary of the > 220 m s–1 spectral width enhancement lines up remarkably well with the equatorward boundary of the optical cusp aurora. The spectral width boundary is however poorly determined during development and fading of radar cusp backscatter. Closer inspection of radar Doppler profile characteristics suggests that a combination of spectral width and shape may advance boundary layer identification by HF radar. For the two December days studied the onset of radar cusp backscatter occurred within pre-existing 630.0 nm cusp auroral activity and appear to be initiated by sunrise, i.e. favourable radio wave propagation conditions had to develop. Better methods are put forward for analysing optical data, and for physical interpretation of HF radar data, and for combining these data, as applied to detection, tracking, and better understanding of dayside aurora. The broader motivation of this work is to develop wider use by the scientific community, of results of these techniques, to accelerate understanding of dynamic high-latitude boundary-processes. The contributions in this work are: (1 improved techniques of analysis of observational data, yielding meaningfully enhanced accuracy for deduced cusp locations; (2 a correspondingly more pronounced validation of correlation of boundary locations derived from the observational data set; and (3 a firmer physical rationale as to why the good correlation observed should theoretically be expected.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionospheric

  13. Radar Spectrum Engineering and Management (Ingenierie et gestion du spectre radar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    of Kansas seguin@ku.edu Electrical Engr. & Comp. Sci. Dept. 1520 W. 15th Street Lawrence, KS 66045 UNITED STATES Nicolas SENTENAC...e t s t s t s tt w jt ψ= + = 1 2 2 1 ( ( ) ( ) tan ) w t t tw ψ − − = IMPROVED TRANSMITTER SPECTRAL PURITY STO-TR-SET-182 2 - 17 Figure 2-15...Washington, DC, USA, 11-15 May 2015. 42) P.S. Tan , J. Jakabosky, J.M. Stiles and S.D. Blunt, “On Higher-Order Representations of Polyphase- Coded FM Radar

  14. Comet radar explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  15. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  16. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  17. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  18. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  19. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the frontend for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the dataformatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and specific

  20. Doppler radar flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  1. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  2. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  3. Performance indicators modern surveillance radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, P.N.C.; Theil, A.

    2014-01-01

    Blake chart computations are widely employed to rank detection coverage capabilities of competitive search radar systems. Developed for comparable 2D radar systems with a mechanically rotating reflector antenna, it was not necessary to regard update rate and plot quality in Blake's chart. To

  4. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    classification and use a range of different techniques and input data. The first method uses external information from multispectral satellite images to detect clutter. The information in the visual, near-infrared, and infrared parts of the spectrum can be used to distinguish between cloud and cloud-free areas......Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...

  5. 100 years of radar

    CERN Document Server

    Galati, Gaspare

    2016-01-01

    This book offers fascinating insights into the key technical and scientific developments in the history of radar, from the first patent, taken out by Hülsmeyer in 1904, through to the present day. Landmark events are highlighted and fascinating insights provided into the exceptional people who made possible the progress in the field, including the scientists and technologists who worked independently and under strict secrecy in various countries across the world in the 1930s and the big businessmen who played an important role after World War II. The book encourages multiple levels of reading. The author is a leading radar researcher who is ideally placed to offer a technical/scientific perspective as well as a historical one. He has taken care to structure and write the book in such a way as to appeal to both non-specialists and experts. The book is not sponsored by any company or body, either formally or informally, and is therefore entirely unbiased. The text is enriched by approximately three hundred ima...

  6. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  7. Tsunami Arrival Detection with High Frequency (HF Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Barrick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time observations of a tsunami have been limited to deep-water, pressure-sensor observations of changes in the sea surface elevation and observations of sea level fluctuations at the coast, which are essentially point measurements. Constrained by these data, models have been used for predictions and warning of the arrival of a tsunami, but to date no system exists for local detection of an actual incoming wave with a significant warning capability. Networks of coastal high frequency (HF-radars are now routinely observing surface currents in many countries. We report here on an empirical method for the detection of the initial arrival of a tsunami, and demonstrate its use with results from data measured by fourteen HF radar sites in Japan and USA following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake off Sendai, Japan, on 11 March 2011. The distance offshore at which the tsunami can be detected, and hence the warning time provided, depends on the bathymetry: the wider the shallow continental shelf, the greater this time. We compare arrival times at the radars with those measured by neighboring tide gauges. Arrival times measured by the radars preceded those at neighboring tide gauges by an average of 19 min (Japan and 15 min (USA The initial water-height increase due to the tsunami as measured by the tide gauges was moderate, ranging from 0.3 to 2 m. Thus it appears possible to detect even moderate tsunamis using this method. Larger tsunamis could obviously be detected further from the coast. We find that tsunami arrival within the radar coverage area can be announced 8 min (i.e., twice the radar spectral time resolution after its first appearance. This can provide advance warning of the tsunami approach to the coastline locations.

  8. Interception of LPI radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jim P.

    1991-11-01

    Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile control, and power management that a radar may employ against current Electronic Warfare (EW) receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current intercept EW receivers. LPI operation is most easily achieved at close ranges and against a target with a large radar cross section. The general system sensitivity requirement for the detection of current and projected LPI radars is found to be on the order of -100 dBmi which cannot be met by current EW receivers. Finally, three potential LPI receiver architectures, using channelized, superhet, and acousto-optic receivers with narrow RF and video bandwidths are discussed. They have shown some potential in terms of providing the sensitivity and capability in an environment where both conventional and LPI signals are present.

  9. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahafza, Bassem R

    2008-01-01

    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  10. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered

  11. Radar observations of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes echoes from 33 main-belt asteroids (MBAs) and 19 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have provided a wealth of new information about these objects such as sizes, shapes, spin vectors, and such surface characteristics as decimeter-scale morphology, topographic relief, regolith porosity and metal concentrations. On average, small NEAs are much rougher at decimeter scales than MBAs, comets or terrestrial planets. Some of the largest MBAs (e.g., 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas ) are smoother than the moon at decimeter scales but much rougher than the Moon at some much larger scale. There is at least a five-fold variation in the radar albedos of MBAs, implying substantial variations in the surface porosities or metal concentrations of these objects. The highest MBA albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a metal concentration near unity and lunar porosities

  12. Under the Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, WM

    2010-01-01

    This is the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott (1912 to 1981). As the first female radio astronomer (and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy), she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. She also played a major role in the design of the Australian government's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research radars, which were in turn of vital importance in the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II and were used by Australian, US and New Zealand personnel. From a sociological perspective, her career also offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs this book gives a fascinating insight into the beginning of radio astronomy and the role of a pioneering woman in astronomy.

  13. Material integrity verification radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the need for verification of 'as-built' spent fuel-dry storage containers and other concrete structures. The IAEA has tasked the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) to fabricate, test, and deploy a stepped-frequency Material Integrity Verification Radar (MIVR) system to nondestructively verify the internal construction of these containers. The MIVR system is based on previously deployed high-frequency, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems that have been developed by STL for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Whereas GPR technology utilizes microwave radio frequency energy to create subsurface images, MTVR is a variation for which the medium is concrete instead of soil. The purpose is to nondestructively verify the placement of concrete-reinforcing materials, pipes, inner liners, and other attributes of the internal construction. The MIVR system underwent an initial field test on CANDU reactor spent fuel storage canisters at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada, in October 1995. A second field test at the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant in Embalse, Argentina, was completed in May 1996. The DOE GPR also was demonstrated at the site. Data collection and analysis were performed for the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN). IAEA and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Control and Accounting of Nuclear Material (ABACC) personnel were present as observers during the test. Reinforcing materials were evident in the color, two-dimensional images produced by the MIVR system. A continuous pattern of reinforcing bars was evident and accurate estimates on the spacing, depth, and size were made. The potential uses for safeguard applications were jointly discussed. The MIVR system, as successfully demonstrated in the two field tests, can be used as a design verification tool for IAEA safeguards. A deployment of MIVR for Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ

  14. Air and spaceborne radar systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lacomme, Philippe; Hardange, Jean-Philippe; Normant, Eric

    2001-01-01

    A practical tool on radar systems that will be of major help to technicians, student engineers and engineers working in industry and in radar research and development. The many users of radar as well as systems engineers and designers will also find it highly useful. Also of interest to pilots and flight engineers and military command personnel and military contractors. """"This introduction to the field of radar is intended for actual users of radar. It focuses on the history, main principles, functions, modes, properties and specific nature of modern airborne radar. The book examines radar's

  15. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  16. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  17. Adaptive sidelobe control for clutter rejection of atmospheric radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Clutter rejection is among the most important issues in radar signal processing, for which the adaptive antenna technique can be a powerful means. Compared to other applications of the adaptive antenna, however, atmospheric radars require strict conditions, which have prevented application of this technique; the main antenna beam pattern should not be altered since the target region is defined by its shape. In particular, the loss of the antenna gain should be kept to no more than about 0.5dB, in order to maintain the high sensitivity of the system. Also, clutter from surrounding mountains is often stronger than the desired weak scattering from atmospheric turbulence. We introduce a new algorithm which satisfies the above conditions, and confirms its capability by applying it to actual data taken by the MU radar. This paper presents the first report that demonstrates the effectiveness of the adaptive antenna technique in atmospheric radar applications. Despite the fact that no information is given on the spectral features of the desired and undesired signals, only the clutter echoes from surrounding mountains were effectively cancelled without affecting the desired echoes from atmospheric turbulence.

  18. Radar spectrum opportunities for cognitive communications transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; McGeehan, JP; Williams, C; Doufexi, A

    2008-01-01

    In relation to opportunistic access to radar spectrum, the impact of the radar on a communication system is investigated in this paper. This paper illustrates that by exploring the spatial and temporal opportunities in the radar spectrum and therefore improving the tolerance level to radar interference, a substantial increase on the throughput of a communication system is possible. Results are presented regarding the impact of swept radars on a WiMAX system. The results show the impact of SIR...

  19. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....

  20. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  1. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  2. Nearshore Processes, Currents and Directional Wave Spectra Monitoring Using Coherent and Non-coherent Imaging Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizna, D.; Hathaway, K.

    2007-05-01

    Two new radar systems have been developed for real-time measurement of near-shore processes, and results are presented for measurements of ocean wave spectra, near-shore sand bar structure, and ocean currents. The first is a non-coherent radar based on a modified version of the Sitex radar family, with a data acquisition system designed around an ISR digital receiver card. The card operates in a PC computer with inputs from a Sitex radar modified for extraction of analogue signals for digitization. Using a 9' antenna and 25 kW transmit power system, data were collected during 2007 at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC during winter and spring of 2007. The directional wave spectrum measurements made are based on using a sequence of 64 to 640 antenna rotations to form a snapshot series of radar images of propagating waves. A square window is extracted from each image, typically 64 x 64 pixels at 3-m resolution. Then ten sets of 64 windows are submitted to a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform process to generate radar image spectra in the frequency-wavenumber space. The relation between the radar image spectral intensity and wave spectral intensity derived from the FRF pressure gauge array was used for a test set of data, in order to establish a modulation transfer function (MTF) for each frequency component. For 640 rotations, 10 of such spectra are averaged for improved statistics. The wave spectrum so generated was compared for extended data sets beyond those used to establish the MTF, and those results are presented here. Some differences between the radar and pressure sensor data that are observed are found to be due to the influence of the wind field, as the radar echo image weakens for light winds. A model is developed to account for such an effect to improve the radar estimate of the directional wave spectrum. The radar ocean wave imagery is severely influenced only by extremely heavy rain-fall rates, so that

  3. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  4. Improved Micro Rain Radar snow measurements using Doppler spectra post-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Micro Rain Radar 2 (MRR is a compact Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW system that operates at 24 GHz. The MRR is a low-cost, portable radar system that requires minimum supervision in the field. As such, the MRR is a frequently used radar system for conducting precipitation research. Current MRR drawbacks are the lack of a sophisticated post-processing algorithm to improve its sensitivity (currently at +3 dBz, spurious artefacts concerning radar receiver noise and the lack of high quality Doppler radar moments. Here we propose an improved processing method which is especially suited for snow observations and provides reliable values of effective reflectivity, Doppler velocity and spectral width. The proposed method is freely available on the web and features a noise removal based on recognition of the most significant peak. A dynamic dealiasing routine allows observations even if the Nyquist velocity range is exceeded. Collocated observations over 115 days of a MRR and a pulsed 35.2 GHz MIRA35 cloud radar show a very high agreement for the proposed method for snow, if reflectivities are larger than −5 dBz. The overall sensitivity is increased to −14 and −8 dBz, depending on range. The proposed method exploits the full potential of MRR's hardware and substantially enhances the use of Micro Rain Radar for studies of solid precipitation.

  5. Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment (ShUREX): overview of the campaign with some preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantha, Lakshmi; Lawrence, Dale; Luce, Hubert; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Wilson, Richard; Mixa, Tyler; Yabuki, Masanori

    2017-12-01

    The Shigaraki unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-Radar Experiment (ShUREX) is an international (USA-Japan-France) observational campaign, whose overarching goal is to demonstrate the utility of small, lightweight, inexpensive, autonomous UAVs in probing and monitoring the lower troposphere and to promote synergistic use of UAVs and very high frequency (VHF) radars. The 2-week campaign lasting from June 1 to June 14, 2015, was carried out at the Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) Observatory in Shigaraki, Japan. During the campaign, the DataHawk UAV, developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and equipped with high-frequency response cold wire and pitot tube sensors (as well as an iMET radiosonde), was flown near and over the VHF-band MU radar. Measurements in the atmospheric column in the immediate vicinity of the radar were obtained. Simultaneous and continuous operation of the radar in range imaging mode enabled fine-scale structures in the atmosphere to be visualized by the radar. It also permitted the UAV to be commanded to sample interesting structures, guided in near real time by the radar images. This overview provides a description of the ShUREX campaign and some interesting but preliminary results of the very first simultaneous and intensive probing of turbulent structures by UAVs and the MU radar. The campaign demonstrated the validity and utility of the radar range imaging technique in obtaining very high vertical resolution ( 20 m) images of echo power in the atmospheric column, which display evolving fine-scale atmospheric structures in unprecedented detail. The campaign also permitted for the very first time the evaluation of the consistency of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates in turbulent structures inferred from the spectral broadening of the backscattered radar signal and direct, in situ measurements by the high-frequency response velocity sensor on the UAV. The data also enabled other turbulence parameters such as the temperature

  6. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  7. Borehole radar diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seong Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Tomography is widely used as imaging method for determining subsurface structure. Among the reconstruction algorithms for tomographic imaging, travel time tomography is almost applied to imaging subsurface. But isolated small body comparable with the wavelength could not be well recognized by travel time tomography. Other tomographic method are need to improve the imaging process. In the study of this year, diffraction tomography was investigated. The theory for diffraction tomography is based on the 1st-order Born approximation. Multisource holography, which is similar to Kirchihoff migration, is compared with diffraction tomography. To improve 1st-order Born diffraction tomography, two kinds of filter designed from multisource holography and 2-D green function, respectively, applied on the reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested for the numerical modeling data of which algorithm consists of the analytic computation of radar signal in transmitter and receiver regions and 2-D FDM scheme for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in media. The air-filled cavity model to show a typical diffraction pattern was applied to diffraction tomography imaging, and the result shows accurate location and area of cavity. But the calculated object function is not well matched the real object function, because the air-filled cavity model is not satisfied week scattered inhomogeneity for 1st born approximation, and the error term is included in estimating source wavelet from received signals. In spite of the object function error, the diffraction tomography assist for interpretation of subsurface as if conducted with travel time tomography. And the fracture model was tested, 1st born diffraction tomographic image is poor because of limited view angle coverage and violation of week scatter assumption, but the filtered image resolve the fracture somewhat better. The tested diffraction tomography image confirms effectiveness of filter for enhancing resolution. (author). 14

  8. Imaging radar observations of Farley Buneman waves during the JOULE II experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Vector electric fields and associated E×B drifts measured by a sounding rocket in the auroral zone during the NASA JOULE II experiment in January 2007, are compared with coherent scatter spectra measured by a 30 MHz radar imager in a common volume. Radar imaging permits precise collocation of the spectra with the background electric field. The Doppler shifts and spectral widths appear to be governed by the cosine and sine of the convection flow angle, respectively, and also proportional to the presumptive ion acoustic speed. The neutral wind also contributes to the Doppler shifts. These findings are consistent with those from the JOULE I experiment and also with recent numerical simulations of Farley Buneman waves and instabilities carried out by Oppenheim et al. (2008. Simple linear analysis of the waves offers some insights into the spectral moments. A formula relating the spectral width to the flow angle, ion acoustic speed, and other ionospheric parameters is derived.

  9. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Wesson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  10. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  11. Apodized RFI filtering of synthetic aperture radar images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    Fine resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems necessarily require wide bandwidths that often overlap spectrum utilized by other wireless services. These other emitters pose a source of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) to the SAR echo signals that degrades SAR image quality. Filtering, or excising, the offending spectral contaminants will mitigate the interference, but at a cost of often degrading the SAR image in other ways, notably by raising offensive sidelobe levels. This report proposes borrowing an idea from nonlinear sidelobe apodization techniques to suppress interference without the attendant increase in sidelobe levels. The simple post-processing technique is termed Apodized RFI Filtering (ARF).

  12. Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

    2004-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

  13. Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS. Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  14. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.

    1984-01-01

    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  15. NOAA NEXt-Generation RADar (NEXRAD) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level III weather radar products collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska,...

  16. MST radar data-base management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwar, V. B.

    1983-01-01

    Data management for Mesospheric-Stratospheric-Tropospheric, (MST) radars is addressed. An incoherent-scatter radar data base is discussed in terms of purpose, centralization, scope, and nature of the data base management system.

  17. Design of multi-frequency CW radars

    CERN Document Server

    Jankiraman, Mohinder

    2007-01-01

    This book deals with the basic theory for design and analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radar systems. The design of one such multi-frequency high resolution LPI radar, PANDORA, is covered.

  18. Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab

  19. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described

  20. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  1. SAR Ambiguity Study for the Cassini Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Im, Eastwood; Johnson, William T. K.

    1993-01-01

    The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.

  2. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-03-01

    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  3. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  4. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  5. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  6. Principles of modern radar advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Melvin, William

    2012-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Advanced Techniques is a professional reference for practicing engineers that provides a stepping stone to advanced practice with in-depth discussions of the most commonly used advanced techniques for radar design. It will also serve advanced radar academic and training courses with a complete set of problems for students as well as solutions for instructors.

  7. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  8. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  9. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... within one mile of land must be fitted with a FCC Type Accepted general marine radar system for surface... Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  10. Counter electrojet features in the Brazilian sector: simultaneous observation by radar, digital sounder and magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Denardini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we show new results regarding equatorial counter electrojet (CEJ events in the Brazilian sector, based on the RESCO radar, two set of fluxgate magnetometer systems and a digital sounder. RESCO radar is a 50 MHz backscatter coherent radar installed in 1998 at São Luís (SLZ, 2.33° S, 44.60° W, an equatorial site. The Digital sounder routinely monitors the electron density profile at the radar site. The magnetometer systems are fluxgate-type installed at SLZ and Eusébio (EUS, 03.89° S, 38.44° W. From the difference between the horizontal component of magnetic field at SLZ station and the same component at EUS (EEJ ground strength several cases of westward morning electrojet and its normal inversion to the eastward equatorial electrojet (EEJ have been observed. Also, the EEJ ground strength has shown some cases of CEJ events, which been detected with the RESCO radar too. Detection of these events were investigated with respect to their time and height of occurrence, correlation with sporadic E (Es layers at the same time, and their spectral characteristics as well as the radar echo power intensity.

  11. Recommendation on Transition from Primary/Secondary Radar to Secondary- Only Radar Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Radar Beacon Performance Monitor RCIU Remote Control Interface Unit RCL Remote Communications Link R E&D Research, Engineering and Development RML Radar...rate. 3.1.2.5 Maintenance The current LRRs have limited remote maintenance monitoring (RMM) capabilities via the Remote Control Interface Unit ( RCIU ...1, -2 and FPS-20 radars required an upgrade of some of the radar subsystems, namely the RCIU to respond as an RMS and the CD to interface with radar

  12. Spectral gamuts and spectral gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Mitchell R.; Derhak, Maxim W.

    2006-01-01

    All imaging devices have two gamuts: the stimulus gamut and the response gamut. The response gamut of a print engine is typically described in CIE colorimetry units, a system derived to quantify human color response. More fundamental than colorimetric gamuts are spectral gamuts, based on radiance, reflectance or transmittance units. Spectral gamuts depend on the physics of light or on how materials interact with light and do not involve the human's photoreceptor integration or brain processing. Methods for visualizing a spectral gamut raise challenges as do considerations of how to utilize such a data-set for producing superior color reproductions. Recent work has described a transformation of spectra reduced to 6-dimensions called LabPQR. LabPQR was designed as a hybrid space with three explicit colorimetric axes and three additional spectral reconstruction axes. In this paper spectral gamuts are discussed making use of LabPQR. Also, spectral gamut mapping is considered in light of the colorimetric-spectral duality of the LabPQR space.

  13. Long-wavelength Radar Studies of the Lunar Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Thompson, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Radar measurements at 70 cm and 7.5 m wavelengths provide insight into the structure and chemical properties of the upper 5-100 m of the lunar regolith and crust. Past work has identified a number of anomalous regions and changes in echo strength, some attributed to differences in titanium content. There has been little opportunity, however, to compare calibrated long-wavelength backscatter among different units or to theoretical model results. We combine recent high-resolution (3-5 km) 70-cm radar data for the nearside with earlier calibrated full-disk observations to provide a reasonable estimate of the true lunar backscatter coefficient. These data are tested against models for quasi-specular scattering from the surface, echoes from a buried substrate, and Mie scattering from surface and buried rocks. We find that 70 cm echoes likely arise from Mie scattering by distributed rocks within the soil, consistent with earlier hypotheses. Returns from a buried substrate would provide a plausible fit to the observations only if the regolith depth were 3 m or less and varied little across the maria. Depolarized echoes are due to some combination of single and multiple scattering events, but it appears that single scattering alone could account for the observed echo power, based on comparisons with terrestrial rocky surfaces. Backscatter strength from the regolith is most strongly affected by the loss tangent, whose variation with mineral content is still poorly defined. We compared the backscatter values for the mare deposits to the oxide contents inferred from spectral ratio methods, and found that in general the unit boundaries evident in radar images closely follow those seen in color difference images. The 70-cm data are not well correlated with TiO2 values found using the Charette relationship nor with Fe abundances derived from Clementine observations. The lack of a relationship between radar echo and Fe content is reasonable given the distribution of iron among

  14. Localization Capability of Cooperative Anti-Intruder Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Montanari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available System aspects of an anti-intruder multistatic radar based on impulse radio ultrawideband (UWB technology are addressed. The investigated system is composed of one transmitting node and at least three receiving nodes, positioned in the surveillance area with the aim of detecting and locating a human intruder (target that moves inside the area. Such systems, referred to also as UWB radar sensor networks, must satisfy severe power constraints worldwide imposed by, for example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC and by the European Commission (EC power spectral density masks. A single transmitter-receiver pair (bistatic radar is considered at first. Given the available transmitted power and the capability of the receiving node to resolve the UWB pulses in the time domain, the surveillance area regions where the target is detectable, and those where it is not, are obtained. Moreover, the range estimation error for the transmitter-receiver pair is discussed. By employing this analysis, a multistatic system is then considered, composed of one transmitter and three or four cooperating receivers. For this multistatic system, the impact of the nodes location on area coverage, necessary transmitted power and localization uncertainty is studied, assuming a circular surveillance area. It is highlighted how area coverage and transmitted power, on one side, and localization uncertainty, on the other side, require opposite criteria of nodes placement. Consequently, the need for a system compromising between these factors is shown. Finally, a simple and effective criterion for placing the transmitter and the receivers is drawn.

  15. Direction Finding for Bistatic MIMO Radar with Uniform Circular Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yunhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of direction of arrival (DOA and direction of departure (DOD angle estimation based on polynomial rooting for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar with uniform circular array (UCA configuration is proposed in this paper. The steering vector of the UCA is firstly transformed into a steering vector with a Vandermonde structure by using the Jacobi-Anger expansion. Then the null-spectrum function of the MIMO radar can be written as an expression in which the transmit and receive steering vectors are decoupled. Finally, a two-step polynomial rooting is used to estimate DOA and DOD of targets instead of two-dimensional multiple signal classification (MUSIC search method for bistatic UCA MIMO radar. The angle estimation performance of the proposed method is similar to that of the MUSIC spectral search method, but the computation burden of the proposed polynomial rooting algorithm is much lower than that of the conventional MUSIC method. The simulation results of the proposed algorithm are presented and the performances are investigated and analyzed.

