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Sample records for rad18 transmits dna

  1. USP7 is essential for maintaining Rad18 stability and DNA damage tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanou, A.; Sabbioneda, S.; Miller, E. S.; Greenwalt, A.; Aggathanggelou, A.; Maurice, M. M.; Lehmann, A. R.; Stankovic, T.; Reverdy, C.; Colland, F.; Vaziri, C.; Stewart, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Rad18 functions at the cross-roads of three different DNA damage response (DDR) pathways involved in protecting stressed replication forks: homologous recombination repair, DNA inter-strand cross-link repair and DNA damage tolerance. Although Rad18 serves to facilitate replication of damaged genomes

  2. Cell cycle stage-specific roles of Rad18 in tolerance and repair of oxidative DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Durando, Michael; Smith-Roe, Stephanie L.; Sproul, Chris; Greenwalt, Alicia M.; Kaufmann, William; Oh, Sehyun; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2013-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase Rad18 mediates tolerance of replication fork-stalling bulky DNA lesions, but whether Rad18 mediates tolerance of bulky DNA lesions acquired outside S-phase is unclear. Using synchronized cultures of primary human cells, we defined cell cycle stage-specific contributions of Rad18 to genome maintenance in response to ultraviolet C (UVC) and H2O2-induced DNA damage. UVC and H2O2 treatments both induced Rad18-mediated proliferating cell nuclear antigen mono-ubiquitination during G0, G1 and S-phase. Rad18 was important for repressing H2O2-induced (but not ultraviolet-induced) double strand break (DSB) accumulation and ATM S1981 phosphorylation only during G1, indicating a specific role for Rad18 in processing of oxidative DNA lesions outside S-phase. However, H2O2-induced DSB formation in Rad18-depleted G1 cells was not associated with increased genotoxin sensitivity, indicating that back-up DSB repair mechanisms compensate for Rad18 deficiency. Indeed, in DNA LigIV-deficient cells Rad18-depletion conferred H2O2-sensitivity, demonstrating functional redundancy between Rad18 and non-homologous end joining for tolerance of oxidative DNA damage acquired during G1. In contrast with G1-synchronized cultures, S-phase cells were H2O2-sensitive following Rad18-depletion. We conclude that although Rad18 pathway activation by oxidative lesions is not restricted to S-phase, Rad18-mediated trans-lesion synthesis by Polη is dispensable for damage-tolerance in G1 (because of back-up non-homologous end joining-mediated DSB repair), yet Rad18 is necessary for damage tolerance during S-phase. PMID:23295675

  3. Single Cell Analysis of Human RAD18-Dependent DNA Post-Replication Repair by Alkaline Bromodeoxyuridine Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mórocz, Mónika; Gali, Himabindu; Raskó, István; Downes, C. Stephen; Haracska, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    Damage to DNA can block replication progression resulting in gaps in the newly synthesized DNA. Cells utilize a number of post-replication repair (PRR) mechanisms such as the RAD18 controlled translesion synthesis or template switching to overcome the discontinuities formed opposite the DNA lesions and to complete DNA replication. Gaining more insights into the role of PRR genes promotes better understanding of DNA damage tolerance and of how their malfunction can lead to increased genome instability and cancer. However, a simple and efficient method to characterise gene specific PRR deficiencies at a single cell level has not been developed. Here we describe the so named BrdU comet PRR assay to test the contribution of human RAD18 to PRR at a single cell level, by which we kinetically characterized the consequences of the deletion of human RAD18 on the replication of UV-damaged DNA. Moreover, we demonstrate the capability of our method to evaluate PRR at a single cell level in unsynchronized cell population. PMID:23936422

  4. RAD18 mediates resistance to ionizing radiation in human glioma cells

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    Xie, Chen; Wang, Hongwei; Cheng, Hongbin; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Zhi, E-mail: drzwang@gmail.com; Yue, Wu, E-mail: drwuyue@gmail.com

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • RAD18 is an important mediator of the IR-induced resistance in glioma cell lines. • RAD18 overexpression confers resistance to IR-mediated apoptosis. • The elevated expression of RAD18 is associated with recurrent GBM who underwent IR therapy. - Abstract: Radioresistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). RAD18 a central regulator of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), has been shown to play an important role in regulating genomic stability and DNA damage response. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between RAD18 and resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and examined the expression levels of RAD18 in primary and recurrent GBM specimens. Our results showed that RAD18 is an important mediator of the IR-induced resistance in GBM. The expression level of RAD18 in glioma cells correlates with their resistance to IR. Ectopic expression of RAD18 in RAD18-low A172 glioma cells confers significant resistance to IR treatment. Conversely, depletion of endogenous RAD18 in RAD18-high glioma cells sensitized these cells to IR treatment. Moreover, RAD18 overexpression confers resistance to IR-mediated apoptosis in RAD18-low A172 glioma cells, whereas cells deficient in RAD18 exhibit increased apoptosis induced by IR. Furthermore, knockdown of RAD18 in RAD18-high glioma cells disrupts HR-mediated repair, resulting in increased accumulation of DSB. In addition, clinical data indicated that RAD18 was significantly higher in recurrent GBM samples that were exposed to IR compared with the corresponding primary GBM samples. Collectively, our findings reveal that RAD18 may serve as a key mediator of the IR response and may function as a potential target for circumventing IR resistance in human GBM.

  5. Evidence for a Rad18-independent frameshift mutagenesis pathway in human cell-free extracts.

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    Régine Janel-Bintz

    Full Text Available Bypass of replication blocks by specialized DNA polymerases is crucial for cell survival but may promote mutagenesis and genome instability. To gain insight into mutagenic sub-pathways that coexist in mammalian cells, we examined N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF-induced frameshift mutagenesis by means of SV40-based shuttle vectors containing a single adduct. We found that in mammalian cells, as previously observed in E. coli, modification of the third guanine of two target sequences, 5'-GGG-3' (3G and 5'-GGCGCC-3' (NarI site, induces -1 and -2 frameshift mutations, respectively. Using an in vitro assay for translesion synthesis, we investigated the biochemical control of these events. We showed that Pol eta, but neither Pol iota nor Pol zeta, plays a major role in the frameshift bypass of the AAF adduct located in the 3G sequence. By complementing PCNA-depleted extracts with either a wild-type or a non-ubiquitinatable form of PCNA, we found that this Pol eta-mediated pathway requires Rad18 and ubiquitination of PCNA. In contrast, when the AAF adduct is located within the NarI site, TLS is only partially dependent upon Pol eta and Rad18, unravelling the existence of alternative pathways that concurrently bypass this lesion.

  6. Non-canonical CRL4A/4B(CDT2 interacts with RAD18 to modulate post replication repair and cell survival.

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    Sarah Sertic

    Full Text Available The Cullin-4(CDT2 E3 ubiquitin ligase plays an essential role in DNA replication origin licensing directing degradation of several licensing factors at the G1/S transition in order to prevent DNA re-replication. Recently a RAD18-independent role of Cullin-4(CDT2 in PCNA monoubiquitylation has been proposed. In an effort to better understand the function of Cullin-4(CDT2 E3 ubiquitin ligase in mammalian Post-Replication Repair during an unperturbed S-phase, we show that down-regulation of Cullin-4(CDT2 leads to two distinguishable independent phenotypes in human cells that unveil at least two independent roles of Cullin-4(CDT2 in S-phase. Apart from the re-replication preventing activity, we identified a non-canonical Cullin-4(CDT2 complex, containing both CUL4A and CUL4B, associated to the COP9 signalosome, that controls a RAD18-dependent damage avoidance pathway essential during an unperturbed S-phase. Indeed, we show that the non-canonical Cullin-4A/4B(CDT2 complex binds to RAD18 and it is required to modulate RAD18 protein levels onto chromatin and the consequent dynamics of PCNA monoubiquitylation during a normal S-phase. This function prevents replication stress, ATR hyper-signaling and, ultimately, apoptosis. A very similar PRR regulatory mechanism has been recently described for Spartan. Our findings uncover a finely regulated process in mammalian cells involving Post-Replication Repair factors, COP9 signalosome and a non-canonical Cullin4-based E3 ligase which is essential to tolerate spontaneous damage and for cell survival during physiological DNA replication.

  7. Genetic Analyses of Sorting of Paternally Transmitted Mitochondrial DNA

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    The organelles are maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. However paternal transmission of plastids and mitochondria occurs rarely in plants. Cucumber is a unique model plant for organellar genetics because its three genomes show differential transmission: maternal for chlorop...

  8. [Effect of RAD18-siRNA on proliferation and chemotherapy sensitivity of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ECA-109 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengrong; Sun, Xiaonan; Zhou, Jundong; Zou, Shitao

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To investigate the effect of RAD18-siRNA on cell proliferation and chemotherapy sensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) ECA-109 cells. Methods: RAD18-siRNA was transfected into human ECA-109 cells by Lipofectamine 3000. Quantitative PCR and Western blot were performed to detect RAD18 and CyclinD1 expression; CCK-8 assay was used to determine cell proliferation and chemotherapy drug sensitivity; flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle. Correlation between RAD18 and CyclinD1 mRNA expression was analyzed by Pearson's correlation. Results: Compared with non-transfected cells, the expression of RAD18 in RAD18-siRNA group was significantly decreased ( P group. After treatment with different concentrations of cisplatin or 5-FU, the survival rate of the two cell groups was reduced (all P group was significantly lower than that of non-transfected group ( P <0.05). The mRNA expression of RAD18 was positively correlated with CyclinD1 expression in ESCC tissues( r =0.478, P <0.01). Conclusion: Down-regulated expression of RAD18 can decrease the cell proliferation and increase chemo-sensitivity of ESCC cells, and CyclinD1 may participate in the process.

  9. mRAD18Sc: a Multifunctional Protein in Replicative Damage Bypass and Gametogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Laan (Roald)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Integrity of the genome is of vital importance for life. DNA is constantly under attack from endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. During each round of DNA replication, the replication machinery requires the presence of an intact DNA template. If a DNA

  10. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Michaela S.; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Zida, Elisabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old ...

  11. Miniaturized thermocycler based on thermoelectric heating for diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease by DNA amplification

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    Lim, Hyunjung; Jo, Ga Eun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Back, Seung Min; Choi, Hyuk

    2017-05-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) is among the most common infectious diseases; therefore, it is necessary to develop sensitive early diagnostic techniques. As the gold standard, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been most widely employed for STD diagnosis; however, PCR requires large and expensive instruments. In this study, miniaturized thermal cycler using Peltier modules was developed for the PCR analysis. In comparison with the conventional PCR instrument, the Peltier-based micro-PCR (P-mPCR) device developed in this study enables one to amplify and successfully distinguish between DNA of different sizes. Furthermore, by using the clinical vaginal sample collected with the vaginal swab and tampon, different kinds of STD bacteria could be detected with high accuracy (˜94.19%) and high sensitivity (˜95.6%). Therefore, the P-mPCR device will be applicable in STD diagnosis as well as the detection of other bacteria/viruses using DNA amplification in regions including those with limited resources.

  12. Paper-Based DNA Reader for Visualized Quantification of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections.

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    Wang, Alex Guan; Dong, Tianyu; Mansour, Hayam; Matamoros, Gabriela; Sanchez, Ana L; Li, Feng

    2018-01-16

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a global health issue affecting nearly one-third of the world's population. As most endemic areas of STH are impoverished countries or regions with limited healthcare resources, the accurate diagnosis of STH requires analytical tools that are not only quantitative, but also portable, inexpensive, and with no or minimal demand for external instrument. Herein, we introduce a novel paper-based diagnostic device, termed quantitative paper-based DNA reader (qPDR), capable of quantifying STH at the molecular level by measuring distance as readout, thus eliminating the need for external readers. On the basis of the unique interfacial interaction of a DNA intercalating dye, SYBR Green I, with native cellulose on a chromatographic paper, qPDR allows the distance-based quantification of minute amounts of double-stranded DNA as short as 6 min. By integrating qPDR with polymerase chain reactions that were performed using a smartphone-controlled portable thermal cycler, we were able to quantify minute amount of genetic markers from adult worms of an STH (Trichuris trichiura) that were expelled post-treatment by infected children living in the rural areas of Honduras.

  13. Brc1-mediated rescue of Smc5/6 deficiency: requirement for multiple nucleases and a novel Rad18 function.

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    Lee, Karen M; Nizza, Suzanne; Hayes, Thomas; Bass, Kirstin L; Irmisch, Anja; Murray, Johanne M; O'Connell, Matthew J

    2007-04-01

    Smc5/6 is a structural maintenance of chromosomes complex, related to the cohesin and condensin complexes. Recent studies implicate Smc5/6 as being essential for homologous recombination. Each gene is essential, but hypomorphic alleles are defective in the repair of a diverse array of lesions. A particular allele of smc6 (smc6-74) is suppressed by overexpression of Brc1, a six-BRCT domain protein that is required for DNA repair during S-phase. This suppression requires the postreplication repair (PRR) protein Rhp18 and the structure-specific endonucleases Slx1/4 and Mus81/Eme1. However, we show here that the contribution of Rhp18 is via a novel pathway that is independent of PCNA ubiquitination and PRR. Moreover, we identify Exo1 as an additional nuclease required for Brc1-mediated suppression of smc6-74, independent of mismatch repair. Further, the Apn2 endonuclease is required for the viability of smc6 mutants without extrinsic DNA damage, although this is not due to a defect in base excision repair. Several nucleotide excision repair genes are similarly shown to ensure viability of smc6 mutants. The requirement for excision factors for the viability of smc6 mutants is consistent with an inability to respond to spontaneous lesions by Smc5/6-dependent recombination.

  14. Sperm-mediated host-derived DNA transfer as a new mechanism for immune system evasion of sexually transmitted genital tract pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Eliahu Yuval; Wainrach, Bezalel

    2012-09-01

    Over one century of extensive efforts directed towards investigating the immune response and the immuno-protection associated with sexually transmitted infections have failed to produce any effective vaccines against most of the major pathogens, among them Neisseria gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Attempts to design and develop protective vaccines against them have also yielded disappointing results. It has long been felt that there might be another yet undiscovered complicating factor, in addition to the recognized difficulties, which might be impeding the development of successful vaccines. Unlike the other body organs and systems, the genital tract and the elements found within it (e.g., spermatozoa) are endowed with unique features, some of which are associated with inherent DNA transferability skills as physiologically required from such an environment. We hypothesize that there is a novel evasion mechanism that involves an unusual sperm-mediated host-derived DNA transfer by which sexually transmitted genital tract microorganisms can express brand new chimeric antigens and epitopes and, by doing so, thus evade the surveillance of the immune system. This hypothesis may describe what would be the long-awaited breakthrough in the search for a vaccine against sexually transmitted infections. It may also assist in developing better-designed vaccines in general, and may have implications on other microorganism-related challenges (e.g., antibiotic resistance). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso: Epicoccum sorghinum is dominant in seedlings and appears as a common root pathogen.

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    Stokholm, Michaela S; Wulff, Ednar G; Zida, Elisabeth P; Thio, Ibié G; Néya, James B; Soalla, Romain W; Głazowska, Sylwia E; Andresen, Marianne; Topbjerg, Henrik B; Boelt, Birte; Lund, Ole S

    2016-10-01

    Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven-day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA. Eighteen Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified from seedlings, compared to 29 OTUs from seeds. The top-eight most abundant ascomycete OTUs from seedlings were annotated as: Epicoccum sorghinum, Fusarium thapsinum, four different Curvularia spp., Exserohilum rostratum and Alternaria longissima. These OTUs were also present in amplicons from seed samples collected in Central Burkina Faso confirming a common occurrence. E. sorghinum was highly predominant in seedlings both measured by DNA analysis and by isolation. The dominance of E. sorghinum was particularly strong in roots from poorly growing seedlings. Pathogenicity of E. sorghinum isolates was compared to F. thapsinum by inoculation to seeds in vitro. Both fungal species caused significant inhibition of seedling growth (P<0.001) and Koch's postulates were fulfilled. Extensive, dark necrosis in roots was a typical symptom of E. sorghinum, whereas wilting of leaves was caused primarily by F. thapsinum. This study provides the first molecular approach to characterize the seedling mycoflora of sorghum in Western Africa and suggests E. sorghinum as a common root pathogen. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. High prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug-resistance mutations from proviral DNA massively parallel sequencing data of therapy-naïve chronically infected Brazilian blood donors.

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    Rodrigo Pessôa

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of the prevalence of low-abundance transmitted drug-resistance mutations (TDRM in therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected patients may help determine which patients are the best candidates for therapy. In this study, we aimed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the evolving HIV-1 TDRM across the massive parallel sequences (MPS of the viral entire proviral genome in a well-characterized Brazilian blood donor naïve to antiretroviral drugs.The MPS data from 128 samples used in the analysis were sourced from Brazilian blood donors and were previously classified by less-sensitive (LS or "detuned" enzyme immunoassay as non-recent or longstanding HIV-1 infections. The Stanford HIV Resistance Database (HIVDBv 6.2 and IAS-USA mutation lists were used to interpret the pattern of drug resistance. The minority variants with TDRM were identified using a threshold of ≥ 1.0% and ≤ 20% of the reads sequenced. The rate of TDRM in the MPS data of the proviral genome were compared with the corresponding published consensus sequences of their plasma viruses.No TDRM were detected in the integrase or envelope regions. The overall prevalence of TDRM in the protease (PR and reverse transcriptase (RT regions of the HIV-1 pol gene was 44.5% (57/128, including any mutations to the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI. Of the 57 subjects, 43 (75.4% harbored a minority variant containing at least one clinically relevant TDRM. Among the 43 subjects, 33 (76.7% had detectable minority resistant variants to NRTIs, 6 (13.9% to NNRTIs, and 16 (37.2% to PR inhibitors. The comparison of viral sequences in both sources, plasma and cells, would have detected 48 DNA provirus disclosed TDRM by MPS previously missed by plasma bulk analysis.Our findings revealed a high prevalence of TDRM found in this group, as the use of MPS drastically increased the detection of these

  17. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS...... is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown...... to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during...

  18. The extremely divergent maternally- and paternally-transmitted mitochondrial genomes are co-expressed in somatic tissues of two freshwater mussel species with doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA.

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    Breton, Sophie; Bouvet, Karim; Auclair, Gabrielle; Ghazal, Stéphanie; Sietman, Bernard E; Johnson, Nathan; Bettinazzi, Stefano; Stewart, Donald T; Guerra, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater mussel species with doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mtDNA are unique because they are naturally heteroplasmic for two extremely divergent mtDNAs with ~50% amino acid differences for protein-coding genes. The paternally-transmitted mtDNA (or M mtDNA) clearly functions in sperm in these species, but it is still unknown whether it is transcribed when present in male or female soma. In the present study, we used PCR and RT-PCR to detect the presence and expression of the M mtDNA in male and female somatic and gonadal tissues of the freshwater mussel species Venustaconcha ellipsiformis and Utterbackia peninsularis (Unionidae). This is the first study demonstrating that the M mtDNA is transcribed not only in male gonads, but also in male and female soma in freshwater mussels with DUI. Because of the potentially deleterious nature of heteroplasmy, we suggest the existence of different mechanisms in DUI species to deal with this possibly harmful situation, such as silencing mechanisms for the M mtDNA at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and/or post-translational levels. These hypotheses will necessitate additional studies in distantly-related DUI species that could possess different mechanisms of action to deal with heteroplasmy.

  19. Sexually Transmitted Infections

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    ... et al. (2013). Sexually transmitted infections among U.S. women and men: Prevalence and incidence estimates, 2008 . Sexually Transmitted Diseases; 40(3): 187–193. Centers for Disease Control ...

  20. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  1. Phosphorylation of human INO80 is involved in DNA damage tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Dai; Waki, Mayumi; Umezawa, Masaki; Aoki, Yuka [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Utsugi, Takahiko [Bio Matrix Research Inc., 105 Higashifukai, Nagareyama, Chiba 275-0101 (Japan); Ohtsu, Masaya [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Murakami, Yasufumi, E-mail: yasufumi@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Bio Matrix Research Inc., 105 Higashifukai, Nagareyama, Chiba 275-0101 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of hINO80 significantly reduced PCNA ubiquitination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of hINO80 significantly reduced nuclear dots intensity of RAD18 after UV irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Western blot analyses showed phosphorylated hINO80 C-terminus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of phosphorylation mutant hINO80 reduced PCNA ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Double strand breaks (DSBs) are the most serious type of DNA damage. DSBs can be generated directly by exposure to ionizing radiation or indirectly by replication fork collapse. The DNA damage tolerance pathway, which is conserved from bacteria to humans, prevents this collapse by overcoming replication blockages. The INO80 chromatin remodeling complex plays an important role in the DNA damage response. The yeast INO80 complex participates in the DNA damage tolerance pathway. The mechanisms regulating yINO80 complex are not fully understood, but yeast INO80 complex are necessary for efficient proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ubiquitination and for recruitment of Rad18 to replication forks. In contrast, the function of the mammalian INO80 complex in DNA damage tolerance is less clear. Here, we show that human INO80 was necessary for PCNA ubiquitination and recruitment of Rad18 to DNA damage sites. Moreover, the C-terminal region of human INO80 was phosphorylated, and overexpression of a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of human INO80 resulted in decreased ubiquitination of PCNA during DNA replication. These results suggest that the human INO80 complex, like the yeast complex, was involved in the DNA damage tolerance pathway and that phosphorylation of human INO80 was involved in the DNA damage tolerance pathway. These findings provide new insights into the DNA damage tolerance pathway in mammalian cells.

  2. Sexually transmitted diphtheria.

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    Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact.

  3. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Complications of untreated/improperly treated sexually transmitted infections include male and female infertility, abortions, ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, lower abdominal pain and cervical cancer2. Sexually transmitted infections rank among the five top diseases for which Nigerians seek medical attention, and the major ...

  4. A novel missense mutation in the high mobility group domain of SRY drastically reduces its DNA-binding capacity and causes paternally transmitted 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Isabel; Kunz, Christophe; Miny, Peter; Boesch, Nemya; Szinnai, Gabor; Wenzel, Friedel; Tschudin, Sibil; Zumsteg, Urs; Heinimann, Karl

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the familial segregation, role, and function of a novel SRY missense mutation c.347T>C in two half-sisters affected by 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (CDG) compatible with a successful pregnancy outcome. Phenotypic, mutational, and functional study. Academic research unit. Two half-sisters, their common father, and 100 healthy control individuals. Chromosome, molecular cytogenetic analysis, and Sanger sequencing of the SRY gene in blood lymphocytes of the proband, her affected half-sister, and in inflammatory tissue of the father postmortem. Cloning and expression of high mobility group box carboxy-terminal domains of Sry and electrophoretic mobility shift assay were performed. Not applicable. A novel SRY missense mutation c.347T>C (p.Leu116Ser) was identified in two half-sisters and segregates with the CGD phenotype. It is present in the common healthy father in a mosaic state. Functional analyses demonstrate the pathogenic effect of the mutation by a strong reduction of DNA affinity for the mutant p.Leu116Ser SRY protein. The missense mutation c.347T>C in the high mobility group domain of SRY causes 46,XY CGD. Paternal gonadal mosaicism is likely to explain the familial occurrence of 46,XY CGD suggesting a de novo mutational event during the early stages of embryonic development. This novel mutation is compatible with a successful pregnancy outcome. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144

  6. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodd Roger Y

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens.

  7. Radiosensitive and mitotic recombination phenotypes of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dun1 mutant defective in DNA damage-inducible gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Fasullo, M; Koudelik, J; AhChing, P; Giallanza, P; Cera, C

    1999-01-01

    The biological significance of DNA damage-induced gene expression in conferring resistance to DNA-damaging agents is unclear. We investigated the role of DUN1-mediated, DNA damage-inducible gene expression in conferring radiation resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The DUN1 gene was assigned to the RAD3 epistasis group by quantitating the radiation sensitivities of dun1, rad52, rad1, rad9, rad18 single and double mutants, and of the dun1 rad9 rad52 triple mutant. The dun1 and rad52 single...

  8. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    of the respondents or other identifying information were not included in the questionnaires. The knowledge section had 7 sexually transmitted infection symptoms for grading knowledge, namely lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, penile discharge, itching of the vagina, burning pain on urination, genital ulcers/sores ...

  9. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Profile National Profile Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases Special Focus Profiles Special Focus Profiles STDs in Women and Infants STDs in Adolescents and Young Adults ...

  10. Closed‐Loop transmit diversity (transmit beamforming) for mitigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deploying multiple antennas at the transmitter has been shown to increase diversity and therefore improve signal quality with increased throughput. This paper proposes a transmit diversity scheme, where multiple transmit antennas are used at the transmitter. A feedback path is provided from the receiver to communicate ...

  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (and HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Living With HIV Mental Health Opportunistic Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues What Do I Need to Know ... People Living With HIV Mental Health Opportunistic Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women´s Health Issues Living Well with HIV Taking Care ...

  12. Statistics, Uncertainty, and Transmitted Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    The field of Statistics provides methods for modeling and understanding data and making decisions in the presence of uncertainty. When examining response functions, variation present in the input variables will be transmitted via the response function to the output variables. This phenomenon can potentially have significant impacts on the uncertainty associated with results from subsequent analysis. This presentation will examine the concept of transmitted variation, its impact on designed experiments, and a method for identifying and estimating sources of transmitted variation in certain settings.

