Sample records for radar cursor technique

  1. Novel radar techniques and applications

    Klemm, Richard; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Nickel, Ulrich


    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Real aperture array radar; Imaging radar and Passive and multistatic radar.

  2. Novel radar techniques and applications

    Klemm, Richard; Koch, Wolfgang


    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Waveform diversity and cognitive radar and Target tracking and data fusion.

  3. Radar techniques using array antennas

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter


    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  4. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Stephen M. Wesson


    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  5. Principles of modern radar advanced techniques

    Melvin, William


    Principles of Modern Radar: Advanced Techniques is a professional reference for practicing engineers that provides a stepping stone to advanced practice with in-depth discussions of the most commonly used advanced techniques for radar design. It will also serve advanced radar academic and training courses with a complete set of problems for students as well as solutions for instructors.

  6. Modern Radar Techniques for Geophysical Applications: Two Examples

    Arokiasamy, B. J.; Bianchi, C.; Sciacca, U.; Tutone, G.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E.


    The last decade of the evolution of radar was heavily influenced by the rapid increase in the information processing capabilities. Advances in solid state radio HF devices, digital technology, computing architectures and software offered the designers to develop very efficient radars. In designing modern radars the emphasis goes towards the simplification of the system hardware, reduction of overall power, which is compensated by coding and real time signal processing techniques. Radars are commonly employed in geophysical radio soundings like probing the ionosphere; stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast, GPR and radio-glaciology etc. In the laboratorio di Geofisica Ambientale of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy, we developed two pulse compression radars. The first is a HF radar called AIS-INGV; Advanced Ionospheric Sounder designed both for the purpose of research and for routine service of the HF radio wave propagation forecast. The second is a VHF radar called GLACIORADAR, which will be substituting the high power envelope radar used by the Italian Glaciological group. This will be employed in studying the sub glacial structures of Antarctica, giving information about layering, the bed rock and sub glacial lakes if present. These are low power radars, which heavily rely on advanced hardware and powerful real time signal processing. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  7. Use of ground-penetrating radar techniques in archaeological investigations

    Doolittle, James A.; Miller, W. Frank


    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques are increasingly being used to aid reconnaissance and pre-excavation surveys at many archaeological sites. As a 'remote sensing' tool, GPR provides a high resolution graphic profile of the subsurface. Radar profiles are used to detect, identify, and locate buried artifacts. Ground-penetrating radar provides a rapid, cost effective, and nondestructive method for identification and location analyses. The GPR can be used to facilitate excavation strategies, provide greater areal coverage per unit time and cost, minimize the number of unsuccessful exploratory excavations, and reduce unnecessary or unproductive expenditures of time and effort.

  8. A Processing Technique for OFDM-Modulated Wideband Radar Signals

    Tigrek, R.F.


    The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a multicarrier spread-spectrum technique which finds wide-spread use in communications. The OFDM pulse compression method that utilizes an OFDM communication signal for radar tasks has been developed and reported in this dissertation. Using

  9. Lightning Initiation Forecasting: An Operational Dual-Polarimetric Radar Technique

    Woodard, Crystal J.; Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Roeder, W. P.


    The objective of this NASA MSFC and NOAA CSTAR funded study is to develop and test operational forecast algorithms for the prediction of lightning initiation utilizing the C-band dual-polarimetric radar, UAHuntsville's Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR). Although there is a rich research history of radar signatures associated with lightning initiation, few studies have utilized dual-polarimetric radar signatures (e.g., Z(sub dr) columns) and capabilities (e.g., fuzzy-logic particle identification [PID] of precipitation ice) in an operational algorithm for first flash forecasting. The specific goal of this study is to develop and test polarimetric techniques that enhance the performance of current operational radar reflectivity based first flash algorithms. Improving lightning watch and warning performance will positively impact personnel safety in both work and leisure environments. Advanced warnings can provide space shuttle launch managers time to respond appropriately to secure equipment and personnel, while they can also provide appropriate warnings for spectators and players of leisure sporting events to seek safe shelter. Through the analysis of eight case dates, consisting of 35 pulse-type thunderstorms and 20 non-thunderstorm case studies, lightning initiation forecast techniques were developed and tested. The hypothesis is that the additional dual-polarimetric information could potentially reduce false alarms while maintaining high probability of detection and increasing lead-time for the prediction of the first lightning flash relative to reflectivity-only based techniques. To test the hypothesis, various physically-based techniques using polarimetric variables and/or PID categories, which are strongly correlated to initial storm electrification (e.g., large precipitation ice production via drop freezing), were benchmarked against the operational reflectivity-only based approaches to find the best compromise between

  10. Perceptual grouping effects on cursor movement expectations.

    Dorneich, Michael C; Hamblin, Christopher J; Lancaster, Jeff A; Olofinboba, Olu


    Two studies were conducted to develop an understanding of factors that drive user expectations when navigating between discrete elements on a display via a limited degree-of-freedom cursor control device. For the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle spacecraft, a free-floating cursor with a graphical user interface (GUI) would require an unachievable level of accuracy due to expected acceleration and vibration conditions during dynamic phases of flight. Therefore, Orion program proposed using a "caged" cursor to "jump" from one controllable element (node) on the GUI to another. However, nodes are not likely to be arranged on a rectilinear grid, and so movements between nodes are not obvious. Proximity between nodes, direction of nodes relative to each other, and context features may all contribute to user cursor movement expectations. In an initial study, we examined user expectations based on the nodes themselves. In a second study, we examined the effect of context features on user expectations. The studies established that perceptual grouping effects influence expectations to varying degrees. Based on these results, a simple rule set was developed to support users in building a straightforward mental model that closely matches their natural expectations for cursor movement. The results will help designers of display formats take advantage of the natural context-driven cursor movement expectations of users to reduce navigation errors, increase usability, and decrease access time. The rules set and guidelines tie theory to practice and can be applied in environments where vibration or acceleration are significant, including spacecraft, aircraft, and automobiles.

  11. Comparison of the performance of different radar pulse compression techniques in an incoherent scatter radar measurement

    B. Damtie


    Full Text Available Improving an estimate of an incoherent scatter radar signal is vital to provide reliable and unbiased information about the Earth's ionosphere. Thus optimizing the measurement spatial and temporal resolutions has attracted considerable attention. The optimization usually relies on employing different kinds of pulse compression filters in the analysis and a matched filter is perhaps the most widely used one. A mismatched filter has also been used in order to suppress the undesirable sidelobes that appear in the case of matched filtering. Moreover, recently an adaptive pulse compression method, which can be derived based on the minimum mean-square error estimate, has been proposed. In this paper we have investigated the performance of matched, mismatched and adaptive pulse compression methods in terms of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the variance and bias of the estimator. This is done by using different types of optimal radar waveforms. It is shown that for the case of low SNR the signal degradation associated to an adaptive filtering is less than that of the mismatched filtering. The SNR loss of both matched and adaptive pulse compression techniques was found to be nearly the same for most of the investigated codes for the case of high SNR. We have shown that the adaptive filtering technique is a compromise between matched and mismatched filtering method when one evaluates its performance in terms of the variance and the bias of the estimator. All the three analysis methods were found to have the same performance when a sidelobe-free matched filter code is employed.

  12. Comparison of the performance of different radar pulse compression techniques in an incoherent scatter radar measurement

    B. Damtie


    Full Text Available Improving an estimate of an incoherent scatter radar signal is vital to provide reliable and unbiased information about the Earth's ionosphere. Thus optimizing the measurement spatial and temporal resolutions has attracted considerable attention. The optimization usually relies on employing different kinds of pulse compression filters in the analysis and a matched filter is perhaps the most widely used one. A mismatched filter has also been used in order to suppress the undesirable sidelobes that appear in the case of matched filtering. Moreover, recently an adaptive pulse compression method, which can be derived based on the minimum mean-square error estimate, has been proposed. In this paper we have investigated the performance of matched, mismatched and adaptive pulse compression methods in terms of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the variance and bias of the estimator. This is done by using different types of optimal radar waveforms. It is shown that for the case of low SNR the signal degradation associated to an adaptive filtering is less than that of the mismatched filtering. The SNR loss of both matched and adaptive pulse compression techniques was found to be nearly the same for most of the investigated codes for the case of high SNR. We have shown that the adaptive filtering technique is a compromise between matched and mismatched filtering method when one evaluates its performance in terms of the variance and the bias of the estimator. All the three analysis methods were found to have the same performance when a sidelobe-free matched filter code is employed.

  13. A Dual-Wavelength Radar Technique to Detect Hydrometeor Phases

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert


    This study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of a Ku- and Ka-band space/air-borne dual wavelength radar algorithm to discriminate various phase states of precipitating hydrometeors. A phase-state classification algorithm has been developed from the radar measurements of snow, mixed-phase and rain obtained from stratiform storms. The algorithm, presented in the form of the look-up table that links the Ku-band radar reflectivities and dual-frequency ratio (DFR) to the phase states of hydrometeors, is checked by applying it to the measurements of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Airborne Precipitation Radar Second Generation (APR-2). In creating the statistically-based phase look-up table, the attenuation corrected (or true) radar reflectivity factors are employed, leading to better accuracy in determining the hydrometeor phase. In practice, however, the true radar reflectivities are not always available before the phase states of the hydrometeors are determined. Therefore, it is desirable to make use of the measured radar reflectivities in classifying the phase states. To do this, a phase-identification procedure is proposed that uses only measured radar reflectivities. The procedure is then tested using APR-2 airborne radar data. Analysis of the classification results in stratiform rain indicates that the regions of snow, mixed-phase and rain derived from the phase-identification algorithm coincide reasonably well with those determined from the measured radar reflectivities and linear depolarization ratio (LDR).

  14. High Resolution Radar Imaging using Coherent MultiBand Processing Techniques

    Dorp, Ph. van; Ebeling, R.P.; Huizing, A.G.


    High resolution radar imaging techniques can be used in ballistic missile defence systems to determine the type of ballistic missile during the boost phase (threat typing) and to discriminate different parts of a ballistic missile after the boost phase. The applied radar imaging technique is 2D

  15. A technique to obtain a multiparameter radar rainfall algorithm using the probability matching procedure

    Gorgucci, E.; Scarchilli, G.


    The natural cumulative distributions of rainfall observed by a network of rain gauges and a multiparameter radar are matched to derive multiparameter radar algorithms for rainfall estimation. The use of multiparameter radar measurements in a statistical framework to estimate rainfall is resented in this paper, The techniques developed in this paper are applied to the radar and rain gauge measurement of rainfall observed in central Florida and central Italy. Conventional pointwise estimates of rainfall are also compared. The probability matching procedure, when applied to the radar and surface measurements, shows that multiparameter radar algorithms can match the probability distribution function better than the reflectivity-based algorithms. It is also shown that the multiparameter radar algorithm derived matching the cumulative distribution function of rainfall provides more accurate estimates of rainfall on the ground in comparison to any conventional reflectivity-based algorithm

  16. A Review of Ground Target Detection and Classification Techniques in Forward Scattering Radars

    M. E. A. Kanona


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of target detection and classification in forward scattering radar (FSR which is a special state of bistatic radars, designed to detect and track moving targets in the narrow region along the transmitter-receiver base line. FSR has advantages and incredible features over other types of radar configurations. All previous studies proved that FSR can be used as an alternative system for ground target detection and classification. The radar and FSR fundamentals were addressed and classification algorithms and techniques were debated. On the other hand, the current and future applications and the limitations of FSR were discussed.

  17. Proposed satellite position determination systems and techniques for Geostationary Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Martin Fuster, Roger; Fernández Usón, Marc; Casado Blanco, David; Broquetas Ibars, Antoni


    This paper proposes two different calibration techniques for Geostationary Synthetic Aperture Radar (GEOSAR) missions requiring a high precision positioning, based on Active Radar Calibrators and Ground Based Interferometry. The research is enclosed in the preparation studies of a future GEOSAR mission providing continuous monitoring at continental scale. Peer Reviewed

  18. Near-field three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and applications.

    Sheen, David; McMakin, Douglas; Hall, Thomas


    Three-dimensional radio frequency imaging techniques have been developed for a variety of near-field applications, including radar cross-section imaging, concealed weapon detection, ground penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging, and nondestructive evaluation. These methods employ active radar transceivers that operate at various frequency ranges covering a wide range, from less than 100 MHz to in excess of 350 GHz, with the frequency range customized for each application. Computational wavefront reconstruction imaging techniques have been developed that optimize the resolution and illumination quality of the images. In this paper, rectilinear and cylindrical three-dimensional imaging techniques are described along with several application results.

  19. A technique for the radar cross-section estimation of axisymmetric plasmoid

    Naumov, N D; Petrovskiy, V P; Sasinovskiy, Yu K; Shkatov, O Yu


    A model for the radio waves backscattering from both penetrable plasma and reflecting plasma is developed. The technique proposed is based on Huygens's principle and reduces the radar cross-section estimation to numerical integrations. (paper)

  20. Tactile object exploration using cursor navigation sensors

    Kraft, Dirk; Bierbaum, Alexander; Kjaergaard, Morten


    In robotic applications tactile sensor systems serve the purpose of localizing a contact point and measuring contact forces. We have investigated the applicability of a sensorial device commonly used in cursor navigation technology for tactile sensing in robotics. We show the potential of this se......In robotic applications tactile sensor systems serve the purpose of localizing a contact point and measuring contact forces. We have investigated the applicability of a sensorial device commonly used in cursor navigation technology for tactile sensing in robotics. We show the potential...... of this sensor for active haptic exploration. More specifically, we present experiments and results which demonstrate the extraction of relevant object properties such as local shape, weight and elasticity using this technology. Besides its low price due to mass production and its modularity, an interesting...... aspect of this sensor is that beside a localization of contact points and measurement of the contact normal force also shear forces can be measured. This is relevant for many applications such as surface normal estimation and weight measurements. Scalable tactile sensor arrays have been developed...

  1. Wearable wireless User Interface Cursor-Controller (UIC-C).

    Marjanovic, Nicholas; Kerr, Kevin; Aranda, Ricardo; Hickey, Richard; Esmailbeigi, Hananeh


    Controlling a computer or a smartphone's cursor allows the user to access a world full of information. For millions of people with limited upper extremities motor function, controlling the cursor becomes profoundly difficult. Our team has developed the User Interface Cursor-Controller (UIC-C) to assist the impaired individuals in regaining control over the cursor. The UIC-C is a hands-free device that utilizes the tongue muscle to control the cursor movements. The entire device is housed inside a subject specific retainer. The user maneuvers the cursor by manipulating a joystick imbedded inside the retainer via their tongue. The joystick movement commands are sent to an electronic device via a Bluetooth connection. The device is readily recognizable as a cursor controller by any Bluetooth enabled electronic device. The device testing results have shown that the time it takes the user to control the cursor accurately via the UIC-C is about three times longer than a standard computer mouse controlled via the hand. The device does not require any permanent modifications to the body; therefore, it could be used during the period of acute rehabilitation of the hands. With the development of modern smart homes, and enhancement electronics controlled by the computer, UIC-C could be integrated into a system that enables individuals with permanent impairment, the ability to control the cursor. In conclusion, the UIC-C device is designed with the goal of allowing the user to accurately control a cursor during the periods of either acute or permanent upper extremities impairment.

  2. Low Power CMOS Circuit Techniques for Optical Interconnects and High Speed Pulse Compression Radar

    Li, Jun


    High performance computing and high resolution range sensor motivates the intelligent system innovations such as smart car, smart home/community and 3D motion games. Most importantly, 3D graphics technique requires high performance computation to provide high quality and vivid real-time videos. Accurate motion sensing requires high resolution radar sensor. However, in general, data transmission limits the large scale computation while high resolution radar signal processor limits the detectio...

  3. Radar-raingauge data combination techniques: a revision and analysis of their suitability for urban hydrology.

    Wang, Li-Pen; Ochoa-Rodríguez, Susana; Simões, Nuno Eduardo; Onof, Christian; Maksimović, Cedo


    The applicability of the operational radar and raingauge networks for urban hydrology is insufficient. Radar rainfall estimates provide a good description of the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall; however, their accuracy is in general insufficient. It is therefore necessary to adjust radar measurements using raingauge data, which provide accurate point rainfall information. Several gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment techniques have been developed and mainly applied at coarser spatial and temporal scales; however, their suitability for small-scale urban hydrology is seldom explored. In this paper a review of gauge-based adjustment techniques is first provided. After that, two techniques, respectively based upon the ideas of mean bias reduction and error variance minimisation, were selected and tested using as case study an urban catchment (∼8.65 km(2)) in North-East London. The radar rainfall estimates of four historical events (2010-2012) were adjusted using in situ raingauge estimates and the adjusted rainfall fields were applied to the hydraulic model of the study area. The results show that both techniques can effectively reduce mean bias; however, the technique based upon error variance minimisation can in general better reproduce the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, which proved to have a significant impact on the subsequent hydraulic outputs. This suggests that error variance minimisation based methods may be more appropriate for urban-scale hydrological applications.

  4. Innovative operating modes and techniques for the spaceborne imaging radar-C instrument

    Huneycutt, Bryan L.


    The operation of the spaceborne imaging radar-C (SIR-C) is discussed. The SIR-C instrument has been designed to obtain simultaneous multifrequency and simultaneous multipolarization radar images from a low earth orbit. It is a multiparameter imaging radar which will be flown during at least two different seasons. The instrument has been designed to operate in innovative modes such as the squint alignment mode, the extended aperture mode, the scansar mode, and the interferometry mode. The instrument has been designed to demonstrate innovative engineering techniques such as beam nulling for echo tracking, pulse-repetition frquency hopping for Doppler centroid tracking, generating the frequency step chirp for radar parameter flexibility, block floating point quantizing for data rate compression, and elevation beamwidth broadening for increasing the swath illumination.

  5. Reading Emotion From Mouse Cursor Motions: Affective Computing Approach.

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Xiao, Kunchen


    Affective computing research has advanced emotion recognition systems using facial expressions, voices, gaits, and physiological signals, yet these methods are often impractical. This study integrates mouse cursor motion analysis into affective computing and investigates the idea that movements of the computer cursor can provide information about emotion of the computer user. We extracted 16-26 trajectory features during a choice-reaching task and examined the link between emotion and cursor motions. Participants were induced for positive or negative emotions by music, film clips, or emotional pictures, and they indicated their emotions with questionnaires. Our 10-fold cross-validation analysis shows that statistical models formed from "known" participants (training data) could predict nearly 10%-20% of the variance of positive affect and attentiveness ratings of "unknown" participants, suggesting that cursor movement patterns such as the area under curve and direction change help infer emotions of computer users. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Super Resolution and Interference Suppression Technique applied to SHARAD Radar Data

    Raguso, M. C.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Seu, R.; Piazzo, L.


    We will present a super resolution and interference suppression technique applied to the data acquired by the SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) on board the NASA's 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, currently operating around Mars [1]. The algorithms allow to improve the range resolution roughly by a factor of 3 and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) by a several decibels. Range compression algorithms usually adopt conventional Fourier transform techniques, which are limited in the resolution by the transmitted signal bandwidth, analogous to the Rayleigh's criterion in optics. In this work, we investigate a super resolution method based on autoregressive models and linear prediction techniques [2]. Starting from the estimation of the linear prediction coefficients from the spectral data, the algorithm performs the radar bandwidth extrapolation (BWE), thereby improving the range resolution of the pulse-compressed coherent radar data. Moreover, the EMIs (ElectroMagnetic Interferences) are detected and the spectra is interpolated in order to reconstruct an interference free spectrum, thereby improving the SNR. The algorithm can be applied to the single complex look image after synthetic aperture processing (SAR). We apply the proposed algorithm to simulated as well as to real radar data. We will demonstrate the effective enhancement on vertical resolution with respect to the classical spectral estimator. We will show that the imaging of the subsurface layered structures observed in radargrams is improved, allowing additional insights for the scientific community in the interpretation of the SHARAD radar data, which will help to further our understanding of the formation and evolution of known geological features on Mars. References: [1] Seu et al. 2007, Science, 2007, 317, 1715-1718 [2] K.M. Cuomo, "A Bandwidth Extrapolation Technique for Improved Range Resolution of Coherent Radar Data", Project Report CJP-60, Revision 1, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (4 Dec. 1992).

  7. A frequency domain radar interferometric imaging (FII) technique based on high-resolution methods

    Luce, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.; Helal, D.; Crochet, M.


    In the present work, we propose a frequency-domain interferometric imaging (FII) technique for a better knowledge of the vertical distribution of the atmospheric scatterers detected by MST radars. This is an extension of the dual frequency-domain interferometry (FDI) technique to multiple frequencies. Its objective is to reduce the ambiguity (resulting from the use of only two adjacent frequencies), inherent with the FDI technique. Different methods, commonly used in antenna array processing, are first described within the context of application to the FII technique. These methods are the Fourier-based imaging, the Capon's and the singular value decomposition method used with the MUSIC algorithm. Some preliminary simulations and tests performed on data collected with the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (Shigaraki, Japan) are also presented. This work is a first step in the developments of the FII technique which seems to be very promising.

  8. New Techniques for Radar Altimetry of Sea Ice and the Polar Oceans

    Armitage, T. W. K.; Kwok, R.; Egido, A.; Smith, W. H. F.; Cullen, R.


    Satellite radar altimetry has proven to be a valuable tool for remote sensing of the polar oceans, with techniques for estimating sea ice thickness and sea surface height in the ice-covered ocean advancing to the point of becoming routine, if not operational, products. Here, we explore new techniques in radar altimetry of the polar oceans and the sea ice cover. First, we present results from fully-focused SAR (FFSAR) altimetry; by accounting for the phase evolution of scatterers in the scene, the FFSAR technique applies an inter-burst coherent integration, potentially over the entire duration that a scatterer remains in the altimeter footprint, which can narrow the effective along track resolution to just 0.5m. We discuss the improvement of using interleaved operation over burst-more operation for applying FFSAR processing to data acquired by future missions, such as a potential CryoSat follow-on. Second, we present simulated sea ice retrievals from the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn), the instrument that will be launched on the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission in 2021, that is capable of producing swath images of surface elevation. These techniques offer the opportunity to advance our understanding of the physics of the ice-covered oceans, plus new insight into how we interpret more conventional radar altimetry data in these regions.

  9. Mouse cursor movement and eye tracking data as an indicator of pathologists′ attention when viewing digital whole slide images

    Vignesh Raghunath


    Full Text Available Context: Digital pathology has the potential to dramatically alter the way pathologists work, yet little is known about pathologists′ viewing behavior while interpreting digital whole slide images. While tracking pathologist eye movements when viewing digital slides may be the most direct method of capturing pathologists′ viewing strategies, this technique is cumbersome and technically challenging to use in remote settings. Tracking pathologist mouse cursor movements may serve as a practical method of studying digital slide interpretation, and mouse cursor data may illuminate pathologists′ viewing strategies and time expenditures in their interpretive workflow. Aims: To evaluate the utility of mouse cursor movement data, in addition to eye-tracking data, in studying pathologists′ attention and viewing behavior. Settings and Design: Pathologists (N = 7 viewed 10 digital whole slide images of breast tissue that were selected using a random stratified sampling technique to include a range of breast pathology diagnoses (benign/atypia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive breast cancer. A panel of three expert breast pathologists established a consensus diagnosis for each case using a modified Delphi approach. Materials and Methods: Participants′ foveal vision was tracked using SensoMotoric Instruments RED 60 Hz eye-tracking system. Mouse cursor movement was tracked using a custom MATLAB script. Statistical Analysis Used: Data on eye-gaze and mouse cursor position were gathered at fixed intervals and analyzed using distance comparisons and regression analyses by slide diagnosis and pathologist expertise. Pathologists′ accuracy (defined as percent agreement with the expert consensus diagnoses and efficiency (accuracy and speed were also analyzed. Results: Mean viewing time per slide was 75.2 seconds (SD = 38.42. Accuracy (percent agreement with expert consensus by diagnosis type was: 83% (benign/atypia; 48% (carcinoma in situ; and 93% (invasive

  10. Mouse cursor movement and eye tracking data as an indicator of pathologists’ attention when viewing digital whole slide images

    Raghunath, Vignesh; Braxton, Melissa O.; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Brunyé, Tad T.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Weaver, Donald L.; Elmore, Joann G.; Shapiro, Linda G.


    Context: Digital pathology has the potential to dramatically alter the way pathologists work, yet little is known about pathologists’ viewing behavior while interpreting digital whole slide images. While tracking pathologist eye movements when viewing digital slides may be the most direct method of capturing pathologists’ viewing strategies, this technique is cumbersome and technically challenging to use in remote settings. Tracking pathologist mouse cursor movements may serve as a practical method of studying digital slide interpretation, and mouse cursor data may illuminate pathologists’ viewing strategies and time expenditures in their interpretive workflow. Aims: To evaluate the utility of mouse cursor movement data, in addition to eye-tracking data, in studying pathologists’ attention and viewing behavior. Settings and Design: Pathologists (N = 7) viewed 10 digital whole slide images of breast tissue that were selected using a random stratified sampling technique to include a range of breast pathology diagnoses (benign/atypia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive breast cancer). A panel of three expert breast pathologists established a consensus diagnosis for each case using a modified Delphi approach. Materials and Methods: Participants’ foveal vision was tracked using SensoMotoric Instruments RED 60 Hz eye-tracking system. Mouse cursor movement was tracked using a custom MATLAB script. Statistical Analysis Used: Data on eye-gaze and mouse cursor position were gathered at fixed intervals and analyzed using distance comparisons and regression analyses by slide diagnosis and pathologist expertise. Pathologists’ accuracy (defined as percent agreement with the expert consensus diagnoses) and efficiency (accuracy and speed) were also analyzed. Results: Mean viewing time per slide was 75.2 seconds (SD = 38.42). Accuracy (percent agreement with expert consensus) by diagnosis type was: 83% (benign/atypia); 48% (carcinoma in situ); and 93% (invasive). Spatial

  11. A Technique for Real-Time Ionospheric Ranging Error Correction Based On Radar Dual-Frequency Detection

    Lyu, Jiang-Tao; Zhou, Chen


    Ionospheric refraction is one of the principal error sources for limiting the accuracy of radar systems for space target detection. High-accuracy measurement of the ionospheric electron density along the propagation path of radar wave is the most important procedure for the ionospheric refraction correction. Traditionally, the ionospheric model and the ionospheric detection instruments, like ionosonde or GPS receivers, are employed for obtaining the electron density. However, both methods are not capable of satisfying the requirements of correction accuracy for the advanced space target radar system. In this study, we propose a novel technique for ionospheric refraction correction based on radar dual-frequency detection. Radar target range measurements at two adjacent frequencies are utilized for calculating the electron density integral exactly along the propagation path of the radar wave, which can generate accurate ionospheric range correction. The implementation of radar dual-frequency detection is validated by a P band radar located in midlatitude China. The experimental results present that the accuracy of this novel technique is more accurate than the traditional ionospheric model correction. The technique proposed in this study is very promising for the high-accuracy radar detection and tracking of objects in geospace.

  12. Development of Radar-Satellite Blended QPF (Quantitative Precipitation Forecast) Technique for heavy rainfall

    Jang, Sangmin; Yoon, Sunkwon; Rhee, Jinyoung; Park, Kyungwon


    Due to the recent extreme weather and climate change, a frequency and size of localized heavy rainfall increases and it may bring various hazards including sediment-related disasters, flooding and inundation. To prevent and mitigate damage from such disasters, very short range forecasting and nowcasting of precipitation amounts are very important. Weather radar data very useful in monitoring and forecasting because weather radar has high resolution in spatial and temporal. Generally, extrapolation based on the motion vector is the best method of precipitation forecasting using radar rainfall data for a time frame within a few hours from the present. However, there is a need for improvement due to the radar rainfall being less accurate than rain-gauge on surface. To improve the radar rainfall and to take advantage of the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite) data, a technique to blend the different data types for very short range forecasting purposes was developed in the present study. The motion vector of precipitation systems are estimated using 1.5km CAPPI (Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator) reflectivity by pattern matching method, which indicates the systems' direction and speed of movement and blended radar-COMS rain field is used for initial data. Since the original horizontal resolution of COMS is 4 km while that of radar is about 1 km, spatial downscaling technique is used to downscale the COMS data from 4 to 1 km pixels in order to match with the radar data. The accuracies of rainfall forecasting data were verified utilizing AWS (Automatic Weather System) observed data for an extreme rainfall occurred in the southern part of Korean Peninsula on 25 August 2014. The results of this study will be used as input data for an urban stream real-time flood early warning system and a prediction model of landslide. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by

  13. Detection of Moving Targets Based on Doppler Spectrum Analysis Technique for Passive Coherent Radar

    Zhao Yao-dong


    Full Text Available A novel method of moving targets detection taking Doppler spectrum analysis technique for Passive Coherent Radar (PCR is provided. After dividing the receiving signals into segments as pulse series, it utilizes the technique of pulse compress and Doppler processing to detect and locate the targets. Based on the algorithm for Pulse-Doppler (PD radar, the equipollence between continuous and pulsed wave in match filtering is proved and details of this method are introduced. To compare it with the traditional method of Cross-Ambiguity Function (CAF calculation, the relationship and mathematical modes of them are analyzed, with some suggestions on parameters choosing. With little influence to the gain of targets, the method can greatly promote the processing efficiency. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by offline processing real collected data sets and simulation results.

  14. The Effect of Direction on Cursor Moving Kinematics

    Chiu-Ping Lu


    Full Text Available There have been only few studies to substantiate the kinematic characteristics of cursor movement. In this study, a quantitative experimental research method was used to explore the effect of moving direction on the kinematics of cursor movement in 24 typical young persons using our previously developed computerized measuring program. The results of multiple one way repeated measures ANOVAs and post hoc LSD tests demonstrated that the moving direction had effects on average velocity, movement time, movement unit and peak velocity. Moving leftward showed better efficiency than moving rightward, upward and downward from the kinematic evidences such as velocity, movement unit and time. Moreover, the unique pattern of the power spectral density (PSD of velocity (strategy for power application explained why the smoothness was still maintained while moving leftward even under an unstable situation with larger momentum. Moreover, the information from this cursor moving study can guide us to relocate the toolbars and icons in the window interface, especially for individuals with physical disabilities whose performances are easily interrupted while controlling the cursor in specific directions.

  15. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.


    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  16. An overview of data acquisition, signal coding and data analysis techniques for MST radars

    Rastogi, P. K.


    An overview is given of the data acquisition, signal processing, and data analysis techniques that are currently in use with high power MST/ST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere/stratosphere troposphere) radars. This review supplements the works of Rastogi (1983) and Farley (1984) presented at previous MAP workshops. A general description is given of data acquisition and signal processing operations and they are characterized on the basis of their disparate time scales. Then signal coding, a brief description of frequently used codes, and their limitations are discussed, and finally, several aspects of statistical data processing such as signal statistics, power spectrum and autocovariance analysis, outlier removal techniques are discussed.

  17. An Improved Clutter Suppression Method for Weather Radars Using Multiple Pulse Repetition Time Technique

    Yingjie Yu


    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an improved clutter suppression method for the multiple pulse repetition time (PRT technique based on simulated radar data. The suppression method is constructed using maximum likelihood methodology in time domain and is called parametric time domain method (PTDM. The procedure relies on the assumption that precipitation and clutter signal spectra follow a Gaussian functional form. The multiple interleaved pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs that are used in this work are set to four PRFs (952, 833, 667, and 513 Hz. Based on radar simulation, it is shown that the new method can provide accurate retrieval of Doppler velocity even in the case of strong clutter contamination. The obtained velocity is nearly unbiased for all the range of Nyquist velocity interval. Also, the performance of the method is illustrated on simulated radar data for plan position indicator (PPI scan. Compared with staggered 2-PRT transmission schemes with PTDM, the proposed method presents better estimation accuracy under certain clutter situations.

  18. Cursor Movement – a Valuable Indicator in Intelligent System Design

    Versavia Ancusa


    Full Text Available Systems that react to emotional information allow for better satisfaction of the user’s needs, stated or otherwise. Special support should be built-in, in order to read and measure the timevariable user’s affective state. This paper presents how cursor movement can accurately measure two basic emotional states and introduces a way to measure the emotional flow graph of an application, which allows for better user design.

  19. Electron temperature measurements by the plasma line technique at the French incoherent scatter radar facilities

    Kofman, W.; Lejeune, G.; Hagfors, T.; Bauer, P.


    The results of experiments aimed at the determination of the electron temperature by a plasma line technique are presented. Using the multistatic capabilities of the French incoherent scatter radar, the plasma line frequencies were simultaneously measured at two receiving stations (Mende and Nancay) at the altitude corresponding to the maximum of the F layer. Different plasma line frequencies are measued because of different effective k vectors that appear in the thermal term of the plasma dispersion relation. We derive and apply two data analysis procedures that enable us to determine this frequency difference. Comparison of this measured frequency difference to that calculated using the ion component electron temperature demonstrates that the plasma lines could indeed be used to determine the electron temperature. A strong dependence of the power in the plasma line as a function of the angle between k vector and magnetic field is observed in agreement with the theory. The future developments of this technique with the EISCAT radar facilities are discussed

  20. Study on application of radar technique to explore mineral resources. 1. Sample test in laboratory; Radar ho no kosho tansa eno tekiyosei kento. 1. Shitsunai shiryo shiken

    Chiba, A; Okada, K [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Noguchi, K; Fujiwara, K [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Dielectric constants of ore body and mother rock specimens taken from an epithermal gold deposit were measured in the frequency band of radar technique. Applicability of the radar technique to mineral exploration has been investigated by comparing measured results and ore showing. This paper describes the results. Measured results of the dielectric constants are summarized as follows. The specific dielectric constant in the forced dry condition did not depend on specimens. The specific dielectric constant in the water saturated condition increased with increasing the porosity. The conductivity increased with increasing the specific dielectric constant. The specific dielectric constant and conductivity increased with increasing the water content. The specific dielectric constant did not depend on types of rocks. The specific dielectric constant decreased with increasing the frequency. Difference of the specific dielectric constant in the water saturated condition decreased with increasing the frequency. The radar technique was applied to blind deposits. Since they were often in the ground water saturated zones, it was considered that the reflection at the boundary was enhanced with increasing the difference of specific dielectric constant between ore body and mother rock compared with that in unsaturated zones. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Wind and turbulence measurements by the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar (MUR: comparison of techniques

    A. A. Praskovsky


    Full Text Available The structure-function-based method (referred to as UCAR-STARS, a technique for estimating mean horizontal winds, variances of three turbulent velocity components and horizontal momentum flux was applied to the Middle and Upper atmosphere Radar (MUR operating in spaced antenna (SA profiling mode. The method is discussed and compared with the Holloway and Doviak (HAD correlation-function-based technique. Mean horizontal winds are estimated with the STARS and HAD techniques; the Doppler Beam Swinging (DBS method is used as a reference for evaluating the SA techniques. Reasonable agreement between SA and DBS techniques is found at heights from 5km to approximately 11km, where signal-to-noise ratio was rather high. The STARS and HAD produced variances of vertical turbulent velocity are found to be in fair agreement. They are affected by beam-broadening in a different way than the DBS-produced spectral width, and to a much lesser degree. Variances of horizontal turbulent velocity components and horizontal momentum flux are estimated with the STARS method, and strong anisotropy of turbulence is found. These characteristics cannot be estimated with correlation-function-based SA methods, which could make UCAR-STARS a useful alternative to traditional SA techniques.

  2. Modelling of ground penetrating radar data in stratified media using the reflectivity technique

    Sena, Armando R; Sen, Mrinal K; Stoffa, Paul L


    Horizontally layered media are often encountered in shallow exploration geophysics. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data in these environments can be modelled by techniques that are more efficient than finite difference (FD) or finite element (FE) schemes because the lateral homogeneity of the media allows us to reduce the dependence on the horizontal spatial variables through Fourier transforms on these coordinates. We adapt and implement the invariant embedding or reflectivity technique used to model elastic waves in layered media to model GPR data. The results obtained with the reflectivity and FDTD modelling techniques are in excellent agreement and the effects of the air–soil interface on the radiation pattern are correctly taken into account by the reflectivity technique. Comparison with real wide-angle GPR data shows that the reflectivity technique can satisfactorily reproduce the real GPR data. These results and the computationally efficient characteristics of the reflectivity technique (compared to FD or FE) demonstrate its usefulness in interpretation and possible model-based inversion schemes of GPR data in stratified media

  3. UWB radar technique for arc detection in coaxial cables and waveguides

    Maggiora, R.; Salvador, S.


    As spread spectrum technology has revolutionized the communications industry, Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology is dramatically improving radar performances. These advanced signal processing techniques have been adapted to coaxial cables and waveguides to provide new features and enhanced performance on arc detection. UWB signals constituted by a sequence of chips (properly chosen to reduce side lobes and to improve detection accuracy) are transmitted along the transmission lines at a specified Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) and their echoes are received by means of directional couplers. The core of the receiver is an ultra high-speed correlator implemented in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). When a target (arc) is detected, its position and its 'radar cross section' are calculated to be able to provide the arc position along the transmission line and to be able to classify the type of detected arc. The 'background scattering' is routinely extracted from the received signal at any pulse. This permits to be resilient to the background structure of transmission lines (bends, junctions, windows, etc.). Thanks to the localization feature, segmentation is also possible for creating sensed and non-sensed zones (for example, to be insensitive to antenna load variations).

  4. Planetary Radar

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.


    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  5. Signal processing techniques for damage detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors and embedded ultrasonic structural radar

    Yu, Lingyu; Bao, Jingjing; Giurgiutiu, Victor


    Embedded ultrasonic structural radar (EUSR) algorithm is developed for using piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) array to detect defects within a large area of a thin-plate specimen. Signal processing techniques are used to extract the time of flight of the wave packages, and thereby to determine the location of the defects with the EUSR algorithm. In our research, the transient tone-burst wave propagation signals are generated and collected by the embedded PWAS. Then, with signal processing, the frequency contents of the signals and the time of flight of individual frequencies are determined. This paper starts with an introduction of embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm. Then we will describe the signal processing methods used to extract the time of flight of the wave packages. The signal processing methods being used include the wavelet denoising, the cross correlation, and Hilbert transform. Though hardware device can provide averaging function to eliminate the noise coming from the signal collection process, wavelet denoising is included to ensure better signal quality for the application in real severe environment. For better recognition of time of flight, cross correlation method is used. Hilbert transform is applied to the signals after cross correlation in order to extract the envelope of the signals. Signal processing and EUSR are both implemented by developing a graphical user-friendly interface program in LabView. We conclude with a description of our vision for applying EUSR signal analysis to structural health monitoring and embedded nondestructive evaluation. To this end, we envisage an automatic damage detection application utilizing embedded PWAS, EUSR, and advanced signal processing.