  16. Adaptation of Rejection Algorithms for a Radar Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Popov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the algorithms for adaptive rejection of a radar clutter are synthesized for the case of a priori unknown spectral-correlation characteristics at wobbulation of a repetition period of the radar signal. The synthesis of algorithms for the non-recursive adaptive rejection filter (ARF of a given order is reduced to determination of the vector of weighting coefficients, which realizes the best effectiveness index for radar signal extraction from the moving targets on the background of the received clutter. As the effectiveness criterion, we consider the averaged (over the Doppler signal phase shift improvement coefficient for a signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR. On the base of extreme properties of the characteristic numbers (eigennumbers of the matrices, the optimal vector (according to this criterion maximum is defined as the eigenvector of the clutter correlation matrix corresponding to its minimal eigenvalue. The general type of the vector of optimal ARF weighting coefficients is de-termined and specific adaptive algorithms depending upon the ARF order are obtained, which in the specific cases can be reduced to the known algorithms confirming its authenticity. The comparative analysis of the synthesized and known algorithms is performed. Significant bene-fits are established in clutter rejection effectiveness by the offered processing algorithms compared to the known processing algorithms.

  17. Radioprotection and radar: practical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepersack, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The author, on basis of his experience in radar-radioprotection, exposes the standard and security norms and recommendations to be applied for the preventive adapation of the work-areas as well as for the follow-up of the exposed workers. (author)

  18. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  19. Radar application in void and bar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2003-01-01

    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  20. The Research on the Spectral Characteristics of Sea Fog Based on Caliop and Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.; Su, J.; Liu, S.; Sheng, H.

    2018-04-01

    In view of that difficulty of distinguish between sea fog and low cloud by optical remote sensing mean, the research on spectral characteristics of sea fog is focused and carried out. The satellite laser radar CALIOP data and the high spectral MODIS data were obtained from May to December 2017, and the scattering coefficient and the vertical height information were extracted from the atmospheric attenuation of the lower star to extract the sea fog sample points, and the spectral response curve based on MODIS was formed to analyse the spectral response characteristics of the sea fog, thus providing a theoretical basis for the monitoring of sea fog with optical remote sensing image.

  1. Radar meteor rates and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikryl, P.

    1983-01-01

    The short-term variation of diurnal radar meteor rates with solar activity represented by solar microwave flux Fsub(10.7), and sunspots relative number Rsub(z), is investigated. Applying the superposed-epoch analysis to the observational material of radar meteor rates from Christchurch (1960-61 and 1963-65), a decrease in the recorded radar rates is found during days of enhanced solar activity. No effect of geomagnetic activity similar to the one reported for the Swedish and Canadian radar meteor data was found by the author in the Christchurch data. A possible explanation of the absence of the geomagnetic effect on radar meteor rates from New Zealand due to a lower echo ceiling height of the Christchurch radar is suggested. The variation of the atmospheric parameters as a possible cause of the observed variation in radar meteor rates is also discussed. (author)

  2. Jupiter Trojan's Shallow Subsurface: Direct Observation By Radar Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herique, A.; Plettemeier, D.; Beck, P.; Michel, P.; Kumamoto, A.; Kofman, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the Jupiter's Trojan are classified as spectral type P or D from visible and near-IR observations. Still, major question remain regarding theire origin and geological evolution: What ices are present in their interior, and in what amount? What is the abundance and the nature of the organic fraction? Did they experience some level of differentiation powered by 26Al? Answering theses question is the goal of the Solar-Power Sail JAXA mission [1, 2]. This mission plans to study the surface by remote sensing in the optical in IR domain. This probe will carry a large-sized lander with a drill to sample the constitutive material at meter depth in order to complement physical and chemical properties measured by on-board instruments. The sample return is an option under study.Radar sounding of the shallow subsurface would be envisaged in complement to this payload. Sounding radar could provide the structure of the first tens of meters of the Trojan surface. It will allow identifying layering, ice lens, and embedded block. It also will enable to reconnect the surface with the deep interior in order to identify exogenous / pristine material. For the surface package, the drilling and the sample return, radar sounding is a unique opportunity to support the selection of the landing site and to provide the greater geological context of the samples that will be returned to Earth.In this paper, we will detail the objective of this instrument and then we will outline the proposed instrument, which is inheriting from the radar developed for the AIDA/AIM mission.[1] Mori, O. et al., Science experiments on a Jupiter Trojan Asteroid in the solar powerd sail mission. LPSC 2016 - 1822.[2] Okada, T. et al., Science and Exploration of a Jupiter Trojan Asteroid in the solar-power sail mission. LPSC 2017 - 1828.

  3. Residual translation compensations in radar target narrowband imaging based on trajectory information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wenjue; Peng, Bo; Wei, Xizhang; Li, Xiang; Liao, Dongping

    2018-05-01

    High velocity translation will result in defocusing scattering centers in radar imaging. In this paper, we propose a Residual Translation Compensations (RTC) method based on target trajectory information to eliminate the translation effects in radar imaging. Translation could not be simply regarded as a uniformly accelerated motion in reality. So the prior knowledge of the target trajectory is introduced to enhance compensation precision. First we use the two-body orbit model to figure out the radial distance. Then, stepwise compensations are applied to eliminate residual propagation delay based on conjugate multiplication method. Finally, tomography is used to confirm the validity of the method. Compare with translation parameters estimation method based on the spectral peak of the conjugate multiplied signal, RTC method in this paper enjoys a better tomography result. When the Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) of the radar echo signal is 4dB, the scattering centers can also be extracted clearly.

  4. Radar observations of ion cyclotron waves associated with two barium shaped-charge releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Providakes, J.; Swartz, W.E.; Kelley, M.C.; Djuth, F.T.; Noble, S.; Jost, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    A 50-MHz Doppler radar interferometer and a 138-MHz Doppler radar were operated from Kennedy Space Center to study 3-m and 1-m plasma waves associated with two shaped-charged barium releases from Wallops Island, Virginia, on May 13, 1986. During the first release, interferometer and Doppler power spectral studies showed the existence of short-lived ( + EIC waves were unstable for field-aligned electron drifts greater than 0.7υ the at the altitude of 510 km in a multispecies (O + , NO + , or similarly O 2 + ) ionospheric plasma. The authors interpret the 30-Hz waves seen by the two radars far above the release as strong electrostatic ion cyclotron waves generated by intense field-aligned currents associated with the barium stream acting like an MHD generator coupled to the ionospheres

  5. A review of the application of optical and radar remote sensing data fusion to land use mapping and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, Neha; Baumann, Matthias; Ehammer, Andrea; Reiche, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of complementary data available from remote sensing missions can hugely aid efforts towards accurately determining land use and quantifying subtle changes in land use management or intensity. This study reviewed 112 studies on fusing optical and radar data, which offer unique spectral

  6. Super Resolution and Interference Suppression Technique applied to SHARAD Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguso, M. C.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Seu, R.; Piazzo, L.

    2017-12-01

    We will present a super resolution and interference suppression technique applied to the data acquired by the SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) on board the NASA's 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, currently operating around Mars [1]. The algorithms allow to improve the range resolution roughly by a factor of 3 and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) by a several decibels. Range compression algorithms usually adopt conventional Fourier transform techniques, which are limited in the resolution by the transmitted signal bandwidth, analogous to the Rayleigh's criterion in optics. In this work, we investigate a super resolution method based on autoregressive models and linear prediction techniques [2]. Starting from the estimation of the linear prediction coefficients from the spectral data, the algorithm performs the radar bandwidth extrapolation (BWE), thereby improving the range resolution of the pulse-compressed coherent radar data. Moreover, the EMIs (ElectroMagnetic Interferences) are detected and the spectra is interpolated in order to reconstruct an interference free spectrum, thereby improving the SNR. The algorithm can be applied to the single complex look image after synthetic aperture processing (SAR). We apply the proposed algorithm to simulated as well as to real radar data. We will demonstrate the effective enhancement on vertical resolution with respect to the classical spectral estimator. We will show that the imaging of the subsurface layered structures observed in radargrams is improved, allowing additional insights for the scientific community in the interpretation of the SHARAD radar data, which will help to further our understanding of the formation and evolution of known geological features on Mars. References: [1] Seu et al. 2007, Science, 2007, 317, 1715-1718 [2] K.M. Cuomo, "A Bandwidth Extrapolation Technique for Improved Range Resolution of Coherent Radar Data", Project Report CJP-60, Revision 1, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (4 Dec. 1992).

  7. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  8. Simultaneous observations of ESF irregularities over Indian region using radar and GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sripathi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present simultaneous observations of temporal and spatial variability of total electron content (TEC and GPS amplitude scintillations on L1 frequency (1.575 GHz during the time of equatorial spread F (ESF while the MST radar (53 MHz located at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, Dip latitude 6.3° N, a low latitude station, made simultaneous observations. In particular, the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of TEC and L-band scintillations was studied in the Indian region for different types of ESF structures observed using the MST radar during the low solar activity period of 2004 and 2005. Simultaneous radar and GPS observations during severe ESF events in the pre-midnight hour reveal that significant GPS L band scintillations, depletions in TEC, and the double derivative of the TEC index (DROTI, which is a measure of fluctuations in TEC, obtained at low latitudes coincide with the appearance of radar echoes at Gadanki. As expected, when the irregularities reach higher altitudes as seen in the radar map during pre-midnight periods, strong scintillations on an L-band signal are observed at higher latitudes. Conversely, when radar echoes are confined to only lower altitudes, weak scintillations are found and their latitudinal extent is small. During magnetically quiet periods, we have recorded plume type radar echoes during a post-midnight period that is devoid of L-band scintillations. Using spectral slopes and cross-correlation index of the VHF scintillation observations, we suggest that these irregularities could be "dead" or "fossil" bubbles which are just drifting in from west. This scenario is consistent with the observations where suppression of pre-reversal enhancement (PRE in the eastward electric field is indicated by ionosonde observations of the height of equatorial F layer and also occurrence of low spectral width in the radar observations relative to pre-midnight period. However, absence of L-band scintillations during

  9. Radar observations of Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.B.; Harmon, J.K.; Shapiro, I.I.

    1989-01-01

    Five nights of Arecibo radar observations of Comet Halley are reported which reveal a feature in the overall average spectrum which, though weak, seems consistent with being an echo from the comet. The large radar cross section and large bandwidth of the feature suggest that the echo is predominantly from large grains which have been ejected from the nucleus. Extrapolation of the dust particle size distribution to large grain sizes gives a sufficient number of grains to account for the echo. The lack of a detectable echo from the nucleus, combined with estimates of its size and rotation rate from spacecraft encounters and other data, indicate that the nucleus has a surface of relatively high porosity. 33 references

  10. Terahertz radar cross section measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-12-06

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.

  11. Radar Control Optimal Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada by the McMaster University Intelligent PIXel (IPIX) X-band Polarimetric Coherent Radar during the OHGR - Dartmouth...following coefficients [ q2, 4p22q, 12p12q, 12p11q, 12|P | ] (26) for A4 and [ q2, 4p22q, 4q(3 p12 + r22), 12(p11q + p22r22 − qr12), 12(|P |+ 2r22p12

  12. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  13. Radar-based hail detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skripniková, Kateřina; Řezáčová, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 1 (2014), s. 175-185 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2045; GA MŠk LD11044 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : hail detection * weather radar * hail damage risk Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809513001804

  14. Radar-eddy current GPR

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Abramovych

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. At present there are many electrical schematic metal detectors (the most common kind of ground penetrating radar), which are differ in purpose. Each scheme has its own advantages and disadvantages compared to other schemes. Designing metal detector problem of optimal selection of functional units most schemes can only work with a narrow range of special purpose units. Functional units used in circuits can be replaced by better ones, but specialization schemes do not provide such...

  15. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  16. Detecting and classifying low probability of intercept radar

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Philip E

    2008-01-01

    This revised and expanded second edition brings you to the cutting edge with new chapters on LPI radar design, including over-the-horizon radar, random noise radar, and netted LPI radar. You also discover critical LPI detection techniques, parameter extraction signal processing techniques, and anti-radiation missile design strategies to counter LPI radar.

  17. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M

    1975-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  18. Improving Weather Radar Precipitation Estimates by Combining two Types of Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of how Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) X-band measurements can be combined with meteorological C–band measurements into a single radar product. For this purpose, a blending method has been developed which combines the strengths of the two radar systems. Combining...... the two radar types achieves a radar product with both long range and high temporal resolution. It is validated that the blended radar product performs better than the individual radars based on ground observations from laser disdrometers. However, the data combination is challenged by lower performance...... of the LAWR. Although both radars benefits from the data combination, it is also found that advection based temporal interpolation is a more favourable method for increasing the temporal resolution of meteorological C–band measurements....

  19. Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

  20. Radar probing of the auroral plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, A.

    1977-01-01

    The European Incoherent Scatter Radar in the Auroral Zone (EISCAT) is an intereuropean organization planning to install an incoherent scatter radar system in Northern Scandinavia. It is supported by Finland, France, Norway, Great Britain, Sweden and West Germany, and its headquarters is in Kiruna, Sweden. The radar is planned to be operating in 1979. In order to introduce students and young scientists to the incoherent scatter radar technique, a summer school was held in Tromsoe, from 5th to 13th June 1975. In these proceedings an introduction to the basic theory of fluctuations in a plasma is given. Some of the present incoherent scatter radars now in use are presented and special considerations with respect to the planned EISACT facility are discussed. Reviews of some recent results and scientific problems relevant to EISCAT are also presented and finally a presentation of some observational techniques complementary to incoherent scatter radars is included. (Ed.)

  1. The Comet Radar Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Farnham, Tony; Gim, Yonggyu; Grimm, Robert; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Oberst, Juergen; Orosei, Roberto; Piqueux, Sylvain; Plaut, Jeff; Robinson, Mark; Sava, Paul; Heggy, Essam; Kurth, William; Scheeres, Dan; Denevi, Brett; Turtle, Elizabeth; Weissman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Missions to cometary nuclei have revealed major geological surprises: (1) Global scale layers - do these persist through to the interior? Are they a record of primary accretion? (2) Smooth regions - are they landslides originating on the surface? Are they cryovolcanic? (3) Pits - are they impact craters or sublimation pits, or rooted in the interior? Unambiguous answers to these and other questions can be obtained by high definition 3D radar reflection imaging (RRI) of internal structure. RRI can answer many of the great unknowns in planetary science: How do primitive bodies accrete? Are cometary nuclei mostly ice? What drives their spectacular activity and evolution? The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) mission will image the detailed internal structure of the nucleus of 10P/Tempel 2. This ~16 x 8 x 7 km Jupiter Family Comet (JFC), or its parent body, originated in the outer planets region possibly millions of years before planet formation. CORE arrives post-perihelion and observes the comet’s waning activity from safe distance. Once the nucleus is largely dormant, the spacecraft enters a ~20-km dedicated Radar Mapping Orbit (RMO). The exacting design of the RRI experiment and the precise navigation of RMO will achieve a highly focused 3D radar reflection image of internal structure, to tens of meters resolution, and tomographic images of velocity and attenuation to hundreds of meters resolution, tied to the gravity model and shape. Visible imagers will produce maps of the surface morphology, albedo, color, texture, and photometric response, and images for navigation and shape determination. The cameras will also monitor the structure and dynamics of the coma, and its dusty jets, allowing their correlation in 3D with deep interior structures and surface features. Repeated global high-resolution thermal images will probe the near-surface layers heated by the Sun. Derived maps of thermal inertia will be correlated with the radar boundary response, and photometry and

  2. Radar imaging of Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Campbell, Donald B.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Black, Gregory J.; Salo, Heikki J.

    2005-09-01

    We present delay-Doppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1°⩽|B|⩽26.7°. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ˜77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the cross-section of the C ring and 9% on that of the Cassini Division. These results are consistent with those obtained by Ostro et al. [1982, Icarus 49, 367-381] from radar observations at |B|=21.4°, but provide higher resolution maps of the rings' reflectivity profile. The average cross-section of the A and B rings, normalized by their projected unblocked area, is found to have decreased from 1.25±0.31 to 0.74±0.19 as the rings have opened up, while the circular polarization ratio has increased from 0.64±0.06 to 0.77±0.06. The steep decrease in cross-section is at variance with previous radar measurements [Ostro et al., 1980, Icarus 41, 381-388], and neither this nor the polarization variations are easily understood within the framework of either classical, many-particle-thick or monolayer ring models. One possible explanation involves vertical size segregation in the rings, whereby observations at larger elevation angles which see deeper into the rings preferentially see the larger particles concentrated near the rings' mid-plane. These larger particles may be less reflective and/or rougher and thus more depolarizing than the smaller ones. Images from all four years show a strong m=2 azimuthal asymmetry in the reflectivity of the A ring, with an amplitude of ±20% and minima at longitudes of 67±4° and 247±4° from the sub-Earth point. We attribute the asymmetry to the presence of gravitational wakes in the A ring as invoked by Colombo et al. [1976, Nature 264, 344-345] to explain the similar asymmetry long seen at optical wavelengths. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the enhancement of the azimuthal

  3. System for Automatic Detection and Analysis of Targets in FMICW Radar Signal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejfek, Luboš; Mošna, Zbyšek; Urbář, Jaroslav; Koucká Knížová, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2016), s. 36-41 ISSN 1335-3632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24688S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : power spectral density (PSD) * FMICW radar * Doppler measurement * thresholding * false alert detection Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2016 http://iris.elf.stuba.sk/JEEEC/data/pdf/1_116-05.pdf

  4. THz and sub-THz (MMW)-over-Fiber Data Links and Radar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-05

    distribution unlimited. high- speed access point, secured military communication and in cloud data centers for interconnecting servers wirelessly. Such...transmittance (~ 78%) and low driving voltage (~ 5.66V (rms) for quarter-wave operation) Industrial interests: post- 5G wireless communication, imaging radar...performance W-band ROF system is achieved using two independent low-cost lasers and spectral shaping. Industrial interests: post- 5G wireless

  5. THz and sub THz (MMW)-over-Fiber Data Links and Radar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    distribution unlimited. high- speed access point, secured military communication and in cloud data centers for interconnecting servers wirelessly. Such...transmittance (~ 78%) and low driving voltage (~ 5.66V (rms) for quarter-wave operation) Industrial interests: post- 5G wireless communication, imaging radar...performance W-band ROF system is achieved using two independent low-cost lasers and spectral shaping. Industrial interests: post- 5G wireless

  6. Textural features for radar image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugan, K. S.; Narayanan, V.; Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Texture is seen as an important spatial feature useful for identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. While textural features have been widely used in analyzing a variety of photographic images, they have not been used in processing radar images. A procedure for extracting a set of textural features for characterizing small areas in radar images is presented, and it is shown that these features can be used in classifying segments of radar images corresponding to different geological formations.

  7. Signal compression in radar using FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla Hemández, Enrique; Kravchenko, Víctor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr; Duchen Sánchez, Gonzalo; Hernández Sánchez, David

    2010-01-01

    We present the hardware implementation of radar real time processing procedures using a simple, fast technique based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) architecture. This processing includes different window procedures during pulse compression in synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar signal compression processing is realized using matched filter, and classical and novel window functions, where we focus on better solution for minimum values of sidelobes. The proposed architecture expl...

  8. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bartsch; F. Fitzek; R. H. Rasshofer

    2012-01-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insight...

  9. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kalesse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediment through a supercooled liquid water (SLW layer. The focus is on the "golden sample" case study for this type of analysis based on observations collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland, during the Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyond the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are considered by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. This suggests that in situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.

  10. A Wing Pod-based Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar on HIAPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Tsai, Peisang; Ellis, Scott; Loew, Eric; Lee, Wen-Chau; Emmett, Joanthan

    2014-05-01

    , occupy minimum cabin space and maximize scan coverage, a pod-based configuration was adopted. Currently, the radar system is capable of collecting observations between zenith and nadir in a fixed scanning mode. Measurements are corrected for aircraft attitude changes. The near-nadir and zenith pointing observations minimize the cross-track Doppler contamination in the radial velocity measurements. An extensive engineering monitoring mechanism is built into the recording system status such as temperature, pressure, various electronic components' status and receiver characteristics. Status parameters are used for real-time system stability estimates and correcting radar system parameters. The pod based radar system is mounted on a modified Gulfstream V aircraft, which is operated and maintained by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) on behalf of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The aircraft is called the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) (Laursen et al., 2006). It is also instrumented with high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and an array of in situ and remote sensors for atmospheric research. As part of the instrument suite for HIAPER, the NSF funded the development of the HIAPER Cloud Radar (HCR). The HCR is an airborne, millimeter-wavelength, dual-polarization, Doppler radar that serves the atmospheric science community by providing cloud remote sensing capabilities for the NSF/NCAR G-V (HIAPER) aircraft. An optimal radar configuration that is capable of maximizing the accuracy of both qualitative and quantitative estimated cloud microphysical and dynamical properties is the most attractive option to the research community. The Technical specifications of cloud radar are optimized for realizing the desired scientific performance for the pod-based configuration. The radar was both ground and flight tested and preliminary measurements of Doppler and polarization measurements were collected. HCR

  11. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  12. Radar network communication through sensing of frequency hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak

    2013-05-28

    In one embodiment, a radar communication system includes a plurality of radars having a communication range and being capable of operating at a sensing frequency and a reporting frequency, wherein the reporting frequency is different than the sensing frequency, each radar is adapted for operating at the sensing frequency until an event is detected, each radar in the plurality of radars has an identification/location frequency for reporting information different from the sensing frequency, a first radar of the radars which senses the event sends a reporting frequency corresponding to its identification/location frequency when the event is detected, and all other radars in the plurality of radars switch their reporting frequencies to match the reporting frequency of the first radar upon detecting the reporting frequency switch of a radar within the communication range. In another embodiment, a method is presented for communicating information in a radar system.

  13. The NASA radar entomology program at Wallops Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    NASA contribution to radar entomology is presented. Wallops Flight Center is described in terms of its radar systems. Radar tracking of birds and insects was recorded from helicopters for airspeed and vertical speed.

  14. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  15. Method for radar detection of persons wearing wires

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, William P.

    2014-01-01

    8,730,098 B1 Methods are described for radar detection of persons wearing wires using radar spectra data including the vertical polarization (VV) radar cross section and the horizontal polarization (HH) radar cross section for a person. In one embodiment, the ratio of the vertical polarization (VV) radar cross section to the horizontal polarization (HH) radar cross section for a person is compared to a detection threshold to determine whether the person is wearing wire...

  16. Array-Based Ultrawideband through-Wall Radar: Prediction and Assessment of Real Radar Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Maaref

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new through-the-wall (TTW radar demonstrator for the detection and the localisation of people in a room (in a noncooperative way with the radar situated outside but in the vicinity of the first wall. After modelling the propagation through various walls and quantifying the backscattering by the human body, an analysis of the technical considerations which aims at defining the radar design is presented. Finally, an ultrawideband (UWB frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar is proposed, designed, and implemented. Some representative trials show that this radar is able to localise and track moving people behind a wall in real time.

  17. Incoherent Scatter Radar Studies of Daytime Plasma Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuth, Frank T.; Carlson, Herbert C.; Zhang, Liwei D.

    2018-03-01

    First results from wideband (electron phase energies of 5-51 eV), high-resolution (0.1 eV) spectral measurements of photoelectron-enhanced plasma lines made with the 430 MHz radar at Arecibo Observatory are presented. In the F region, photoelectrons produced by solar EUV line emissions (He II and Mg IX) give rise to plasma line spectral peaks/valleys. These and other structures occur within an enhancement zone extending from electron phase energies of 14-27 eV in both the bottomside and topside ionosphere. However, photoelectron-thermal electron Coulomb energy losses can lead to a broadened spectral structure with no resolved peaks in the topside ionosphere. The plasma line energy spectra obtained in the enhancement zone exhibit a unique relation in that phase energy is dependent on pitch angle; this relation does not exist in any other part of the energy spectrum. Moreover, large fluctuations in the difference frequency between the upshifted and downshifted plasma lines are evident in the 14-27 eV energy interval. At high phase energies near 51 eV the absolute intensities of photoelectron-excited Langmuir waves are much larger than those predicted by existing theory. The new measurements call for a revision/improvement of plasma line theory in several key areas.

  18. Pocket radar guide key facts, equations, and data

    CERN Document Server

    Curry, G Richard

    2010-01-01

    ThePocket Radar Guideis a concise collection of key radar facts and important radar data that provides you with necessary radar information when you are away from your office or references. It includes statements and comments on radar design, operation, and performance; equations describing the characteristics and performance of radar systems and their components; and tables with data on radar characteristics and key performance issues.It is intended to supplement other radar information sources by providing a pocket companion to refresh memory and provide details whenever you need them such a

  19. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  20. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  1. Radar Methods in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    and A. Nehorai, "A low-complexity multi-target tracking algorithm in urban environments using sparse modeling ,’’ Signal Processing, Vol. 92, pp. 2199...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0344 Radar Methods in Urban Environments Arye Nehorai WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY THE Final Report 10/26/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...of information   if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION . 1. REPORT DATE

  2. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  3. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C

    2013-08-06

    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.

  4. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology

  5. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dheenathayalan, P.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy

  6. A Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer (SMRR) is a line scanner featuring a combined radar and radiometer system operating around 35 and 94 GHz. The layout of the SMRR is shown. The 2 offset antenna parabolas scan in synchronism, the receiver antenna has the highest gain in order to ensure...