  13. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation links the chromatin remodeler SMARCA5/SNF2H to RNF168-dependent DNA damage signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeenk, G.; Wiegant, W.W.; Luijsterburg, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    , selectively promotes spreading of SMARCA5, the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF168, ubiquitin conjugates and the ubiquitin-binding factors RAD18 and the RAP80-BRCA1 complex throughout DSB-flanking chromatin. This suggests that PARP regulates the spatial organization of the RNF168-driven ubiquitin response to DNA...... ubiquitin cascade. Moreover, SMARCA5 was found to regulate the ubiquitin response by promoting RNF168 accumulation at DSBs, which subsequently facilitates efficient ubiquitin conjugation and BRCA1 assembly. Underlining the importance of these findings, we show that SMARCA5 depletion renders cells sensitive...

  14. Regulation of DNA damage tolerance in mammalian cells by post-translational modifications of PCNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Rie; Masutani, Chikahide

    2017-10-01

    DNA damage tolerance pathways, which include translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and template switching, are crucial for prevention of DNA replication arrest and maintenance of genomic stability. However, these pathways utilize error-prone DNA polymerases or template exchange between sister DNA strands, and consequently have the potential to induce mutations or chromosomal rearrangements. Post-translational modifications of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) play important roles in controlling these pathways. For example, TLS is mediated by mono-ubiquitination of PCNA at lysine 164, for which RAD6-RAD18 is the primary E2-E3 complex. Elaborate protein-protein interactions between mono-ubiquitinated PCNA and Y-family DNA polymerases constitute the core of the TLS regulatory system, and enhancers of PCNA mono-ubiquitination and de-ubiquitinating enzymes finely regulate TLS and suppress TLS-mediated mutagenesis. The template switching pathway is promoted by K63-linked poly-ubiquitination of PCNA at lysine 164. Poly-ubiquitination is achieved by a coupled reaction mediated by two sets of E2-E3 complexes, RAD6-RAD18 and MMS2-UBC13-HTLF/SHPRH. In addition to these mono- and poly-ubiquitinations, simultaneous mono-ubiquitinations on multiple units of the PCNA homotrimeric ring promote an unidentified damage tolerance mechanism that remains to be fully characterized. Furthermore, SUMOylation of PCNA in mammalian cells can negatively regulate recombination. Other modifications, including ISGylation, acetylation, methylation, or phosphorylation, may also play roles in DNA damage tolerance and control of genomic stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexually transmitted infections: challenges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unemo, Magnus; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Hocking, Jane S.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Francis, Suzanna C.; Mabey, David; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Hoornenborg, Elske; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Philip, Susan S.; Low, Nicola; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2017-01-01

    WHO estimated that nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of four curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Despite their high global incidence, STIs remain a neglected area of research. In this Commission, we have

  16. Transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Stramer, Susan L.; Carneiro-Proietti, A. B. F.; Martins, M. L.; Lopes da Silva, S. N.; Ribeiro, M.; Proietti, F. A.; Reesink, Henk W.

    2009-01-01

    A spectrum of blood-borne infectious agents is transmitted through transfusion of infected blood donated by apparently healthy and asymptomatic blood donors. The diversity of infectious agents includes hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1/2), human

  17. Identification of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes: Development of Species-Specific Probes for DNA Chip Assay Using Mitochondrial COI and ND2 Genes and Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Tu, Wu-Chun; Huang, En-Jiong; Chen, Yen-Hou; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2017-03-01

    Mosquitoes, which transmit infectious diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, are harmful to human health. Thus, accurate and rapid identification of vectors is a critical step for the control of mosquito-borne diseases. However, phenotypic variations in adults, lack of recognizable features of the immature, and fragility of mosquitoes make identification difficult. Molecular approaches have been widely applied to identify mosquitoes, yet these methods have been focused only on the identification of a few species. This study used sequences of two mitochondrial genes, COI and ND2, and a ribosomal gene, ITS2, to design species-specific probes. Biochips thus developed were able to provide simultaneous identification of nine important medical and veterinary species, including the immature, from genera of Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, and Culex. This chip was also applied to samples collected from the field. Despite its inability to resolve the close affinity species of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens molestus, pertinent biochips are expected to be applied to a mass screening method. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis: report of two brazilian human cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrlena Regina Machado Mescouto-Borges

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a relevant public health problem worldwide. Most of the reported cases in Latin America are from Brazil. Herein we report two human cases of congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis in two patients who developed symptoms during pregnancy. The diagnosis was made by visual examination of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates of the mothers and by detecting parasite kDNA in bone marrow samples of the newborn children using polymerase chain reaction.

  19. Zika Mosquito Can Transmit Other Viruses, Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165752.html Zika Mosquito Can Transmit Other Viruses, Too 3-in- ... mosquito species that's the main carrier of the Zika virus might also transmit two other viruses -- chikungunya ...

  20. DNA nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-01-01

    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  1. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.

  2. Characterization of biconical transmitting antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Dale M.; Badii, Vahid; Tomiyama, Ken

    1991-01-01

    We have obtained a general, numerical solution of an ideal biconical transmitting antenna, with arbitrary arm length and conic angle. The solution evaluates the field coefficients associated with the electric multipolar expansion terms both within the antenna region and external to it; the set must necessarily be truncated, and we truncate our set with 16 terms. From the field coefficients we obtain surface current and charge densities resulting from a normalized input current, for several antennas. We evaluate resonant frequencies versus cone angle for the first three resonances. Using a normalized input voltage, we obtain the complex power at all radii; conservation of energy, in turn, permits us to solve for the reactive energy of the field per unit radius.

  3. Analysis of the tolerance to DNA alkylating damage in MEC1 and RAD53 checkpoint mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gallego-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Checkpoint response, tolerance and repair are three major pathways that eukaryotic cells evolved independently to maintain genome stability and integrity. Here, we studied the sensitivity to DNA damage in checkpoint-deficient budding yeast cells and found that checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53 may modulate the balance between error-free and error-prone branches of the tolerance pathway. We have consistently observed that mutation of the RAD53 counterbalances error-free and error-prone branches upon exposure of cells to DNA damage induced either by MMS alkylation or by UV-radiation. We have also found that the potential Mec1/Rad53 balance modulation is independent from Rad6/Rad18-mediated PCNA ubiquitylation, as mec1Δ or rad53Δ mutants show no defects in the modification of the sliding clamp, therefore, we infer that it is likely exerted by acting on TLS polymerases and/or template switching targets.

  4. Analysis of the tolerance to DNA alkylating damage in MEC1 and RAD53 checkpoint mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Sánchez, Alfonso; Ufano, Sandra; Andrés, Sonia; Bueno, Avelino

    2013-01-01

    Checkpoint response, tolerance and repair are three major pathways that eukaryotic cells evolved independently to maintain genome stability and integrity. Here, we studied the sensitivity to DNA damage in checkpoint-deficient budding yeast cells and found that checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53 may modulate the balance between error-free and error-prone branches of the tolerance pathway. We have consistently observed that mutation of the RAD53 counterbalances error-free and error-prone branches upon exposure of cells to DNA damage induced either by MMS alkylation or by UV-radiation. We have also found that the potential Mec1/Rad53 balance modulation is independent from Rad6/Rad18-mediated PCNA ubiquitylation, as mec1Δ or rad53Δ mutants show no defects in the modification of the sliding clamp, therefore, we infer that it is likely exerted by acting on TLS polymerases and/or template switching targets.

  5. DVC1 (C1orf124) is a DNA damage-targeting p97 adaptor that promotes ubiquitin-dependent responses to replication blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anna; Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Kagias, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated processes orchestrate critical DNA-damage signaling and repair pathways. We identify human DVC1 (C1orf124; Spartan) as a cell cycle-regulated anaphase-promoting complex (APC) substrate that accumulates at stalled replication forks. DVC1 recruitment to sites of replication stress...... requires its ubiquitin-binding UBZ domain and PCNA-binding PIP box motif but is independent of RAD18-mediated PCNA monoubiquitylation. Via a conserved SHP box, DVC1 recruits the ubiquitin-selective chaperone p97 to blocked replication forks, which may facilitate p97-dependent removal of translesion...... synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerase η (Pol η) from monoubiquitylated PCNA. DVC1 knockdown enhances UV light-induced mutagenesis, and depletion of human DVC1 or the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog DVC-1 causes hypersensitivity to replication stress-inducing agents. Our findings establish DVC1 as a DNA damage...

  6. [Sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoye, I

    1990-10-01

    There are 23 types of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). In Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) AIDS is considered to be a type of STD because an estimated 80% of its transmission is heterosexual. The epidemiology of STDs are due to several factors: 1) the age of young people with STD has now decreased to 16-24 as compared to the 1960's when it was 20-30; 2) sexual liberation; 3) multiple sex partners; 4) clandestine prostitution; 5) ignorance regarding the effects of STDs 6) self treatment; and 7) the number of asymptomatic STDs such as chlamydia trachomatis. Complications from STDs are increasing such as infertility, extra-uterine pregnancies and cervical cancer. The prevalence of AIDS is also increasing, pressuring society as it relates to hospitalizations and the cost of caring for these patients. The prevention of STDs requires training physicians, biologists, paramedical personnel, pharmacists and commercial workers. The public should be sensitized to the morbidity and mortality indicators of STDs. Senegal, as other African countries, has instituted a national committee for AIDS and STDs and has regional committees responsible for coordinating and disseminating its goals nationally and regionally. These committees should play key roles in IEC to inform the public about the socio- cultural, traditional and political implications of such disease. To avoid any misunderstandings, the information can be given as results from surveys with recommendations that include abstinence, loyalty among couples and the use of condoms for extra marital affairs.

  7. The Rate of Air-Transmitted and Bone-Transmitted Sounds in Autophonic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mikio; Yoshida, Chinatsu; Ogihara, Mitsuhiro; Taniguchi, Shuji; Takahashi, Kenzo

    In order to build the system which enables voice training interactively between the user and system, it is required to output the singing voice with rich sound as a teacher sound. Since the user listen to his own bone-transmitted sound as well as his air- transmitted sound when he utters, it is ideal to mix and output the bone-transmitted sounds with the air transmitted sounds of the teacher sound at the same mixing rate where the user actually listens to his singing voice. Here we present the result of investigation what rate of the air- transmitted and bone-transmitted sounds matches the natural situation of listening in utterance.

  8. DONOR-TRANSMITTED CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Mironkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate opportunities, prospects and safety of using heart transplants from aged donors who are at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis.Materials and methods. Over the period from March 1987 to May 2014450 heart transplantations (HTx were performed in V.I.Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artifi cial Organs. During the fi rst month after HTx coronarography was made to 152 (37,8% recipients inorder to exclude/confi rm donor-transmitted coronary atherosclerosis (DTCA and to identify tactics of treatment. Coronary atherosclerosis was detected among 16 patients (3,6% of total number of HTx, 15 (93,8% men and 1 (6,2% women. Mean age of recipients with DTCA at the moment of HTx was 48,3 ± 13,1 years.Results. Hemodynamically relevant coronary atherosclerosis was not detected and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI was not made in the group of patients with the mean age of 42,24 ± 8,91 years. Using heart transplants from aged donors is connected with increasing risk of DTCA among the recipients. DTCA-dependent PCI is not connected with coronary mortality. Actuarial survival rate of patients who underwent PCI is comparable with the same one in the total population of HTx recipients and is equal to 87,5% at 5 years and less.Conclusion. Hearts from aged donors (older than 50 years may be used for HTx with suffi cient level of safety. Due to high level of DTCA using of hearts from such donors is preferable for completing urgent HTx to recipients 1А–В UNOS.

  9. [Sexually transmitted diseases in the female population of Pikine, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schampheleire, I; Van de Velden, L; Van Dyck, E; Guindo, S; Quint, W; Fransen, L

    1990-09-01

    The prevalence of some sexually transmitted disease is determined in 250 gynaecology patients and in 200 pregnant women seen in primary health centers in Pikine, Senegal. The main reason for consultation at gynaecology is infertility. Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis infection are present respectively in 1.5% and 7% of pregnant women and in 4.4% and 7.6% of gynaecology patients. Human papillomavirus infection, determined by DNA extraction and hybridization technique, is seen in 4% of obstetric and in 1.2% of gynecology patients. Cytological anomalies is found in 5.5% of pregnant women and in 4.8% of gynecology patients.

  10. sexually transmitted infections in obafemi awolowo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approaches. Genitourinary Medicine. 1997; 73(3): 188-193. Barberis IL, Pajaro MC, Godino S, et al. Survey of sexually transmitted diseases in the region of Rio Cuarto. Medicina. 1998; 58 (5 pt 1): 469-473. F onck K, Kidula N, Kirui P, et al. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases and the risk factors among women attending.

  11. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  12. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  13. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Theoretically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to disrupt male fertility; however, the topic remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To describe the possible association between STDs and male infertility and to explore possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. EVIDENCE...

  14. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Gonorrhea Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This web ... need to better understand the epidemiology of gonorrhea. Gonorrhea—United States In 2012, a total of 334, ...

  15. Sexually Transmitted Infections, Pregnancy, and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control and Prevention. (2015). Preterm Birth . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children . Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding > A-Z Health Topics ...

  16. Sexually transmitted organisms in sexually abused children

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, A.; WATKEYS, J.; Ridgway, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.
DESIGN—Prospective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.
SUBJECTS—Children under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.
OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abuse.
RESULTS—Sw...

  17. Relevance of simultaneous mono-ubiquitinations of multiple units of PCNA homo-trimers in DNA damage tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Kanao

    Full Text Available DNA damage tolerance (DDT pathways, including translesion synthesis (TLS and additional unknown mechanisms, enable recovery from replication arrest at DNA lesions. DDT pathways are regulated by post-translational modifications of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA at its K164 residue. In particular, mono-ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase RAD18 is crucial for Polη-mediated TLS. Although the importance of modifications of PCNA to DDT pathways is well known, the relevance of its homo-trimer form, in which three K164 residues are present in a single ring, remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer are simultaneously mono-ubiquitinated in vitro and in vivo. RAD18 catalyzed sequential mono-ubiquitinations of multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer in a reconstituted system. Exogenous PCNA formed hetero-trimers with endogenous PCNA in WI38VA13 cell transformants. When K164R-mutated PCNA was expressed in these cells at levels that depleted endogenous PCNA homo-trimers, multiple modifications of PCNA complexes were reduced and the cells showed defects in DDT after UV irradiation. Notably, ectopic expression of mutant PCNA increased the UV sensitivities of Polη-proficient, Polη-deficient, and REV1-depleted cells, suggesting the disruption of a DDT pathway distinct from the Polη- and REV1-mediated pathways. These results suggest that simultaneous modifications of multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer are required for a certain DDT pathway in human cells.

  18. Relevance of simultaneous mono-ubiquitinations of multiple units of PCNA homo-trimers in DNA damage tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Rie; Masuda, Yuji; Deguchi, Saori; Yumoto-Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hanaoka, Fumio; Masutani, Chikahide

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways, including translesion synthesis (TLS) and additional unknown mechanisms, enable recovery from replication arrest at DNA lesions. DDT pathways are regulated by post-translational modifications of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at its K164 residue. In particular, mono-ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase RAD18 is crucial for Polη-mediated TLS. Although the importance of modifications of PCNA to DDT pathways is well known, the relevance of its homo-trimer form, in which three K164 residues are present in a single ring, remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer are simultaneously mono-ubiquitinated in vitro and in vivo. RAD18 catalyzed sequential mono-ubiquitinations of multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer in a reconstituted system. Exogenous PCNA formed hetero-trimers with endogenous PCNA in WI38VA13 cell transformants. When K164R-mutated PCNA was expressed in these cells at levels that depleted endogenous PCNA homo-trimers, multiple modifications of PCNA complexes were reduced and the cells showed defects in DDT after UV irradiation. Notably, ectopic expression of mutant PCNA increased the UV sensitivities of Polη-proficient, Polη-deficient, and REV1-depleted cells, suggesting the disruption of a DDT pathway distinct from the Polη- and REV1-mediated pathways. These results suggest that simultaneous modifications of multiple units of a PCNA homo-trimer are required for a certain DDT pathway in human cells.

  19. Adaptive transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit channel selection in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to- interference-plus- noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms, which are the dominant cancelation and the less complex arbitrary cancelation, are considered, for which the receive antenna array is assumed to have small angular spread. Analytical formulation for some performance measures in addition to several processing complexity and numerical comparisons between various adaptation schemes are presented. ©2010 IEEE.

  20. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.

  1. Helicobacter pylori: a sexually transmitted bacterium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Oral sex (fellatio) is a very common sexual activity. H. pylori is mainly a gastric organism, but studies have reported that infected individuals may permanently or transiently carry H. pylori in their mouth and saliva. A Pubmed search was conducted using the words infection, oral sex and urethritis. The existing studies support the hypothesis that H. pylori could be a causative agent of non-gonococcal urethritis. It is possible that H. pylori may be transmitted via the act of fellatio in the urethra. Further research is required to explore the role of H. pylori in sexually transmitted urethritis.

  2. Tackling sexually transmitted infection burden in Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The socio-cultural understanding of STIs, sex, trust and relationships are symbolic in influencing consistent condom use among ... Keywords:sexually transmitted infection, Ugandan communities, socio-cultural interpretation, disease and condom use ...... cultural representations of Aotearoa in New Zealand.

  3. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Health Seeking Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of women with STI symptoms. Data were collected by trained interviewers .... Sexually transmitted Infections and Health Seeking Behaviour among Ghanaian Women in Accra….. African Journal of ..... for management of STIs. World. Health Organization [ 2003 Available from:.

  4. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually transmitted disease is a public health social problem that affects adolescents all over the world including sub-Saharan ... happened to an adolescent whether good or bad shapes how girls and boys live out their lives as women and men. ..... This was followed by home with 46%.The hospital accounted for 36% ...

  5. Management of Simulated Patients with Sexually Transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Simulated Patients with Sexually Transmitted Infections by Staff of Retail Pharmacies in Kibera Slums Of Nairobi. ... to inappropriate or inadequate treatment. Recommendation: To improve management of these conditions, in-service training and enforcement of the relevant legislation and policy is needed.

  6. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... respondents knew most was painful urination (66.5%). Conclusion: The respondents had a moderately good knowledge of the prominent STDs such as gonorrhea, syphilis and HIV/AIDS but poor knowledge of STDs such as chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Keywords: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Students, Knowledge ...

  7. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female ...

  8. TRANSFUSION- TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS IN HAEMOPHILIA PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhubi, Bukurije; Mekaj, Ymer; Baruti, Zana; Bunjaku, Ilirijane; Belegu, Mazllum

    2009-01-01

    One of the largest therapeutic problem during the continuous treatment of the patients with Hemophilia A and B, are viral infections as Hepatitis B and C, and HIV, and the other infective diseases, which can be transmitted by the transfusion of blood products.

  9. USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    transmitter antenna height at several locations. USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report vi UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | I. Gonin et al...Agreement MPI Multi-Protocol Interface NMEA National Marine Electronics Association NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NWS National...include National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ), National Weather Service (NWS), United States Geological Survey (USGS), Ohio River

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice about sexually transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality among women in the child-bearing age. In order to institute appropriate preventive measures there is need to establish the profile of knowledge of the predisposing factors and causation of STDs, attitude to sexual ...

  11. syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    Infectious Disease. Epidemiology Unit. School of Public Health and. Family Medicine. University of Cape Town. Lydia Altini's research inter- ests include STI and HIV ... and STIs. Infections by organisms other than HIV that are transmitted by sexual contact are ... ectopic pregnancy in women and premature birth and stillbirth,.

  12. Sexually transmitted infections among patients attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common infectious diseases in the world today. There are few reliable statistics on the true prevalence of STIs in developing countries, especially in the general practice setting, hence the need to determine the prevalence in each locality. With the ...

  13. sexually transmitted infections in obafemi awolowo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually transmitted infections (STls) remain cosmopolitan in all societies of the world and in some cases assume epidemic proportions. These infections are common infectious diseases nowadays, with an annual incidence of more than 200 million cases a year. Venereal pathogens continue to increase in number and the ...

  14. Soil transmitted helminths infections, malnutrition and anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major public health problem in many developing countries. Establishment of prevalence and intensity of infections is important in designing, implementating and evaluating control programs. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and intensity of STH infections, malnutrition ...

  15. Digital media and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Melissa; Chor, Julie; Hill, Brandon

    2014-10-01

    Digital media, including the Internet, social networking sites, text messaging, and mobile applications, are ubiquitous among adolescents and young adults. These platforms enable users to obtain important information on a multitude of health topics, they may facilitate risk-taking behaviors, and they can be key components of health interventions. The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature on digital media and sexually transmitted infections, discussing their role in potentiating and reducing risk. This review demonstrates adolescents' use of digital media to gather information on health topics and discusses significant privacy concerns regarding using media to explore sexual health information. Although several studies demonstrate an association between social media and increased sexual risk-taking behaviors, this relationship is not fully understood. Digital media-based interventions are increasingly being developed to either reduce risk or improve management of sexually transmitted infections. As greater numbers of adolescents use digital media, the potential for these platforms to influence sexual risk-taking behaviors is significant. Additional research is needed to better understand the impact of digital media on sexually transmitted infection risk and to develop social media-based interventions to improve sexually transmitted infection outcomes.

  16. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted. Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive. Age in Enugu, Nigeria. Ikeako LC, Ekwueme OC1, Ezegwui HU2, Okeke TOC2. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Awka, 2University of Nigeria Teaching ...

  17. Sexually transmitted infections in Obafemi Awolowo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sarcoptes scabiei and Phthirus pubis causing scabies and pediculosis accounted for 1.8% and 0.3% respectively. As commonly established, the age bracket 19 to 39 years was clearly the age group in which sexually transmitted infections were mostly diagnosed. In a control programme, this age group should be targeted, ...

  18. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    1997-01-01

    ... of Sexually Transmitted Diseases INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...

  19. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a taboo for teachers and parents to talk with children about sexual matters including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in schools and at home because of cultural and religious barriers. Political pressure also keeps sexual education and thus education on STDs out of classrooms. Generally, there is disagreement over ...

  20. Sexually transmitted infections and their diagnoses: Bapedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    AIDS. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections. Generally, diagnoses of STIs by the questioned traditional healers were primarily based on the symptomatic ... treatment. For instance prior diagnosis, Bapedi healers spend much time listening to their patients and discussing the causes of the infections, and other.

  1. Soil Transmitted Helminths and Associated Factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples were collected from different parts of the school compound and microscopic examination was performed for eggs of the helminths using sodium nitrate flotation technique. Results: The overall prevalence rate of soil transmitted helminth infections in private and government schools was 20.9% and 53.5% ...

  2. Inertial fusion by magnetically transmitted axial cumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliezer, S.; Martinez-Val, J.; Piera, M. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Vorobeichik, I.; Henis, Z. [Soreq Nuclear Research Centre, (Israel); Piera, M. [ETSII, UNED, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    An analytical and numerical study is presented on the physics of Z-pinch implosions including magnetic fields to transmit the kinetic energy from the imploding shell to an axially placed filament. The shell kinetic energy can be built-up along a long pinch phase and a fraction of this energy could be transmitted to the filament in a much shorter interaction phase. Although initial estimates are very positive for energy cumulation in the filament, a deeper analysis shows that compressibility effects dominate the space-time evolution of the filament, and the energy cumulation level remains moderate. The scheme could be used to trigger fusion ignition in a direct-drive scenario (without radiation hohlraums) but driver specifications to get it are very demanding. (authors)

  3. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  4. Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Infections: Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans L. Zaaijer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To make blood components and blood products safe, many safety measures are applied to avoid transfusion-transmitted infections. Defining a balanced safety policy is not easy, we face several dilemmas: How safe should blood be? Should we opt for maximal or optimal safety? Are perceived threats real and relevant? Should blood be clean while food, air, or mosquitoes are not? Is vCJD still a threat? It seems wise to discuss these issues more in the open.