  6. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup


    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented. These ...

  7. Application of radar polarimetry techniques for retrieval snow and rain characteristics in remote sensing

    M. Darvishi


    Full Text Available The presence of snow cover has significant impacts on the both global and regional climate and water balance on earth. The accurate estimation of snow cover area can be used for forecasting runoff due to snow melt and output of hydroelectric power. With development of remote sensing techniques at different scopes in earth science, enormous algorithms for retrieval hydrometeor parameters have been developed. Some of these algorithms are used to provide snow cover map such as NLR with AVHRR/MODIS sensor for Norway, Finnish with AVHRR sensor for Finland and NASA with MODIS sensor for global maps. Monitoring snow cover at different parts of spectral electromagnetic is detectable (visible, near and thermal infrared, passive and active microwave. Recently, specific capabilities of active microwave remote sensing such as snow extent map, snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE, snow state (wet/dry and discrimination between rain and snow region were given a strong impetus for using this technology in snow monitoring, hydrology, climatology, avalanche research and etc. This paper evaluates the potentials and feasibility of polarimetric ground microwave measurements of snow in active remote sensing field. We will consider the behavior co- and cross-polarized backscattering coefficients of snowpack response with polarimetric scatterometer in Ku and L band at the different incident angles. Then we will show how to retrieve snow cover depth, snow permittivity and density parameters at the local scale with ground-based SAR (GB-SAR. Finally, for the sake of remarkable significant the transition region between rain and snow; the variables role of horizontal reflectivity (ZHH and differential reflectivity (ZDR in delineation boundary between snow and rain and some others important variables at polarimetric weather radar are presented.

  8. Development of Cursor-on-Target Control for Semi-Autonomous Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Crouse, Joshua D


    .... The goal of this research is to develop a preliminary Cursor-on-Target control system to enable the operator to guide the unmanned aircraft with minimal workload during high task phases of flight...

  9. Adaptive radar resource management

    Moo, Peter


    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  10. Investigation of image enhancement techniques for the development of a self-contained airborne radar navigation system

    Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.


    This study was devoted to an investigation of the feasibility of applying advanced image processing techniques to enhance radar image characteristics that are pertinent to the pilot's navigation and guidance task. Millimeter (95 GHz) wave radar images for the overwater (i.e., offshore oil rigs) and overland (Heliport) scenario were used as a data base. The purpose of the study was to determine the applicability of image enhancement and scene analysis algorithms to detect and improve target characteristics (i.e., manmade objects such as buildings, parking lots, cars, roads, helicopters, towers, landing pads, etc.) that would be helpful to the pilot in determining his own position/orientation with respect to the outside world and assist him in the navigation task. Results of this study show that significant improvements in the raw radar image may be obtained using two dimensional image processing algorithms. In the overwater case, it is possible to remove the ocean clutter by thresholding the image data, and furthermore to extract the target boundary as well as the tower and catwalk locations using noise cleaning (e.g., median filter) and edge detection (e.g., Sobel operator) algorithms.

  11. A variational technique to estimate snowfall rate from coincident radar, snowflake, and fall-speed observations

    Cooper, Steven J.; Wood, Norman B.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.


    Estimates of snowfall rate as derived from radar reflectivities alone are non-unique. Different combinations of snowflake microphysical properties and particle fall speeds can conspire to produce nearly identical snowfall rates for given radar reflectivity signatures. Such ambiguities can result in retrieval uncertainties on the order of 100-200 % for individual events. Here, we use observations of particle size distribution (PSD), fall speed, and snowflake habit from the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to constrain estimates of snowfall derived from Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope Alaska (NSA) Climate Research Facility site at Barrow. MASC measurements of microphysical properties with uncertainties are introduced into a modified form of the optimal-estimation CloudSat snowfall algorithm (2C-SNOW-PROFILE) via the a priori guess and variance terms. Use of the MASC fall speed, MASC PSD, and CloudSat snow particle model as base assumptions resulted in retrieved total accumulations with a -18 % difference relative to nearby National Weather Service (NWS) observations over five snow events. The average error was 36 % for the individual events. Use of different but reasonable combinations of retrieval assumptions resulted in estimated snowfall accumulations with differences ranging from -64 to +122 % for the same storm events. Retrieved snowfall rates were particularly sensitive to assumed fall speed and habit, suggesting that in situ measurements can help to constrain key snowfall retrieval uncertainties. More accurate knowledge of these properties dependent upon location and meteorological conditions should help refine and improve ground- and space-based radar estimates of snowfall.

  12. Application of ranging technique of radar level meter for draft survey

    SHEN Yijun


    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to solve the problems of the high subjectivity and low accuracy and efficiency of draft surveying relying on human visual inspection.[Methods] Radar-level oil and liquid measurement technology products are widely used in the petrochemical industry. A device is developed that uses radar to survey the draft of a boat, designed with data series optimization formulae to ensure that the data results are true and correct. At the same time, a test is designed to prove the accuracy of the results.[Results] According to the conditions of the ship,the device is composed of a radar sensor, triangular bracket and display,and is put to use in the test.[Conclusions] With 15 vessels as the research objects,the comparison experiment shows a difference in range between 0.001-0.022 meters, with an average difference rate of 0.028%, which meets the requirements for ship draft survey accuracy.

  13. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 3 - Electromagnetic modelling, inversion, imaging and data-processing techniques for Ground Penetrating Radar

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sesnic, Silvestar; Randazzo, Andrea; Lambot, Sébastien; Benedetto, Francesco; Economou, Nikos


    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 3 "Electromagnetic methods for near-field scattering problems by buried structures; data processing techniques" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (, The main objective of the Action, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting in Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 150 Institutions from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. Among the most interesting achievements of WG3, we wish to mention the following ones: (i) A new open-source version of the finite-difference time-domain simulator gprMax was developed and released. The new gprMax is written in Python and includes many advanced features such as anisotropic and dispersive-material modelling, building of realistic heterogeneous objects with rough surfaces, built-in libraries of antenna models, optimisation of parameters based on Taguchi's method - and more. (ii) A new freeware CAD was developed and released, for the construction of two-dimensional gprMax models. This tool also includes scripts easing the execution of gprMax on multi-core machines or network of computers and scripts for a basic plotting of gprMax results. (iii) A series of interesting freeware codes were developed will be released by the end of the Action, implementing differential and integral forward-scattering methods, for the solution of simple electromagnetic problems by buried objects. (iv) An open database of synthetic and experimental GPR radargrams was created, in cooperation with WG2. The idea behind this initiative is to give researchers the

  14. High-resolution mapping, modeling, and evolution of subsurface geomorphology using ground-penetrating radar techniques

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.

    subsurface. It has been useful to decipher shallow geomorphic structures having various options to use different antennas for different depth penetration (0-30 m) with higher resolution.   7.2 Principles of GPR  Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was invented... about 90m. Flat and plain land is being used, at present, for agriculture (paddy cultivation) practice. Sand dunes are low lying and highly reworked due to social forestry plantation (acacia) activities. 13    7.8.6 Paleo­Lagoon  GPR data shows two...

  15. Visual target distance, but not visual cursor path length produces shifts in motor behavior

    Nike eWendker


    Full Text Available When using tools effects in body space and distant space often do not correspond. Findings so far demonstrated that in this case visual feedback has more impact on action control than proprioceptive feedback. The present study varies the dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects and investigates its impact on aftereffects in motor responses. In two experiments participants perform linear hand movements on a covered digitizer tablet to produce ∩-shaped cursor trajectories on the display. The shape of hand motion and cursor motion (linear vs. curved is dissimilar and therefore does not overlap. In one condition the length of hand amplitude and visual target distance is similar and constant while the length of the cursor path is dissimilar and varies. In another condition the length of the hand amplitude varies while the lengths of visual target distance (similar or dissimilar and cursor path (dissimilar are constant. First, we found that aftereffects depended on the relation between hand path length and visual target distance, and not on the relation between hand and cursor path length. Second, increasing contextual interference did not reveal larger aftereffects. Finally, data exploration demonstrated a considerable benefit from gain repetitions across trials when compared to gain switches. In conclusion, dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects modulates human information processing in visually controlled actions. However, adjustment of the internal model seems to occur very fast for this kind of simple linear transformation, so that the impact of prior visual feedback is fleeting.

  16. Biological Inspired Stochastic Optimization Technique (PSO for DOA and Amplitude Estimation of Antenna Arrays Signal Processing in RADAR Communication System

    Khurram Hammed


    Full Text Available This paper presents a stochastic global optimization technique known as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO for joint estimation of amplitude and direction of arrival of the targets in RADAR communication system. The proposed scheme is an excellent optimization methodology and a promising approach for solving the DOA problems in communication systems. Moreover, PSO is quite suitable for real time scenario and easy to implement in hardware. In this study, uniform linear array is used and targets are supposed to be in far field of the arrays. Formulation of the fitness function is based on mean square error and this function requires a single snapshot to obtain the best possible solution. To check the accuracy of the algorithm, all of the results are taken by varying the number of antenna elements and targets. Finally, these results are compared with existing heuristic techniques to show the accuracy of PSO.

  17. Mapping forested wetlands in the Great Zhan River Basin through integrating optical, radar, and topographical data classification techniques.

    Na, X D; Zang, S Y; Wu, C S; Li, W L


    Knowledge of the spatial extent of forested wetlands is essential to many studies including wetland functioning assessment, greenhouse gas flux estimation, and wildlife suitable habitat identification. For discriminating forested wetlands from their adjacent land cover types, researchers have resorted to image analysis techniques applied to numerous remotely sensed data. While with some success, there is still no consensus on the optimal approaches for mapping forested wetlands. To address this problem, we examined two machine learning approaches, random forest (RF) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithms, and applied these two approaches to the framework of pixel-based and object-based classifications. The RF and KNN algorithms were constructed using predictors derived from Landsat 8 imagery, Radarsat-2 advanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and topographical indices. The results show that the objected-based classifications performed better than per-pixel classifications using the same algorithm (RF) in terms of overall accuracy and the difference of their kappa coefficients are statistically significant (pwetlands based on the per-pixel classifications using the RF algorithm. As for the object-based image analysis, there were also statistically significant differences (pwetlands and omissions for agriculture land. This research proves that the object-based classification with RF using optical, radar, and topographical data improved the mapping accuracy of land covers and provided a feasible approach to discriminate the forested wetlands from the other land cover types in forestry area.

  18. Using FDFD Technique in Two-Dimensional TE Analysis for Modeling Clutter in Wall Penetrating Radar

    David Insana


    Full Text Available Finite difference frequency domain (FDFD computational electromagnetic modeling is implemented to perform a two-dimensional TEz analysis for the application of wall penetrating radar (WPR. Resolving small targets of interest, embedded in a strong clutter environment of unknown configuration, is difficult. Field interaction between clutter elements will dominate the received fields back-scattered from the scene. Removing the effects of clutter ultimately relies on the accuracy of the model. Analysis starts with a simple model that continues to build based on the dominant scattering features of the scene. FDFD provides a steady state frequency response to a discrete excitation. Taking the fast Fourier transform of the wideband response of the scene, at several external transmit/receive locations, produces 2D images of the clutter, which are used to mature the model.

  19. Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals

    Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.


    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

  20. Evaluation of the monitor cursor-line method for measuring pulmonary artery and central venous pressures.

    Pasion, Editha; Good, Levell; Tizon, Jisebelle; Krieger, Staci; O'Kier, Catherine; Taylor, Nicole; Johnson, Jennifer; Horton, Carrie M; Peterson, Mary


    To determine if the monitor cursor-line feature on bedside monitors is accurate for measuring central venous and pulmonary artery pressures in cardiac surgery patients. Central venous and pulmonary artery pressures were measured via 3 methods (end-expiratory graphic recording, monitor cursor-line display, and monitor digital display) in a convenience sample of postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Pressures were measured twice during both mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences between measurement methods and the percentage of monitor pressures that differed by 4 mm Hg or more from the measurement obtained from the graphic recording. Significance level was set at P less than .05. Twenty-five patients were studied during mechanical ventilation (50 measurements) and 21 patients during spontaneous breathing (42 measurements). Measurements obtained via the 3 methods did not differ significantly for either type of pressure (P > .05). Graphically recorded pressures and measurements obtained via the monitor cursor-line or digital display methods differed by 4 mm Hg or more in 4% and 6% of measurements, respectively, during mechanical ventilation and 4% and 11%, respectively, during spontaneous breathing. The monitor cursor-line method for measuring central venous and pulmonary artery pressures may be a reasonable alternative to the end-expiratory graphic recording method in hemodynamically stable, postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Use of the digital display on the bedside monitor may result in larger discrepancies from the graphically recorded pressures than when the cursor-line method is used, particularly in spontaneously breathing patients.

  1. Void detection beneath reinforced concrete sections: The practical application of ground-penetrating radar and ultrasonic techniques

    Cassidy, Nigel J.; Eddies, Rod; Dods, Sam


    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and ultrasonic 'pulse echo' techniques are well-established methods for the imaging, investigation and analysis of steel reinforced concrete structures and are important civil engineering survey tools. GPR is, arguably, the more widely-used technique as it is suitable for a greater range of problem scenarios (i.e., from rebar mapping to moisture content determination). Ultrasonic techniques are traditionally associated with the engineering-based, non-destructive testing of concrete structures and their integrity analyses (e.g., flaw detection, shear/longitudinal velocity determination, etc). However, when used in an appropriate manner, both techniques can be considered complementary and provide a unique way of imaging the sub-surface that is suited to a range of geotechnical problems. In this paper, we present a comparative study between mid-to-high frequency GPR (450 MHz and 900 MHz) and array-based, shear wave, pulse-echo ultrasonic surveys using proprietary instruments and conventional GPR data processing and visualisation techniques. Our focus is the practical detection of sub-metre scale voids located under steel reinforced concrete sections in realistic survey conditions (e.g., a capped, relict mine shaft or vent). Representative two-dimensional (2D) sections are presented for both methods illustrating the similarities/differences in signal response and the temporal-spatial target resolutions achieved with each technique. The use of three-dimensional data volumes and time slices (or 'C-scans') for advanced interpretation is also demonstrated, which although common in GPR applications is under-utilised as a technique in general ultrasonic surveys. The results show that ultrasonic methods can perform as well as GPR for this specific investigation scenario and that they have the potential of overcoming some of the inherent limitations of GPR investigations (i.e., the need for careful antenna frequency selection and survey design in

  2. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya


    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  3. Yangon River Geomorphology Identification and its Enviromental Imapacts Analsysi by Optical and Radar Sensing Techniques

    Lwin, A.; Khaing, M. M.


    The Yangon river, also known as the Rangoon river, is about 40 km long (25miles), and flows from southern Myanmar as an outlet of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) river into the Ayeyarwady delta. The Yangon river drains the Pegu Mountains; both the Yangon and the Pathein rivers enter the Ayeyarwady at the delta. Fluvial geomorphology is based primarily on rivers of manageable dimensions. The emphasis is on geomorphology, sedimentology of Yangon river and techniques for their identification and management. Present techniques such as remote sensing have made it easier to investigate and interpret in details analysis of river geomorphology. In this paper, attempt has been made the complicated issues of geomorphology, sedimentation patterns and management of river system and evolution studied. The analysis was carried out for the impact of land use/ land cover (LULC) changes on stream flow patterns. The hydrologic response to intense, flood producing rainfall events bears the signatures of the geomorphic structure of the channel network and of the characteristic slope lengths defining the drainage density of the basin. The interpretation of the hydrologic response as the travel time distribution of a water particle randomly injected in a distributed manner across the landscape inspired many geomorphic insights. In 2008, Cyclone Nargis was seriously damaged to mangrove area and its biodiversity system in and around of Yangon river terraces. A combination of digital image processing techniques was employed for enhancement and classification process. It is observed from the study that middle infra red band (0.77mm - 0.86mm) is highly suitable for mapping mangroves. Two major classes of mangroves, dense and open mangroves were delineated from the digital data.

  4. Signal Processing of Ground Penetrating Radar Using Spectral Estimation Techniques to Estimate the Position of Buried Targets

    Shanker Man Shrestha


    Full Text Available Super-resolution is very important for the signal processing of GPR (ground penetration radar to resolve closely buried targets. However, it is not easy to get high resolution as GPR signals are very weak and enveloped by the noise. The MUSIC (multiple signal classification algorithm, which is well known for its super-resolution capacity, has been implemented for signal and image processing of GPR. In addition, conventional spectral estimation technique, FFT (fast Fourier transform, has also been implemented for high-precision receiving signal level. In this paper, we propose CPM (combined processing method, which combines time domain response of MUSIC algorithm and conventional IFFT (inverse fast Fourier transform to obtain a super-resolution and high-precision signal level. In order to support the proposal, detailed simulation was performed analyzing SNR (signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, a field experiment at a research field and a laboratory experiment at the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, were also performed for thorough investigation and supported the proposed method. All the simulation and experimental results are presented.

  5. Techniques for Clutter Suppression in the Presence of Body Movements during the Detection of Respiratory Activity through UWB Radars

    Antonio Lazaro


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the feasibility of tracking the chest wall movement of a human subject during respiration from the waveforms recorded using an impulse-radio (IR ultra-wideband radar. The paper describes the signal processing to estimate sleep apnea detection and breathing rate. Some techniques to solve several problems in these types of measurements, such as the clutter suppression, body movement and body orientation detection are described. Clutter suppression is achieved using a moving averaging filter to dynamically estimate it. The artifacts caused by body movements are removed using a threshold method before analyzing the breathing signal. The motion is detected using the time delay that maximizes the received signal after a clutter removing algorithm is applied. The periods in which the standard deviations of the time delay exceed a threshold are considered macro-movements and they are neglected. The sleep apnea intervals are detected when the breathing signal is below a threshold. The breathing rate is determined from the robust spectrum estimation based on Lomb periodogram algorithm. On the other hand the breathing signal amplitude depends on the body orientation respect to the antennas, and this could be a problem. In this case, in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio, multiple sensors are proposed to ensure that the backscattered signal can be detected by at least one sensor, regardless of the direction the human subject is facing. The feasibility of the system is compared with signals recorded by a microphone.

  6. Detecting Faults in Southern California using Computer-Vision Techniques and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Interferometry

    Barba, M.; Rains, C.; von Dassow, W.; Parker, J. W.; Glasscoe, M. T.


    Knowing the location and behavior of active faults is essential for earthquake hazard assessment and disaster response. In Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images, faults are revealed as linear discontinuities. Currently, interferograms are manually inspected to locate faults. During the summer of 2013, the NASA-JPL DEVELOP California Disasters team contributed to the development of a method to expedite fault detection in California using remote-sensing technology. The team utilized InSAR images created from polarimetric L-band data from NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) project. A computer-vision technique known as 'edge-detection' was used to automate the fault-identification process. We tested and refined an edge-detection algorithm under development through NASA's Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) project. To optimize the algorithm we used both UAVSAR interferograms and synthetic interferograms generated through Disloc, a web-based modeling program available through NASA's QuakeSim project. The edge-detection algorithm detected seismic, aseismic, and co-seismic slip along faults that were identified and compared with databases of known fault systems. Our optimization process was the first step toward integration of the edge-detection code into E-DECIDER to provide decision support for earthquake preparation and disaster management. E-DECIDER partners that will use the edge-detection code include the California Earthquake Clearinghouse and the US Department of Homeland Security through delivery of products using the Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) service. Through these partnerships, researchers, earthquake disaster response teams, and policy-makers will be able to use this new methodology to examine the details of ground and fault motions for moderate to large earthquakes. Following an earthquake, the newly discovered faults can

  7. Subsidence monitoring within the Athens Basin (Greece) using space radar interferometric techniques

    Parcharidis, I.; Lagios, E.; Sakkas, V.; Raucoules, D.; Feurer, D.; Mouelic, S. L.; King, C.; Carnec, C.; Novali, F.; Ferretti, A.; Capes, R.; Cooksley, G.


    The application of conventional SAR Interferometry (InSAR) together with the two techniques of sub-centimeteraccuracy, the Stacking and the Permanent Scatterers (PS) Interferometry, were used to study the ground deformation in the broader area of Athens for the period 1992 to 2002. Using the Stacking interfero-metricmethod, 55 ERS-1&2 SAR scenes, between 1992 and 2002, were acquired producing 264 differential interferograms. Among these only 60 were finally selected as fulfilling certain criteria. The co-seismic deforma-tionassociated with the Athens Earthquake (Mw = 5 9, September 7, 1999) was excluded from the analytical procedure in an attempt to present results of only aseismic character. In total ground subsidence results of about12 mm in the southern suburbs of Athens, but higher value of about 40 mm in the northern ones for the period 1992-2002. Based on the PS technique, a precise average annual deformation rate-map was generated for the period 1992-1999, ending just before the Athens earthquake event. Both circular and elongated-shape areas of subsidence are recognizable especially in the northern part of the Athens Basin (3-4 mm/yr), as well as at its southern part (1-3 mm/yr). In addition, a rate of 2-3 mm/yr is also yielded for some part of the Athens city center. Subsidence rates of 1-2 mm/yr are measured at the western part of the basin over an area of old mining activities, and around the newly built Syntagma Metro Station. The correlation of the observed deformation pat-ternswith respect to the spatial distribution of water pumping, older mining activities, metro line tunneling and other local geological parameters is examined and discussed.

  8. Significant improvement in one-dimensional cursor control using Laplacian electroencephalography over electroencephalography

    Boudria, Yacine; Feltane, Amal; Besio, Walter


    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on electroencephalography (EEG) have been shown to accurately detect mental activities, but the acquisition of high levels of control require extensive user training. Furthermore, EEG has low signal-to-noise ratio and low spatial resolution. The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy between two types of BCIs during the first recording session. EEG and tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) EEG (tEEG) brain signals were recorded and used to control one-dimensional cursor movements. Approach. Eight human subjects were asked to imagine either ‘left’ or ‘right’ hand movement during one recording session to control the computer cursor using TCRE and disc electrodes. Main results. The obtained results show a significant improvement in accuracies using TCREs (44%-100%) compared to disc electrodes (30%-86%). Significance. This study developed the first tEEG-based BCI system for real-time one-dimensional cursor movements and showed high accuracies with little training.

  9. Detecting and classifying low probability of intercept radar

    Pace, Philip E


    This revised and expanded second edition brings you to the cutting edge with new chapters on LPI radar design, including over-the-horizon radar, random noise radar, and netted LPI radar. You also discover critical LPI detection techniques, parameter extraction signal processing techniques, and anti-radiation missile design strategies to counter LPI radar.

  10. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    Mahafza, Bassem R


    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  11. Remote sensing of auroral E region plasma structures by radio, radar, and UV techniques at solar minimum

    Basu, S.; Valladares, C.E.; Basu, S.; Eastes, R.; Huffman, R.E.; Daniell, R.E.; Chaturvedi, P.K.; Livingston, R.C.


    The unique capability of the Polar BEAR satellite to simultaneously image auroral luminosities at multiple ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and to remote sense large-scale (hundreds to tens of kilometers) and small-scale (kilometers to hundreds of meters) plasma density structures with its multifrequency beacon package is utilized to probe the auroral E region in the vicinity of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) facility near Sondrestrom. In particular, we present coordinated observations on two nights obtained during the sunspot minimum (sunspot number < 10) January-February 1987 period when good spatial and temporal conjunction was obtained between Polar BEAR overflights and Sondrestrom ISR measurements. With careful coordinated observations we were able to confirm that the energetic particle precipitation responsible for the UV emissions causes the electron density increases in the E region. The integrations up to the topside of these ISR electron density profiles were consistent with the total electron content (TEC) measured by the Polar BEAR satellite. An electron transport model was utilized to determine quantitatively the electron density profiles which could be produced by the particle precipitation, which also produced multiple UV emissions measured by the imager; these profiles were found to be in good agreement with the observed ISR profiles in the E region. This outer scale size is also consistent with the measured phase to amplitude scintillation ratio. An estimate of the linear growth rate of the gradient-drift instability in the E region shows that these plasma density irregularities could have been generated by this process. The mutual consistency of these different sets of measurements provides confidence in the ability of the different techniques to remote sense large- and small-scale plasma density structures in the E region at least during sunspot minimum when the convection-dominated high-latitude F region is fairly weak. 56 refs., 16 figs

  12. Probabilistic hydrological nowcasting using radar based nowcasting techniques and distributed hydrological models: application in the Mediterranean area

    Poletti, Maria Laura; Pignone, Flavio; Rebora, Nicola; Silvestro, Francesco


    The exposure of the urban areas to flash-floods is particularly significant to Mediterranean coastal cities, generally densely-inhabited. Severe rainfall events often associated to intense and organized thunderstorms produced, during the last century, flash-floods and landslides causing serious damages to urban areas and in the worst events led to human losses. The temporal scale of these events has been observed strictly linked to the size of the catchments involved: in the Mediterranean area a great number of catchments that pass through coastal cities have a small drainage area (less than 100 km2) and a corresponding hydrologic response timescale in the order of a few hours. A suitable nowcasting chain is essential for the on time forecast of this kind of events. In fact meteorological forecast systems are unable to predict precipitation at the scale of these events, small both at spatial (few km) and temporal (hourly) scales. Nowcasting models, covering the time interval of the following two hours starting from the observation try to extend the predictability limits of the forecasting models in support of real-time flood alert system operations. This work aims to present the use of hydrological models coupled with nowcasting techniques. The nowcasting model PhaSt furnishes an ensemble of equi-probable future precipitation scenarios on time horizons of 1-3 h starting from the most recent radar observations. The coupling of the nowcasting model PhaSt with the hydrological model Continuum allows to forecast the flood with a few hours in advance. In this way it is possible to generate different discharge prediction for the following hours and associated return period maps: these maps can be used as a support in the decisional process for the warning system.

  13. Investigation of the Qadimah Fault in Western Saudi Arabia using Satellite Radar Interferometry and Geomorphology Analysis Techniques

    Smith, Robert


    The Qadimah Fault has been mapped as a normal fault running through the middle of a planned $50 billion city. For this reason, there is an urgent need to evaluate the seismic hazard that the fault poses to the new development. Although several geophysical studies have supported the existence of a fault, the driving mechanism remains unclear. While a fault controlled by gravity gliding of the overburden on a mobile salt layer is unlikely to be of concern to the city, one caused by the continued extension of a normal rotational fault due to Red Sea rifting could result in a major earthquake. A number of geomorphology and geodetic techniques were used to better understand the fault. An analysis of topographic data revealed a sharp discontinuity in slope aspect and hanging wall tilting which strongly supports the existence of a normal fault. A GPS survey of an emergent reef platform which revealed a tilted coral surface also indicates that deformation has occurred in the region. An interferometric synthetic aperture radar investigation has also been performed to establish whether active deformation is occurring on the fault. Ground movements that could be consistent with inter-seismic strain accumulation have been observed, although the analysis is restricted by the limited data available. However, a simple fault model suggests that the deformation is unlikely due to continued crustal stretching. This, in addition to the lack of footwall uplift in the topography data, suggests that the fault is more likely controlled by a shallow salt layer. However, more work will need to be done in the future to confirm these findings.

  14. Quantum radar

    Lanzagorta, Marco


    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  15. Spectral feature extraction of EEG signals and pattern recognition during mental tasks of 2-D cursor movements for BCI using SVM and ANN.

    Bascil, M Serdar; Tesneli, Ahmet Y; Temurtas, Feyzullah


    Brain computer interface (BCI) is a new communication way between man and machine. It identifies mental task patterns stored in electroencephalogram (EEG). So, it extracts brain electrical activities recorded by EEG and transforms them machine control commands. The main goal of BCI is to make available assistive environmental devices for paralyzed people such as computers and makes their life easier. This study deals with feature extraction and mental task pattern recognition on 2-D cursor control from EEG as offline analysis approach. The hemispherical power density changes are computed and compared on alpha-beta frequency bands with only mental imagination of cursor movements. First of all, power spectral density (PSD) features of EEG signals are extracted and high dimensional data reduced by principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) which are statistical algorithms. In the last stage, all features are classified with two types of support vector machine (SVM) which are linear and least squares (LS-SVM) and three different artificial neural network (ANN) structures which are learning vector quantization (LVQ), multilayer neural network (MLNN) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) and mental task patterns are successfully identified via k-fold cross validation technique.

  16. Observations of Phobos by the Mars Express radar MARSIS: Description of the detection techniques and preliminary results

    Cicchetti, A.; Nenna, C.; Plaut, J. J.; Plettemeier, D.; Noschese, R.; Cartacci, M.; Orosei, R.


    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) (Picardi et al., 2005) is a synthetic aperture low frequency radar altimeter, onboard the ESA Mars Express orbiter, launched in June 2003. It is the first and so far the only spaceborne radar that has observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were collected on different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of sounding Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into its subsurface. MARSIS is optimized for deep penetration investigations and is capable of transmitting at four different bands between 1.3 MHz and 5.5 MHz with a 1 MHz bandwidth. Unfortunately the instrument was originally designed to operate exclusively on Mars, assuming that Phobos would not be observed. Following this assumption, a protection mechanism was implemented in the hardware (HW) to maintain a minimum time separation between transmission and reception phases of the radar. This limitation does not have any impact on Mars observation but it prevented the observation of Phobos. In order to successfully operate the instrument at Phobos, a particular configuration of the MARSIS onboard software (SW) parameters, called ;Range Ambiguity,; was implemented to override the HW protection zone, ensuring at the same time a high level of safety of the instrument. This paper describes the principles of MARSIS onboard processing, and the procedure through which the parameters of the processing software were tuned to observe targets below the minimum distance allowed by hardware. Some preliminary results of data analysis will be shown, with the support of radar echo simulations. A qualitative comparison between the simulated results and the actual data, does not support the detection of subsurface reflectors.

  17. Radar Chart

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Radar Chart collection is an archived product of summarized radar data. The geographic coverage is the 48 contiguous states of the United States. These hourly...

  18. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson NS; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A.


    Objective. To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. Approach. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like ‘Face in a Crowd’ task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the ‘Crowd’) using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a ‘Crowd Off’ condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Main results. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Significance. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet

  19. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task.

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson N S; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A


    To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like 'Face in a Crowd' task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the 'Crowd') using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a 'Crowd Off' condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet computers.

  20. Effect of vibrotactile feedback on an EMG-based proportional cursor control system.

    Li, Shunchong; Chen, Xingyu; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang


    Surface electromyography (sEMG) has been introduced into the bio-mechatronics systems, however, most of them are lack of the sensory feedback. In this paper, the effect of vibrotactile feedback for a myoelectric cursor control system is investigated quantitatively. Simultaneous and proportional control signals are extracted from EMG using a muscle synergy model. Different types of feedback including vibrotactile feedback and visual feedback are added, assessed and compared with each other. The results show that vibrotactile feedback is capable of improving the performance of EMG-based human machine interface.

  1. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  2. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    Kulpa, Krzysztof


    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  3. Radar Remote Sensing

    Rosen, Paul A.


    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  4. Radar Fundamentals, Presentation

    Jenn, David


    Topics include: introduction, radar functions, antennas basics, radar range equation, system parameters, electromagnetic waves, scattering mechanisms, radar cross section and stealth, and sample radar systems.

  5. Radar equations for modern radar

    Barton, David K


    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  6. ''Swords into ploughshares'': Breaking new ground with radar hardware and technique in physical research after World War II

    Forman, P.


    A survey is offered of applications to fundamental physical research, in the years immediately following World War II, of the instrumentalities developed for radar during that war. Attention is given to radar astronomy and radio astronomy, linear and cyclical accelerators, microwave spectroscopy, molecular beams, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic and ferromagnetic resonance, measurements of resistivity at high frequencies in metals and of second sound in helium II, and to the concepts of information and signal-to-noise ratio as basic to the design and analysis of experiments. In conjunction with this survey, consideration is given to the autonomy of physics as a knowledge-producing enterprise, framed as a question of continuity in research directions. As that question implies a baseline, the survey of postwar applications is preceded by a survey of those prewar directions of physical research requiring the highest available radio frequencies. Some 500 references are given

  7. High-Temperature Monitoring of Refractory Wall Recession Using Frequency-Modulated Continuous-wave (FM-CW) Radar Techniques

    Varghese, B.; DeConick, C.; Cartee, G.; Zoughi, R.; Velez, M.; Moore, R.


    Furnaces are among the most crucial components in the glass and metallurgical industry. Nowadays, furnaces are being operated at higher temperatures and for longer periods of time thus increasing the rate of wear on the furnace refractory lining. Consequently, there is a great need for a nondestructive tool that can accurately measure refractory wall thickness at high temperatures. In this paper the utility of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) radar is investigated for this purpose

  8. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J


    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  9. Social Radar


    RTA HFM-201/RSM PAPER 3 - 1 © 2012 The MITRE Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Social Radar Barry Costa and John Boiney MITRE Corporation...defenders require an integrated set of capabilities that we refer to as a “ social radar.” Such a system would support strategic- to operational-level...situation awareness, alerting, course of action analysis, and measures of effectiveness for each action undertaken. Success of a social radar

  10. An SSVEP-actuated brain computer interface using phase-tagged flickering sequences: a cursor system.

    Lee, Po-Lei; Sie, Jyun-Jie; Liu, Yu-Ju; Wu, Chi-Hsun; Lee, Ming-Huan; Shu, Chih-Hung; Li, Po-Hung; Sun, Chia-Wei; Shyu, Kuo-Kai


    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain computer interface (BCI). SSVEPs, induced by phase-tagged flashes in eight light emitting diodes (LEDs), were used to control four cursor movements (up, right, down, and left) and four button functions (on, off, right-, and left-clicks) on a screen menu. EEG signals were measured by one EEG electrode placed at Oz position, referring to the international EEG 10-20 system. Since SSVEPs are time-locked and phase-locked to the onsets of SSVEP flashes, EEG signals were bandpass-filtered and segmented into epochs, and then averaged across a number of epochs to sharpen the recorded SSVEPs. Phase lags between the measured SSVEPs and a reference SSVEP were measured, and targets were recognized based on these phase lags. The current design used eight LEDs to flicker at 31.25 Hz with 45 degrees phase margin between any two adjacent SSVEP flickers. The SSVEP responses were filtered within 29.25-33.25 Hz and then averaged over 60 epochs. Owing to the utilization of high-frequency flickers, the induced SSVEPs were away from low-frequency noises, 60 Hz electricity noise, and eye movement artifacts. As a consequence, we achieved a simple architecture that did not require eye movement monitoring or other artifact detection and removal. The high-frequency design also achieved a flicker fusion effect for better visualization. Seven subjects were recruited in this study to sequentially input a command sequence, consisting of a sequence of eight cursor functions, repeated three times. The accuracy and information transfer rate (mean +/- SD) over the seven subjects were 93.14 +/- 5.73% and 28.29 +/- 12.19 bits/min, respectively. The proposed system can provide a reliable channel for severely disabled patients to communicate with external environments.

  11. What you feel is what you see: inverse dynamics estimation underlies the resistive sensation of a delayed cursor.

    Takamuku, Shinya; Gomi, Hiroaki


    How our central nervous system (CNS) learns and exploits relationships between force and motion is a fundamental issue in computational neuroscience. While several lines of evidence have suggested that the CNS predicts motion states and signals from motor commands for control and perception (forward dynamics), it remains controversial whether it also performs the 'inverse' computation, i.e. the estimation of force from motion (inverse dynamics). Here, we show that the resistive sensation we experience while moving a delayed cursor, perceived purely from the change in visual motion, provides evidence of the inverse computation. To clearly specify the computational process underlying the sensation, we systematically varied the visual feedback and examined its effect on the strength of the sensation. In contrast to the prevailing theory that sensory prediction errors modulate our perception, the sensation did not correlate with errors in cursor motion due to the delay. Instead, it correlated with the amount of exposure to the forward acceleration of the cursor. This indicates that the delayed cursor is interpreted as a mechanical load, and the sensation represents its visually implied reaction force. Namely, the CNS automatically computes inverse dynamics, using visually detected motions, to monitor the dynamic forces involved in our actions. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Ground penetrating radar

    Daniels, David J


    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  13. Introduction to radar target recognition

    Tait, P


    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  14. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    Avery, S.K.


    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described

  15. A Comparative Study on Java Technologies for Focus and Cursor Handling in Accessible Dynamic Interactions.

    Jitngernmadan, Prajaks; Miesenberger, Klaus


    For an interactive application, supporting and guiding the user in fulfilling tasks is most important. The behavior of the application that will guide users through the procedures until they finish the task has to be designed intuitively and well guiding, especially if the users has only restricted or no access to the visual and spatial arrangement on the screen. Therefore, the focus/cursor management plays an important role for orientation and navigating through the interaction. In the frame of ongoing research on a software tool supporting blind people in more efficiently doing mathematical calculations, we researched how Java technologies support implementing an accessible Graphical User Interface (GUI) with an additional focus on usable accessibility in terms of guiding blind users through the process of solving mathematical calculations. We used Java Swing [1] and Eclipse SWT [2] APIs for creating a series of prototypes. We tested a) accessibility and usability of the prototypes for blind people when using screen reader software and refreshable Braille display and b) the implementation support to developers provided by both technologies. It turned out that Eclipse SWT API delivered best results under Windows operating system.

  16. Weather Radar Stations

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  17. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    Bøvith, Thomas


    classification and use a range of different techniques and input data. The first method uses external information from multispectral satellite images to detect clutter. The information in the visual, near-infrared, and infrared parts of the spectrum can be used to distinguish between cloud and cloud-free areas......Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...

  18. Experimental Results and Issues on Equalization for Nonlinear Memory Channel: Pre-Cursor Enhanced Ram-DFE Canceler

    Yuan, Lu; LeBlanc, James


    This thesis investigates the effects of the High Power Amplifier (HPA) and the filters over a satellite or telemetry channel. The Volterra series expression is presented for the nonlinear channel with memory, and the algorithm is based on the finite-state machine model. A RAM-based algorithm operating on the receiver side, Pre-cursor Enhanced RAM-FSE Canceler (PERC) is developed. A high order modulation scheme , 16-QAM is used for simulation, the results show that PERC provides an efficient and reliable method to transmit data on the bandlimited nonlinear channel. The contribution of PERC algorithm is that it includes both pre-cursors and post-cursors as the RAM address lines, and suggests a new way to make decision on the pre-addresses. Compared with the RAM-DFE structure that only includes post- addresses, the BER versus Eb/NO performance of PERC is substantially enhanced. Experiments are performed for PERC algorithms with different parameters on AWGN channels, and the results are compared and analyzed. The investigation of this thesis includes software simulation and hardware verification. Hardware is setup to collect actual TWT data. Simulation on both the software-generated data and the real-world data are performed. Practical limitations are considered for the hardware collected data. Simulation results verified the reliability of the PERC algorithm. This work was conducted at NMSU in the Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Systems in the Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department.