  7. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  8. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Yahya, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  9. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting windfields are valuable in offshore wind energy plan...

  10. Classification of Agricultural Crops in Radar Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.

    1983-01-01

    For the past few years an accurate X-band SLAR system with digital recording has been available in The Netherlands. The images of this system are corrected to indicate radar backscatter coefficients (gamma) instead of arbitrary greytones. In 1980 a radar measurement campaign was organized in the

  11. Classification of radar echoes using fractal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzaz, Nafissa; Haddad, Boualem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of two concepts of fractal geometry to classify two types of meteorological radar echoes. • A new approach, called a multi-scale fractal dimension is used for classification between fixed echoes and rain echoes. • An Automatic identification system of meteorological radar echoes was proposed using fractal geometry. - Abstract: This paper deals with the discrimination between the precipitation echoes and the ground echoes in meteorological radar images using fractal geometry. This study aims to improve the measurement of precipitations by weather radars. For this, we considered three radar sites: Bordeaux (France), Dakar (Senegal) and Me lbourne (USA). We showed that the fractal dimension based on contourlet and the fractal lacunarity are pertinent to discriminate between ground and precipitation echoes. We also demonstrated that the ground echoes have a multifractal structure but the precipitations are more homogeneous than ground echoes whatever the prevailing climate. Thereby, we developed an automatic classification system of radar using a graphic interface. This interface, based on the fractal geometry makes possible the identification of radar echoes type in real time. This system can be inserted in weather radar for the improvement of precipitation estimations.

  12. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  13. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  14. Millimeter wave radars raise weapon IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, E. J.

    1985-02-01

    The problems encountered by laser and IR homing devices for guided munitions may be tractable with warhead-mounted mm-wave radars. Operating at about 100 GHz and having several kilometers range, mm-wave radars see through darkness, fog, rain and smoke. The radar must be coupled with an analyzer that discerns moving and stationary targets and higher priority targets. The target lock-on can include shut-off of the transmitter and reception of naturally-generated mm-waves bouncing off the target when in the terminal phase of the flight. Monopulse transmitters have simplified the radar design, although mass production of finline small radar units has yet to be accomplished, particularly in combining GaAs, ferrites and other materials on one monolithic chip.

  15. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...... necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall...... estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...

  16. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...... applications. The paper also reviews how the focus in urban hydrology research has shifted over the last decade to fields such as climate change impacts, resilience of urban areas to hydrological extremes, and online prediction/warning systems. It is discussed how radar rainfall data can add value......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...

  17. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  18. Meteor observation by the Kyoto meteor radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Tsuda, T.

    1987-01-01

    The Kyoto Meteor Radar is a monostatic coherent pulsed Doppler radar operating on the frequency of 31.57 MH. The system is computer controlled and uses radio interferometry for echo height determination. The antenna, an improvement, can be directed either to the north or the east. The system has been continuously collecting data on winds at meteor heights by radar observation. The meteor echo rate was also measured, the echo rate distribution with height and the daily variation in height integrated echo rate are discussed. Investigations of atmospheric tides are being pursued by cooperative observations. A novel approach to the study of gravity waves was attempted using the meteor radar which is able to detect the horizontal propagation of the waves by observing the changing phase through the region illuminated by the radar

  19. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  20. Progress in coherent laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.

  1. BALTRAD Advanced Weather Radar Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Michelson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BALTRAD software exchanges weather-radar data internationally, operationally, and in real-time, and it processes the data using a common toolbox of algorithms available to every node in the decentralized radar network. This approach enables each node to access and process its own and international data to meet its local needs. The software system is developed collaboratively by the BALTRAD partnership, mostly comprising the national Meteorological and Hydrological institutes in the European Union’s Baltic Sea Region. The most important sub-systems are for data exchange, data management, scheduling and event handling, and data processing. C, Java, and Python languages are used depending on the sub-system, and sub-systems communicate using well-defined interfaces. Software is available from a dedicated Git server. BALTRAD software has been deployed throughout Europe and more recently in Canada. Funding statement: From 2009–2014, the BALTRAD and BALTRAD+ projects were part-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund and European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument, with project numbers #009 and #101, respectively.

  2. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  3. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  4. Synthetic-aperture radar imaging through dispersive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varslot, Trond; Morales, J Héctor; Cheney, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop a method for synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imaging through a dispersive medium. We consider the case when the sensor and scatterers are embedded in a known homogeneous dispersive material, the scene to be imaged lies on a known surface and the radar antenna flight path is an arbitrary but known smooth curve. The scattering is modeled using a linearized (Born) scalar model. We assume that the measurements are polluted with additive noise. Furthermore, we assume that we have prior knowledge about the power-spectral densities of the scene and the noise. This leads us to formulate the problem in a statistical framework. We develop a filtered-back-projection imaging algorithm in which we choose the filter according to the statistical properties of the scene and noise. We present numerical simulations for a case where the scene consists of point-like scatterers located on the ground, and demonstrate how the ability to resolve the targets depends on a quantity which we call the noise-to-target ratio. In our simulations, the dispersive material is modeled with the Fung–Ulaby equations for leafy vegetation. However, the method is also applicable to other dielectric materials where the dispersion is considered relevant in the frequency range of the transmitted signals

  5. Sparse Frequency Waveform Design for Radar-Embedded Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyun Mai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Tag application with function of covert communication, a method for sparse frequency waveform design based on radar-embedded communication is proposed. Firstly, sparse frequency waveforms are designed based on power spectral density fitting and quasi-Newton method. Secondly, the eigenvalue decomposition of the sparse frequency waveform sequence is used to get the dominant space. Finally the communication waveforms are designed through the projection of orthogonal pseudorandom vectors in the vertical subspace. Compared with the linear frequency modulation waveform, the sparse frequency waveform can further improve the bandwidth occupation of communication signals, thus achieving higher communication rate. A certain correlation exists between the reciprocally orthogonal communication signals samples and the sparse frequency waveform, which guarantees the low SER (signal error rate and LPI (low probability of intercept. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of this method.

  6. Shaping the spectrum of random-phase radar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Marquette, Brandeis

    2017-05-09

    The various technologies presented herein relate to generation of a desired waveform profile in the form of a spectrum of apparently random noise (e.g., white noise or colored noise), but with precise spectral characteristics. Hence, a waveform profile that could be readily determined (e.g., by a spoofing system) is effectively obscured. Obscuration is achieved by dividing the waveform into a series of chips, each with an assigned frequency, wherein the sequence of chips are subsequently randomized. Randomization can be a function of the application of a key to the chip sequence. During processing of the echo pulse, a copy of the randomized transmitted pulse is recovered or regenerated against which the received echo is correlated. Hence, with the echo energy range-compressed in this manner, it is possible to generate a radar image with precise impulse response.

  7. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.; Hale, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon

  8. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  9. Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Bidrag til arkitektens opgørelse (baseret på en række forskellige indlæg) over hvor dansk arkitektur står, med korte bud på spørgsmålene: Kan man ud over stedsanknytningen tale om en særlig dansk arkitektur?, Hvad er dansk arkitekturs største kvalitet, vores vigtigste force? og Hvad er dansk arki...

  10. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  11. New look at radar auroral motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, R.A.; Ecklund, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    During October 1974, three modifications were temporarily added to the NOAA radar auroral backscatter facility located at Anchorage, Alaska. These modifications included (1) a multiple azimuth antenna system. (2) an on-line computer for processing amplitude and mean Doppler profiles of the radar backscatter, and (3) a 13-baud Barker coder. In combination with the radar these modifications provided data relevant to understanding both the microscopic and the macroscopic nature of the radar aurora. Appreciable structure was often found in the Doppler velocity profiles of radar auroral irregularities. Doppler velocities of nearly 2000 m/s were observed. By combining scatter amplitude profiles and mean Doppler profiles from the five azimuths we have produced contour maps of the scatter intensity and the Doppler velocity. The scatter intensity maps often indicate appreciable temporal and spatial structure in the radar auroral irregularities, corroborating the results of Tsunoda et al. (1974). The mean Doppler contour maps indicate that there is also appreciable temporal and spatial structure in the flow velocities of radar auroral irregularities. At those times when there appears to be large-scale uniformity in the irregularity flow, the Doppler velocity varies with azimuth in a manner that is consistent with a cosine-dependent azimuthal variation

  12. Condor equatorial electrojet campaign: Radar results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.; Hanuise, C.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the experimental and theoretical background to the Condor equatorial electrojet compaign is followed by the presentation and discussion of VHF radar interferometer and HF radar backscatter data taken concurrently with two rocket in situ experiments reported in companion papers (Pfaff et al., this issue (a, b). Both experiments were conducted in strongly driven periods with the on-line radar interferometer displaying signatures of what has been interpreted in earlier radar work (Kudeki et al., 1982) as kilometer scale gradient drift waves. Low-frequency density fluctuations detected by in situ rocket sensors confirm the earlier interpretation. VHF radar/rocket data comparisons also indicate the existence of a turbulent layer in the upper portion of the daytime electrojet at about 108 km altitude driven purely by the two-stream instability. Nonlinear mode coupling of linearly growing two-stream waves to linearly damped 3-m vertical modes could account for the radar echoes scattered from this layer, which showed no indication of large-scale gradient drift waves. Nonlinear mode coupling may therefore compete with the wave-induced anomalous diffusion mechanism proposed recently by Sudan (1983) for the saturation of directly excited two-stream waves. Nighttime radar data show a bifurcated layer with the two parts having comparable echo strength but oppositely directed zonal drift velocities. The lower layer shows narrow backscatter spectra; the upper layer is characterized by kilometer scale waves and vertically propagating type 1 waves

  13. Using phase for radar scatterer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda J.; Rigling, Brian D.; Penno, Robert P.; Zelnio, Edmund G.

    2017-04-01

    Traditional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems tend to discard phase information of formed complex radar imagery prior to automatic target recognition (ATR). This practice has historically been driven by available hardware storage, processing capabilities, and data link capacity. Recent advances in high performance computing (HPC) have enabled extremely dense storage and processing solutions. Therefore, previous motives for discarding radar phase information in ATR applications have been mitigated. First, we characterize the value of phase in one-dimensional (1-D) radar range profiles with respect to the ability to correctly estimate target features, which are currently employed in ATR algorithms for target discrimination. These features correspond to physical characteristics of targets through radio frequency (RF) scattering phenomenology. Physics-based electromagnetic scattering models developed from the geometrical theory of diffraction are utilized for the information analysis presented here. Information is quantified by the error of target parameter estimates from noisy radar signals when phase is either retained or discarded. Operating conditions (OCs) of signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth are considered. Second, we investigate the value of phase in 1-D radar returns with respect to the ability to correctly classify canonical targets. Classification performance is evaluated via logistic regression for three targets (sphere, plate, tophat). Phase information is demonstrated to improve radar target classification rates, particularly at low SNRs and low bandwidths.

  14. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  15. Foliage penetration radar detection and characterization of objects under trees

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of foliage penetration (FOPEN) radar, concentrating on both airborne military radar systems as well as earth resource mapping radars. It is the first concise and thorough treatment of FOPEN, covering the results of a decade-long investment by DARPA in characterizing foliage and earth surface with ultrawideband UHF and VHF synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  16. The use of radar for bathymetry in shallow seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greidanus, H.

    1997-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and space borne radar. The paper reviews the radar imaging mechanism, and discusses the possibilities and limitations for practical use of radar in bathymetric applications, including the types of radar instruments available for this

  17. Radar ornithology and the conservation of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney A. Gauthreaux; Carroll G. Belser

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to study with surveillance radar the movements of migrating birds in the atmosphere at different spatial scales. At a spatial scale within a range of 6 kilometers, high-resolution, 3-centimeter wavelength surveillance radar (e.g. BIRDRAD) can detect the departure of migrants from different types of habitat within a few kilometers of the radar. The radar...

  18. Radar Exploration of Cometary Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Yonggyu; Heggy, E.; Belton, M.; Weissman, P.; Asphaug, E.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a mission formulation, based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, to image the 3D internal structure of the nucleus of a Jupiter-family comet (JFC). Believed to originate in the outer solar system and to be delivered recently to the inner solar system from the Kuiper Belt, JFCs are among the most primitive bodies accessible by spacecraft, and are indicated in the 2010 Decadal Survey as primary targets for primitive bodies sample return. We consider a sounder design operating at dual frequencies, 5 and 15 MHz center frequencies with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths, respectively. Operating from close orbit about the nucleus of a spinning comet nucleus, CORE obtains a dense network of echoes that are used to image its interior structure to 10 m and to map the dielectric properties inside the nucleus to better than 200 m throughout. Clear images of internal structure and dielectric composition will reveal how the nucleus was formed and how it has evolved. Radiometric tracking of the spacecraft orbit will provide an interior mass distribution that constrains the radar-based models of interior composition. High-resolution visible and infrared color images provide surface and exterior boundary conditions for interior models and hypotheses. They present the geology and morphology of the nucleus surface at meter-scales, and the time-evolving activity, structure, and composition of the inner coma. By making global yet detailed connections from interior to exterior, the data from CORE will provide answers to fundamental questions about the earliest stages of planetesimal evolution and planet formation, will be an important complement to the Rosetta mission science, and will lay the foundation for comet nucleus sample return.

  19. Radar, sonar, and holography an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kock, Winston E

    1974-01-01

    Radar, Sonar, and Holography: An Introduction provides an introduction to the technology of radar and sonar. Because the new science of holography is affecting both these fields quite strongly, the book includes an explanation of the fundamental principles underlying this new art (including the subjects of wave coherence, interference, and diffraction) and of the hologram process itself. Finally, numerous examples are discussed which show how holography is providing new horizons to radar and sonar systems. The book thus also provides a simple approach to the new technology of holography. The

  20. New Vacuum Electronic Devices for Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yinfu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum Electronic Devices (VEDs which are considered as the heart of a radar system, play an important role in their development. VEDs and radar systems supplement and promote each other. Some new trends in VEDs have been observed with advancements in the simulation tools for designing VEDs, new materials, new fabrication techniques. Recently, the performance of VEDs has greatly improved. In addition, new devices have been invented, which have laid the foundation for the developments of radar detection technology. This study introduces the recent development trends and research results of VEDs from microwave and millimeter wave devices and power modules, integrated VEDs, terahertz VEDs, and high power VEDs.

  1. Image Registration Methode in Radar Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chelbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for the determination of the registration of an Interferometric Synthetic radar (InSAR pair images with half pixel precision. Using the two superposed radar images Single Look complexes (SLC [1-4], we developed an iterative process to superpose these two images according to their correlation coefficient with a high coherence area. This work concerns the exploitation of ERS Tandem pair of radar images SLC of the Algiers area acquired on 03 January and 04 January 1994. The former is taken as a master image and the latter as a slave image.

  2. Radar signal processing and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Robert; Stoica, Petre; Zelnio, Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Radar Signal Processing and Its Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast-moving area. In twelve selected chapters, it describes the latest advances in architectures, design methods, and applications of radar signal processing. The contributors to this work were selected from the leading researchers and practitioners in the field. This work, originally published as Volume 14, Numbers 1-3 of the journal, Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, will be valuable to anyone working or researching in the field of radar signal processing. It serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging issues being examined today.

  3. Signal compression in radar using FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Escamilla Hemández; Víctor Kravchenko; Volodymyr Ponomaryov; Gonzalo Duchen Sánchez; David Hernández Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo muestra la puesta en práctica de hardware para realizar el procesamiento en tiempo real de la señal de radar usando una técnica simple, rápida basada en arquitectura de FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). El proceso incluye diversos procedimientos de enventanado durante la compresión del pulso del radar de apertura sintética (SAR). El proceso de compresión de la señal de radar se hace con un filtro acoplado. que aplica funciones clásicas y nuevas de enventanado, donde n...

  4. Radar orthogonality and radar length in Finsler and metric spacetime geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The radar experiment connects the geometry of spacetime with an observers measurement of spatial length. We investigate the radar experiment on Finsler spacetimes which leads to a general definition of radar orthogonality and radar length. The directions radar orthogonal to an observer form the spatial equal time surface an observer experiences and the radar length is the physical length the observer associates to spatial objects. We demonstrate these concepts on a forth order polynomial Finsler spacetime geometry which may emerge from area metric or premetric linear electrodynamics or in quantum gravity phenomenology. In an explicit generalization of Minkowski spacetime geometry we derive the deviation from the Euclidean spatial length measure in an observers rest frame explicitly.

  5. Monitoring of Damage in Sunflower and Maize Parcels Using Radar and Optical Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Surek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to monitor the temporal behaviour of geometrical structural change of cropland affected by four different types of damage: weed infection, Western Corn Rootworm (WCR, storm damage, and drought by time series of different type of optical and quad-pol RADARSAT2 data. Based on our results it is established that ragweed infection in sunflower can be well identified by evaluation of radar (mid-June and optical (mid-August satellite images. Effect of drought in sunflower is well recognizable by spectral indices derived from optical as well as “I”-component of Shannon entropy (SEI from radar satellite images acquired during the first decade of July. Evaluation of radar and optical satellite images acquired between the last decade of July and mid-August proven to be the most efficient for detecting damages in maize fields caused by either by WCR or storm. Components of Shannon entropy are proven to have significant role in identification. Our project demonstrates the potential in integrated usage of polarimetric radar and optical satellite images for monitoring several types of agricultural damage.

  6. Phase calibration of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar interferometer using optical satellite signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sullivan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between natural ion-line enhancements in radar spectra and auroral activity has been the subject of recent studies but conclusions have been limited by the spatial and temporal resolution previously available. The next challenge is to use shorter sub-second integration times in combination with interferometric programmes to resolve spatial structure within the main radar beam, and so relate enhanced filaments to individual auroral rays. This paper presents initial studies of a technique, using optical and spectral satellite signatures, to calibrate the received phase of a signal with the position of the scattering source along the interferometric baseline of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. It is shown that a consistent relationship can be found only if the satellite passage through the phase fringes is adjusted from the passage predicted by optical tracking. This required adjustment is interpreted as being due to the vector between the theoretical focusing points of the two antennae, i.e. the true radar baseline, differing from the baseline obtained by survey between the antenna foot points. A method to obtain a measurement of the true interferometric baseline using multiple satellite passes is outlined.

  7. Simultaneous radar and spaced receiver VHF scintillation observations of ESF irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tiwari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities made on 10 nights during March-April 1998 and 1999, using an 18-MHz radar at Trivandrum (77° E, 8.5° N, dip 0.5° N and two spaced receivers recording scintillations on a 251-MHz signal at Tirunelveli (77.8° E, 8.7° N, dip 0.4° N, have been used to study the evolution of Equatorial Spread F (ESF irregularities. Case studies have been carried out on the day-to-day variability in ESF structure and dynamics, as observed by 18-MHz radar, and with spaced receiver measurements of average zonal drift Vo of the 251-MHz radio wave diffraction pattern on the ground, random velocity Vc, which is a measure of random changes in the characteristics of scintillation-producing irregularities, and maximum cross-correlation CI of the spaced receivers signals. Results show that in the initial phase of plasma bubble development, the greater the maximum height of ESF irregularities responsible for the radar backscatter, the greater the decorrelation is of the spaced receiver scintillation signals, indicating greater turbulence. The relationship of the maximum spectral width derived from the radar observations and CI also supports this result.

  8. Simultaneous radar and spaced receiver VHF scintillation observations of ESF irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tiwari

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities made on 10 nights during March-April 1998 and 1999, using an 18-MHz radar at Trivandrum (77° E, 8.5° N, dip 0.5° N and two spaced receivers recording scintillations on a 251-MHz signal at Tirunelveli (77.8° E, 8.7° N, dip 0.4° N, have been used to study the evolution of Equatorial Spread F (ESF irregularities. Case studies have been carried out on the day-to-day variability in ESF structure and dynamics, as observed by 18-MHz radar, and with spaced receiver measurements of average zonal drift Vo of the 251-MHz radio wave diffraction pattern on the ground, random velocity Vc, which is a measure of random changes in the characteristics of scintillation-producing irregularities, and maximum cross-correlation CI of the spaced receivers signals. Results show that in the initial phase of plasma bubble development, the greater the maximum height of ESF irregularities responsible for the radar backscatter, the greater the decorrelation is of the spaced receiver scintillation signals, indicating greater turbulence. The relationship of the maximum spectral width derived from the radar observations and CI also supports this result.

  9. Development Of Signal Detection For Radar Navigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Theingi Win Hlaing; Hla Myo Tun; Zaw Min Naing; Win Khaing Moe

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the performance of target detection in the presence of sea clutter. Radar detection of a background of unwanted clutter due to echoes from sea clutter or land is a problem of interest in the radar field. Radar detector has been developed by assuming the radar clutter is Gaussian distributed. However as technology emerges the radar distribution is seen to deviates from the Gaussian assumption. Thus detectors designs based on Gaussian assumption are no longer optimum...

  10. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  11. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  12. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  13. Radar Polarimetry and Interferometry (La polarimetrie et l'interferometrie radar) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keydel, W; Boerner, W. M; Pottier, E; Lee, J. S; Ferro-Famil, L; Hellmann, M; Cloude, S. R

    2005-01-01

    ...: Scientists and engineers already engaged in the fields of radar surveillance, reconnaissance and scattering measurements, for instance, generally gain their specialist knowledge in both polarimetry...

  14. Synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) a novel multi-frequency MIMO radar

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Baixiao

    2014-01-01

    Analyzes and discusses the operating principle, signal processing method, and experimental results of this advanced radar technology This book systematically discusses the operating principle, signal processing method, target measurement technology, and experimental results of a new kind of radar called synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR). The purpose is to help readers acquire an insight into the concept and principle of the SIAR, to know its operation mode, signal processing method, the difference between the traditional radar and itself, the designing ideals, and the developing me

  15. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  16. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  17. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  18. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  19. Simulating lightning tests to radar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The risk of destruction due to lightning makes simulating the effects of lightning strikes a necessity. We modeled a radar enclosure and simulated the effect of a lightning strike. The results have been validated using full threat lightning current tests.

  20. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines (ARSDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of an airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  1. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  2. A radar-echo model for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.W.; Moore, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers developed a radar-echo model for Mars based on 12.6 cm continuous wave radio transmissions backscattered from the planet. The model broadly matches the variations in depolarized and polarized total radar cross sections with longitude observed by Goldstone in 1986 along 7 degrees S. and yields echo spectra that are generally similiar to the observed spectra. Radar map units in the model include an extensive cratered uplands unit with weak depolarized echo cross sections, average thermal inertias, moderate normal refelectivities, and moderate rms slopes; the volcanic units of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis regions with strong depolarized echo cross sections, low thermal inertia, low normal reflectivities, and large rms slopes; and the northern planes units with moderate to strong depolarized echo cross sections, moderate to very high thermal inertias, moderate to large normal reflectivities, and moderate rms slopes. The relevance of the model to the interpretation of radar echoes from Mars is discussed

  3. UWB Sampler for Wireless Communications and Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Han, Jeongwoo; Nguyen, Cam

    2005-01-01

    An ultra wideband (UWB) sampler, realized using step recovery and Schottky diodes on coplanar waveguide, coplanar strips and slotlines, has been developed for UWB wireless communications and radar systems...

  4. VERTICAL ACTIVITY ESTIMATION USING 2D RADAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    estimates on aircraft vertical behaviour from a single 2D radar track. ... Fortunately, the problem of detecting relative vertical motion using a single 2D ..... awareness tools in scenarios where aerial activity sensing is typically limited to 2D.

  5. Physical working principles of medical radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-04-01

    There has been research interest in using radar for contactless measurements of the human heartbeat for several years. While many systems have been demonstrated, not much attention have been given to the actual physical causes of why this work. The consensus seems to be that the radar senses small body movements correlated with heartbeats, but whether only the movements of the body surface or reflections from internal organs are also monitored have not been answered definitely. There has recently been proposed another theory that blood perfusion in the skin could be the main reason radars are able to detect heartbeats. In this paper, an experimental approach is given to determine the physical causes. The measurement results show that it is the body surface reflections that dominate radar measurements of human heartbeats.

  6. Radar Training Facility Local Area Network -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The RTF LAN system provides a progressive training environment for initial and refresher radar training qualification for new and re-hired FAA employees. Its purpose...

  7. Investigating nearby exoplanets via interstellar radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Louis K.

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar radar is a potential intermediate step between passive observation of exoplanets and interstellar exploratory missions. Compared with passive observation, it has the traditional advantages of radar astronomy. It can measure surface characteristics, determine spin rates and axes, provide extremely accurate ranges, construct maps of planets, distinguish liquid from solid surfaces, find rings and moons, and penetrate clouds. It can do this even for planets close to the parent star. Compared with interstellar travel or probes, it also offers significant advantages. The technology required to build such a radar already exists, radar can return results within a human lifetime, and a single facility can investigate thousands of planetary systems. The cost, although too high for current implementation, is within the reach of Earth's economy.

  8. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  9. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  10. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Udayan

    2011-01-01

    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  11. Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.

    1985-06-01

    The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2/sup 0/, respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1/sup 0/ in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.