  5. Transmitted wavefront testing of complex optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williby, Gregory Allen

    The advancement of optical systems arises from furthering at least one of the three fields of optical development: design, fabrication, and testing. One example of such advancement is the growth in customization of contact lenses, which is occurring in part due to advances in testing. Due to the diverse quantities that can be derived from it, the transmitted wavefront is the tested parameter. There are a number of tests that can evaluate a transmitted wavefront, including moire deflectometry, Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing, and interferometry. Interferometry is preferred for its sensitivity and spatial resolution. The dynamic range issue is mitigated by the required immersion of the contact lenses in saline due to the complex nature of the lens material. The partial index-match between the lens and surrounding saline reduces the measured power of the lens and enables testing in an absolute, or non-null, configuration. Absolute testing allows for the generation of ophthalmic prescriptions and power maps from the transmitted wavefront. Designing a non-null interferometer is based on three principles. The transmitted light must be collected, the resulting interference must be resolved, and the imaged wavefront must be calibrated. The first two principles are fulfilled by proper choices for the imaging lens and detector. Calibration comes from removing the wavefront-dependent induced aberrations via reverse raytracing. Reverse raytracing demands an accurate model of the interferometer. With such a model, theoretical wavefronts can be produced and compared to measured wavefronts. The difference between measured and modeled wavefronts quantifies the answer to the fundamental question in transmitted wavefront testing: does the optic perform as desired? Immersion in index-matching fluid provides an adjustable increase in the dynamic range of the interferometer. The increase comes at the expense of sensitivity. The tradeoff between dynamic range and sensitivity can be

  6. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  7. The amino-terminal tails of histones H2A and H3 coordinate efficient base excision repair, DNA damage signaling and postreplication repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meas, Rithy; Smerdon, Michael J.; Wyrick, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Histone amino-terminal tails (N-tails) are required for cellular resistance to DNA damaging agents; therefore, we examined the role of histone N-tails in regulating DNA damage response pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Combinatorial deletions reveal that the H2A and H3 N-tails are important for the removal of MMS-induced DNA lesions due to their role in regulating the basal and MMS-induced expression of DNA glycosylase Mag1. Furthermore, overexpression of Mag1 in a mutant lacking the H2A and H3 N-tails rescues base excision repair (BER) activity but not MMS sensitivity. We further show that the H3 N-tail functions in the Rad9/Rad53 DNA damage signaling pathway, but this function does not appear to be the primary cause of MMS sensitivity of the double tailless mutants. Instead, epistasis analyses demonstrate that the tailless H2A/H3 phenotypes are in the RAD18 epistasis group, which regulates postreplication repair. We observed increased levels of ubiquitylated PCNA and significantly lower mutation frequency in the tailless H2A/H3 mutant, indicating a defect in postreplication repair. In summary, our data identify novel roles of the histone H2A and H3 N-tails in (i) regulating the expression of a critical BER enzyme (Mag1), (ii) supporting efficient DNA damage signaling and (iii) facilitating postreplication repair. PMID:25897129

  8. Ubiquitin-specific protease 5 is required for the efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakajima

    Full Text Available During the DNA damage response (DDR, ubiquitination plays an important role in the recruitment and regulation of repair proteins. However, little is known about elimination of the ubiquitination signal after repair is completed. Here we show that the ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5, a deubiquitinating enzyme, is involved in the elimination of the ubiquitin signal from damaged sites and is required for efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB repair. Depletion of USP5 sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agents, produces DSBs, causes delayed disappearance of γH2AX foci after Bleocin treatment, and influences DSB repair efficiency in the homologous recombination pathway but not in the non-homologous end joining pathway. USP5 co-localizes to DSBs induced by laser micro-irradiation in a RAD18-dependent manner. Importantly, polyubiquitin chains at sites of DNA damage remained for longer periods in USP5-depleted cells. Our results show that disassembly of polyubiquitin chains by USP5 at sites of damage is important for efficient DSB repair.

  9. Stochastic dynamics for reinfection by transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alessandro S.; Pinho, Suani T. R.

    2017-06-01

    The use of stochastic models to study the dynamics of infectious diseases is an important tool to understand the epidemiological process. For several directly transmitted diseases, reinfection is a relevant process, which can be expressed by endogenous reactivation of the pathogen or by exogenous reinfection due to direct contact with an infected individual (with smaller reinfection rate σ β than infection rate β ). In this paper, we examine the stochastic susceptible, infected, recovered, infected (SIRI) model simulating the endogenous reactivation by a spontaneous reaction, while exogenous reinfection by a catalytic reaction. Analyzing the mean-field approximations of a site and pairs of sites, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the particular case of exogenous reinfection, we obtained continuous phase transitions involving endemic, epidemic, and no transmission phases for the simple approach; the approach of pairs is better to describe the phase transition from endemic phase (susceptible, infected, susceptible (SIS)-like model) to epidemic phase (susceptible, infected, and removed or recovered (SIR)-like model) considering the comparison with MC results; the reinfection increases the peaks of outbreaks until the system reaches endemic phase. For the particular case of endogenous reactivation, the approach of pairs leads to a continuous phase transition from endemic phase (SIS-like model) to no transmission phase. Finally, there is no phase transition when both effects are taken into account. We hope the results of this study can be generalized for the susceptible, exposed, infected, and removed or recovered (SEIRIE) model, for which the state exposed (infected but not infectious), describing more realistically transmitted diseases such as tuberculosis. In future work, we also intend to investigate the effect of network topology on phase transitions when the SIRI model describes both transmitted diseases (σ 1 ).

  10. Spinal Circuits Transmitting Mechanical Pain and Itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bo; Cheng, Longzhen; Ma, Qiufu

    2018-02-01

    In 1905, Henry Head first suggested that transmission of pain-related protopathic information can be negatively modulated by inputs from afferents sensing innocuous touch and temperature. In 1965, Melzak and Wall proposed a more concrete gate control theory of pain that highlights the interaction between unmyelinated C fibers and myelinated A fibers in pain transmission. Here we review the current understanding of the spinal microcircuits transmitting and gating mechanical pain or itch. We also discuss how disruption of the gate control could cause pain or itch evoked by innocuous mechanical stimuli, a hallmark symptom for many chronic pain or itch patients.

  11. Drilling with fiber-transmitted, visible lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, D.D.; Berzins, L.V.; Dragon, E.P.; Werve, M.E.; Warner, B.E.

    1994-02-17

    High power and radiance copper-vapor laser technology developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory shows great promise for many materials processing tasks. The authors recently transmitted the visible light produced by these lasers through fiber optics to perform hole drilling experiments. They found the tolerances on the hole circulatory and cylindricity to be excellent when compared to that produced by conventional optics. This technique lends itself to many applications that are difficult to perform when using conventional optics, including robotic manipulation and hole drilling in non-symmetric parts.

  12. Reducing Transmitted Vibration Using Delayed Hysteretic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mokni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous numerical and experimental works show that time delay technique is efficient to reduce transmissibility of vibration in a single pneumatic chamber by controlling the pressure in the chamber. The present work develops an analytical study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique in reducing transmitted vibrations. A quarter-car model is considered and delayed hysteretic suspension is introduced in the system. Analytical predictions based on perturbation analysis show that a delayed hysteretic suspension enhances vibration isolation comparing to the case where the nonlinear damping is delay-independent.

  13. Secure Wireless Communications via Cooperative Transmitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Draganov Stojanovski

    2014-01-01

    and the number of eavesdroppers on the area fraction where secure communication is possible. Upper bounds on the probability of existence of positive secrecy between the cooperating transmitters and the receiver are derived. The closeness of the upper bounds to the real value is then estimated by means of numerical simulations. Simulations also indicate that a deterministic spatial distribution for the transmitters, for example, hexagonal and square lattices, increases the probability of existence of positive secrecy capacity compared to the random spatial distributions. For the same number of friendly nodes, cooperative transmitting provides a dramatically larger secrecy region than cooperative jamming and cooperative relaying.

  14. Schistosoma haematobium co-infection with soil-transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmitted helminthes afflict most-at-risk populations in endemic communities in the developing world. Aim: This study investigated S. haematobium co-infection with soil-transmitted helminthes, and host risk factors in two communities in the ...

  15. Prevention of soil-transmitted helminth infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Mascarini-Serra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides, whipworms (Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale; on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the environment and intensity of infection and morbidity of STHs. The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is based on (i regular anthelminthic treatment, (ii health education, (iii sanitation and personal hygiene and (iv other means of prevention with vaccines and remote sensoring. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are discussed, as well as the costs of the prevention of STHs, although these cannot always be calculated because interventions in health education are difficult to measure. An efficient sanitation infrastructure can reduce the morbidity of STHs and eliminates the underlying cause of most poverty-related diseases and thus supports the economic development of a country.

  16. Multiple routes transmitted epidemics on multiplex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dawei [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computer Network, Shandong Computer Science Center, Jinan 250014 (China); Li, Lixiang [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Peng, Haipeng, E-mail: penghaipeng@bupt.edu.cn [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Luo, Qun; Yang, Yixian [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-02-01

    This letter investigates the multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. We propose detailed theoretical analysis that allows us to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. It is found that the epidemic can spread across the multiplex network even if all the network layers are well below their respective epidemic thresholds. Strong positive degree–degree correlation of nodes in multiplex network could lead to a much lower epidemic threshold and a relatively smaller outbreak size. However, the average similarity of neighbors from different layers of nodes has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. -- Highlights: •We studies multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. •SIR model and bond percolation theory are used to analyze the epidemic processes. •We derive equations to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •ASN has no effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •Strong positive DDC leads to a lower epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size.

  17. [Sexually transmitted infections of the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöfer, H

    2012-09-01

    Various sexual practices like fellatio, cunnilingus, or anilingus (rimming) can cause both symptomatic and asymptomatic oral infections in both sexes. Clinically apparent lesions are found in primary, secondary, and tertiary syphilis, in acute HIV infection and the subsequent stage of immunodeficiency (opportunistic infections), as well as in herpes and human papilloma virus infections. Genital candidiasis also can be transmitted to the oral cavity. Depending on the infective agent transmitted, ulcerative, inflammatory or papillomatous lesions of the lips, tongue, mucous membranes and pharynx occur. Oropharyngeal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis (Serovar D-K) can cause pharyngitis and tonsillitis with sore throat, but are completely asymptomatic in most cases. Asymptomatic infections are an important, but frequently overlooked reservoir for new infections. Systemic treatment of oral STI's usually is the same as that for anogenital infections. It can be accompanied by symptomatic topical therapy. When the tonsils and other difficult to reach tissues are infected, higher doses and an antibiotic with good tissue penetration are recommended.

  18. Expression of a Human Cytochrome P450 in Yeast Permits Analysis of Pathways for Response to and Repair of Aflatoxin-Induced DNA Damage†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Breeden, Linda L.; Zarbl, Helmut; Preston, Bradley D.; Eaton, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a human hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus. In humans, AFB1 is primarily bioactivated by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and 3A4 to a genotoxic epoxide that forms N7-guanine DNA adducts. A series of yeast haploid mutants defective in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints were transformed with human CYP1A2 to investigate how these DNA adducts are repaired. Cell survival and mutagenesis following aflatoxin B1 treatment was assayed in strains defective in nucleotide excision repair (NER) (rad14), postreplication repair (PRR) (rad6, rad18, mms2, and rad5), homologous recombinational repair (HRR) (rad51 and rad54), base excision repair (BER) (apn1 apn2), nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) (yku70), mismatch repair (MMR) (pms1), translesion synthesis (TLS) (rev3), and checkpoints (mec1-1, mec1-1 rad53, rad9, and rad17). Together our data suggest the involvement of homologous recombination and nucleotide excision repair, postreplication repair, and checkpoints in the repair and/or tolerance of AFB1-induced DNA damage in the yeast model. Rev3 appears to mediate AFB1-induced mutagenesis when error-free pathways are compromised. The results further suggest unique roles for Rad5 and abasic endonuclease-dependent DNA intermediates in regulating AFB1-induced mutagenicity. PMID:15988000

  19. Expression of a human cytochrome p450 in yeast permits analysis of pathways for response to and repair of aflatoxin-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Breeden, Linda L; Zarbl, Helmut; Preston, Bradley D; Eaton, David L

    2005-07-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a human hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus. In humans, AFB1 is primarily bioactivated by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and 3A4 to a genotoxic epoxide that forms N7-guanine DNA adducts. A series of yeast haploid mutants defective in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints were transformed with human CYP1A2 to investigate how these DNA adducts are repaired. Cell survival and mutagenesis following aflatoxin B1 treatment was assayed in strains defective in nucleotide excision repair (NER) (rad14), postreplication repair (PRR) (rad6, rad18, mms2, and rad5), homologous recombinational repair (HRR) (rad51 and rad54), base excision repair (BER) (apn1 apn2), nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) (yku70), mismatch repair (MMR) (pms1), translesion synthesis (TLS) (rev3), and checkpoints (mec1-1, mec1-1 rad53, rad9, and rad17). Together our data suggest the involvement of homologous recombination and nucleotide excision repair, postreplication repair, and checkpoints in the repair and/or tolerance of AFB1-induced DNA damage in the yeast model. Rev3 appears to mediate AFB1-induced mutagenesis when error-free pathways are compromised. The results further suggest unique roles for Rad5 and abasic endonuclease-dependent DNA intermediates in regulating AFB1-induced mutagenicity.

  20. PCNA ubiquitination is important, but not essential for translesion DNA synthesis in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayal Hendel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS is a DNA damage tolerance mechanism in which specialized low-fidelity DNA polymerases bypass replication-blocking lesions, and it is usually associated with mutagenesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae a key event in TLS is the monoubiquitination of PCNA, which enables recruitment of the specialized polymerases to the damaged site through their ubiquitin-binding domain. In mammals, however, there is a debate on the requirement for ubiquitinated PCNA (PCNA-Ub in TLS. We show that UV-induced Rpa foci, indicative of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA regions caused by UV, accumulate faster and disappear more slowly in Pcna(K164R/K164R cells, which are resistant to PCNA ubiquitination, compared to Pcna(+/+ cells, consistent with a TLS defect. Direct analysis of TLS in these cells, using gapped plasmids with site-specific lesions, showed that TLS is strongly reduced across UV lesions and the cisplatin-induced intrastrand GG crosslink. A similar effect was obtained in cells lacking Rad18, the E3 ubiquitin ligase which monoubiquitinates PCNA. Consistently, cells lacking Usp1, the enzyme that de-ubiquitinates PCNA exhibited increased TLS across a UV lesion and the cisplatin adduct. In contrast, cells lacking the Rad5-homologs Shprh and Hltf, which polyubiquitinate PCNA, exhibited normal TLS. Knocking down the expression of the TLS genes Rev3L, PolH, or Rev1 in Pcna(K164R/K164R mouse embryo fibroblasts caused each an increased sensitivity to UV radiation, indicating the existence of TLS pathways that are independent of PCNA-Ub. Taken together these results indicate that PCNA-Ub is required for maximal TLS. However, TLS polymerases can be recruited to damaged DNA also in the absence of PCNA-Ub, and perform TLS, albeit at a significantly lower efficiency and altered mutagenic specificity.

  1. Interviews with candidates for president transmitted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gomes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In election years, television interviews with presidential candidates, broadcast live, i.e. without the use of editing, have become an important genre of journalistic representation in Brazilian political campaigns. These interviews are conducted in network studios by well-known Brazilian news anchors. The fact that these interviews are transmitted directly to the electorate in an unedited form is generally offered as a guarantee of a genuine, authentic portrayal of the candidates themselves. The present work proposes that live network candidate interviews, rather than a means of political presentation on television, are actually an arena in which the institution of journalism attempts to use rhetorical and argumentative means to control the candidates’ discourse without relying on the traditional advantages conferred in daily news coverage.

  2. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  3. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Gemma; Schlund, Michael W.; Dymond, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead to the inference that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known however about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance—instructions and social observation—on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+) and another was a safety cue (CS−). Groups were then either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock (instructed-learning group) or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group). During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed. PMID:26150773

  4. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Gemma; Schlund, Michael W; Dymond, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead to the inference that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known however about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance-instructions and social observation-on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+) and another was a safety cue (CS-). Groups were then either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock (instructed-learning group) or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group). During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  5. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  6. Transmit Power Optimisation in Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Terziu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transmit power optimisation in wireless networks based on beamforming have emerged as a promising technique to enhance the spectrum efficiency of present and future wireless communication systems. The aim of this study is to minimise the access point power consumption in cellular networks while maintaining a targeted quality of service (QoS for the mobile terminals. In this study, the targeted quality of service is delivered to a mobile station by providing a desired level of Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR. Base-stations are coordinated across multiple cells in a multi-antenna beamforming system. This study focuses on a multi-cell multi-antenna downlink scenario where each mobile user is equipped with a single antenna, but where multiple mobile users may be active simultaneously in each cell and are separated via spatial multiplexing using beamforming. The design criteria is to minimize the total weighted transmitted power across the base-stations subject to SINR constraints at the mobile users. The main contribution of this study is to define an iterative algorithm that is capable of finding the joint optimal beamformers for all basestations, based on a correlation-based channel model, the full-correlation model. Among all correlated channel models, the correlated channel model used in this study is the most accurate, giving the best performance in terms of power consumption. The environment here in this study is chosen to be Non-Light of- Sight (NLOS condition, where a signal from a wireless transmitter passes several obstructions before arriving at a wireless receiver. Moreover there are many scatterers local to the mobile, and multiple reflections can occur among them before energy arrives at the mobile. The proposed algorithm is based on uplink-downlink duality using the Lagrangian duality theory. Time-Division Duplex (TDD is chosen as the platform for this study since it has been adopted to the latest technologies in Fourth

  7. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Nils; Papaiakovou, Marina; Grant, Jessica R.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Llewellyn, Stacey; McCarthy, James S.; Williams, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world’s most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis). Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay. Conclusions/Significance The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other

  8. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Nils; Papaiakovou, Marina; Grant, Jessica R; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Llewellyn, Stacey; McCarthy, James S; Williams, Steven A

    2016-03-01

    The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world's most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays. Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis). Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay. The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other eukaryotic pathogens.

  9. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Pilotte

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world's most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays.Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay.The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other eukaryotic pathogens.

  10. DNA Replication Stress Phosphoproteome Profiles Reveal Novel Functional Phosphorylation Sites on Xrs2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongqing; Piening, Brian D; Kennedy, Jacob J; Lin, Chenwei; Jones-Weinert, Corey W; Yan, Ping; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-05-01

    In response to replication stress, a phospho-signaling cascade is activated and required for coordination of DNA repair and replication of damaged templates (intra-S-phase checkpoint) . How phospho-signaling coordinates the DNA replication stress response is largely unknown. We employed state-of-the-art liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches to generate high-coverage and quantitative proteomic and phospho-proteomic profiles during replication stress in yeast, induced by continuous exposure to the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) . We identified 32,057 unique peptides representing the products of 4296 genes and 22,061 unique phosphopeptides representing the products of 3183 genes. A total of 542 phosphopeptides (mapping to 339 genes) demonstrated an abundance change of greater than or equal to twofold in response to MMS. The screen enabled detection of nearly all of the proteins known to be involved in the DNA damage response, as well as many novel MMS-induced phosphorylations. We assessed the functional importance of a subset of key phosphosites by engineering a panel of phosphosite mutants in which an amino acid substitution prevents phosphorylation. In total, we successfully mutated 15 MMS-responsive phosphorylation sites in seven representative genes including APN1 (base excision repair); CTF4 and TOF1 (checkpoint and sister-chromatid cohesion); MPH1 (resolution of homologous recombination intermediates); RAD50 and XRS2 (MRX complex); and RAD18 (PRR). All of these phosphorylation site mutants exhibited MMS sensitivity, indicating an important role in protecting cells from DNA damage. In particular, we identified MMS-induced phosphorylation sites on Xrs2 that are required for MMS resistance in the absence of the MRX activator, Sae2, and that affect telomere maintenance. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Microbicides for prevention of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, Mary K; Kuhl, Jeffrey P

    2005-01-01

    In the last 50 years, changes in cultural and scientific realities and customs have resulted in a worldwide epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This is a multi-factorial problem resulting in part from: 1) an increased permissiveness in sexual attitudes in the Western world that results in earlier onset of intercourse and increased numbers of partners and types of sex acts; 2) a global transportation network that facilitates contacts and interactions between urban and rural areas as well as between countries resulting in migration and spread of infections; 3) an emergence of new and mutated forms of pathogens with increased capabilities to cause infections and for which there are no available vaccines or therapies; and, 4) at risk populations in developing countries who are susceptible to these pathogens while having societal infrastructures that lack basic health education and proper access to healthcare. Overwhelming examples of increasing and emerging STD pathogens exist in the early twenty-first century. These include human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with over 42 million current cases of infection, 20 million deaths to date, and an estimated 500,000 deaths per year; human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, the causative agents of genital warts and cervical cancer, with approximately 1 in 4 women harboring virus DNA in genital epithelium, 1-3 percent of women showing symptoms of infection and 250,000 deaths per year in women worldwide from cervical cancer; and numerous others. Topical microbicides have been proposed as agents to break the chain of transmission in these infections by providing chemical, biological, and/or physical barriers to infection by blocking and/or inactivating pathogens at the mucosal surface where infection can occur. For many sexually transmitted infections, vaccines do not exist, and therapeutic agents are only partially effective, expensive, and

  12. Stochastic Allocation of Transmit Power for Realistic Wireless Channel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Tarhuni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of transmitted power is crucial for the successful operation of multi-user wireless channels communications. There are practical situations in which the transmitted power cannot be adjusted by feedback information; hence, only forward transmit power allocation can be applied, especially in situations where a feedback channel is not available in a wireless network or when wireless nodes are only transmit types. Conventionally, transmitted power can be fixed. Higher gain may be observed if the sensors’ transmitted power is randomized. In this work, random power allocation for a Nakagami-m distributed wireless channel model was investigated, and a number of random distributions were evaluated theoretically and tested by simulations. The outage probability was evaluated theoretically and validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Travel-related sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common notifiable health problems worldwide, with particularly high rates in developing countries. Men and women with multiple sexual partners at home or a previous history of STIs are more likely to have casual sexual exposure (CSE) while travelling. Over the last several decades 5% to even 50% of short-term travellers engaged in CSE during foreign trips. It is estimated that only 50% of travellers use condoms during casual sex abroad. Sexual contact with commercial sex workers is an exceptionally high-risk behaviour. The common risk factor is also young age. Adolescents and young adults constitute 25% of the sexually active population, but represent almost 50% of all new acquired STIs. Many STIs are asymptomatic and therefore can be difficult to identify and control. The clinical manifestation of STIs can be grouped into a number of syndromes, such as genital ulcer or erosion, urethral or vaginal discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease. STIs are divided into curable infections caused by bacteria (gonorrhoea, chlamydiasis, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale) or protozoa (trichomoniasis) and incurable viral infections (genital herpes, genital warts, HIV). STIs are not only a cause of acute morbidity, but may result in complications including male and female infertility, ectopic pregnancy, cervical cancer, premature mortality or miscarriage. Monogamous sex with a stable, uninfected partner or sexual abstinence remains the only way to avoid the risk of becoming infected with STIs.

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases in children in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhawan Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in children are not uncommon in India, though systematic epidemiological studies to determine the exact prevalence are not available. STDs in children can be acquired via sexual route or, uncommonly, via non-sexual route such as accidental inoculation by a diseased individual. Neonatal infections are almost always acquired intrauterine or during delivery. Voluntary indulgence in sexual activity is also an important factor in acquisition of STDs in childhood. Sexual abuse and sex trafficking remain the important problems in India. Surveys indicate that nearly half of the children are sexually abused. Most at risk children are street-based, homeless or those living in or near brothels. Last two decades have shown an increase in the prevalence of STDs in children, though most of the data is from northern part of the country and from major hospitals. However, due to better availability of antenatal care to majority of women, cases of congenital syphilis have declined consistently over the past two-three decades. Other bacterial STDs are also on decline. On the other hand, viral STDs such as genital herpes and anogenital warts are increasing. This reflects trends of STDs in the adult population. Concomitant HIV infection is uncommon in children. Comprehensive sex education, stringent laws to prevent sex trafficking and child sexual abuse, and antenatal screening of all the women can reduce the prevalence of STDs in children.

  15. Transfusion-transmitted infections in haemophilia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhubi, Bukurije; Mekaj, Ymer; Baruti, Zana; Bunjaku, Ilirijane; Belegu, Mazllum

    2009-11-01

    One of the largest therapeutic problem during the continuous treatment of the patients with Hemophilia A and B, are viral infections as Hepatitis B and C, and HIV, and the other infective diseases, which can be transmitted by the transfusion of blood products. The aim of this study is to analyze the complications of the hemophiliacs in Kosovo which have been treated with fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate and concentrated products of FVIII and FIX. We have tested 75 patients with hemophilia A or B and there were used enzyme immunoassay test-Elisa method for the following: anti-HCV, HBsAg, HIV and TPHA.The serological data showed that HCV infection was positive in 29 cases or 38,7%, whereas infection with HBV and HIV were present in a smaller percentage of the patients (2,7% HBV and 1,4% for HIV). HCV infection was present only in 9,5% of the cases of the age group under 18 years. Infected hemophiliacs with one or two infective agents were found in 34,7%, respectively 4%. Infection with T. pallidum was present at none of the examined patients with hemophilia. HCV infection was higher in severe forms of hemophilia B (44,4%), compared with severe form of hemophilia A (30%).Based on our results, despite the infrequent application of FVIII and FIX concentrates, and other anti hemophilic preparations used in treating hemophilia patients, the number of infected hemophiliacs with blood-transmittable infectious agents was substantially high, especially with hepatitis C virus.

  16. Trace metals alter DNA repair and histone modification pathways concurrently in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhia, Sanket R; Calabro, Anthony R; Barile, Frank A

    2012-07-20

    Exposure to metals alters gene expression, changes transcription rates or interferes with DNA repair mechanisms. We tested a hypothesis to determine whether in vitro acute metal exposure, with or without recovery, alters epigenetic pathways in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. We measured cell viability, total and histone protein production, changes in gene expression for differentiation and DNA repair, and histone lysine mono-methylation (H3K27me1), in differentiated cells. Confluent differentiated cultures of mES cells were exposed to arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), mercury (Hg), and nickel (Ni), for 1-h and 24-h, followed by a recovery period. The data demonstrate that maximum cell death occurred during the first few hours of exposure at 24-h IC₅₀ concentrations for all metals. Prolonged in vitro exposure to metals at low concentrations also inhibited protein production and cell proliferation. Subsequently, we determined that metals alter cell differentiation (Oct-4 and egfr) and DNA repair mechanisms (Rad-18, Top-3a and Ogg-1). Interestingly, As, Cd, Hg, and Ni decreased cell proliferation to a greater extent than total histone protein production. Yet, at equivalent concentrations, As and Hg significantly decreased total histone protein production per cell compared to respective controls, suggesting suppression of repair or compensatory mechanisms involving histone pathways. And, acute exposure to As, Cd, Hg and Ni decreased H3K27me1 residue, when compared to control cells. Because activation of cellular differentiation, histone modification, and DNA repair are linked by common transcriptional pathways, and the data propose that metals alter these conduits, then it is reasonable to conclude that trace quantities of metals are capable of suppressing regulation of chromatin structure, cellular differentiation, and controlled cell proliferation in mES cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GNSS satellite transmit power and its impact on orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Thoelert, Steffen; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Antenna thrust is a small acceleration acting on Global Navigation Satellite System satellites caused by the transmission of radio navigation signals. Knowledge about the transmit power and the mass of the satellites is required for the computation of this effect. The actual transmit power can be obtained from measurements with a high-gain antenna and knowledge about the properties of the transmit and receive antennas as well as losses along the propagation path. Transmit power measurements for different types of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou-2 satellites were taken with a 30-m dish antenna of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) located at its ground station in Weilheim. For GPS, total L-band transmit power levels of 50-240 W were obtained, 20-135 W for GLONASS, 95-265 W for Galileo, and 130-185 W for BeiDou-2. The transmit power differs usually only slightly for individual spacecraft within one satellite block. An exception are the GLONASS-M satellites where six subgroups with different transmit power levels could be identified. Considering the antenna thrust in precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites decreases the orbital radius by 1-27 mm depending on the transmit power, the satellite mass, and the orbital period.