  19. Division of labor regulates precision rescue behavior in sand-dwelling Cataglyphis cursor ants: to give is to receive.

    Elise Nowbahari

    Full Text Available Division of labor, an adaptation in which individuals specialize in performing tasks necessary to the colony, such as nest defense and foraging, is believed key to eusocial insects' remarkable ecological success. Here we report, for the first time, a completely novel specialization in a eusocial insect, namely the ability of Cataglyphis cursor ants to rescue a trapped nestmate using precisely targeted behavior. Labeled "precision rescue", this behavior involves the ability of rescuers not only to detect what, exactly, holds the victim in place, but also to direct specific actions to this obstacle. Individual ants, sampled from each of C. cursor's three castes, namely foragers, nurses and inactives, were experimentally ensnared (the "victim" and exposed to a caste-specific group of potential "rescuers." The data reveal that foragers were able to administer, and obtain, the most help while members of the youngest, inactive caste not only failed to respond to victims, but also received virtually no help from potential rescuers, regardless of caste. Nurses performed intermediate levels of aid, mirroring their intermediate caste status. Our results demonstrate that division of labor, which controls foraging, defense and brood care in C. cursor, also regulates a newly discovered behavior in this species, namely a sophisticated form of rescue, a highly adaptive specialization that is finely tuned to a caste member's probability of becoming, or encountering, a victim in need of rescue.

  20. Radar application in void and bar detection

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani


    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  1. Bistatic radar

    Willis, Nick


    Annotation his book is a major extension of a chapter on bistatic radar written by the author for the Radar Handbook, 2nd edition, edited by Merrill Skolnik. It provides a history of bistatic systems that points out to potential designers the applications that have worked and the dead-ends not worth pursuing. The text reviews the basic concepts and definitions, and explains the mathematical development of relationships, such as geometry, Ovals of Cassini, dynamic range, isorange and isodoppler contours, target doppler, and clutter doppler spread.Key Features * All development and analysis are

  2. Coherent MUSIC technique for range/angle information retrieval: Application to a frequency modulated continuous wave MIMO radar

    Belfiori, F.; Rossum, W. van; Hoogeboom, P.


    A coherent two-dimensional (2D) multiple signal classification (MUSIC) processing for the simultaneous estimation of angular and range target positions has been presented. A 2D spatial smoothing technique is also introduced to cope with the coherent behaviour of the received echoes, which may result

  3. Investigation of the winds and electron concentration variability in the D region of the ionosphere by the partial-reflection radar technique

    Weiland, R.M.; Bowhill, S.A.


    The development and first observations of the partial-reflection drifts experiment at Urbana, Illinois (40 N) are described. The winds data from the drifts experiment are compared with electron concentration data obtained by the differential-absorption technique to study the possible meteorological causes of the winter anomaly in the mesosphere at midlatitudes. Winds data obtained by the meteor-radar experiment at Urbana are also compared with electron concentration data measured at Urban. A significant correlation is shown is both cases between southward winds and increasing electron concentration measured at the same location during winter. The possibility of stratospheric/mesospheric coupling is investigated by comparing satellite-measured 0.4 mbar geopotential data with mesospheric electron concentration data. No significant coupling was observed. The winds measured at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (52 N) are compared with the electron concentrations measured at Urban, yielding constant fixed relationship, but significant correlations for short segments of the winter. A significant coherence is observed at discrete frequencies during segments of the winter

  4. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Werner F.


    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  5. Interception of LPI radar signals

    Lee, Jim P.


    Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile control, and power management that a radar may employ against current Electronic Warfare (EW) receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current intercept EW receivers. LPI operation is most easily achieved at close ranges and against a target with a large radar cross section. The general system sensitivity requirement for the detection of current and projected LPI radars is found to be on the order of -100 dBmi which cannot be met by current EW receivers. Finally, three potential LPI receiver architectures, using channelized, superhet, and acousto-optic receivers with narrow RF and video bandwidths are discussed. They have shown some potential in terms of providing the sensitivity and capability in an environment where both conventional and LPI signals are present.

  6. Autonomous Non-Linear Classification of LPI Radar Signal Modulations

    Gulum, Taylan O


    ...) radar modulations is investigated. A software engineering architecture that allows a full investigation of various preprocessing algorithms and classification techniques is applied to a database of important LPI radar waveform...

  7. Radar probing of the auroral plasma

    Brekke, A.


    The European Incoherent Scatter Radar in the Auroral Zone (EISCAT) is an intereuropean organization planning to install an incoherent scatter radar system in Northern Scandinavia. It is supported by Finland, France, Norway, Great Britain, Sweden and West Germany, and its headquarters is in Kiruna, Sweden. The radar is planned to be operating in 1979. In order to introduce students and young scientists to the incoherent scatter radar technique, a summer school was held in Tromsoe, from 5th to 13th June 1975. In these proceedings an introduction to the basic theory of fluctuations in a plasma is given. Some of the present incoherent scatter radars now in use are presented and special considerations with respect to the planned EISACT facility are discussed. Reviews of some recent results and scientific problems relevant to EISCAT are also presented and finally a presentation of some observational techniques complementary to incoherent scatter radars is included. (Ed.)

  8. Mapping Ground Subsidence Phenomena in Ho Chi Minh City through the Radar Interferometry Technique Using ALOS PALSAR Data

    Dinh Ho Tong Minh


    Full Text Available The rapidly developing urbanization since the last decade of the 20th century has led to extensive groundwater extraction, resulting in subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Recent advances in multi-temporal spaceborne SAR interferometry, especially with a persistent scatters interferometry (PSI approach, has made this a robust remote sensing technique for measuring large-scale ground subsidence with millimetric accuracy. This work has presented an advanced PSI analysis, to provide an unprecedented spatial extent and continuous temporal coverage of the subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City from 2006 to 2010. The study shows that subsidence is most severe in the Holocene silt loam areas along the Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city. The groundwater extraction resulting from urbanization and urban growth is mainly responsible for the subsidence. Subsidence in turn leads to more flooding and water nuisance. The correlation between the reference leveling velocity and the estimated PSI result is R2 = 0.88, and the root mean square error is 4.3 (mm/year, confirming their good agreement. From 2006 to 2010, the estimation of the average subsidence rate is -8.0 mm/year, with the maximum value up to -70 mm/year. After four years, in regions along Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city, the land has sunk up to -12 cm. If not addressed, subsidence leads to the increase of inundation, both in frequency and spatial extent. Finally, regarding climate change, the effects of subsidence should be considered as appreciably greater than those resulting from rising sea level. It is essential to consider these two factors, because the city is inhabited by more than 7.5 million people, where subsidence directly impacts urban structures and infrastructure.

  9. Land Deformation at the Thessaloniki - Giannitsa Plain (Greece) Deduced from 20- years Radar Observations using Persistent Scatterers Techniques

    Svigkas, N.; Papoutsis, I.; Loupasakis, K.; Kiratzi, A. A.; Kontoes, C.


    We present the detected deformation and interpret the results in the light of ground-truth hydrological data, for the Thessaloniki-Giannitsa plain, the largest deltaic plain in Greece, encircled by Mounts Vermio, Paiko and Pieria. The contemporary morphology was gradually developed from the tectonic variations of the upper Pleistocene. The area has been subjected to many changes due to both natural causes and to human intervention. ERS-1, 2 and Envisat data provided from the European Space Agency were analysed to produce a time-series analysis based on Persistent Scatterer techniques. The mass processing of the 81 satellite images led to the creation of more than 250 Interferograms. The broader area of interest consists primarily of agricultural lands, leading to limited Interferometric coherence, and therefore careful Interferogram filtering and phase unwrapping of the input stack was crucial for reliable velocity generation. Our results show a strong deformation signal in regions of significant lifelines, as the railway and road network. Moreover, the satellite imagery revealed two significantly deforming sites: Kalochori and Sindos. The broader Kalochori region, the locus of the industrial activity of the city of Thessaloniki, is located below sea level. Both sites are suffering from land subsidence for more than 50 years, with several marine invasions reported in the past. Interestingly enough the two datasets -that represent two decades- show a reversed deformation pattern: The period in-between 1993 to 2000 is characterized by subsidence up to 34 mm/y, whereas from 2002 to 2010 there is an uplifting trend (more than 20 mm/yr). This result is crosschecked with hydrogeological data; the interpretation depicts that at Kalochori and Sindos the human factor (i.e. over pumping) is the dominant driver of these surface displacements. Although this was an assumption of previous studies, here we present for the first time, systematic proof that the detected uplift of

  10. Signal compression in radar using FPGA

    Escamilla Hemández, Enrique; Kravchenko, Víctor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr; Duchen Sánchez, Gonzalo; Hernández Sánchez, David


    We present the hardware implementation of radar real time processing procedures using a simple, fast technique based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) architecture. This processing includes different window procedures during pulse compression in synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar signal compression processing is realized using matched filter, and classical and novel window functions, where we focus on better solution for minimum values of sidelobes. The proposed architecture expl...

  11. Coastal city subsidence in Shenzhen (China), monitored using multi-frequency radar interferometry time-series techniques

    Liu, Peng; Li, Yongsheng; Singleton, Andrew; Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Jingfa; Li, Zhenhong


    In just 26 years, the coastal city of Shenzhen (Southern China) has been transformed from a small fishing village to a modern city with a population exceeding 8.5 million people. Following its designation as a Special Economic Zone in the 1980s, the city became a test bed for China's economic reforms and currently leads many new practices in urban planning. The rapid economic development was matched by a sharp increase in the demand for usable land and consequently, extensive coastal reclamation has been undertaken by piling rock fragments from nearby hills onto the seabed. However, it has recently been reported that new apartments, offices and transport networks built on the reclaimed land have become unusable due to ground subsidence. The additional threat of coastal inundation from sea-level rise also requires serious consideration. InSAR time-series techniques (such as Persistent Scatterer and Small Baseline InSAR) are capable of detecting sub-centimetre elevation changes of the Earth's surface over large areas and at a density far exceeding the capabilities of a GPS network - particularly for such an urban environment as Shenzhen. This study uses numerous independent tracks of SAR data (two ENVISAT C-band tracks and two ALOS L-band tracks) to determine the surface movements between 2004 and 2013. Quantitative comparative analyses are carried out in the overlapping area between two adjacent tracks, and thus no ground data is required to validate InSAR results. The results show greatest subsidence in coastal areas with the areas of reclaimed land also predominantly undergoing subsidence. The combination of different ascending and descending tracks allows 2D velocity fields to be estimated and it will be important to determine whether the subsidence from the recently reclaimed land is consolidation or part of a longer-term trend. This ability to provide accurate measurements of ground stability for the city of Shenzhen will help focus investigations into areas of

  12. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  13. Advances in bistatic radar

    Willis, Nick


    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  14. Near infrared group IV optoelectronics and novel pre-cursors for CVD epitaxy

    Hazbun, Ramsey Michael

    measurements. The deposition of silicon using tetrasilane as a vapor pre-cursor is described for an ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition tool. The growth rates and morphology of the Si epitaxial layers over a range of temperatures and pressures are presented. In order to understand the suitability of tetrasilane for the growth of SiGe and SiGeSn alloys, the layers were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. To date no n-type doping has been demonstrated in GeSn alloys grown via MBE. A GaP decomposition source was used to grow n-type phosphorus doped GeSn layers on p- Ge substrates. Doping concentrations were calibrated using SIMS measurements. GeSn/Ge heterojunction diodes were grown and fabricated into mesa devices. Diode parameters were extracted from current-voltage measurements. The effects of P and Sn concentrations, metallization, and mesa geometry on device performance are all discussed.

  15. Detection and Classification of Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Using Parallel Filter Arrays and Higher Order Statistics

    Taboada, Fernando


    ... intercept devices such as radar warning, electronic support and electronic intelligence receivers, In order to detect LPI radar waveforms new signal processing techniques are required This thesis first...

  16. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.


    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  17. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc


    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  18. Minimum redundancy MIMO radars

    Chen, Chun-Yang; Vaidyanathan, P. P.


    The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar concept has drawn considerable attention recently. In the traditional single-input multiple-output (SIMO) radar system, the transmitter emits scaled versions of a single waveform. However, in the MIMO radar system, the transmitter transmits independent waveforms. It has been shown that the MIMO radar can be used to improve system performance. Most of the MIMO radar research so far has focused on the uniform array. However, i...

  19. On the utility of 3D hand cursors to explore medical volume datasets with a touchless interface.

    Lopes, Daniel Simões; Parreira, Pedro Duarte de Figueiredo; Paulo, Soraia Figueiredo; Nunes, Vitor; Rego, Paulo Amaral; Neves, Manuel Cassiano; Rodrigues, Pedro Silva; Jorge, Joaquim Armando


    Analyzing medical volume datasets requires interactive visualization so that users can extract anatomo-physiological information in real-time. Conventional volume rendering systems rely on 2D input devices, such as mice and keyboards, which are known to hamper 3D analysis as users often struggle to obtain the desired orientation that is only achieved after several attempts. In this paper, we address which 3D analysis tools are better performed with 3D hand cursors operating on a touchless interface comparatively to a 2D input devices running on a conventional WIMP interface. The main goals of this paper are to explore the capabilities of (simple) hand gestures to facilitate sterile manipulation of 3D medical data on a touchless interface, without resorting on wearables, and to evaluate the surgical feasibility of the proposed interface next to senior surgeons (N=5) and interns (N=2). To this end, we developed a touchless interface controlled via hand gestures and body postures to rapidly rotate and position medical volume images in three-dimensions, where each hand acts as an interactive 3D cursor. User studies were conducted with laypeople, while informal evaluation sessions were carried with senior surgeons, radiologists and professional biomedical engineers. Results demonstrate its usability as the proposed touchless interface improves spatial awareness and a more fluent interaction with the 3D volume than with traditional 2D input devices, as it requires lesser number of attempts to achieve the desired orientation by avoiding the composition of several cumulative rotations, which is typically necessary in WIMP interfaces. However, tasks requiring precision such as clipping plane visualization and tagging are best performed with mouse-based systems due to noise, incorrect gestures detection and problems in skeleton tracking that need to be addressed before tests in real medical environments might be performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Advancements on Radar Polarization Information Acquisition and Processing

    Dai Dahai


    Full Text Available The study on radar polarization information acquisition and processing has currently been one important part of radar techniques. The development of the polarization theory is simply reviewed firstly. Subsequently, some key techniques which include polarization measurement, polarization anti-jamming, polarization recognition, imaging and parameters inversion using radar polarimetry are emphatically analyzed in this paper. The basic theories, the present states and the development trends of these key techniques are presented and some meaningful conclusions are derived.

  1. Brain-Computer Interfaces for 1-D and 2-D Cursor Control: Designs Using Volitional Control of the EEG Spectrum or Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Matthews, Bryan; Rosipal, Roman


    We have developed and tested two EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for users to control a cursor on a computer display. Our system uses an adaptive algorithm, based on kernel partial least squares classification (KPLS), to associate patterns in multichannel EEG frequency spectra with cursor controls. Our first BCI, Target Practice, is a system for one-dimensional device control, in which participants use biofeedback to learn voluntary control of their EEG spectra. Target Practice uses a KF LS classifier to map power spectra of 30-electrode EEG signals to rightward or leftward position of a moving cursor on a computer display. Three subjects learned to control motion of a cursor on a video display in multiple blocks of 60 trials over periods of up to six weeks. The best subject s average skill in correct selection of the cursor direction grew from 58% to 88% after 13 training sessions. Target Practice also implements online control of two artifact sources: a) removal of ocular artifact by linear subtraction of wavelet-smoothed vertical and horizontal EOG signals, b) control of muscle artifact by inhibition of BCI training during periods of relatively high power in the 40-64 Hz band. The second BCI, Think Pointer, is a system for two-dimensional cursor control. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) are triggered by four flickering checkerboard stimuli located in narrow strips at each edge of the display. The user attends to one of the four beacons to initiate motion in the desired direction. The SSVEP signals are recorded from eight electrodes located over the occipital region. A KPLS classifier is individually calibrated to map multichannel frequency bands of the SSVEP signals to right-left or up-down motion of a cursor on a computer display. The display stops moving when the user attends to a central fixation point. As for Target Practice, Think Pointer also implements wavelet-based online removal of ocular artifact; however, in Think Pointer muscle

  2. Radar and ARPA manual

    Bole, A G


    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  3. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    Wang, Wen-Qin


    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  4. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    Wen-Qin Wang


    Full Text Available It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  5. Radar Weather Observation

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  6. ISTEF Laser Radar Program

    Stryjewski, John


    The BMDO Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (BMDO/ISTEF) laser radar program is engaged in an ongoing program to develop and demonstrate advanced laser radar concepts for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...

  7. Weather Radar Impact Zones

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent an inventory of the national impacts of wind turbine interference with NEXRAD radar stations. This inventory was developed by the NOAA Radar...

  8. Principles of modern radar systems

    Carpentier, Michel H


    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  9. Software Radar Technology

    Tang Jun


    Full Text Available In this paper, the definition and the key features of Software Radar, which is a new concept, are proposed and discussed. We consider the development of modern radar system technology to be divided into three stages: Digital Radar, Software radar and Intelligent Radar, and the second stage is just commencing now. A Software Radar system should be a combination of various modern digital modular components conformed to certain software and hardware standards. Moreover, a software radar system with an open system architecture supporting to decouple application software and low level hardware would be easy to adopt "user requirements-oriented" developing methodology instead of traditional "specific function-oriented" developing methodology. Compared with traditional Digital Radar, Software Radar system can be easily reconfigured and scaled up or down to adapt to the changes of requirements and technologies. A demonstration Software Radar signal processing system, RadarLab 2.0, which has been developed by Tsinghua University, is introduced in this paper and the suggestions for the future development of Software Radar in China are also given in the conclusion.

  10. Modelling dielectric-constant values of concrete: an aid to shielding effectiveness prediction and ground-penetrating radar wave technique interpretation

    Bourdi, Taoufik; Rhazi, Jamal Eddine; Ballivy, Gérard; Boone, François


    A number of efficient and diverse mathematical methods have been used to model electromagnetic wave propagation. Each of these methods possesses a set of key elements which eases its understanding. However, the modelling of the propagation in concrete becomes impossible without modelling its electrical properties. In addition to experimental measurements; material theoretical and empirical models can be useful to investigate the behaviour of concrete's electrical properties with respect to frequency, moisture content (MC) or other factors. These models can be used in different fields of civil engineering such as (1) electromagnetic compatibility which predicts the shielding effectiveness (SE) of a concrete structure against external electromagnetic waves and (2) in non-destructive testing to predict the radar wave reflected on a concrete slab. This paper presents a comparison between the Jonscher model and the Debye models which is suitable to represent the dielectric properties of concrete, although dielectric and conduction losses are taken into consideration in these models. The Jonscher model gives values of permittivity, SE and radar wave reflected in a very good agreement with those given by experimental measurements and this for different MCs. Compared with other models, the Jonscher model is very effective and is the most appropriate to represent the electric properties of concrete.

  11. Joint application of Geoelectrical Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar techniques for the study of hyper-saturated zones. Case study in Egypt

    Hany S. Mesbah


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the application of the Geoelectrical Resistivity Sounding (GRS and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR for outlining and investigating of surface springing out (flow of groundwater to the base of an service building site, and determining the reason(s for the zone of maximum degree of saturation; in addition to provide stratigraphic information for this site. The studied economic building is constructed lower than the ground surface by about 7 m. A Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES survey was performed at 12 points around the studied building in order to investigate the vertical and lateral extent of the subsurface sequence, three VES's were conducted at each side of the building at discrete distances. And a total of 9 GPR profiles with 100- and 200-MHz antennae were conducted, with the objective of evaluating the depth and the degree of saturation of the subsurface layers. The qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the acquired VES's showed easily the levels of saturations close to and around the studied building. From the interpretation of GPR profiles, it was possible to locate and determine the saturated layers. The radar signals are penetrated and enabled the identification of the subsurface reflectors. The results of GPR and VES showed a good agreement and the integrated interpretations were supported by local geology. Finally, the new constructed geoelectrical resistivity cross-sections (in contoured-form, are easily clarifying the direction of groundwater flow toward the studied building.

  12. New Vacuum Electronic Devices for Radar

    Hu Yinfu


    Full Text Available Vacuum Electronic Devices (VEDs which are considered as the heart of a radar system, play an important role in their development. VEDs and radar systems supplement and promote each other. Some new trends in VEDs have been observed with advancements in the simulation tools for designing VEDs, new materials, new fabrication techniques. Recently, the performance of VEDs has greatly improved. In addition, new devices have been invented, which have laid the foundation for the developments of radar detection technology. This study introduces the recent development trends and research results of VEDs from microwave and millimeter wave devices and power modules, integrated VEDs, terahertz VEDs, and high power VEDs.

  13. Understanding radar systems

    Kingsley, Simon


    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  14. Pulse Doppler radar

    Alabaster, Clive


    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  15. Development Of Signal Detection For Radar Navigation System

    Theingi Win Hlaing


    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the performance of target detection in the presence of sea clutter. Radar detection of a background of unwanted clutter due to echoes from sea clutter or land is a problem of interest in the radar field. Radar detector has been developed by assuming the radar clutter is Gaussian distributed. However as technology emerges the radar distribution is seen to deviates from the Gaussian assumption. Thus detectors designs based on Gaussian assumption are no longer optimum for detection in non-Gaussian nature. The theory of target detection in Gaussian distributed clutter has been well established and the closed form of the detection performances can be easily obtained. However that is not the case in non-Gaussian clutter distributions. The operation of radar detection is determined by radar detection theory with different types of Swerling target models such as Swerling I II III IV and V. By using MATLAB these signal detection techniques are developed.

  16. Plane-Casting: 3D Cursor Control with a SmartPhone

    Katzakis, Nicholas; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Hori, Masahiro; Takemura, Haruo


    We present Plane-Casting, a novel technique for 3D object manipulation from a distance that is especially suitable for smartphones. We describe two variations of Plane-Casting, Pivot and Free Plane-Casting, and present results from a pilot study. Results suggest that Pivot Plane-Casting is more suitable for quick, coarse movements whereas Free Plane-Casting is more suited to slower, precise motion. In a 3D movement task, Pivot Plane-Casting performed better quantitatively, but subjects prefer...

  17. Chemical Characterization of Young Virgin Queens and Mated Egg-Laying Queens in the Ant Cataglyphis cursor: Random Forest Classification Analysis for Multivariate Datasets.

    Monnin, Thibaud; Helft, Florence; Leroy, Chloé; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Doums, Claudie


    Social insects are well known for their extremely rich chemical communication, yet their sex pheromones remain poorly studied. In the thermophilic and thelytokous ant, Cataglyphis cursor, we analyzed the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and Dufour's gland contents of queens of different age and reproductive status (sexually immature gynes, sexually mature gynes, mated and egg-laying queens) and of workers. Random forest classification analyses showed that the four groups of individuals were well separated for both chemical sources, except mature gynes that clustered with queens for cuticular hydrocarbons and with immature gynes for Dufour's gland secretions. Analyses carried out with two groups of females only allowed identification of candidate chemicals for queen signal and for sexual attractant. In particular, gynes produced more undecane in the Dufour's gland. This chemical is both the sex pheromone and the alarm pheromone of the ant Formica lugubris. It may therefore act as sex pheromone in C. cursor, and/or be involved in the restoration of monogyny that occurs rapidly following colony fission. Indeed, new colonies often start with several gynes and all but one are rapidly culled by workers, and this process likely involves chemical signals between gynes and workers. These findings open novel opportunities for experimental studies of inclusive mate choice and queen choice in C. cursor.

  18. Non-Cooperative Air Target Identification Using Radar (l’Identification radar des cibles aeriennes non cooperatives)


    des techniques tr~s prometteuse pour la detection longue port~e. Les progr~s escompt ~s dans le domaine des techniques radar devraient amener des...cibles fixes, des cibles mobiles ou du fouillis de sol. Sa vocation Le moyen de mesures comprend un radar premiere est d’enrichir les banques de donn6es

  19. The development of deep learning in synthetic aperture radar imagery

    Schwegmann, Colin P


    Full Text Available sensing techniques but comes at the price of additional complexities. To adequately cope with these, researchers have begun to employ advanced machine learning techniques known as deep learning to Synthetic Aperture Radar data. Deep learning represents...

  20. Ambiguity Of Doppler Centroid In Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Curlander, John C.


    Paper discusses performances of two algorithms for resolution of ambiguity in estimated Doppler centroid frequency of echoes in synthetic-aperture radar. One based on range-cross-correlation technique, other based on multiple-pulse-repetition-frequency technique.

  1. Tenth Biennial Coherent Laser Radar Technology and Applications Conference

    Kavaya, Michael J. (Compiler)


    The tenth conference on coherent laser radar technology and applications is the latest in a series beginning in 1980 which provides a forum for exchange of information on recent events current status, and future directions of coherent laser radar (or lidar or lader) technology and applications. This conference emphasizes the latest advancement in the coherent laser radar field, including theory, modeling, components, systems, instrumentation, measurements, calibration, data processing techniques, operational uses, and comparisons with other remote sensing technologies.

  2. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    Jeffrey, Thomas


    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  3. Reduction of radar cross-section of a wind turbine

    McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Brock, Billy C.; Clem, Paul G.; Loui, Hung; Allen, Steven E.


    The various technologies presented herein relate to formation of a wind turbine blade having a reduced radar signature in comparison with a turbine blade fabricated using conventional techniques. Various techniques and materials are presented to facilitate reduction in radar signature of a wind turbine blade, where such techniques and materials are amenable for incorporation into existing manufacturing techniques without degradation in mechanical or physical performance of the blade or major alteration of the blade profile.

  4. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  5. Radar investigations at the Saltsjoetunnel - predictions and validation

    Olsson, Olle; Palmqvist, Kai


    Borehole radar investigations have been performed in two boreholes drilled along the extent of the Saltsjoe tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden. The objective of the project was to test investigate the capabilities of the borehole radar technique to predict geological structures prior to tunnel excavation. Singlehole and crosshole radar measurements were made in the two boreholes which outlined and equilateral triangle. The crosshole data was used to produce tomograms showing the distribution of radar attenuation and slowness (inverse of velocity) in the plane between the boreholes. The radar model of the site contained one major feature which was identified as a fracture zone. The intersection of the fracture zone with the tunnel was extrapolated from the radar data and found to be in agreement with observations in the tunnel. At the intersection of the fracture zone with the tunnel grouting had to be applied. It has also been found that the radar identifies a number of smaller features which are of practically no significance with respect to tunnel construction. There is general agreement between the radar model of the site and the geologic-tectonic model of the site. This project has demonstrated the capability of the boreholes radar technique to predict the existence, location, and orientation of geologic features (e.g. fracture zones) which can be of significance to the cost and safety when excavating a tunnel. However, further development is needed to be able to use the technique cost effectively for continuous prediction ahead of the tunnel front. (authors) (17 figs., 1 tab.)

  6. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  7. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard


    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  8. Real-Time Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Float-Point Imaging System Using Optimized Mapping Methodology and a Multi-Node Parallel Accelerating Technique

    Li, Bingyi; Chen, Liang; Yu, Wenyue; Xie, Yizhuang; Bian, Mingming; Zhang, Qingjun; Pang, Long


    With the development of satellite load technology and very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit technology, on-board real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems have facilitated rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the on-board SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance under severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. This paper presents a multi-node prototype system for real-time SAR imaging processing. We decompose the commonly used chirp scaling (CS) SAR imaging algorithm into two parts according to the computing features. The linearization and logic-memory optimum allocation methods are adopted to realize the nonlinear part in a reconfigurable structure, and the two-part bandwidth balance method is used to realize the linear part. Thus, float-point SAR imaging processing can be integrated into a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip instead of relying on distributed technologies. A single-processing node requires 10.6 s and consumes 17 W to focus on 25-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384. The design methodology of the multi-FPGA parallel accelerating system under the real-time principle is introduced. As a proof of concept, a prototype with four processing nodes and one master node is implemented using a Xilinx xc6vlx315t FPGA. The weight and volume of one single machine are 10 kg and 32 cm × 24 cm × 20 cm, respectively, and the power consumption is under 100 W. The real-time performance of the proposed design is demonstrated on Chinese Gaofen-3 stripmap continuous imaging. PMID:29495637

  9. A Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Partial Fixed-Point Imaging System Using a Field- Programmable Gate Array-Application-Specific Integrated Circuit Hybrid Heterogeneous Parallel Acceleration Technique.

    Yang, Chen; Li, Bingyi; Chen, Liang; Wei, Chunpeng; Xie, Yizhuang; Chen, He; Yu, Wenyue


    With the development of satellite load technology and very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit technology, onboard real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems have become a solution for allowing rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the onboard SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance with severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. In this paper, we analyse the computational burden of the commonly used chirp scaling (CS) SAR imaging algorithm. To reduce the system hardware cost, we propose a partial fixed-point processing scheme. The fast Fourier transform (FFT), which is the most computation-sensitive operation in the CS algorithm, is processed with fixed-point, while other operations are processed with single precision floating-point. With the proposed fixed-point processing error propagation model, the fixed-point processing word length is determined. The fidelity and accuracy relative to conventional ground-based software processors is verified by evaluating both the point target imaging quality and the actual scene imaging quality. As a proof of concept, a field- programmable gate array-application-specific integrated circuit (FPGA-ASIC) hybrid heterogeneous parallel accelerating architecture is designed and realized. The customized fixed-point FFT is implemented using the 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as a co-processor of the Xilinx xc6vlx760t FPGA. A single processing board requires 12 s and consumes 21 W to focus a 50-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384.

  10. A Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Partial Fixed-Point Imaging System Using a Field- Programmable Gate Array−Application-Specific Integrated Circuit Hybrid Heterogeneous Parallel Acceleration Technique

    Chen Yang


    Full Text Available With the development of satellite load technology and very large scale integrated (VLSI circuit technology, onboard real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging systems have become a solution for allowing rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the onboard SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance with severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. In this paper, we analyse the computational burden of the commonly used chirp scaling (CS SAR imaging algorithm. To reduce the system hardware cost, we propose a partial fixed-point processing scheme. The fast Fourier transform (FFT, which is the most computation-sensitive operation in the CS algorithm, is processed with fixed-point, while other operations are processed with single precision floating-point. With the proposed fixed-point processing error propagation model, the fixed-point processing word length is determined. The fidelity and accuracy relative to conventional ground-based software processors is verified by evaluating both the point target imaging quality and the actual scene imaging quality. As a proof of concept, a field- programmable gate array−application-specific integrated circuit (FPGA-ASIC hybrid heterogeneous parallel accelerating architecture is designed and realized. The customized fixed-point FFT is implemented using the 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology as a co-processor of the Xilinx xc6vlx760t FPGA. A single processing board requires 12 s and consumes 21 W to focus a 50-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384.

  11. Sensor management in RADAR/IRST track fusion

    Hu, Shi-qiang; Jing, Zhong-liang


    In this paper, a novel radar management strategy technique suitable for RADAR/IRST track fusion, which is based on Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) and fuzzy stochastic decision approach, is put forward. Firstly, optimal radar measurements' scheduling is obtained by the method of maximizing determinant of the Fisher information matrix of radar and IRST measurements, which is managed by the expert system. Then, suggested a "pseudo sensor" to predict the possible target position using the polynomial method based on the radar and IRST measurements, using "pseudo sensor" model to estimate the target position even if the radar is turned off. At last, based on the tracking performance and the state of target maneuver, fuzzy stochastic decision is used to adjust the optimal radar scheduling and retrieve the module parameter of "pseudo sensor". The experiment result indicates that the algorithm can not only limit Radar activity effectively but also keep the tracking accuracy of active/passive system well. And this algorithm eliminates the drawback of traditional Radar management methods that the Radar activity is fixed and not easy to control and protect.

  12. Aspects of Radar Polarimetry

    LÜNEBURG, Ernst


    This contribution is a tutorial introduction to the phenomenological theory of radar polarimetry for the coherent scatter case emphasizing monostatic backscattering and forward scattering (transmission). Characteristic similarities and differences between radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry and the role of linear and antilinear operators (time-reversal) are pointed out and typical polarimetric invariants are identified.

  13. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.


    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  14. Determination of radar MTF

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  15. Detecting and classifying low probability of intercept radar

    Pace, Phillip E


    The drive is on to devise LPI radar systems that evade hostile detection as well as develop non-cooperative intercept devices that outsmart enemy LPI radar. Based on the author's own design experience, this comprehensive, hands-on book gives you the latest design and development techniques to innovate new LPI radar systems and discover new ways to intercept enemy LPI radar. and help you visually identify waveform parameters. Filled with more than 500 equations that provide rigorous mathematical detail, this book can be used by both entry-level and seasoned engineers. Besides thoroughly treatin

  16. Assimilation of radar-based nowcast into HIRLAM NWP model

    Jensen, David Getreuer; Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    The present study introduces a nowcast scheme that assimilates radar extrapolation data (RED) into a nowcasting version of the high resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model covering the area of Denmark. The RED are based on the Co-TREC (tracking radar echoes...... by correlation) methodology and are generated from cleaned radar mosaics from the Danish weather radar network. The assimilation technique is a newly developed method that increases model precipitation by increasing low-level convergence and decreasing convergence aloft in order to increase the vertical velocity....... The level of improved predictability relies on the RED quality, which again relies on the type of event....

  17. Radar fall detection using principal component analysis

    Jokanovic, Branka; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem


    Falls are a major cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older. Radar has the potential to become one of the leading technologies for fall detection, thereby enabling the elderly to live independently. Existing techniques for fall detection using radar are based on manual feature extraction and require significant parameter tuning in order to provide successful detections. In this paper, we employ principal component analysis for fall detection, wherein eigen images of observed motions are employed for classification. Using real data, we demonstrate that the PCA based technique provides performance improvement over the conventional feature extraction methods.

  18. A Simple Signal Processing Architecture for Instantaneous Radar Polarimetry


    Stephen D. Howard, A. Robert Calderbank, Fellow, IEEE, and William Moran, Member, IEEE Abstract—This paper describes a new radar primitive that en...Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems, 3rd ed. New York: Mc- Graw -Hill, 2001. [14] S. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless

  19. Research at the Stanford Center for Radar Astronomy


    The research is reported in the applications of radar and radio techniques to the study of the solar system, and to space programs. Experiments reported include: bistatic-radar on Apollo missions, development of an unmanned geophysical observatory in the Antartic, Bragg scattering probes of sea states, characteristics of dense solar wind disturbances, and satellite communications for Alaska.

  20. Radar observation of the equatorial counter-electrojet

    Hanuise, C.; Crochet, M.; Gouin, P.; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan


    Electron drift velocity in the equatorial electrojet has been measured for a few years by coherent radar techniques in Africa. For the first time such measurements were performed during a strong reversal of the ionospheric current dubbed 'counter-electrojet'. These observations agree with the theories of the plasma instabilities at the origin of the electron density irregularities giving the radar echoes

  1. Principles of modern radar radar applications

    Scheer, James A


    Principles of Modern Radar: Radar Applications is the third of the three-volume seriesof what was originally designed to be accomplished in one volume. As the final volumeof the set, it finishes the original vision of a complete yet bounded reference for radartechnology. This volume describes fifteen different system applications or class ofapplications in more detail than can be found in Volumes I or II.As different as the applications described, there is a difference in how these topicsare treated by the authors. Whereas in Volumes I and II there is strict adherence tochapter format and leve

  2. Quantification of Reflection Patterns in Ground-Penetrating Radar Data

    Moysey, S.; Knight, R. J.; Jol, H. M.; Allen-King, R. M.; Gaylord, D. R.


    Radar facies analysis provides a way of interpreting the large-scale structure of the subsurface from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. Radar facies are often distinguished from each other by the presence of patterns, such as flat-lying, dipping, or chaotic reflections, in different regions of a radar image. When these patterns can be associated with radar facies in a repeated and predictable manner we refer to them as `radar textures'. While it is often possible to qualitatively differentiate between radar textures visually, pattern recognition tools, like neural networks, require a quantitative measure to discriminate between them. We investigate whether currently available tools, such as instantaneous attributes or metrics adapted from standard texture analysis techniques, can be used to improve the classification of radar facies. To this end, we use a neural network to perform cross-validation tests that assess the efficacy of different textural measures for classifying radar facies in GPR data collected from the William River delta, Saskatchewan, Canada. We found that the highest classification accuracies (>93%) were obtained for measures of texture that preserve information about the spatial arrangement of reflections in the radar image, e.g., spatial covariance. Lower accuracy (87%) was obtained for classifications based directly on windows of amplitude data extracted from the radar image. Measures that did not account for the spatial arrangement of reflections in the image, e.g., instantaneous attributes and amplitude variance, yielded classification accuracies of less than 65%. Optimal classifications were obtained for textural measures that extracted sufficient information from the radar data to discriminate between radar facies but were insensitive to other facies specific characteristics. For example, the rotationally invariant Fourier-Mellin transform delivered better classification results than the spatial covariance because dip angle of the

  3. Investigation of hopped frequency waveforms for range and velocity measurements of radar targets

    Kathree, U


    Full Text Available In the field of radar, High Range Resolution (HRR) profiles are often used to improve target tracking accuracy in range and to allow the radar system to produce an image of an object using techniques such as inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR...

  4. The Use of Radar Imagery in Climatological Research. Resource Paper No. 21.

    Williams, Aaron, Jr.

    Intended to supplement undergraduate college geography courses, this resource paper investigates the need and use of radar in weather phenomena research. Radar can be used to study weather phenomena over a wide area, thus improving the results of statistical analyses previously limited by inadequate data. Radar techniques are also useful for…

  5. Radar-to-Radar Interference Suppression for Distributed Radar Sensor Networks

    Wen-Qin Wang


    Full Text Available Radar sensor networks, including bi- and multi-static radars, provide several operational advantages, like reduced vulnerability, good system flexibility and an increased radar cross-section. However, radar-to-radar interference suppression is a major problem in distributed radar sensor networks. In this paper, we present a cross-matched filtering-based radar-to-radar interference suppression algorithm. This algorithm first uses an iterative filtering algorithm to suppress the radar-to-radar interferences and, then, separately matched filtering for each radar. Besides the detailed algorithm derivation, extensive numerical simulation examples are performed with the down-chirp and up-chirp waveforms, partially overlapped or inverse chirp rate linearly frequency modulation (LFM waveforms and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODFM chirp diverse waveforms. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the simulation results.