    1985-06-01

    The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2 0 , respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1 0 in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Single Bit Radar Systems for Digital Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Small, low cost, radar systems have exciting applications in monitoring and imaging for the industrial, healthcare and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors. We here explore, and show the feasibility of, several single bit square wave radar architectures; that benefits from the continuous improvement in digital technologies for system-on-chip digital integration. By analysis, simulation and measurements we explore novel and harmonic-rich continuous wave (CW), stepped-frequency CW (SFCW) and freque...

  14. Development of a Software-Defined Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    disrupt desired radar operation. The cognitive radar system discussed herein mitigates the effects of RFI by sensing and adapting the transmitted...present received data, and plot processed data. Top right: Calculates a “ flicker ” rate caused by an unknown issue where blank data are received due to...and plot processed data. Top right: Calculates a “ flicker ” rate caused by an unknown issue where blank data are received due to missed

  15. Radar Observations of 8.3-m scale equatorial spread F irregularities over Trivandrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tiwari

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present observations of equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities made using a newly installed 18MHz radar located at Trivandrum. We characterize the morphology and the spectral parameters of the 8.3-m ESF irregularities which are found to be remarkably different from that observed so extensively at the 3-m scale size. We also present statistical results of the irregularities in the form of percentage occurrence of the echoes and spectral parameters (SNR, Doppler velocity, Spectral width. The Doppler spectra are narrower, less structured and less variable in time as compared to those observed for 3-m scale size. We have never observed the ESF irregularity velocities to be supersonic here unlike those at Jicamarca, and the velocities are found to be within ±200ms–1. The spectral widths are found to be less than 150ms–1. Hence, the velocities and spectral width both are smaller than those reported for 3-m scale size. The velocities and spectral widths are further found to be much smaller than those of the American sector. These observations are compared with those reported elsewhere and discussed in the light of present understanding on the ESF irregularities at different wavelengths.

    Key words. Ionoshphere (equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities; ionospheric irregularities

  16. Radar Observations of 8.3-m scale equatorial spread F irregularities over Trivandrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tiwari

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present observations of equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities made using a newly installed 18MHz radar located at Trivandrum. We characterize the morphology and the spectral parameters of the 8.3-m ESF irregularities which are found to be remarkably different from that observed so extensively at the 3-m scale size. We also present statistical results of the irregularities in the form of percentage occurrence of the echoes and spectral parameters (SNR, Doppler velocity, Spectral width. The Doppler spectra are narrower, less structured and less variable in time as compared to those observed for 3-m scale size. We have never observed the ESF irregularity velocities to be supersonic here unlike those at Jicamarca, and the velocities are found to be within ±200ms–1. The spectral widths are found to be less than 150ms–1. Hence, the velocities and spectral width both are smaller than those reported for 3-m scale size. The velocities and spectral widths are further found to be much smaller than those of the American sector. These observations are compared with those reported elsewhere and discussed in the light of present understanding on the ESF irregularities at different wavelengths. Key words. Ionoshphere (equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities; ionospheric irregularities

  17. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  18. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  19. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  20. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  1. Radar Polarimetry: Theory, Analysis, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, John Clark

    The fields of radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry are compared. The mathematics of optic polarimetry are formulated such that a local right handed coordinate system is always used to describe the polarization states. This is not done in radar polarimetry. Radar optimum polarization theory is redeveloped within the framework of optical polarimetry. The radar optimum polarizations and optic eigenvalues of common scatterers are compared. In addition a novel definition of an eigenpolarization state is given and the accompanying mathematics is developed. The polarization response calculated using optic, radar and novel definitions is presented for a variety of scatterers. Polarimetric transformation provides a means to characterize scatters in more than one polarization basis. Polarimetric transformation for an ensemble of scatters is obtained via two methods: (1) the covariance method and (2) the instantaneous scattering matrix (ISM) method. The covariance method is used to relate the mean radar parameters of a +/-45^circ linear polarization basis to those of a horizontal and vertical polarization basis. In contrast the ISM method transforms the individual time samples. Algorithms are developed for transforming the time series from fully polarimetric radars that switch between orthogonal states. The transformed time series are then used to calculate the mean radar parameters of interest. It is also shown that propagation effects do not need to be removed from the ISM's before transformation. The techniques are demonstrated using data collected by POLDIRAD, the German Aerospace Research Establishment's fully polarimetric C-band radar. The differential phase observed between two copolar states, Psi_{CO}, is composed of two phases: (1) differential propagation phase, phi_{DP}, and (2) differential backscatter phase, delta. The slope of phi_{DP } with range is an estimate of the specific differential phase, K_{DP}. The process of estimating K_{DP} is complicated when

  2. Raindrop size distribution and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlenhoet, R.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of the radar reflectivity factor Z (mm6m-3) to rain rate R (mm h-1) is a crucial step in the hydrological application of weather radar measurements. It has been common practice for over 50 years now to take for this conversion a simple power law relationship between Z and R. It is the

  3. A 100 GHz Polarimetric Compact Radar Range for Scale-Model Radar Cross Section Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    common radar bands. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank David Jillson (UML STL – Electrical Engineer) for efforts involved in RF and DC wiring...Waldman J., Fetterman H.R., Duffy P.E., Bryant T.G., Tannenwald P.E., “Submillimeter Model Measurements and Their Applications to Millimeter Radar

  4. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  5. a Study of Precipitation Using Dual-Frequency and Interferometric Doppler Radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilson, Phillip Bruce

    The primary focus of this dissertation involves the investigation of precipitation using Doppler radar but using distinctly different methods. Each method will be treated separately. The first part describes an investigation of a tropical thunderstorm that occurred in the summer of 1991 over the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Observations were made using a vertically pointing, dual-wavelength, collinear beam Doppler radar which permits virtually simultaneous observations of the same pulse volume using transmission and reception of coherent UHF and VHF signals on alternate pulses. This made it possible to measure directly the vertical wind within the sampling volume using the VHF signal while using the UHF signal to study the nature of the precipitation. The observed storm showed strong similarities with systems observed in the Global Atmospheric Research Program's (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) study. The experiment provided a means of determining various parameters associated with the storm, such as the vertical air velocity, the mean fall speeds of the precipitation, and the reflectivity. Rogers proposed a means of deducing the mean fall speed of precipitation particles using the radar reflectivity factor. Using the data from our experiment, the mean precipitation fall speeds were calculated and compared with those that would be inferred from Rogers' method. The results suggest the Rogers method of estimating mean precipitation fall speeds to be unreliable in turbulent environments. The second part reports observations made with the 50 MHz Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) radar located at Shigaraki, Japan during May of 1992. The facility was operated in a spatial interferometry (SI) mode while observing frontal precipitation. The data suggest that the presence of precipitation can produce a bias in the SI cross-spectral phase that in turn creates an overestimation of the horizontal wind. The process is likened to

  6. Coherent and non-coherent processing of multiband radar sensor data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tejero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing resolution is an attractive goal for all types of radar sensor applications. Obtaining high radar resolution is strongly related to the signal bandwidth which can be used. The currently available frequency bands however, restrict the available bandwidth and consequently the achievable range resolution. As nowadays more sensors become available e.g. on automotive platforms, methods of combining sensor information stemming from sensors operating in different and not necessarily overlapping frequency bands are of concern. It will be shown that it is possible to derive benefit from perceiving the same radar scenery with two or more sensors in distinct frequency bands. Beyond ordinary sensor fusion methods, radar information can be combined more effectively if one compensates for the lack of mutual coherence, thus taking advantage of phase information. At high frequencies, complex scatterers can be approximately modeled as a group of single scattering centers with constant delay and slowly varying amplitude, i.e. a set of complex exponentials buried in noise. The eigenanalysis algorithms are well known for their capability to better resolve complex exponentials as compared to the classical spectral analysis methods. These methods exploit the statistical properties of those signals to estimate their frequencies. Here, two main approaches to extend the statistical analysis for the case of data collected at two different subbands are presented. One method relies on the use of the band gap information (and therefore, coherent data collection is needed and achieves an increased resolution capability compared with the single-band case. On the other hand, the second approach does not use the band gap information and represents a robust way to process radar data collected with incoherent sensors. Combining the information obtained with these two approaches a robust estimator of the target locations with increased resolution can be built.

  7. Sea clutter scattering, the K distribution and radar performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Keith; Watts, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Sea Clutter: Scattering, the K Distribution and Radar Performance, 2nd Edition gives an authoritative account of our current understanding of radar sea clutter. Topics covered include the characteristics of radar sea clutter, modelling radar scattering by the ocean surface, statistical models of sea clutter, the simulation of clutter and other random processes, detection of small targets in sea clutter, imaging ocean surface features, radar detection performance calculations, CFAR detection, and the specification and measurement of radar performance. The calculation of the performance of pract

  8. Radar principles for the nonspecialist, 3rd edition

    CERN Document Server

    Toomay, John

    2004-01-01

    Radar Principles for the Non-specialist, Third Edition continues its popular tradition: to distill the very complex technology of radar into its fundamentals, tying them to the laws of nature on one end and to the most modern and complex systems on the other. It starts with electromagnetic propagation, describes a radar of the utmost simplicity, and derives the radar range equation from that simple radar. Once the range equation is available, the book attacks the meaning of each term in it, moving through antennas, detection and tracking, radar cross-section, waveforms andsignal proces

  9. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  10. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  11. Noncommutativity from spectral flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-27

    We investigate the transition from second- to first-order systems. Quantum mechanically, this transforms configuration space into phase space and hence introduces noncommutativity in the former. This transition may be described in terms of spectral flow. Gaps in the energy or mass spectrum may become large which effectively truncates the available state space. Using both operator and path integral languages we explicitly discuss examples in quantum mechanics (light-front) quantum field theory and string theory.

  12. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  13. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carrier nature of speech; modulation spectrum; spectral dynamics ... the relationships between phonetic values of sounds and their short-term spectral envelopes .... the number of free parameters that need to be estimated from training data.

  14. Signal compression in radar using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Escamilla Hemández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra la puesta en práctica de hardware para realizar el procesamiento en tiempo real de la señal de radar usando una técnica simple, rápida basada en arquitectura de FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array. El proceso incluye diversos procedimientos de enventanado durante la compresión del pulso del radar de apertura sintética (SAR. El proceso de compresión de la señal de radar se hace con un filtro acoplado. que aplica funciones clásicas y nuevas de enventanado, donde nos centramos en obtener una mejor atenuación para los valores de lóbulos laterales. La arquitectura propuesta explota los recursos de computación paralela de los dispositivos FPGA para alcanzar una mejor velocidad de cómputo. Las investigaciones experimentales han demostrado que los mejores resultados para el funcionamiento de la compresión del pulso se han obtenido usando las funciones atómicas, mejorando el funcionamiento del sistema del radar en presencia de ruido, y consiguiendo una pequeña degradación en la resolución de rango. La puesta en práctica del tratamiento de señales en el sistema de radar en tiempo real se discute y se justifica la eficiencia de la arquitectura de hardware propuesta.

  15. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...

  16. Low velocity target detection based on time-frequency image for high frequency ground wave radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Songhua; WU Shicai; WEN Biyang

    2007-01-01

    The Doppler spectral broadening resulted from non-stationary movement of target and radio-frequency interference will decrease the veracity of target detection by high frequency ground wave(HEGW)radar.By displaying the change of signal energy on two dimensional time-frequency images based on time-frequency analysis,a new mathematical morphology method to distinguish target from nonlinear time-frequency curves is presented.The analyzed results from the measured data verify that with this new method the target can be detected correctly from wide Doppler spectrum.

  17. E-region decameter-scale plasma waves observed by the dual TIGER HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Carter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dual Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER HF radars regularly observe E-region echoes at sub-auroral magnetic latitudes 58°–60° S including during geomagnetic storms. We present a statistical analysis of E-region backscatter observed in a period of ~2 years (late 2004–2006 by the TIGER Bruny Island and Unwin HF radars, with particular emphasis on storm-time backscatter. It is found that the HF echoes normally form a 300-km-wide band at ranges 225–540 km. In the evening sector during geomagnetic storms, however, the HF echoes form a curved band joining to the F-region band at ~700 km. The curved band lies close to the locations where the geometric aspect angle is zero, implying little to no refraction during geomagnetic storms, which is an opposite result to what has been reported in the past. The echo occurrence, Doppler velocity, and spectral width of the HF echoes are examined in order to determine whether new HF echo types are observed at sub-auroral latitudes, particularly during geomagnetic storms. The datasets of both TIGER radars are found to be dominated by low-velocity echoes. A separate population of storm-time echoes is also identified within the datasets of both radars with most of these echoes showing similar characteristics to the low-velocity echo population. The storm-time backscatter observed by the Bruny Island radar, on the other hand, includes near-range echoes (r<405 km that exhibit some characteristics of what has been previously termed the High Aspect angle Irregularity Region (HAIR echoes. We show that these echoes appear to be a storm-time phenomenon and further investigate this population by comparing their Doppler velocity with the simultaneously measured F- and E-region irregularity velocities. It is suggested that the HAIR-like echoes are observed only by HF radars with relatively poor geometric aspect angles when electron density is low and when the electric field is particularly

  18. THE RESEARCH ON THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEA FOG BASED ON CALIOP AND MODIS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of that difficulty of distinguish between sea fog and low cloud by optical remote sensing mean, the research on spectral characteristics of sea fog is focused and carried out。The satellite laser radar CALIOP data and the high spectral MODIS data were obtained from May to December 2017, and the scattering coefficient and the vertical height information were extracted from the atmospheric attenuation of the lower star to extract the sea fog sample points, and the spectral response curve based on MODIS was formed to analyse the spectral response characteristics of the sea fog, thus providing a theoretical basis for the monitoring of sea fog with optical remote sensing image.

  19. Broadband Counter-Wound Spiral Antenna for Subsurface Radar Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yong, Lim

    2003-01-01

    Subsurface radar also known as ground-penetrating radar is increasingly being used for the detection and location of buried objects such as mines and structure that are found within the upper regions...

  20. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  1. Autonomous Non-Linear Classification of LPI Radar Signal Modulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulum, Taylan O

    2007-01-01

    ...) radar modulations is investigated. A software engineering architecture that allows a full investigation of various preprocessing algorithms and classification techniques is applied to a database of important LPI radar waveform...

  2. Distributed Subarray Antennas for Multifunction Phased-Array Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Chih-heng

    2003-01-01

    As the target radar cross section (RCS) continuously decreases, the need for high-resolution high-gain radar increases, One approach to high resolution is to use distributed subarray antennas (DSAs...

  3. GPM GROUND VALIDATION PAWNEE RADAR MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pawnee radar data for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) held in Oklahoma were collected on May 24, 2011 to support the CHILL radar...

  4. NOAA Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Level 2 Base Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level II weather radar data collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii,...

  5. Ships as salient objects in synthetic aperture radar imaginary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The widespread access to Synthetic Aperture Radar data has created a need for more precise ship extraction, specifically in low-to-medium resolution imagery. While Synthetic Aperture Radar pixel resolution is improving for a large swaths...

  6. Stepped-frequency radar sensors theory, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the theory, analysis and design of microwave stepped-frequency radar sensors. Stepped-frequency radar sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require fine resolution. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter describes the fundamentals of radar sensors including applications followed by a review of ultra-wideband pulsed, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), and stepped-frequency radar sensors. The second chapter discusses a general analysis of radar sensors including wave propagation in media and scattering on targets, as well as the radar equation. The third chapter addresses the analysis of stepped-frequency radar sensors including their principles and design parameters. Chapter 4 presents the development of two stepped-frequency radar sensors at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies based on microwave integrated circuits (MICs), microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and printed-circuit antennas, and discusses their signal processing....

  7. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geodatabase contains Synthetic Aperture Radar images (SAR), which consist of a fine resolution (12.5-50m), two-dimensional radar backscatter map of the...

  8. Challenges in X-band Weather Radar Data Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is all-important that the radar data well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation e...... estimates. This paper compares two calibration procedures for a small marine X-band radar by comparing radar data with rain gauge data. Validation shows a very good consensus with regards to precipitation volumes, but more diverse results on peak rain intensities.......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is all-important that the radar data well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation...

  9. Radar absorbing properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This research is devoted to the study of radar absorbing properties of the composites, based on the epoxy binder and ... Radar absorbing materials; carbon nanotubes; nanocomposites; reflection loss. 1. ..... So, for example, the papers of [3–5 ...

  10. NOAA Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Level 3 Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level 3 weather radar products collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska,...

  11. Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

  12. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...

  13. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  14. Radar-acoustic interaction for IFF applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffold, James A.; Williamson, Frank R.; Ahuja, Krishan; Stein, Lawrence R.; Muller, Marjorie

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the results of an internal development program (IDP) No. 97-1 conducted from August 1-October 1 1996 at the Georgia Tech Research Institute. The IDP program was implemented to establish theoretical relationships and verify the interaction between X-band radar waves and ultrasonic acoustics. Low cost, off-the-shelf components were used for the verification in order to illustrate the cost savings potential of developing and utilizing these systems. The measured data was used to calibrate the developed models of the phenomenology and to support extrapolation for radar systems which can exploit these interactions. One such exploitation is for soldier identification IFF and radar taggant concepts. The described IDP program provided the phenomenological data which is being used to extrapolate concept system performances based on technological limitations and battlefield conditions for low cost IFF and taggant configurations.

  15. Comments on airborne ISR radar utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2016-05-01

    A sensor/payload operator for modern multi-sensor multi-mode Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) platforms is often confronted with a plethora of options in sensors and sensor modes. This often leads an over-worked operator to down-select to favorite sensors and modes; for example a justifiably favorite Full Motion Video (FMV) sensor at the expense of radar modes, even if radar modes can offer unique and advantageous information. At best, sensors might be used in a serial monogamous fashion with some cross-cueing. The challenge is then to increase the utilization of the radar modes in a manner attractive to the sensor/payload operator. We propose that this is best accomplished by combining sensor modes and displays into `super-modes'.

  16. SKB - PNC. Development of tunnel radar antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, L.

    1991-07-01

    Tunnel antennas for the RAMAC borehole radar system have been developed and tested in the field. The antennas are of the loaded dipole type and the receiver and transmitter electronics have been rebuilt to screen them from the antennas. A series of measurements has demonstrated that the radar pulse is short and well shaped and relatively free from ringing, even compared with the existing borehole antennas. Two antenna sets were tested: one centered at 60 MHz and another above 100 MHz. Both produced excellent radar pictures when tested in tunnels in Stripa mine. The antennas have been designed to be easy to carry, since the signal quality often depends on the way the antenna is held relative to electric conductors in the tunnels. (au) (46 figs., 57 refs.)

  17. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  18. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  19. Monitoring of rain water storage in forests with satellite radar

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, JJM; Klaassen, W; Kuiper, PJC

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of radar backscatter to the amount of intercepted rain in temperate deciduous forests is analyzed to determine the feasibility of retrieval of this parameter from satellite radar data. A backscatter model is validated with X-band radar measurements of a single tree exposed to rain. A good agreement between simulation and measurements is observed and this demonstrates the ability of radar to measure the amount of intercepted rain. The backscatter model is next applied to simula...

  20. Digital data acquisition for laser radar for vibration analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Felix G.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Laser radar for vibration analysis represents a military application to develop a target identification system in the future. The problem addressed is how to analyze the vibrations of a target illuminated by the laser radar to achieve a positive identification. This thesis develops a computer-based data acquisition and analysis system for improving the laser radar capability. Specifically, a review is made of the CO2 laser radar, coher...

  1. Runoff Calculation by Neural Networks Using Radar Rainfall Data

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 晋作; 四俵, 正俊

    1997-01-01

    Neural networks, are used to calculate runoff from weather radar data and ground rain gauge data. Compared to usual runoff models, it is easier to use radar data in neural network runoff calculation. Basically you can use the radar data directly, or without transforming them into rainfall, as the input of the neural network. A situation with the difficulty of ground measurement is supposed. To cover the area lacking ground rain gauge, radar data are used. In case that the distribution of grou...

  2. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the 'Valley Island' of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds. The light blue and yellow areas in the lowlands near the center are sugar cane fields. The three major population centers, Lahaina on the left at the western tip of island, Wailuku left of center, and Kihei in the lower center appear as small yellow, white or purple mottled areas. West Maui volcano, in the lower left, is 1800 meters high (5900 feet) and is considered extinct. The entire eastern half of the island consists of East Maui volcano, which rises to an elevation of 3200 meters (10,500 feet) and features a spectacular crater called Haleakala at its summit. Haleakala Crater was produced by erosion during previous ice ages rather than by volcanic activity, although relatively recent small eruptions have produced the numerous volcanic cones and lava flows that can be seen on the floor of the crater. The most recent eruption took place near the coast at the southwestern end of East Maui volcano in the late 1700s. Such a time frame indicates that East Maui should be considered a dormant, rather than an extinct volcano. A new eruption is therefore possible in the next few hundred years. The multi-wavelength capability of the SIR-C radar also permits differences in the vegetation cover on the middle flanks of East Maui to be identified. Rain forests appear in yellow, while grassland is shown in dark green, pink and blue. Radar images such as this one are being used by scientists to understand volcanic processes and to assess potential threats that future activity may pose to local populations. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image is 73.7 kilometers by 48.7 kilometers (45.7 miles by 30.2 miles) and is centered at 20

  3. Micropower radar systems for law enforcement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Mast, J.; Brase, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    LLNL researchers have pioneered a unique compact low-power and inexpensive radar technology (microradar) that has enormous potential in various industries. Some licenses are currently in place for motion sensors and stud finders. The ultra-wideband characteristics of the microradar (4 to 10 GHz) make it difficult to detect, yet provide potential range resolution of 1 cm at ranges of greater than 20 meters. Real and synthetic apertures arrays of radar elements can address imaging applications behind walls at those distances. Personnel detection applications are currently being tested.

  4. Multi-antenna synthetic aperture radar

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indica

  5. Radar fall detection using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanovic, Branka; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older. Radar has the potential to become one of the leading technologies for fall detection, thereby enabling the elderly to live independently. Existing techniques for fall detection using radar are based on manual feature extraction and require significant parameter tuning in order to provide successful detections. In this paper, we employ principal component analysis for fall detection, wherein eigen images of observed motions are employed for classification. Using real data, we demonstrate that the PCA based technique provides performance improvement over the conventional feature extraction methods.

  6. Measuring Balance Across Multiple Radar Receiver Channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2018-03-01

    When radar receivers employ multiple channels, the general intent is for the receive channels to be as alike as possible, if not as ideal as possible. This is usually done via prudent hardware design, supplemented by system calibration. Towards this end, we require a quality metric for ascertaining the goodness of a radar channel, and the degree of match to sibling channels. We propose a relevant and useable metric to do just that. Acknowledgements This report was the result of an unfunded research and development activity.

  7. A case study of HF radar spectra and 630.0 nm auroral emission in the pre-midnight sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lester

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of HF radar backscatter observed by the CUTLASS Finland radar, meridian scanning photometer data from Longyearbyen, magnetic field variations from IMAGE stations, and particle precipitation measured by the DMSP F12 spacecraft is presented. The interval under discussion occurred in the pre-midnight local time sector, during a period of weakly northward interplanetary magnetic field. A region of HF backscatter, typically 8 degrees wide, occurred in the field of view of the CUTLASS Finland radar. A well defined gradient in the spectral width parameter was present, with mainly low (< 200 m s - 1 spectral widths in the lower latitude part of the scatter and predominantly large (> 200 ms - 1 spectral widths in the higher latitude part. The relationship between the spectral width and the red line (630.0 nm emission measured by the meridian scanning photometer is considered. The poleward border of the red line emission, which has, in the past, been proposed as being representative of the polar cap boundary, was co-located to within 1° of magnetic latitude with the gradient in spectral width for part of the interval. Statistically, large spectral widths occurred poleward of the red line emission, while small spectral widths occurred within or equatorward of the red line emission. Near simultaneous DMSP particle observations in the 20 eV to 20 keV range indicate that the poleward border of the red line emission and the gradient in spectral width occurred at the same latitude as the transition from auroral oval to polar rain particle energies. We conclude that the large spectral widths were not caused by particle precipitation associated with the auroral oval. There were two periods of special interest when the relationship between the red line and the spectral width broke down. The first of these happened during enhanced red line and green line (557.7 nm emission, with a drop out of the radar scatter and an enhanced, narrow westward

  8. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  9. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  10. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  11. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  12. TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) dataset was collected by the ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP), which is an X-band (9.6 GHz) Doppler radar mounted in the nose of the ER-2...

  13. CAMEX-4 ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 ER-2 Doppler Radar dataset was collected by the ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP), which is an X-band (9.6 GHz) Doppler radar mounted in the nose of ER-2. The...

  14. Radar micro-doppler signatures processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Victor C; Miceli, William J

    2014-01-01

    Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures: Processing and applications concentrates on the processing and application of radar micro-Doppler signatures in real world situations, providing readers with a good working knowledge on a variety of applications of radar micro-Doppler signatures.