  18. Integrated Reconfigurable High-Voltage Transmitting Circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    -out and measurements are performed on the integrated circuit. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes, pulse voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V and frequencies up to 5 MHz. The area...

  19. Image Quality Degradation from Transmit Delay Profile Quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jonas; di Ianni, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    The investigated hypothesis is that quantization of the transmit delay profiles degrades the image quality in plane wave ultrasound imaging. Simulated point spread functions show that transmit delay profile quantization gives rise to artefacts behind the point target. The axial and lateral 6 dB r...

  20. 47 CFR 95.135 - Maximum authorized transmitting power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 95.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... station at a point north of Line A or east of Line C must transmit with no more than 5 watts ERP. (d) A... transmit with no more than 5 watts ERP. ...

  1. Integrated reconfigurable high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a high-voltage transmitting circuit aimed for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in scanners for medical applications is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able...

  2. Note on transmitted complexity for quantum dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noboru; Muto, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Transmitted complexity (mutual entropy) is one of the important measures for quantum information theory developed recently in several ways. We will review the fundamental concepts of the Kossakowski, Ohya and Watanabe entropy and define a transmitted complexity for quantum dynamical systems. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  3. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in children: evidence from school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Health Organization in 2002 estimated that more than one billion of the world's population is chronically infected with soil transmitted helminthes with 2 billion at risk. Children are important high risk group for soil transmitted helminthes since they are continuously being exposed to contaminated soil and water.

  4. 3w Transmitted Beam Diagnostic at the Omega Laser Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froula, D H; Rekow, V; Sorce, C; Piston, K; Knight, R; Alvarez, S; Griffith, R; Hargrove, D; Ross, J S; Dixit, S; Pollock, B; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; Armstrong, W; Bahr, R; Thorp, K; Pien, G

    2006-04-24

    A 3{omega} transmitted beam diagnostic has been commissioned on the Omega Laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester [Soures et.al., Laser Part. Beams 11 (1993)]. Transmitted light from one beam is collected by a large focusing mirror and directed onto a diagnostic platform. The near field of the transmitted light is imaged; the system collects information from twice the original f-cone of the beam. Two gated optical cameras capture the near field image of the transmitted light. Thirteen spatial positions around the measurement region are temporally resolved using fast photodiodes to allow a measure of the beam spray evolution. The Forward stimulated Raman scattering and forward simulated Brillion scattering are spectrally and temporally resolved at 5 independent locations within twice the original f-cone. The total transmitted energy is measured in two spectral bands ({delta}{lambda} < 400 nm and {delta}{lambda} > 400 nm).

  5. Transfusion transmitted diseases in perioperative and intensive care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients in the perioperative period and intensive care unit are commonly exposed to blood transfusion (BT. They are at increased risk of transfusion transmitted bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases. The risk of viral transmission has decreased steadily, but the risk of bacterial transmission remains same. Bacterial contamination is more in platelet concentrates than in red cells and least in plasma. The chances of sepsis, morbidity and mortality depend on the number of transfusions and underlying condition of the patient. Challenges to safe BT continue due to new emerging pathogens and various management problems. Strategies to restrict BT, optimal surgical and anaesthetic techniques to reduce blood loss and efforts to develop transfusion alternatives should be made. Literature search was performed using search words/phrases blood transfusion, transfusion, transfusion transmitted diseases, transfusion transmitted bacterial diseases, transfusion transmitted viral diseases, transfusion transmitted protozoal diseases or combinations, on PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 to 2014.

  6. Transfusion transmitted diseases in perioperative and intensive care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rekha; Hansda, Upendra

    2014-09-01

    Patients in the perioperative period and intensive care unit are commonly exposed to blood transfusion (BT). They are at increased risk of transfusion transmitted bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases. The risk of viral transmission has decreased steadily, but the risk of bacterial transmission remains same. Bacterial contamination is more in platelet concentrates than in red cells and least in plasma. The chances of sepsis, morbidity and mortality depend on the number of transfusions and underlying condition of the patient. Challenges to safe BT continue due to new emerging pathogens and various management problems. Strategies to restrict BT, optimal surgical and anaesthetic techniques to reduce blood loss and efforts to develop transfusion alternatives should be made. Literature search was performed using search words/phrases blood transfusion, transfusion, transfusion transmitted diseases, transfusion transmitted bacterial diseases, transfusion transmitted viral diseases, transfusion transmitted protozoal diseases or combinations, on PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 to 2014.

  7. Transmitted Laser Beam Diagnostic at the Omega Laser Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, C; Antonini, G; Compton, S; Glenzer, S; Hargrove, D; Moody, J; Kirkwood, R; Rekow, V; Sorce, C; Armstrong, W; Bahr, R; Keck, R; Pien, G; Seka, W; Thorp, K

    2004-04-01

    We have developed and commissioned a transmitted beam diagnostic (TBD) for the 2{omega} high intensity interaction beam at the Omega laser facility. The TBD consists of a bare-surface reflector mounted near the target, which collects and reflects 4% of the transmitted light to a detector assembly outside the vacuum chamber. The detector includes a time integrating near-field camera that measures beam spray, deflection and the absolute transmitted power. We present a detailed description of the instrument and the calibration method and include first measurements on laser heated gasbag targets to demonstrate the performance of the diagnostic.

  8. The Control of Transmitted Power in an Active Isolation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, S.J.; Gardonio, P.; Pinnington, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    and distributed active mounts, and these models can be connected together to produce an overall theoretical description of a realistic active isolation system. Total transmitted power has been found to be an excellent criterion to quantify the effect of various control strategies in this model in which...... the contributions to the transmitted power in the various degrees of freedom can be clearly understood. It has also been found, however, that an active control system which minimises a practical estimate of transmitted power, calculated from the product of the axial forces and velocities under the mounts, can give...... of such an active vibration control system are also discussed....

  9. Transmit Diversity at the Cell Border Using Smart Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plass Simon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problems at the most critical area in a cellular multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA network, namely, the cell border. At a mobile terminal the diversity can be increased by using transmit diversity techniques such as cyclic delay diversity (CDD and space-time coding like Alamouti. We transfer these transmit diversity techniques to a cellular environment. Therefore, the performance is enhanced at the cell border, intercellular interference is avoided, and soft handover procedures are simplified all together. By this, macrodiversity concepts are exchanged by transmit diversity concepts. These concepts also shift parts of the complexity from the mobile terminal to smart base stations.

  10. Transmit Diversity at the Cell Border Using Smart Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Dammann

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the problems at the most critical area in a cellular multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA network, namely, the cell border. At a mobile terminal the diversity can be increased by using transmit diversity techniques such as cyclic delay diversity (CDD and space-time coding like Alamouti. We transfer these transmit diversity techniques to a cellular environment. Therefore, the performance is enhanced at the cell border, intercellular interference is avoided, and soft handover procedures are simplified all together. By this, macrodiversity concepts are exchanged by transmit diversity concepts. These concepts also shift parts of the complexity from the mobile terminal to smart base stations.

  11. Pelargonium zonate spot virus is transmitted vertically via seed and pollen in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot, M; Guenoune-Gelbart, D; Leibman, D; Holdengreber, V; Davidovitz, M; Machbash, Z; Klieman-Shoval, S; Cohen, S; Gal-On, A

    2010-08-01

    In autumn 2007, a new disease with unknown etiology was observed in open-field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the Lachish region of Israel. The symptoms included mild mosaic, leaf malformation, and severe stunting of the plants. The causal agent was readily transmitted mechanically from the sap of infected plants to indicator plants. Viral particles were purified from infected plants and cDNA was synthesized from RNA isolated from the particles. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA showed 95% identity to RNA 3 of Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV). Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, PZSV was detected in both seed and pollen grains of infected tomato plants. Attempts to disinfect seed by using hydrochloric acid and trisodium phosphate failed to eliminate this PZSV detection. Seed from infected tomato plants gave rise to infected seedlings with a seed-transmission rate of PZSV of 11 to 29%. Pollen grains collected from flowers of infected plants were used to hand pollinate healthy mother tomato plants. Although none of the pollinated mother plants became infected with PZSV, 29% of the seedlings produced from seed harvested from these plants were found to be infected. This is the first demonstration that PZSV is transmitted vertically via both pollen and seed in tomato plants.

  12. Fibonacci Sequence and Supramolecular Structure of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalkin, I P; Grigor'eva, E Yu; Gudkova, M V; Shabalkin, P I

    2016-05-01

    We proposed a new model of supramolecular DNA structure. Similar to the previously developed by us model of primary DNA structure [11-15], 3D structure of DNA molecule is assembled in accordance to a mathematic rule known as Fibonacci sequence. Unlike primary DNA structure, supramolecular 3D structure is assembled from complex moieties including a regular tetrahedron and a regular octahedron consisting of monomers, elements of the primary DNA structure. The moieties of the supramolecular DNA structure forming fragments of regular spatial lattice are bound via linker (joint) sequences of the DNA chain. The lattice perceives and transmits information signals over a considerable distance without acoustic aberrations. Linker sequences expand conformational space between lattice segments allowing their sliding relative to each other under the action of external forces. In this case, sliding is provided by stretching of the stacked linker sequences.

  13. Community-based survey of sexually transmitted disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tullu. Fikru Tesfaye, Mesfin Kassaye, Derege Kebede. Abstract. Although Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a major public health problem, and a challenge to reproductive health, there is little epidemiological research on the incidence ...

  14. Transmit TACAN Bearing Information with a Circular Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mark Dorsey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using TACAN and array fundamentals, we derive an architecture for transmitting TACAN bearing information from a circular array with time-varying weights. We evaluate performance for a simulated example array of Vivaldi elements.

  15. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis among school age children in Ethiope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2Parasitology Laboratory, Baptist Medical Centre, Eku, Delta State, Nigeria. Accepted 23 August, 2005 ..... The community ecology of soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans in a ... Parasites. Laboratory Manual, WHO, Geneva. p. 114.

  16. Prevalence of selected sexually transmitted infection (sti) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of selected sexually transmitted infection (sti) and associated factors among symptomatic patients attending Gondar Town hospitals and health cCenters. Rozina Ambachew Geremew, Beyene Moges Agizie, Abate Assefa Bashaw, Mengistu Endris Seid, Addisu Gize Yeshanew ...

  17. Sensitivity of mechanically transmitted pathogens to different disinfectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intensive hands-on activities of greenhouse tomato propagation and production favor the spread of mechanically transmitted pathogens, particularly Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), viruses, viroids, and Botrytis cinerea. These pathogens can spread during crop handling, graft...

  18. Dual involvement of TFIIH in DNA repair and transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Winkler (Sebastiaan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe catrier of genetic information, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), appears at the macromolecular level as an extremely stable molecule as it is faithfully duplicated and transmitted from mother to daughter cells. At the molecular level, however, DNA is subject to continuous attack, even

  19. The amino-terminal tails of histones H2A and H3 coordinate efficient base excision repair, DNA damage signaling and postreplication repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meas, Rithy; Smerdon, Michael J; Wyrick, John J

    2015-05-26

    Histone amino-terminal tails (N-tails) are required for cellular resistance to DNA damaging agents; therefore, we examined the role of histone N-tails in regulating DNA damage response pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Combinatorial deletions reveal that the H2A and H3 N-tails are important for the removal of MMS-induced DNA lesions due to their role in regulating the basal and MMS-induced expression of DNA glycosylase Mag1. Furthermore, overexpression of Mag1 in a mutant lacking the H2A and H3 N-tails rescues base excision repair (BER) activity but not MMS sensitivity. We further show that the H3 N-tail functions in the Rad9/Rad53 DNA damage signaling pathway, but this function does not appear to be the primary cause of MMS sensitivity of the double tailless mutants. Instead, epistasis analyses demonstrate that the tailless H2A/H3 phenotypes are in the RAD18 epistasis group, which regulates postreplication repair. We observed increased levels of ubiquitylated PCNA and significantly lower mutation frequency in the tailless H2A/H3 mutant, indicating a defect in postreplication repair. In summary, our data identify novel roles of the histone H2A and H3 N-tails in (i) regulating the expression of a critical BER enzyme (Mag1), (ii) supporting efficient DNA damage signaling and (iii) facilitating postreplication repair. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Decreasing Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infection in Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion transmitted infections are major problem associated with blood transfusion. Accurate estimates of risk of TTIs are essential for monitoring the safety of blood supply and evaluating the efficacy of currently employed screening procedures. The present study was carried out to assess the percentage of voluntary donors and replacement donors and to find out prevalence and changing trends of various TTIs blood donors in recent years. A study was carried out on blood units of voluntary and replacement donors which were collected from January 2008 to December 2012. On screening of 180,371 replacement units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in replacement donors was 0.15% in HIV, 1.67% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.49% in hepatitis C virus, 0.01% in VDRL, and 0.009% in malaria. Of 11,977 voluntary units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in voluntary donors was 0.08% in HIV, 0.24% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.001% in hepatitis C virus, 0.008% in VDRL (sexually transmitted disease, and 0.01% in malaria. From results it has been concluded that prevalence of transfusion transmitted infection (HIV, HBV, HCV, VDRL, and malaria was more in replacement donors in comparison to voluntary donors. Extensive donor selection and screening procedures will help in improving the blood safety.

  1. The evolution of host protection by vertically transmitted parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward O; White, Andrew; Boots, Michael

    2011-03-22

    Hosts are often infected by a variety of different parasites, leading to competition for hosts and coevolution between parasite species. There is increasing evidence that some vertically transmitted parasitic symbionts may protect their hosts from further infection and that this protection may be an important reason for their persistence in nature. Here, we examine theoretically when protection is likely to evolve and its selective effects on other parasites. Our key result is that protection is most likely to evolve in response to horizontally transmitted parasites that cause a significant reduction in host fecundity. The preponderance of sterilizing horizontally transmitted parasites found in arthropods may therefore explain the evolution of protection seen by their symbionts. We also find that protection is more likely to evolve in response to highly transmissible parasites that cause intermediate, rather than high, virulence (increased death rate when infected). Furthermore, intermediate levels of protection select for faster, more virulent horizontally transmitted parasites, suggesting that protective symbionts may lead to the evolution of more virulent parasites in nature. When we allow for coevolution between the symbiont and the parasite, more protection is likely to evolve in the vertically transmitted symbionts of longer lived hosts. Therefore, if protection is found to be common in nature, it has the potential to be a major selective force on host-parasite interactions.

  2. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.

  3. System for transmitting and receiving multi-polarized signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to: an optical receiver, configured to receive at least three multiplexed, differently polarized, optically transmitted signals, each signal associated with a predefined state of polarization, said receiver comprising a multi- polarization analyzer for obtaining...... an analyzed signal for each of said polarized signals, wherein at least one of said analyzed signals comprises data in the full Stokes space; an optical transmitter, configured to transmit at least three multiplexed, differently polarized, optically transmitted signals, wherein at least one of said polarized...... signals comprises data in the full Stokes space; a system configured to communicate optically over a communication link, comprising: an optical transmitter, configured to generate and multiplex at least three independent data signals having different states of polarization into a multiplexed signal...

  4. Rapid Detection and Identification of a Pathogen's DNA Using Phi29 DNA Polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.; Dunn, J.; Gao, S.; Bruno, J. F.; Luft, B. J.

    2008-10-31

    Zoonotic pathogens including those transmitted by insect vectors are some of the most deadly of all infectious diseases known to mankind. A number of these agents have been further weaponized and are widely recognized as being potentially significant biothreat agents. We describe a novel method based on multiply-primed rolling circle in vitro amplification for profiling genomic DNAs to permit rapid, cultivation-free differential detection and identification of circular plasmids in infectious agents. Using Phi29 DNA polymerase and a two-step priming reaction we could reproducibly detect and characterize by DNA sequencing circular DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi B31 in DNA samples containing as little as 25 pg of Borrelia DNA amongst a vast excess of human DNA. This simple technology can ultimately be adapted as a sensitive method to detect specific DNA from both known and unknown pathogens in a wide variety of complex environments.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  6. Detection of sexually transmitted infection and human papillomavirus in negative cytology by multiplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hyun-Jae

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV and 15 species that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs in negative cytology. In addition, we compared the diagnostic performance of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR with widely available techniques used to detect HPV. Methods We recruited 235 women of reproductive age who had negative cytology findings in a liquid-based cervical smear. STIs were identified by multiplex PCR, and HPV genotypes by multiplex PCR, hybrid capture 2, and DNA microaray; discordant results were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results Approximately 96.6% of patients with negative cytology results were positive for pathogens that cause STIs. The pathogens most frequently detected were Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum. The incidence of HPV in negative cytology was 23.3%. Low-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Chalmaydia trachomatis, and high-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Group β streptococcus. The analytical sensitivities of the multiplex PCR and DNA microarray were higher than 80%, and the analytical specificity was nearly 100% for all tests. Conclusions Multiplex PCR yielded results that most of patients with negative cytology were positive for pathogens that cause STIs, and were more similar to that of DNA microarray, than that of hybrid capture 2 in terms of analytical sensitivity and prediction value of HPV infection.

  7. Emergence of Arthropod Transmitted infections in Kennel Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Jameel

    Full Text Available Changing scenario of climate resulting from global warming and adversity of nature has also resulted in emergence and re-emergence of diseases transmitted by arthropods. Increasing trends of population growth of dogs has increased the chance of disease transmission due to readily available susceptible host. Babesiosis and Hepatozoonosis and Ehrlichiosis are the main arthropod borne diseases of dogs prevalent in India. The present article explains the importance of these arthropod transmitted infections in kennel dogs, research progress and reason for their emergence in the present scenario. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 522-528

  8. Integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Farch, Kjartan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the integrated circuit in order...... to assess its performance. The circuit generates pulses at differential voltage levels of 60V, 80V and 100 V, a frequency up to 5MHz and a measured driving strength of 1.75 V/ns with the CMUT connected. The total on-chip area occupied by the transmitting circuit is 0.18 mm2 and the power consumption...

  9. Wettability study using transmitted electrons in environmental scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkay, Z.

    2010-05-01

    A method for quantitative wettability study at nanoscale is presented. It is based on measuring transmitted electrons through nanodroplets using wet scanning transmission electron microscope (wet-STEM) detector in environmental scanning electron microscope. The quantitative information of the nanodroplet shape and contact angle is obtained by fitting Monte Carlo simulation results for transmitted electrons through spherical cap geometry with the experimental wet-STEM results. The characterization is demonstrated for particles and for initial stages of water droplet condensation over a nonhomogeneous holey carbon grid. The method is suggested for application in thin polymer and biological films.

  10. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Multi-Element Synthetic Transmit Aperture Imaging using Temporal Encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    show better performance for EMESTA imaging after the linear array focus. Both methods have similar contrast performance. Measurements areperformed using our experimental multi-channel ultrasound scanning system, RASMUS. The designed linear FM signal obtains temporal side lobes below -55 dB, and SNR......A new method to increase the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging is investigated. The new approach is called temporally Encoded Multi-Element STA imaging (EMESTA). It utilizes multiple elements to emulate a single transmit element, and the conventional short...

  12. Adaptive Receive and Transmit Apodization for Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Austeng, Andreas; Synnevåg, Johan-Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests a framework for utilizing adaptive, data-dependent apodization weights on both the receiving and transmitting aperture for Synthetic Aperture (SA) ultrasound imaging. The suggested approach is based on the Minimum Variance (MV) beamformer and consists of two steps. A set...... of uniquely designed receive apodization weights are applied to pre-summed element data forming a set of adaptively weighted images; these are in SA literature conventionally referred to as low-resolution images. The adaptive transmit apodization is obtained by applying MV across the full set of single...

  13. Modeling DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is life's most amazing molecule. It carries the genetic instructions that almost every organism needs to develop and reproduce. In the human genome alone, there are some three billion DNA base pairs. The most difficult part of teaching DNA structure, however, may be getting students to visualize something as small as a…

  14. The Association of Low-Penetrance Variants in DNA Repair Genes with Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Nikhil; Donald, Neil D; Malik, Salim; Selvendran, Subothini S; McPhail, Mark Jw; Monahan, Kevin J

    2017-07-27

    Approximately 35% of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is attributable to heritable factors known hereditary syndromes, accounting for 6%. The remainder may be due to lower penetrance polymorphisms particularly of DNA repair genes. DNA repair pathways, including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), mismatch repair (MMR), direct reversal repair (DRR), and double-strand break repair are complex, evolutionarily conserved, and critical in carcinogenesis. Germline mutations in these genes are associated with high-penetrance CRC syndromes such as Lynch syndrome. However, the association of low-penetrance polymorphisms of DNA repair genes with CRC risk remains unclear. A systematic literature review of PubMed, Embase, and HuGENet databases was conducted. Pre-specified criteria determined study inclusion/exclusion. Per-allele, pooled odds ratios disclosed the risk attributed to each variant. Heterogeneity was investigated by subgroup analyses for ethnicity and tumor location; funnel plots and Egger's test assessed publication bias. Sixty-one polymorphisms in 26 different DNA repair genes were identified. Meta-analyses for 22 polymorphisms in 17 genes revealed that six polymorphisms were significantly associated with CRC risk within BER (APE1, PARP1), NER (ERCC5, XPC), double-strand break (RAD18), and DRR (MGMT), but none within MMR. Subgroup analyses revealed significant association of OGG1 rs1052133 with rectal cancer risk. Egger's test revealed no publication bias. Low-penetrance polymorphisms in DNA repair genes alter susceptibility to CRC. Future studies should therefore analyze whole-genome polymorphisms and any synergistic effects on CRC risk.Translational impact:This knowledge may enhance CRC risk assessment and facilitate a more personalized approach to cancer prevention.

  15. DNA repair pathways involved in repair of lesions induced by 5-fluorouracil and its active metabolite FdUMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuo, Renata; Sousa, Fabrício Garmus; Escargueil, Alexandre E; Soares, Daniele G; Grivicich, Ivana; Saffi, Jenifer; Larsen, Annette K; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2010-01-15

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an antitumor antimetabolite that can be converted into fluoronucleotides and FdUMP. Fluoronucleotides are incorporated into DNA and RNA, while FdUMP results in nucleotide pool imbalance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to convert 5-FU into FdUMP, making yeast a unique model system to study the cellular effects of 5-FU and FdUMP independently. A panel of repair-deficient yeast strains was used to identify the DNA repair pathways needed for repair of lesions generated by 5-FU or FdUMP. This included yeast deficient in base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), translesion synthesis (TLS), mismatch repair (MMR), post-replication repair (PRR), homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). The results revealed an important role of BER, since BER-mutants (ntg1, ntg2, apn1, apn2) showed pronounced sensitivity to both 5-FU and FdUMP. MMR mutants also showed high sensitivity to both compounds. In contrast, deficiencies in NER, NHEJ and TLS repair had only minor influence on the sensitivity to FU and FdUMP. Interestingly, deficiencies in HR (rad52) and PPR (rad6, rad18) were associated with increased sensitivity to 5-FU, but not to FdUMP. Taken together, our study reveals an important contribution of DNA repair pathways on the sensitivity to 5-FU and its active metabolite FdUMP. Importantly, the repair mechanisms differed for the 2 antimetabolites since lesions induced by 5-FU were repaired by BER, MMR, HR and PRR, while only BER and MMR were required for repair of FdUMP-induced lesions.

  16. Treating HIV Infection like a Sexually Transmitted Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brciin, and may eventually be fatal. Unfortunately, it has been difficult or impossible to implement ... tion, since their sexual behaviour has already led to rhem get- ting a sexually transmitted dieseose. The disease ... Since some STDs could oeluolly facilitate the spread of HIV infection [see below), developing more extensive ...

  17. Adaptive single-antenna transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-10-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit selection with co-channel interference suppression in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms are considered. The first algorithm assumes that the receiver eliminates the impact of the strongest subset of interferers, whereas the second algorithm suggests random cancelation of interferers to further reduce processing complexity. The impact of outdated ordering of interferers powers on the efficiency of interference cancelation, and the effect of imperfect prediction of transmit channels for desired user adaptation are investigated. Analytical formulations for various performance measures and comparisons between the performance and processing complexity of different adaptation schemes are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. New thrips-transmitted plant viruses in Florida crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thrips-transmitted tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus are present in south Florida. All three species cause economically significant disease in vegetable and ornamental crops, and may also be problematic in peanut. Control of both t...

  19. Soil transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis in school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis in school age children in sub-Saharan Africa: Efficacy of chemotherapeutic intervention since World Health ... for regular treatment of school children, development of alternative antihelminthic drugs and vaccines, environmental control measures and health education.