  6. Radar Polarimetry: Theory, Analysis, and Applications

    Hubbert, John Clark

    The fields of radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry are compared. The mathematics of optic polarimetry are formulated such that a local right handed coordinate system is always used to describe the polarization states. This is not done in radar polarimetry. Radar optimum polarization theory is redeveloped within the framework of optical polarimetry. The radar optimum polarizations and optic eigenvalues of common scatterers are compared. In addition a novel definition of an eigenpolarization state is given and the accompanying mathematics is developed. The polarization response calculated using optic, radar and novel definitions is presented for a variety of scatterers. Polarimetric transformation provides a means to characterize scatters in more than one polarization basis. Polarimetric transformation for an ensemble of scatters is obtained via two methods: (1) the covariance method and (2) the instantaneous scattering matrix (ISM) method. The covariance method is used to relate the mean radar parameters of a +/-45^circ linear polarization basis to those of a horizontal and vertical polarization basis. In contrast the ISM method transforms the individual time samples. Algorithms are developed for transforming the time series from fully polarimetric radars that switch between orthogonal states. The transformed time series are then used to calculate the mean radar parameters of interest. It is also shown that propagation effects do not need to be removed from the ISM's before transformation. The techniques are demonstrated using data collected by POLDIRAD, the German Aerospace Research Establishment's fully polarimetric C-band radar. The differential phase observed between two copolar states, Psi_{CO}, is composed of two phases: (1) differential propagation phase, phi_{DP}, and (2) differential backscatter phase, delta. The slope of phi_{DP } with range is an estimate of the specific differential phase, K_{DP}. The process of estimating K_{DP} is complicated when

  7. Radar remote sensing in biology

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.


    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  8. Evaluation of the information content of wideband and ultra-wideband radar returns from an F14, F15 and F16 using asymptotic electromagnetic techniques

    Cilliers, Jacques E


    Full Text Available TECHNIQUES J.E. Cilliers *, J.C. Smit *, A.M. McDonald * C.J. Baker‡, K. Woodbridge † * Council for Scientific and Insustiral Research (CSIR, DPSS), South Africa,, ‡ ElectroScience Laboratory, Ohio State University, USA...

  9. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar

    Raja Syamsul Azmir Raja Abdullah; Noor Hafizah Abdul Aziz; Nur Emileen Abdul Rashid; Asem Ahmad Salah; Fazirulhisyam Hashim


    The passive bistatic radar (PBR) system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR). The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS) for target detection. Thus, the aim of th...

  10. Radar and electronic navigation

    Sonnenberg, G J


    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  11. Wind farm radar study

    Davies, N.G.


    This report examines the possible degradations of radar performance that may be caused by the presence of a wind turbine generator within the radar coverage area. A brief literature survey reviews the previously published work, which is mainly concerned with degradation of broadcast TV reception. Estimates are made of wind turbine generator scattering cross-sections, and of the time and Doppler characteristics of the echo signals from representative wind turbine generator. The general characteristics of radar detection and tracking methods are described, and the behaviour of such systems in the presence of strong returns from a wind turbine generator (or an array of them) is discussed. (author)

  12. Radar observations of Mercury

    Harmon, J.K.; Campbell, D.B.


    Some of the radar altimetry profiles of Mercury obtained on the basis of data from the Arecibo Observatory are presented. In these measurements, the delay-Doppler method was used to measure altitudes along the Doppler equator, rather than to map radar reflectivity. The profiles, derived from observations made over a 6-yr period, provide extensive coverage over a restricted equatorial band and permit the identification of radar signatures for features as small as 50-km diameter craters and 1-km-high arcuate scarps. The data allowed identification of large-scale topographic features such as smooth plains subsidence zones and major highland regions

  13. Radar cross section

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael


    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  14. To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy

    Butrica, Andrew J.


    -based facilities by this transformed planetary radar astronomy, as well as the upgrading of the Arecibo and Goldstone radars. A technical essay appended to this book provides an overview of planetary radar techniques, especially range-Doppler mapping.

  15. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.


    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  16. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    Chang, L.


    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  17. Wind Profiling Radar

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  18. Improved Laser Vibration Radar

    Hilaire, Pierre


    .... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...

  19. Phased-array radars

    Brookner, E.


    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  20. Radar detection of Vesta

    Ostro, S.J.; Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.); Campbell, D.B.; Pettengill, G.H.


    Asteroid 4 Vesta was detected on November 6, 1979 with the Arecibo Observatory's S-band (12.6-cm-wavelength) radar. The echo power spectrum, received in the circular polarization opposite to that transmitted, yields a radar cross section of (0.2 + or - 0.1)pi a-squared, for a 272 km. The data are too noisy to permit derivation of Vesta's rotation period

  1. Downhole pulse radar

    Chang, Hsi-Tien


    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  2. Radar efficiency and the calculation of decade-long PMSE backscatter cross-section for the Resolute Bay VHF radar

    N. Swarnalingam


    Full Text Available The Resolute Bay VHF radar, located in Nunavut, Canada (75.0° N, 95.0° W and operating at 51.5 MHz, has been used to investigate Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE since 1997. PMSE are a unique form of strong coherent radar echoes, and their understanding has been a challenge to the scientific community since their discovery more than three decades ago. While other high latitude radars have recorded strong levels of PMSE activities, the Resolute Bay radar has observed relatively lower levels of PMSE strengths. In order to derive absolute measurements of PMSE strength at this site, a technique is developed to determine the radar efficiency using cosmic (sky noise variations along with the help of a calibrated noise source. VHF radars are only rarely calibrated, but determination of efficiency is even less common. Here we emphasize the importance of efficiency for determination of cross-section measurements. The significant advantage of this method is that it can be directly applied to any MST radar system anywhere in the world as long as the sky noise variations are known. The radar efficiencies for two on-site radars at Resolute Bay are determined. PMSE backscatter cross-section is estimated, and decade-long PMSE strength variations at this location are investigated. It was noticed that the median of the backscatter cross-section distribution remains relatively unchanged, but over the years a great level of variability occurs in the high power tail of the distribution.

  3. Bi-Spectral Method for Radar Target Recognition

    Yeo, Jiunn W


    .... Since World War II, the Identification of Friend or Foe (IFF) systems installed in radar systems have served as the primary cooperative target identification techniques based on the "question and answer" interrogation loop of unidentified aircraft...

  4. Biologically-inspired radar and sonar lessons from nature

    Balleri, Alessio; Baker, Chris


    This book presents some of the recent work that has been carried out to investigate how sophisticated sensing techniques used in nature can be applied to radar and sonar systems to improve their performance.

  5. Multi-antenna synthetic aperture radar

    Wang, Wen-Qin


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indica

  6. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.


    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  7. Design of a slimline directional borehole radar antenna using FDTD

    Vogt, D


    Full Text Available , dielectric. I. INTRODUCTION Borehole radar is the application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) within a borehole [11]. GPR is a technique used to delineate structures and features of a subsurface. The borehole radar technique has been used successfully..., the direction of the incoming EM wave can be determined [6]. III. FILLER MATERIAL INSIDE ANTENNA ARRAY Ideally, there is no material between the antenna body and the rock surrounding it. In that case, the filler material would be matched to the dielectric...

  8. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan


    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  9. Radar detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    Myers, Isaac J.

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment co-located with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, UT. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW transmitter and high gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and in the FD field of view to a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. Data collection began in August, 2013. TARA stands apart from other cosmic ray radar experiments in that radar data is directly compared with conventional cosmic ray detector events. The transmitter is also directly controlled by TARA researchers. Waveforms from the FD-triggered data stream are time-matched with TA events and searched for signal using a novel signal search technique in which the expected (simulated) radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to radio waveforms. This technique is used to calculate the radar cross-section (RCS) upper-limit on all triggers that correspond to well-reconstructed TA FD monocular events. Our lowest cosmic ray RCS upper-limit is 42 cm2 for an 11 EeV event. An introduction to cosmic rays is presented with the evolution of detection and the necessity of new detection techniques, of which radar detection is a candidate. The software simulation of radar scattering from cosmic rays follows. The TARA detector, including transmitter and receiver systems, are discussed in detail. Our search algorithm and methodology for calculating RCS is presented for the purpose of being repeatable. Search results are explained in context of the usefulness and future of cosmic ray radar detection.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TOGA radar dataset consists of browse and radar data collected from the TOGA radar during the CAMEX-4 experiment. TOGA is a C-band linear polarized doppler radar...

  11. Utilizing the Vertical Variability of Precipitation to Improve Radar QPE

    Gatlin, Patrick N.; Petersen, Walter A.


    Characteristics of the melting layer and raindrop size distribution can be exploited to further improve radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). Using dual-polarimetric radar and disdrometers, we found that the characteristic size of raindrops reaching the ground in stratiform precipitation often varies linearly with the depth of the melting layer. As a result, a radar rainfall estimator was formulated using D(sub m) that can be employed by polarimetric as well as dual-frequency radars (e.g., space-based radars such as the GPM DPR), to lower the bias and uncertainty of conventional single radar parameter rainfall estimates by as much as 20%. Polarimetric radar also suffers from issues associated with sampling the vertical distribution of precipitation. Hence, we characterized the vertical profile of polarimetric parameters (VP3)-a radar manifestation of the evolving size and shape of hydrometeors as they fall to the ground-on dual-polarimetric rainfall estimation. The VP3 revealed that the profile of ZDR in stratiform rainfall can bias dual-polarimetric rainfall estimators by as much as 50%, even after correction for the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). The VP3 correction technique that we developed can improve operational dual-polarimetric rainfall estimates by 13% beyond that offered by a VPR correction alone.

  12. Radar Scan Methods in Modern Multifunctional Radars

    V. N. Skosyrev


    Full Text Available Considered urgent task of organizing the review space in modern multifunctional radar systems shall review the space in a wide range of elevation angles from minus 5 to 60-80 degrees and 360 degrees azimuth. MfRLS this type should provide an overview of the zone for a limited time (2-3 sec, detecting a wide range of subtle high and low-flying targets. The latter circumstance requires the organization to select targets against the background of reflections from the underlying surface and local objects (MP. When providing an overview of the space taken into account the need to increase not only the noise immunity, and survivability.Two variants of the review of space in the elevation plane in the solid-state AESA radar. In the first case the overview space narrow beam by one beam. In the second - the transfer of DNA is formed, covering the whole sector of responsibility in elevation and at the reception beam is formed in spetsvychislitele (CB as a result of the signal processing of digitized after emitters antenna web. The estimations of the parameters specific to the multifunction radar SAM air and missile defense. It is shown that in a number of practically important cases, preference should be given clearly one of the methods described review of space.The functional scheme with AESA radar for both variants of the review. Necessary to analyze their differences. Contains the problem of increasing the cost of MfRLS with digital beamforming DNA with increasing bandwidth probing signal being processed.Noted drawbacks of MfRLS with digital beamforming beam. Including: reduced accuracy of the coordinates at low elevation angles, the complexity of the organization of thermal regime of the solid element base using quasi-continuous signal with a low duty cycle. Shows their fundamentally unavoidable in the steppe and desert areas with uneven terrain (Kazakhstan, China, the Middle East.It is shown that for MfRLS working in strong clutter, more preferably

  13. Deriving a time series of 3D glacier motion to investigate interactions of a large mountain glacial system with its glacial lake: Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar Pixel Offset-Small Baseline Subset technique

    Li, Jia; Li, Zhi-wei; Wu, Li-xin; Xu, Bing; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Yu-shan; Miao, Ze-lang


    We investigated the interactions of Lake Merzbacher with the Southern Inylchek Glacier (Central Tien Shan) using the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Pixel Offset-Small Baseline Subset (PO-SBAS) to derive a time series of three-dimensional (3D) glacier motion. The measurements of 3D glacier velocity were ∼17% more precise than a previous study that did not use the SBAS estimation. The velocities of the glacier were up to 58 cm/day east, 70 cm/day north, and 113 cm/day vertically. Combining these data with Landsat images indicated that movement of the glacier is sensitive to changes of Lake Merzbacher. Specifically, the entry of more lake water into the glacier during the ablation season increased englacial ablation due to thermal erosion. Moreover, ice calving begins when the lake water gradually lifts the ice dam. Calving can cause greater loss of glacier mass than normal ablation. Trying to replenish the front mass loss, the distributary accelerates and the mass loss further intensifies. A time series of the vertical velocity indicates that the glacier tongue has a huge englacial cavity. We suggest that the lake outburst is directly related to the crack of this cavity. Bursting of the lake triggers a mini-surge at the glacier tongue. The vertical velocity at the ice dam was ∼+60 cm/day before the lake outburst, and ∼-113 cm/day afterwards. After drainage of the lake, flow velocities at the distributary, do not sharply decrease because pre-drainage mass loss needs to be replenished by fast flow. Based on comparisons with previous measurements, our results indicate that the lake had an increasing influence on the glacier from 2005 to 2009. This study demonstrates that a time series of 3D glacier motion based on the PO-SBAS technique is effective for assessing the dynamics of a mountain glacial system and interactions with its glacial lake.

  14. Slope stability radar for monitoring mine walls

    Reeves, Bryan; Noon, David A.; Stickley, Glen F.; Longstaff, Dennis


    Determining slope stability in a mining operation is an important task. This is especially true when the mine workings are close to a potentially unstable slope. A common technique to determine slope stability is to monitor the small precursory movements, which occur prior to collapse. The slope stability radar has been developed to remotely scan a rock slope to continuously monitor the spatial deformation of the face. Using differential radar interferometry, the system can detect deformation movements of a rough wall with sub-millimeter accuracy, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. The effects of atmospheric variations and spurious signals can be reduced via signal processing means. The advantage of radar over other monitoring techniques is that it provides full area coverage without the need for mounted reflectors or equipment on the wall. In addition, the radar waves adequately penetrate through rain, dust and smoke to give reliable measurements, twenty-four hours a day. The system has been trialed at three open-cut coal mines in Australia, which demonstrated the potential for real-time monitoring of slope stability during active mining operations.

  15. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)


    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  16. Human walking estimation with radar

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.


    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed

  17. System aspects of the Indian MST radar facility

    Viswanathan, G.


    One of the major objectives of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program is to investigate the motions of the middle atmosphere on temporal and spatial scales and the interaction between the three height regions of the middle atmosphere. Realizing the fact that radar technique has proven to be a very powerful tool for the study of Earth atmosphere, the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program has recommended establishing a mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar as a national facility for atmospheric research. The major landmarks in this attempt to setup the MST radar as a national facility are described.

  18. Netted LPI RADARs


    CHALLENGES ............................66 1. Radar Processing Gain ........................66 2. High Sensitivity Requirement .................68 B...Relationship Between Network Space and Challenges .....................................127 Figure 42. Maneuverability................................129...virtually any kind of terrain. It has five modes: Normal, Weather, ECCM, LPI, and Very Low Clearance ( VLC ). Pictures of the LANTIRN pod aboard and F-16

  19. Phased Array Radar Network Experiment for Severe Weather

    Ushio, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Mega, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Mizutani, F.; Takahashi, N.


    Phased Array Weather Radar (PAWR) was firstly developed in 2012 by Osaka University and Toshiba under a grant of NICT using the Digital Beamforming Technique, and showed a impressive thunderstorm behavior with 30 second resolution. After that development, second PAWR was installed in Kobe city about 60 km away from the first PAWR site, and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Osaka Univeristy, Toshiba and the Osaka Local Government started a new project to develop the Osaka Urban Demonstration Network. The main sensor of the Osaka Network is a 2-node Phased Array Radar Network and lightning location system. Data products that are created both in local high performance computer and Toshiba Computer Cloud, include single and multi-radar data, vector wind, quantitative precipitation estimation, VIL, nowcasting, lightning location and analysis. Each radar node is calibarated by the baloon measurement and through the comparison with the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)/ DPR (Dual Frequency Space borne Radar) within 1 dB. The attenuated radar reflectivities obtained by the Phased Array Radar Network at X band are corrected based on the bayesian scheme proposed in Shimamura et al. [2016]. The obtained high resolution (every 30 seconds/ 100 elevation angles) 3D reflectivity and rain rate fields are used to nowcast the surface rain rate up to 30 minutes ahead. These new products are transferred to Osaka Local Government in operational mode and evaluated by several section in Osaka Prefecture. Furthermore, a new Phased Array Radar with polarimetric function has been developed in 2017, and will be operated in the fiscal year of 2017. In this presentation, Phased Array Radar, network architecuture, processing algorithm, evalution of the social experiment and first Multi-Prameter Phased Array Radar experiment are presented.

  20. Radar sounding of bedrock and water table at Chalk River

    Annan, A.P.; Davis, J.L.


    When a spill of radioactive waste occurs, one of the main concerns is the flow pattern of ground water in the area of the spill. Ground probing radar is a relatively new geophysical technique which can provide high resolution data on the surficial geology and water distribution. The results of some preliminary radar experiments conducted at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River, Ontario are presented. (auth)

  1. Phased-array design for MST and ST radars

    Ecklund, W. L.


    All of the existing radar systems fully dedicated to clear-air radar studies use some type of phased-array antennas. The effects of beam-steering techniques including feed networks and phase shifters; sidelobe control; ground-clutter suppression; low altitude coverage; arrays with integrated radiating elements and feed networks; analysis of coaxial-collinear antennas; use of arrays with multiple beams; and array testing and measure on structural design of the antenna are discussed.

  2. Waveform design and diversity for advanced radar systems

    Gini, Fulvio


    In recent years, various algorithms for radar signal design, that rely heavily upon complicated processing and/or antenna architectures, have been suggested. These techniques owe their genesis to several factors, including revolutionary technological advances (new flexible waveform generators, high speed signal processing hardware, digital array radar technology, etc.) and the stressing performance requirements, often imposed by defence applications in areas such as airborne early warning and homeland security.Increasingly complex operating scenarios calls for sophisticated algorithms with the

  3. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.


    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered bathymetric data. The paper reviews the concepts of bathymetry assessment by radar, the radar imaging mechanism, and the possibilities and limitations of the use of radar data in rapid assessment.

  4. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    H. Luce

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  5. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    H. Luce


    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  6. Motion measurement for synthetic aperture radar

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measures radar soundings from a set of locations typically along the flight path of a radar platform vehicle. Optimal focusing requires precise knowledge of the sounding source locations in 3-D space with respect to the target scene. Even data driven focusing techniques (i.e. autofocus) requires some degree of initial fidelity in the measurements of the motion of the radar. These requirements may be quite stringent especially for fine resolution, long ranges, and low velocities. The principal instrument for measuring motion is typically an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), but these instruments have inherent limi ted precision and accuracy. The question is %22How good does an IMU need to be for a SAR across its performance space?%22 This report analytically relates IMU specifications to parametric requirements for SAR. - 4 - Acknowledgements Th e preparation of this report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Although this report is an independent effort, it draws heavily from limited - release documentation generated under a CRADA with General Atomics - Aeronautical System, Inc. (GA - ASI), and under the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Program Memorandum of Understanding. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of En ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Bistatic Forward Scattering Radar Detection and Imaging

    Hu Cheng


    Full Text Available Forward Scattering Radar (FSR is a special type of bistatic radar that can implement image detection, imaging, and identification using the forward scattering signals provided by the moving targets that cross the baseline between the transmitter and receiver. Because the forward scattering effect has a vital significance in increasing the targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS, FSR is quite advantageous for use in counter stealth detection. This paper first introduces the front line technology used in forward scattering RCS, FSR detection, and Shadow Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (SISAR imaging and key problems such as the statistical characteristics of forward scattering clutter, accurate parameter estimation, and multitarget discrimination are then analyzed. Subsequently, the current research progress in FSR detection and SISAR imaging are described in detail, including the theories and experiments. In addition, with reference to the BeiDou navigation satellite, the results of forward scattering experiments in civil aircraft detection are shown. Finally, this paper considers future developments in FSR target detection and imaging and presents a new, promising technique for stealth target detection.

  8. A brief history of the development of wind-profiling or MST radars

    T. E. Van Zandt

    Full Text Available The history of the development of the wind-profiling or MST radar technique is reviewed from its inception in the late 1960s to the present. Extensions of the technique by the development of boundary-layer radars and the radio-acoustic sounding system (RASS technique to measure temperature are documented. Applications are described briefly, particularly practical applications to weather forecasting, with data from networks of radars, and scientific applications to the study of rapidly varying atmospheric phenomena such as gravity waves and turbulence.

    Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques · Radio science (remote sensing; instruments and techniques

  9. A brief history of the development of wind-profiling or MST radars

    T. E. Van Zandt


    Full Text Available The history of the development of the wind-profiling or MST radar technique is reviewed from its inception in the late 1960s to the present. Extensions of the technique by the development of boundary-layer radars and the radio-acoustic sounding system (RASS technique to measure temperature are documented. Applications are described briefly, particularly practical applications to weather forecasting, with data from networks of radars, and scientific applications to the study of rapidly varying atmospheric phenomena such as gravity waves and turbulence.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques · Radio science (remote sensing; instruments and techniques

  10. CFAR Detection from Noncoherent Radar Echoes Using Bayesian Theory

    Wataru Suganuma


    Full Text Available We propose a new constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection method from noncoherent radar echoes, considering heterogeneous sea clutter. It applies the Bayesian theory for adaptive estimation of the local clutter statistical distribution in the cell under test. The detection technique can be readily implemented in existing noncoherent marine radar systems, which makes it particularly attractive for economical CFAR detection systems. Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate the detection performance and demonstrated that the proposed technique provides a higher probability of detection than conventional techniques, such as cell averaging CFAR (CA-CFAR, especially with a small number of reference cells.

  11. CFAR Detection from Noncoherent Radar Echoes Using Bayesian Theory

    Yamaguchi Hiroyuki


    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a new constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection method from noncoherent radar echoes, considering heterogeneous sea clutter. It applies the Bayesian theory for adaptive estimation of the local clutter statistical distribution in the cell under test. The detection technique can be readily implemented in existing noncoherent marine radar systems, which makes it particularly attractive for economical CFAR detection systems. Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate the detection performance and demonstrated that the proposed technique provides a higher probability of detection than conventional techniques, such as cell averaging CFAR (CA-CFAR, especially with a small number of reference cells.

  12. Comet radar explorer

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  13. A review of array radars

    Brookner, E.


    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  14. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  15. Mapping high-latitude plasma convection with coherent HF radars

    Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Baker, K.B.; Villain, J.-P.; Hanuise, C.; Kelly, J.


    In this decade, a new technique for the study of ionosphere electrodynamics has been implemented in an evolving generation of high-latitude HF radars. Coherent backscatter from electron density irregularities at F region altitudes is utilized to observe convective plasma motion. The electronic beam forming and scanning capabilities of the radars afford an excellent combination of spatial (∼50 km) and temporal (∼1 min) resolution of the large-scale (∼10 6 km 2 ) convection pattern. In this paper, we outline the methods developed to synthesize the HF radar data into two-dimensional maps of convection velocity. Although any single radar can directly measure only the line-of-sight, or radial, component of the plasma motion, the convection pattern is sometimes so uniform and stable that scanning in azimuth serves to determine the transverse component as well. Under more variable conditions, data from a second radar are necessary to unambiguously resolve velocity vectors. In either case, a limited region of vector solution can be expanded into contiguous areas of single-radar radial velocity data by noting that the convection must everywhere be divergence-free, i.e., ∇·v=0. It is thus often possible to map velocity vectors without extensive second-radar coverage. We present several examples of two-dimensional velocity maps. These show instances of L shell-aligned flow in the dusk sector, the reversal of convection near magnetic midnight, and counterstreaming in the dayside cleft. We include a study of merged coherent and incoherent radar data that illustrates the applicability of these methods to other ionospheric radar systems. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  16. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan


    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  17. Comparison between HF radar current data and moored ADCP currentmeter

    Cosoli, S.


    A preliminary assessment of accuracy of a two-sites shore-based HF Radar network along the Venice Lagoon littoral was attempted by means of comparison with a 57.5 day-long ADCP current time series for the period September-October 2002. Results showed that radar measurements were accurate ( O . The main differences between the HF radar and surface ADCP currents can be explained in terms of random errors affecting the measurement technique and the daily sea breeze forcing, since low-pass filtering of current time series significantly improved the correlation and decreased the RMS of the differences between the two measured data set. Comparison of the semidiurnal (M2, S2) tidal band suggested good agreement between tidal ellipse amplitudes. Wind forcing on a daily time-scale (sea-breeze) was associated with larger differences between radar and ADCP currents at a diurnal band due to the presence of a vertical shear in the surface layer

  18. Radar Exploration of Cometary Nuclei

    Gim, Yonggyu; Heggy, E.; Belton, M.; Weissman, P.; Asphaug, E.


    We have developed a mission formulation, based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, to image the 3D internal structure of the nucleus of a Jupiter-family comet (JFC). Believed to originate in the outer solar system and to be delivered recently to the inner solar system from the Kuiper Belt, JFCs are among the most primitive bodies accessible by spacecraft, and are indicated in the 2010 Decadal Survey as primary targets for primitive bodies sample return. We consider a sounder design operating at dual frequencies, 5 and 15 MHz center frequencies with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths, respectively. Operating from close orbit about the nucleus of a spinning comet nucleus, CORE obtains a dense network of echoes that are used to image its interior structure to 10 m and to map the dielectric properties inside the nucleus to better than 200 m throughout. Clear images of internal structure and dielectric composition will reveal how the nucleus was formed and how it has evolved. Radiometric tracking of the spacecraft orbit will provide an interior mass distribution that constrains the radar-based models of interior composition. High-resolution visible and infrared color images provide surface and exterior boundary conditions for interior models and hypotheses. They present the geology and morphology of the nucleus surface at meter-scales, and the time-evolving activity, structure, and composition of the inner coma. By making global yet detailed connections from interior to exterior, the data from CORE will provide answers to fundamental questions about the earliest stages of planetesimal evolution and planet formation, will be an important complement to the Rosetta mission science, and will lay the foundation for comet nucleus sample return.

  19. Incorporating Satellite Precipitation Estimates into a Radar-Gauge Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimation Algorithm

    Yuxiang He


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new and enhanced fusion module for the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE that would objectively blend real-time satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (SQPE with radar and gauge estimates. This module consists of a preprocessor that mitigates systematic bias in SQPE, and a two-way blending routine that statistically fuses adjusted SQPE with radar estimates. The preprocessor not only corrects systematic bias in SQPE, but also improves the spatial distribution of precipitation based on SQPE and makes it closely resemble that of radar-based observations. It uses a more sophisticated radar-satellite merging technique to blend preprocessed datasets, and provides a better overall QPE product. The performance of the new satellite-radar-gauge blending module is assessed using independent rain gauge data over a five-year period between 2003–2007, and the assessment evaluates the accuracy of newly developed satellite-radar-gauge (SRG blended products versus that of radar-gauge products (which represents MPE algorithm currently used in the NWS (National Weather Service operations over two regions: (I Inside radar effective coverage and (II immediately outside radar coverage. The outcomes of the evaluation indicate (a ingest of SQPE over areas within effective radar coverage improve the quality of QPE by mitigating the errors in radar estimates in region I; and (b blending of radar, gauge, and satellite estimates over region II leads to reduction of errors relative to bias-corrected SQPE. In addition, the new module alleviates the discontinuities along the boundaries of radar effective coverage otherwise seen when SQPE is used directly to fill the areas outside of effective radar coverage.

  20. Joint synthetic aperture radar plus ground moving target indicator from single-channel radar using compressive sensing

    Thompson, Douglas; Hallquist, Aaron; Anderson, Hyrum


    The various embodiments presented herein relate to utilizing an operational single-channel radar to collect and process synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) imagery from a same set of radar returns. In an embodiment, data is collected by randomly staggering a slow-time pulse repetition interval (PRI) over a SAR aperture such that a number of transmitted pulses in the SAR aperture is preserved with respect to standard SAR, but many of the pulses are spaced very closely enabling movers (e.g., targets) to be resolved, wherein a relative velocity of the movers places them outside of the SAR ground patch. The various embodiments of image reconstruction can be based on compressed sensing inversion from undersampled data, which can be solved efficiently using such techniques as Bregman iteration. The various embodiments enable high-quality SAR reconstruction, and high-quality GMTI reconstruction from the same set of radar returns.

  1. 18th International Laser Radar Conference

    Neuber, Roland; Rairoux, Patrick; Wandinger, Ulla


    Lidar or laser radar, the depth-resolved remote measurement of atmospheric parameters with optical means, has become an important tool in the field of atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. In this volume the latest progress in the development of lidar methods, experiments, and applications is described. The content is based on selected and thoroughly refereed papers presented at the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin, 22-26 July 1996. The book is divided into six parts which cover the topics of tropospheric aerosols and clouds, lidar in space, wind, water vapor, troposheric trace gases and plumes, and stratospheric and mesospheric profiling. As a supplement to fundamental lidar textbooks this volume may serve as a guide for scientists, engineers, and graduate students through the blossoming field of modern lidar techniques and their contribution to atmospheric and environmental research.

  2. Astrophysical techniques

    Kitchin, CR


    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  3. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme


    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the frontend for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the dataformatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and specific

  4. Forestry applications of ground-penetrating radar

    Lorenzo, H.; Perez-Gracia, V.; Novo, A.; Armesto, J.


    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical and close-range remote sensing technique based on the use of radar pulses to obtain cross-section images of underground features. This method is characterized by the transmission of an electromagnetic short length pulse (1-2 ns), presenting a centre frequency ranging from 10 MHz to 2.5 GHz. The principles of GPR operation are based on the ability of low frequency radar waves to penetrate into a non-conductive medium, usually subsoil, but also walls, concrete or wood. Those waves are detected after suffering a reflection in electromagnetic discontinuities of the propagation medium. Therefore, this is a suitable method to study changes in those physical properties, and also to characterize different mediums and the reflective targets providing information about their physical properties. The aim of this work is to describe and demonstrate different applications of GPR in forestry, showing the obtained results together with their interpretation. Firstly, in this paper, it is illustrated how GPR is able to map shallow bedrock, subsoil stratigraphy and also to estimate shallow water table depth. Secondly, different tree trunks as well as dry timber are analyzed, evaluating the different radar data obtained in each particular case, and observing differences in their electromagnetic properties related to the GPR response. Finally, several measurements were taken in order to analyze the use of GPR to detect tree root systems using polarimetric techniques, being possible to detect medium and big size roots, together with groups of small roots. (Author) 39 refs.

  5. Doppler radar flowmeter

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.


    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  6. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    Graglia, Roberto D


    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  7. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Massonnet, Didier


    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  8. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  9. Performance indicators modern surveillance radar

    Nooij, P.N.C.; Theil, A.


    Blake chart computations are widely employed to rank detection coverage capabilities of competitive search radar systems. Developed for comparable 2D radar systems with a mechanically rotating reflector antenna, it was not necessary to regard update rate and plot quality in Blake's chart. To

  10. Radar image enhancement and simulation as an aid to interpretation and training

    Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.; Dellwig, L. F.; Held, D. N.


    Greatly increased activity in the field of radar image applications in the coming years demands that techniques of radar image analysis, enhancement, and simulation be developed now. Since the statistical nature of radar imagery differs from that of photographic imagery, one finds that the required digital image processing algorithms (e.g., for improved viewing and feature extraction) differ from those currently existing. This paper addresses these problems and discusses work at the Remote Sensing Laboratory in image simulation and processing, especially for systems comparable to the formerly operational SEASAT synthetic aperture radar.

  11. Detection of Hail Storms in Radar Imagery Using Deep Learning

    Pullman, Melinda; Gurung, Iksha; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil


    In 2016, hail was responsible for 3.5 billion and 23 million dollars in damage to property and crops, respectively, making it the second costliest weather phenomenon in the United States. In an effort to improve hail-prediction techniques and reduce the societal impacts associated with hail storms, we propose a deep learning technique that leverages radar imagery for automatic detection of hail storms. The technique is applied to radar imagery from 2011 to 2016 for the contiguous United States and achieved a precision of 0.848. Hail storms are primarily detected through the visual interpretation of radar imagery (Mrozet al., 2017). With radars providing data every two minutes, the detection of hail storms has become a big data task. As a result, scientists have turned to neural networks that employ computer vision to identify hail-bearing storms (Marzbanet al., 2001). In this study, we propose a deep Convolutional Neural Network (ConvNet) to understand the spatial features and patterns of radar echoes for detecting hailstorms.

  12. Processing of 3D Weather Radar Data with Application for Assimilation in the NWP Model

    Ośródka Katarzyna


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the processing of 3D weather radar data to minimize the impact of a number of errors from different sources, both meteorological and non-meteorological. The data is also quantitatively characterized in terms of its quality. A set of dedicated algorithms based on analysis of the reflectivity field pattern is described. All the developed algorithms were tested on data from the Polish radar network POLRAD. Quality control plays a key role in avoiding the introduction of incorrect information into applications using radar data. One of the quality control methods is radar data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models to estimate initial conditions of the atmosphere. The study shows an experiment with quality controlled radar data assimilation in the COAMPS model using the ensemble Kalman filter technique. The analysis proved the potential of radar data for such applications; however, further investigations will be indispensable.

  13. A comparison on radar range profiles between in-flight measurements and RCS-predictions

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.


    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are nut available. In this paper we present the results of a comparison on one-dimensional signatures, i.e. radar range profiles. The profiles

  14. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F


    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  15. 100 years of radar

    Galati, Gaspare


    This book offers fascinating insights into the key technical and scientific developments in the history of radar, from the first patent, taken out by Hülsmeyer in 1904, through to the present day. Landmark events are highlighted and fascinating insights provided into the exceptional people who made possible the progress in the field, including the scientists and technologists who worked independently and under strict secrecy in various countries across the world in the 1930s and the big businessmen who played an important role after World War II. The book encourages multiple levels of reading. The author is a leading radar researcher who is ideally placed to offer a technical/scientific perspective as well as a historical one. He has taken care to structure and write the book in such a way as to appeal to both non-specialists and experts. The book is not sponsored by any company or body, either formally or informally, and is therefore entirely unbiased. The text is enriched by approximately three hundred ima...

  16. Synthetic aperture radar imaging simulator for pulse envelope evaluation

    Balster, Eric J.; Scarpino, Frank A.; Kordik, Andrew M.; Hill, Kerry L.


    A simulator for spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation is presented. The simulator produces radar returns from a virtual radar positioned at an arbitrary distance and altitude. The radar returns are produced from a source image, where the return is a weighted summation of linear frequency-modulated (LFM) pulse signals delayed by the distance of each pixel in the image to the radar. The imagery is resampled into polar format to ensure consistent range profiles to the position of the radar. The SAR simulator provides a capability enabling the objective analysis of formed SAR imagery, comparing it to an original source image. This capability allows for analysis of various SAR signal processing techniques previously determined by impulse response function (IPF) analysis. The results suggest that IPF analysis provides results that may not be directly related to formed SAR image quality. Instead, the SAR simulator uses image quality metrics, such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structured similarity index (SSIM), for formed SAR image quality analysis. To showcase the capability of the SAR simulator, it is used to investigate the performance of various envelopes applied to LFM pulses. A power-raised cosine window with a power p=0.35 and roll-off factor of β=0.15 is shown to maximize the quality of the formed SAR images by improving PSNR by 0.84 dB and SSIM by 0.06 from images formed utilizing a rectangular pulse, on average.

  17. Informational analysis for compressive sampling in radar imaging.

    Zhang, Jingxiong; Yang, Ke


    Compressive sampling or compressed sensing (CS) works on the assumption of the sparsity or compressibility of the underlying signal, relies on the trans-informational capability of the measurement matrix employed and the resultant measurements, operates with optimization-based algorithms for signal reconstruction and is thus able to complete data compression, while acquiring data, leading to sub-Nyquist sampling strategies that promote efficiency in data acquisition, while ensuring certain accuracy criteria. Information theory provides a framework complementary to classic CS theory for analyzing information mechanisms and for determining the necessary number of measurements in a CS environment, such as CS-radar, a radar sensor conceptualized or designed with CS principles and techniques. Despite increasing awareness of information-theoretic perspectives on CS-radar, reported research has been rare. This paper seeks to bridge the gap in the interdisciplinary area of CS, radar and information theory by analyzing information flows in CS-radar from sparse scenes to measurements and determining sub-Nyquist sampling rates necessary for scene reconstruction within certain distortion thresholds, given differing scene sparsity and average per-sample signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Simulated studies were performed to complement and validate the information-theoretic analysis. The combined strategy proposed in this paper is valuable for information-theoretic orientated CS-radar system analysis and performance evaluation.

  18. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.


    Transient electromagnetic fields are of great interest in Ukraine. The following topics are studied by research teams, with high-level achievements all over the world: (i) Ultra-Wide Band/Short-pulse radar techniques (IRE and LLC "Transient Technologies", for more information please visit and; (ii) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with stepped frequency sounding signals (IRE); (iii) Continuous-Wave (CW) radar with phase-shift keying signals (IRE); and (iv) Radio-wave interference investigation (Scientific and Technical Centre of The Subsurface Investigation, GPR applications are mainly in search works, for example GPR is often used to search for treasures. It is also used to identify leaks and diffusion of petroleum in soil, in storage areas, as well as for fault location of pipelines. Furthermore, GPR is used for the localization of underground utilities and for diagnostics of the technical state of hydro dams. Deeper GPR probing was performed to identify landslides in Crimea. Rescue radar with CW signal was designed in IRE to search for living people trapped under the rubble of collapsed buildings. The fourth version of this radar has been recently created, showing higher stability and noise immunity. Radio-wave interference investigation allows studying the soil down to tens of meters. It is possible to identify areas with increased conductivity (moisture) of the soil. LLC "Transient Technologies" is currently working with Shevchenko Kyiv University on a cooperation program in which the construction of a test site is one of the planned tasks. In the framework of this program, a GPR with a 300 MHz antenna was handed to the geological Faculty of the University. Employees of "Transient Technologies" held introductory lectures with a practical demonstration for students majoring in geophysics. The authors participated to GPR

  19. Brain-state classification and a dual-state decoder dramatically improve the control of cursor movement through a brain-machine interface

    Sachs, Nicholas A.; Ruiz-Torres, Ricardo; Perreault, Eric J.; Miller, Lee E.