  15. Significant wave height retrieval from synthetic radar images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijaya, Andreas Parama; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2014-01-01

    In many offshore activities radar imagery is used to observe and predict ocean waves. An important issue in analyzing the radar images is to resolve the significant wave height. Different from 3DFFT methods that use an estimate related to the square root of the signal-to-noise ratio of radar images,

  16. Forward scatter radar for detection of moving people inside buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Rossum, W.L. van

    2017-01-01

    Through-wall radar offers capabilities that allow an important contribution to inside-building awareness, such as target detection and tracking. However, reliable radar tracking of people inside a building is not a trivial task. In monostatic operation, radar measures the backscatter from people

  17. Forward scatter radar for remote intelligence of building interiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Wit, J.J.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Through-wall radar allows for remote intelligence of building interiors including stand-off detection and tracking of persons inside a building. However, reliable radar tracking of people inside a building is not trivial. Conventional, monostatic through-wall radar measures the backscatter of moving

  18. Detection performance improvement of FMCW radar using frequency shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radars have been widely used for measuring target range and speed. In this paper, we present a mathematical model that quantifies the system-level performance of FMCW radar systems. In FMCW radar, the target range is measured through measuring the beat

  19. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather radar...

  20. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane. (b...

  1. Block diagrams of the radar interface and control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Interface and Control Unit is the heart of the radar module, which occupies one complex channel of the High-Speed Data Acquisition System of the Goldstone Solar System Radar. Block diagrams of the interface unit are presented as an aid to understanding its operation and interconnections to the rest of the radar module.

  2. Vertical Pointing Weather Radar for Built-up Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

      A cost effective vertical pointing X-band weather radar (VPR) has been tested for measurement of precipitation in urban areas. Stationary tests indicate that the VPR performs well compared to horizontal weather radars, such as the local area weather radars (LAWR). The test illustrated...

  3. Radar Observations of Main-Belt M-class Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Clark, B. E.; Ockert-Bell, M.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Giorgini, J. D.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Harris, A. W.; Warner, B. D.; Stephens, R. D.; Mueller, M.

    2009-01-01

    Using the S-band radar at Arecibo Observatory, we have observed 19 Tholen M-class asteroids. The mean radar albedo for all our targets is 0.28 ± 0.13, considerably higher than the mean radar albedo of every other class (Magri et al. 2007, Icarus 186, 126-151). We find approximately one-third (six)

  4. Development of Radar Control system for Multi-mode Active Phased Array Radar for atmospheric probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.

    2016-07-01

    Modern multi-mode active phased array radars require highly efficient radar control system for hassle free real time radar operation. The requirement comes due to the distributed architecture of the active phased array radar, where each antenna element in the array is connected to a dedicated Transmit-Receive (TR) module. Controlling the TR modules, which are generally few hundreds in number, and functioning them in synchronisation, is a huge task during real time radar operation and should be handled with utmost care. Indian MST Radar, located at NARL, Gadanki, which is established during early 90's, as an outcome of the middle atmospheric program, is a remote sensing instrument for probing the atmosphere. This radar has a semi-active array, consisting of 1024 antenna elements, with limited beam steering, possible only along the principle planes. To overcome the limitations and difficulties, the radar is being augmented into fully active phased array, to accomplish beam agility and multi-mode operations. Each antenna element is excited with a dedicated 1 kW TR module, located in the field and enables to position the radar beam within 20° conical volume. A multi-channel receiver makes the radar to operate in various modes like Doppler Beam Swinging (DBS), Spaced Antenna (SA), Frequency Domain Interferometry (FDI) etc. Present work describes the real-time radar control (RC) system for the above described active phased array radar. The radar control system consists of a Spartan 6 FPGA based Timing and Control Signal Generator (TCSG), and a computer containing the software for controlling all the subsystems of the radar during real-time radar operation and also for calibrating the radar. The main function of the TCSG is to generate the control and timing waveforms required for various subsystems of the radar. Important components of the RC system software are (i) TR module configuring software which does programming, controlling and health parameter monitoring of the

  5. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function. [systems engineering of pulse radar for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The investigations for a rendezvous radar system design and an integrated radar/communication system design are presented. Based on these investigations, system block diagrams are given and system parameters are optimized for the noncoherent pulse and coherent pulse Doppler radar modulation types. Both cooperative (transponder) and passive radar operation are examined including the optimization of the corresponding transponder design for the cooperative mode of operation.

  6. An adaptive angle-doppler compensation method for airborne bistatic radar based on PAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Xu; Jun, Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Adaptive angle-Doppler compensation method extract the requisite information based on the data itself adaptively, thus avoiding the problem of performance degradation caused by inertia system error. However, this method requires estimation and egiendecomposition of sample covariance matrix, which has a high computational complexity and limits its real-time application. In this paper, an adaptive angle Doppler compensation method based on projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) is studied. The method uses cyclic iterative processing to quickly estimate the positions of the spectral center of the maximum eigenvector of each range cell, and the computational burden of matrix estimation and eigen-decompositon is avoided, and then the spectral centers of all range cells is overlapped by two dimensional compensation. Simulation results show the proposed method can effectively reduce the no homogeneity of airborne bistatic radar, and its performance is similar to that of egien-decomposition algorithms, but the computation load is obviously reduced and easy to be realized.

  7. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  8. Making Aircraft Vortices Visible to Radar by Spraying Water into the Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices pose a danger to following aircraft during take-off and landing. This necessitates spacing rules, based on aircraft type, to be enforced during approach in IFR (Instrument Flight Regulations) conditions; this can limit airport capacity. To help choose aircraft spacing based on the actual location and strength of the wake, it is proposed that wake vortices can be detected using conventional precipitation and cloud radars. This is enabled by spraying a small quantity water into the wake from near the wing. The vortex strength is revealed by the doppler velocity of the droplets. In the present work, droplet size distributions produced by nozzles used for aerial spraying are considered. Droplet trajectory and evaporation in the flow-field is numerically calculated for a heavy aircraft, followed by an evaluation of radar reflectivity at 6 nautical miles behind the aircraft. Small droplets evaporate away while larger droplets fall out of the wake. In the humid conditions that typically prevail during IFR, a sufficient number of droplets remain in the wake and give good signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). For conditions of average humidity, higher frequency radars combined with spectral processing gives good SNR.

  9. Radar cross-section (RCS) analysis of high frequency surface wave radar targets

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Gonca; SEVGİ, Levent

    2010-01-01

    Realistic high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) targets are investigated numerically in terms of electromagnetic wave -- target interactions. Radar cross sections (RCS) of these targets are simulated via both the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the Method of Moments (MoM). The virtual RCS prediction tool that was introduced in previous work is used for these investigations. The virtual tool automatically creates the discrete FDTD model of the target under investi...

  10. Radar meteors range distribution model. I. Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Drahomíra; Pecina, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2007), s. 83-106 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : physics of meteors * radar meteors * range distribution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for the mapping of near surface tree roots is demonstrated. GPR enables tree roots to be mapped in a non-destructive and cost-effective manner and is therefore a useful prospecting...

  12. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued ...

  13. Motion measurement for synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measures radar soundings from a set of locations typically along the flight path of a radar platform vehicle. Optimal focusing requires precise knowledge of the sounding source locations in 3-D space with respect to the target scene. Even data driven focusing techniques (i.e. autofocus) requires some degree of initial fidelity in the measurements of the motion of the radar. These requirements may be quite stringent especially for fine resolution, long ranges, and low velocities. The principal instrument for measuring motion is typically an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), but these instruments have inherent limi ted precision and accuracy. The question is %22How good does an IMU need to be for a SAR across its performance space?%22 This report analytically relates IMU specifications to parametric requirements for SAR. - 4 - Acknowledgements Th e preparation of this report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Although this report is an independent effort, it draws heavily from limited - release documentation generated under a CRADA with General Atomics - Aeronautical System, Inc. (GA - ASI), and under the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Program Memorandum of Understanding. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of En ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Bistatic Forward Scattering Radar Detection and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forward Scattering Radar (FSR is a special type of bistatic radar that can implement image detection, imaging, and identification using the forward scattering signals provided by the moving targets that cross the baseline between the transmitter and receiver. Because the forward scattering effect has a vital significance in increasing the targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS, FSR is quite advantageous for use in counter stealth detection. This paper first introduces the front line technology used in forward scattering RCS, FSR detection, and Shadow Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (SISAR imaging and key problems such as the statistical characteristics of forward scattering clutter, accurate parameter estimation, and multitarget discrimination are then analyzed. Subsequently, the current research progress in FSR detection and SISAR imaging are described in detail, including the theories and experiments. In addition, with reference to the BeiDou navigation satellite, the results of forward scattering experiments in civil aircraft detection are shown. Finally, this paper considers future developments in FSR target detection and imaging and presents a new, promising technique for stealth target detection.

  15. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  16. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  17. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  18. Minefield overwatch using moving target indicator radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Anthony; Ewing, Robert; Kenneally, William J.; Santapietro, John J.

    1999-07-01

    Traditional antipersonnel land mines are an effective military tool, but they are unable to distinguish friend from foe, or civilian from military personnel. The concept described here uses an advanced moving target indicator (MTI) radar to scan the minefield in order to detect movement towards or within the minefield, coupled with visual identification by a human operator and a communication link for command and control. Selected mines in the minefield can then be activated by means of the command link. In order to demonstrate this concept, a 3D, interactive simulation has been developed. This simulation builds on previous work by integrating a detailed analytical model of an MTI radar. This model has been tailored to the specific application of detection of slowly moving dismounted entities immersed in ground clutter. The model incorporates the effects of internal scatterer motion and antenna scanning modulation in order to provide a realistic representation of the detection problem in this environment. The angle information on the MTI target detection is then passed to a virtual 3D sight which cues a human operator to the target location. In addition, radar propagation effects and an experimental design in which the radar itself is used as a command link are explored.

  19. Space communication and radar with lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sensitive heterodyne detection with lasers applied .to radar and satellite communication is seriously hampered by the large electronic bandwidth due to random Doppler shift and frequency instability. These drawbacks can be circumvented by dual signal heterodyne detection. The system consists of

  20. Development of passive radar systems at TNO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelsema, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research – TNO, has been involved in the development of passive radar systems for research purposes. The development has been sponsored partly by the Royal Netherlands Air Force – whose main interest is threat evaluation – and partly by

  1. Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccormick, M.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given here are extended abstracts of papers presented at the 16th International Laser Radar Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, July 20-24, 1992. Topics discussed include the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic dust laser observations, global change, ozone measurements, Earth mesospheric measurements, wind measurements, imaging, ranging, water vapor measurements, and laser devices and technology

  2. EISCAT as a tristatic auroral radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, K.; Moorcroft, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have used the European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT) in a mode which allows them to use it as a tristatic auroral radar. Observing at an elevation of less than 10 degree with the Tromsoe beam, they achieved magnetic aspect angles between 4 degree and 6 degree at 105 km altitude and recorded coherent echoes simultaneously from all three sites. The backscattered power for these echoes is up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than typical incoherent scatter echoes. Contrary to most existing auroral radars, they can calibrate the coherent echo strength and thus determine absolute values of the coherent backscatter cross section. Moreover, switching the common volume in short time intervals from E to F region heights, permits the determination of the E x B drift vector almost simultaneously with the E region coherent scattering measurements. This opens unique possibilities to study the E region plasma instabilities and their driving force. The main aim of this paper is to describe the capabilities of EISCAT as an auroral radar and to present and discuss results in terms of coherent backscatter cross sections, coherent spectra shape, irregularity phase velocities, and aspect angle dependence. In forthcoming papers several of these topics will be explored in more detail

  3. Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.

  4. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  5. Transmitter passband requirements for imaging radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2012-12-01

    In high-power microwave power amplifiers for radar, distortion in both amplitude and phase should generally be expected. Phase distortions can be readily equalized. Some amplitude distortions are more problematic than others. In general, especially for SAR using LFM chirps, low frequency modulations such as gain slopes can be tolerated much better than multiple cycles of ripple across the passband of the waveform.

  6. Slope stability radar for monitoring mine walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Bryan; Noon, David A.; Stickley, Glen F.; Longstaff, Dennis

    2001-11-01

    Determining slope stability in a mining operation is an important task. This is especially true when the mine workings are close to a potentially unstable slope. A common technique to determine slope stability is to monitor the small precursory movements, which occur prior to collapse. The slope stability radar has been developed to remotely scan a rock slope to continuously monitor the spatial deformation of the face. Using differential radar interferometry, the system can detect deformation movements of a rough wall with sub-millimeter accuracy, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. The effects of atmospheric variations and spurious signals can be reduced via signal processing means. The advantage of radar over other monitoring techniques is that it provides full area coverage without the need for mounted reflectors or equipment on the wall. In addition, the radar waves adequately penetrate through rain, dust and smoke to give reliable measurements, twenty-four hours a day. The system has been trialed at three open-cut coal mines in Australia, which demonstrated the potential for real-time monitoring of slope stability during active mining operations.

  7. A simple biota removal algorithm for 35 GHz cloud radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapureddy, Madhu Chandra R.; Sukanya, Patra; Das, Subrata K.; Deshpande, Sachin M.; Pandithurai, Govindan; Pazamany, Andrew L.; Ambuj K., Jha; Chakravarty, Kaustav; Kalekar, Prasad; Krishna Devisetty, Hari; Annam, Sreenivas

    2018-03-01

    Cloud radar reflectivity profiles can be an important measurement for the investigation of cloud vertical structure (CVS). However, extracting intended meteorological cloud content from the measurement often demands an effective technique or algorithm that can reduce error and observational uncertainties in the recorded data. In this work, a technique is proposed to identify and separate cloud and non-hydrometeor echoes using the radar Doppler spectral moments profile measurements. The point and volume target-based theoretical radar sensitivity curves are used for removing the receiver noise floor and identified radar echoes are scrutinized according to the signal decorrelation period. Here, it is hypothesized that cloud echoes are observed to be temporally more coherent and homogenous and have a longer correlation period than biota. That can be checked statistically using ˜ 4 s sliding mean and standard deviation value of reflectivity profiles. The above step helps in screen out clouds critically by filtering out the biota. The final important step strives for the retrieval of cloud height. The proposed algorithm potentially identifies cloud height solely through the systematic characterization of Z variability using the local atmospheric vertical structure knowledge besides to the theoretical, statistical and echo tracing tools. Thus, characterization of high-resolution cloud radar reflectivity profile measurements has been done with the theoretical echo sensitivity curves and observed echo statistics for the true cloud height tracking (TEST). TEST showed superior performance in screening out clouds and filtering out isolated insects. TEST constrained with polarimetric measurements was found to be more promising under high-density biota whereas TEST combined with linear depolarization ratio and spectral width perform potentially to filter out biota within the highly turbulent shallow cumulus clouds in the convective boundary layer (CBL). This TEST technique is

  8. Marine X-band Weather Radar Data Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    estimates. This paper presents some of the challenges in small marine X-band radar calibration by comparing three calibration procedures for assessing the relationship between radar and rain gauge data. Validation shows similar results for precipitation volumes but more diverse results on peak rain......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis, and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is allimportant that the radar data is well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation...

  9. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  10. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  11. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those

  12. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  13. Micropower impulse radar technology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, J., LLNL

    1998-04-15

    The LLNL-developed Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology has quickly gone from laboratory concept to embedded circuitry in numerous government and commercial systems in the last few years[l]. The main ideas behind MIR, invented by T. McEwan in the Laser Program, are the generation and detection systems for extremely low- power ultra-wideband pulses in the gigaHertz regime using low-cost components. These ideas, coupled with new antenna systems, timing and radio-frequency (RF) circuitry, computer interfaces, and signal processing, have provided the catalyst for a new generation of compact radar systems. Over the past several years we have concentrated on a number of applications of MIR which address a number of remote-sensing applications relevant to emerging programs in defense, transportation, medical, and environmental research. Some of the past commercial successes have been widely publicized [2] and are only now starting to become available for market. Over 30 patents have been filed and over 15 licenses have been signed on various aspects of the MIR technology. In addition, higher performance systems are under development for specific laboratory programs and government reimbursables. The MIR is an ultra- wideband, range-gated radar system that provides the enabling hardware technology used in the research areas mentioned above. It has numerous performance parameters that can be Selected by careful design to fit the requirements. We have improved the baseline, short- range, MIR system to demonstrate its effectiveness. The radar operates over the hand from approximately I to 4 GHz with pulse repetition frequencies up to 10 MHz. It provides a potential range resolution of I cm at ranges of greater than 20 m. We have developed a suite of algorithms for using MIR for image formation. These algorithms currently support Synthetic aperture and multistate array geometries. This baseline MIR radar imaging system has been used for several programmatic applications.

  14. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the image. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The image is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  15. Low-Cost Mini Radar: Design Prototyping and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Tarchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar systems are largely employed for surveillance of wide and remote areas; the recent advent of drones gives the opportunity to exploit radar sensors on board of unmanned aerial platforms. Nevertheless, whereas drone radars are currently available for military applications, their employment in the civilian domain is still limited. The present research focuses on design, prototyping, and testing of an agile, low-cost, mini radar system, to be carried on board of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs or tethered aerostats. In particular, the paper faces the challenge to integrate the in-house developed radar sensor with a low-cost navigation board, which is used to estimate attitude and positioning data. In fact, a suitable synchronization between radar and navigation data is essential to properly reconstruct the radar picture whenever the platform is moving or the radar is scanning different azimuthal sectors. Preliminary results, relative to tests conducted in preoperational conditions, are provided and exploited to assert the suitable consistency of the obtained radar pictures. From the results, there is a high consistency between the radar images and the picture of the current environment emerges; finally, the comparison of radar images obtained in different scans shows the stability of the platform.

  16. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  17. Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    This software enables easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. The software was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground based Sand C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite s Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument. The software is also applicable to other ground-based and space-based radars. The ground and space radar volume matching and comparison software was developed in response to requirements defined by the Ground Validation System (GVS) of Goddard s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) project. This software innovation is specifically concerned with simplifying the comparison of ground- and spacebased radar measurements for the purpose of GPM algorithm and data product validation. This software is unique in that it provides an operational environment to routinely create comparison products, and uses a direct geometric approach to derive common volumes of space- and ground-based radar data. In this approach, spatially coincident volumes are defined by the intersection of individual space-based Precipitation Radar rays with the each of the conical elevation sweeps of the ground radar. Thus, the resampled volume elements of the space and ground radar reflectivity can be directly compared to one another.

  18. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  19. Development Of Signal Detection For Radar Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theingi Win Hlaing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the performance of target detection in the presence of sea clutter. Radar detection of a background of unwanted clutter due to echoes from sea clutter or land is a problem of interest in the radar field. Radar detector has been developed by assuming the radar clutter is Gaussian distributed. However as technology emerges the radar distribution is seen to deviates from the Gaussian assumption. Thus detectors designs based on Gaussian assumption are no longer optimum for detection in non-Gaussian nature. The theory of target detection in Gaussian distributed clutter has been well established and the closed form of the detection performances can be easily obtained. However that is not the case in non-Gaussian clutter distributions. The operation of radar detection is determined by radar detection theory with different types of Swerling target models such as Swerling I II III IV and V. By using MATLAB these signal detection techniques are developed.

  20. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.

    2015-02-06

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.

  1. Spectral evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    1989-01-01

    A recent striking event in Observational Cosmology is the discovery of a large population of galaxies at extreme cosmological distances (extended from spectral redshifts ≅ 1 to ≥ 3) corresponding to a lookback time of 80% of the Universe's age. However when galaxies are observed at such remote epochs, their appearances are affected by at least two simultaneous effects which are respectively a cosmological effect and the intrinsic evolution of their stellar populations which appear younger than in our nearby galaxies. The fundamental problem is first to disentangle the respective contributions of these two effects to apparent magnitudes and colors of distant galaxies. Other effects which are likely to modify the appearance of galaxies are amplification by gravitational lensing and interaction with environment will also be considered. (author)

  2. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  3. Rotational temperature of N2+ (0,2 ions from spectrographic measurements used to infer the energy of precipitation in different auroral forms and compared with radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lummerzheim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available High resolution spectral data are used to estimate neutral temperatures at auroral heights. The data are from the High Throughput Imaging Echelle Spectrograph (HiTIES which forms part of the Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF, located at Longyearbyen, Svalbard in Norway. The platform also contains photometers and a narrow angle auroral imager. Quantum molecular spectroscopy is used for modelling N2+ 1NG (0,2, which serves as a diagnostic tool for neutral temperature and emission height variations. The theoretical spectra are convolved with the instrument function and fitted to measured rotational transition lines as a function of temperature. Measurements were made in the magnetic zenith, and along a meridian slit centred on the magnetic zenith. In the results described, the high spectral resolution of the data (0.08 nm allows an error analysis to be performed more thoroughly than previous findings, with particular attention paid to the correct subtraction of background, and to precise wavelength calibration. Supporting measurements were made with the Svalbard Eiscat Radar (ESR. Estimates were made from both optical and radar observations of the average energy of precipitating electrons in different types of aurora. These provide confirmation that the spectral results are in agreement with the variations observed in radar profiles. In rayed aurora the neutral temperature was highest (800 K and the energy lowest (1 keV. In a bright curling arc, the temperature at the lower border was about 550 K, corresponding to energies of 2 keV. The radar and modelling results confirm that these average values are a lower limit for an estimation of the characteristic energy. In each event the energy distribution is clearly made up of more than one spectral shape. This work emphasises the need for high time resolution as well as high spectral resolution. The present work is the first to provide rotational temperatures using a method which pays particular

  4. Turbulence Spectral Widths View Angle Independence as Observed by Doppler Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    t, 1*+ 0 1T t+ ( 10) 2.+ 1I+. 3 3 1 9 Z1 9 1 1 21 S I 10 30 .. 1 11 30 49 3 D. 10 33 !’~3 . 02 2. F6 ’ -36 6 3 6 5 so 6 6 31 If., 68r t+.+ I’. . . .I... ACCA . .. AbA Co. CA•,A~ ... . ... C . .* CC~ CC C .... AC ... C . AC... CC CC . . . .. AAA C A 52CCC.CCCC A C AC. 51. CC 37. A. CACC C Cb...coeCcients b t e. and CCC ’l C. ..... .. o. oCA . .... °AACAA CC * C ... C 12.)0 35. 39. ’.. ’.5. A.. 37. 51 . 18. A• ACCA CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

  5. VHF radar observations of gravity waves at a low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dutta

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind observations made at Gadanki (13.5°N by using Indian MST Radar for few days in September, October, December 1995 and January, 1996 have been analyzed to study gravity wave activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Horizontal wind variances have been computed for gravity waves of period (2-6 h from the power spectral density (PSD spectrum. Exponential curves of the form eZ/H have been fitted by least squares technique to these variance values to obtain height variations of the irregular winds upto the height of about 15 km, where Z is the height in kilometers. The value of H, the scale height, as determined from curve fitting is found to be less than the theoretical value of scale height of neutral atmosphere in this region, implying that the waves are gaining energy during their passage in the troposphere. In other words, it indicates that the sources of gravity waves are present in the troposphere. The energy densities of gravity wave fluctuations have been computed. Polynomial fits to the observed values show that wave energy density increases in the troposphere, its source region, and then decreases in the lower stratosphere.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence; waves and tides

  6. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  7. Spectral Theory of Chemical Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Boatz, J. A; Hinde, R. J; Sheehy, J. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Wave function antisymmetry in the aggregate atomic spectral-product basis is enforced by unitary transformation performed subsequent to formation of the Hamiltonian matrix, greatly simplifying its construction...

  8. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  9. Multi-function radar emitter identification based on stochastic syntax-directed translation schema

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haijun; Yu, Hongqi; Sun, Zhaolin; Diao, Jietao

    2014-01-01

    To cope with the problem of emitter identification caused by the radar words’ uncertainty of measured multi-function radar emitters, this paper proposes a new identification method based on stochastic syntax-directed translation schema (SSDTS). This method, which is deduced from the syntactic modeling of multi-function radars, considers the probabilities of radar phrases appearance in different radar modes as well as the probabilities of radar word errors occurrence in different radar phrases...

  10. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  11. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  12. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields are of great interest in Ukraine. The following topics are studied by research teams, with high-level achievements all over the world: (i) Ultra-Wide Band/Short-pulse radar techniques (IRE and LLC "Transient Technologies", for more information please visit http://applied.ire.kharkov.ua/radar%20systems_their%20components%20and%20relevant%20technologies_e.html and http://viy.ua); (ii) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with stepped frequency sounding signals (IRE); (iii) Continuous-Wave (CW) radar with phase-shift keying signals (IRE); and (iv) Radio-wave interference investigation (Scientific and Technical Centre of The Subsurface Investigation, http://geophysics.ua). GPR applications are mainly in search works, for example GPR is often used to search for treasures. It is also used to identify leaks and diffusion of petroleum in soil, in storage areas, as well as for fault location of pipelines. Furthermore, GPR is used for the localization of underground utilities and for diagnostics of the technical state of hydro dams. Deeper GPR probing was performed to identify landslides in Crimea. Rescue radar with CW signal was designed in IRE to search for living people trapped under the rubble of collapsed buildings. The fourth version of this radar has been recently created, showing higher stability and noise immunity. Radio-wave interference investigation allows studying the soil down to tens of meters. It is possible to identify areas with increased conductivity (moisture) of the soil. LLC "Transient Technologies" is currently working with Shevchenko Kyiv University on a cooperation program in which the construction of a test site is one of the planned tasks. In the framework of this program, a GPR with a 300 MHz antenna was handed to the geological Faculty of the University. Employees of "Transient Technologies" held introductory lectures with a practical demonstration for students majoring in geophysics. The authors participated to GPR

  13. Airborne Radar Observations of Severe Hailstorms: Implications for Future Spaceborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Li, Lihua; McLinden, Matthew; Cervantes, Jaime I.