  20. Genital Ulcers and Sexual Transmitted Disease in Rural Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the Epidemiological characteristic of genital ulcers and sexually transmitted diseases, incident cases with genital tract symptoms presenting at the primary care and secondary care centers; 4 private pharmacies, 3 private medical laboratories were seen at the Our Land of Lourdes Hospital through a system of ...

  1. geospatial forecast model for tsetse-transmitted animal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to develop a geographic information systems (GIS) forecast and risk assessment model for ... development of forecast model for tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis in Ethiopia. Key words/phrases: Ethiopia, GIS ..... Use of weather data and remote sensing to predict the geographic and ...

  2. Mechanical transport and dissemination of soil-transmitted helminth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous studies, helminth eggs were isolated from wild-caught Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). This laboratory study investigated the potential of the fly for mechanical transport and transmission of soil-transmitted helminths. Naïve, 2-3 day old, laboratory-reared adult flies were exposed to a mixture of Ascaris ...

  3. Sexually transmitted infections and mate-finding Allee effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Janoušková, E.; Theuer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, APR 01 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 0040-5809 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Allee effect * mating * sexually transmitted disease Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040580916301186

  4. Assessment of Magnitude of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Reproductive Health Status among Prisoners Aged Between 18-49 Years in. Tabor Prison, Hawassa ... Keywords: Sexual and reproductive health, Sexually transmitted infections, Prisoners,. Hawassa, Ethiopia. 1. ... prisoners engage in sexual activities right inside prisons during incarceration, although one would think this ...

  5. Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in Sapele Local Government, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on neglected tropical common infections human parasites, Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) were carried out in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Faecal samples from 600 subjects were examined, using standard parasitological methods.Three helminth parasites were identified in the faecal ...

  6. Some models for epidemics of vector-transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Brauer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birth defects.We formulate and analyze two epidemic models for vector-transmitted diseases, one appropriate for dengue and chikungunya fever outbreaks and one that includes direct transmission appropriate for Zika virus outbreaks. This is especially important because the Zika virus is the first example of a disease that can be spread both indirectly through a vector and directly (through sexual contact. In both cases, we obtain expressions for the basic reproduction number and show how to use the initial exponential growth rate to estimate the basic reproduction number. However, for the model that includes direct transmission some additional data would be needed to identify the fraction of cases transmitted directly. Data for the 2015 Zika virus outbreak in Barranquilla, Colombia has been used to fit parameters to the model developed here and to estimate the basic reproduction number.

  7. Attempts to transmit hepatitis B virus to chimpanzees by arthropods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. G. JUPP, R. H. PURCELL, J. M. PHILLlPS, M. SHAPIRO, J. L. GERIN. Attempts to transmit hepatitis B virus to chimpanzees by arthropods. S AIr Med J 1991; 79: 320-322. 321. SAMJ VOL 79 16 MAR 1991. Discussion feed (adult females and mature nymphs), at the second feed it fell to 32 out of 149 adult females (21%).

  8. Geospatial forecast model for tsetse-transmitted animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that GIS model developed for parasitic diseases based on growing degree day (GDD) concept can be applied to tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis. GIS for animal trypanosomosis was created using Food and Agriculture Organization – Crop Production System Zones (FAO-CPSZ) database and Normalized ...

  9. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People under the age of twenty five make up forty three percent of the world population; most young people do not have access to appropriate information about sexuality and do not know how to protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, or unintended pregnancy. Universal access to ...

  10. Sexually transmitted infections and health seeking behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was to measure the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms among women in Accra, Ghana, to identify characteristics that predispose to STI symptoms and to identify factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of women with STI symptoms. Data were collected by trained interviewers ...

  11. sexually transmitted diseases at queen elizabeth central hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... Objectives: To re-assess attendance at the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) clinic in relation to age, sex and seasonal variation over a three-year period, and to determine the pattern of STD syndromes presenting at the STDs clinic, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital,. Blantyre, Malawi. Design: A ...

  12. High rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...

  13. Treating HIV Infection like a Sexually Transmitted Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DENTAL JOURNAL. Treating HIV Infection like a Sexually. Transmitted Disease. Dr. K. J. Pallangyo,. Consultant Physician and Senior Lecturer,. Muhimbili Meciol Centre. How can the spread of HIV infection and AIDS be most effectively prevented at the primary health care level? Dr Pollongyo from Tanzania argues that ...

  14. Current status of soil-transmitted helminths in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; De, Nguyen Van; Konradsen, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a review of surveys on soil-transmitted helminths that were done in Vietnam between 1990 and 2001. Prevalence estimates could be obtained for 29 of the 61 provinces. Extrapolating from this, it is estimated that 33.9 million people in Vietnam are infected with Ascaris......, and human behavioral factors in the transmission of intestinal nematode infections in Vietnam....

  15. Skin as an indicator for sexually transmitted infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous signs and skin conditions associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are discussed. Syphilis, condyloma acuminata, and scabies are well-known STIs with cutaneous manifestations. Chlamydia and gonorrhea can also cause specific muco-cutaneous signs and symptoms. HIV often

  16. Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) screening, case and contact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a longitudinal cohort study in rural Malawi in 2000, 469 men and 758 women were asked to respond to a series of surveys, were tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia, and received their results and treatment, if applicable, for themselves and up to 2 partners if positive for either sexually transmitted infection (STI).

  17. burden of soil transmitted helminthiases in primary school children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BURDEN OF SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASES IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN MIGORI COUNTY,. KENYA ... MSc, Academic Model for Prevention and Treatment of HIV (AMPATH)The, Moi University/Moi Teaching and Referral. Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya .... observed under the microscope with the number of.

  18. Comparative Costs of Antibacterial Usage in Sexually Transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To evaluate the cost of antibacterial usage to patients in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Methods: Drug utilization evaluation was carried out retrospectively among patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) over a one-year period between 2005 and 2006 in Lagos University. Teaching Hospital (LUTH) ...

  19. Fourier-Based Transmit Beampattern Design Using MIMO Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John

    2014-05-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar settings, it is often desirable to transmit power only to a given location or set of locations defined by a beampattern. Transmit waveform design is a topic that has received much attention recently, involving synthesis of both the signal covariance matrix,, as well as the actual waveforms. Current methods involve a two-step process of designing via iterative solutions and then using to generate waveforms that fulfill practical constraints such as having a constant-envelope or drawing from a finite alphabet. In this paper, a closed-form method to design for a uniform linear array is proposed that utilizes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients and Toeplitz matrices. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints such as positive semidefiniteness and the uniformelemental power constraint and provides performance similar to that of iterative methods, which require a much greater computation time. Next, a transmit architecture is presented that exploits the orthogonality of frequencies at discrete DFT values to transmit a sum of orthogonal signals from each antenna. The resulting waveforms provide a lower mean-square error than current methods at a much lower computational cost, and a simulated detection scenario demonstrates the performance advantages achieved.

  20. Sexual exposure and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual exposure and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among senior secondary school students in an urban local government area of Edo state. ... Knowledge of the features and complications as well as prevention among this age group is needed to empower them to make informed choices. Aim: The study is ...

  1. Nurses stigmatization of sufferers of sexually transmitted diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study's objective is to assess nurses' stigmatization of sufferers of sexual transmitted diseases and its implications on treatment options. The study's method was the survey research through structured questionnaire and interview technique for selected sample of students and nurses. The multistage random sampling ...

  2. 47 CFR 90.541 - Transmitting power limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitting power limits. 90.541 Section 90.541 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES....531(b)(3), 90.531(b)(4), must not exceed 2 watts (ERP). ...

  3. 2-D Tissue Motion Compensation of Synthetic Transmit Aperture Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Kim Løkke; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging is susceptible to tissue motion because it uses summation of low-resolution images to create the displayed high-resolution image. A method for 2-D tissue motion correction in STA imaging is presented. It utilizes the correlation between highresolution ima...

  4. Knowledge and practices related to sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. ... infections among women of reproductive age living in Katanga slum, Kampala, Uganda. Afri Health Sci. ... diseases that are spread through sexual intercourse and mainly affect the ...

  5. incidence of sexually transmitted diseases amongst potential semen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    ABSTRACT. The incidence of Sexually Transmitted. Diseases in Prospective Semen Donors where investigated using Standard. Laboratory Procedures. 30 Prospective. Semen Donors were screened for common STDs/STI at the Human. Reproductive Research Programme. /Invitro Fertilization Centre of the. University of ...

  6. Pattern and distribution of sexually transmitted diseases in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the pattern and distribution of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 134 adult Subjects (89 women and 45 men) presenting with various signs and symptoms of lower genital tract infections were recruited for the study. Samples such as urine, urethral swab, high vaginal swab and/or ...

  7. Sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwe: a qualitative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwe: a qualitative analysis of factors associated with choice of a health care facility. ... Data from 26 FGDs attended by 281 antenatal clinic attendees, 34 FGDs of 350 women attending well baby clinics, 8 FGDs of 82 women recruited at long distance bus stops/market places, 9 FGDs of ...

  8. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.

  9. Fear of sexually transmitted infections among women with male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-18

    Apr 18, 2006 ... reason for this high disease rate is the elevated prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs),5 which facilitates the transmission of HIV, coupled with poor diagnostic capacity leading to lower rates of STI diagnosis and treatment, exacerbated by low condom use.6-8. In South Africa it is common ...

  10. Strategies for Coping with Sexually Transmitted Diseases by Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Susan L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed adolescent females' perceptions of control over acquisition of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and its emotional impact. No differences were found in coping strategies by age group or STD history. Subjects used numerous coping strategies--those viewing the future acquisition of a STD more negatively used more strategies. (RJM)

  11. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Netherlands in 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar MJW van de; Op de Coul ELM; CIE

    2004-01-01

    The increasing trend of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), as observed in the last few years, seemed to have stabilised in 2003. The continuous increase of syphilis diagnoses and the outbreak of Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men (MSM), indicate an increase of sexual

  12. Schistosomiasis mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Schistosomiasis mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are considerable medical and public health problems in Ethiopia. However, information is limited on the epidemiology of these infections in different localities even though it is needed to plan effective prevention and control measures.

  13. Toward Diagnostic and Phenotype Markers for Genetically Transmitted Speech Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McSweeny, Jane L.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Scheer, Alison R.

    2005-01-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis that the most common subtype of childhood speech sound disorder (SSD) of currently unknown origin is genetically transmitted. We report the first findings toward a set of diagnostic markers to differentiate this proposed etiological subtype (provisionally termed "speech delay-genetic") from other…

  14. Experimental Study of Convex Coded Synthetic Transmit Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic transmit aperture imaging is investigated using a convex array transducer. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, a multi-element subaperture is used to emulate the spherical wave transmission, and the conventional short excitation pulse is replaced by a linear FM signal. The approach i...

  15. Soil transmitted helmeinthiasis among apparently healthy children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmitted helminthes. The prevalence in males (24.2%) was generally higher than that of females (22%), Hookworm infection was high(45.5%) in the 15-20 years old age group, while Ascaris Lumbricoides infection was high (100%) in the 6-10 years old age group. The mean number of eggs per gramme (epg) of faeces ...

  16. Transfusion transmitted malaria in three major blood banks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is one of the most important transfusion associated infections in many parts of the world, particularly the developing countries where it is endemic. This study estimates the risk of acquiring malaria from a single unit of blood in North of Pakistan. A prospective study was conducted to investigate transfusion transmitted ...

  17. The Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among post –primary and tertiary school students in Imo state was carried out from January to December 2002. Questionnaires were administered to the respondents to collect vital information before urine sample, vaginal or urethral swab and ...

  18. partner notification in the management of sexually transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-12-12

    Dec 12, 2003 ... S. N. Wakasiakai, MSc, Researcher, Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative, P.O Box 19460, Nairobi, Kenya, J.J. Bwayo, MBChB PhD., Associate Professor, ... the patients(4). The long incubation period for some sexually transmitted infections form major confounding factors in partner notification. Sexually ...

  19. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.

  20. Assessment of Magnitude of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Magnitude of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual and Reproductive Health Status among Prisoners Aged Between 18-49 Years in Tabor Prison, Hawassa, Ethiopia. ... The magnitude of STIs was found as 5.1% among the respondents and 30 (14.5%) respondents were HIV positive. Keywords: Sexual ...

  1. Transmit and Receive Diversity in Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Pablo F.; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Two antenna diversity schemes are evaluated for use with the 2:45 GHz wireless o-body communication between a receiver worn at the ear and a stationary transmitter. A receive diversity scheme is compared to a transmit diversity scheme in an indoor environment. It is found that the two diversity...

  2. Transfusion transmitted infections – A retrospective analysis from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The emergence of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) especially HIV/AIDS has created a huge obstacle in ensuring blood safety. To assess the situation in Eritrea, we carried out a retrospective study of 29,501 blood donors for the prevalence of TTI's i.e. HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis. Methods: The study ...

  3. GOOD HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOUR DECREASE PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISSEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The homosexual behaviour were become indicators of sexually transmitted diseases’s (STDs prevalencies. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual community was very high but until recently study it was conducted sporadically. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation of homosexual behaviour with prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency. Method:  Analytic design with cross sectional methode was used in this study. The population were all visitors of Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency (353 people. Sample were 40 people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was homosexual behaviour and the dependent variable was prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Data for homosexual behaviour were collected by using questionnaire and indhept interview with content analyze and data for prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were collected by using laboratorium test for STDs. Result: The research result was presented in the form diagram, table of cross tabulation and analyzed by using Spearman Rho with significance level ρ=0.005. The result showed that there was correlation of homosexual knowledge (ρ=0.001, attitude (ρ=0.000 and  practice (ρ=0.000 with prevalence of STDs. Dsicussion:  It can be concluded that the better knowledge, attitude and practice of homosexual could be decrease prevalence of STDs. Futher studies are recomended to analyze the correlation between homosexual behaviour and prevalence of STDs with Health Believe approach.

  4. Design of HTS transmit filter using step impedance resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Ohshima, S.

    2010-11-01

    We have designed a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmit filter with step impedance resonators (SIRs). A transmit filter using half-wavelength straight-line resonators requires substantial spacing between adjacent resonators. This means that the filter needs a large substrate and that the number of poles is limited. Using SIRs overcomes this problem because SIRs are compact and have weak coupling. An electromagnetic simulator based on the moment method was used to design the SIR filter, which has a center frequency of 5 GHz and a bandwidth of 120 MHz. Simulation showed that it is approximately 19% smaller than a conventional half-wavelength straight-line resonator filter. Additionally, the maximum surface current is approximately 17% less than that of the conventional filter.

  5. Environmental pollution with soil-transmitted helminths in Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulukanligil Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infection are endemic in developing countries. A study was carried out of sewage farms, streams and vegetables to determine the sources and routes of STH infection in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Stool samples from farmhouse inhabitants as well as soil and vegetable samples from the gardens were collected and examined. In addition, water samples from streams and vegetable samples from the city market were collected and examined. One hundred and eighty-seven (59.5% of a total of 314 samples, including 88.4% of the stool samples, 60.8% of the water samples, 84.4% of the soil samples and 14% of the vegetable samples, were found to be positive for STH eggs. These results indicate that the water, soil and vegetables are heavily contaminated, and suggest a vicious circle between humans and the environment. Improving environmental sanitation is imperative for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sanliurfa.

  6. Spectrally efficient switched transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2011-09-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to increase the spectral efficiency of the secondary link. The proposed bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) uses the scan and wait (SWC) combining technique where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In our scheme, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. Selected numerical examples show that the BES scheme increases the capacity of the secondary link when compared to an existing switching efficient scheme (SES). This spectral efficiency comes at the expense of an increased average number of switched branches and thus an increased average delay. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Beamed microwave power transmitting and receiving subsystems radiation characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measured characteristics of the spectrum of typical converters and the distribution of radiated Radio Frequency (RF) energy from the terminals (transmitting antenna and rectenna) of a beamed microwave power subsystem are presented for small transmitting and receiving S-band (2.45 GHz) subarrays. Noise and harmonic levels of tube and solid-state RF power amplifiers are shown. The RF patterns and envelope of a 64 element slotted waveguide antenna are given for the fundamental frequency and harmonics through the fifth. Reflected fundamental and harmonic patterns through the fourth for a 42 element rectenna subarray are presented for various dc load and illumination conditions. Bandwidth measurements for the waveguide antenna and rectenna are shown.

  8. Canadian Laboratory Standards for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Best Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.

  9. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  10. Condenser-free contrast methods for transmitted-light microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Kevin F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase contrast microscopy allows the study of highly transparent yet detail-rich specimens by producing intensity contrast from phase objects within the sample. Presented here is a generalized phase contrast illumination schema in which condenser optics are entirely abrogated, yielding a condenser- free yet highly effective method of obtaining phase contrast in transmitted-light microscopy. A ring of light emitting diodes (LEDs) is positioned within the light-path such that observation of the...

  11. Transfusion transmitted diseases in perioperative and intensive care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Das; Upendra Hansda

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the perioperative period and intensive care unit are commonly exposed to blood transfusion (BT). They are at increased risk of transfusion transmitted bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases. The risk of viral transmission has decreased steadily, but the risk of bacterial transmission remains same. Bacterial contamination is more in platelet concentrates than in red cells and least in plasma. The chances of sepsis, morbidity and mortality depend on the number of transfusions and u...

  12. Transmit coil design for Wireless Power Transfer for medical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemdiasov, Rosti; Venkatasubramanian, Arun

    2017-07-01

    A new design approach for the design of transmit coils for Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is presented. The theoretical formulation involves a figure of merit that has to be maximized to solve for the surface current. Numerical predictions and comparisons with practical measurements for the coil parameters (inductance. resistance) underscore the success of this approach in terms of achieving strong coupling with a receive coil while maintaining low resistance.

  13. The evolution of host protection by vertically transmitted parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Edward O.; White, Andrew; Boots, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Hosts are often infected by a variety of different parasites, leading to competition for hosts and coevolution between parasite species. There is increasing evidence that some vertically transmitted parasitic symbionts may protect their hosts from further infection and that this protection may be an important reason for their persistence in nature. Here, we examine theoretically when protection is likely to evolve and its selective effects on other parasites. Our key result is that protection...

  14. Using Piezoelectric Devices to Transmit Power through Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2008-01-01

    A method denoted wireless acoustic-electric feed-through (WAEF) has been conceived for transmitting power and/or data signals through walls or other solid objects made of a variety of elastic materials that could be electrically conductive or nonconductive. WAEF would make it unnecessary to use wires, optical fibers, tubes, or other discrete wall-penetrating signal-transmitting components, thereby eliminating the potential for structural weakening or leakage at such penetrations. Avoidance of such penetrations could be essential in some applications in which maintenance of pressure, vacuum, or chemical or biological isolation is required. In a basic WAEF setup, a transmitting piezoelectric transducer on one side of a wall would be driven at resonance to excite ultrasonic vibrations in the wall. A receiving piezoelectric transducer on the opposite side of the wall would convert the vibrations back to an ultrasonic AC electric signal, which would then be detected and otherwise processed in a manner that would depend on the modulation (if any) applied to the signal and whether the signal was used to transmit power, data, or both. An electromechanical-network model has been derived as a computationally efficient means of analyzing and designing a WAEF system. This model is a variant of a prior model, known in the piezoelectric-transducer art as Mason's equivalent-circuit model, in which the electrical and mechanical dynamics, including electromechanical couplings, are expressed as electrical circuit elements that can include inductors, capacitors, and lumped-parameter complex impedances. The real parts of the complex impedances are used to account for dielectric, mechanical, and coupling losses in all components (including all piezoelectric-transducer, wall, and intermediate material layers). In an application to a three-layer piezoelectric structure, this model was shown to yield the same results as do solutions of the wave equations of piezoelectricity and acoustic

  15. Selective wave-transmitting electromagnetic absorber through composite metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Junming; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Tian; Feng, Yijun

    2017-11-01

    Selective wave-transmitting absorbers which have one or more narrow transmission bands inside a wide absorption band are often demanded in wireless communication and radome applications for reducing the coupling between different systems, improving anti-jamming capability, and reducing antennas' radar cross section. Here we propose a feasible method that utilizing composite of two metasurfaces with different polarization dependent characteristics, one works as electromagnetic polarization rotator and the other as a wideband polarization dependent electromagnetic wave absorber. The polarization rotator produces a cross polarization output in the wave-transmitting band, while preserves the polarization of the incidence outside the band. The metasurface absorber works for certain linear polarization with a much wider absorption band covering the wave-transmitting frequency. When combining these two metasurfaces properly, the whole structure behaves as a wideband absorber with a certain frequency transmission window. The proposal may be applied in radome designs to reduce the radar cross section of antenna or improving the electromagnetic compatibility in communication devices.

  16. Origin of photo-induced transmitting oscillations in chalcogenide glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, HaiZheng; Yang, ZhiYong; Lucas, Pierre

    2009-09-28

    Light-induced oscillatory behaviors of transmission in chalcogenide glasses are investigated using a continuous wave tunable Ti-sapphire laser. It is shown that phase change, thermal fluctuation, nonlinear index change and periodic self focusing are not at the origin of light-induced oscillatory transmittance in chalcogenide glasses. Instead, results indicate that the interference of transmitting and reflecting light is at the origin of the oscillatory behaviors of transmitted light. Just like the principle of Fabry-Pérot interferometer, these interferences result in a periodic change in transmission as the related interferential beams get in and out of phase. However, this transmitting oscillatory behavior can be registered by the detector only when the change of optical path length difference initiated by photo-induced effects is slower enough compared with the corresponding response time of the detector. Several photo-structural effects contribute to that phenomenon including photo-expansion, photo-darkening, and permanent self focusing. It appears that fluctuations of the light source intensity induce a wide distribution of the oscillatory periods.

  17. Engineering immunity in the mucosal niche against sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Renuka; Woodrow, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the genital tract are the site of entry to over 30 different bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens that are the cause of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Women and adolescent girls are more severely impacted by STIs than men due in part to a greater biological susceptibility for acquiring infections and differences in disease sequelae. While it is widely accepted that preventative vaccines against the most commonly transmitted STIs would have a major impact on decreasing the global health burden of STIs for women worldwide, several challenges preclude their development. The female genital tract is a complex niche of microflora, hormonal influences, and immune tissues and cells that result in a mucosal immune system that is distinct from other mucosal sites and from our systemic immune system. An appreciation of these differences and their effect on shaping mucosal immunity to sexually transmitted pathogens is an important determinant for the design of effective STI vaccines. Here we describe the anatomy and mucosal immune system of the female reproductive tract, and discuss bioengineering strategies to design mucosal vaccines that overcome delivery challenges and coordinate the presentation kinetics and compartmentalization of antigens and adjuvants to relevant mucosal immune cell subsets. In particular, we describe recent progress in understanding the role of specific mucosal dendritic cell subsets in facilitating immune responses to pathogenic microbes in the genital mucosa. We also discuss the development of pathogen-mimicking materials that may be useful for engineering protective immunity in this mucosal niche. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Switch and examine transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a switch and examine transmit diversity algorithm for spectrum sharing cognitive networks. We consider a cognitive network composed of a primary link that employs constant rate and constant power transmission scheme with automatic-and-repeat request (ARQ) protocol, while the secondary link is composed of a fixed power multiple-antenna secondary transmitter and a single antenna receiver. Our objective is to develop a low complex transmit diversity algorithm at the secondary transmitter that maximizes the performance of the secondary link in terms of the effective throughput while maintaining a predetermined maximum loss in the packet rate of the primary link. In achieving this objective, we develop an algorithm that selects the best antenna, which maintains the quality of the secondary link in terms of signal-to-noise ratio above a specific threshold, based on overhearing the acknowledgment (ACK) and negative acknowledgment (NACK) feedback messages transmitted over the primary link. We also develop closed form expressions for the bit error rates and the effective throughput of the secondary link. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej eHajdusek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.

  20. Imperfect generalized transmit beamforming with co-channel interference cancelation

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-10-01

    The performance of a generalized single-stream transmit beamforming scheme employing receive co-channel interference -steering algorithms in slowly varying and flat fading channels is analyzed. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information (CSI) for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels is considered. Both dominant interference cancelation and adaptive arbitrary interference cancelation algorithms for closely spaced receive antennas are used. The impact of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers instantaneous powers on the effectiveness of dominant interference cancelation is investigated against the less complex adaptive arbitrary cancelation scheme. For the system models described above, new exact formulas for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) are derived, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission (MRT) and best transmit channel selection schemes can be deduced as limiting cases. The results presented herein can be used to obtain quantitative measure for various performance metrics, and in addition to investigate the performance-complexity tradeoff for different multiple-antenna system models. © 2010 IEEE.

  1. Management of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleece, Yvonne; Sullivan, Ann

    2005-02-01

    This review aims to summarize recent developments in the epidemiology and management of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive individuals. It will also discuss briefly the legal aspects of disclosure in relation to HIV transmission. There has been a dramatic increase in the reported number of cases of syphilis globally in recent years. In the United Kingdom this has mainly been observed among HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Since 2003 there have been a series of outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum reported in several European cities occurring mostly in HIV positive MSM. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C is increasing and appears to be more common in HIV positive MSM. Legal issues regarding HIV transmission have also come to the fore, becoming an important part of the discussion of sexual health with an HIV positive patient. Increases in sexually transmitted infection among HIV positive individuals suggest a worrying lack of adherence to safe sex guidelines and needs to be addressed urgently. The transmission of HIV is facilitated by the presence of certain sexually transmitted infections. Management of sexual health is an essential part of HIV care.