    Objective. It is quite remarkable that brain machine interfaces (BMIs) can be used to control complex movements with fewer than 100 neurons. Success may be due in part to the limited range of dynamical conditions under which most BMIs are tested. Achieving high-quality control that spans these conditions with a single linear mapping will be more challenging. Even for simple reaching movements, existing BMIs must reduce the stochastic noise of neurons by averaging the control signals over time, instead of over the many neurons that normally control movement. This forces a compromise between a decoder with dynamics allowing rapid movement and one that allows postures to be maintained with little jitter. Our current work presents a method for addressing this compromise, which may also generalize to more highly varied dynamical situations, including movements with more greatly varying speed. Approach. We have developed a system that uses two independent Wiener filters as individual components in a single decoder, one optimized for movement, and the other for postural control. We computed an LDA classifier using the same neural inputs. The decoder combined the outputs of the two filters in proportion to the likelihood assigned by the classifier to each state. Main results. We have performed online experiments with two monkeys using this neural-classifier, dual-state decoder, comparing it to a standard, single-state decoder as well as to a dual-state decoder that switched states automatically based on the cursor’s proximity to a target. The performance of both monkeys using the classifier decoder was markedly better than that of the single-state decoder and comparable to the proximity decoder. Significance. We have demonstrated a novel strategy for dealing with the need to make rapid movements while also maintaining precise cursor control when approaching and stabilizing within targets. Further gains can undoubtedly be realized by optimizing the performance of the


    Vanzyl, J.


    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  1. Optimum radars and filters for the passive sphere system

    Luers, J. K.; Soltes, A.


    Studies have been conducted to determine the influence of the tracking radar and data reduction technique on the accuracy of the meteorological measurements made in the 30 to 100 kilometer altitude region by the ROBIN passive falling sphere. A survey of accuracy requirements was made of agencies interested in data from this region of the atmosphere. In light of these requirements, various types of radars were evaluated to determine the tracking system most applicable to the ROBIN, and methods were developed to compute the errors in wind and density that arise from noise errors in the radar supplied data. The effects of launch conditions on the measurements were also examined. Conclusions and recommendations have been made concerning the optimum tracking and data reduction techniques for the ROBIN falling sphere system.

  2. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.


    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered

  3. Radar observations of asteroids

    Ostro, S.J.


    This paper describes echoes from 33 main-belt asteroids (MBAs) and 19 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have provided a wealth of new information about these objects such as sizes, shapes, spin vectors, and such surface characteristics as decimeter-scale morphology, topographic relief, regolith porosity and metal concentrations. On average, small NEAs are much rougher at decimeter scales than MBAs, comets or terrestrial planets. Some of the largest MBAs (e.g., 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas ) are smoother than the moon at decimeter scales but much rougher than the Moon at some much larger scale. There is at least a five-fold variation in the radar albedos of MBAs, implying substantial variations in the surface porosities or metal concentrations of these objects. The highest MBA albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a metal concentration near unity and lunar porosities

  4. Under the Radar

    Goss, WM


    This is the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott (1912 to 1981). As the first female radio astronomer (and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy), she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. She also played a major role in the design of the Australian government's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research radars, which were in turn of vital importance in the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II and were used by Australian, US and New Zealand personnel. From a sociological perspective, her career also offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs this book gives a fascinating insight into the beginning of radio astronomy and the role of a pioneering woman in astronomy.

  5. Radar studies of the atmosphere using spatial and frequency diversity

    Yu, Tian-You

    This work provides results from a thorough investigation of atmospheric radar imaging including theory, numerical simulations, observational verification, and applications. The theory is generalized to include the existing imaging techniques of coherent radar imaging (CRI) and range imaging (RIM), which are shown to be special cases of three-dimensional imaging (3D Imaging). Mathematically, the problem of atmospheric radar imaging is posed as an inverse problem. In this study, the Fourier, Capon, and maximum entropy (MaxEnt) methods are proposed to solve the inverse problem. After the introduction of the theory, numerical simulations are used to test, validate, and exercise these techniques. Statistical comparisons of the three methods of atmospheric radar imaging are presented for various signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), receiver configuration, and frequency sampling. The MaxEnt method is shown to generally possess the best performance for low SNR. The performance of the Capon method approaches the performance of the MaxEnt method for high SNR. In limited cases, the Capon method actually outperforms the MaxEnt method. The Fourier method generally tends to distort the model structure due to its limited resolution. Experimental justification of CRI and RIM is accomplished using the Middle and Upper (MU) Atmosphere Radar in Japan and the SOUnding SYstem (SOUSY) in Germany, respectively. A special application of CRI to the observation of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) is used to show direct evidence of wave steepening and possibly explain gravity wave variations associated with PMSE.

  6. Material integrity verification radar

    Koppenjan, S.K.


    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the need for verification of 'as-built' spent fuel-dry storage containers and other concrete structures. The IAEA has tasked the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) to fabricate, test, and deploy a stepped-frequency Material Integrity Verification Radar (MIVR) system to nondestructively verify the internal construction of these containers. The MIVR system is based on previously deployed high-frequency, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems that have been developed by STL for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Whereas GPR technology utilizes microwave radio frequency energy to create subsurface images, MTVR is a variation for which the medium is concrete instead of soil. The purpose is to nondestructively verify the placement of concrete-reinforcing materials, pipes, inner liners, and other attributes of the internal construction. The MIVR system underwent an initial field test on CANDU reactor spent fuel storage canisters at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada, in October 1995. A second field test at the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant in Embalse, Argentina, was completed in May 1996. The DOE GPR also was demonstrated at the site. Data collection and analysis were performed for the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN). IAEA and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Control and Accounting of Nuclear Material (ABACC) personnel were present as observers during the test. Reinforcing materials were evident in the color, two-dimensional images produced by the MIVR system. A continuous pattern of reinforcing bars was evident and accurate estimates on the spacing, depth, and size were made. The potential uses for safeguard applications were jointly discussed. The MIVR system, as successfully demonstrated in the two field tests, can be used as a design verification tool for IAEA safeguards. A deployment of MIVR for Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ

  7. Propagation of radar rainfall uncertainty in urban flood simulations

    Liguori, Sara; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel


    This work discusses the results of the implementation of a novel probabilistic system designed to improve ensemble sewer flow predictions for the drainage network of a small urban area in the North of England. The probabilistic system has been developed to model the uncertainty associated to radar rainfall estimates and propagate it through radar-based ensemble sewer flow predictions. The assessment of this system aims at outlining the benefits of addressing the uncertainty associated to radar rainfall estimates in a probabilistic framework, to be potentially implemented in the real-time management of the sewer network in the study area. Radar rainfall estimates are affected by uncertainty due to various factors [1-3] and quality control and correction techniques have been developed in order to improve their accuracy. However, the hydrological use of radar rainfall estimates and forecasts remains challenging. A significant effort has been devoted by the international research community to the assessment of the uncertainty propagation through probabilistic hydro-meteorological forecast systems [4-5], and various approaches have been implemented for the purpose of characterizing the uncertainty in radar rainfall estimates and forecasts [6-11]. A radar-based ensemble stochastic approach, similar to the one implemented for use in the Southern-Alps by the REAL system [6], has been developed for the purpose of this work. An ensemble generator has been calibrated on the basis of the spatial-temporal characteristics of the residual error in radar estimates assessed with reference to rainfall records from around 200 rain gauges available for the year 2007, previously post-processed and corrected by the UK Met Office [12-13]. Each ensemble member is determined by summing a perturbation field to the unperturbed radar rainfall field. The perturbations are generated by imposing the radar error spatial and temporal correlation structure to purely stochastic fields. A

  8. Air and spaceborne radar systems an introduction

    Lacomme, Philippe; Hardange, Jean-Philippe; Normant, Eric


    A practical tool on radar systems that will be of major help to technicians, student engineers and engineers working in industry and in radar research and development. The many users of radar as well as systems engineers and designers will also find it highly useful. Also of interest to pilots and flight engineers and military command personnel and military contractors. """"This introduction to the field of radar is intended for actual users of radar. It focuses on the history, main principles, functions, modes, properties and specific nature of modern airborne radar. The book examines radar's

  9. Classification and correction of the radar bright band with polarimetric radar

    Hall, Will; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel; Kramer, Stefan


    The annular region of enhanced radar reflectivity, known as the Bright Band (BB), occurs when the radar beam intersects a layer of melting hydrometeors. Radar reflectivity is related to rainfall through a power law equation and so this enhanced region can lead to overestimations of rainfall by a factor of up to 5, so it is important to correct for this. The BB region can be identified by using several techniques including hydrometeor classification and freezing level forecasts from mesoscale meteorological models. Advances in dual-polarisation radar measurements and continued research in the field has led to increased accuracy in the ability to identify the melting snow region. A method proposed by Kitchen et al (1994), a form of which is currently used operationally in the UK, utilises idealised Vertical Profiles of Reflectivity (VPR) to correct for the BB enhancement. A simpler and more computationally efficient method involves the formation of an average VPR from multiple elevations for correction that can still cause a significant decrease in error (Vignal 2000). The purpose of this research is to evaluate a method that relies only on analysis of measurements from an operational C-band polarimetric radar without the need for computationally expensive models. Initial results show that LDR is a strong classifier of melting snow with a high Critical Success Index of 97% when compared to the other variables. An algorithm based on idealised VPRs resulted in the largest decrease in error when BB corrected scans are compared to rain gauges and to lower level scans with a reduction in RMSE of 61% for rain-rate measurements. References Kitchen, M., R. Brown, and A. G. Davies, 1994: Real-time correction of weather radar data for the effects of bright band, range and orographic growth in widespread precipitation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1231-1254. Vignal, B. et al, 2000: Three methods to determine profiles of reflectivity from volumetric radar data to correct

  10. Radar spectrum opportunities for cognitive communications transmission

    Wang, L; McGeehan, JP; Williams, C; Doufexi, A


    In relation to opportunistic access to radar spectrum, the impact of the radar on a communication system is investigated in this paper. This paper illustrates that by exploring the spatial and temporal opportunities in the radar spectrum and therefore improving the tolerance level to radar interference, a substantial increase on the throughput of a communication system is possible. Results are presented regarding the impact of swept radars on a WiMAX system. The results show the impact of SIR...

  11. Towards Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) for small sea vessels

    Abdul Gaffar, MY


    Full Text Available Aperture Radar (ISAR) for Small Sea Vessels M.Y. Abdul Gaffar Council for Scientific and Industrial Research University of Cape Town Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 What is ISAR? • Technique that produces cross range...

  12. Warship Radar Signatures (Ship Survivability Part III-A)

    Galle, L.F.; Heemskerk, H.J.M.; Ewijk, L.J. van


    Radar Cross Section (RCS) management is of paramount importance for a warships's survivability. In this first part of the paper (Part III-A), the operational benefits of low RCS will be explained. Basic RCS theory, measurement and simulation techniques will be addressed. The RCS of representative

  13. Processing of dual-orthogonal cw polarimetric radar signals

    Babur, G.


    The thesis consists of two parts. The first part is devoted to the theory of dual-orthogonal polarimetric radar signals with continuous waveforms. The thesis presents a comparison of the signal compression techniques, namely correlation and de-ramping methods, for the dual-orthogonal sophisticated

  14. Rank Detector Preprocessor for Glint Reduction in a Tracking Radar

    Guest, IW


    Full Text Available A rank detector is used to defect instantaneous received power fades in tracking radar. On detection of a fade, censorship of the angular position measurement is implemented in a Kalman tracking filter. It is shown that this technique can typically...

  15. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.


    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  16. Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox: Tools and Tutorial To Use Radar Altimetry For Cryosphere

    Benveniste, J. J.; Bronner, E.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B. M.; Rosmorduc, V.; Earith, D.


    Radar altimetry is very much a technique expanding its applications. If quite a lot of efforts have been made for oceanography users (including easy-to-use data), the use of those data for cryosphere application, especially with the new ESA CryoSat-2 mission data is still somehow tedious, especially for new Altimetry data products users. ESA and CNES thus had the Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox developed a few years ago, and are improving and upgrading it to fit new missions and the growing number of altimetry uses. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is an "all-altimeter" collection of tools, tutorials and documents designed to facilitate the use of radar altimetry data. The software is able: - to read most distributed radar altimetry data, from ERS-1 & 2, Topex/Poseidon, Geosat Follow-on, Jason-1, Envisat, Jason- 2, CryoSat and the future Saral missions, - to perform some processing, data editing and statistic, - and to visualize the results. It can be used at several levels/several ways: - as a data reading tool, with APIs for C, Fortran, Matlab and IDL - as processing/extraction routines, through the on-line command mode - as an educational and a quick-look tool, with the graphical user interface As part of the Toolbox, a Radar Altimetry Tutorial gives general information about altimetry, the technique involved and its applications, as well as an overview of past, present and future missions, including information on how to access data and additional software and documentation. It also presents a series of data use cases, covering all uses of altimetry over ocean, cryosphere and land, showing the basic methods for some of the most frequent manners of using altimetry data. It is an opportunity to teach remote sensing with practical training. It has been available from April 2007, and had been demonstrated during training courses and scientific meetings. About 1200 people downloaded it (Summer 2010), with many "newcomers" to altimetry among them, including teachers

  17. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.


    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  18. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.


    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  19. UAV-Borne Profiling Radar for Forest Research

    Yuwei Chen


    Full Text Available Microwave Radar is an attractive solution for forest mapping and inventories because microwave signals penetrates into the forest canopy and the backscattering signal can provide information regarding the whole forest structure. Satellite-borne and airborne imaging radars have been used in forest resources mapping for many decades. However, their accuracy with respect to the main forest inventory attributes substantially varies depending on the wavelength and techniques used in the estimation. Systems providing canopy backscatter as a function of canopy height are, practically speaking, missing. Therefore, there is a need for a radar system that would enable the scientific community to better understand the radar backscatter response from the forest canopy. Consequently, we undertook a research study to develop an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-borne profiling (i.e., waveform radar that could be used to improve the understanding of the radar backscatter response for forestry mapping and inventories. A frequency modulation continuous waveform (FMCW profiling radar, termed FGI-Tomoradar, was introduced, designed and tested. One goal is the total weight of the whole system is less than 7 kg, including the radar system and georeferencing system, with centimetre-level positioning accuracy. Achieving this weight goal would enable the FGI-Tomoradar system to be installed on the Mini-UAV platform. The prototype system had all four linear polarization measuring capabilities, with bistatic configuration in Ku-band. In system performance tests in this study, FGI-Tomoradar was mounted on a manned helicopter together with a Riegl VQ-480-U laser scanner and tested in several flight campaigns performed at the Evo site, Finland. Airborne laser scanning data was simultaneously collected to investigate the differences and similarities of the outputs for the same target area for better understanding the penetration of the microwave signal into the forest canopy

  20. Interferometric Meteor Head Echo Observations using the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    Janches, D.; Hocking, W.; Pifko, S.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Fritts, D. C.; Brunini, C; Michell, R.; Samara, M.


    A radar meteor echo is the radar scattering signature from the free-electrons in a plasma trail generated by entry of extraterrestrial particles into the atmosphere. Three categories of scattering mechanisms exist: specular, nonspecular trails, and head-echoes. Generally, there are two types of radars utilized to detect meteors. Traditional VHF meteor radars (often called all-sky1radars) primarily detect the specular reflection of meteor trails traveling perpendicular to the line of sight of the scattering trail, while High Power and Large Aperture (HPLA) radars efficiently detect meteor head-echoes and, in some cases, non-specular trails. The fact that head-echo measurements can be performed only with HPLA radars limits these studies in several ways. HPLA radars are very sensitive instruments constraining the studies to the lower masses, and these observations cannot be performed continuously because they take place at national observatories with limited allocated observing time. These drawbacks can be addressed by developing head echo observing techniques with modified all-sky meteor radars. In addition, the fact that the simultaneous detection of all different scattering mechanisms can be made with the same instrument, rather than requiring assorted different classes of radars, can help clarify observed differences between the different methodologies. In this study, we demonstrate that such concurrent observations are now possible, enabled by the enhanced design of the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) deployed at the Estacion Astronomica Rio Grande (EARG) in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. The results presented here are derived from observations performed over a period of 12 days in August 2011, and include meteoroid dynamical parameter distributions, radiants and estimated masses. Overall, the SAAMER's head echo detections appear to be produced by larger particles than those which have been studied thus far using this technique.

  1. Time-Frequency Analysis of Terahertz Radar Signals for Rapid Heart and Breath Rate Detection

    Massar, Melody L


    We develop new time-frequency analytic techniques which facilitate the detection of a person's heart and breath rates from the Doppler shift the movement of their body induces in a terahertz radar signal...

  2. Analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Radar Signals Using Cyclostationary Processing

    Lime, Antonio


    ... problem in the battle space To detect these types of radar, new digital receivers that use sophisticated signal processing techniques are required This thesis investigates the use of cyclostationary...

  3. Automatic radar target recognition of objects falling on railway tracks

    Mroué, A; Heddebaut, M; Elbahhar, F; Rivenq, A; Rouvaen, J-M


    This paper presents an automatic radar target recognition procedure based on complex resonances using the signals provided by ultra-wideband radar. This procedure is dedicated to detection and identification of objects lying on railway tracks. For an efficient complex resonance extraction, a comparison between several pole extraction methods is illustrated. Therefore, preprocessing methods are presented aiming to remove most of the erroneous poles interfering with the discrimination scheme. Once physical poles are determined, a specific discrimination technique is introduced based on the Euclidean distances. Both simulation and experimental results are depicted showing an efficient discrimination of different targets including guided transport passengers

  4. Probability and information theory, with applications to radar

    Woodward, P M; Higinbotham, W


    Electronics and Instrumentation, Second Edition, Volume 3: Probability and Information Theory with Applications to Radar provides information pertinent to the development on research carried out in electronics and applied physics. This book presents the established mathematical techniques that provide the code in which so much of the mathematical theory of electronics and radar is expressed.Organized into eight chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the geometry of probability distributions in which moments play a significant role. This text then examines the mathematical methods in

  5. Digital image transformation and rectification of spacecraft and radar images

    Wu, S. S. C.


    The application of digital processing techniques to spacecraft television pictures and radar images is discussed. The use of digital rectification to produce contour maps from spacecraft pictures is described; images with azimuth and elevation angles are converted into point-perspective frame pictures. The digital correction of the slant angle of radar images to ground scale is examined. The development of orthophoto and stereoscopic shaded relief maps from digital terrain and digital image data is analyzed. Digital image transformations and rectifications are utilized on Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars.

  6. Feasibility analysis of WDM links for radar applications

    D. Meena


    Full Text Available Active phased array antennas enhances the performance of modern radars by using multiple low power transmit/receive modules in place of a high power transmitter in conventional radars. Fully distributed phased array radars demand the distribution of various signals in radio frequency (RF and digital domain for real time operation. This is normally achieved through complex and bulky coaxial distribution networks. In this work, we intend to tap the inherent advantages of fiber links with wavelength division multiplexed (WDM technology and a feasibility study to adapt these links for radar applications is carried out. This is done by analysing various parameters like amplitude, delay, frequency and phase variation response of various radar waveforms over WDM links. This also includes performance evaluation of non-linear frequency modulation (NLFM signals, known for better signal to noise ratio (SNR to specific side lobe levels. NLFM waveforms are further analysed using pulse compression (PC technique. Link evaluation is also carried out using a standard simulation environment and is then experimentally verified with other waveforms like RF continuous wave (CW, pulsed RF and digital signals. Synchronization signals are generated from this variable duty cycle digital signals during real time radar operation. During evaluation of digital signals, variable transient effects for different duty cycles are observed from an amplifier configuration. A suppression method is proposed to eliminate this transient effects. Further, the link delay response is investigated using different lengths of fiber spools. It can be inferred from the experimental results that WDM links are capable of handling various signals significant to radar applications.

  7. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through

  8. Automatic Classification of Offshore Wind Regimes With Weather Radar Observations

    Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik


    Weather radar observations are called to play an important role in offshore wind energy. In particular, they can enable the monitoring of weather conditions in the vicinity of large-scale offshore wind farms and thereby notify the arrival of precipitation systems associated with severe wind...... and amplitude) using reflectivity observations from a single weather radar system. A categorical sequence of most likely wind regimes is estimated from a wind speed time series by combining a Markov-Switching model and a global decoding technique, the Viterbi algorithm. In parallel, attributes of precipitation...... systems are extracted from weather radar images. These attributes describe the global intensity, spatial continuity and motion of precipitation echoes on the images. Finally, a CART classification tree is used to find the broad relationships between precipitation attributes and wind regimes...

  9. Adaptive sidelobe control for clutter rejection of atmospheric radars

    K. Kamio


    Full Text Available Clutter rejection is among the most important issues in radar signal processing, for which the adaptive antenna technique can be a powerful means. Compared to other applications of the adaptive antenna, however, atmospheric radars require strict conditions, which have prevented application of this technique; the main antenna beam pattern should not be altered since the target region is defined by its shape. In particular, the loss of the antenna gain should be kept to no more than about 0.5dB, in order to maintain the high sensitivity of the system. Also, clutter from surrounding mountains is often stronger than the desired weak scattering from atmospheric turbulence. We introduce a new algorithm which satisfies the above conditions, and confirms its capability by applying it to actual data taken by the MU radar. This paper presents the first report that demonstrates the effectiveness of the adaptive antenna technique in atmospheric radar applications. Despite the fact that no information is given on the spectral features of the desired and undesired signals, only the clutter echoes from surrounding mountains were effectively cancelled without affecting the desired echoes from atmospheric turbulence.

  10. Astrophysical techniques

    Kitchin, C R


    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: detectors (optical and infrared detection; radio and microwave detection; X-ray and gamma-ray detection; cosmic ray detectors; neutrino detectors; gravitational radiation); imaging (photography; electronic imaging; scanning; interferometry; speckle interferometry; occultations; radar); photometry and photometers; spectroscopy and spectroscopes; other techniques (astrometry; polarimetry; solar studies; magnetometry). Appendices: magnitudes and spectral types of bright stars; north polar sequence; standard stars for the UBV photometric system; standard stars for the UVBY photometric system; standard stars for MK spectral types; standard stars for polarimetry; Julian date; catalogues; answers to the exercises.

  11. Objective Classification of Radar Profile Types, and Their Relationship to Lightning Occurrence

    Boccippio, Dennis


    A cluster analysis technique is used to identify 16 "archetypal" vertical radar profile types from a large, globally representative sample of profiles from the TRMM Precipitation Radar. These include nine convective types (7 of these deep convective) and seven stratiform types (5 of these clearly glaciated). Radar profile classification provides an alternative to conventional deep convective storm metrics, such as 30 dBZ echo height, maximum reflectivity or VIL. As expected, the global frequency of occurrence of deep convective profile types matches satellite-observed total lightning production, including to very small scall local features. Each location's "mix" of profile types provides an objective description of the local convective spectrum, and in turn, is a first step in objectively classifying convective regimes. These classifiers are tested as inputs to a neural network which attempts to predict lightning occurrence based on radar-only storm observations, and performance is compared with networks using traditional radar metrics as inputs.

  12. Borehole radar diffraction tomography

    Cho, Seong Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Tomography is widely used as imaging method for determining subsurface structure. Among the reconstruction algorithms for tomographic imaging, travel time tomography is almost applied to imaging subsurface. But isolated small body comparable with the wavelength could not be well recognized by travel time tomography. Other tomographic method are need to improve the imaging process. In the study of this year, diffraction tomography was investigated. The theory for diffraction tomography is based on the 1st-order Born approximation. Multisource holography, which is similar to Kirchihoff migration, is compared with diffraction tomography. To improve 1st-order Born diffraction tomography, two kinds of filter designed from multisource holography and 2-D green function, respectively, applied on the reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested for the numerical modeling data of which algorithm consists of the analytic computation of radar signal in transmitter and receiver regions and 2-D FDM scheme for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in media. The air-filled cavity model to show a typical diffraction pattern was applied to diffraction tomography imaging, and the result shows accurate location and area of cavity. But the calculated object function is not well matched the real object function, because the air-filled cavity model is not satisfied week scattered inhomogeneity for 1st born approximation, and the error term is included in estimating source wavelet from received signals. In spite of the object function error, the diffraction tomography assist for interpretation of subsurface as if conducted with travel time tomography. And the fracture model was tested, 1st born diffraction tomographic image is poor because of limited view angle coverage and violation of week scatter assumption, but the filtered image resolve the fracture somewhat better. The tested diffraction tomography image confirms effectiveness of filter for enhancing resolution. (author). 14

  13. Significance of scatter radar studies of E and F region irregularities at high latitudes

    Greenwald, R.A.


    This chapter considers the mechanisms by which electron density irregularities may be generated in the high latitude ionosphere and the techniques through which they are observed with ground base radars. The capabilities of radars used for studying these irregularities are compared with the capabilities of radars used for incoherent scatter measurements. The use of irregularity scatter techniques for dynamic studies of larger scale structured phenomena is discussed. Topics considered include E-region irregularities, observations with auroral radars, plasma drifts associated with a westward travelling surge, and ionospheric plasma motions associated with resonant waves. It is shown why high latitude F-region irregularity studies must be made in the HF frequency band (3-30 MHz). The joint use of the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT), STARE and SAFARI facilities is examined, and it is concluded that the various techniques will enhance each other and provide a better understanding of the various processes being studied

  14. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat


    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  15. Civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar

    Pajewski, Lara


    This book, based on Transport and Urban Development COST Action TU1208, presents the most advanced applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a civil engineering context, with documentation of instrumentation, methods, and results. It explains clearly how GPR can be employed for the surveying of critical transport infrastructure, such as roads, pavements, bridges, and tunnels, and for the sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids. Detailed attention is also devoted to use of GPR in the inspection of geological structures and of construction materials and structures, including reinforced concrete, steel reinforcing bars, and pre/post-tensioned stressing ducts. Advanced methods for solution of electromagnetic scattering problems and new data processing techniques are also presented. Readers will come to appreciate that GPR is a safe, advanced, nondestructive, and noninvasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for the inspection of composite structures and the performance of diagn...

  16. New Cloud and Precipitation Research Avenues Enabled by low-cost Phased-array Radar Technology

    Kollias, P.; Oue, M.; Fridlind, A. M.; Matsui, T.; McLaughlin, D. J.


    For over half a century, radars operating in a wide range of frequencies have been the primary source of observational insights of clouds and precipitation microphysics and dynamics and contributed to numerous significant advancements in the field of cloud and precipitation physics. The development of multi-wavelength and polarization diversity techniques has further strengthened the quality of microphysical and dynamical retrievals from radars and has assisted in overcoming some of the limitations imposed by the physics of scattering. Atmospheric radars have historically employed a mechanically-scanning dish antenna and their ability to point to, survey, and revisit specific points or regions in the atmosphere is limited by mechanical inertia. Electronically scanned, or phased-array, radars capable of high-speed, inertialess beam steering, have been available for several decades, but the cost of this technology has limited its use to military applications. During the last 10 years, lower power and lower-cost versions of electronically scanning radars have been developed, and this presents an attractive and affordable new tool for the atmospheric sciences. The operational and research communities are currently exploring phased array advantages in signal processing (i.e. beam multiplexing, improved clutter rejection, cross beam wind estimation, adaptive sensing) and science applications (i.e. tornadic storm morphology studies). Here, we will present some areas of atmospheric research where inertia-less radars with ability to provide rapid volume imaging offers the potential to advance cloud and precipitation research. We will discuss the added value of single phased-array radars as well as networks of these radars for several problems including: multi-Doppler wind retrieval techniques, cloud lifetime studies and aerosol-convection interactions. The performance of current (dish) and future (e-scan) radar systems for these atmospheric studies will be evaluated using

  17. Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks

    Xiqin Wang


    Full Text Available We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS. Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  18. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.


    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  19. NOAA NEXt-Generation RADar (NEXRAD) Products

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level III weather radar products collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska,...

  20. MST radar data-base management

    Wickwar, V. B.


    Data management for Mesospheric-Stratospheric-Tropospheric, (MST) radars is addressed. An incoherent-scatter radar data base is discussed in terms of purpose, centralization, scope, and nature of the data base management system.

  1. Design of multi-frequency CW radars

    Jankiraman, Mohinder


    This book deals with the basic theory for design and analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radar systems. The design of one such multi-frequency high resolution LPI radar, PANDORA, is covered.

  2. Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.


    The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab

  3. An assimilation test of Doppler radar reflectivity and radial velocity from different height layers in improving the WRF rainfall forecasts

    Tian, Jiyang; Liu, Jia; Yan, Denghua; Li, Chuanzhe; Chu, Zhigang; Yu, Fuliang


    Hydrological forecasts require high-resolution and accurate rainfall information, which is one of the most difficult variables to be captured by the mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems. Radar data assimilation is an effective method for improving rainfall forecasts by correcting the initial and lateral boundary conditions of the NWP system. The aim of this study is to explore an efficient way of utilizing the Doppler radar observations for data assimilation, which is implemented by exploring the effect of assimilating radar data from different height layers on the improvement of the NWP rainfall accuracy. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for numerical rainfall forecast in the Zijingguan catchment located in the ;Jing-Jin-Ji; (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) Region of Northern China, and the three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3-DVar) technique is adopted to assimilate the radar data. Radar reflectivity and radial velocity are assimilated separately and jointly. Each type of radar data is divided into seven data sets according to the height layers: (1) 2000 m, and (7) all layers. The results show that radar reflectivity assimilation leads to better results than radial velocity assimilation. The accuracy of the forecasted rainfall deteriorates with the rise of the height of the assimilated radar reflectivity. The same results can be found when assimilating radar reflectivity and radial velocity at the same time. The conclusions of this study provide a reference for efficient assimilation of the radar data in improving the NWP rainfall products.

  4. Development of fast scattering model of complex shape target for seminatural tests of onboard proximity radars in real time mode

    Likhoedenko Andrei K.


    Full Text Available Problems of creation of models of real time of complex shape targets on the basis of use of their polygonal models are considered. Formulas for radar cross section of multipoint model of target and power of input signal of onboard radar are described. Technique of semi-natural tests of onboard radar detector on the base of multipoint model of target is proposed. Results of digital simulation of input signals of the onboard radar detector of the target from the aerodynamic target on the basis of their multipoint models are given.

  5. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution

    Ming Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM, BPSK (Barker code modulation, Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4. The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN, and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA, image binarization algorithm and Pseudo–Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi–Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of −2 dB.

  6. Experiment in Onboard Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Processing

    Holland, Matthew


    Single event upsets (SEUs) are a threat to any computing system running on hardware that has not been physically radiation hardened. In addition to mandating the use of performance-limited, hardened heritage equipment, prior techniques for dealing with the SEU problem often involved hardware-based error detection and correction (EDAC). With limited computing resources, software- based EDAC, or any more elaborate recovery methods, were often not feasible. Synthetic aperture radars (SARs), when operated in the space environment, are interesting due to their relevance to NASAs objectives, but problematic in the sense of producing prodigious amounts of raw data. Prior implementations of the SAR data processing algorithm have been too slow, too computationally intensive, and require too much application memory for onboard execution to be a realistic option when using the type of heritage processing technology described above. This standard C-language implementation of SAR data processing is distributed over many cores of a Tilera Multicore Processor, and employs novel Radiation Hardening by Software (RHBS) techniques designed to protect the component processes (one per core) and their shared application memory from the sort of SEUs expected in the space environment. The source code includes calls to Tilera APIs, and a specialized Tilera compiler is required to produce a Tilera executable. The compiled application reads input data describing the position and orientation of a radar platform, as well as its radar-burst data, over time and writes out processed data in a form that is useful for analysis of the radar observations.

  7. SAR Ambiguity Study for the Cassini Radar

    Hensley, Scott; Im, Eastwood; Johnson, William T. K.


    The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.

  8. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    Amin, Moeness


    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  9. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    David Jenn


    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  10. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu


    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  11. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.


    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  12. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.


    ... within one mile of land must be fitted with a FCC Type Accepted general marine radar system for surface... Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  13. Recommendation on Transition from Primary/Secondary Radar to Secondary- Only Radar Capability


    Radar Beacon Performance Monitor RCIU Remote Control Interface Unit RCL Remote Communications Link R E&D Research, Engineering and Development RML Radar...rate. Maintenance The current LRRs have limited remote maintenance monitoring (RMM) capabilities via the Remote Control Interface Unit ( RCIU ...1, -2 and FPS-20 radars required an upgrade of some of the radar subsystems, namely the RCIU to respond as an RMS and the CD to interface with radar

  14. Test results for triple-modulation radar electronics with improved range disambiguation

    Pollastrone, Fabio, E-mail:; Neri, Carlo


    Highlights: • A new digital radar electronic system based on triple-modulation has been developed. • The triple-modulation system uses an improved algorithm for the range-disambiguation. • The new radar electronics has been applied in the IVVS optical radar prototype for ITER. • The performances obtained with IVVS double and triple-modulation were compared. - Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is an optical radar with sub milimetrical resolution that will be used for imaging and metrology pourposes in ITER. The electronics of the system is based on a Digital Radar Electronics developed in ENEA Frascati laboratories during the past years. Until the present study, the system was based on amplitude modulation technique having double-modulation frequency. The power of the laser is sinusoidally modulated and the distance of the points scanned by the laser beam is obtained measuring the phase difference between outgoing and echo signals. Recently a triple-modulation radar electronics version and an algorithm able to solve the range disambiguation were developed. The aim of the upgrade was the increase of the robustness in the range disambiguation. The paper briefly describes the updates carried out on the Digital Radar Electronics and extensively the test results obtained by comparing the performance of the triple modulation versus the double modulation techniques.

  15. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen


    Airborne radar ice sounding is challenged by surface clutter masking the depth signal of interest. Surface clutter may even be prohibitive for potential space-based ice sounding radars. To some extent the radar antenna suppresses the surface clutter, and a multi-phase-center antenna in combination...... with coherent signal processing techniques can improve the suppression, in particular if the direction of arrival (DOA) of the clutter signal is estimated accurately. This paper deals with data-driven DOA estimation. By using P-band data from the ice shelf in Antarctica it is demonstrated that a varying...

  16. Modulation, resolution and signal processing in radar, sonar and related systems

    Benjamin, R; Costrell, L


    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 35: Modulation, Resolution and Signal Processing in Radar, Sonar and Related Systems presents the practical limitations and potentialities of advanced modulation systems. This book discusses the concepts and techniques in the radar context, but they are equally essential to sonar and to a wide range of signaling and data-processing applications, including seismology, radio astronomy, and band-spread communications.Organized into 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal developments sought in pulse radar. This text then provides a

  17. Radioprotection and radar: practical aspects

    Pepersack, J.P.


    The author, on basis of his experience in radar-radioprotection, exposes the standard and security norms and recommendations to be applied for the preventive adapation of the work-areas as well as for the follow-up of the exposed workers. (author)

  18. Hierarchical classification of dynamically varying radar pulse repetition interval modulation patterns.

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Martikainen, Kalle; Ruotsalainen, Ulla


    The central purpose of passive signal intercept receivers is to perform automatic categorization of unknown radar signals. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop intelligent classification algorithms for these devices due to emerging complexity of radar waveforms. Especially multifunction radars (MFRs) capable of performing several simultaneous tasks by utilizing complex, dynamically varying scheduled waveforms are a major challenge for automatic pattern classification systems. To assist recognition of complex radar emissions in modern intercept receivers, we have developed a novel method to recognize dynamically varying pulse repetition interval (PRI) modulation patterns emitted by MFRs. We use robust feature extraction and classifier design techniques to assist recognition in unpredictable real-world signal environments. We classify received pulse trains hierarchically which allows unambiguous detection of the subpatterns using a sliding window. Accuracy, robustness and reliability of the technique are demonstrated with extensive simulations using both static and dynamically varying PRI modulation patterns. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  20. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan


    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  1. Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment (ShUREX): overview of the campaign with some preliminary results

    Kantha, Lakshmi; Lawrence, Dale; Luce, Hubert; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Wilson, Richard; Mixa, Tyler; Yabuki, Masanori


    The Shigaraki unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-Radar Experiment (ShUREX) is an international (USA-Japan-France) observational campaign, whose overarching goal is to demonstrate the utility of small, lightweight, inexpensive, autonomous UAVs in probing and monitoring the lower troposphere and to promote synergistic use of UAVs and very high frequency (VHF) radars. The 2-week campaign lasting from June 1 to June 14, 2015, was carried out at the Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) Observatory in Shigaraki, Japan. During the campaign, the DataHawk UAV, developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and equipped with high-frequency response cold wire and pitot tube sensors (as well as an iMET radiosonde), was flown near and over the VHF-band MU radar. Measurements in the atmospheric column in the immediate vicinity of the radar were obtained. Simultaneous and continuous operation of the radar in range imaging mode enabled fine-scale structures in the atmosphere to be visualized by the radar. It also permitted the UAV to be commanded to sample interesting structures, guided in near real time by the radar images. This overview provides a description of the ShUREX campaign and some interesting but preliminary results of the very first simultaneous and intensive probing of turbulent structures by UAVs and the MU radar. The campaign demonstrated the validity and utility of the radar range imaging technique in obtaining very high vertical resolution ( 20 m) images of echo power in the atmospheric column, which display evolving fine-scale atmospheric structures in unprecedented detail. The campaign also permitted for the very first time the evaluation of the consistency of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates in turbulent structures inferred from the spectral broadening of the backscattered radar signal and direct, in situ measurements by the high-frequency response velocity sensor on the UAV. The data also enabled other turbulence parameters such as the temperature

  2. Pronostico inmediato de tormentas convectivas por radar: una actualizacion Nowcasting of convective storms by radar: an actualization

    Sadiel Novo


    Full Text Available Una de las principales aplicaciones del radar meteorológico es el pronóstico inmediato (decenas de minutos a unas pocas horas de antelación de los eventos de precipitación convectiva. Esto reviste gran importancia pues es precisamente en este lapso de tiempo donde son menos efectivos los pronósticos numéricos. Se repasan brevemente algunas de las técnicas de pronóstico inmediato reportadas en los últimos años, haciendo énfasis en aquellas que emplean solamente información de un radar convencional. Se distingue entre las que pronostican el movimiento de las tormentas como un todo y aquellas que permiten distinguir su movimiento interno, señalando sus ventajas y desventajas en situaciones meteorológicas concretas. Como ejemplo se presentan, para un caso de estudio escogido, aplicaciones simples de dos de estas técnicas. Por último se discute la utilidad de la técnica del sistema de referencia móvil para obtener las componentes del viento no observadas a partir de un solo radar Doppler o incluso un radar convencional, y sus implicaciones para la obtención de magnitudes termodinámicas.One of the main applications of the meteorological radar is the nowcasting (some tens of minutes to some hours forward of convective precipitation events. It has a great importance since this is the space of time in which the numerical forecasting is less effective. Some of the nowcasting techniques reported in the last years are reviewed shortly, making emphasis in those that use only information from a conventional radar. A distinction is made among those that predict the total movement of the storms and those that allow distinguishing their internal movement, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages in concrete meteorological situations. It is presented, for a chosen case of study, simple applications of two of these techniques. Finally, the utility of the moving frame of reference technique for obtaining the not observed wind components

  3. Radar meteor rates and solar activity

    Prikryl, P.