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-frequency (Ku and Ka band) nadir-pointing Doppler radar on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft, called the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), has collected data over severe thunderstorms in Oklahoma and Kansas during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The overarching motivation for this study is to understand the behavior of the dualwavelength airborne radar measurements in a global variety of thunderstorms and how these may relate to future spaceborne-radar measurements. HIWRAP is operated at frequencies that are similar to those of the precipitation radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (Ku band) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission satellite's dual-frequency (Ku and Ka bands) precipitation radar. The aircraft measurements of strong hailstorms have been combined with ground-based polarimetric measurements to obtain a better understanding of the response of the Ku- and Ka-band radar to the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors, including hail. Data from two flight lines on 24 May 2011 are presented. Doppler velocities were approx. 39m/s2at 10.7-km altitude from the first flight line early on 24 May, and the lower value of approx. 25m/s on a second flight line later in the day. Vertical motions estimated using a fall speed estimate for large graupel and hail suggested that the first storm had an updraft that possibly exceeded 60m/s for the more intense part of the storm. This large updraft speed along with reports of 5-cm hail at the surface, reflectivities reaching 70 dBZ at S band in the storm cores, and hail signals from polarimetric data provide a highly challenging situation for spaceborne-radar measurements in intense convective systems. The Ku- and Ka-band reflectivities rarely exceed approx. 47 and approx. 37 dBZ, respectively, in these storms.

  14. Space radar image of Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This image of the Mauna Loa volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii shows the capability of imaging radar to map lava flows and other volcanic structures. Mauna Loa has erupted more than 35 times since the island was first visited by westerners in the early 1800s. The large summit crater, called Mokuaweoweo Caldera, is clearly visible near the center of the image. Leading away from the caldera (towards top right and lower center) are the two main rift zones shown here in orange. Rift zones are areas of weakness within the upper part of the volcano that are often ripped open as new magma (molten rock) approaches the surface at the start of an eruption. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in March and April 1984, when segments of the northeast rift zones were active. If the height of the volcano was measured from its base on the ocean floor instead of from sea level, Mauna Loa would be the tallest mountain on Earth. Its peak (center of the image) rises more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the ocean floor. The South Kona District, known for cultivation of macadamia nuts and coffee, can be seen in the lower left as white and blue areas along the coast. North is toward the upper left. The area shown is 41.5 by 75 kilometers (25.7 by 46.5 miles), centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.6 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 36th orbit on October 2, 1994. The radar illumination is from the left of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). The resulting color combinations in this radar image are caused by differences in surface roughness of the lava flows. Smoother flows

  15. Quantification of Reflection Patterns in Ground-Penetrating Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysey, S.; Knight, R. J.; Jol, H. M.; Allen-King, R. M.; Gaylord, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Radar facies analysis provides a way of interpreting the large-scale structure of the subsurface from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. Radar facies are often distinguished from each other by the presence of patterns, such as flat-lying, dipping, or chaotic reflections, in different regions of a radar image. When these patterns can be associated with radar facies in a repeated and predictable manner we refer to them as `radar textures'. While it is often possible to qualitatively differentiate between radar textures visually, pattern recognition tools, like neural networks, require a quantitative measure to discriminate between them. We investigate whether currently available tools, such as instantaneous attributes or metrics adapted from standard texture analysis techniques, can be used to improve the classification of radar facies. To this end, we use a neural network to perform cross-validation tests that assess the efficacy of different textural measures for classifying radar facies in GPR data collected from the William River delta, Saskatchewan, Canada. We found that the highest classification accuracies (>93%) were obtained for measures of texture that preserve information about the spatial arrangement of reflections in the radar image, e.g., spatial covariance. Lower accuracy (87%) was obtained for classifications based directly on windows of amplitude data extracted from the radar image. Measures that did not account for the spatial arrangement of reflections in the image, e.g., instantaneous attributes and amplitude variance, yielded classification accuracies of less than 65%. Optimal classifications were obtained for textural measures that extracted sufficient information from the radar data to discriminate between radar facies but were insensitive to other facies specific characteristics. For example, the rotationally invariant Fourier-Mellin transform delivered better classification results than the spatial covariance because dip angle of the

  16. Retrieval of convective boundary layer wind field statistics from radar profiler measurements in conjunction with large eddy simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Scipión

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The daytime convective boundary layer (CBL is characterized by strong turbulence that is primarily forced by buoyancy transport from the heated underlying surface. The present study focuses on an example of flow structure of the CBL as observed in the U.S. Great Plains on June 8, 2007. The considered CBL flow has been reproduced using a numerical large eddy simulation (LES, sampled with an LES-based virtual boundary layer radar (BLR, and probed with an actual operational radar profiler. The LES-generated CBL flow data are then ingested by the virtual BLR and treated as a proxy for prevailing atmospheric conditions. The mean flow and turbulence parameters retrieved via each technique (actual radar profiler, virtual BLR, and LES have been cross-analyzed and reasonable agreement was found between the CBL wind parameters obtained from the LES and those measured by the actual radar. Averaged vertical velocity variance estimates from the virtual and actual BLRs were compared with estimates calculated from the LES for different periods of time. There is good agreement in the estimates from all three sources. Also, values of the vertical velocity skewness retrieved by all three techniques have been inter-compared as a function of height for different stages of the CBL evolution, showing fair agreement with each other. All three retrievals contain positively skewed vertical velocity structure throughout the main portion of the CBL. Radar estimates of the turbulence kinetic energy (eddy dissipation rate (ε have been obtained based on the Doppler spectral width of the returned signal for the vertical radar beam. The radar estimates were averaged over time in the same fashion as the LES output data. The agreement between estimates was generally good, especially within the mixing layer. Discrepancies observed above the inversion layer may be explained by a weak turbulence signal in particular flow configurations. The virtual BLR produces voltage

  17. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  18. A Dual-Wavelength Radar Technique to Detect Hydrometeor Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of a Ku- and Ka-band space/air-borne dual wavelength radar algorithm to discriminate various phase states of precipitating hydrometeors. A phase-state classification algorithm has been developed from the radar measurements of snow, mixed-phase and rain obtained from stratiform storms. The algorithm, presented in the form of the look-up table that links the Ku-band radar reflectivities and dual-frequency ratio (DFR) to the phase states of hydrometeors, is checked by applying it to the measurements of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Airborne Precipitation Radar Second Generation (APR-2). In creating the statistically-based phase look-up table, the attenuation corrected (or true) radar reflectivity factors are employed, leading to better accuracy in determining the hydrometeor phase. In practice, however, the true radar reflectivities are not always available before the phase states of the hydrometeors are determined. Therefore, it is desirable to make use of the measured radar reflectivities in classifying the phase states. To do this, a phase-identification procedure is proposed that uses only measured radar reflectivities. The procedure is then tested using APR-2 airborne radar data. Analysis of the classification results in stratiform rain indicates that the regions of snow, mixed-phase and rain derived from the phase-identification algorithm coincide reasonably well with those determined from the measured radar reflectivities and linear depolarization ratio (LDR).

  19. Sensor management in RADAR/IRST track fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi-qiang; Jing, Zhong-liang

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, a novel radar management strategy technique suitable for RADAR/IRST track fusion, which is based on Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) and fuzzy stochastic decision approach, is put forward. Firstly, optimal radar measurements' scheduling is obtained by the method of maximizing determinant of the Fisher information matrix of radar and IRST measurements, which is managed by the expert system. Then, suggested a "pseudo sensor" to predict the possible target position using the polynomial method based on the radar and IRST measurements, using "pseudo sensor" model to estimate the target position even if the radar is turned off. At last, based on the tracking performance and the state of target maneuver, fuzzy stochastic decision is used to adjust the optimal radar scheduling and retrieve the module parameter of "pseudo sensor". The experiment result indicates that the algorithm can not only limit Radar activity effectively but also keep the tracking accuracy of active/passive system well. And this algorithm eliminates the drawback of traditional Radar management methods that the Radar activity is fixed and not easy to control and protect.

  20. A review of materials for spectral design coatings in signature management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kent E.; Škerlind, Christina

    2014-10-01

    The current focus in Swedish policy towards national security and high-end technical systems, together with a rapid development in multispectral sensor technology, adds to the utility of developing advanced materials for spectral design in signature management applications. A literature study was performed probing research databases for advancements. Qualitative text analysis was performed using a six-indicator instrument: spectrally selective reflectance; low gloss; low degree of polarization; low infrared emissivity; non-destructive properties in radar and in general controllability of optical properties. Trends are identified and the most interesting materials and coating designs are presented with relevant performance metrics. They are sorted into categories in the order of increasing complexity: pigments and paints, one-dimensional structures, multidimensional structures (including photonic crystals), and lastly biomimic and metamaterials. The military utility of the coatings is assessed qualitatively. The need for developing a framework for assessing the military utility of incrementally increasing the performance of spectrally selective coatings is identified.

  1. Crosshole investigations - results from borehole radar investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Falk, L.; Sandberg, E.; Forslund, O.; Lundmark, L.

    1987-05-01

    A new borehole radar system has been designed, built and tested. The system consists of borehole transmitter and receiver probes, a signal control unit for communication with the borehole probes, and a computer unit for storage and display of data. The system can be used both in singlehole and crosshole modes and probing ranges of 115 m and 300 m, respectively, have been obtained at Stripa. The borehole radar is a short pulse system which uses center frequencies in the range 20 to 60 MHz. Single hole reflection measurements have been used to identify fracture zones and to determine their position and orientation. The travel time and amplitude of the first arrival measured in a crosshole experiment can be used as input data in a tomographic analysis. (orig./DG)

  2. 18th International Laser Radar Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Neuber, Roland; Rairoux, Patrick; Wandinger, Ulla

    1997-01-01

    Lidar or laser radar, the depth-resolved remote measurement of atmospheric parameters with optical means, has become an important tool in the field of atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. In this volume the latest progress in the development of lidar methods, experiments, and applications is described. The content is based on selected and thoroughly refereed papers presented at the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin, 22-26 July 1996. The book is divided into six parts which cover the topics of tropospheric aerosols and clouds, lidar in space, wind, water vapor, troposheric trace gases and plumes, and stratospheric and mesospheric profiling. As a supplement to fundamental lidar textbooks this volume may serve as a guide for scientists, engineers, and graduate students through the blossoming field of modern lidar techniques and their contribution to atmospheric and environmental research.

  3. Updating river basin models with radar altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    suited for use in data assimilation frameworks which combine the information content from models and current observations to produce improved forecasts and reduce prediction uncertainty. The focus of the second and third papers of this thesis was therefore the use of radar altimetry as update data...... of political unwillingness to share data which is a common problem in particular in transboundary settings. In this context, remote sensing (RS) datasets provide an appealing alternative to traditional in-situ data and much research effort has gone into the use of these datasets for hydrological applications...... response of a catchment to meteorological forcing. While river discharge cannot be directly measured from space, radar altimetry (RA) can measure water level variations in rivers at the locations where the satellite ground track and river network intersect called virtual stations or VS. In this PhD study...

  4. Venus: radar determination of gravity potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, I I; Pettengill, G H; Sherman, G N; Rogers, A E; Ingalls, R P

    1973-02-02

    We describe a method for the determination of the gravity potential of Venus from multiple-frequency radar measurements. The method is based on the strong frequency dependence of the absorption of radio waves in Venus' atmosphere. Comparison of the differing radar reflection intensities at several frequencies yields the height of the surface relative to a reference pressure contour; combination with measurements of round-trip echo delays allows the pressure, and hence the gravity potential contour, to be mapped relative to the mean planet radius. Since calibration data from other frequencies are unavailable, the absorption-sensitive Haystack Observatory data have been analyzed under the assumption of uniform surface reflectivity to yield a gravity equipotential contour for the equatorial region and a tentative upper bound of 6 x 10(-4) on the fractional difference of Venus' principal equatorial moments of inertia. The minima in the equipotential contours appear to be associated with topographic minima.

  5. Feature Extraction in Radar Target Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kus

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of extracting features in the Radar Target Classification process using the J frequency band pulse radar. The feature extraction is based on frequency analysis methods, the discrete-time Fourier Transform (DFT and Multiple Signal Characterisation (MUSIC, based on the detection of Doppler effect. The analysis has turned to the preference of DFT with implemented Hanning windowing function. We assumed to classify targets-vehicles into two classes, the wheeled vehicle and tracked vehicle. The results show that it is possible to classify them only while moving. The feature of the class results from a movement of moving parts of the vehicle. However, we have not found any feature to classify the wheeled and tracked vehicles while non-moving, although their engines are on.

  6. DETECTION OF ROTATIONAL SPECTRAL VARIATION ON THE M-TYPE ASTEROID (16) PSYCHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Thomas, Cristina [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reddy, Vishnu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shepard, Michael K. [Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, PA 17815 (United States); Cloutis, Edward A.; Kiddell, Cain; Applin, Daniel [Department of Geography, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Takir, Driss [Astrogeology Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Conrad, Albert, E-mail: jsanchez@psi.edu [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The asteroid (16) Psyche is of scientific interest because it contains ∼1% of the total mass of the asteroid belt and is thought to be the remnant metallic core of a protoplanet. Radar observations have indicated the significant presence of metal on the surface with a small percentage of silicates. Prior ground-based observations showed rotational variations in the near-infrared (NIR) spectra and radar albedo of this asteroid. However, no comprehensive study that combines multi-wavelength data has been conducted so far. Here we present rotationally resolved NIR spectra (0.7–2.5 μ m) of (16) Psyche obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. These data have been combined with shape models of the asteroid for each rotation phase. Spectral band parameters extracted from the NIR spectra show that the pyroxene band center varies from ∼0.92 to 0.94 μ m. Band center values were used to calculate the pyroxene chemistry of the asteroid, whose average value was found to be Fs{sub 30}En{sub 65}Wo{sub 5}. Variations in the band depth (BD) were also observed, with values ranging from 1.0% to 1.5%. Using a new laboratory spectral calibration method, we estimated an average orthopyroxene content of 6% ± 1%. The mass-deficit region of Psyche, which exhibits the highest radar albedo, also shows the highest value for the spectral slope and the minimum BD. The spectral characteristics of Psyche suggest that its parent body did not have the typical structure expected for a differentiated body or that the sequence of events that led to its current state was more complex than previously thought.

  7. DETECTION OF ROTATIONAL SPECTRAL VARIATION ON THE M-TYPE ASTEROID (16) PSYCHE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Thomas, Cristina; Reddy, Vishnu; Shepard, Michael K.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Kiddell, Cain; Applin, Daniel; Takir, Driss; Conrad, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The asteroid (16) Psyche is of scientific interest because it contains ∼1% of the total mass of the asteroid belt and is thought to be the remnant metallic core of a protoplanet. Radar observations have indicated the significant presence of metal on the surface with a small percentage of silicates. Prior ground-based observations showed rotational variations in the near-infrared (NIR) spectra and radar albedo of this asteroid. However, no comprehensive study that combines multi-wavelength data has been conducted so far. Here we present rotationally resolved NIR spectra (0.7–2.5 μ m) of (16) Psyche obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. These data have been combined with shape models of the asteroid for each rotation phase. Spectral band parameters extracted from the NIR spectra show that the pyroxene band center varies from ∼0.92 to 0.94 μ m. Band center values were used to calculate the pyroxene chemistry of the asteroid, whose average value was found to be Fs 30 En 65 Wo 5 . Variations in the band depth (BD) were also observed, with values ranging from 1.0% to 1.5%. Using a new laboratory spectral calibration method, we estimated an average orthopyroxene content of 6% ± 1%. The mass-deficit region of Psyche, which exhibits the highest radar albedo, also shows the highest value for the spectral slope and the minimum BD. The spectral characteristics of Psyche suggest that its parent body did not have the typical structure expected for a differentiated body or that the sequence of events that led to its current state was more complex than previously thought.

  8. Detection of Rotational Spectral Variation on the M-type Asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Shepard, Michael K.; Thomas, Cristina; Cloutis, Edward A.; Takir, Driss; Conrad, Albert; Kiddell, Cain; Applin, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The asteroid (16) Psyche is of scientific interest because it contains ˜1% of the total mass of the asteroid belt and is thought to be the remnant metallic core of a protoplanet. Radar observations have indicated the significant presence of metal on the surface with a small percentage of silicates. Prior ground-based observations showed rotational variations in the near-infrared (NIR) spectra and radar albedo of this asteroid. However, no comprehensive study that combines multi-wavelength data has been conducted so far. Here we present rotationally resolved NIR spectra (0.7-2.5 μm) of (16) Psyche obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. These data have been combined with shape models of the asteroid for each rotation phase. Spectral band parameters extracted from the NIR spectra show that the pyroxene band center varies from ˜0.92 to 0.94 μm. Band center values were used to calculate the pyroxene chemistry of the asteroid, whose average value was found to be Fs30En65Wo5. Variations in the band depth (BD) were also observed, with values ranging from 1.0% to 1.5%. Using a new laboratory spectral calibration method, we estimated an average orthopyroxene content of 6% ± 1%. The mass-deficit region of Psyche, which exhibits the highest radar albedo, also shows the highest value for the spectral slope and the minimum BD. The spectral characteristics of Psyche suggest that its parent body did not have the typical structure expected for a differentiated body or that the sequence of events that led to its current state was more complex than previously thought.

  9. ULTRAVIOLET RAMAN SPECTRAL SIGNATURE ACQUISITION: UV RAMAN SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDLACEK,III, A.J.FINFROCK,C.

    2002-09-01

    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.

  10. Cassini radar: Instrument description and performance status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. T. K.; Im, E.; Borgarelli, L.; ZampoliniFaustini, E.

    1995-01-01

    The spacecraft of the Cassini mission is planned to be launched towards Saturn in October 1997. The mission is designed to study the physical structure and chemical composition of Titan. The results of the tests performed on the Cassini radar engineering qualification model (EQM) are summarized. The approach followed in the verification and evaluation of the performance of the radio frequency subsystem EQM is presented. The results show that the instrument satisfies the most relevant mission requirements.

  11. Forestry applications of ground-penetrating radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, H.; Perez-Gracia, V.; Novo, A.; Armesto, J.

    2010-07-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical and close-range remote sensing technique based on the use of radar pulses to obtain cross-section images of underground features. This method is characterized by the transmission of an electromagnetic short length pulse (1-2 ns), presenting a centre frequency ranging from 10 MHz to 2.5 GHz. The principles of GPR operation are based on the ability of low frequency radar waves to penetrate into a non-conductive medium, usually subsoil, but also walls, concrete or wood. Those waves are detected after suffering a reflection in electromagnetic discontinuities of the propagation medium. Therefore, this is a suitable method to study changes in those physical properties, and also to characterize different mediums and the reflective targets providing information about their physical properties. The aim of this work is to describe and demonstrate different applications of GPR in forestry, showing the obtained results together with their interpretation. Firstly, in this paper, it is illustrated how GPR is able to map shallow bedrock, subsoil stratigraphy and also to estimate shallow water table depth. Secondly, different tree trunks as well as dry timber are analyzed, evaluating the different radar data obtained in each particular case, and observing differences in their electromagnetic properties related to the GPR response. Finally, several measurements were taken in order to analyze the use of GPR to detect tree root systems using polarimetric techniques, being possible to detect medium and big size roots, together with groups of small roots. (Author) 39 refs.

  12. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...

  13. Artifacts in Radar Imaging of Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    CA, USA, 2007. [11] B. Borden, Radar imaging of airborne targets: A primer for Applied mathematicians and Physicists . New York, NY: Taylor and... Project (0704–0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 21 September 2012 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...CW Continuous Wave DAC Digital to Analog Convertor DFT Discrete Fourier Transform FBP Filtered Back Projection FFT Fast Fourier Transform GPS

  14. Space Radar Image of Harvard Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the area surrounding the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts that has been operated as a ecological research facility by Harvard University since 1907. At the center of the image is the Quabbin Reservoir, and the Connecticut River is at the lower left of the image. The Harvard Forest itself is just above the reservoir. Researchers are comparing the naturally occurring physical disturbances in the forest and the recent and projected chemical disturbances and their effects on the forest ecosystem. Agricultural land appears dark blue/purple, along with low shrub vegetation and some wetlands. Urban development is bright pink; the yellow to green tints are conifer-dominated vegetation with the pitch pine sand plain at the middle left edge of the image appearing very distinctive. The green tint may indicate pure pine plantation stands, and deciduous broadleaf trees appear gray/pink with perhaps wetter sites being pinker. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 42.50 degrees North latitude and 72.33 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 53 kilometers 63 by kilometers (33 miles by 39 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received.

  15. CW Laser radar for combustion diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Elin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A CW-laser radar system developed for combustion diagnostics is described. The system is based on triangulation to attain range information. A portable system has been constructed and here we show some result from measurements in various flames, for example Rayleigh scattering thermometry and monitoring of particle distributions with high temporal and spatial resolution. The concept can equally well be based on pulsed lasers, allowing suppression of background emission through gated detection.

  16. Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

  17. Radar Imaging of Stationary and Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    Sciences Research Institute. Member of Organizing Committee for introductory workshop at MSRI • June 14-18, 2010, arranged for AFRL (Matt Ferrara ) to...Schneible, Vincent Amuso, SciTech Publishing, Inc., 2010. 2. K. Voccola, B. Yazici, M. Ferrara , and M. Cheney, “On the relationship between the generalized...echo imaging using distributed apertures in multi-path,” IEEE Radar Conference, May, 2008, Rome, Italy . 14 10. “Wideband pulse-echo imaging using

  18. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  19. Integration and Validation of Avian Radars (IVAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    TrackViewer Workstation UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle USDA United States Department of Agriculture USFWS United States Fish & Wildlife Service...hovering above water, with the hope that they are feeding on fish below. Many marine radars in fact have a “bird” setting on the setup and installation...the current position (yellow blob ) of the target (in this case, a flock of Mallards), while a straight line of blue blobs denoting returns from the

  20. Turbulence scales in the high-latitude ionosphere and their signatures upon echoes detected by SuperDARN HF radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallieres, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    SuperDARN is a coherent HF radar network dedicated to the study of high-latitude ionospheric plasma convection and finds its major applications in the field of Sun/Earth connection. This work deals with the interactions between a transmitted radar wave and ionisation gradients at different scales and their impact on measurements. Studies are performed in order to detect the ion cyclotron signature, superimposed to turbulent motions, in observed spectra. On the other hand, the role of intermediate scales (from hundreds of meters to kilometers) on spectral width estimation is evidenced. Statistical studies show that the value of this parameter depends upon transmitted frequency and echo range. We propose an interpretation in terms of a wave front de-correlation during propagation and validate it with numerical simulations based upon realistic ionospheric parameters. (author) [fr

  1. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 30: International School on Atmospheric Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, Shoichiro (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Broad, tutorial coverage is given to the technical and scientific aspects of mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) meteorological radar systems. Control issues, signal processing, atmospheric waves, the historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics, incoherent scatter radars, radar echoes, radar targets, and gravity waves are among the topics covered.

  2. Estimating soil water evaporation using radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali M.; Scott, H. D.; Waite, W. P.; Asrar, G.

    1988-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the application of radar reflectivity as compared with the shortwave reflectivity (albedo) used in the Idso-Jackson equation for the estimation of daily evaporation under overcast sky and subhumid climatic conditions. Soil water content, water potential, shortwave and radar reflectivity, and soil and air temperatures were monitored during three soil drying cycles. The data from each cycle were used to calculate daily evaporation from the Idso-Jackson equation and from two other standard methods, the modified Penman and plane of zero-flux. All three methods resulted in similar estimates of evaporation under clear sky conditions; however, under overcast sky conditions, evaporation fluxes computed from the Idso-Jackson equation were consistently lower than the other two methods. The shortwave albedo values in the Idso-Jackson equation were then replaced with radar reflectivities and a new set of total daily evaporation fluxes were calculated. This resulted in a significant improvement in computed soil evaporation fluxes from the Idso-Jackson equation, and a better agreement between the three methods under overcast sky conditions.