  2. MIMO Radar Transmit Beampattern Design Without Synthesising the Covariance Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2013-10-28

    Compared to phased-array, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars provide more degrees-offreedom (DOF) that can be exploited for improved spatial resolution, better parametric identifiability, lower side-lobe levels at the transmitter/receiver, and design variety of transmit beampatterns. The design of the transmit beampattern generally requires the waveforms to have arbitrary auto- and crosscorrelation properties. The generation of such waveforms is a two step complicated process. In the first step a waveform covariance matrix is synthesised, which is a constrained optimisation problem. In the second step, to realise this covariance matrix actual waveforms are designed, which is also a constrained optimisation problem. Our proposed scheme converts this two step constrained optimisation problem into a one step unconstrained optimisation problem. In the proposed scheme, in contrast to synthesising the covariance matrix for the desired beampattern, nT independent finite-alphabet constantenvelope waveforms are generated and pre-processed, with weight matrix W, before transmitting from the antennas. In this work, two weight matrices are proposed that can be easily optimised for the desired symmetric and non-symmetric beampatterns and guarantee equal average power transmission from each antenna. Simulation results validate our claims.

  3. Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James

    2014-05-28

    Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission must be balanced against the risks of death awaiting a new graft and strict adherence to current guidelines may result increased patient death. Organs from selected patients, even with high-grade central nervous system (CNS) malignancy and after a shunt, can, in some circumstances, be considered. Of potential donors with non-CNS cancers, whether organs may be safely used again depends on the nature of the cancer, the treatment and interval. Data are scarce about the most appropriate treatment when donor transmitted cancer is diagnosed: sometimes substitution of agents and reduction of the immunosuppressive load may be adequate and the impact of graft removal should be considered but not always indicated. Liver allograft recipients are at increased risk of some de novo cancers, especially those grafted for alcohol-related liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection. The risk of lymphoproliferative disease and cancers of the skin, upper airway and bowel are increased but not breast. Recipients should be advised to avoid risk behavior and monitored appropriately.

  4. DNA glue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Astakhova, Irina V.; Malakhov, Andrei D.

    2008-01-01

    Significant alterations in thermal stability of parallel DNA triplexes and antiparallel duplexes were observed upon changing the attachment of ethynylpyrenes from para to ortho in the structure of phenylmethylglycerol inserted as a bulge into DNA (TINA). Insertions of two ortho-TINAs as a pseudo...

  5. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research interests include: eukaryotic gene expres- sion and infectious diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL I ... T -cells: Lymphocytes that differentiate primarily in the thymus and are central to the control and ... enhance DNA delivery into skeletal muscle.

  6. Replication of nanoscale DNA patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Corinna; Wang, Tong; Sha, Ruojie; Leunissen, Mirjam; Dreyfus, Remi; Seeman, Nadrian; Chaikin, Paul

    2011-03-01

    We present an artificial supramolecular system mimicking self- replication and information transmission strategies in nature, but without the aid of enzymes or equivalent biological mechanisms. Using DNA nanotechnology techniques, we can make DNA tiles with selective interactions based on complementary single-strand connections. A linear tile pattern distinguished by their connector sequences is transmitted to a subsequent generation of copies by connector hybridisation. Longitudinal pattern formation and transverse copy attachment are well separated by different melting temperatures. We have achieved a faithful transmission of the pattern information to the second replication generation. We use AFM imaging to test for pattern fidelity and gel electrophoresis for quantitative yield analysis. supported by a DAAD postdoc grant.

  7. Evidence for somatic transcription of male-transmitted mitochondrial genome in the DUI species Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia: Veneridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Liliana; Ghiselli, Fabrizio; Iannello, Mariangela; Passamonti, Marco

    2014-08-01

    In species with doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI), males are heteroplasmic for two sex-linked mitochondrial genomes (M- and F-mtDNA). While a role of M-mtDNA in male gametogenesis and sperm function is evident, there is an ongoing debate on whether it is transcribed or not in male soma. In this work we report a qPCR analysis in the DUI species Ruditapes philippinarum, showing that M-mtDNA is transcribed in somatic tissues. We observed a correlation between DNA copy numbers of the two analyzed genes, cytochrome b and a novel male-specific mitochondrial gene thought to be involved in DUI (orf21), and between their transcription levels. No correlation between a transcript and its DNA copy number was found, supporting the existence of complex regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial transcription. We found the highest amount of mtDNA and mtRNA in gonads, likely due to the intense cell proliferation and high energy request for gametogenesis, while the observed variation among specimens is probably related to their different stages of gonad development. Finally, orf21 showed a highly variable transcription in advanced stages of gametogenesis. We hypothesize a differential storage of orf21 transcripts in spermatozoa, representing different paternal contributions to progeny, possibly leading to different developmental outcomes. A transcriptional activity does not necessarily imply the translation of M-mtDNA genes, and studies on mitochondrial proteins and their localization are needed to definitively assess the functioning of male-transmitted mitochondria in male soma. All that considered, the male soma of DUI species may represent an intriguing experimental model to study cytoplasmic genetic conflicts.

  8. Transfusion-transmitted malaria: case report of asymptomatic donor harboring Plasmodium malariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Scuracchio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in Brazil is endemic in the Amazon region, but autochthonous cases with low parasitaemia occur in the Atlantic Forest area of the country. According to Brazilian legislation no test is mandatory for blood donors from non-endemic areas. However if they have traveled to malaria transmission regions they are deferred for six months before they can donate. This report describes a transfusion-transmitted malaria case in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where one recipient received infected blood and developed the disease. He lived in Sao Paulo and had no previous transfusion or trips to endemic areas, including those of low endemicity, such as Atlantic Forest. Thick blood smears confirmed Plasmodiummalariae. All donors lived in Sao Paulo and one of them (Donor 045-0 showed positive hemoscopy and PCR. This asymptomatic donor had traveled to Juquia, in the Atlantic Forest area of S ao Paulo State, where sporadic cases of autochthonous malaria are described. DNA assay revealed P. malariae in the donor's (Donor 045-0 blood. Serum archives of the recipient and of all blood donors were analyzed by ELISA using both P. vivax and P. falciparum antigens, and IFAT with P. malariae. Donor 045-0's serum was P. malariae IFAT positive and the P. vivax ELISA was reactive. In addition, two out of 44 donors' archive sera were also P. vivax ELISA reactive. All sera were P. falciparum ELISA negative. This case suggests the need of reviewing donor selection criteria and deferral strategies to prevent possible cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria.

  9. Gene-expression analysis of cold-stress response in the sexually transmitted protist Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Kai; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Lin, Rose; Chao, Mei; Tang, Petrus

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease in the world. This infection affects millions of individuals worldwide annually. Although direct sexual contact is the most common mode of transmission, increasing evidence indicates that T. vaginalis can survive in the external environment and can be transmitted by contaminated utensils. We found that the growth of T. vaginalis under cold conditions is greatly inhibited, but recovers after placing these stressed cells at the normal cultivation temperature of 37 °C. However, the mechanisms by which T. vaginalis regulates this adaptive process are unclear. An expressed sequence tag (EST) database generated from a complementary DNA library of T. vaginalis messenger RNAs expressed under cold-culture conditions (4 °C, TvC) was compared with a previously published normal-cultured EST library (37 °C, TvE) to assess the cold-stress responses of T. vaginalis. A total of 9780 clones were sequenced from the TvC library and were mapped to 2934 genes in the T. vaginalis genome. A total of 1254 genes were expressed in both the TvE and TvC libraries, and 1680 genes were only found in the TvC library. A functional analysis showed that cold temperature has effects on many cellular mechanisms, including increased H2O2 tolerance, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, induction of iron-sulfur cluster assembly, and reduced energy metabolism and enzyme expression. The current study is the first large-scale transcriptomic analysis in cold-stressed T. vaginalis and the results enhance our understanding of this important protist. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Phylogeny of a relapsing fever Borrelia species transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Alan G

    2014-10-01

    The discovery of Borrelia species that were related to the agents of relapsing fever but were transmitted by hard ticks rather than soft ticks challenged previous taxonomies based largely on microbe-host specificities and geographic considerations. One of these newly-identified organisms is the Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato strain LB-2001 from North America and transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. This or related strains have been identified as the cause of human disease, but comparatively little is known about their biology or genetics. Using recently acquired chromosome sequence of LB-2001 together with database sequences and additional sequences determined here, I carried out comparisons of the several species of Borrelia, including those in the two major clades: the relapsing fever group of species and the Lyme disease group of species. Phylogenetic inference at the species level was based on four data sets: whole chromosomes of ∼1Mb each, and concatenated sequences of 19 ribosomal protein genes, 3 conserved nucleic acid enzymes (rpoC, recC, and dnaE), and 4 contiguous genes for nucleotide salvage on a large plasmid. Analyses using neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods were largely concordant for each of the trees. They showed that LB-2001 and related hard tick-associated organisms, like Borrelia lonestari, are deeply positioned within the RF group of species and that these organisms did not, as some earlier estimations had suggested, constitute a paraphyletic group. The analyses also provided further evidence that major changes in host ranges and life cycles, such as hard to soft ticks or vice versa, may not correlate well with overall sequence differences. The genetic differences between LB-2001 and B. miyamotoi sensu stricto justify provisional use of the "sensu lato" designation for LB-2001. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-tumour compounds illudin S and Irofulven induce DNA lesions ignored by global repair and exclusively processed by transcription- and replication-coupled repair pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Raams, Anja; Kelner, Michael J; Ng, Jessica M Y; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Takeda, Shiunichi; McMorris, Trevor C; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2002-12-05

    Illudin S is a natural sesquiterpene drug with strong anti-tumour activity. Inside cells, unstable active metabolites of illudin cause the formation of as yet poorly characterised DNA lesions. In order to identify factors involved in their repair, we have performed a detailed genetic survey of repair-defective mutants for responses to the drug. We show that 90% of illudin's lethal effects in human fibroblasts can be prevented by an active nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Core NER enzymes XPA, XPF, XPG, and TFIIH are essential for recovery. However, the presence of global NER initiators XPC, HR23A/HR23B and XPE is not required, whereas survival, repair and recovery from transcription inhibition critically depend on CSA, CSB and UVS, the factors specific for transcription-coupled NER. Base excision repair and non-homologous end-joining of DNA breaks do not play a major role in the processing of illudin lesions. However, active RAD18 is required for optimal cell survival, indicating that the lesions also block replication forks, eliciting post-replication-repair-like responses. However, the translesion-polymerase DNA pol eta is not involved. We conclude that illudin-induced lesions are exceptional in that they appear to be ignored by all of the known global repair systems, and can only be repaired when trapped in stalled replication or transcription complexes. We show that the semisynthetic illudin derivative hydroxymethylacylfulvene (HMAF, Irofulven), currently under clinical trial for anti-tumour therapy, acts via the same mechanism. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Vertically transmitted symbionts as mechanisms of transgenerational effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundel, Pedro E; Rudgers, Jennifer A; Whitney, Kenneth D

    2017-05-01

    A transgenerational effect occurs when a biotic or abiotic environmental factor acts on a parental individual and thereby affects the phenotype of progeny. Due to the importance of transgenerational effects for understanding plant ecology and evolution, their underlying mechanisms are of general interest. Here, we introduce the concept that inherited symbiotic microorganisms could act as mechanisms of transgenerational effects in plants. We define the criteria required to demonstrate that transgenerational effects are microbially mediated and review evidence from the well-studied, vertically transmitted plant-fungal symbiosis (grass-Epichloë spp.) in support of such effects. We also propose a basic experimental design to test for the presence of adaptive transgenerational effects mediated by plant symbionts. An increasingly large body of literature shows that vertically transmitted microorganisms are common in plants, with potential to affect the phenotypes and fitness of progeny. Transgenerational effects could occur via parental modification of symbiont presence/absence, symbiont load, symbiont products, symbiont genotype or species composition, or symbiont priming. Several of these mechanisms appear likely in the grass-Epichloë endophytic symbiosis, as there is variation in the proportion of the progeny that carries the fungus, as well as variation in concentrations of mycelia and secondary compounds (alkaloids and osmolytes) in the seed. Symbiont-mediated transgenerational effects could be common in plants and could play large roles in plant adaptation to changing environments, but definitive tests are needed. We hope our contribution will spark new lines of research on the transgenerational effects of vertically transmitted symbionts in plants. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  13. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  14. DNA data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  15. [Current protocols for diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, A

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the guidelines for the treatment of individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) that were developed by the STD Study Group "GIRVE" of the Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Venereologia (Italian Society of Dermatology and Venerology) in accordance with those developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1998. The guidelines represent a useful tool for physicians and other health-care providers in preventing and controlling STDs. The guidelines include new recommendations for treating genital herpes and genital warts.

  16. The value transmitted by woman in Disney animated films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Marín Díaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The animated films, has taken in the last decade of great relevance. This study aims to analyse the values that the female of the films from Disney. Through a descriptive and correlational study, we have proceeded to consult a group of teachers (N = 27 of said educational level, through a questionnaire of Marin and Sanchez (2015. The main result achieved has been the realization of the development of women and their role in society. It has also been confirmed that all transmit at least one traditional socially accepted value.

  17. Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-08-25

    Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common-shot gather should abruptly change near the surface projection of the fault. We present ray-map imaging method that migrates transmitted surface waves to the fault plane, and therefore it roughly estimates the orientation, depth, and location of the near-surface fault. The main benefits of this method are that it is computationally inexpensive and robust in the presence of noise.

  18. Multielement Synthetic Transmit Aperture Imaging Using Temporal Encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    A new method to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of synthetic transmit aperture imaging is investigated. The approach utilizes multiple elements to emulate a spherical wave, and the conventional short excitation pulse is replaced by a linear frequency-modulated (FM) signal. The approach...... is evaluated in terms of image quality parameters in comparison to linear array imaging. Field II simulations using an 8.5-MHz linear array transducer with 128 elements show an improvement in lateral resolution of up to 30% and up to 10.75% improvement in contrast resolution for the new approach. Measurements...

  19. Counterfactual quantum cloning without transmitting any physical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Zhai, Shuqin; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2017-11-01

    We propose a counterfactual 1 →2 economical phase-covariant cloning scheme. Compared with the existing protocols using flying qubits, the main difference of the presented scheme is that the cloning can be achieved without transmitting the photon between the two parties. In addition, this counterfactual scheme does not need to construct controlled quantum gates to perform joint logical operations between the cloned qubit and the blank copy. We also numerically evaluate the performance of the present scheme in the practical experiment, which shows this cloning scheme can be implemented with a high success of probability and the fidelity is close to the optimal value in the ideal asymptotic limit.

  20. Persistence of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hannah; Pillay, Deenan; Cane, Patricia; Asboe, David; Cambiano, Valentina; Phillips, Andrew; Dunn, David T.; Aitken, Celia; Asboe, David; Webster, Daniel; Cane, Patricia; Castro, Hannah; Chadwick, David; Churchill, Duncan; Clark, Duncan; Collins, Simon; Delpech, Valerie; Geretti, Anna Maria; Goldberg, David; Hale, Antony; Hué, Stéphane; Kaye, Steve; Kellam, Paul; Lazarus, Linda; Leigh-Brown, Andrew; Mackie, Nicola; Orkin, Chloe; Rice, Philip; Pillay, Deenan; Smit, Erasmus; Templeton, Kate; Tilston, Peter; Tong, William; Williams, Ian; Zhang, Hongyi; Zuckerman, Mark; Greatorex, Jane; Wildfire, Adrian; O'Shea, Siobhan; Mullen, Jane; Mbisa, Tamyo; Cox, Alison; Tandy, Richard; Hale, Tony; Fawcett, Tracy; Hopkins, Mark; Ashton, Lynn; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Shepherd, Jill; Schmid, Matthias L; Payne, Brendan; Chadwick, David; Hay, Phillip; Rice, Phillip; Paynter, Mary; Clark, Duncan; Bibby, David; Kaye, Steve; Kirk, Stuart; MacLean, Alasdair; Aitken, Celia; Gunson, Rory

    2013-01-01

    There are few data on the persistence of individual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations in the absence of selective drug pressure. We studied 313 patients in whom TDR mutations were detected at their first resistance test and who had a subsequent test performed while ART-naive. The rate at which mutations became undetectable was estimated using exponential regression accounting for interval censoring. Most thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) and T215 revertants (but not T215F/Y) were found to be highly stable, with NNRTI and PI mutations being relatively less persistent. Our estimates are important for informing HIV transmission models. PMID:23904291

  1. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC ...

  2. A study of the transmitting power control for earth stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Mitsuru; Ayukawa, Ichiro

    Various transmitting power control (TPC) methods, particularly for digital data communication systems, are described. Four types of TPC systems are addressed: independent control system, central control system, central pilot system, and pair control system. The detection of rain attenuation and the measurement of signal quality in these systems is examined. Effective TPC methods for three kinds of networks are discussed. For a TDMA network, a central control system with BER detection is effective. A central control system with beacon and pilot is shown to be useful for a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) network, particularly in the Ku-band, and an independent control system is suitable for an SCPC network.

  3. Ultraviolet Radiation Effects On UV-Transmitting Fluor Crown Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepmann, Monika J.; Marker, Alexander J.; Sowada, Ulrich

    1989-01-01

    Fluor crown glasses, having improved transparency in the UV-spectral region, can be produced by using a proprietary melting technique. The short wavelength cut on of this family of UV-transmitting glasses is similar to that of vitreous silica. In the present investigation the effect of broadband UV-radiation has been studied as a function of time and optical absorption primarily for the glass type UVFK-54. Further tests were performed using discrete line radiation of 248 nm from a pulsed excimer laser. The intensity of the darkening effect is correlated to the intensity and dose of radiation. In addition, recovery experiments using elevated temperatures and different times are discussed.

  4. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. A female perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, M

    2012-02-03

    Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.

  5. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. METHODS: We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care...... were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's 'rule of three', is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. CONCLUSIONS: The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which...

  6. DNA Chip

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. In the human ge- nome, the ratio between coding and non-coding DNA is very low (less than 3% of the human .... construction of a Tm-specific chip, i.e. all the oligos/cDNA on the chip will hybridize at the same temperature. The techniques available are still not able to create a chip ...

  7. 75 FR 79006 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Transfusion-Transmitted Retrovirus and Hepatitis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...- Transmitted Retrovirus and Hepatitis Virus Rates and Risk Factors: Improving the Safety of the U.S. Blood...: Transfusion-transmitted retrovirus and hepatitis virus rates and risk factors: Improving the safety of the U.S...

  8. Haemorrhoids, rectal prolapse, anal fissure, peri-anal fistulae and sexually transmitted diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felt-Bersma, Richelle J. F.; Bartelsman, Joep F.

    2009-01-01

    Anorectal disorders like haemorrhoids, rectal prolapse, anal fissures, peri-anal fistulae and sexually transmitted diseases are bothersome benign conditions that warrant special attention. They, however, can all be diagnosed by inspection or proctoscopy (sexually transmitted proctitis). Constipation

  9. [Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O.P.; Meijden, W.I. van der; Wittenberg, J.; Bergen, J.E. van; Boeke, A.J.; Doornum, G.J.J. van; Henquet, C.J.; Galama, J.M.D.; Postma, M.J.; Prins, J.M.; Voorst Vader, P.C. van

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes' summarises the current scientific position on the diagnosis and treatment of a great number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and neonatal herpes. Symptomatic treatment of

  10. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Data Transmitted from Satellite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USCRN Raw Transmitted Data is level 0 data received from the USCRN stations that are transmitted continuously. The data values are ingested with a unique 18-bit...

  11. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  12. Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Performance of an 8-Channel Digital Phased Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-16

    and a 4DSP FMC204 16-bit DAC card. Digital signal processing was performed offline using MATLAB. Probe waveforms were used to characterize the array...Canceller Receive Digital Beamfomer Isolated Receive SignalTransmit Signal ALSTAR Transmit Elements ALSTAR Receive Elements ... ... Fig. 1...and cancellation. Physical sampling of the transmitted signal enables digital cancellation of transmit distortion and noise. Once the beamformers have

  13. Saturation of the Electric Field Transmitted to the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.; Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    We reexamined the processes leading to saturation of the electric field, transmitted into the Earth's ionosphere from the solar wind, incorporating features of the coupled system previously ignored. We took into account that the electric field is transmitted into the ionosphere through a region of open field lines, and that the ionospheric conductivity in the polar cap and auroral zone may be different. Penetration of the electric field into the magnetosphere is linked with the generation of the Alfven wave, going out from the ionosphere into the solar wind and being coupled with the field-aligned currents at the boundary of the open field limes. The electric field of the outgoing Alfven wave reduces the original electric field and provides the saturation effect in the electric field and currents during strong geomagnetic disturbances, associated with increasing ionospheric conductivity. The electric field and field-aligned currents of this Alfven wave are dependent on the ionospheric and solar wind parameters and may significantly affect the electric field and field-aligned currents, generated in the polar ionosphere. Estimating the magnitude of the saturation effect in the electric field and field-aligned currents allows us to improve the correlation between solar wind parameters and resulting disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere.

  14. Diseases Transmitted by Man's Best Friend: The Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jerry; Lorber, Bennett

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between dogs and humans is ancient and mutually beneficial. Dogs have served people well as companions, workmates, guides, and protectors. However, on occasion, dogs may injure humans through biting or may transmit pathogens resulting in a large number of problems ranging from a trivial rash to life-threatening bacteremia. Given that there are more than 80 million pet dogs in the United States, it is worth knowing the potential problems that can result from canine exposure. Annually, almost 5 million people in the United States suffer a dog bite. Dog bite wounds become infected up to 15% of the time. In those who have had a splenectomy, a dog bite may transmit the bacterium Capnocytophaga canimorsus, leading to life-threatening bacteremia. Other illnesses that humans can acquire from dog contact include ringworm, diarrheal disease (salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and intestinal parasites), leptospirosis, brucellosis, Q fever, visceral larva migrans, and echinococcosis. Evidence exists that the family dog may serve as a reservoir for uropathogenic Escherichia coli that can lead to urinary tract infections among human household contacts. In this article we discuss dog-related infectious diseases as well as measures to minimize dog-associated illness (e.g., do not disturb sleeping dogs; HIV-infected persons who wish to acquire a puppy should have the dog's stool checked for Cryptosporidium).

  15. MIMO transmit scheme based on morphological perceptron with competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Raul Ambrozio; Abrão, Taufik

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmit scheme aided by artificial neural network (ANN). The morphological perceptron with competitive learning (MP/CL) concept is deployed as a decision rule in the MIMO detection stage. The proposed MIMO transmission scheme is able to achieve double spectral efficiency; hence, in each time-slot the receiver decodes two symbols at a time instead one as Alamouti scheme. Other advantage of the proposed transmit scheme with MP/CL-aided detector is its polynomial complexity according to modulation order, while it becomes linear when the data stream length is greater than modulation order. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared to the traditional MIMO schemes, namely Alamouti scheme and maximum-likelihood MIMO (ML-MIMO) detector. Also, the proposed scheme is evaluated in a scenario with variable channel information along the frame. Numerical results have shown that the diversity gain under space-time coding Alamouti scheme is partially lost, which slightly reduces the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the proposed MP/CL-NN MIMO scheme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva, the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved, and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water the control and prevention in veterinary health must be directed to investigation regarding intermediate stages of these parasites in fishes for human alimentation; if present, they must be eliminated. The helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infected mammals meats, are represented by taeniasis (Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. saginata asiatica, where man id definitive host and the infection is caused by ingestion of bovine or swine meat, containing larvae of these cestodes, and by trichinellosis, where humans represent a intermediate stage, and the eventual pathology is caused as by adult (acute infection as by larvae (chronic infection of this nematode: usually the meats responsible are infected pork, wild pork or horse (Trichinella spp. Is inside the meats of these animals. So the veterinary control and prophylaxis are necessary to avoid this disease and preventing the infection that could be severe.

  17. Indigenous Healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Mulaudzi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Grounded Theory study has been used, based on its Theory of Symbolic Interactionism, to explore indigenous healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases amongst the Vhavenda. Initial data collection has been done, using purposive sampling and when categories started emerging, theoretical sampling was then used. Data were analysed by using three basic types of coding namely, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The findings of the study revealed a variety of terms used to identify STDs. It then also became evident that there are similarities between gonorrhoea, syphilis and condylomata as shown in the orthodox Sexually transmitted diseases posters used in orthodox medicine with some of the STDs that the indigenous healers are familiar with. In accordance with the Grounded Theory, the description of types of diseases, disease patterns as well as signs and symptoms culminated in the emergence of the Dirt Theory. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that guidelines for designing a module for teaching health professionals be formulated to assist nurses in understanding the beliefs and practices of the people they serve.

  18. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  19. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    de Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; G. Sanna; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A.

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  20. Etiology of genital ulcer disease in a sexually transmitted infection reference center in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Naveca, Felipe; Sabidó, Meritxell; Amaral Pires de Almeida, Tatiana; Araújo Veras, Elaine; Contreras Mejía, Matilde Del Carmen; Galban, Enrique; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods. Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2), Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi). Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests. Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8%) and in 125 (30.3%) of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific. The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics.