    The short-term variation of diurnal radar meteor rates with solar activity represented by solar microwave flux Fsub(10.7), and sunspots relative number Rsub(z), is investigated. Applying the superposed-epoch analysis to the observational material of radar meteor rates from Christchurch (1960-61 and 1963-65), a decrease in the recorded radar rates is found during days of enhanced solar activity. No effect of geomagnetic activity similar to the one reported for the Swedish and Canadian radar meteor data was found by the author in the Christchurch data. A possible explanation of the absence of the geomagnetic effect on radar meteor rates from New Zealand due to a lower echo ceiling height of the Christchurch radar is suggested. The variation of the atmospheric parameters as a possible cause of the observed variation in radar meteor rates is also discussed. (author)

  4. Exploitation of Microdoppler and Multiple Scattering Phenomena for Radar Target Recognition


    progress on the reserach grant "Exploitation of MicroDoppler and Multiple Scattering Phenomena for Radar Target Recognition" during the period 1...paper describes a methodology of modeling A number of ray-based EM techniques have been interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) images...modes including the single present an IFSAR simulation methodology to simulate the antenna transmit mode, the ping-pong mode or the repeat interferogram

  5. System Realization of Broad Band Digital Beam Forming for Digital Array Radar

    Wang Feng


    Full Text Available Broad band Digital Beam Forming (DBF is the key technique for the realization of Digital Array Radar (DAR. We propose the method of combination realization of the channel equalization and DBF time delay filter function by using adaptive Sample Matrix Inversion algorithm. The broad band DBF function is realized on a new DBF module based on parallel fiber optic engines and Field Program Gate Array (FPGA. Good performance is achieved when it is used to some radar products.

  6. A 100,000 Scale Factor Radar Range.

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Neifeld, Mark; Peyghambarian, Nasser


    The radar cross section of an object is an important electromagnetic property that is often measured in anechoic chambers. However, for very large and complex structures such as ships or sea and land clutters, this common approach is not practical. The use of computer simulations is also not viable since it would take many years of computational time to model and predict the radar characteristics of such large objects. We have now devised a new scaling technique to overcome these difficulties, and make accurate measurements of the radar cross section of large items. In this article we demonstrate that by reducing the scale of the model by a factor 100,000, and using near infrared wavelength, the radar cross section can be determined in a tabletop setup. The accuracy of the method is compared to simulations, and an example of measurement is provided on a 1 mm highly detailed model of a ship. The advantages of this scaling approach is its versatility, and the possibility to perform fast, convenient, and inexpensive measurements.

  7. Radar Rainfall Bias Correction based on Deep Learning Approach

    Song, Yang; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.


    Radar rainfall measurement errors can be considerably attributed to various sources including intricate synoptic regimes. Temperature, humidity and wind are typically acknowledged as critical meteorological factors in inducing the precipitation discrepancies aloft and on the ground. The conventional practices mainly use the radar-gauge or geostatistical techniques by direct weighted interpolation algorithms as bias correction schemes whereas rarely consider the atmospheric effects. This study aims to comprehensively quantify those meteorological elements' impacts on radar-gauge rainfall bias correction based on a deep learning approach. The deep learning approach employs deep convolutional neural networks to automatically extract three-dimensional meteorological features for target recognition based on high range resolution profiles. The complex nonlinear relationships between input and target variables can be implicitly detected by such a scheme, which is validated on the test dataset. The proposed bias correction scheme is expected to be a promising improvement in systematically minimizing the synthesized atmospheric effects on rainfall discrepancies between radar and rain gauges, which can be useful in many meteorological and hydrological applications (e.g., real-time flood forecasting) especially for regions with complex atmospheric conditions.

  8. The determination of time-stationary two-dimensional convection patterns with single-station radars

    Freeman, M.P.; Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.


    At the present time, most ground-based radar estimations of ionospheric convection use observations from single-station facilities. This approach requires certain assumptions as to the spatial and/or temporal uniformity of the convection. In this paper the authors present a critical examination of the accuracy of these vector velocity determinations, using realistic modeled flow patterns that are time-stationary but not spatially uniform. They find that under certain circumstances the actual and inferred flow fields show considerable discrepancy, sometimes not even agreeing in the sense of flow direction. Specifically, they show that the natural curvature present in ionospheric convection on varying spatial scales can introduce significant error in the velocity estimate, particularly when the radius of curvature of the flow structure is less than or equal to the radar range to the scattering volume. The presence of flow curvature cannot be detected by radars which determine velocities from measurements in two viewing directions, and it might not be detected by radars using azimuth scanning techniques. Thus they argue that every effort should be made to measure the ionospheric convection by bidirectional or multidirectional observations of a common ionospheric volume and that a synthesis of coherent and incoherent radar observations from different sites is preferable to multidirectional single-station observations using either radar alone. These conclusions are applicable to any Doppler measurement technique and are equally valid for high-latitude wind patterns using Fabry-Perot interferometer techniques

  9. Introduction to ground penetrating radar inverse scattering and data processing

    Persico, Raffaele


    This book presents a comprehensive treatment of ground penetrating radar using both forward and inverse scattering mathematical techniques. Use of field data instead of laboratory data enables readers to envision real-life underground imaging; a full color insert further clarifies understanding. Along with considering the practical problem of achieving interpretable underground images, this book also features significant coverage of the problem's mathematical background. This twofold approach provides a resource that will appeal both to application oriented geologists and testing specialists,

  10. Detection of Leaks in Water Mains Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Alaa Al Hawari; Mohammad Khader; Tarek Zayed; Osama Moselhi


    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most effective electromagnetic techniques for non-destructive non-invasive subsurface features investigation. Water leak from pipelines is the most common undesirable reason of potable water losses. Rapid detection of such losses is going to enhance the use of the Water Distribution Networks (WDN) and decrease threatens associated with water mains leaks. In this study, GPR approach was developed to detect leaks by implementing an appropriate imagin...


    N. N. Halimshah; A. Yusup; Z. Mat Amin; M. D. Ghazalli


    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and effic...

  12. Preliminary Analysis of X-Band and Ka-Band Radar for Use in the Detection of Icing Conditions Aloft

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Koenig, George G.


    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. Radar has been identified as a strong tool for this work. However, since the remote detection of icing conditions with the intent to identify areas of icing hazard is a new and evolving capability, there are no set requirements for radar sensitivity. This work is an initial attempt to quantify, through analysis, the sensitivity requirements for an icing remote sensing radar. The primary radar of interest for cloud measurements is Ka-band, however, since NASA is currently using an X-band unit, this frequency is also examined. Several aspects of radar signal analysis were examined. Cloud reflectivity was calculated for several forms of cloud using two different techniques. The Air Force Geophysical Laboratory (AFGL) cloud models, with different drop spectra represented by a modified gamma distribution, were utilized to examine several categories of cloud formation. Also a fundamental methods approach was used to allow manipulation of the cloud droplet size spectra. And an analytical icing radar simulator was developed to examine the complete radar system response to a configurable multi-layer cloud environment. Also discussed is the NASA vertical pointing X-band radar. The radar and its data system are described, and several summer weather events are reviewed.

  13. HF Radar Observations of Current, Wave and Wind Parameters in the South Australian Gulf

    Middleditch, A.; Cosoli, S.


    The Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network (ACORN) has been measuring metocean parameters from an array of HF radar systems since 2007. Current, wave and wind measurements from a WERA phased-array radar system in the South Australian Gulf are evaluated using current meter, wave buoy and weather station data over a 12-month period. The spatial and temporal scales of the radar deployment have been configured for the measurement of surface currents from the first order backscatter spectra. Quality control procedures are applied to the radar currents that relate to the geometric configurations, statistical properties, and diagnostic variables provided by the analysis software. Wave measurements are obtained through an iterative inversion algorithm that provides an estimate of the directional frequency spectrum. The standard static configurations and data sampling strategies are not optimised for waves and so additional signal processing steps need to be implemented in order to provide reliable estimates. These techniques are currently only applied in offline mode but a real-time approach is in development. Improvements in the quality of extracted wave data are found through increased averaging of the raw radar data but the impact of temporal non-stationarity and spatial inhomogeneities in the WERA measurement region needs to be taken into account. Validations of wind direction data from a weather station on Neptune Island show the potential of using HF radar to combat the spread of bushfires in South Australia.

  14. Exploring inner structure of Titan's dunes from Cassini Radar observations

    Sharma, P.; Heggy, E.; Farr, T. G.


    Linear dunes discovered in the equatorial regions of Titan by the Cassini-Huygens mission are morphologically very similar to many terrestrial linear dune fields. These features have been compared with terrestrial longitudinal dune fields like the ones in Namib desert in western Africa. This comparison is based on the overall parallel orientation of Titan's dunes to the predominant wind direction on Titan, their superposition on other geomorphological features and the way they wrap around topographic obstacles. Studying the internal layering of dunes has strong implications in understanding the hypothesis for their origin and evolution. In Titan's case, although the morphology of the dunes has been studied from Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, it has not been possible to investigate their internal structure in detail as of yet. Since no radar sounding data is available for studying Titan's subsurface yet, we have developed another technique to examine the inner layering of the dunes. In this study, we utilize multiple complementary radar datasets, including radar imaging data for Titan's and Earth's dunes and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)/radar sounding data for terrestrial dunes. Based on dielectric mixing models, we suggest that the Cassini Ku-band microwaves should be able to penetrate up to ~ 3 m through Titan's dunes, indicating that the returned radar backscatter signal would include contributions from both surface and shallow subsurface echoes. This implies that the shallow subsurface properties can be retrieved from the observed radar backscatter (σ0). In our analysis, the variation of the radar backscatter as a function of dune height is used to provide an insight into the layering in Titan's dunes. We compare the variation of radar backscatter with elevation over individual dunes on Titan and analogous terrestrial dunes in three sites (Great Sand Sea, Siwa dunes and Qattaniya dunes) in the Egyptian Sahara. We observe a strong, positive

  15. Radar observations of Comet Halley

    Campbell, D.B.; Harmon, J.K.; Shapiro, I.I.


    Five nights of Arecibo radar observations of Comet Halley are reported which reveal a feature in the overall average spectrum which, though weak, seems consistent with being an echo from the comet. The large radar cross section and large bandwidth of the feature suggest that the echo is predominantly from large grains which have been ejected from the nucleus. Extrapolation of the dust particle size distribution to large grain sizes gives a sufficient number of grains to account for the echo. The lack of a detectable echo from the nucleus, combined with estimates of its size and rotation rate from spacecraft encounters and other data, indicate that the nucleus has a surface of relatively high porosity. 33 references

  16. Terahertz radar cross section measurements.

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.

  17. Sounding Cratonic Fill in Small Buried Craters Using Ground Penetrating Radar: Analog Study to the Martian Case

    Heggy , Essam; Paillou , Philippe


    We report results from a 270 MHz GPR survey performed on a recently discovered impact field in the southwestern Egyptian desert. The investigation suggests the ability of radar techniques to detect small-buried craters and probe their filling

  18. Experimentally achieving borehole antenna radar directivity in the time domain in the presence of strong mutual coupling

    Vogt, D


    Full Text Available published borehole radar antennas have achieved directivity by post processing data received in the frequency domain, or by constructing an aperture antenna, where borehole dimensions allowed this. In this paper, a time-domain technique is investigated...

  19. Radar Control Optimal Resource Allocation


    Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada by the McMaster University Intelligent PIXel (IPIX) X-band Polarimetric Coherent Radar during the OHGR - Dartmouth...following coefficients [ q2, 4p22q, 12p12q, 12p11q, 12|P | ] (26) for A4 and [ q2, 4p22q, 4q(3 p12 + r22), 12(p11q + p22r22 − qr12), 12(|P |+ 2r22p12

  20. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  1. Radar-based hail detection

    Skripniková, Kateřina; Řezáčová, Daniela


    Roč. 144, č. 1 (2014), s. 175-185 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2045; GA MŠk LD11044 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : hail detection * weather radar * hail damage risk Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014

  2. Radar-eddy current GPR

    A. O. Abramovych


    Introduction. At present there are many electrical schematic metal detectors (the most common kind of ground penetrating radar), which are differ in purpose. Each scheme has its own advantages and disadvantages compared to other schemes. Designing metal detector problem of optimal selection of functional units most schemes can only work with a narrow range of special purpose units. Functional units used in circuits can be replaced by better ones, but specialization schemes do not provide such...

  3. Improving Weather Radar Precipitation Estimates by Combining two Types of Radars

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    This paper presents a demonstration of how Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) X-band measurements can be combined with meteorological C–band measurements into a single radar product. For this purpose, a blending method has been developed which combines the strengths of the two radar systems. Combining...... the two radar types achieves a radar product with both long range and high temporal resolution. It is validated that the blended radar product performs better than the individual radars based on ground observations from laser disdrometers. However, the data combination is challenged by lower performance...... of the LAWR. Although both radars benefits from the data combination, it is also found that advection based temporal interpolation is a more favourable method for increasing the temporal resolution of meteorological C–band measurements....

  4. Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches

    Clary, G. R.


    Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

  5. MST radar and polarization lidar observations of tropical cirrus

    Y. Bhavani Kumar


    these levels. The analysis of simultaneous lidar and MST Radar observations can thus yield valuable information on the structure and dynamics of the cirrus, specifically near the boundaries of such clouds.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry; instruments and technique - Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology

  6. MST radar and polarization lidar observations of tropical cirrus

    Y. Bhavani Kumar

    these levels. The analysis of simultaneous lidar and MST Radar observations can thus yield valuable information on the structure and dynamics of the cirrus, specifically near the boundaries of such clouds.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry; instruments and technique - Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology

  7. The Comet Radar Explorer Mission

    Asphaug, Erik; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Farnham, Tony; Gim, Yonggyu; Grimm, Robert; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Oberst, Juergen; Orosei, Roberto; Piqueux, Sylvain; Plaut, Jeff; Robinson, Mark; Sava, Paul; Heggy, Essam; Kurth, William; Scheeres, Dan; Denevi, Brett; Turtle, Elizabeth; Weissman, Paul


    Missions to cometary nuclei have revealed major geological surprises: (1) Global scale layers - do these persist through to the interior? Are they a record of primary accretion? (2) Smooth regions - are they landslides originating on the surface? Are they cryovolcanic? (3) Pits - are they impact craters or sublimation pits, or rooted in the interior? Unambiguous answers to these and other questions can be obtained by high definition 3D radar reflection imaging (RRI) of internal structure. RRI can answer many of the great unknowns in planetary science: How do primitive bodies accrete? Are cometary nuclei mostly ice? What drives their spectacular activity and evolution? The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) mission will image the detailed internal structure of the nucleus of 10P/Tempel 2. This ~16 x 8 x 7 km Jupiter Family Comet (JFC), or its parent body, originated in the outer planets region possibly millions of years before planet formation. CORE arrives post-perihelion and observes the comet’s waning activity from safe distance. Once the nucleus is largely dormant, the spacecraft enters a ~20-km dedicated Radar Mapping Orbit (RMO). The exacting design of the RRI experiment and the precise navigation of RMO will achieve a highly focused 3D radar reflection image of internal structure, to tens of meters resolution, and tomographic images of velocity and attenuation to hundreds of meters resolution, tied to the gravity model and shape. Visible imagers will produce maps of the surface morphology, albedo, color, texture, and photometric response, and images for navigation and shape determination. The cameras will also monitor the structure and dynamics of the coma, and its dusty jets, allowing their correlation in 3D with deep interior structures and surface features. Repeated global high-resolution thermal images will probe the near-surface layers heated by the Sun. Derived maps of thermal inertia will be correlated with the radar boundary response, and photometry and

  8. Radar imaging of Saturn's rings

    Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Campbell, Donald B.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Black, Gregory J.; Salo, Heikki J.


    We present delay-Doppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1°⩽|B|⩽26.7°. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ˜77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the cross-section of the C ring and 9% on that of the Cassini Division. These results are consistent with those obtained by Ostro et al. [1982, Icarus 49, 367-381] from radar observations at |B|=21.4°, but provide higher resolution maps of the rings' reflectivity profile. The average cross-section of the A and B rings, normalized by their projected unblocked area, is found to have decreased from 1.25±0.31 to 0.74±0.19 as the rings have opened up, while the circular polarization ratio has increased from 0.64±0.06 to 0.77±0.06. The steep decrease in cross-section is at variance with previous radar measurements [Ostro et al., 1980, Icarus 41, 381-388], and neither this nor the polarization variations are easily understood within the framework of either classical, many-particle-thick or monolayer ring models. One possible explanation involves vertical size segregation in the rings, whereby observations at larger elevation angles which see deeper into the rings preferentially see the larger particles concentrated near the rings' mid-plane. These larger particles may be less reflective and/or rougher and thus more depolarizing than the smaller ones. Images from all four years show a strong m=2 azimuthal asymmetry in the reflectivity of the A ring, with an amplitude of ±20% and minima at longitudes of 67±4° and 247±4° from the sub-Earth point. We attribute the asymmetry to the presence of gravitational wakes in the A ring as invoked by Colombo et al. [1976, Nature 264, 344-345] to explain the similar asymmetry long seen at optical wavelengths. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the enhancement of the azimuthal

  9. A GIS-based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data

    Al-Hamdan, M.


    Hydrology is the study of water in all its forms, origins, and destinations on the earth.This paper develops a novel modeling technique using a geographic information system (GIS) to facilitate watershed hydrological routing using RADAR data. The RADAR rainfall data, segmented to 4 km by 4 km blocks, divides the watershed into several sub basins which are modeled independently. A case study for the GIS-based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data is provided for South Fork Cowikee Creek near Batesville, Alabama. All the data necessary to complete the analysis is maintained in the ArcView GIS software. This paper concludes that the GIS-Based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data is a viable method to calculate hydrological routing for large watersheds. (author)

  10. Translation compensation and micro-Doppler extraction for precession ballistic targets with a wideband terahertz radar

    Yang, Qi; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; Zhang, Ye; Qin, Yuliang


    Imaging, classification, and recognition techniques of ballistic targets in midcourse have always been the focus of research in the radar field for military applications. However, the high velocity translation of ballistic targets will subject range profile and Doppler to translation, slope, and fold, which are especially severe in the terahertz region. Therefore, a two-step translation compensation method based on envelope alignment is presented. The rough compensation is based on the traditional envelope alignment algorithm in inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging, and the fine compensation is supported by distance fitting. Then, a wideband imaging radar system with a carrier frequency of 0.32 THz is introduced, and an experiment on a precession missile model is carried out. After translation compensation with the method proposed in this paper, the range profile and the micro-Doppler distributions unaffected by translation are obtained, providing an important foundation for the high-resolution imaging and micro-Doppler extraction of the terahertz radar.

  11. Simulation and Prediction of Weather Radar Clutter Using a Wave Propagator on High Resolution NWP Data

    Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Bovith, Thomas


    for prediction of this type of weather radar clutter is presented. The method uses a wave propagator to identify areas of potential non-standard propagation. The wave propagator uses a three dimensional refractivity field derived from the geophysical parameters: temperature, humidity, and pressure obtained from......Weather radars are essential sensors for observation of precipitation in the troposphere and play a major part in weather forecasting and hydrological modelling. Clutter caused by non-standard wave propagation is a common problem in weather radar applications, and in this paper a method...... a high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. The wave propagator is based on the parabolic equation approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation. The parabolic equation is solved using the well-known Fourier split-step method. Finally, the radar clutter prediction technique is used...

  12. Textural features for radar image analysis

    Shanmugan, K. S.; Narayanan, V.; Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.


    Texture is seen as an important spatial feature useful for identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. While textural features have been widely used in analyzing a variety of photographic images, they have not been used in processing radar images. A procedure for extracting a set of textural features for characterizing small areas in radar images is presented, and it is shown that these features can be used in classifying segments of radar images corresponding to different geological formations.

  13. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    A. Bartsch; F. Fitzek; R. H. Rasshofer


    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insight...

  14. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman


    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  15. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) detects fine roots of agricultural crops in the field

    Xiuwei Liu; Xuejun Dong; Qingwu Xue; Daniel I. Leskovar; John Jifon; John R. Butnor; Thomas Marek


    Aim Ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a non-invasive technique is widely used in coarse root detection. However, the applicability of the technique to detect fine roots of agricultural crops is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of utilizing GPR to detect fine roots in the field.

  16. On the collocation between dayside auroral activity and coherent HF radar backscatter

    J. Moen

    Full Text Available The 2D morphology of coherent HF radar and optical cusp aurora has been studied for conditions of predominantly southward IMF conditions, which favours low-latitude boundary layer reconnection. Despite the variability in shape of radar cusp Doppler spectra, the spectral width criterion of > 220 m s–1 proves to be a robust cusp discriminator. For extended periods of well-developed radar backscatter echoes, the equatorward boundary of the > 220 m s–1 spectral width enhancement lines up remarkably well with the equatorward boundary of the optical cusp aurora. The spectral width boundary is however poorly determined during development and fading of radar cusp backscatter. Closer inspection of radar Doppler profile characteristics suggests that a combination of spectral width and shape may advance boundary layer identification by HF radar. For the two December days studied the onset of radar cusp backscatter occurred within pre-existing 630.0 nm cusp auroral activity and appear to be initiated by sunrise, i.e. favourable radio wave propagation conditions had to develop. Better methods are put forward for analysing optical data, and for physical interpretation of HF radar data, and for combining these data, as applied to detection, tracking, and better understanding of dayside aurora. The broader motivation of this work is to develop wider use by the scientific community, of results of these techniques, to accelerate understanding of dynamic high-latitude boundary-processes. The contributions in this work are: (1 improved techniques of analysis of observational data, yielding meaningfully enhanced accuracy for deduced cusp locations; (2 a correspondingly more pronounced validation of correlation of boundary locations derived from the observational data set; and (3 a firmer physical rationale as to why the good correlation observed should theoretically be expected.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionospheric

  17. Ground clutter cancellation in incoherent radars: solutions for EISCAT Svalbard radar

    T. Turunen


    Full Text Available Incoherent scatter radars measure ionosphere parameters using modified Thomson scatter from free electrons in the target (see e.g. Hagfors, 1997. The integrated cross section of the ionospheric scatterers is extremely small and the measurements can easily be disturbed by signals returned by unwanted targets. Ground clutter signals, entering via the antenna side lobes, can render measurements at the nearest target ranges totally impossible. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, which started measurements in 1996, suffers from severe ground clutter and the ionosphere cannot be measured in any simple manner at ranges less than about 120–150 km, depending on the modulation employed. If the target and clutter signals have different, and clearly identifiable, properties then, in principle, there are always ways to eliminate the clutter. In incoherent scatter measurements, differences in the coherence times of the wanted and unwanted signals can be used for clutter cancellation. The clutter cancellation must be applied to all modulations, usually alternating codes in modern experiments, used for shorter ranges. Excellent results have been obtained at the ESR using a simple pulse-to-pulse clutter subtraction method, but there are also other possibilities.Key words: Radio science (ionospheric physics; signal processing; instruments and techniques


    A. Rizaldy


    Full Text Available Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG is government institution in Indonesia which is responsible to provide Topographic Map at several map scale. For medium map scale, e.g. 1:25.000 or 1:50.000, DSM from Radar data is very good solution since Radar is able to penetrate cloud that usually covering tropical area in Indonesia. DSM Radar is produced using Radargrammetry and Interferrometry technique. The conventional method of DTM production is using “stereo-mate”, the stereo image created from DSM Radar and ORRI (Ortho Rectified Radar Image, and human operator will digitizing masspoint and breakline manually using digital stereoplotter workstation. This technique is accurate but very costly and time consuming, also needs large resource of human operator. Since DSMs are already generated, it is possible to filter DSM to DTM using several techniques. This paper will study the possibility of DSM to DTM filtering using technique that usually used in point cloud LIDAR filtering. Accuracy of this method will also be calculated using enough numbers of check points. If the accuracy meets the requirement, this method is very potential to accelerate the production of Topographic Map in Indonesia.

  19. Spatial distribution of errors associated with multistatic meteor radar

    Hocking, W. K.


    With the recent increase in numbers of small and versatile low-power meteor radars, the opportunity exists to benefit from simultaneous application of multiple systems spaced by only a few hundred km and less. Transmissions from one site can be recorded at adjacent receiving sites using various degrees of forward scatter, potentially allowing atmospheric conditions in the mesopause regions between stations to be diagnosed. This can allow a better spatial overview of the atmospheric conditions at any time. Such studies have been carried out using a small version of such so-called multistatic meteor radars, e.g. Chau et al. (Radio Sci 52:811-828, 2017, ). These authors were able to also make measurements of vorticity and divergence. However, measurement uncertainties arise which need to be considered in any application of such techniques. Some errors are so severe that they prohibit useful application of the technique in certain locations, particularly for zones at the midpoints of the radars sites. In this paper, software is developed to allow these errors to be determined, and examples of typical errors involved are discussed. The software should be of value to others who wish to optimize their own MMR systems.

  20. Long-wavelength Radar Studies of the Lunar Maria

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Thompson, Thomas W.


    various mineral phases, but ilmenite content (FeTiO3) has typically been cited as the dominant cause of changes in loss tangent (and thus the radar absorption). The lack of correlation between the radar data and TiO2 estimates may arise from uncertainties in the Charette technique, subtle differences in the upper surface and bulk properties of the regolith, mineralogic effects on the radar not linked to titanium content, or to some combination of these factors. Dark crater haloes in the mare and highlands, and low radar returns from apparent cryptomare regions, are used to illustrate the role radar data can play in identifying changes in regolith composition; low-return haloes around craters such as Petavius may indicate 5-25% contamination of the highlands soil by excavated mare material or a layer of rock-poor ejecta at least several meters deep. The 7.5-m data were shown to correlate to a reasonable degree with estimates of Fe abundance, suggesting that this component of the mare basalts is primarily responsible for attenuation losses at very long wavelengths. The different sensitivities of the two radar wavelengths and multispectral data offers the potential for future deep mapping of the mare lava flows and regolith.

  1. Multiple-scattering in radar systems: A review

    Battaglia, Alessandro; Tanelli, Simone; Kobayashi, Satoru; Zrnic, Dusan; Hogan, Robin J.; Simmer, Clemens


    predominantly in the forward direction. A complete understanding of radiation transport modeling and data analysis methods under wide-angle multiple scattering conditions is mandatory for a correct interpretation of echoes observed by space-borne millimeter radars. This paper reviews the status of research in this field. Different numerical techniques currently implemented to account for higher order scattering are reviewed and their weaknesses and strengths highlighted. Examples of simulated radar backscattering profiles are provided with particular emphasis given to situations in which the multiple scattering contributions become comparable or overwhelm the single scattering signal. We show evidences of multiple scattering effects from air-borne and from CloudSat observations, i.e. unique signatures which cannot be explained by single scattering theory. Ideas how to identify and tackle the multiple scattering effects are discussed. Finally perspectives and suggestions for future work are outlined. This work represents a reference-guide for studies focused at modeling the radiation transport and at interpreting data from high frequency space-borne radar systems that probe highly opaque scattering media such as thick ice clouds or precipitating clouds.

  2. Radar network communication through sensing of frequency hopping

    Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak


    In one embodiment, a radar communication system includes a plurality of radars having a communication range and being capable of operating at a sensing frequency and a reporting frequency, wherein the reporting frequency is different than the sensing frequency, each radar is adapted for operating at the sensing frequency until an event is detected, each radar in the plurality of radars has an identification/location frequency for reporting information different from the sensing frequency, a first radar of the radars which senses the event sends a reporting frequency corresponding to its identification/location frequency when the event is detected, and all other radars in the plurality of radars switch their reporting frequencies to match the reporting frequency of the first radar upon detecting the reporting frequency switch of a radar within the communication range. In another embodiment, a method is presented for communicating information in a radar system.

  3. The NASA radar entomology program at Wallops Flight Center

    Vaughn, C. R.


    NASA contribution to radar entomology is presented. Wallops Flight Center is described in terms of its radar systems. Radar tracking of birds and insects was recorded from helicopters for airspeed and vertical speed.

  4. Mapping small elevation changes over large areas - Differential radar interferometry

    Gabriel, Andrew K.; Goldstein, Richard M.; Zebker, Howard A.


    A technique is described, based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, which uses SAR images for measuring very small (1 cm or less) surface motions with good resolution (10 m) over swaths of up to 50 km. The method was applied to a Seasat data set of an imaging site in Imperial Valley, California, where motion effects were observed that were identified with movements due to the expansion of water-absorbing clays. The technique can be used for accurate measurements of many geophysical phenomena, including swelling and buckling in fault zones, residual displacements from seismic events, and prevolcanic swelling.

  5. Apodized RFI filtering of synthetic aperture radar images

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    Fine resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems necessarily require wide bandwidths that often overlap spectrum utilized by other wireless services. These other emitters pose a source of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) to the SAR echo signals that degrades SAR image quality. Filtering, or excising, the offending spectral contaminants will mitigate the interference, but at a cost of often degrading the SAR image in other ways, notably by raising offensive sidelobe levels. This report proposes borrowing an idea from nonlinear sidelobe apodization techniques to suppress interference without the attendant increase in sidelobe levels. The simple post-processing technique is termed Apodized RFI Filtering (ARF).

  6. Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

    Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono


    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

  7. 3D radar wavefield tomography of comet interiors

    Sava, Paul; Asphaug, Erik


    Answering fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of small planetary bodies hinges on our ability to image their surface and interior structure in detail and at high resolution. The interior structure is not easily accessible without systematic imaging using, e.g., radar transmission and reflection data from multiple viewpoints, as in medical tomography. Radar tomography can be performed using methodology adapted from terrestrial exploration seismology. Our feasibility study primarily focuses on full wavefield methods that facilitate high quality imaging of small body interiors. We consider the case of a monostatic system (co-located transmitters and receivers) operated in various frequency bands between 5 and 15 MHz, from a spacecraft in slow polar orbit around a spinning comet nucleus. Using realistic numerical experiments, we demonstrate that wavefield techniques can generate high resolution tomograms of comets nuclei with arbitrary shape and complex interior properties.

  8. Method for radar detection of persons wearing wires

    Fox, William P.


    8,730,098 B1 Methods are described for radar detection of persons wearing wires using radar spectra data including the vertical polarization (VV) radar cross section and the horizontal polarization (HH) radar cross section for a person. In one embodiment, the ratio of the vertical polarization (VV) radar cross section to the horizontal polarization (HH) radar cross section for a person is compared to a detection threshold to determine whether the person is wearing wire...

  9. Array-Based Ultrawideband through-Wall Radar: Prediction and Assessment of Real Radar Abilities

    Nadia Maaref


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new through-the-wall (TTW radar demonstrator for the detection and the localisation of people in a room (in a noncooperative way with the radar situated outside but in the vicinity of the first wall. After modelling the propagation through various walls and quantifying the backscattering by the human body, an analysis of the technical considerations which aims at defining the radar design is presented. Finally, an ultrawideband (UWB frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar is proposed, designed, and implemented. Some representative trials show that this radar is able to localise and track moving people behind a wall in real time.

  10. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.


    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  11. Multitaper spectral analysis of atmospheric radar signals

    V. K. Anandan


    Full Text Available Multitaper spectral analysis using sinusoidal taper has been carried out on the backscattered signals received from the troposphere and lower stratosphere by the Gadanki Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST radar under various conditions of the signal-to-noise ratio. Comparison of study is made with sinusoidal taper of the order of three and single tapers of Hanning and rectangular tapers, to understand the relative merits of processing under the scheme. Power spectra plots show that echoes are better identified in the case of multitaper estimation, especially in the region of a weak signal-to-noise ratio. Further analysis is carried out to obtain three lower order moments from three estimation techniques. The results show that multitaper analysis gives a better signal-to-noise ratio or higher detectability. The spectral analysis through multitaper and single tapers is subjected to study of consistency in measurements. Results show that the multitaper estimate is better consistent in Doppler measurements compared to single taper estimates. Doppler width measurements with different approaches were studied and the results show that the estimation was better in the multitaper technique in terms of temporal resolution and estimation accuracy.

  12. Pocket radar guide key facts, equations, and data

    Curry, G Richard


    ThePocket Radar Guideis a concise collection of key radar facts and important radar data that provides you with necessary radar information when you are away from your office or references. It includes statements and comments on radar design, operation, and performance; equations describing the characteristics and performance of radar systems and their components; and tables with data on radar characteristics and key performance issues.It is intended to supplement other radar information sources by providing a pocket companion to refresh memory and provide details whenever you need them such a

  13. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory


    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  14. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.


    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  15. Radar Methods in Urban Environments


    and A. Nehorai, "A low-complexity multi-target tracking algorithm in urban environments using sparse modeling ,’’ Signal Processing, Vol. 92, pp. 2199...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0344 Radar Methods in Urban Environments Arye Nehorai WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY THE Final Report 10/26/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...of information   if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION . 1. REPORT DATE

  16. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C


    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.

  17. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter


    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology

  18. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    Dheenathayalan, P.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Hanssen, R.F.


    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy

  19. A Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer

    Skou, Niels


    The Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer (SMRR) is a line scanner featuring a combined radar and radiometer system operating around 35 and 94 GHz. The layout of the SMRR is shown. The 2 offset antenna parabolas scan in synchronism, the receiver antenna has the highest gain in order to ensure...

  20. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  1. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    Khan, N.A.; Yahya, K.M.


    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  2. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    Badger, Merete

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting windfields are valuable in offshore wind energy plan...

  3. Classification of Agricultural Crops in Radar Images

    Hoogeboom, P.


    For the past few years an accurate X-band SLAR system with digital recording has been available in The Netherlands. The images of this system are corrected to indicate radar backscatter coefficients (gamma) instead of arbitrary greytones. In 1980 a radar measurement campaign was organized in the

  4. Classification of radar echoes using fractal geometry

    Azzaz, Nafissa; Haddad, Boualem


    Highlights: • Implementation of two concepts of fractal geometry to classify two types of meteorological radar echoes. • A new approach, called a multi-scale fractal dimension is used for classification between fixed echoes and rain echoes. • An Automatic identification system of meteorological radar echoes was proposed using fractal geometry. - Abstract: This paper deals with the discrimination between the precipitation echoes and the ground echoes in meteorological radar images using fractal geometry. This study aims to improve the measurement of precipitations by weather radars. For this, we considered three radar sites: Bordeaux (France), Dakar (Senegal) and Me lbourne (USA). We showed that the fractal dimension based on contourlet and the fractal lacunarity are pertinent to discriminate between ground and precipitation echoes. We also demonstrated that the ground echoes have a multifractal structure but the precipitations are more homogeneous than ground echoes whatever the prevailing climate. Thereby, we developed an automatic classification system of radar using a graphic interface. This interface, based on the fractal geometry makes possible the identification of radar echoes type in real time. This system can be inserted in weather radar for the improvement of precipitation estimations.

  5. Non destructive testing of heterogeneous structures with a step frequency radar

    Cattin, V.; Chaillout, J.J.


    Ground penetrating radar have shown increasing potential in diagnostic of soils or concrete, but the realisation of such a system and the interpretation of data produced by this technique require a clear understanding of the physical electromagnetic processes that appear between media and waves. In this paper are studied the performances of a step frequency radar as a nondestructive technique to evaluate different heterogeneous laboratory size structures. Some critical points are studied like material properties, antenna effect and image reconstruction algorithm, to determine its viability to distinguish smallest region of interest

  6. Millimeter wave radars raise weapon IQ

    Lerner, E. J.


    The problems encountered by laser and IR homing devices for guided munitions may be tractable with warhead-mounted mm-wave radars. Operating at about 100 GHz and having several kilometers range, mm-wave radars see through darkness, fog, rain and smoke. The radar must be coupled with an analyzer that discerns moving and stationary targets and higher priority targets. The target lock-on can include shut-off of the transmitter and reception of naturally-generated mm-waves bouncing off the target when in the terminal phase of the flight. Monopulse transmitters have simplified the radar design, although mass production of finline small radar units has yet to be accomplished, particularly in combining GaAs, ferrites and other materials on one monolithic chip.

  7. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick


    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...... necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall...... estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...

  8. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick


    estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...... applications. The paper also reviews how the focus in urban hydrology research has shifted over the last decade to fields such as climate change impacts, resilience of urban areas to hydrological extremes, and online prediction/warning systems. It is discussed how radar rainfall data can add value......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...

  9. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong


    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  10. Meteor observation by the Kyoto meteor radar

    Kato, S.; Tsuda, T.


    The Kyoto Meteor Radar is a monostatic coherent pulsed Doppler radar operating on the frequency of 31.57 MH. The system is computer controlled and uses radio interferometry for echo height determination. The antenna, an improvement, can be directed either to the north or the east. The system has been continuously collecting data on winds at meteor heights by radar observation. The meteor echo rate was also measured, the echo rate distribution with height and the daily variation in height integrated echo rate are discussed. Investigations of atmospheric tides are being pursued by cooperative observations. A novel approach to the study of gravity waves was attempted using the meteor radar which is able to detect the horizontal propagation of the waves by observing the changing phase through the region illuminated by the radar

  11. In-flight measurements and RCS-predictions: A comparison on broad-side radar range profiles of a Boeing 737

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.


    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are not available. In this paper we present the first results of a comparison on one dimensional images, i.e., radar range profiles. The

  12. Space Radar Image of Bahia


    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  13. Progress in coherent laser radar

    Vaughan, J. M.


    Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.