  3. Aercibo S-band radar program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    The high powered 12.6 cm wavelength radar on the 1000-ft Arecibo reflector is utilized for a number of solar system studies. Chief among these are: (1) surface reflectivity mapping of Venus, Mercury and the Moon. Resolutions achievable on Venus are less than 1.5 km over some areas, for Mercury about 30 km and for the Moon 200 m at present, (2) high time resolution ranging measurements to the surfaces of the terrestrial planets. These measurements are used to obtain profiles and scattering parameters in the equatorial region. They can also be used to test relativistic and gravitational theories by monitoring the rate of advance of the perihelion of the orbit of Mercury and placing limits on the stability of the gravitational constant, (3) measurements of the orbital parameters, figure, spin vector and surface properties of asteroids and comets, and (4) observations of the Galilean Satellites of Jupiter and the satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. The Galilean Satellites of Jupiter were re-observed with the 12.6 cm radar for the first time since 1981. Much more accurate measurements of the scattering properties of the three icy satellites were obtained that generally confirmed previous observations. Unambiguous measurements of the cross section and circular polarizations ratio of Io were also obtained for the first time. The radar scattering properties of four mainbelt asteroids and one near-earth asteroid were studied

  4. Integrating Radar Image Data with Google Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce D.; Gibas, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A public Web site has been developed as a method for displaying the multitude of radar imagery collected by NASA s Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) instrument during its 16-year mission. Utilizing NASA s internal AIRSAR site, the new Web site features more sophisticated visualization tools that enable the general public to have access to these images. The site was originally maintained at NASA on six computers: one that held the Oracle database, two that took care of the software for the interactive map, and three that were for the Web site itself. Several tasks were involved in moving this complicated setup to just one computer. First, the AIRSAR database was migrated from Oracle to MySQL. Then the back-end of the AIRSAR Web site was updated in order to access the MySQL database. To do this, a few of the scripts needed to be modified; specifically three Perl scripts that query that database. The database connections were then updated from Oracle to MySQL, numerous syntax errors were corrected, and a query was implemented that replaced one of the stored Oracle procedures. Lastly, the interactive map was designed, implemented, and tested so that users could easily browse and access the radar imagery through the Google Maps interface.

  5. To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground

  6. Comparison of FPS-16 radar/jimsphere and NASA's 50-MHz radar wind profiler turbulence indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the wind and turbulent regions from the surface to 16 km by the FPS-11 radar/jimsphere system are reported with particular attention given to the use of these turbulence and wind assessments to validate the NASA 50-MHz radar wind profiler. Wind profile statistics were compared at 150-m wavelengths, a wavelength validated from 20 jimspheres, simultaneously tracked by FPS-16 and FPQ-14 radar, and the resulting analysis of auto spectra, cross-spectra, and coherence squared spectra of the wind profiles. Results demonstrate that the NASA prototype wind profiler is an excellent monitoring device illustrating the measurements of the winds within 1/2 hour of launch zero.

  7. An enhanced Planetary Radar Operating Centre (PROC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallo, C.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using GPRs is an important role of Italy and numerous scientific international space programs are carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry) provided by ASI within a NASA/ESA/ASI joint venture framework are successfully operating: MARSIS on-board MEX, SHARAD on-board MRO and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft: the missions have been further extended . Three dedicated operational centers, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD are operating from the missions beginning to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution and even if they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). In order to harmonize operations either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view PROC is designed and developed for offering improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. PROC is, therefore, conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs, such as Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) The paper describes how the new PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation aiding scientists to increase their knowledge in the field of surface

  8. Advancements on Radar Polarization Information Acquisition and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Dahai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on radar polarization information acquisition and processing has currently been one important part of radar techniques. The development of the polarization theory is simply reviewed firstly. Subsequently, some key techniques which include polarization measurement, polarization anti-jamming, polarization recognition, imaging and parameters inversion using radar polarimetry are emphatically analyzed in this paper. The basic theories, the present states and the development trends of these key techniques are presented and some meaningful conclusions are derived.

  9. Performance Prediction of Constrained Waveform Design for Adaptive Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    the famous Woodward quote, having a ubiquitous feeling for all radar waveform design (and performance prediction) researchers , that is found at the end...discuss research that develops performance prediction models to quantify the impact on SINR when an amplitude constraint is placed on a radar waveform...optimize the radar perfor- mance for the particular scenario and tasks. There have also been several survey papers on various topics in waveform design for

  10. Recent Advances In Radar Polarimetry And Polarimetric SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    progressing from “Classical X- Ray -Shadow-graphy” toward “functional Magnetic Resonant Imaging (fMRI)”. Classical Amplitude-Only Radar & SAR, and “Scalar...Chipman, R. A, and J. W. Morris, eds. 1990, Polarimetry: Radar, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X- Ray , Proc. SPIE-1317 ( also see SPIE Proc. 891... Oldenburg Verlag, Munich 1999, 88 p. [173] Mott, H. and W-M. Boerner, 1992, editors, “Radar Polarimetry, SPIE’s Annual Mtg., Polarimetry Conference

  11. Tenth Biennial Coherent Laser Radar Technology and Applications Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The tenth conference on coherent laser radar technology and applications is the latest in a series beginning in 1980 which provides a forum for exchange of information on recent events current status, and future directions of coherent laser radar (or lidar or lader) technology and applications. This conference emphasizes the latest advancement in the coherent laser radar field, including theory, modeling, components, systems, instrumentation, measurements, calibration, data processing techniques, operational uses, and comparisons with other remote sensing technologies.

  12. MWR-05XP Mobile Phased Array Weather Radar

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The NPS/CIRPAS Weather Radar Project objective is to develop the technology for adding a parallel weather processor capability to tactical military radars and to develop an advanced scientific instrument for investigation of atmospheric phenomena and other various types of research. The payoff to the military will be the integration of current weather data into the tactical radar picture. The payoff to the science community will be the availability of an advanced instrument for inves...

  13. Space Radar Image of Flevoland, Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the radar signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the image. This false-color image was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by

  14. Typhoon 9707 observations with the MU radar and L-band boundary layer radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teshiba

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon 9707 (Opal was observed with the VHF-band Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, an L-band boundary layer radar (BLR, and a vertical-pointing C-band meteorological radar at the Shigaraki MU Observatory in Shiga prefecture, Japan on 20 June 1997. The typhoon center passed about 80 km southeast from the radar site. Mesoscale precipitating clouds developed due to warm-moist airmass transport from the typhoon, and passed over the MU radar site with easterly or southeasterly winds. We primarily present the wind behaviour including the vertical component which a conventional meteorological Doppler radar cannot directly observe, and discuss the relationship between the wind behaviour of the typhoon and the precipitating system. To investigate the dynamic structure of the typhoon, the observed wind was divided into radial and tangential wind components under the assumption that the typhoon had an axi-symmetric structure. Altitude range of outflow ascended from 1–3 km to 2–10 km with increasing distance (within 80–260 km range from the typhoon center, and in-flow was observed above and below the outflow. Outflow and inflow were associated with updraft and downdraft, respectively. In the tangential wind, the maximum speed of counterclockwise winds was confirmed at 1–2 km altitudes. Based on the vertical velocity and the reflectivity obtained with the MU radar and the C-band meteorological radar, respectively, precipitating clouds, accompanied by the wind behaviour of the typhoon, were classified into stratiform and convective precipitating clouds. In the stratiform precipitating clouds, a vertical shear of radial wind and the maximum speed of counterclockwise wind were observed. There was a strong reflectivity layer called a ‘bright band’ around the 4.2 km altitude. We confirmed strong updrafts and down-drafts below and above it, respectively, and the existence of a relatively dry layer around the bright band level from radiosonde

  15. Typhoon 9707 observations with the MU radar and L-band boundary layer radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teshiba

    Full Text Available Typhoon 9707 (Opal was observed with the VHF-band Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, an L-band boundary layer radar (BLR, and a vertical-pointing C-band meteorological radar at the Shigaraki MU Observatory in Shiga prefecture, Japan on 20 June 1997. The typhoon center passed about 80 km southeast from the radar site. Mesoscale precipitating clouds developed due to warm-moist airmass transport from the typhoon, and passed over the MU radar site with easterly or southeasterly winds. We primarily present the wind behaviour including the vertical component which a conventional meteorological Doppler radar cannot directly observe, and discuss the relationship between the wind behaviour of the typhoon and the precipitating system. To investigate the dynamic structure of the typhoon, the observed wind was divided into radial and tangential wind components under the assumption that the typhoon had an axi-symmetric structure. Altitude range of outflow ascended from 1–3 km to 2–10 km with increasing distance (within 80–260 km range from the typhoon center, and in-flow was observed above and below the outflow. Outflow and inflow were associated with updraft and downdraft, respectively. In the tangential wind, the maximum speed of counterclockwise winds was confirmed at 1–2 km altitudes. Based on the vertical velocity and the reflectivity obtained with the MU radar and the C-band meteorological radar, respectively, precipitating clouds, accompanied by the wind behaviour of the typhoon, were classified into stratiform and convective precipitating clouds. In the stratiform precipitating clouds, a vertical shear of radial wind and the maximum speed of counterclockwise wind were observed. There was a strong reflectivity layer called a ‘bright band’ around the 4.2 km altitude. We confirmed strong updrafts and down-drafts below and above it, respectively, and the existence of a relatively dry layer around the bright band level from radiosonde

  16. Surface circulation patterns at the southeastern Bay of Biscay: new observations from HF radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solabarrieta, L.; Rubio, A.; Medina, R.; Paduan, J. D.; Castanedo, S.; Fontán, A.; Cook, M.; González, M.

    2012-12-01

    A CODAR Seasonde High Frequency (HF) radar network has been operational since the beginning of 2009 for the oceanic region of the Basque Country, Spain (south-eastern Bay of Biscay, Atlantic Ocean). It forms part of the Basque operational data acquisition system, established by the Directorate of Emergency Attention and Meteorology of the Basque Government. It is made up of two antennas, at the capes Higer (43d 23.554' N, 1d 47.745' W) and Matxitxako (43d 7.350' N, 2d 45.163' W), emitting at 4.525 MHz frequency and 30 kHz bandwidth. This system provides hourly surface currents with 5.12 km spatial resolution, covering 10,000 km2. Space- and time-covering measurements have been available in the study area since 2009. The data contribute considerably to the study of surface current patterns and the main physical processes in the area. Additional applications relate to security of navigation, maritime rescue, validation and improvement of numerical models, etc. For comparison with other validation studies and to obtain an estimate of the performance of the Basque system, statistical and spectral analysis of the surface currents obtained through the HF radar and different in-situ platforms have been conducted. The analyses show values of comparison between the different measuring systems consistent with those done by other authors (Paduan and Rosenfeld, 1996; Kaplan et al., 2005). The radar is able to reproduce the time evolution of the currents with a reasonable accuracy; likewise, the main three spectral peaks (inertial, semidiurnal and diurnal) are well resolved. In this context, the aim of this work is to show the HF radar ability to measure accurately the surface currents in the south-eastern Bay of Biscay and to study the ocean circulation in the area (figures 1 and 2). Surface current patterns are analysed and described for the period 2009-2011, for different timescales. A clear seasonality at a large-scale has been observed in accordance with previous work

  17. Feasibility of mitigating the effects of windfarms on primary radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.M.; Johnson, D.A.

    2003-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the feasibility of modifying civil and military radars to mitigate the effects from wind turbines, to provide costings for implementing changes to the radar and to produce guidelines for planning wind farms in the vicinity of radars. The effect of wind turbines on radar signals, assessed through computer modelling, is summarised. The key aspects of turbine design that can be modified to minimise these effects are described. A key issue is the fact that no two radar installations are alike, with settings being customised for local requirements. As a consequence, a detailed understanding of the design and features of each individual radar would be required in order to assess the impact of a wind farm proposal. The costs of a programme of modifications to the civil ATC (air traffic control) radar base will depend on many factors. An estimate of costs is provided, based on the assumption that only 30 of the UK radars would need modification and that a range of modifications from very simple to very complex will be required. A number of other approaches, outside of modification of the radar system, may require investigation during a windfarm planning application, such as layout and location of the wind farm or changing air traffic routes in the vicinity of the wind farm.

  18. Mutual information-based LPI optimisation for radar network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenguang; Zhou, Jianjiang; Wang, Fei; Chen, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Radar network can offer significant performance improvement for target detection and information extraction employing spatial diversity. For a fixed number of radars, the achievable mutual information (MI) for estimating the target parameters may extend beyond a predefined threshold with full power transmission. In this paper, an effective low probability of intercept (LPI) optimisation algorithm is presented to improve LPI performance for radar network. Based on radar network system model, we first provide Schleher intercept factor for radar network as an optimisation metric for LPI performance. Then, a novel LPI optimisation algorithm is presented, where for a predefined MI threshold, Schleher intercept factor for radar network is minimised by optimising the transmission power allocation among radars in the network such that the enhanced LPI performance for radar network can be achieved. The genetic algorithm based on nonlinear programming (GA-NP) is employed to solve the resulting nonconvex and nonlinear optimisation problem. Some simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is valuable and effective to improve the LPI performance for radar network.

  19. Analysis of a Pareto Mixture Distribution for Maritime Surveillance Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham V. Weinberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pareto distribution has been shown to be an excellent model for X-band high-resolution maritime surveillance radar clutter returns. Given the success of mixture distributions in radar, it is thus of interest to consider the effect of Pareto mixture models. This paper introduces a formulation of a Pareto intensity mixture distribution and investigates coherent multilook radar detector performance using this new clutter model. Clutter parameter estimates are derived from data sets produced by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation's Ingara maritime surveillance radar.

  20. Radar investigations at the Saltsjoetunnel - predictions and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle; Palmqvist, Kai

    1989-01-01

    Borehole radar investigations have been performed in two boreholes drilled along the extent of the Saltsjoe tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden. The objective of the project was to test investigate the capabilities of the borehole radar technique to predict geological structures prior to tunnel excavation. Singlehole and crosshole radar measurements were made in the two boreholes which outlined and equilateral triangle. The crosshole data was used to produce tomograms showing the distribution of radar attenuation and slowness (inverse of velocity) in the plane between the boreholes. The radar model of the site contained one major feature which was identified as a fracture zone. The intersection of the fracture zone with the tunnel was extrapolated from the radar data and found to be in agreement with observations in the tunnel. At the intersection of the fracture zone with the tunnel grouting had to be applied. It has also been found that the radar identifies a number of smaller features which are of practically no significance with respect to tunnel construction. There is general agreement between the radar model of the site and the geologic-tectonic model of the site. This project has demonstrated the capability of the boreholes radar technique to predict the existence, location, and orientation of geologic features (e.g. fracture zones) which can be of significance to the cost and safety when excavating a tunnel. However, further development is needed to be able to use the technique cost effectively for continuous prediction ahead of the tunnel front. (authors) (17 figs., 1 tab.)

  1. Radar Target Classification using Recursive Knowledge-Based Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochumsen, Lars Wurtz

    The topic of this thesis is target classification of radar tracks from a 2D mechanically scanning coastal surveillance radar. The measurements provided by the radar are position data and therefore the classification is mainly based on kinematic data, which is deduced from the position. The target...... been terminated. Therefore, an update of the classification results must be made for each measurement of the target. The data for this work are collected throughout the PhD and are both collected from radars and other sensors such as GPS....

  2. Detecting and classifying low probability of intercept radar

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Phillip E

    2003-01-01

    The drive is on to devise LPI radar systems that evade hostile detection as well as develop non-cooperative intercept devices that outsmart enemy LPI radar. Based on the author's own design experience, this comprehensive, hands-on book gives you the latest design and development techniques to innovate new LPI radar systems and discover new ways to intercept enemy LPI radar. and help you visually identify waveform parameters. Filled with more than 500 equations that provide rigorous mathematical detail, this book can be used by both entry-level and seasoned engineers. Besides thoroughly treatin

  3. Small battery operated unattended radar sensor for security systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Thomas J.; Brady, Stephen; Raines, Robert

    2013-06-01

    McQ has developed, tested, and is supplying to Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) customers a new radar sensor. This radar sensor is designed for short range target detection and classification. The design emphasis was to have low power consumption, totally automated operation, a very high probability of detection coupled with a very low false alarm rate, be able to locate and track targets, and have a price compatible with the UGS market. The radar sensor complements traditional UGS sensors by providing solutions for scenarios that are difficult for UGS. The design of this radar sensor and the testing are presented in this paper.

  4. Annual non-compliance report drops charge on Soviet radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, D.

    1993-01-01

    Last year's non-compliance report said a data link between Soviet early warming radars and the Moscow ABM system may be a significant violation of fundamental provisions of the ABM Treaty. This year's report, however, reverses last years position by saying: In light of the ambiguity of the Treaty language, and based on further review of the issue and on the probable Soviet practice - the US now judges that the support of ABM systems by early warning radars providing precise handover data will not constitute use of the radars as ABM radars in violation of the ABM Treaty

  5. Modern Radar Techniques for Geophysical Applications: Two Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, B. J.; Bianchi, C.; Sciacca, U.; Tutone, G.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade of the evolution of radar was heavily influenced by the rapid increase in the information processing capabilities. Advances in solid state radio HF devices, digital technology, computing architectures and software offered the designers to develop very efficient radars. In designing modern radars the emphasis goes towards the simplification of the system hardware, reduction of overall power, which is compensated by coding and real time signal processing techniques. Radars are commonly employed in geophysical radio soundings like probing the ionosphere; stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast, GPR and radio-glaciology etc. In the laboratorio di Geofisica Ambientale of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy, we developed two pulse compression radars. The first is a HF radar called AIS-INGV; Advanced Ionospheric Sounder designed both for the purpose of research and for routine service of the HF radio wave propagation forecast. The second is a VHF radar called GLACIORADAR, which will be substituting the high power envelope radar used by the Italian Glaciological group. This will be employed in studying the sub glacial structures of Antarctica, giving information about layering, the bed rock and sub glacial lakes if present. These are low power radars, which heavily rely on advanced hardware and powerful real time signal processing. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  6. Assimilation of radar-based nowcast into HIRLAM NWP model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, David Getreuer; Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study introduces a nowcast scheme that assimilates radar extrapolation data (RED) into a nowcasting version of the high resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model covering the area of Denmark. The RED are based on the Co-TREC (tracking radar echoes...... by correlation) methodology and are generated from cleaned radar mosaics from the Danish weather radar network. The assimilation technique is a newly developed method that increases model precipitation by increasing low-level convergence and decreasing convergence aloft in order to increase the vertical velocity....... The level of improved predictability relies on the RED quality, which again relies on the type of event....

  7. Investigating the backscatter contrast anomaly in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the dunes along the Israel-Egypt border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Offer; Siegal, Zehava; Blumberg, Dan G.; Adamowski, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The dune field intersected by the Israel-Egypt borderline has attracted many remote sensing studies over the years because it exhibits unique optical phenomena in several domains, from the visual to the thermal infrared. These phenomena are the result of land-use policies implemented by the two countries, which have differing effects on the two ecosystems. This study explores the surface properties that affect radar backscatter, namely the surface roughness and dielectric properties, in order to determine the cause for the variation across the border. The backscatter contrast was demonstrated for SIR-C, the first synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor to capture this phenomenon, as well as ASAR imagery that coincides with complementary ground observations. These field observations along the border, together with an aerial image from the same year as the SIR-C acquisition were used to analyze differences in vegetation patterns that can affect the surface roughness. The dielectric permittivity of two kinds of topsoil (sand, biocrust) was measured in the field and in the laboratory. The results suggest that the vegetation structure and spatial distribution differ between the two sides of the border in a manner that is consistent with the radar observations. The dielectric permittivity of sand and biocrust was found to be similar, although they are not constant across the radar spectral region (50 MHz-20 GHz). These findings support the hypothesis that changes to the vegetation, as a consequence of the different land-use practices in Israel and Egypt, are the cause for the radar backscatter contrast across the border.

  8. Turbulent energy dissipation rates observed by Doppler MST Radar and by rocket-borne instruments during the MIDAS/MaCWAVE campaign 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Engler

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During the MIDAS/MaCWAVE campaign in summer 2002 we have observed turbulence using Doppler beam steering measurements obtained from the ALWIN VHF radar at Andøya/Northern Norway. This radar was operated in the Doppler beam steering mode for turbulence investigations during the campaign, as well as in spaced antenna mode, for continuously measuring the background wind field. The real-time data analysis of the Doppler radar backscattering provided the launch conditions for the sounding rockets. The spectral width data observed during the occurrence of PMSE were corrected for beam and shear broadening caused by the background wind field to obtain the turbulent part of the spectral width. The turbulent energy dissipation rates determined from the turbulent spectral width vary between 5 and 100mW kg-1 in the altitude range of 80-92km and increase with altitude. These estimations agree well with the in-situ measurements using the CONE sensor which was launched on 3 sounding rockets during the campaign.

  9. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NASA MICRO RAIN RADAR (MRR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA Micro Rain Radar (MRR) MC3E dataset was collected by a Micro Rain Radar (MRR), which is a vertically pointing Doppler radar which...

  10. Movement and respiration detection using statistical properties of the FMCW radar signal

    KAUST Repository

    Kiuru, Tero; Metso, Mikko; Jardak, Seifallah; Pursula, Pekka; Hakli, Janne; Hirvonen, Mervi; Sepponen, Raimo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 24 GHz FMCW radar system for detection of movement and respiration using change in the statistical properties of the received radar signal, both amplitude and phase. We present the hardware and software segments of the radar

  11. Analysis of the computational requirements of a pulse-doppler radar signal processor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broich, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find an optimal processing architecture for radar signal processing applications, the different algorithms that are typically used in a pulse-Doppler radar signal processor are investigated. Radar algorithms are broken down...

  12. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  13. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  14. Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenciu, G.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru

  15. Radar efficiency and the calculation of decade-long PMSE backscatter cross-section for the Resolute Bay VHF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Swarnalingam

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Resolute Bay VHF radar, located in Nunavut, Canada (75.0° N, 95.0° W and operating at 51.5 MHz, has been used to investigate Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE since 1997. PMSE are a unique form of strong coherent radar echoes, and their understanding has been a challenge to the scientific community since their discovery more than three decades ago. While other high latitude radars have recorded strong levels of PMSE activities, the Resolute Bay radar has observed relatively lower levels of PMSE strengths. In order to derive absolute measurements of PMSE strength at this site, a technique is developed to determine the radar efficiency using cosmic (sky noise variations along with the help of a calibrated noise source. VHF radars are only rarely calibrated, but determination of efficiency is even less common. Here we emphasize the importance of efficiency for determination of cross-section measurements. The significant advantage of this method is that it can be directly applied to any MST radar system anywhere in the world as long as the sky noise variations are known. The radar efficiencies for two on-site radars at Resolute Bay are determined. PMSE backscatter cross-section is estimated, and decade-long PMSE strength variations at this location are investigated. It was noticed that the median of the backscatter cross-section distribution remains relatively unchanged, but over the years a great level of variability occurs in the high power tail of the distribution.

  16. Investigations on the sensitivity of a stepped-frequency radar utilizing a vector network analyzer for Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schubert, Karsten; Schoebel, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    Employing a continuous-wave radar system, with the stepped-frequency radar being one type of this class, all reflections from the environment are present continuously and simultaneously at the receiver. Utilizing such a radar system for Ground Penetrating Radar purposes, antenna cross-talk and ground bounce reflection form an overall dominant signal contribution while reflections from objects buried in the ground are of quite weak amplitude due to attenuation in the ground. This requires a large dynamic range of the receiver which in turn requires high sensitivity of the radar system. In this paper we analyze the sensitivity of our vector network analyzer utilized as stepped-frequency radar system for GPR pipe detection. We furthermore investigate the performance of increasing the sensitivity of the radar by means of appropriate averaging and low-noise pre-amplification of the received signal. It turns out that the improvement in sensitivity actually achievable may differ significantly from theoretical expectations. In addition, we give a descriptive explanation why our appropriate experiments demonstrate that the sensitivity of the receiver is independent of the distance between the target object and the source of dominant signal contribution. Finally, our investigations presented in this paper lead to a preferred setting of operation for our vector network analyzer in order to achieve best detection capability for weak reflection amplitudes, hence making the radar system applicable for Ground Penetrating Radar purposes.

  17. The effects of radar on avian behavior: Implications for wildlife management at airports

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Eleanor R

    2014-01-01

    Airports are areas with a high availability of resources for wildlife to forage, breed, and roost. Airports also have different types of radars to assist with air traffic control as well as tracking of wildlife that could become a risk for aircraft. The effect of radar electromagnetic radiation on wildlife behavior is not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine if bird behavior is affected by radar in two contexts: static radar (e.g., surveillance radar) and approaching radar...