  1. Genome erosion in a nitrogen-fixing vertically transmitted endosymbiotic multicellular cyanobacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An ancient cyanobacterial incorporation into a eukaryotic organism led to the evolution of plastids (chloroplasts and subsequently to the origin of the plant kingdom. The underlying mechanism and the identities of the partners in this monophyletic event remain elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To shed light on this evolutionary process, we sequenced the genome of a cyanobacterium residing extracellularly in an endosymbiosis with a plant, the water-fern Azolla filiculoides Lam. This symbiosis was selected as it has characters which make it unique among extant cyanobacterial plant symbioses: the cyanobacterium lacks autonomous growth and is vertically transmitted between plant generations. Our results reveal features of evolutionary significance. The genome is in an eroding state, evidenced by a large proportion of pseudogenes (31.2% and a high frequency of transposable elements (approximately 600 scattered throughout the genome. Pseudogenization is found in genes such as the replication initiator dnaA and DNA repair genes, considered essential to free-living cyanobacteria. For some functional categories of genes pseudogenes are more prevalent than functional genes. Loss of function is apparent even within the 'core' gene categories of bacteria, such as genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient uptake. In contrast, serving as a critical source of nitrogen for the host, genes related to metabolic processes such as cell differentiation and nitrogen-fixation are well preserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first finding of genome degradation in a plant symbiont and phenotypically complex cyanobacterium and one of only a few extracellular endosymbionts described showing signs of reductive genome evolution. Our findings suggest an ongoing selective streamlining of this cyanobacterial genome which has resulted in an organism devoted to nitrogen fixation and devoid of autonomous growth. The cyanobacterial symbiont of Azolla

  2. Cascading diversity effects transmitted exclusively by behavioral interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan, Shawn A; Snyder, William E

    2010-08-01

    Consumer diversity generally increases resource consumption. Consumers can also impact other species by altering their behavior, but it is unclear how such nonconsumptive effects scale with diversity. We independently manipulated predator species richness and the consumptive and nonconsumptive effects of predator communities to measure the role of each factor in protecting Brassica oleracea plants from caterpillar herbivory. Plant biomass was greatest when diverse predator assemblages induced antipredator behaviors in herbivores, an effect not further strengthened when predators could also kill caterpillars. Predators within diverse communities were more likely to forage on plants and to disrupt herbivore feeding, reflecting greater aversion to foraging among conspecific than heterospecific competitors. Predator diversity, therefore, initiated behavioral changes at the predator and then herbivore trophic levels, both to the benefit of plants. Our results indicate that strong, emergent species-richness effects can be transmitted entirely through behavioral interactions, independent of resource consumption.

  3. Transmitting information of an object behind the obstacle to infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bai Bing; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Meng, Ling Ling; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-08-01

    We propose an illusion device that transforms a metallic cylinder into a Luneburg lens by using transformation optics. Such a transformed focusing lens guides electromagnetic waves to propagate around the central metallic cylinder smoothly and be focused on one spot, and thus the information of an object behind the obstacle can be transmitted to infinity. In order to realize the required-anisotropic parameters with high permittivity and low permeability, we design embedded split-ring resonators (SRRs) to increase the permittivity of the traditional SRR structures. In experiments, we fabricate and measure the transformed lens, and the tested results agree well with the numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. The proposed transformation lens can mimic some properties of Einstein gravitational lens because their wave propagation behaviors are very similar.

  4. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

    1987-06-29

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

  5. Cardiac In-vivo Measurements Using Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Henrik; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Hassager, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of acquiring cardiac images using synthetic transmit aperture (STA) ultrasound. Focusing in STA is done by beamforming all points in the image for every emission, creating a low-resolution image. The low-resolution images for each emission are summed......, together with the RASMUS experimental ultrasound scanner. Both transducers have a pitch of half a wavelength. To ensure an adequate signal-to-noise ratio, a 20 mus non-linear frequency modulated chirp and a 7-element de-focused virtual source were used for transmission. The number of virtual sources used...... the first and last emission, and allows a frame rate of up to 555 frames/s. The sparse sequence is interleaved with the full sequence to allow a better comparison between the two techniques. A measurement of a point spread phantom shows a FWHM for the full scan sequences of 1.29 mm and 0.66 mm for the 64...

  6. Trichomonas vaginalis - an indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases and 68 men counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female SID cases′ and in 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 216 cases of T.vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with infection with Candida species; 29 (23% with Neisseria gonorrhoea. 18 cases (14.3% with Haemophilus ducreyi and 11 cases (8.7%, Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constituted a low percentage. Present study highlighted the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-third cases which suggested that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  7. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  8. Group delay variations of GPS transmitting and receiving antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, Lambert; Sumaya, Hael; Beer, Susanne

    2017-09-01

    GPS code pseudorange measurements exhibit group delay variations at the transmitting and the receiving antenna. We calibrated C1 and P2 delay variations with respect to dual-frequency carrier phase observations and obtained nadir-dependent corrections for 32 satellites of the GPS constellation in early 2015 as well as elevation-dependent corrections for 13 receiving antenna models. The combined delay variations reach up to 1.0 m (3.3 ns) in the ionosphere-free linear combination for specific pairs of satellite and receiving antennas. Applying these corrections to the code measurements improves code/carrier single-frequency precise point positioning, ambiguity fixing based on the Melbourne-Wübbena linear combination, and determination of ionospheric total electron content. It also affects fractional cycle biases and differential code biases.

  9. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Tropical Australia and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gordon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infect 2 billion people worldwide including significant numbers in South-East Asia (SEA. In Australia, STH are of less concern; however, indigenous communities are endemic for STH, including Strongyloides stercoralis, as well as for serious clinical infections due to other helminths such as Toxocara spp. The zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum is also present in Australia and SEA, and may contribute to human infections particularly among pet owners. High human immigration rates to Australia from SEA, which is highly endemic for STH Strongyloides and Toxocara, has resulted in a high prevalence of these helminthic infections in immigrant communities, particularly since such individuals are not screened for worm infections upon entry. In this review, we consider the current state of STH infections in Australia and SEA.

  10. The molecular diagnosis of sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Yen; Ballard, Ronald C

    2012-01-01

    Highly sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have emerged as the gold standard diagnostic tests for many infectious diseases. Real-time PCR has further refined the technology of nucleic acid amplification with detection in a closed system and enabled multiplexing to simultaneously detect multiple pathogens. It is a versatile, fast, and high-throughput system for pathogen detection that has reduced the risk of PCR contamination, eliminated post-PCR manipulations, and improved the cost-effectiveness of testing. In addition, real-time PCR can be applied to self-collected noninvasive specimens. Here, we describe an in-house developed TaqMan-based real-time multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease (GUD) and discuss briefly on issues associated with validation of assay performance.

  11. Vulvovaginitis: promotion of condom use to prevent sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVasseur, J J

    1992-09-01

    Many studies have suggested that merely warning people about the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and urging the use of condoms as protection will not result in widespread use of condoms. Regular condom use appears to be grounded in knowledge of its effectiveness, perception of STD risk, and belief in a partner's acceptance. But these are not the only barriers to condom use. Negotiating condom use often comes at a sensitive stage in intimate relationships, when individuals prefer to avoid such discussions and simply to trust the powerful and compelling feelings of mutual attraction. This review will consider (1) the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STD transmission, (2) barriers to the use of condoms, and (3) recommended strategies to promote acceptance and use of condoms by heterosexual women.

  12. Closed form fourier-based transmit beamforming for MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John J.

    2014-05-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar setting, it is often desirable to design correlated waveforms such that power is transmitted only to a given set of locations, a process known as beampattern design. To design desired beam-pattern, current research uses iterative algorithms, first to synthesize the waveform covariance matrix, R, then to design the actual waveforms to realize R. In contrast to this, we present a closed form method to design R that exploits discrete Fourier transform and Toeplitz matrix. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints and performance is similar to that of iterative methods. Next, we present a radar architecture for the desired beampattern that does not require the synthesis of covariance matrix nor the design of correlated waveforms. © 2014 IEEE.

  13. Implant for in-vivo parameter monitoring, processing and transmitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Milton N [Knoxville, TN; McKnight, Timothy E [Greenback, TN; Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Hylton, James O [Clinton, TN

    2009-11-24

    The present invention relates to a completely implantable intracranial pressure monitor, which can couple to existing fluid shunting systems as well as other internal monitoring probes. The implant sensor produces an analog data signal which is then converted electronically to a digital pulse by generation of a spreading code signal and then transmitted to a location outside the patient by a radio-frequency transmitter to an external receiver. The implanted device can receive power from an internal source as well as an inductive external source. Remote control of the implant is also provided by a control receiver which passes commands from an external source to the implant system logic. Alarm parameters can be programmed into the device which are capable of producing an audible or visual alarm signal. The utility of the monitor can be greatly expanded by using multiple pressure sensors simultaneously or by combining sensors of various physiological types.

  14. HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Sexuality in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Hawkes, Gail; Pitts, Marian

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we review recent evidence indicating that people over the age of 50 years are increasingly at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, and that-thanks to the success of highly active antiretroviral therapies-those infected with HIV are now living into older age. We show that health professionals and society in general have been reluctant to acknowledge sexuality in older adults. Sexuality until recently has been regarded as merely a matter of male potency and sexual function, whereas older women's sexuality and desires have been ignored. Changing patterns of sexual practices, including high rates of divorce and partner change in the older age groups, indicate that focus and concern with sex and sexuality in later life will become part of routine prevention and maintenance of sexual health.

  15. Transmitting information of an object behind the obstacle to infinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bai Bing; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Meng, Ling Ling; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-08-14

    We propose an illusion device that transforms a metallic cylinder into a Luneburg lens by using transformation optics. Such a transformed focusing lens guides electromagnetic waves to propagate around the central metallic cylinder smoothly and be focused on one spot, and thus the information of an object behind the obstacle can be transmitted to infinity. In order to realize the required-anisotropic parameters with high permittivity and low permeability, we design embedded split-ring resonators (SRRs) to increase the permittivity of the traditional SRR structures. In experiments, we fabricate and measure the transformed lens, and the tested results agree well with the numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. The proposed transformation lens can mimic some properties of Einstein gravitational lens because their wave propagation behaviors are very similar.

  16. Sexually transmitted infections: old foes on the rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didac Carmona-Gutierrez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are commonly spread via sexual contact. It is estimated that one million STIs are acquired every day worldwide. Besides their impact on sexual, reproductive and neonatal health, they can cause disastrous and life-threatening complications if left untreated. In addition to this personal burden, STIs also represent a socioeconomic problem, deriving in treatment costs of tremendous proportions. Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis, treatment and prevention, the incidence of many common STIs is increasing, and STIs continue to represent a global public health problem and a major cause for morbidity and mortality. With this Special Issue, Microbial Cell provides an in-depth overview of the eight major STIs, covering all relevant features of each infection.

  17. Promiscuity and the evolution of sexual transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2003-09-01

    We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexual transmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.

  18. Cannibalism amplifies the spread of vertically transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Asaf; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    Cannibalism is a widespread behavior. Abundant empirical evidence demonstrates that cannibals incur a risk of contracting pathogenic infections when they consume infected conspecifics. However, current theory suggests that cannibalism generally impedes disease spread, because each victim is usually consumed by a single cannibal, such that cannibalism does not function as a spreading process. Consequently, cannibalism cannot be the only mode of transmission of most parasites. We develop simple, but general epidemiological models to analyze the interaction of cannibalism and vertical transmission. We show that cannibalism increases the prevalence of vertically transmitted pathogens whenever the host population density is not solely regulated by cannibalism. This mechanism, combined with additional, recently published, theoretical mechanisms, presents a strong case for the role of cannibalism in the spread of infectious diseases across a wide range of parasite-host systems. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Condenser-free contrast methods for transmitted-light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, K F

    2015-01-01

    Phase contrast microscopy allows the study of highly transparent yet detail-rich specimens by producing intensity contrast from phase objects within the sample. Presented here is a generalized phase contrast illumination schema in which condenser optics are entirely abrogated, yielding a condenser-free yet highly effective method of obtaining phase contrast in transmitted-light microscopy. A ring of light emitting diodes (LEDs) is positioned within the light-path such that observation of the objective back focal plane places the illuminating ring in appropriate conjunction with the phase ring. It is demonstrated that true Zernike phase contrast is obtained, whose geometry can be flexibly manipulated to provide an arbitrary working distance between illuminator and sample. Condenser-free phase contrast is demonstrated across a range of magnifications (4-100×), numerical apertures (0.13-1.65NA) and conventional phase positions. Also demonstrated is condenser-free darkfield microscopy as well as combinatorial contrast including Rheinberg illumination and simultaneous, colour-contrasted, brightfield, darkfield and Zernike phase contrast. By providing enhanced and arbitrary working space above the preparation, a range of concurrent imaging and electrophysiological techniques will be technically facilitated. Condenser-free phase contrast is demonstrated in conjunction with scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM), using a notched ring to admit the scanned probe. The compact, versatile LED illumination schema will further lend itself to novel next-generation transmitted-light microscopy designs. The condenser-free illumination method, using rings of independent or radially-scanned emitters, may be exploited in future in other electromagnetic wavebands, including X-rays or the infrared. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd on behalf of the Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Smarty pipes : drillpipe transmits drilling, geological formation data to surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2006-07-15

    This article presented details of new downhole Internet technology for drilling oil and gas wells funded by the United States Department of Energy and developed by Prideco Inc., a leader in drillstem technology. The intelliServ network and related IntelliPipe technology can turn ordinary drillpipes into conduits for transmitting drilling and geological formation data at very high speed from the bottom of a well to the surface. The IntelliPipe works through the embedding of a high-speed, high-strength data cable inside the wall of the drillpipe. The cables carry data to small induction coils that are installed in protective grooves. Low-energy data signals are transmitted passively without a dedicated power source, which means that there are no physical connections to break. The technology will provide drilling engineers and geologists with access to critical information at speeds of up to 57,000 bits per second, as well as giving drillers the capacity to support data acquisition from multiple locations along the drillstring. The network has been field proven in extensive trials across North America. The network has been shown to provide reliable telemetry for underbalanced drilling, in addition to providing longer step-outs for extended reach drilling. Other benefits of the network include optimized rotary steering control; enhanced wellbore stability management; active management of bit performance and life extension; and look ahead seismic-while-drilling. The network is an open architecture system enabling connectivity to any supplier of downhole tools and services. It was concluded that the first offshore commercial deployment of the technology is expected to occur in the North Sea in 2006. 4 figs.

  1. Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus occurring on dicotyledoneous plants (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Markert, Anne; Kucht, Sabine; Gross, Julia; Kauf, Nicole; Kuzma, Monika; Zych, Monika; Lamshöft, Marc; Furmanowa, Miroslawa; Knoop, Volker; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2006-08-01

    Ergoline alkaloids (syn. ergot alkaloids) are constituents of clavicipitaceous fungi (Ascomycota) and of one particular dicotyledonous plant family, the Convolvulaceae. While the biology of fungal ergoline alkaloids is rather well understood, the evolutionary and biosynthetic origin of ergoline alkaloids within the family Convolvulaceae is unknown. To investigate the possible origin of ergoline alkaloids from a plant-associated fungus, 12 endophytic fungi and one epibiotic fungus were isolated from an ergoline alkaloid-containing Convolvulaceae plant, Ipomoea asarifolia Roem. & Schult. Phylogenetic trees constructed from 18S rDNA genes as well as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed that the epibiotic fungus belongs to the family Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota) whereas none of the endophytic fungi does. In vitro and in vivo cultivation on intact plants gave no evidence that the endophytic fungi are responsible for the accumulation of ergoline alkaloids in I. asarifolia whereas the epibiotic clavicipitaceous fungus very likely is equipped with the genetic material to synthesize these compounds. This fungus resisted in vitro and in vivo cultivation and is seed transmitted. Several observations strongly indicate that this plant-associated fungus and its hitherto unidentified relatives occurring on different Convolvulaceae plants are responsible for the isolated occurrence of ergoline alkaloids in Convolvulaceae. This is the first report of an ergot alkaloid producing clavicipitaceous fungus associated with a dicotyledonous plant.

  2. Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Novel Screening Strategy for Improving Women’s Health in Vulnerable Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R. Frati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migrant women are one of the most vulnerable population to health problems and well-being. This study aimed at implementing a counseling and preventive strategy for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in undocumented migrant women in Milan, Italy. Methods: Women (ages 18–65 were enrolled at the NAGA Centre (2012–2013 and asked for a urine sample in order to carry out molecular detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct, Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng-DNA. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior information were collected. All HPV/Ct+ women were offered Pap tests and/or were prescribed antibiotic treatment. Results: 537/757 women participated in the study (acceptability rate: 70.9%. Most of the women were from Latin America (45.6% and Eastern Europe (30.7%; >60% of them had stable partners, did not use contraception and had had at least one pregnancy. The prevalence rates of HPV, Ct, Tv and Ng infections were 24.2%, 7.8%, 4.8% and 0%, respectively. In all, 43.2% of the positive women agreed to undergo a gynecological examination and accepted suitable treatment. Conclusions: This study shows an overall high prevalence of STIs in undocumented migrant women in Milan. The screening strategy based on counseling and urine testing contributed to the successfully high acceptability rate. More appropriate health services that adequately address all aspects of women’s health are required.

  3. Analysis of the Genome of the Sexually Transmitted Insect Virus Helicoverpa zea Nudivius 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sexually transmitted insect virus Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2 was determined to have a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 231,621 bp coding for an estimated 113 open reading frames (ORFs. HzNV-2 is most closely related to the nudiviruses, a sister group of the insect baculoviruses. Several putative ORFs that share homology with the baculovirus core genes were identified in the viral genome. However, HzNV-2 lacks several key genetic features of baculoviruses including the late transcriptional regulation factor, LEF-1 and the palindromic hrs, which serve as origins of replication. The HzNV-2 genome was found to code for three ORFs that had significant sequence homology to cellular genes which are not generally found in viral genomes. These included a presumed juvenile hormone esterase gene, a gene coding for a putative zinc-dependent matrix metalloprotease, and a major facilitator superfamily protein gene; all of which are believed to play a role in the cellular proliferation and the tissue hypertrophy observed in the malformation of reproductive organs observed in HzNV-2 infected corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea.

  4. Nuclear insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor phosphorylates proliferating cell nuclear antigen and rescues stalled replication forks after DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waraky, Ahmed; Lin, Yingbo; Warsito, Dudi; Haglund, Felix; Aleem, Eiman; Larsson, Olle

    2017-11-03

    We have previously shown that the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) translocates to the cell nucleus, where it binds to enhancer-like regions and increases gene transcription. Further studies have demonstrated that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) physically and functionally interacts with some nuclear proteins, i.e. the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1), histone H3, and Brahma-related gene-1 proteins. In this study, we identified the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a nIGF-1R-binding partner. PCNA is a pivotal component of the replication fork machinery and a main regulator of the DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathway. We found that IGF-1R interacts with and phosphorylates PCNA in human embryonic stem cells and other cell lines. In vitro MS analysis of PCNA co-incubated with the IGF-1R kinase indicated tyrosine residues 60, 133, and 250 in PCNA as IGF-1R targets, and PCNA phosphorylation was followed by mono- and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that these ubiquitination events may be mediated by DDT-dependent E2/E3 ligases ( e.g. RAD18 and SHPRH/HLTF). Absence of IGF-1R or mutation of Tyr-60, Tyr-133, or Tyr-250 in PCNA abrogated its ubiquitination. Unlike in cells expressing IGF-1R, externally induced DNA damage in IGF-1R-negative cells caused G 1 cell cycle arrest and S phase fork stalling. Taken together, our results suggest a role of IGF-1R in DDT. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  6. Papanicolaou smears induce partial immunity against sexually transmitted viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Samuel; Hoffman, Margaret; Constant, Deborah; Rosenberg, Lynn; Carrara, Henri; Allan, Bruce Rider; Marais, Dianne Jean; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2007-11-01

    In a case-control study of hormonal contraceptives and invasive cervical cancer, an unexpected finding was a substantial decline in the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection according to the lifetime number of Pap smears received. Here we assess the risk of 3 sexually transmitted viral infections -- herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), HPV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 and 2 -- in relation to the lifetime receipt of Pap smears. Stored sera taken from 1540 controls were tested for HSV2 and HIV; cervical scrapings were tested for HPV. Confounder-adjusted odds ratios for the lifetime receipt of Pap smears were estimated, relative to never having had a Papanicolau test. For ever-receipt of a Papanicolau test, the odds ratios for HSV2 and HPV were 0.7 (95% confidence interval = 0.5-0.9) and 0.5 (0.3-0.7), respectively, and there were dose-response trends according to the lifetime number of Pap smears received (test for trend P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). For HSV2 the odds ratios according to last receipt declined from 0.8 for 10 or more years previously to 0.4 for <1 year previously (trend P = 0.002). For HPV the ORs were 0.4 (0.3-0.7) for last receipt 5-9 years previously and 0.5 (0.4-0.8) for less than 5 years previously; for HIV the odds ratio for last receipt less than 5 years previously was 0.4 (0.3-0.9). For HSV2 and HIV the crude odds ratio estimates were systematically lower than the adjusted estimates, and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. In particular, the true number of sexual partners may have been under-reported, and there was no information on the sexual activity of the male partners, or on other health behaviors of the women or their partners. We hypothesize that Pap smears may provoke a short-term immune response against sexually transmitted viral infections.

  7. The srs2 suppressor of UV sensitivity acts specifically on the RAD5- and MMS2-dependent branch of the RAD6 pathway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulrich, H D

    2001-01-01

    .... Loss-of-function mutations in srs2 suppress the extreme sensitivity towards UV radiation of rad6 and rad18 mutants, both of which are impaired in post-replication DNA repair and damage-induced mutagenesis...

  8. Childhood lead exposure and sexually transmitted infections: New evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J; Shacham, Enbal; Boutwell, Brian B; Rosenfeld, Richard; Schootman, Mario; Vaughn, Michael; Lewis, Roger

    2015-11-01

    The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children are well documented and include intellectual and behavioral maladies. Childhood lead exposure has also been linked to impulsive behaviors, which, in turn, are associated with a host of negative health outcomes including an increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The purpose of this study was to assess the association of lead exposure with STI rates across census tracts in St. Louis City, Missouri. Incident cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia (GC) during 2011 were identified from the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services and aggregated by census tract. We also geocoded the home address of 59,645 children >72 months in age who had blood lead level tests performed in St. Louis City from 1996 to 2007. Traditional regression and Bayesian spatial models were used to determine the relationship between GC and lead exposure while accounting for confounders (condom and alcohol availability, crime, and an index of concentrated disadvantage). Incident GC rates were found to cluster across census tracts (Moran's I=0.13, p=0.006). After accounting for confounders and their spatial dependence, a linear relationship existed between lead exposure and GC incidence across census tracts, with higher GC rates occurring in the northern part of St. Louis City At the census-tract level, higher lead exposure is associated with higher STI rates. Visualizing these patterns through maps may help deliver targeted interventions to reduce geographic disparities in GC rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dimension-based quality modeling of transmitted speech

    CERN Document Server

    Wältermann, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    In this book, speech transmission quality is modeled on the basis of perceptual dimensions. The author identifies those dimensions that are relevant for today's public-switched and packet-based telecommunication systems, regarding the complete transmission path from the mouth of the speaker to the ear of the listener. Both narrowband (300-3400 Hz) as well as wideband (50-7000 Hz) speech transmission is taken into account. A new analytical assessment method is presented that allows the dimensions to be rated by non-expert listeners in a direct way. Due to the efficiency of the test method, a relatively large number of stimuli can be assessed in auditory tests. The test method is applied in two auditory experiments. The book gives the evidence that this test method provides meaningful and reliable results. The resulting dimension scores together with respective overall quality ratings form the basis for a new parametric model for the quality estimation of transmitted speech based on the perceptual dimensions. I...

  10. Circular polarization of transmitted light by sapphirinidae copepods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Baar

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized light, rare in the animal kingdom, has thus far been documented in only a handful of animals. Using a rotating circular polarization (CP analyzer we detected CP in linearly polarized light transmitted through epipelagic free living Sapphirina metallina copepods. Both left and right handedness of CP was detected, generated from specific organs of the animal's body, especially on the dorsal cephalosome and prosome. Such CP transmittance may be generated by phase retardance either in the muscle fibers or in the multilayer membrane structure found underneath the cuticle. Although the role, if any, played by circularly polarized light in Sapphirinidae has yet to be clarified, in other animals it was suggested to take part in mate choice, species recognition, and other forms of communication.Planktonic Sapphirinidae copepods were found to circularly polarize the light passing through them. Circular polarization may be created by unique, multilayered features of the membrane structure found under their cuticle or by organized muscle fibers.

  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling.

  12. Transmitting Mediterranean food culture through art: a creative interdisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, Sandro

    2006-12-01

    As a qualitative problem solving method, to manage the accelerating phenomenon of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents as well as to promote the Mediterranean Diet and the diversity of the Mediterranean Food Cultures heritage, it is presented a creative interdisciplinary approach through art. Taking into account that young generations are becoming the highest majority of the consumer population in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries, it is reported the artist practice and the creative community-based interdisciplinary experience of Plexus International, a network of artists and scientists of various nationalities and disciplines. Mediterranean Region and International. Young Populations. Through the Ark of the Well Being project, artists and scientists have collaborate together, promoting The 2005 Rome Call for a Common Action in the Mediterranean and raising more attention on the erosion of the cognitive capacities of young generations by hunger and malnutrition. A creative interdisciplinary approach was developed to transmit through art Mediterranean food culture with the aim to achieve a broader nutritional well being.