  14. BALTRAD Advanced Weather Radar Networking

    Daniel Michelson


    Full Text Available BALTRAD software exchanges weather-radar data internationally, operationally, and in real-time, and it processes the data using a common toolbox of algorithms available to every node in the decentralized radar network. This approach enables each node to access and process its own and international data to meet its local needs. The software system is developed collaboratively by the BALTRAD partnership, mostly comprising the national Meteorological and Hydrological institutes in the European Union’s Baltic Sea Region. The most important sub-systems are for data exchange, data management, scheduling and event handling, and data processing. C, Java, and Python languages are used depending on the sub-system, and sub-systems communicate using well-defined interfaces. Software is available from a dedicated Git server. BALTRAD software has been deployed throughout Europe and more recently in Canada. Funding statement: From 2009–2014, the BALTRAD and BALTRAD+ projects were part-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund and European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument, with project numbers #009 and #101, respectively.

  15. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    N. F. Arnold


    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  16. Flood occurrence mapping of the middle Mahakam lowland area using satellite radar

    H. Hidayat


    Full Text Available Floodplain lakes and peatlands in the middle Mahakam lowland area are considered as ecologically important wetland in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, due to a lack of data, the hydrological functioning of the region is still poorly understood. Among remote sensing techniques that can increase data availability, radar is well-suitable for the identification, mapping, and measurement of tropical wetlands, for its cloud unimpeded sensing and night and day operation. Here we aim to extract flood extent and flood occurrence information from a series of radar images of the middle Mahakam lowland area. We explore the use of Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR imagery for observing flood inundation dynamics by incorporating field water level measurements. Water level measurements were carried out along the river, in lakes and in peatlands, using pressure transducers. For validation of the open water flood occurrence map, bathymetry measurements were carried out in the main lakes. A series of PALSAR images covering the middle and lower Mahakam area in the years 2007 through 2010 were collected. A fully inundated region can be easily recognized on radar images from a dark signature. Open water flood occurrence was mapped using a threshold value taken from radar backscatter of the permanently inundated river and lakes areas. Radar backscatter intensity analysis of the vegetated floodplain area revealed consistently high backscatter values, indicating flood inundation under forest canopy. We used those values as the threshold for flood occurrence mapping in the vegetated area.

  17. Mobile Ground-Based Radar Sensor for Localization and Mapping: An Evaluation of two Approaches

    Damien Vivet


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with robotic applications using a ground-based radar sensor for simultaneous localization and mapping problems. In mobile robotics, radar technology is interesting because of its long range and the robustness of radar waves to atmospheric conditions, making these sensors well-suited for extended outdoor robotic applications. Two localization and mapping approaches using data obtained from a 360° field of view microwave radar sensor are presented and compared. The first method is a trajectory-oriented simultaneous localization and mapping technique, which makes no landmark assumptions and avoids the data association problem. The estimation of the ego-motion makes use of the Fourier-Mellin transform for registering radar images in a sequence, from which the rotation and translation of the sensor motion can be estimated. The second approach uses the consequence of using a rotating range sensor in high speed robotics. In such a situation, movement combinations create distortions in the collected data. Velocimetry is achieved here by explicitly analysing these measurement distortions. As a result, the trajectory of the vehicle and then the radar map of outdoor environments can be obtained. The evaluation of experimental results obtained by the two methods is presented on real-world data from a vehicle moving at 30 km/h over a 2.5 km course.

  18. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  19. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl


    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  20. Very high latitude F-region irregularities observed by HF-radar backscatter

    Baker, K.B.; Greenwald, R.A.; Tsunoda, R.T.


    In February and March, 1982, a coherent scatter HF radar was operated from Cleary, Alaska to observe 7- to 15-m wavelength F-region plasma irregularities near the poleward edge of the auroral zone and in the polar cap. The radar operated for five days from February 25 to March 1 and produced approximately 700,000 Doppler spectra during that time. Of those nearly 700,000 spectra, approximately 10% showed backscattered power 3 dB or more above the noise level. A ray tracing technique using electron densities determined by the Chatanika incoherent scatter radar was used to predict locations where the HF waves were approximately normal to the magnetic field. If those locations were also to contain small scale electron density structure, then one would expect them to backscatter the HF waves. Several comparisons were made between predicted and observed locations of radiowave backscatter and excellent agreement was obtained. In addition, comparisons of the Doppler velocities observed by the coherent scatter HF radar and those observed by the Chatanika radar showed good agreement, suggesting that the plasma irregularities observed by the HF radar drift with the ambient plasma. In addition, average vector velocities calculated for the entire 5-day period show a flow pattern consistent with polar cap convection models. This again indicates that the irregularities drift with the plasma, as is predicted by a number of theories of F-region plasma irregularities. In the summer of 1983, the research program begun with those measurements will be continued with a steerable phased-array HF radar located at Goose Bay, Labrador, that will view the same ionospheric region as does the Sondre Stromfjord incoherent scatter radar

  1. Analysis and Forecast of a Tornadic Thunderstorm Using Multiple Doppler Radar Data, 3DVAR, and ARPS Model

    Edward Natenberg


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional variational (3DVAR assimilation technique developed for a convective-scale NWP model—advanced regional prediction system (ARPS—is used to analyze the 8 May 2003, Moore/Midwest City, Oklahoma tornadic supercell thunderstorm. Previous studies on this case used only one or two radars that are very close to this storm. However, three other radars observed the upper-level part of the storm. Because these three radars are located far away from the targeted storm, they were overlooked by previous studies. High-frequency intermittent 3DVAR analyses are performed using the data from five radars that together provide a more complete picture of this storm. The analyses capture a well-defined mesocyclone in the midlevels and the wind circulation associated with a hook-shaped echo. The analyses produced through this technique are used as initial conditions for a 40-minute storm-scale forecast. The impact of multiple radars on a short-term NWP forecast is most evident when compared to forecasts using data from only one and two radars. The use of all radars provides the best forecast in which a strong low-level mesocyclone develops and tracks in close proximity to the actual tornado damage path.

  2. Radar

    Nielsen, Tom


    Bidrag til arkitektens opgørelse (baseret på en række forskellige indlæg) over hvor dansk arkitektur står, med korte bud på spørgsmålene: Kan man ud over stedsanknytningen tale om en særlig dansk arkitektur?, Hvad er dansk arkitekturs største kvalitet, vores vigtigste force? og Hvad er dansk arki...

  3. State transition storyboards: A tool for designing the Goldstone solar system radar data acquisition system user interface software

    Howard, S. D.


    Effective user interface design in software systems is a complex task that takes place without adequate modeling tools. By combining state transition diagrams and the storyboard technique of filmmakers, State Transition Storyboards were developed to provide a detailed modeling technique for the Goldstone Solar System Radar Data Acquisition System human-machine interface. Illustrations are included with a description of the modeling technique.

  4. Measurements of mesospheric ice aerosols using radars and rockets

    Strelnikova, Irina; Li, Qiang; Strelnikov, Boris; Rapp, Markus [Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Kuehlungsborn (Germany)


    Polar summer mesopause is the coldest region of Earth's atmosphere with temperatures as low as minus 130 C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared. Larger aerosols can be seen from the ground as clouds known as NLC (Noctilucent clouds). Ice aerosols from sub-visible range give rise to the phenomena known as Polar Mesosphere Sommer Echo (PMSE). For efficient scattering, electron number density must be structured at the radar half wavelength (Bragg condition). The general requirement to allow for the observation of structures at VHF and higher frequencies is that the dust size (and charge number) must be large enough to extend the convective-diffusive subrange of the energy spectrum of electrons (by reducing their diffusivity) to the wavelength which is shorter than the Bragg-scale of the probing radar. In this paper we present main results of ice particles measurements inside the PMSE layers obtained from in situ rocket soundings and newly developed radar techniques.

  5. Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Observed by Midlatitude SuperDARN Radars

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; West, M. L.; Bristow, W. A.


    Medium Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) are wave-like perturbations of the F-region ionosphere with horizontal wavelengths on the order of 100-250 km and periods between ~15 - 60 min, and are generally thought to be the ionospheric manifestation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs). High-latitude MSTIDs have been studied using SuperDARN radars since 1989, and are typically attributed to auroral sources and propagated by the Earth Reflected Wave (ERW) mode. Tropospheric sources and earthquakes are also known to be sources of MSTIDs. Observations of MSTIDs using both mid- and high- latitude SuperDARN radars are presented. North American radar data from November 2010 - November 2011 were searched for signatures of MSTIDs. Initial results suggest that MSTIDs are observed at high latitudes primarily in the fall/winter months, which is consistent with published results. This search also reveals that mid-latitude MSTIDs often appear concurrently with high-latitude MSTIDs and share similar wave parameters. During the fall/winter months, SuperDARN mid-latitude MSTIDs appear more often than high-latitude MSTIDs, likely due to calmer ionospheric conditions at mid-latitudes. In the springtime, SuperDARN-observed MSTIDs are less likely to be seen at high-latitudes, but still appear at mid-latitudes. Selected events are analyzed for wave parameters using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique.

  6. Inversion for atmosphere duct parameters using real radar sea clutter

    Sheng Zheng; Fang Han-Xian


    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the lower atmospheric refractivity (M profile) under nonstandard propagation conditions frequently encountered in low altitude maritime radar applications. The vertical structure of the refractive environment is modeled using five parameters and the horizontal structure is modeled using five parameters. The refractivity model is implemented with and without a priori constraint on the duct strength as might be derived from soundings or numerical weather-prediction models. An electromagnetic propagation model maps the refractivity structure into a replica field. Replica fields are compared with the observed clutter using a squared-error objective function. A global search for the 10 environmental parameters is performed using genetic algorithms. The inversion algorithm is implemented on the basis of S-band radar sea-clutter data from Wallops Island, Virginia (SPANDAR). Reference data are from range-dependent refractivity profiles obtained with a helicopter. The inversion is assessed (i) by comparing the propagation predicted from the radar-inferred refractivity profiles with that from the helicopter profiles, (ii) by comparing the refractivity parameters from the helicopter soundings with those estimated. This technique could provide near-real-time estimation of ducting effects. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  7. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.


    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  8. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.


    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  9. Identification of hydrometeor mixtures in polarimetric radar measurements and their linear de-mixing

    Besic, Nikola; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Grazioli, Jacopo; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Berne, Alexis


    The issue of hydrometeor mixtures affects radar sampling volumes without a clear dominant hydrometeor type. Containing a number of different hydrometeor types which significantly contribute to the polarimetric variables, these volumes are likely to occur in the vicinity of the melting layer and mainly, at large distance from a given radar. Motivated by potential benefits for both quantitative and qualitative applications of dual-pol radar, we propose a method for the identification of hydrometeor mixtures and their subsequent linear de-mixing. This method is intrinsically related to our recently proposed semi-supervised approach for hydrometeor classification. The mentioned classification approach [1] performs labeling of radar sampling volumes by using as a criterion the Euclidean distance with respect to five-dimensional centroids, depicting nine hydrometeor classes. The positions of the centroids in the space formed by four radar moments and one external parameter (phase indicator), are derived through a technique of k-medoids clustering, applied on a selected representative set of radar observations, and coupled with statistical testing which introduces the assumed microphysical properties of the different hydrometeor types. Aside from a hydrometeor type label, each radar sampling volume is characterized by an entropy estimate, indicating the uncertainty of the classification. Here, we revisit the concept of entropy presented in [1], in order to emphasize its presumed potential for the identification of hydrometeor mixtures. The calculation of entropy is based on the estimate of the probability (pi ) that the observation corresponds to the hydrometeor type i (i = 1,ṡṡṡ9) . The probability is derived from the Euclidean distance (di ) of the observation to the centroid characterizing the hydrometeor type i . The parametrization of the d → p transform is conducted in a controlled environment, using synthetic polarimetric radar datasets. It ensures balanced

  10. Three-dimensional ground penetrating radar imaging using multi-frequency diffraction tomography

    Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    In this talk we present results from a three-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm for impulse radar operating in monostatic pule-echo mode. The application of interest to us is the nondestructive evaluation of civil structures such as bridge decks. We use a multi-frequency diffraction tomography imaging technique in which coherent backward propagations of the received reflected wavefield form a spatial image of the scattering interfaces within the region of interest. This imaging technique provides high-resolution range and azimuthal visualization of the subsurface region. We incorporate the ability to image in planarly layered conductive media and apply the algorithm to experimental data from an offset radar system in which the radar antenna is not directly coupled to the surface of the region. We present a rendering in three-dimensions of the resulting image data which provides high-detail visualization.

  11. Initial results from SKiYMET meteor radar at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E): 1. Comparison of wind measurements with MF spaced antenna radar system

    Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Ramkumar, Geetha; Shelbi, S. T.


    In the present communication, initial results from the allSKy interferometric METeor (SKiYMET) radar installed at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E) are presented. The meteor radar system provides hourly zonal and meridional winds in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region. The meteor radar measured zonal and meridional winds are compared with nearby MF radar at Tirunalveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E). The present study provided an opportunity to compare the winds measured by the two different techniques, namely, interferometry and spaced antenna drift methods. Simultaneous wind measurements for a total number of 273 days during September 2004 to May 2005 are compared. The comparison showed a very good agreement between these two techniques in the height region 82-90 km and poor agreement above this height region. In general, the zonal winds compare very well as compared to the meridional winds. The observed discrepancies in the wind comparison above 90 km are discussed in the light of existing limitations of both the radars. The detailed analysis revealed the consistency of the measured winds by both the techniques. However, the discrepancies are observed at higher altitudes and are attributed to the contamination of MF radar neutral wind measurements with Equatorial Electro Jet (EEJ) induced inospheric drifts rather than the limitations of the spaced antenna technique. The comparison of diurnal variation of zonal winds above 90 km measured by both the radars is in reasonably good agreement in the absence of EEJ (during local nighttime). It is also been noted that the difference in the zonal wind measurements by both the radars is directly related to the strength of EEJ, which is a noteworthy result from the present study.

  12. Survey of Ultra-wideband Radar

    Mokole, Eric L.; Hansen, Pete

    The development of UWB radar over the last four decades is very briefly summarized. A discussion of the meaning of UWB is followed by a short history of UWB radar developments and discussions of key supporting technologies and current UWB radars. Selected UWB radars and the associated applications are highlighted. Applications include detecting and imaging buried mines, detecting and mapping underground utilities, detecting and imaging objects obscured by foliage, through-wall detection in urban areas, short-range detection of suicide bombs, and the characterization of the impulse responses of various artificial and naturally occurring scattering objects. In particular, the Naval Research Laboratory's experimental, low-power, dual-polarized, short-pulse, ultra-high resolution radar is used to discuss applications and issues of UWB radar. Some crucial issues that are problematic to UWB radar are spectral availability, electromagnetic interference and compatibility, difficulties with waveform control/shaping, hardware limitations in the transmission chain, and the unreliability of high-power sources for sustained use above 2 GHz.

  13. New look at radar auroral motions

    Greenwald, R.A.; Ecklund, W.L.


    During October 1974, three modifications were temporarily added to the NOAA radar auroral backscatter facility located at Anchorage, Alaska. These modifications included (1) a multiple azimuth antenna system. (2) an on-line computer for processing amplitude and mean Doppler profiles of the radar backscatter, and (3) a 13-baud Barker coder. In combination with the radar these modifications provided data relevant to understanding both the microscopic and the macroscopic nature of the radar aurora. Appreciable structure was often found in the Doppler velocity profiles of radar auroral irregularities. Doppler velocities of nearly 2000 m/s were observed. By combining scatter amplitude profiles and mean Doppler profiles from the five azimuths we have produced contour maps of the scatter intensity and the Doppler velocity. The scatter intensity maps often indicate appreciable temporal and spatial structure in the radar auroral irregularities, corroborating the results of Tsunoda et al. (1974). The mean Doppler contour maps indicate that there is also appreciable temporal and spatial structure in the flow velocities of radar auroral irregularities. At those times when there appears to be large-scale uniformity in the irregularity flow, the Doppler velocity varies with azimuth in a manner that is consistent with a cosine-dependent azimuthal variation

  14. Condor equatorial electrojet campaign: Radar results

    Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.; Hanuise, C.


    A review of the experimental and theoretical background to the Condor equatorial electrojet compaign is followed by the presentation and discussion of VHF radar interferometer and HF radar backscatter data taken concurrently with two rocket in situ experiments reported in companion papers (Pfaff et al., this issue (a, b). Both experiments were conducted in strongly driven periods with the on-line radar interferometer displaying signatures of what has been interpreted in earlier radar work (Kudeki et al., 1982) as kilometer scale gradient drift waves. Low-frequency density fluctuations detected by in situ rocket sensors confirm the earlier interpretation. VHF radar/rocket data comparisons also indicate the existence of a turbulent layer in the upper portion of the daytime electrojet at about 108 km altitude driven purely by the two-stream instability. Nonlinear mode coupling of linearly growing two-stream waves to linearly damped 3-m vertical modes could account for the radar echoes scattered from this layer, which showed no indication of large-scale gradient drift waves. Nonlinear mode coupling may therefore compete with the wave-induced anomalous diffusion mechanism proposed recently by Sudan (1983) for the saturation of directly excited two-stream waves. Nighttime radar data show a bifurcated layer with the two parts having comparable echo strength but oppositely directed zonal drift velocities. The lower layer shows narrow backscatter spectra; the upper layer is characterized by kilometer scale waves and vertically propagating type 1 waves

  15. Using phase for radar scatterer classification

    Moore, Linda J.; Rigling, Brian D.; Penno, Robert P.; Zelnio, Edmund G.


    Traditional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems tend to discard phase information of formed complex radar imagery prior to automatic target recognition (ATR). This practice has historically been driven by available hardware storage, processing capabilities, and data link capacity. Recent advances in high performance computing (HPC) have enabled extremely dense storage and processing solutions. Therefore, previous motives for discarding radar phase information in ATR applications have been mitigated. First, we characterize the value of phase in one-dimensional (1-D) radar range profiles with respect to the ability to correctly estimate target features, which are currently employed in ATR algorithms for target discrimination. These features correspond to physical characteristics of targets through radio frequency (RF) scattering phenomenology. Physics-based electromagnetic scattering models developed from the geometrical theory of diffraction are utilized for the information analysis presented here. Information is quantified by the error of target parameter estimates from noisy radar signals when phase is either retained or discarded. Operating conditions (OCs) of signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth are considered. Second, we investigate the value of phase in 1-D radar returns with respect to the ability to correctly classify canonical targets. Classification performance is evaluated via logistic regression for three targets (sphere, plate, tophat). Phase information is demonstrated to improve radar target classification rates, particularly at low SNRs and low bandwidths.

  16. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.


    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  17. The design of infrared laser radar for vehicle initiative safety

    Gong, Ping; Xu, Xi-ping; Li, Xiao-yu; Li, Tian-zhi; Liu, Yu-long; Wu, Jia-hui


    Laser radar for vehicle is mainly used in advanced vehicle on-board active safety systems, such as forward anti-collision systems, active collision warning systems and adaptive cruise control systems, etc. Laser radar for vehicle plays an important role in the improvement of vehicle active safety and the reduction of traffic accidents. The stability of vehicle active anti-collision system in dynamic environment is still one of the most difficult problems to break through nowadays. According to people's driving habit and the existed detecting technique of sensor, combining the infrared laser range and galvanometer scanning technique , design a 3-D infrared laser radar which can be used to assist navigation, obstacle avoidance and the vehicle's speed control for the vehicle initiative safety. The device is fixed to the head of vehicle. Then if an accident happened, the device could give an alarm to remind the driver timely to decelerate or brake down, by which way can people get the purpose of preventing the collision accidents effectively. To accomplish the design, first of all, select the core components. Then apply Zemax to design the transmitting and receiving optical system. Adopt 1550 nm infrared laser transmitter as emission unit in the device, a galvanometer scanning as laser scanning unit and an InGaAs-APD detector as laser echo signal receiving unit. Perform the construction of experimental system using FPGA and ARM as the core controller. The system designed in this paper can not only detect obstacle in front of the vehicle and make the control subsystem to execute command, but also transfer laser data to PC in real time. Lots of experiments using the infrared laser radar prototype are made, and main performance of it is under tested. The results of these experiments show that the imaging speed of the laser radar can reach up to 25 frames per second, the frame resolution of each image can reach 30×30 pixels, the horizontal angle resolution is about 6. 98

  18. Foliage penetration radar detection and characterization of objects under trees

    Davis, Mark


    This book covers all aspects of foliage penetration (FOPEN) radar, concentrating on both airborne military radar systems as well as earth resource mapping radars. It is the first concise and thorough treatment of FOPEN, covering the results of a decade-long investment by DARPA in characterizing foliage and earth surface with ultrawideband UHF and VHF synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  19. The use of radar for bathymetry in shallow seas

    Greidanus, H.


    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and space borne radar. The paper reviews the radar imaging mechanism, and discusses the possibilities and limitations for practical use of radar in bathymetric applications, including the types of radar instruments available for this

  20. Radar ornithology and the conservation of migratory birds

    Sidney A. Gauthreaux; Carroll G. Belser


    It is possible to study with surveillance radar the movements of migrating birds in the atmosphere at different spatial scales. At a spatial scale within a range of 6 kilometers, high-resolution, 3-centimeter wavelength surveillance radar (e.g. BIRDRAD) can detect the departure of migrants from different types of habitat within a few kilometers of the radar. The radar...

  1. PTBS segmentation scheme for synthetic aperture radar

    Friedland, Noah S.; Rothwell, Brian J.


    The Image Understanding Group at Martin Marietta Technologies in Denver, Colorado has developed a model-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) system using an integrated resource architecture (IRA). IRA, an adaptive Markov random field (MRF) environment, utilizes information from image, model, and neighborhood resources to create a discrete, 2D feature-based world description (FBWD). The IRA FBWD features are peak, target, background and shadow (PTBS). These features have been shown to be very useful for target discrimination. The FBWD is used to accrue evidence over a model hypothesis set. This paper presents the PTBS segmentation process utilizing two IRA resources. The image resource (IR) provides generic (the physics of image formation) and specific (the given image input) information. The neighborhood resource (NR) provides domain knowledge of localized FBWD site behaviors. A simulated annealing optimization algorithm is used to construct a `most likely' PTBS state. Results on simulated imagery illustrate the power of this technique to correctly segment PTBS features, even when vehicle signatures are immersed in heavy background clutter. These segmentations also suppress sidelobe effects and delineate shadows.

  2. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar

    Raja Syamsul Azmir Raja Abdullah


    Full Text Available The passive bistatic radar (PBR system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR. The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system’s capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  3. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar.

    Raja Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah; Abdul Rashid, Nur Emileen; Ahmad Salah, Asem; Hashim, Fazirulhisyam


    The passive bistatic radar (PBR) system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR). The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS) for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system's capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  4. Radar, sonar, and holography an introduction

    Kock, Winston E


    Radar, Sonar, and Holography: An Introduction provides an introduction to the technology of radar and sonar. Because the new science of holography is affecting both these fields quite strongly, the book includes an explanation of the fundamental principles underlying this new art (including the subjects of wave coherence, interference, and diffraction) and of the hologram process itself. Finally, numerous examples are discussed which show how holography is providing new horizons to radar and sonar systems. The book thus also provides a simple approach to the new technology of holography. The

  5. Image Registration Methode in Radar Interferometry

    S. Chelbi


    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for the determination of the registration of an Interferometric Synthetic radar (InSAR pair images with half pixel precision. Using the two superposed radar images Single Look complexes (SLC [1-4], we developed an iterative process to superpose these two images according to their correlation coefficient with a high coherence area. This work concerns the exploitation of ERS Tandem pair of radar images SLC of the Algiers area acquired on 03 January and 04 January 1994. The former is taken as a master image and the latter as a slave image.

  6. Radar signal processing and its applications

    Hummel, Robert; Stoica, Petre; Zelnio, Edmund


    Radar Signal Processing and Its Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast-moving area. In twelve selected chapters, it describes the latest advances in architectures, design methods, and applications of radar signal processing. The contributors to this work were selected from the leading researchers and practitioners in the field. This work, originally published as Volume 14, Numbers 1-3 of the journal, Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, will be valuable to anyone working or researching in the field of radar signal processing. It serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging issues being examined today.

  7. Signal compression in radar using FPGA

    Enrique Escamilla Hemández; Víctor Kravchenko; Volodymyr Ponomaryov; Gonzalo Duchen Sánchez; David Hernández Sánchez


    El presente artículo muestra la puesta en práctica de hardware para realizar el procesamiento en tiempo real de la señal de radar usando una técnica simple, rápida basada en arquitectura de FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). El proceso incluye diversos procedimientos de enventanado durante la compresión del pulso del radar de apertura sintética (SAR). El proceso de compresión de la señal de radar se hace con un filtro acoplado. que aplica funciones clásicas y nuevas de enventanado, donde n...

  8. Radar orthogonality and radar length in Finsler and metric spacetime geometry

    Pfeifer, Christian


    The radar experiment connects the geometry of spacetime with an observers measurement of spatial length. We investigate the radar experiment on Finsler spacetimes which leads to a general definition of radar orthogonality and radar length. The directions radar orthogonal to an observer form the spatial equal time surface an observer experiences and the radar length is the physical length the observer associates to spatial objects. We demonstrate these concepts on a forth order polynomial Finsler spacetime geometry which may emerge from area metric or premetric linear electrodynamics or in quantum gravity phenomenology. In an explicit generalization of Minkowski spacetime geometry we derive the deviation from the Euclidean spatial length measure in an observers rest frame explicitly.

  9. Laser Radar: A Technique for Studying the Atmosphere

    article focuses on two specific examples of ground-based ... niques, which study the atmosphere indirectly by investigating the. Nimmi C Parikh ... research interests include .... overlap correction may be determined, which is then applied to.

  10. Field Testing of Geophysical Techniques.


    influence drainage and groundwater movement in the surrounding area. Presumably, the direction of groundwater movement is to the north and out of the...applicable. Specifically, these additional techniques are: e Audio magneto- telluric (AMT) resistivity * Electromagnetics a Ground-probing radar Both

  11. Radar measurements of the latitudinal variation of auroral ionization

    Vondrak, R.R.; Baron, M.J.


    The Chatanika, Alaska, incoherent scatter radar has been used to measure the spatial variation of auroral ionization. A two-dimensional (altitude, latitude) cross-sectional map of electron densities in the ionosphere is produced by scanning in the geomagnetic meridian plane. The altitutde variation of ionization is used to infer the differential energy distribution of the incident auroral electrons. The latitudinal variation of this energy distribution and the total energy input are obtained by use of the meridian-scanning technique. Examples are shown of observations made during an active aurora

  12. Application of optical processing to adaptive phased array radar

    Carroll, C. W.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.


    The results of the investigation of the applicability of optical processing to Adaptive Phased Array Radar (APAR) data processing will be summarized. Subjects that are covered include: (1) new iterative Fourier transform based technique to determine the array antenna weight vector such that the resulting antenna pattern has nulls at desired locations; (2) obtaining the solution of the optimal Wiener weight vector by both iterative and direct methods on two laboratory Optical Linear Algebra Processing (OLAP) systems; and (3) an investigation of the effects of errors present in OLAP systems on the solution vectors.

  13. Measurement of Precipitation in the Alps Using Dual-Polarization C-Band Ground-Based Radars, the GPM Spaceborne Ku-Band Radar, and Rain Gauges

    Marco Gabella


    Full Text Available The complex problem of quantitative precipitation estimation in the Alpine region is tackled from four different points of view: (1 the modern MeteoSwiss network of automatic telemetered rain gauges (GAUGE; (2 the recently upgraded MeteoSwiss dual-polarization Doppler, ground-based weather radar network (RADAR; (3 a real-time merging of GAUGE and RADAR, implemented at MeteoSwiss, in which a technique based on co-kriging with external drift (CombiPrecip is used; (4 spaceborne observations, acquired by the dual-wavelength precipitation radar on board the Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM core satellite. There are obviously large differences in these sampling modes, which we have tried to minimize by integrating synchronous observations taken during the first 2 years of the GPM mission. The data comprises 327 “wet” overpasses of Switzerland, taken after the launch of GPM in February 2014. By comparing the GPM radar estimates with the MeteoSwiss products, a similar performance was found in terms of bias. On average (whole country, all days and seasons, both solid and liquid phases, underestimation is as large as −3.0 (−3.4 dB with respect to RADAR (GAUGE. GPM is not suitable for assessing what product is the best in terms of average precipitation over the Alps. GPM can nevertheless be used to evaluate the dispersion of the error around the mean, which is a measure of the geographical distribution of the error inside the country. Using 221 rain-gauge sites, the result is clear both in terms of correlation and in terms of scatter (a robust, weighted measure of the dispersion of the multiplicative error around the mean. The best agreement was observed between GPM and CombiPrecip, and, next, between GPM and RADAR, whereas a larger disagreement was found between GPM and GAUGE. Hence, GPM confirms that, for precipitation mapping in the Alpine region, the best results are obtained by combining ground-based radar with rain-gauge measurements using

  14. Development Of Signal Detection For Radar Navigation System

    Theingi Win Hlaing; Hla Myo Tun; Zaw Min Naing; Win Khaing Moe


    This paper aims to evaluate the performance of target detection in the presence of sea clutter. Radar detection of a background of unwanted clutter due to echoes from sea clutter or land is a problem of interest in the radar field. Radar detector has been developed by assuming the radar clutter is Gaussian distributed. However as technology emerges the radar distribution is seen to deviates from the Gaussian assumption. Thus detectors designs based on Gaussian assumption are no longer optimum...

  15. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.


    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements.Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken.This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  16. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.


    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements. Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken. This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  17. Radar Polarimetry and Interferometry (La polarimetrie et l'interferometrie radar) (CD-ROM)

    Keydel, W; Boerner, W. M; Pottier, E; Lee, J. S; Ferro-Famil, L; Hellmann, M; Cloude, S. R


    ...: Scientists and engineers already engaged in the fields of radar surveillance, reconnaissance and scattering measurements, for instance, generally gain their specialist knowledge in both polarimetry...

  18. Synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) a novel multi-frequency MIMO radar

    Chen, Baixiao


    Analyzes and discusses the operating principle, signal processing method, and experimental results of this advanced radar technology This book systematically discusses the operating principle, signal processing method, target measurement technology, and experimental results of a new kind of radar called synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR). The purpose is to help readers acquire an insight into the concept and principle of the SIAR, to know its operation mode, signal processing method, the difference between the traditional radar and itself, the designing ideals, and the developing me

  19. Performance of Scattering Matrix Decomposition and Color Spaces for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery


    Color Spaces and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Multicolor Imaging. 15 2.3.1 Colorimetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3.2...III. Decomposition Techniques on SAR Polarimetry and Colorimetry applied to SAR polarimetric SAR systems. Colorimetry is also introduced in this chapter, presenting the fundamentals of the RGB and CMY color spaces, defined for

  20. The Impact of DEM Resolution on Relocating Radar Altimetry Data Over Ice Sheets

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg


    for correcting for such mispointing errors. Here, two techniques are applied to observations near Jakobshavn Isbræ, acquired with Envisat’s Radar Altimeter(RA-2). The apriori knowledge on the surface topography is obtained from a digital elevation model. The methods relocate the measurement location horizontally...

  1. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  2. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    Van Schoor, Abraham M


    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  3. Simulating lightning tests to radar system

    Blaj, M.A.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes


    The risk of destruction due to lightning makes simulating the effects of lightning strikes a necessity. We modeled a radar enclosure and simulated the effect of a lightning strike. The results have been validated using full threat lightning current tests.

  4. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines (ARSDS)

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose


    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of an airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  5. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose


    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  6. A radar-echo model for Mars

    Thompson, T.W.; Moore, H.J.


    Researchers developed a radar-echo model for Mars based on 12.6 cm continuous wave radio transmissions backscattered from the planet. The model broadly matches the variations in depolarized and polarized total radar cross sections with longitude observed by Goldstone in 1986 along 7 degrees S. and yields echo spectra that are generally similiar to the observed spectra. Radar map units in the model include an extensive cratered uplands unit with weak depolarized echo cross sections, average thermal inertias, moderate normal refelectivities, and moderate rms slopes; the volcanic units of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis regions with strong depolarized echo cross sections, low thermal inertia, low normal reflectivities, and large rms slopes; and the northern planes units with moderate to strong depolarized echo cross sections, moderate to very high thermal inertias, moderate to large normal reflectivities, and moderate rms slopes. The relevance of the model to the interpretation of radar echoes from Mars is discussed

  7. UWB Sampler for Wireless Communications and Radar

    Han, Jeongwoo; Nguyen, Cam


    An ultra wideband (UWB) sampler, realized using step recovery and Schottky diodes on coplanar waveguide, coplanar strips and slotlines, has been developed for UWB wireless communications and radar systems...



    estimates on aircraft vertical behaviour from a single 2D radar track. ... Fortunately, the problem of detecting relative vertical motion using a single 2D ..... awareness tools in scenarios where aerial activity sensing is typically limited to 2D.

  9. Physical working principles of medical radar.

    Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik


    There has been research interest in using radar for contactless measurements of the human heartbeat for several years. While many systems have been demonstrated, not much attention have been given to the actual physical causes of why this work. The consensus seems to be that the radar senses small body movements correlated with heartbeats, but whether only the movements of the body surface or reflections from internal organs are also monitored have not been answered definitely. There has recently been proposed another theory that blood perfusion in the skin could be the main reason radars are able to detect heartbeats. In this paper, an experimental approach is given to determine the physical causes. The measurement results show that it is the body surface reflections that dominate radar measurements of human heartbeats.

  10. Radar Training Facility Local Area Network -

    Department of Transportation — The RTF LAN system provides a progressive training environment for initial and refresher radar training qualification for new and re-hired FAA employees. Its purpose...

  11. Investigating nearby exoplanets via interstellar radar

    Scheffer, Louis K.


    Interstellar radar is a potential intermediate step between passive observation of exoplanets and interstellar exploratory missions. Compared with passive observation, it has the traditional advantages of radar astronomy. It can measure surface characteristics, determine spin rates and axes, provide extremely accurate ranges, construct maps of planets, distinguish liquid from solid surfaces, find rings and moons, and penetrate clouds. It can do this even for planets close to the parent star. Compared with interstellar travel or probes, it also offers significant advantages. The technology required to build such a radar already exists, radar can return results within a human lifetime, and a single facility can investigate thousands of planetary systems. The cost, although too high for current implementation, is within the reach of Earth's economy.

  12. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée


    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  13. Photonics-based real-time ultra-high-range-resolution radar with broadband signal generation and processing.

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Guo, Qingshui; Pan, Shilong


    Real-time and high-resolution target detection is highly desirable in modern radar applications. Electronic techniques have encountered grave difficulties in the development of such radars, which strictly rely on a large instantaneous bandwidth. In this article, a photonics-based real-time high-range-resolution radar is proposed with optical generation and processing of broadband linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals. A broadband LFM signal is generated in the transmitter by photonic frequency quadrupling, and the received echo is de-chirped to a low frequency signal by photonic frequency mixing. The system can operate at a high frequency and a large bandwidth while enabling real-time processing by low-speed analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing. A conceptual radar is established. Real-time processing of an 8-GHz LFM signal is achieved with a sampling rate of 500 MSa/s. Accurate distance measurement is implemented with a maximum error of 4 mm within a range of ~3.5 meters. Detection of two targets is demonstrated with a range-resolution as high as 1.875 cm. We believe the proposed radar architecture is a reliable solution to overcome the limitations of current radar on operation bandwidth and processing speed, and it is hopefully to be used in future radars for real-time and high-resolution target detection and imaging.

  14. First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Besson, D.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gillman, W. H.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J. C.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kunwar, S.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Prohira, S.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Schurig, D.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takai, H.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Venkatesh, S.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.


    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 μs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/μs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector. The transmitter is under the direct control of experimenters, and in a radio-quiet area isolated from other radio frequency (RF) sources. The power and radiation pattern are known at all times. Forward power up to 40 kW and gain exceeding 20 dB maximize energy density in the radar field. Continuous wave (CW) transmission gives 100% duty cycle, as opposed to pulsed radar. TARA utilizes a high sample rate DAQ (250 MS/s). TARA is colocated with a large state-of-the-art conventional CR observatory, allowing the radar data stream to be sampled at the arrival times of known cosmic ray events. Each of these attributes of the TARA detector has been discussed in detail in the literature [8]. A map

  15. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR

    Mallik, Udayan


    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  16. Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I

    Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.


    The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2/sup 0/, respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1/sup 0/ in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I

    Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.


    The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2 0 , respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1 0 in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Single Bit Radar Systems for Digital Integration

    Bjørndal, Øystein


    Small, low cost, radar systems have exciting applications in monitoring and imaging for the industrial, healthcare and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors. We here explore, and show the feasibility of, several single bit square wave radar architectures; that benefits from the continuous improvement in digital technologies for system-on-chip digital integration. By analysis, simulation and measurements we explore novel and harmonic-rich continuous wave (CW), stepped-frequency CW (SFCW) and freque...

  19. Development of a Software-Defined Radar


    disrupt desired radar operation. The cognitive radar system discussed herein mitigates the effects of RFI by sensing and adapting the transmitted...present received data, and plot processed data. Top right: Calculates a “ flicker ” rate caused by an unknown issue where blank data are received due to...and plot processed data. Top right: Calculates a “ flicker ” rate caused by an unknown issue where blank data are received due to missed

  20. Quality Control and Calibration of the Dual-Polarization Radar at Kwajalein, RMI

    Marks, David A.; Wolff, David B.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Tokay, Ali


    Weather radars, recording information about precipitation around the globe, will soon be significantly upgraded. Most of today s weather radars transmit and receive microwave energy with horizontal orientation only, but upgraded systems have the capability to send and receive both horizontally and vertically oriented waves. These enhanced "dual-polarimetric" (DP) radars peer into precipitation and provide information on the size, shape, phase (liquid / frozen), and concentration of the falling particles (termed hydrometeors). This information is valuable for improved rain rate estimates, and for providing data on the release and absorption of heat in the atmosphere from condensation and evaporation (phase changes). The heating profiles in the atmosphere influence global circulation, and are a vital component in studies of Earth s changing climate. However, to provide the most accurate interpretation of radar data, the radar must be properly calibrated and data must be quality controlled (cleaned) to remove non-precipitation artifacts; both of which are challenging tasks for today s weather radar. The DP capability maximizes performance of these procedures using properties of the observed precipitation. In a notable paper published in 2005, scientists from the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma developed a method to calibrate radars using statistically averaged DP measurements within light rain. An additional publication by one of the same scientists at the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) in Norman, Oklahoma introduced several techniques to perform quality control of radar data using DP measurements. Following their lead, the Topical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite Validation Office at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center has fine-tuned these methods for specific application to the weather radar at Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, approximately 2100 miles

  1. Tracking radar advanced signal processing and computing for Kwajalein Atoll (KA) application

    Cottrill, Stanley D.