  18. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  19. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  20. Indoor radar SLAM A radar application for vision and GPS denied environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, J.W.; Mohamoud, A.A.; Houwen, E.H. van de; Heijster, R.M.E.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation especially in unknown areas is a real challenge. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technology provides a solution. However SLAM as currently based on optical sensors, is unsuitable in vision denied areas, which are for example encountered by first responders. Radar can

  1. Radar facies of unconsolidated sediments in The Netherlands : A radar stratigraphy interpretation method for hydrogeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmeeren, R.A. van

    1998-01-01

    Since 1990, The Netherlands Institute of Applied Geoscience TNO has been carrying out ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements to assess the potential for imaging and characterising different hydrogeological targets in more than 30 pilot areas in The Netherlands. The experience gained by

  2. Universal Library for Building Radar Operator Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karankevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of the development of a software library, used for building software interfaces for radars being developed in BMSTU Radioelectronic Technics Scientific and Research Institute. The library is a software application library written in C++ using Qt and OpenGL libraries.The article describes the requirements, that the library is supposed to meet, in particular — cross-platform capabilities and versatility of the solution. The data types, that library uses, are described. The description of theinterface elements developed is shown, and some pictures of their operation are given.The article shows the main interface elements used. They are: «Matrix» that shows twodimensional data, «Waterfall», that is used for time scanning of the parameter specified, and «Plan Position Indicator» that shows circular scan from surveillance radar without geometric distortions.The part «Library implementation» shows the example of radiolocation station interface, that was based on this library, used in the working model of ultrashortpulse radar. Some results of the operation of this interface are also shown. The experiment shows the system working with two people in the field. As people start to move, the system becomes capable of distinguishing moving targets and stationary surface. The article shows the system operation the same way as the system operator can see it through his interface.The conclusion contains brief results of the development, the sphere of application of the software, and the prospects of the further development of the library.

  3. Classification and correction of the radar bright band with polarimetric radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Will; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel; Kramer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The annular region of enhanced radar reflectivity, known as the Bright Band (BB), occurs when the radar beam intersects a layer of melting hydrometeors. Radar reflectivity is related to rainfall through a power law equation and so this enhanced region can lead to overestimations of rainfall by a factor of up to 5, so it is important to correct for this. The BB region can be identified by using several techniques including hydrometeor classification and freezing level forecasts from mesoscale meteorological models. Advances in dual-polarisation radar measurements and continued research in the field has led to increased accuracy in the ability to identify the melting snow region. A method proposed by Kitchen et al (1994), a form of which is currently used operationally in the UK, utilises idealised Vertical Profiles of Reflectivity (VPR) to correct for the BB enhancement. A simpler and more computationally efficient method involves the formation of an average VPR from multiple elevations for correction that can still cause a significant decrease in error (Vignal 2000). The purpose of this research is to evaluate a method that relies only on analysis of measurements from an operational C-band polarimetric radar without the need for computationally expensive models. Initial results show that LDR is a strong classifier of melting snow with a high Critical Success Index of 97% when compared to the other variables. An algorithm based on idealised VPRs resulted in the largest decrease in error when BB corrected scans are compared to rain gauges and to lower level scans with a reduction in RMSE of 61% for rain-rate measurements. References Kitchen, M., R. Brown, and A. G. Davies, 1994: Real-time correction of weather radar data for the effects of bright band, range and orographic growth in widespread precipitation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1231-1254. Vignal, B. et al, 2000: Three methods to determine profiles of reflectivity from volumetric radar data to correct

  4. Surface detection performance evaluation of pseudo-random noise continuous wave laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Valentin; Matthey, Renaud; Pereira do Carmo, Joao

    2017-11-01

    A number of space missions (including in the ESA Exploration Programme) foreseen a use of laser radar sensor (or lidar) for determination of range between spacecrafts or between spacecraft and ground surface (altimetry). Such sensors need to be compact, robust and power efficient, at the same time with high detection performance. These requirements can be achieved with a Pseudo-Random Noise continuous wave lidar (PRN cw lidar). Previous studies have pointed to the advantages of this lidar with respect to space missions, but they also identified its limitations in high optical background. The progress of the lasers and the detectors in the near IR spectral range requires a re-evaluation of the PRN cw lidar potential. Here we address the performances of this lidar for surface detection (altimetry) in planetary missions. The evaluation is based on the following system configuration: (i) A cw fiber amplifier as lidar transmitter. The seeding laser exhibits a single-frequency spectral line, with subsequent amplitude modulation. The fiber amplifier allows high output power level, keeping the spectral characteristics and the modulation of the seeding light input. (ii) An avalanche photodiode in photon counting detection; (iii) Measurement scenarios representative for Earth, Mercury and Mars.

  5. Miniature Ground Penetrating Radar, CRUX GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Carnes, Steven R.; Haldemann, Albert F.; Ulmer, Christopher T.; Ng, Eddie; Arcone, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA instrument development programs (PIDDP 2000-2002, MIPD 2003-2005, ESR and T, 2005) we have been developing miniature ground penetrating radars (GPR) for use in mapping subsurface stratigraphy from planetary rovers for Mars and lunar applications. The Mars GPR is for deeper penetration (up to 50 m depth) into the Martian subsurface at moderate resolution (0.5 m) for a geological characterization. As a part of the CRUX (Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer) instrument suite, the CRUX GPR is optimized for a lunar prospecting application. It will have shallower penetration (5 m depth) with higher resolution (10 cm) for construction operations including ISRU (in-situ resource utilization).

  6. Sea Ice Movements from Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    correlating these components. B-l8 These correlations are also plotted in figure l1. 5.3.3.2 AUlications of the space correlation. The spatial...aperture radar. To appear in J. of Geophys. Res. Hastings, A. D. Jr., 1971. Surface climate of the Arctic Basin. Report ETL- TR-71-5, Earth Sciences Division...Administration Grant NA50-AA-D-00015, which was funded in part by the Global Atmospheric Research Program and the Office of Climate Dynarics, Divisic

  7. Integrated Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    acoustooptic cell was employed to input each radar return into a time-and-space integrating optical architecture comprised of several lenses, a CCD area array...acoustooptic cell and parallel rib waveguide structure. During the course of the literature survey, we became aware of an elegant and poten- tially profound...wave.) scatterer at (f , A(t) is the far-field pattern of the antenna. From the geometry of Si. 1. R can be written as [I-2R,/c - nT1 r(t) = A(nT) rectj

  8. Target & Propagation Models for the FINDER Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Vaughn; Lux, James; Haque, Salmon

    2013-01-01

    Finding persons still alive in piles of rubble following an earthquake, a severe storm, or other disaster is a difficult problem. JPL is currently developing a victim detection radar called FINDER (Finding Individuals in Emergency and Response). The subject of this paper is directed toward development of propagation & target models needed for simulation & testing of such a system. These models are both physical (real rubble piles) and numerical. Early results from the numerical modeling phase show spatial and temporal spreading characteristics when signals are passed through a randomly mixed rubble pile.

  9. Pulsed radar reflectometry of broadband fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorkom, J.C. van; Pol, M.J. van de; Donne, A.J.H.; Schueller, F.C.

    2001-01-01

    The possibility to use pulsed radar reflectometry for turbulence studies is investigated. Good qualitative agreement is found between the power spectrum of variations in time-of-flight and the quadrature spectrum of a continuous-wave fluctuation reflectometer. Standard Fourier analysis is hampered considerably by missing samples in part of the experimental data. Using the Lomb-Scargle normalised periodogram for power spectrum estimation, reliable spectra are obtained even for signals in which as much as 60% of the samples is missing. (author)

  10. Fourier transforms in radar and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Brandwood, David

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transforms are used widely, and are of particular value in the analysis of single functions and combinations of functions found in radar and signal processing. Still, many problems that could have been tackled by using Fourier transforms may have gone unsolved because they require integration that is difficult and tedious. This newly revised and expanded edition of a classic Artech House book provides you with an up-to-date, coordinated system for performing Fourier transforms on a wide variety of functions. Along numerous updates throughout the book, the Second Edition includes a crit

  11. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  12. Arecibo Radar Observation of Near-Earth Asteroids: Expanded Sample Size, Determination of Radar Albedos, and Measurements of Polarization Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoly, Cassandra; Howell, Ellen S.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Springmann, Alessondra; Virkki, Anne; Nolan, Michael C.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.

    2017-10-01

    The Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population ranges in size from a few meters to more than 10 kilometers. NEAs have a wide variety of taxonomic classes, surface features, and shapes, including spheroids, binary objects, contact binaries, elongated, as well as irregular bodies. Using the Arecibo Observatory planetary radar system, we have measured apparent rotation rate, radar reflectivity, apparent diameter, and radar albedos for over 350 NEAs. The radar albedo is defined as the radar cross-section divided by the geometric cross-section. If a shape model is available, the actual cross-section is known at the time of the observation. Otherwise we derive a geometric cross-section from a measured diameter. When radar imaging is available, the diameter was measured from the apparent range depth. However, when radar imaging was not available, we used the continuous wave (CW) bandwidth radar measurements in conjunction with the period of the object. The CW bandwidth provides apparent rotation rate, which, given an independent rotation measurement, such as from lightcurves, constrains the size of the object. We assumed an equatorial view unless we knew the pole orientation, which gives a lower limit on the diameter. The CW also provides the polarization ratio, which is the ratio of the SC and OC cross-sections.We confirm the trend found by Benner et al. (2008) that taxonomic types E and V have very high polarization ratios. We have obtained a larger sample and can analyze additional trends with spin, size, rotation rate, taxonomic class, polarization ratio, and radar albedo to interpret the origin of the NEAs and their dynamical processes. The distribution of radar albedo and polarization ratio at the smallest diameters (≤50 m) differs from the distribution of larger objects (>50 m), although the sample size is limited. Additionally, we find more moderate radar albedos for the smallest NEAs when compared to those with diameters 50-150 m. We will present additional trends we

  13. Characterization and Spectral Monitoring of Coffee Lands in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Maciel, D. A.; Gonçalves, T. G.; Dantas, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, coffee production has great economic and social importance. Despite this fact, there is still a shortage of information regarding its spatial distribution, crop management and environment. The aim of this study was to carry out spectral monitoring of coffee lands and to characterize their environments using geotechnologies. Coffee fields with contiguous areas over 0.01 km2 within a 488.5 km2 region in the south of Minas Gerais state were selected for the study. Spectral data from the sensors OLI/Landsat 8 and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission from 2014 to 2015 were obtained, as well as information on production areas, surface temperature, vegetation indexes, altitude and slope, were gathered and analyzed. The results indicate that there is great variation in the NDVI and NDWI values, with means ranging from 0.21 to 0.91 (NDVI) and 0.108 to 0.543 (NDWI). The altitude ranged from 803 to 1150 m, and the surface temperature from 20.9°C to 27.6°C. The altitude and the surface temperature distribution patterns were correlated with the vegetation indexes. The slope classes were very homogeneous, predominantly with declivities between 8 to 20 %, characterized as wavy relief. This study made possible the characterization and monitoring of coffee lands and its results may be instrumental in decision-making processes related to coffee management.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION AND SPECTRAL MONITORING OF COFFEE LANDS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. R. Alves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, coffee production has great economic and social importance. Despite this fact, there is still a shortage of information regarding its spatial distribution, crop management and environment. The aim of this study was to carry out spectral monitoring of coffee lands and to characterize their environments using geotechnologies. Coffee fields with contiguous areas over 0.01 km2 within a 488.5 km2 region in the south of Minas Gerais state were selected for the study. Spectral data from the sensors OLI/Landsat 8 and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission from 2014 to 2015 were obtained, as well as information on production areas, surface temperature, vegetation indexes, altitude and slope, were gathered and analyzed. The results indicate that there is great variation in the NDVI and NDWI values, with means ranging from 0.21 to 0.91 (NDVI and 0.108 to 0.543 (NDWI. The altitude ranged from 803 to 1150 m, and the surface temperature from 20.9°C to 27.6°C. The altitude and the surface temperature distribution patterns were correlated with the vegetation indexes. The slope classes were very homogeneous, predominantly with declivities between 8 to 20 %, characterized as wavy relief. This study made possible the characterization and monitoring of coffee lands and its results may be instrumental in decision-making processes related to coffee management.

  15. P-band radar ice sounding in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2012-01-01

    In February 2011, the Polarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder (POLARIS) was flown in Antarctica in order to assess the feasibility of a potential space-based radar ice sounding mission. The campaign has demonstrated that the basal return is detectable in areas with up to 3 km thick cold ice, in a...

  16. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  17. Orbital radar studies of paleodrainages in the central Namib Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, N.; Schaber, G.G.; Teller, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Orbital radar images of the central Namib Desert show clearly the extent of relict fluvial deposits associated with former courses of the Tsondab and Kuiseb rivers. South of the Kuiseb River, radar data show the existence of a drainage network developed in calcrete-cemented late Tertiary fluvial deposits. The sand-filled paleovalleys are imaged as radar-dark tones in contrast to the radar-bright interfluves where the calcreted gravels occur. The drainage network developed as a result of local runoff from indurated gravels and channeled surface and subsurface flow to the sites of the many interdune lacustrine deposits found in the area. (C) Elsevier Science Inc., 2000.Orbital radar images of the central Namib Desert show clearly the extent of relict fluvial deposits associated with former courses of the Tsondab and Kuiseb rivers. South of the Kuiseb River, radar data show the existence of a drainage network developed in calcrete-cemented late Tertiary fluvial deposits. The sand-filled paleovalleys are imaged as radar-dark tones in contrast to the radar-bright interfluves where the calcreted gravels occur. The drainage network developed as a result of local runoff from indurated gravels and channeled surface and subsurface flow to the sites of the many interdune lacustrine deposits found in the area.

  18. A Defender-Attacker Optimization of Port Radar Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    security; optimization; attacker-defender “And thence discover how with most advantage They may vex us with shot, or with assault.” Shakespeare , KingHenryVI...1. INTRODUCTION We introduce a new planning tool for locating shore radars and mobile picket boats with radar to maximize the probabil- ity that one

  19. A Simple Signal Processing Architecture for Instantaneous Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Stephen D. Howard, A. Robert Calderbank, Fellow, IEEE, and William Moran, Member, IEEE Abstract—This paper describes a new radar primitive that en...Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems, 3rd ed. New York: Mc- Graw -Hill, 2001. [14] S. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless

  20. Rainfall estimation for hydrology using volumetric weather radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses specifically on weather radar rainfall measurements in strati form precipitation. In North-Western Europe this type of precipitation is most dominant in winter and leads to the largest hydro logical response of catchments. Unfortunately, the quality of uncorrected radar rainfall

  1. Utilizing the Vertical Variability of Precipitation to Improve Radar QPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Patrick N.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of the melting layer and raindrop size distribution can be exploited to further improve radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). Using dual-polarimetric radar and disdrometers, we found that the characteristic size of raindrops reaching the ground in stratiform precipitation often varies linearly with the depth of the melting layer. As a result, a radar rainfall estimator was formulated using D(sub m) that can be employed by polarimetric as well as dual-frequency radars (e.g., space-based radars such as the GPM DPR), to lower the bias and uncertainty of conventional single radar parameter rainfall estimates by as much as 20%. Polarimetric radar also suffers from issues associated with sampling the vertical distribution of precipitation. Hence, we characterized the vertical profile of polarimetric parameters (VP3)-a radar manifestation of the evolving size and shape of hydrometeors as they fall to the ground-on dual-polarimetric rainfall estimation. The VP3 revealed that the profile of ZDR in stratiform rainfall can bias dual-polarimetric rainfall estimators by as much as 50%, even after correction for the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). The VP3 correction technique that we developed can improve operational dual-polarimetric rainfall estimates by 13% beyond that offered by a VPR correction alone.

  2. Synthetic pulse radar including a microprocessor based controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.C.; Rubin, L.A.; Still, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to pulse radar detection of targets in extended media, including natural phenomena such as oil, coal and ore deposits within the earth. In particular, this invention relates to a pulse radar system employing a synthetic pulse formed from a fourier spectrum of frequencies generated and detected by a digitally controlled transmitter and receiver circuits

  3. Overview of radar intra-pulse modulation recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Hanlin; Li, Yanling

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces the current radar intra-pulse modulation method, describes the status quo and development direction of the intentional modulation and unintentional modulation in the pulse, and summarizes the existing problems and prospects for the future. Looking forward to the future, and providing a reference direction for the research on radar signal recognition in the next step.

  4. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  5. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  6. Radar remote sensing to support tropical forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This text describes an investigation into the potential of radar remote sensing for application to tropical forest management. The information content of various radar images is compared and assessed with regard to the information requirements of parties involved in tropical forest

  7. Human motion estimation with multiple frequency modulated continuous wave radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, P.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Human motion estimation is an important issue in automotive, security or home automation applications. Radar systems are well suited for this because they are robust, are independent of day or night conditions and have accurate range and speed domain. The human response in a radar range-speed-time

  8. Advanced Architectures for Modern Weather/Multifunction Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Radar (PAIR) system, a mobile , C-band, active phased array with multiple digital beams for imaging (under development). The digital transceiver... backend from Horus is also being used to drive row-based analog subarrays of the future Polarimetric Atmospheric Imaging Radar (PAIR, Fig. 6), which is

  9. Radar Resource Management in a Dense Target Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    linear programming MFR multifunction phased array radar MILP mixed integer linear programming NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization PDF probability...1: INTRODUCTION Multifunction phased array radars ( MFRs ) are capable of performing various tasks in rapid succession. The performance of target search...detect, and track operations concurrently with missile guidance functions allow MFRs to deliver superior battle space awareness and air defense

  10. Research at the Stanford Center for Radar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The research is reported in the applications of radar and radio techniques to the study of the solar system, and to space programs. Experiments reported include: bistatic-radar on Apollo missions, development of an unmanned geophysical observatory in the Antartic, Bragg scattering probes of sea states, characteristics of dense solar wind disturbances, and satellite communications for Alaska.

  11. Satellite-generated radar images of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanda, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on board of SEASAT was the first non-military satellite-borne radar producing high-resolution images of the earth. Several examples of European scenes are discussed to demonstrate the properties of presently available optically processes images. (orig.)

  12. Fusion of Radar and EO-sensors for Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.J.H.M.; Theil, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion of radar and EO-sensors is investigated for the purpose of surveillance in littoral waters is. All sensors are considered to be co-located with respect to the distance, typically 1 to 10 km, of the area under surveillance. The sensor suite is a coherent polarimetric radar in combination with

  13. Radar Remote Sensing of Agricultural Canopies : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steele-Dunne, S.C.; McNairn, Heather; Monsivais-Huertero, Alejandro; Judge, Jasmeet; Liu, Pang Wei; Papathanassiou, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Observations from spaceborne radar contain considerable information about vegetation dynamics.The ability to extract this information could lead to improved soil moisture retrievals and the increased capacity to monitor vegetation phenology and water stress using radar data.The purpose of this

  14. Noise Tomography and Adaptive Illumination in Noise Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    transform of scatu , defined in (2.15), in y–direction can be written as 2 ( , , ) ( , ) 2 j dn n scat n y scat n y k EU k x d k e O k k j...and J. A. Henning , "Radar penetration imaging using ultra- wideband (UWB) random noise waveforms," IEE Proceedings-Radar Sonar and Navigation, vol

  15. Radar observation of the equatorial counter-electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanuise, C.; Crochet, M.; Gouin, P.; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan

    1979-01-01

    Electron drift velocity in the equatorial electrojet has been measured for a few years by coherent radar techniques in Africa. For the first time such measurements were performed during a strong reversal of the ionospheric current dubbed 'counter-electrojet'. These observations agree with the theories of the plasma instabilities at the origin of the electron density irregularities giving the radar echoes

  16. Mars Express radar collects first surface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    This radar started its science operations on 4 July, the same day as its first commissioning phase ended. Due to the late deployment of Marsis, it was decided to split the commissioning, originally planned to last four weeks, into two phases; the second will take place in December. It has thus been possible to begin scientific observations with the instrument earlier than initially planned, while it is still Martian night-time. This is the best environmental condition for subsurface sounding, as in daytime the ionosphere is more ‘energised’ and disturbs the radio signals used for subsurface observations. As from the start of commissioning, the two 20m-long antenna booms have been sending radio signals towards the Martian surface and receiving echoes back. “The commissioning procedure confirmed that the radar is working very well and that it can be operated at full power without interfering with any of the spacecraft systems,” says Roberto Seu, Instrument Manager for Marsis, of University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Italy. Marsis is a very complex instrument, capable of operating at different frequency bands. Lower frequencies are best suited to probing the subsurface, the highest frequencies are used to probe shallow subsurface depths, while all frequencies are suited to studying the surface and the upper atmospheric layer of Mars. “During commissioning we worked to test all transmission modes and optimise the radar's performance around Mars,” says Professor Giovanni Picardi, Principal Investigator for Marsis, of University of Rome ‘LaSapienza’. “The result is that since we started the scientific observations in early July, we have been receiving very clean surface echoes back, and first indications about the ionosphere.” The Marsis radar is designed to operate around the orbit ‘pericentre’, when the spacecraft is closer to the planet’s surface. In each orbit, the radar is switched on for 36minutes around this point, spending the middle 26

  17. Evaluation of radar imagery for geological and cartographic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gerald K.; Sheehan, Cynthia A.

    1981-01-01

    The House/Senate conference report on H.R. 4930 (96th Congress), the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations bill, 1980, stated that the U.S. Geological Survey should "begin the use of side-looking airborne radar imagery for topographic and geological mapping, and geological resource surveys in promising areas, particularly Alaska." In response to this mandate, the Survey acquired radar data and began scientific studies to analyze and interpret these data. About 70 percent of the project funding was used to acquire radar imagery and to evaluate Alaskan applications. Results of these studies indicate that radar images have a unique incremental value for certain geologic and cartographic applications but that the images are best suited for use as supplemental information sources or as primary data sources in areas of persistent cloud cover.The value of radar data is greatest for geologic mapping and resource surveys, particularly for mineral and petroleum exploration, where the objective is to locate any single feature or group of features that may control the occurrences of these resources. Radar images are considered by oil and gas companies to be worth the cost of data acquisition within a limited area of active exploration.Radar images also have incremental value for geologic site studies and hazard mapping. The need in these cases is TO inventory all geologic hazards to human life, property, resources, and the environment. For other geologic applications, radar images have a relatively small incremental value over a combination of Landsat images and aerial photographs.The value of radar images for cartographic applications is minimal, except when they are used as a substitute for aerial photographs and topographic maps in persistently cloud-covered areas. If conventional data sources are not available, radar images provide useful information on terrain relief, landforms, drainage patterns, and land cover. Screen less lithography is a low

  18. Differential Absorption Radar: An Emerging Technology for Remote Sounding of Water Vapor Within Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebsock, M. D.; Millan Valle, L. F.; Cooper, K. B.; Siles, J.; Monje, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of our efforts to build and demonstrate the first Differential Absorption Radar (DAR), which will provide unique capabilities to remotely sound for water vapor within cloudy and precipitating atmospheres. The approach leverages multiple radar channels located near the 183 GHz water vapor absorption feature to simultaneously derive microphysical and water vapor profiles. The DAR technique has the potential to neatly complement existing water vapor sounding techniques such as infrared and microwave sounding and GPS radio occultation. These precisions rival those of existing water vapor remote sensing instruments. The approach works best from above clouds because the water vapor burden and line width increases towards the Earth surface allowing increased sampling from the top-down compared with bottom-up. From an airborne or satellite platform channels can be selected that target either upper-tropospheric or lower-tropospheric clouds. Our theoretical studies suggest that the water vapor concentration can be retrieved to within 1-3 gm-3 and the column integrated water vapor can be retrieved to within 1 kgm-2. The high-frequency radar is only recently enabled by technological advances that have allowed us to demonstrate 0.5 W of continuous power near 183 GHz. We are currently developing an airborne DAR using a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) architecture with a quasi-optical duplexer providing 80 dB of transmit/receive isolation. A prototype of this instrument recently made the first ever range resolved DAR measurements of humidity out to several hundred meters during a light rain event at JPL. The spectral dependence of the attenuation was in excellent agreement with the predicted attenuation based on nearby weather stations, proving for the first time the feasibility of the concept. A major impediment to implementing DAR is the international regulation of radio-frequency transmissions below 300 GHz. The major roadblocks and potential

  19. Single Frequency Network Based Distributed Passive Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Xian-rong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and application of passive radar are heading from single transmitter-receiver pair to multiple transmitter-receiver pairs. As an important class of the illuminators of opportunity, most of modern digital broadcasting and television systems work on Single Frequency Network (SFN, which intrinsically determines that the passive radar based on such illuminators must be distributed and networked. In consideration of the remarkable working and processing mode of passive radar under SFN configuration, this paper proposes the concept of SFN-based Distributed Passive Radar (SDPR. The main characteristics and key problems of SDPR are first described. Then several potential solutions are discussed for part of the key technologies. The feasibility of SDPR is demonstrated by preliminary experimental results. Finally, the concept of four network convergence that includes the broadcast based passive radar network is conceived, and its application prospects are discussed.

  20. Low Complexity Receiver Design for MIMO-Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an algorithm for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is proposed. It has low computational complexity compared to the available schemes, and relatively low side-lobe-levels in the receive beampattern compared to the phased-array and MIMO-radar. In the proposed algorithm, the received signal vector of MIMO-radar is divided into sub-vectors, and each sub-vector is multiplied with the corresponding weight vector. The number of sub-vectors and weight vectors are optimally found to maximise the received signal power from the target of interest direction. The proposed scheme can be effectively applied in passive radars to minimise the side-lobe levels and place deep nulls for interferers in the receive beampattern. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has relatively lower side lobe levels and better detection capabilities compared to MIMO-radar and phased-array.