    Two means are examined whereby the operations of KMR during mission execution may be improved through the introduction of advanced signal processing techniques. In the first approach, the addition of real time coherent signal processing technology to the FPQ-19 radar is considered. In the second approach, the incorporation of the MMW radar, with its very fine range precision, to the MMS system is considered. The former appears very attractive and a Phase 2 SBIR has been proposed. The latter does not appear promising enough to warrant further development.

  2. Distress detection, location, and communications using advanced space technology. [satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.


    This paper briefly introduces a concept for low-cost, global, day-night, all-weather disaster warning and assistance. Evolving, advanced space technology with passive radio frequency reflectors in conjunction with an imaging synthetic aperture radar is employed to detect, identify, locate, and provide passive communication with earth users in distress. This concept evolved from a broad NASA research on new global search and rescue techniques. Appropriate airborne radar test results from this research are reviewed and related to potential disaster applications. The analysis indicates the approach has promise for disaster communications relative to floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms.

  3. Fractionally Spaced Constant Modulus Equalizer with Recognition Capability for Digital Array Radar

    Feng Wang


    Full Text Available Fractionally spaced blind equalizer (BE based on constant modulus criteria is exploited to compensate for the channel-to-channel mismatch in a digital array radar. We apply the technique of recognition to improve the stability and reliability of the BE. The surveillance of the calibration signal and the convergence property of BE are both implemented with recognition description words. BE with cognitive capability is appropriate for the equalization of a digital array radar with thousands of channels and hundreds of working frequencies, where reliability becomes the most concerned indicator. The improvement of performance in the accidental scenarios is tested via numerical simulations with the cost of increased computational complexity.

  4. Merging of rain gauge and radar data for urban hydrological modelling

    Berndt, Christian; Haberlandt, Uwe


    Urban hydrological processes are generally characterised by short response times and therefore rainfall data with a high resolution in space and time are required for their modelling. In many smaller towns, no recordings of rainfall data exist within the urban catchment. Precipitation radar helps to provide extensive rainfall data with a temporal resolution of five minutes, but the rainfall amounts can be highly biased and hence the data should not be used directly as a model input. However, scientists proposed several methods for adjusting radar data to station measurements. This work tries to evaluate rainfall inputs for a hydrological model regarding the following two different applications: Dimensioning of urban drainage systems and analysis of single event flow. The input data used for this analysis can be divided into two groups: Methods, which rely on station data only (Nearest Neighbour Interpolation, Ordinary Kriging), and methods, which incorporate station as well as radar information (Conditional Merging, Bias correction of radar data based on quantile mapping with rain gauge recordings). Additionally, rainfall intensities that were directly obtained from radar reflectivities are used. A model of the urban catchment of the city of Brunswick (Lower Saxony, Germany) is utilised for the evaluation. First results show that radar data cannot help with the dimensioning task of sewer systems since rainfall amounts of convective events are often overestimated. Gauges in catchment proximity can provide more reliable rainfall extremes. Whether radar data can be helpful to simulate single event flow depends strongly on the data quality and thus on the selected event. Ordinary Kriging is often not suitable for the interpolation of rainfall data in urban hydrology. This technique induces a strong smoothing of rainfall fields and therefore a severe underestimation of rainfall intensities for convective events.

  5. IoSiS: a radar system for imaging of satellites in space

    Jirousek, M.; Anger, S.; Dill, S.; Schreiber, E.; Peichl, M.


    Space debris nowadays is one of the main threats for satellite systems especially in low earth orbit (LEO). More than 700,000 debris objects with potential to destroy or damage a satellite are estimated. The effects of an impact often are not identifiable directly from ground. High-resolution radar images are helpful in analyzing a possible damage. Therefor DLR is currently developing a radar system called IoSiS (Imaging of Satellites in Space), being based on an existing steering antenna structure and our multi-purpose high-performance radar system GigaRad for experimental investigations. GigaRad is a multi-channel system operating at X band and using a bandwidth of up to 4.4 GHz in the IoSiS configuration, providing fully separated transmit (TX) and receive (RX) channels, and separated antennas. For the observation of small satellites or space debris a highpower traveling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) is mounted close to the TX antenna feed. For the experimental phase IoSiS uses a 9 m TX and a 1 m RX antenna mounted on a common steerable positioner. High-resolution radar images are obtained by using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) techniques. The guided tracking of known objects during overpass allows here wide azimuth observation angles. Thus high azimuth resolution comparable to the range resolution can be achieved. This paper outlines technical main characteristics of the IoSiS radar system including the basic setup of the antenna, the radar instrument with the RF error correction, and the measurement strategy. Also a short description about a simulation tool for the whole instrument and expected images is shown.

  6. Assessing a multilayered dynamic firn-compaction model for Greenland with ASIRAS radar measurements

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Stenseng, Lars; Adalgeirsdottir, G.


    A method to assess firn compaction using data collected with the Airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar)/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) is developed. For this, we develop a dynamical firn-compaction model that includes meltwater retention. Based on the ASIRAS data, which show...... internal layers as annual horizons in the uppermost firn, the method relies on inferring the age/ depth (internal layers) information from the radar data using a Monte Carlo inversion technique to tune in parallel both the firn model and the atmospheric forcing parameters (temperature and accumulation......). The model is validated against two firn cores, and it is shown that applying both firn densities and age/ depth information for the inversion gives the most accurate understanding of model biases. The method is then applied to a 67 km section of the EGIG line forced by atmospheric output from a regional...

  7. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Abbasi, R.; Othman, M. Abou Bakr [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Allen, C. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Beard, L. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Belz, J. [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Besson, D. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskaya Shosse, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Byrne, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A. [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gillman, W.H. [Gillman and Associates, Salt Lake City, UT 84106 (United States); Hanlon, W. [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Hanson, J. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Jayanthmurthy, C. [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kunwar, S. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Larson, S.L. [Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States); Myers, I., E-mail: [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Sokolsky, P. [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others


    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  8. Incoherent-scatter radar measurements of electric field and plasma in the auroral ionosphere

    Vondrak, R.


    This chapter summarizes Chatanika radar measurements of electric fields and currents, and their relation to E-region ionization and conductivity. Electric-field coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere and the relationship between field-aligned currents and meridional ionospheric currents are examined. Topics considered include the diurnal pattern of the ionization and electric field; electrical coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere; and the relationship between meridional currents and field-aligned currents. It is concluded that the incoherent-scatter radar technique has been developed into a powerful method for remotely measuring the electrical and thermal properties of the auroral ionospheric plasma, and that the usefulness of the radar measurements is greatly enhanced when combined with simultaneous satellite measurements

  9. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Abbasi, R.; Othman, M. Abou Bakr; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W.H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S.L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Takai, H.


    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems

  10. Design and Implementation of a FPGA and DSP Based MIMO Radar Imaging System

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available The work presented in this paper is aimed at the implementation of a real-time multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO imaging radar used for area surveillance. In this radar, the equivalent virtual array method and time-division technique are applied to make 16 virtual elements synthesized from the MIMO antenna array. The chirp signal generater is based on a combination of direct digital synthesizer (DDS and phase locked loop (PLL. A signal conditioning circuit is used to deal with the coupling effect within the array. The signal processing platform is based on an efficient field programmable gates array (FPGA and digital signal processor (DSP pipeline where a robust beamforming imaging algorithm is running on. The radar system was evaluated through a real field experiment. Imaging capability and real-time performance shown in the results demonstrate the practical feasibility of the implementation.

  11. Intensive probing of clear air convective fields by radar and instrumented drone aircraft.

    Rowland, J. R.


    Clear air convective fields were probed in three summer experiments (1969, 1970, and 1971) on an S-band monopulse tracking radar at Wallops Island, Virginia, and a drone aircraft with a takeoff weight of 5.2 kg, wingspan of 2.5 m, and cruising glide speed of 10.3 m/sec. The drone was flown 23.2 km north of the radar and carried temperature, pressure/altitude, humidity, and vertical and airspeed velocity sensors. Extensive time-space convective field data were obtained by taking a large number of RHI and PPI pictures at short intervals of time. The rapidly changing overall convective field data obtained from the radar could be related to the meteorological information telemetered from the drone at a reasonably low cost by this combined technique.

  12. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Abbasi, R.; Othman, M. Abou Bakr; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W. H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Takai, H.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.


    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest "conventional" cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  13. Real-data tests of a single-Doppler radar assimilation system

    Nehrkorn, Thomas; Hegarty, James; Hamill, Thomas M.


    Real data tests of a single-Doppler radar data assimilation and forecast system have been conducted for a Florida sea breeze case. The system consists of a hydrostatic mesoscale model used for prediction of the preconvective boundary layer, an objective analysis that combines model first guess fields with radar derived horizontal winds, a thermodynamic retrieval scheme that obtains temperature information from the three-dimensional wind field and its temporal evolution, and a Newtonian nudging scheme for forcing the model forecast to closer agreement with the analysis. As was found in earlier experiments with simulated data, assimilation using Newtonian nudging benefits from temperature data in addition to wind data. The thermodynamic retrieval technique was successful in retrieving a horizontal temperature gradient from the radar-derived wind fields that, when assimilated into the model, led to a significantly improved forecast of the seabreeze strength and position.

  14. Sparse Representation Based Range-Doppler Processing for Integrated OFDM Radar-Communication Networks

    Bo Kong


    Full Text Available In an integrated radar-communication network, multiuser access techniques with minimal performance degradation and without range-Doppler ambiguities are required, especially in a dense user environment. In this paper, a multiuser access scheme with random subcarrier allocation mechanism is proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM based integrated radar-communication networks. The expression of modulation Symbol-Domain method combined with sparse representation (SR for range-Doppler estimation is introduced and a parallel reconstruction algorithm is employed. The radar target detection performance is improved with less spectrum occupation. Additionally, a Doppler frequency detector is exploited to decrease the computational complexity. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional modulation Symbol-Domain method under ideal and realistic nonideal scenarios.

  15. Raindrop size distribution and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology

    Uijlenhoet, R.


    The conversion of the radar reflectivity factor Z (mm6m-3) to rain rate R (mm h-1) is a crucial step in the hydrological application of weather radar measurements. It has been common practice for over 50 years now to take for this conversion a simple power law relationship between Z and R. It is the

  16. A 100 GHz Polarimetric Compact Radar Range for Scale-Model Radar Cross Section Measurements


    common radar bands. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank David Jillson (UML STL – Electrical Engineer) for efforts involved in RF and DC wiring...Waldman J., Fetterman H.R., Duffy P.E., Bryant T.G., Tannenwald P.E., “Submillimeter Model Measurements and Their Applications to Millimeter Radar

  17. Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-Time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting

    Haller, M. C.; Simpson, A. J.; Walker, D. T.; Lynett, P. J.; Pittman, R.; Honegger, D.


    It has been shown in various studies that a controls system can dramatically improve Wave Energy Converter (WEC) power production by tuning the device's oscillations to the incoming wave field, as well as protect WEC devices by decoupling them in extreme wave conditions. A requirement of the most efficient controls systems is a phase-resolved, "deterministic" surface elevation profile, alerting the device to what it will experience in the near future. The current study aims to demonstrate a deterministic method of wave forecasting through the pairing of an X-Band marine radar with a predictive Mild Slope Equation (MSE) wave model. Using the radar as a remote sensing technique, the wave field up to 1-4 km surrounding a WEC device can be resolved. Individual waves within the radar scan are imaged through the contrast between high intensity wave faces and low intensity wave troughs. Using a recently developed method, radar images are inverted into the radial component of surface slope, shown in the figure provided using radar data from Newport, Oregon. Then, resolved radial slope images are assimilated into the MSE wave model. This leads to a best-fit model hindcast of the waves within the domain. The hindcast is utilized as an initial condition for wave-by-wave forecasting with a target forecast horizon of 3-5 minutes (tens of wave periods). The methodology is currently being tested with synthetic data and comparisons with field data are imminent.

  18. Generic framework for vessel detection and tracking based on distributed marine radar image data

    Siegert, Gregor; Hoth, Julian; Banyś, Paweł; Heymann, Frank


    Situation awareness is understood as a key requirement for safe and secure shipping at sea. The primary sensor for maritime situation assessment is still the radar, with the AIS being introduced as supplemental service only. In this article, we present a framework to assess the current situation picture based on marine radar image processing. Essentially, the framework comprises a centralized IMM-JPDA multi-target tracker in combination with a fully automated scheme for track management, i.e., target acquisition and track depletion. This tracker is conditioned on measurements extracted from radar images. To gain a more robust and complete situation picture, we are exploiting the aspect angle diversity of multiple marine radars, by fusing them a priori to the tracking process. Due to the generic structure of the proposed framework, different techniques for radar image processing can be implemented and compared, namely the BLOB detector and SExtractor. The overall framework performance in terms of multi-target state estimation will be compared for both methods based on a dedicated measurement campaign in the Baltic Sea with multiple static and mobile targets given.

  19. Prediction of buried mine-like target radar signatures using wideband electromagnetic modeling

    Warrick, A.L.; Azevedo, S.G.; Mast, J.E.


    Current ground penetrating radars (GPR) have been tested for land mine detection, but they have generally been costly and have poor performance. Comprehensive modeling and experimentation must be done to predict the electromagnetic (EM) signatures of mines to access the effect of clutter on the EM signature of the mine, and to understand the merit and limitations of using radar for various mine detection scenarios. This modeling can provide a basis for advanced radar design and detection techniques leading to superior performance. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a radar technology that when combined with comprehensive modeling and detection methodologies could be the basis of an advanced mine detection system. Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology exhibits a combination of properties, including wideband operation, extremely low power consumption, extremely small size and low cost, array configurability, and noise encoded pulse generation. LLNL is in the process of developing an optimal processing algorithm to use with the MIR sensor. In this paper, we use classical numerical models to obtain the signature of mine-like targets and examine the effect of surface roughness on the reconstructed signals. These results are then qualitatively compared to experimental data.

  20. Assessment of human respiration patterns via noncontact sensing using Doppler multi-radar system.

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi


    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique.

  1. Doppler HF Radar Application for the Study of Spatial Structure of Currents in the Black Sea

    V.V. Gorbatskiy


    Full Text Available The results of the surface current spatial structure observations performed by SeaSonde Doppler HF radar (operating frequency is 25 MHz in the Black Sea region adjacent to the city of Gelendzhik are represented. The observations imply a special technique consisting in successive measurements at two selected points of the coastline. Initially, the measurements are carried out in the first of two selected coastal points during two hours. Then the radar system is transferred to the second point on the coast where the procedure is repeated. At that the velocity field is assumed to remain unchanged during the total measurement period (including the time of the radar displacement from both points. The measurement results are shown in a form of a spatial map of the current velocity vectors in the research region (with 20 × 20 km dimensions. Some features of the current spatial and temporal variability in the coastal waters are revealed. Particularly, the eddy-like formations (the diameter is a few kilometers which rapidly move and collapse. Since similar eddies are detected using the contact measurement methods, complex and variable structure of the surface currents measured by a radar does not seem to be an artifact. Nevertheless, reliability of the data resulted from the radar measurements of the surface current velocity field should be verified in future by comparing it with the results of the quasi-synchronous velocity field measurements performed by stationary, drifting and towed velocity meters.

  2. Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar

    Moussally, G.J.


    The objective of this applied research and development project is to develop a system known as '3-D SISAR'. This system consists of a ground penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for the detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments found at DOE storage sites. Three-dimensional maps of the object locations will be produced which can assist the development of remediation strategies and the characterization of the digface during remediation operations. It is expected that the 3-D SISAR will also prove useful for monitoring hydrocarbon based contaminant migration after remediation. The underground imaging technique being developed under this contract utilizes a spotlight mode Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) approach which, due to its inherent stand-off capability, will permit the rapid survey of a site and achieve a high degree of productivity over large areas. When deployed from an airborne platform, the stand-off techniques is also seen as a way to overcome practical survey limitations encountered at vegetated sites

  3. Validation of Airborne FMCW Radar Measurements of Snow Thickness Over Sea Ice in Antarctica

    Galin, Natalia; Worby, Anthony; Markus, Thorsten; Leuschen, Carl; Gogineni, Prasad


    Antarctic sea ice and its snow cover are integral components of the global climate system, yet many aspects of their vertical dimensions are poorly understood, making their representation in global climate models poor. Remote sensing is the key to monitoring the dynamic nature of sea ice and its snow cover. Reliable and accurate snow thickness data are currently a highly sought after data product. Remotely sensed snow thickness measurements can provide an indication of precipitation levels, predicted to increase with effects of climate change in the polar regions. Airborne techniques provide a means for regional-scale estimation of snow depth and distribution. Accurate regional-scale snow thickness data will also facilitate an increase in the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite altimeter freeboard estimates. The airborne data sets are easier to validate with in situ measurements and are better suited to validating satellite algorithms when compared with in situ techniques. This is primarily due to two factors: better chance of getting coincident in situ and airborne data sets and the tractability of comparison between an in situ data set and the airborne data set averaged over the footprint of the antennas. A 28-GHz frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar loaned by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets to the Australian Antarctic Division is used to measure snow thickness over sea ice in East Antarctica. Provided with the radar design parameters, the expected performance parameters of the radar are summarized. The necessary conditions for unambiguous identification of the airsnow and snowice layers for the radar are presented. Roughnesses of the snow and ice surfaces are found to be dominant determinants in the effectiveness of layer identification for this radar. Finally, this paper presents the first in situ validated snow thickness estimates over sea ice in Antarctica derived from an FMCW radar on a helicopterborne platform.

  4. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington


    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  5. Sea clutter scattering, the K distribution and radar performance

    Ward, Keith; Watts, Simon


    Sea Clutter: Scattering, the K Distribution and Radar Performance, 2nd Edition gives an authoritative account of our current understanding of radar sea clutter. Topics covered include the characteristics of radar sea clutter, modelling radar scattering by the ocean surface, statistical models of sea clutter, the simulation of clutter and other random processes, detection of small targets in sea clutter, imaging ocean surface features, radar detection performance calculations, CFAR detection, and the specification and measurement of radar performance. The calculation of the performance of pract

  6. Radar principles for the nonspecialist, 3rd edition

    Toomay, John


    Radar Principles for the Non-specialist, Third Edition continues its popular tradition: to distill the very complex technology of radar into its fundamentals, tying them to the laws of nature on one end and to the most modern and complex systems on the other. It starts with electromagnetic propagation, describes a radar of the utmost simplicity, and derives the radar range equation from that simple radar. Once the range equation is available, the book attacks the meaning of each term in it, moving through antennas, detection and tracking, radar cross-section, waveforms andsignal proces

  7. Automatic Modulation Classification of LFM and Polyphase-coded Radar Signals

    S. B. S. Hanbali


    Full Text Available There are several techniques for detecting and classifying low probability of intercept radar signals such as Wigner distribution, Choi-Williams distribution and time-frequency rate distribution, but these distributions require high SNR. To overcome this problem, we propose a new technique for detecting and classifying linear frequency modulation signal and polyphase coded signals using optimum fractional Fourier transform at low SNR. The theoretical analysis and simulation experiments demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Signal compression in radar using FPGA

    Enrique Escamilla Hemández


    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra la puesta en práctica de hardware para realizar el procesamiento en tiempo real de la señal de radar usando una técnica simple, rápida basada en arquitectura de FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array. El proceso incluye diversos procedimientos de enventanado durante la compresión del pulso del radar de apertura sintética (SAR. El proceso de compresión de la señal de radar se hace con un filtro acoplado. que aplica funciones clásicas y nuevas de enventanado, donde nos centramos en obtener una mejor atenuación para los valores de lóbulos laterales. La arquitectura propuesta explota los recursos de computación paralela de los dispositivos FPGA para alcanzar una mejor velocidad de cómputo. Las investigaciones experimentales han demostrado que los mejores resultados para el funcionamiento de la compresión del pulso se han obtenido usando las funciones atómicas, mejorando el funcionamiento del sistema del radar en presencia de ruido, y consiguiendo una pequeña degradación en la resolución de rango. La puesta en práctica del tratamiento de señales en el sistema de radar en tiempo real se discute y se justifica la eficiencia de la arquitectura de hardware propuesta.

  9. Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers

    Jain, Vipul

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All

  10. New inverse synthetic aperture radar algorithm for translational motion compensation

    Bocker, Richard P.; Henderson, Thomas B.; Jones, Scott A.; Frieden, B. R.


    Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) is an imaging technique that shows real promise in classifying airborne targets in real time under all weather conditions. Over the past few years a large body of ISAR data has been collected and considerable effort has been expended to develop algorithms to form high-resolution images from this data. One important goal of workers in this field is to develop software that will do the best job of imaging under the widest range of conditions. The success of classifying targets using ISAR is predicated upon forming highly focused radar images of these targets. Efforts to develop highly focused imaging computer software have been challenging, mainly because the imaging depends on and is affected by the motion of the target, which in general is not precisely known. Specifically, the target generally has both rotational motion about some axis and translational motion as a whole with respect to the radar. The slant-range translational motion kinematic quantities must be first accurately estimated from the data and compensated before the image can be focused. Following slant-range motion compensation, the image is further focused by determining and correcting for target rotation. The use of the burst derivative measure is proposed as a means to improve the computational efficiency of currently used ISAR algorithms. The use of this measure in motion compensation ISAR algorithms for estimating the slant-range translational motion kinematic quantities of an uncooperative target is described. Preliminary tests have been performed on simulated as well as actual ISAR data using both a Sun 4 workstation and a parallel processing transputer array. Results indicate that the burst derivative measure gives significant improvement in processing speed over the traditional entropy measure now employed.

  11. Agile beam laser radar using computational imaging for robotic perception

    Powers, Michael A.; Stann, Barry L.; Giza, Mark M.


    This paper introduces a new concept that applies computational imaging techniques to laser radar for robotic perception. We observe that nearly all contemporary laser radars for robotic (i.e., autonomous) applications use pixel basis scanning where there is a one-to-one correspondence between world coordinates and the measurements directly produced by the instrument. In such systems this is accomplished through beam scanning and/or the imaging properties of focal-plane optics. While these pixel-basis measurements yield point clouds suitable for straightforward human interpretation, the purpose of robotic perception is the extraction of meaningful features from a scene, making human interpretability and its attendant constraints mostly unnecessary. The imposing size, weight, power and cost of contemporary systems is problematic, and relief from factors that increase these metrics is important to the practicality of robotic systems. We present a system concept free from pixel basis sampling constraints that promotes efficient and adaptable sensing modes. The cornerstone of our approach is agile and arbitrary beam formation that, when combined with a generalized mathematical framework for imaging, is suited to the particular challenges and opportunities of robotic perception systems. Our hardware concept looks toward future systems with optical device technology closely resembling modern electronically-scanned-array radar that may be years away from practicality. We present the design concept and results from a prototype system constructed and tested in a laboratory environment using a combination of developed hardware and surrogate devices for beam formation. The technological status and prognosis for key components in the system is discussed.

  12. Broadband Counter-Wound Spiral Antenna for Subsurface Radar Applications

    Yong, Lim


    Subsurface radar also known as ground-penetrating radar is increasingly being used for the detection and location of buried objects such as mines and structure that are found within the upper regions...

  13. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  14. Distributed Subarray Antennas for Multifunction Phased-Array Radar

    Lin, Chih-heng


    As the target radar cross section (RCS) continuously decreases, the need for high-resolution high-gain radar increases, One approach to high resolution is to use distributed subarray antennas (DSAs...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pawnee radar data for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) held in Oklahoma were collected on May 24, 2011 to support the CHILL radar...

  16. NOAA Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Level 2 Base Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level II weather radar data collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii,...

  17. Ships as salient objects in synthetic aperture radar imaginary

    Schwegmann, Colin P


    Full Text Available The widespread access to Synthetic Aperture Radar data has created a need for more precise ship extraction, specifically in low-to-medium resolution imagery. While Synthetic Aperture Radar pixel resolution is improving for a large swaths...

  18. Stepped-frequency radar sensors theory, analysis and design

    Nguyen, Cam


    This book presents the theory, analysis and design of microwave stepped-frequency radar sensors. Stepped-frequency radar sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require fine resolution. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter describes the fundamentals of radar sensors including applications followed by a review of ultra-wideband pulsed, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), and stepped-frequency radar sensors. The second chapter discusses a general analysis of radar sensors including wave propagation in media and scattering on targets, as well as the radar equation. The third chapter addresses the analysis of stepped-frequency radar sensors including their principles and design parameters. Chapter 4 presents the development of two stepped-frequency radar sensors at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies based on microwave integrated circuits (MICs), microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and printed-circuit antennas, and discusses their signal processing....

  19. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geodatabase contains Synthetic Aperture Radar images (SAR), which consist of a fine resolution (12.5-50m), two-dimensional radar backscatter map of the...

  20. Challenges in X-band Weather Radar Data Calibration

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is all-important that the radar data well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation e...... estimates. This paper compares two calibration procedures for a small marine X-band radar by comparing radar data with rain gauge data. Validation shows a very good consensus with regards to precipitation volumes, but more diverse results on peak rain intensities.......Application of weather radar data in urban hydrology is evolving and radar data is now applied for both modelling, analysis and real time control purposes. In these contexts, it is all-important that the radar data well calibrated and adjusted in order to obtain valid quantitative precipitation...

  1. Radar absorbing properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer ...

    This research is devoted to the study of radar absorbing properties of the composites, based on the epoxy binder and ... Radar absorbing materials; carbon nanotubes; nanocomposites; reflection loss. 1. ..... So, for example, the papers of [3–5 ...

  2. NOAA Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Level 3 Products

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level 3 weather radar products collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska,...

  3. Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion

    Lyons, D. T.


    Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

  4. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...

  5. Radar-acoustic interaction for IFF applications

    Saffold, James A.; Williamson, Frank R.; Ahuja, Krishan; Stein, Lawrence R.; Muller, Marjorie


    This paper describes the results of an internal development program (IDP) No. 97-1 conducted from August 1-October 1 1996 at the Georgia Tech Research Institute. The IDP program was implemented to establish theoretical relationships and verify the interaction between X-band radar waves and ultrasonic acoustics. Low cost, off-the-shelf components were used for the verification in order to illustrate the cost savings potential of developing and utilizing these systems. The measured data was used to calibrate the developed models of the phenomenology and to support extrapolation for radar systems which can exploit these interactions. One such exploitation is for soldier identification IFF and radar taggant concepts. The described IDP program provided the phenomenological data which is being used to extrapolate concept system performances based on technological limitations and battlefield conditions for low cost IFF and taggant configurations.

  6. Comments on airborne ISR radar utilization

    Doerry, A. W.


    A sensor/payload operator for modern multi-sensor multi-mode Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) platforms is often confronted with a plethora of options in sensors and sensor modes. This often leads an over-worked operator to down-select to favorite sensors and modes; for example a justifiably favorite Full Motion Video (FMV) sensor at the expense of radar modes, even if radar modes can offer unique and advantageous information. At best, sensors might be used in a serial monogamous fashion with some cross-cueing. The challenge is then to increase the utilization of the radar modes in a manner attractive to the sensor/payload operator. We propose that this is best accomplished by combining sensor modes and displays into `super-modes'.

  7. SKB - PNC. Development of tunnel radar antennas

    Falk, L.


    Tunnel antennas for the RAMAC borehole radar system have been developed and tested in the field. The antennas are of the loaded dipole type and the receiver and transmitter electronics have been rebuilt to screen them from the antennas. A series of measurements has demonstrated that the radar pulse is short and well shaped and relatively free from ringing, even compared with the existing borehole antennas. Two antenna sets were tested: one centered at 60 MHz and another above 100 MHz. Both produced excellent radar pictures when tested in tunnels in Stripa mine. The antennas have been designed to be easy to carry, since the signal quality often depends on the way the antenna is held relative to electric conductors in the tunnels. (au) (46 figs., 57 refs.)

  8. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  9. The concurrent multiplicative-additive approach for gauge-radar/satellite multisensor precipitation estimates

    Garcia-Pintado, J.; Barberá, G. G.; Erena Arrabal, M.; Castillo, V. M.


    Objective analysis schemes (OAS), also called ``succesive correction methods'' or ``observation nudging'', have been proposed for multisensor precipitation estimation combining remote sensing data (meteorological radar or satellite) with data from ground-based raingauge networks. However, opposite to the more complex geostatistical approaches, the OAS techniques for this use are not optimized. On the other hand, geostatistical techniques ideally require, at the least, modelling the covariance from the rain gauge data at every time step evaluated, which commonly cannot be soundly done. Here, we propose a new procedure (concurrent multiplicative-additive objective analysis scheme [CMA-OAS]) for operational rainfall estimation using rain gauges and meteorological radar, which does not require explicit modelling of spatial covariances. On the basis of a concurrent multiplicative-additive (CMA) decomposition of the spatially nonuniform radar bias, within-storm variability of rainfall and fractional coverage of rainfall are taken into account. Thus both spatially nonuniform radar bias, given that rainfall is detected, and bias in radar detection of rainfall are handled. The interpolation procedure of CMA-OAS is built on the OAS, whose purpose is to estimate a filtered spatial field of the variable of interest through a successive correction of residuals resulting from a Gaussian kernel smoother applied on spatial samples. The CMA-OAS, first, poses an optimization problem at each gauge-radar support point to obtain both a local multiplicative-additive radar bias decomposition and a regionalization parameter. Second, local biases and regionalization parameters are integrated into an OAS to estimate the multisensor rainfall at the ground level. The approach considers radar estimates as background a priori information (first guess), so that nudging to observations (gauges) may be relaxed smoothly to the first guess, and the relaxation shape is obtained from the sequential

  10. Worldwide Weather Radar Imagery May Allow Substantial Increase in Meteorite Fall Recovery

    Fries, Marc; Matson, Robert; Schaefer, Jacob; Fries, Jeffery; Hankey, Mike; Anderson, Lindsay


    Weather radar imagery is a valuable new technique for the rapid recovery of meteorite falls, to include falls which would not otherwise be recovered (e.g. Battle Mountain). Weather radar imagery reveals about one new meteorite fall per year (18 falls since 1998), using weather radars in the United States alone. However, an additional 75 other nations operate weather radar networks according to the UN World Meteorological Organization (WMO). If the imagery of those radars were analyzed, the current rate of meteorite falls could be improved considerably, to as much as 3.6 times the current recovery rate based on comparison of total radar areal coverage. Recently, the addition of weather radar imagery, seismometry and internet-based aggregation of eyewitness reports has improved the speed and accuracy of fresh meteorite fall recovery [e.g. 1,2]. This was demonstrated recently with the radar-enabled recovery of the Sutter's Mill fall [3]. Arguably, the meteorites recovered via these methods are of special scientific value as they are relatively unweathered, fresh falls. To illustrate this, a recent SAO/NASA ADS search using the keyword "meteorite" shows that all 50 of the top search results included at least one named meteorite recovered from a meteorite fall. This is true even though only 1260 named meteorite falls are recorded among the >49,000 individual falls recorded in the Meteoritical Society online database. The US NEXRAD system used thus far to locate meteorite falls covers most of the United States' surface area. Using a WMO map of the world's weather radars, we estimate that the total coverage of the other 75 national weather radar networks equals about 3.6x NEXRAD's coverage area. There are two findings to draw from this calculation: 1) For the past 16 years during which 18 falls are seen in US radar data, there should be an additional 65 meteorite falls recorded in worldwide radar imagery. Also: 2) if all of the world's radar data could be analyzed, the

  11. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia


    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  12. Improved OAM-Based Radar Targets Detection Using Uniform Concentric Circular Arrays

    Mingtuan Lin


    Full Text Available Without any relative moves or beam scanning, the novel Orbital-Angular-Momentum- (OAM- based radar targets detection technique using uniform concentric circular arrays (UCCAs shows the azimuthal estimation ability, which provides new perspective for radar system design. However, the main estimation method, that is, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, under this scheme suffers from low resolution. As a solution, this paper rebuilds the OAM-based radar targets detection model and introduces the multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm to improve the resolution for detecting targets within the main lobes. The spatial smoothing technique is proposed to tackle the coherent problem brought by the proposed model. Analytical study and simulation demonstrate the superresolution estimation capacity the MUSIC algorithm can achieve for detecting targets within the main lobes. The performance of the MUSIC algorithm to detect targets not illuminated by the main lobes is further evaluated. Despite the fact that MUSIC algorithm loses the resolution advantage under this case, its estimation is more robust than that of the FFT method. Overall, the proposed MUSIC algorithm for the OAM-based radar system demonstrates the superresolution ability for detecting targets within the main lobes and good robustness for targets out of the main lobes.

  13. Multi-Sensor Methods for Mobile Radar Motion Capture and Compensation

    Nakata, Robert

    Remote sensing has many applications, including surveying and mapping, geophysics exploration, military surveillance, search and rescue and counter-terrorism operations. Remote sensor systems typically use visible image, infrared or radar sensors. Camera based image sensors can provide high spatial resolution but are limited to line-of-sight capture during daylight. Infrared sensors have lower resolution but can operate during darkness. Radar sensors can provide high resolution motion measurements, even when obscured by weather, clouds and smoke and can penetrate walls and collapsed structures constructed with non-metallic materials up to 1 m to 2 m in depth depending on the wavelength and transmitter power level. However, any platform motion will degrade the target signal of interest. In this dissertation, we investigate alternative methodologies to capture platform motion, including a Body Area Network (BAN) that doesn't require external fixed location sensors, allowing full mobility of the user. We also investigated platform stabilization and motion compensation techniques to reduce and remove the signal distortion introduced by the platform motion. We evaluated secondary ultrasonic and radar sensors to stabilize the platform resulting in an average 5 dB of Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) improvement. We also implemented a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) motion compensation algorithm that improved the SIR by 18 dB on average. These techniques could be deployed on a quadcopter platform and enable the detection of respiratory motion using an onboard radar sensor.

  14. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 2 - Radar remote sensing and surface scattering and emission theory

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.


    The fundamental principles of radar backscattering measurements are presented, including measurement statistics, Doppler and pulse discrimination techniques, and associated ambiguity functions. The operation of real and synthetic aperture sidelooking airborne radar systems is described, along with the internal and external calibration techniques employed in scattering measurements. Attention is given to the physical mechanisms responsible for the scattering emission behavior of homogeneous and inhomogeneous media, through a discussion of surface roughness, dielectric properties and inhomogeneity, and penetration depth. Simple semiempirical models are presented. Theoretical models involving greater mathematical sophistication are also given for extended ocean and bare soil surfaces, and the more general case of a vegetation canopy over a rough surface.

  15. Monitoring of rain water storage in forests with satellite radar

    de Jong, JJM; Klaassen, W; Kuiper, PJC


    The sensitivity of radar backscatter to the amount of intercepted rain in temperate deciduous forests is analyzed to determine the feasibility of retrieval of this parameter from satellite radar data. A backscatter model is validated with X-band radar measurements of a single tree exposed to rain. A good agreement between simulation and measurements is observed and this demonstrates the ability of radar to measure the amount of intercepted rain. The backscatter model is next applied to simula...

  16. Digital data acquisition for laser radar for vibration analysis

    Montes, Felix G.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Laser radar for vibration analysis represents a military application to develop a target identification system in the future. The problem addressed is how to analyze the vibrations of a target illuminated by the laser radar to achieve a positive identification. This thesis develops a computer-based data acquisition and analysis system for improving the laser radar capability. Specifically, a review is made of the CO2 laser radar, coher...

  17. Runoff Calculation by Neural Networks Using Radar Rainfall Data

    岡田, 晋作; 四俵, 正俊


    Neural networks, are used to calculate runoff from weather radar data and ground rain gauge data. Compared to usual runoff models, it is easier to use radar data in neural network runoff calculation. Basically you can use the radar data directly, or without transforming them into rainfall, as the input of the neural network. A situation with the difficulty of ground measurement is supposed. To cover the area lacking ground rain gauge, radar data are used. In case that the distribution of grou...

  18. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii


    This spaceborne radar image shows the 'Valley Island' of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds. The light blue and yellow areas in the lowlands near the center are sugar cane fields. The three major population centers, Lahaina on the left at the western tip of island, Wailuku left of center, and Kihei in the lower center appear as small yellow, white or purple mottled areas. West Maui volcano, in the lower left, is 1800 meters high (5900 feet) and is considered extinct. The entire eastern half of the island consists of East Maui volcano, which rises to an elevation of 3200 meters (10,500 feet) and features a spectacular crater called Haleakala at its summit. Haleakala Crater was produced by erosion during previous ice ages rather than by volcanic activity, although relatively recent small eruptions have produced the numerous volcanic cones and lava flows that can be seen on the floor of the crater. The most recent eruption took place near the coast at the southwestern end of East Maui volcano in the late 1700s. Such a time frame indicates that East Maui should be considered a dormant, rather than an extinct volcano. A new eruption is therefore possible in the next few hundred years. The multi-wavelength capability of the SIR-C radar also permits differences in the vegetation cover on the middle flanks of East Maui to be identified. Rain forests appear in yellow, while grassland is shown in dark green, pink and blue. Radar images such as this one are being used by scientists to understand volcanic processes and to assess potential threats that future activity may pose to local populations. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image is 73.7 kilometers by 48.7 kilometers (45.7 miles by 30.2 miles) and is centered at 20

  19. Micropower radar systems for law enforcement technology

    Azevedo, S.G.; Mast, J.; Brase, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    LLNL researchers have pioneered a unique compact low-power and inexpensive radar technology (microradar) that has enormous potential in various industries. Some licenses are currently in place for motion sensors and stud finders. The ultra-wideband characteristics of the microradar (4 to 10 GHz) make it difficult to detect, yet provide potential range resolution of 1 cm at ranges of greater than 20 meters. Real and synthetic apertures arrays of radar elements can address imaging applications behind walls at those distances. Personnel detection applications are currently being tested.

  20. Measuring Balance Across Multiple Radar Receiver Channels.

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.


    When radar receivers employ multiple channels, the general intent is for the receive channels to be as alike as possible, if not as ideal as possible. This is usually done via prudent hardware design, supplemented by system calibration. Towards this end, we require a quality metric for ascertaining the goodness of a radar channel, and the degree of match to sibling channels. We propose a relevant and useable metric to do just that. Acknowledgements This report was the result of an unfunded research and development activity.