  13. On purely transmitting defects in affine Toda field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrigan, Edward [Department of Mathematics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Zambon, Cristina [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise (CNRS UMR 8089), Saint-Martin 2, 2 avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France)

    2007-07-15

    Affine Toda field theories with a purely transmitting integrable defect are considered and the model based on a{sub 2} is analysed in detail. After providing a complete characterization of the problem in a classical framework, a suitable quantum transmission matrix, able to describe the interaction between an integrable defect and solitons, is found. Two independent paths are taken to reach the result. One is an investigation of the triangle equations using the S-matrix for the imaginary coupling bulk affine Toda field theories proposed by Hollowood, and the other uses a functional integral approach together with a bootstrap procedure. Evidence to support the results is collected in various ways: for instance, through the calculation of the transmission factors for the lightest breathers. While previous discoveries within the sine-Gordon model motivated this study, there are several new phenomena displayed in the a{sub 2} model including intriguing disparities between the classical and the quantum pictures. For example, in the quantum framework, for a specific range of the coupling constant that excludes a neighbourhood of the classical limit, there is an unstable bound state.

  14. On Secure NOMA Systems with Transmit Antenna Selection Schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-08-09

    This paper investigates the secrecy performance of a two-user downlink non-orthogonal multiple access systems. Both single-input and single-output and multiple-input and singleoutput systems with different transmit antenna selection (TAS) strategies are considered. Depending on whether the base station has the global channel state information of both the main and wiretap channels, the exact closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) with suboptimal antenna selection and optimal antenna selection schemes are obtained and compared with the traditional space-time transmission scheme. To obtain further insights, the asymptotic analysis of the SOP in high average channel power gains regime is presented and it is found that the secrecy diversity order for all the TAS schemes with fixed power allocation is zero. Furthermore, an effective power allocation scheme is proposed to obtain the nonzero diversity order with all the TAS schemes. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to verify the proposed analytical results.

  15. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Martin P; Hayes, Kevin; Horgan, Mary; Shiely, Frances

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland. Routine diagnostic, demographic and behavioural data from first-time visits to three screening centres in the southwest of Ireland were obtained. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents. A total of 2784 first-time patients, aged 13-19 years, received 3475 diagnoses between January 1999 and September 2009; 1168 (42%) of adolescents had notifiable STIs. The incidence rate of STIs is 225/100 000 person-years. Univariate analysis identified eligible risk factors (pIreland. The proportion of notifications among those aged under 20 years is increasing. These data illustrate the significance of age, condom use and number of sexual partners as risk factors for STI diagnosis. Furthermore, providing data for the first time, we report on the high incidence rate of STIs among adolescents in Ireland. The high levels of risk-taking behaviour and STI acquisition are highlighted and suggest that there is a need for an integrated public health approach to combat this phenomenon in the adolescent population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. On the power amplifier nonlinearity in MIMO transmit beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, single-carrier multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity are investigated. Specifically, due to the suboptimality of the conventional maximal ratio transmission/maximal ratio combining (MRT/MRC) under HPA nonlinearity, we propose the optimal TB scheme with the optimal beamforming weight vector and combining vector, for MIMO systems with nonlinear HPAs. Moreover, an alternative suboptimal but much simpler TB scheme, namely, quantized equal gain transmission (QEGT), is proposed. The latter profits from the property that the elements of the beamforming weight vector have the same constant modulus. The performance of the proposed optimal TB scheme and QEGT/MRC technique in the presence of the HPA nonlinearity is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability and mutual information with the Gaussian input, considering the transmission over uncorrelated quasi-static frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects on the performance of several system parameters, namely, the HPA parameters, numbers of antennas, quadrature amplitude modulation modulation order, number of pilot symbols, and cardinality of the beamforming weight vector codebook for QEGT. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos R; García-Morales, Claudia; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Escobar, Ingrid; Mendizabal, Ricardo; Girón, Amalia; García, Leticia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Guatemala. One hundred forty-five antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients referred to the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City were enrolled from October 2010 to March 2011. Plasma HIV pol sequences were obtained and TDR was assessed with the Stanford algorithm and the World Health Organization (WHO) TDR surveillance mutation list. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Guatemala (96.6%, 140/145), and a 2.8% (4/145) prevalence of BF1 recombinants and 0.7% (1/145) prevalence of subtype C viruses were found. TDR prevalence for the study period was 8.3% (12/145) with the Stanford database algorithm (score > 15) and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. Most TDR cases were associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (83.3%, 10/12); a low prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors was observed in the cohort (Guatemala. TDR prevalence in Guatemala was at the intermediate level. Most TDR cases were associated with NNRTIs. Further and continuous TDR surveillance is necessary to gain more indepth knowledge about TDR spread and trends in Guatemala and to optimize treatment outcomes in the country.

  19. The most important pathogens transmitted by sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi and viruses transmitted by sugar beet seed represent a complex group of organisms. Detection of these pathogens is an important issue in sugar beet protection. Their identification is a difficult task because the most available methods rely on the growth characteristics morphological and biochemical criteria. Three domestic and eight foreign sugar beet varieties, from Germany, Italy and Greece were included in the investigation. Seed health testing was performed in laboratory and in field conditions. During the trials, the following methods were used: blotter method, agar plate method and ELISA test for viruses. Seeds were incubated in "Conviron" aparatus at 22°C which is suitable for sporulation of different kind of fungi (light and temperature were adjustable. The appereance of following fungi was noted during incubation: Pleospora bjoerlingii (Phoma betae, Fusarium spp., Pythium spp. Aphanomyces cochlioides and Cercospora beticola. Viruses tested by ELISA test were beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV and beet yellows virus (BYV. Viruses were tested in sugar beet seedlings grown in laboratory conditions and on leaves of individual plants from the field. The disease index was calculated on the basis of intensity of infection of plants for Cercospora beticola and Phoma betae according to Mc Kinney's formula. Results were presented by graphs, tables and original photos.

  20. The Dynamics of Transmitting the Faith: A Family Life Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Joan B. Matheu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available - This is a qualitative case study of a Christian Living Awardee and her family about the dynamics of living and transmitting the Catholic faith within their family and beyond. The researchers conducted this study during the academic year 2016-2017 in St. Joseph’s School of Mactan, Lapu-Lapu City, Cebu, Philippines. They asked permission from the proper authorities for the conduct of the study. They also asked for the informed consent of the parents of the chosen family. Once they were granted, they conducted a focus group discussion with the chosen family. Some of the themes extracted are: Faith considered as the “best gift” of parents to their children; Faith as “North Star”; Parents come from families with deep faith; Spiritual activities done as a family: Going to Holy Mass together, Holy Rosary; Practicing Faith, Nurturing the Faith; Good Example of Parents; Sharing the faith with peers by example; Being friendly. The researchers recommend the offering of continuing education in the faith for parents, educators, catechists and other formators in coordination with the parish priests, sharing of books and references like the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Compendium, teaching of Catechism especially in the public schools.

  1. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  2. The capacity of black holes to transmit quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brádler, Kamil [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University,Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Adami, Christoph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    We study the properties of the quantum information transmission channel that emerges from the quantum dynamics of particles interacting with a black hole horizon. We calculate the quantum channel capacity in two limiting cases where a single-letter capacity is known to exist: the limit of perfectly reflecting and perfectly absorbing black holes. We find that the perfectly reflecting black hole channel is closely related to the Unruh channel and that its capacity is non-vanishing, allowing for the perfect reconstruction of quantum information outside of the black hole horizon. We also find that the complementary channel (transmitting entanglement behind the horizon) is entanglement-breaking in this case, with vanishing capacity. We then calculate the quantum capacity of the black hole channel in the limit of a perfectly absorbing black hole and find that this capacity vanishes, while the capacity of the complementary channel is non-vanishing instead. Rather than inviting a new crisis for quantum physics, this finding instead is in accordance with the quantum no-cloning theorem, because it guarantees that there are no space-like surfaces that contain both the sender’s quantum state and the receiver’s reconstructed quantum state.

  3. Inverse design of perfectly transmitting eigenchannels in scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, M.; Sarma, R.; Cao, H.; Yamilov, A.

    2017-08-01

    Light-matter interactions inside a turbid medium can be controlled by tailoring the spatial distribution of energy density throughout the system. Wavefront shaping allows selective coupling of incident light to different transmission eigenchannels, producing dramatically different spatial intensity profiles. In contrast to the density of transmission eigenvalues that is dictated by the universal bimodal distribution, the spatial structures of the eigenchannels are not universal and depend on the confinement geometry of the system. Here, we develop and verify a model for the transmission eigenchannel with the corresponding eigenvalue close to unity. By projecting the original problem of two-dimensional diffusion in a homogeneous scattering medium onto a one-dimensional inhomogeneous diffusion, we obtain an analytical expression relating the intensity profile to the shape of the confining waveguide. Inverting this relationship enables the inverse design of the waveguide shape to achieve the desired energy distribution for the perfectly transmitting eigenchannel. Our approach also allows to predict the intensity profile of such a channel in a disordered slab with open boundaries, pointing to the possibility of controllable delivery of light to different depths with local illumination.

  4. The role of fear in predicting sexually transmitted infection screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lee; Smith, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    This study assessed the extent to which social-cognitive factors (attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and the fear of a positive test result predict sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening intentions and subsequent behaviour. Study 1 (N = 85) used a longitudinal design to assess the factors that predict STI screening intention and future screening behaviour measured one month later at Time 2. Study 2 (N = 102) used an experimental design to determine whether the relationship between fear and screening varied depending on whether STI or HIV screening was being assessed both before and after controlling for social-cognitive factors. Across the studies the outcome measures were sexual health screening. In both studies, the fear of having an STI positively predicted STI screening intention. In Study 1, fear, but not the social-cognitive factors, also predicted subsequent STI screening behaviour. In Study 2, the fear of having HIV did not predict HIV screening intention, but attitude negatively and response efficacy positively predicted screening intention. This study highlights the importance of considering the nature of the health condition when assessing the role of fear on health promotion.

  5. Sex Work Regulation and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Troy; Gonzalez, Fidel

    2017-05-01

    While reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections is a common argument for regulating sex work, relatively little empirical evidence is available regarding the effectiveness of these policies. We investigate the effects of highly publicized sex work regulations introduced in 2005 in Tijuana, Mexico on the incidence of trichomoniasis. State-level, annual data for the 1995-2012 period are employed that include the incidence rates of trichomoniasis by age group and predictor variables. We find that the regulations led to a decrease in the incidence rate of trichomoniasis. Specifically, while our estimates are somewhat noisy, the all-ages incidence rate in the 2005-2012 period is roughly 37% lower than what is predicted by our synthetic control estimates and corresponds to approximately 800 fewer reported cases of trichomoniasis per year. We find that the decreases are especially pronounced for 15-24 and 25-44 age cohorts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. An Adaptive Transmitting Scheme for Interrupted Sampling Repeater Jamming Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interrupted sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ based on a digital radio frequency memory (DRFM device is a new type of coherent jamming. This kind of jamming usually occurs as main-lobe jamming and has the advantages of low power requirements and easy parameter adjustment, posing a serious threat to the modern radar systems. In order to suppress the ISRJ, this paper proposes an adaptive transmitting scheme based on a phase-coded signal. The scheme firstly performs jamming perception to estimate the jamming parameters, then, on this basis, optimizes the waveform with genetic algorithm. With the optimized waveform, the jamming signal is orthogonal to the target echo, thus it can be easily suppressed with pulse compression. Simulation experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the scheme and the results suggest that the peak-to-side-lobe ratio (PSR and integrated side-lobe level (ISL of the pulse compression can be improved by about 16 dB and 15 dB, respectively, for the case where the jamming-to-signal ratio (JSR is 13 dB.

  7. An Adaptive Transmitting Scheme for Interrupted Sampling Repeater Jamming Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feifeng; Liu, Quanhua

    2017-10-29

    The interrupted sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) based on a digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) device is a new type of coherent jamming. This kind of jamming usually occurs as main-lobe jamming and has the advantages of low power requirements and easy parameter adjustment, posing a serious threat to the modern radar systems. In order to suppress the ISRJ, this paper proposes an adaptive transmitting scheme based on a phase-coded signal. The scheme firstly performs jamming perception to estimate the jamming parameters, then, on this basis, optimizes the waveform with genetic algorithm. With the optimized waveform, the jamming signal is orthogonal to the target echo, thus it can be easily suppressed with pulse compression. Simulation experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the scheme and the results suggest that the peak-to-side-lobe ratio (PSR) and integrated side-lobe level (ISL) of the pulse compression can be improved by about 16 dB and 15 dB, respectively, for the case where the jamming-to-signal ratio (JSR) is 13 dB.

  8. Light Conduction Capability of Different Light-Transmitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostafa Moazzami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Application of light transmitting posts to restore greatly damaged endodontically treated teeth has been increased. It is suspected that light intensity decreases as it passes throughout different materials. This can reduce the degree of conversion required for adequate bond strength throughout the length of these posts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of light intensity reduction after passing through different depths of FRC posts. Methods: Four groups of five extracted human central incisors were prepared to cement four types of FRC posts with Panavia F 2 resin cement. The apical end of the posts were exposed by sectioning with a diamond disk and then polished. The light intensity measurement was performed using a micro-voltmeter in 8 points or depths with 2mm intervals beginning from the apical depth of 16mm up to a coronal depth of 6mm. Two different output light intensities [HIP (High Intensity Program and LOP (Low Intensity Program] were evaluated. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant differences in light intensity at various depths between 6 and 16mm in all groups. These reductions were linear in all specimens; however, the rate of reduction was dissimilar among different FRC posts. HIP and LOP light exposure modes had not the same rate of light reduction. Conclusion: Light intensity decreased dramatically after passing through different depths of FRC posts. None of the posts had sufficient enough light transmission for satisfactory polymerization at the apical and middle levels.

  9. Trichomoniasis as sexually transmitted disease in sex partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 30 male consorts of 30 cases of vaginal trichomoniasis with high levels of parasitic infection was undertaken to evaluate the sexually transmitted role of trichomoniasis in sex partners. There were 20 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic male partners, who revealed T. vaginalis in 80.0% and 60.0 of the cases respectively and the overall prevalence was 73.3% (22 Of 30. T. vaginalis was detected in 83.3% male with urethritis and 50.0% males with prostatitis. Detection of trichomonas in urethral discharge, morning drop secretion, urine deposit and prostatic fluid was 80.0%, 50.0% 35.7% and 21.4% in that order. It is evident from these results that the sex consorts of all cases of trichomoniasis should be considered as harbouring T. vaginalis in their genito-urinary tract as carriers and be treated to break the chain of transmission. Fontanna smear was superior to culture and wet mount in the detection of T. vaginalis, the success rates being 73.3%, 63.3% and 53.3%. A good correlation was observed between smear and culture at high levels of parasitic infection.

  10. Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Transmits Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistrom, C M; Blaisdell, G K; Wunderlich, L R; Almeida, R P P; Daane, K M

    2016-08-01

    Several mealybug species are vectors of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV), which cause the economically important grapevine leafroll disease in grape-producing regions worldwide. The mealybug Ferrisia gilli Gullan is a new pest of grapevines in El Dorado County, located in the Sierra Foothill wine-growing region of California. GLRaV species 1, 2, 3, and 4LV have been detected in vineyards with symptomatic vines in the Sierra Foothills. We conducted controlled virus acquisition and transmission experiments using source vine accessions infected with different combinations of GLRaV. We determined that F. gilli acquired GLRaV 1, 2, 3, and 4LV, and transmitted GLRaV-3 and GLRaV-4LV to uninfected recipient vines. Like numerous other mealybug species, in addition to causing direct damage to vines, F. gilli poses a threat to the grape industry as a vector of economically damaging viruses. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Potential drug development candidates for human soil-transmitted helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Olliaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Few drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH; the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are the only drugs being used for preventive chemotherapy as they can be given in one single dose with no weight adjustment. While generally safe and effective in reducing intensity of infection, they are contra-indicated in first-trimester pregnancy and have suboptimal efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. In addition, drug resistance is a threat. It is therefore important to find alternatives.We searched the literature and the animal health marketed products and pipeline for potential drug development candidates. Recently registered veterinary products offer advantages in that they have undergone extensive and rigorous animal testing, thus reducing the risk, cost and time to approval for human trials. For selected compounds, we retrieved and summarised publicly available information (through US Freedom of Information (FoI statements, European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR and published literature. Concomitantly, we developed a target product profile (TPP against which the products were compared.The paper summarizes the general findings including various classes of compounds, and more specific information on two veterinary anthelmintics (monepantel, emodepside and nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoal drug, compiled from the EMA EPAR and FDA registration files.Few of the compounds already approved for use in human or animal medicine qualify for development track decision. Fast-tracking to approval for human studies may be possible for veterinary compounds like emodepside and monepantel, but additional information remains to be acquired before an informed decision can be made.

  12. The inheritance of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, L M; Samuels, D C; Chinnery, P F

    2009-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations cause disease in >1 in 5000 of the population, and approximately 1 in 200 of the population are asymptomatic carriers of a pathogenic mtDNA mutation. Many patients with these pathogenic mtDNA mutations present with a progressive, disabling neurological syndrome that leads to major disability and premature death. There is currently no effective treatment for mitochondrial disorders, placing great emphasis on preventing the transmission of these diseases. An empiric approach can be used to guide genetic counseling for common mtDNA mutations, but many families transmit rare or unique molecular defects. There is therefore a pressing need to develop techniques to prevent transmission based on a solid understanding of the biological mechanisms. Several recent studies have cast new light on the genetics and cell biology of mtDNA inheritance, but these studies have also raised new controversies. Here we compare and contrast these findings and discuss their relevance for the transmission of human mtDNA diseases.

  13. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections in sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees in the Netherlands, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coul, E L M Op; Warning, T D; Koedijk, F D H

    2014-01-01

    High annual figures of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diagnosed in the Netherlands despite significant efforts to control them. Herein, we analyse trends and determinants of STI diagnoses, co-infections, and sexual risks among visitors of 26 STI clinics between 2007 and 2011. We recorded increased positivity rates of STIs (chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea, and/or HIV) in women and heterosexual men up to 12.6% and 13.4%, respectively, in 2011, while rates in men having sex with men (MSM) were stable but high (18.8%) through the documented years. Younger age, origin from Surinam/Antilles, history of previous STI, multiple partners, or a previous notification are the identified risk factors for an STI in this population. Known HIV-infected men (MSM and heterosexuals) were at highest risk for co-infections (relative rate heterosexual men: 15.6; MSM: 11.6). STI positivity rates remained high (MSM) or increased over time (women and heterosexual men), a fact that highlights the importance of continuing STI prevention. Most importantly, the very high STI co-infection rates among HIV-positive men requires intensified STI reduction strategies to put an end to the vicious circle of re-infection and spread of HIV and other STIs.

  14. Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening Outside the Clinic—Implications for the Modern Sexually Transmitted Disease Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Kyle T.; Chow, Joan M.; Pathela, Preeti; Gift, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The development of noninvasive nucleic acid amplification tests for chlamydia and gonorrhea has facilitated innovation in moving sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening to nonclinical settings. However, limited data are available to inform local STD programs on evidence-based approaches to STD screening in nonclinical settings in the United States. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature published since 2000 related to chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis screening in US correctional settings, bathhouses and sex venues, self-collected at-home testing, and other nonclinical sites. Results Sixty-four articles met eligibility criteria and were reviewed. Although data on testing volume and positivity were available, there were scarce data on the proportion of new positives treated and the programmatic costs for the various screening programs. Screening in correctional settings identified a sizable amount of asymptomatic infections. The value and sustainability of screening in the other nonclinical settings examined was not clear from the published literature. Conclusions Local and state health departments should explore the development of sustainable jail and juvenile detention screening programs for STDs. Furthermore, local programs should pilot outreach and home-based STD screening programs to determine if they are identifying asymptomatic persons who would not have otherwise been found. Local programs are encouraged to present and publish their findings related to non–clinic-based screening to enhance the limited body of literature; data on the proportion of new infections treated and the local program costs are needed. PMID:26779687

  15. Transmission of HBV DNA Mediated by Ceramide-Triggered Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Takahiro; Hirata, Yuichi; Naito, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Ishida, Yuji; Yamasaki, Chihiro; Tateno, Chise; Ochiya, Takahiro; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-03-01

    An extracellular vesicle (EV) is a nanovesicle that shuttles proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, thereby influencing cell behavior. A recent crop of reports have shown that EVs are involved in infectious biology, influencing host immunity and playing a role in the viral life cycle. In the present work, we investigated the EV-mediated transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We investigated the EV-mediated transmission of HBV infection by using a HBV infectious culture system that uses primary human hepatocytes derived from humanized chimeric mice (PXB-cells). Purified EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation. To analyze the EVs and virions, we used stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Purified EVs from HBV-infected PXB-cells were shown to contain HBV DNA and to be capable of transmitting HBV DNA to naive PXB-cells. These HBV-DNA-transmitting EVs were shown to be generated through a ceramide-triggered EV production pathway. Furthermore, we showed that these HBV-DNA-transmitting EVs were resistant to antibody neutralization; stimulated emission depletion microscopy showed that EVs lacked hepatitis B surface antigen, the target of neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that EVs harbor a DNA cargo capable of transmitting viral DNA into hepatocytes during HBV infection, representing an additional antibody-neutralization-resistant route of HBV infection.

  16. DNA Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C.; Gidrol, X.

    Genomics has revolutionised biological and biomedical research. This revolution was predictable on the basis of its two driving forces: the ever increasing availability of genome sequences and the development of new technology able to exploit them. Up until now, technical limitations meant that molecular biology could only analyse one or two parameters per experiment, providing relatively little information compared with the great complexity of the systems under investigation. This gene by gene approach is inadequate to understand biological systems containing several thousand genes. It is essential to have an overall view of the DNA, RNA, and relevant proteins. A simple inventory of the genome is not sufficient to understand the functions of the genes, or indeed the way that cells and organisms work. For this purpose, functional studies based on whole genomes are needed. Among these new large-scale methods of molecular analysis, DNA microarrays provide a way of studying the genome and the transcriptome. The idea of integrating a large amount of data derived from a support with very small area has led biologists to call these chips, borrowing the term from the microelectronics industry. At the beginning of the 1990s, the development of DNA chips on nylon membranes [1, 2], then on glass [3] and silicon [4] supports, made it possible for the first time to carry out simultaneous measurements of the equilibrium concentration of all the messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcribed RNA in a cell. These microarrays offer a wide range of applications, in both fundamental and clinical research, providing a method for genome-wide characterisation of changes occurring within a cell or tissue, as for example in polymorphism studies, detection of mutations, and quantitative assays of gene copies. With regard to the transcriptome, it provides a way of characterising differentially expressed genes, profiling given biological states, and identifying regulatory channels.

  17. Using URIs to effectively transmit sensor data and metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinaki, Alexandra; Buck, Justin; Darroch, Louise; Gardner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Autonomous ocean observation is massively increasing the number of sensors in the ocean. Accordingly, the continuing increase in datasets produced, makes selecting sensors that are fit for purpose a growing challenge. Decision making on selecting quality sensor data, is based on the sensor's metadata, i.e. manufacturer specifications, history of calibrations etc. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has developed the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards to facilitate integration and interoperability of sensor data and metadata. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Semantic Web technologies enable machine comprehensibility promoting sophisticated linking and processing of data published on the web. Linking the sensor's data and metadata according to the above-mentioned standards can yield practical difficulties, because of internal hardware bandwidth restrictions and a requirement to constrain data transmission costs. Our approach addresses these practical difficulties by uniquely identifying sensor and platform models and instances through URIs, which resolve via content negotiation to either OGC's sensor meta language, sensorML or W3C's Linked Data. Data transmitted by a sensor incorporate the sensor's unique URI to refer to its metadata. Sensor and platform model URIs and descriptions are created and hosted by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) linked systems service. The sensor owner creates the sensor and platform instance URIs prior and during sensor deployment, through an updatable web form, the Sensor Instance Form (SIF). SIF enables model and instance URI association but also platform and sensor linking. The use of URIs, which are dynamically generated through the SIF, offers both practical and economical benefits to the implementation of SWE and Linked Data standards in near real time systems. Data can be linked to metadata dynamically in-situ while saving on the costs associated to the transmission of long metadata descriptions. The transmission

  18. Multiplex PCR testing for nine different sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesel, John D; Bhatia, Amiteshwar S; Barrus, Cammie; Vaughn, Mike; Gardner, Jordan; Crisp, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Current sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing is not optimal due to delays in reporting or missed diagnoses due to a lack of comprehensive testing. The FilmArray® (BioFire Diagnostics, LLC, Salt Lake City, Utah) is a user-friendly, fully automated, multiplex PCR system that is being developed for rapid point-of-care use. A research-use-only STI panel including multiple PCR primer sets for each organism was designed to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. Standard clinical testing included Gram stain, nucleic acid amplification, wet mount examination, herpes simplex virus culture, and syphilis IgG. Standard clinical tests were not available for all the organisms tested by the FilmArray STI panel. Two hundred and ninety-five clinical specimens from 190 subjects were directly compared to standard testing. Urine (n = 146), urethral/cervical swabs (31), oral swabs (60), rectal swabs (43), and ulcer swabs (15) were tested. Among the tested samples, FilmArray detected C. trachomatis in 39 (13%), N. gonorrhoeae in 20 (7%), T. vaginalis in nine (3%), HSV 1 in five (2%), HSV 2 in five (2%), U. urealyticum in 36 (12%), M. genitalium in eight (3%), and T. pallidum in 11 (4%). Concordance between the FilmArray STI panel and standard nucleic acid amplification testing for C. trachomatis was 98% and for N. gonorrhoeae was 97%. Multiplex PCR STI testing has the potential to improve public health by providing rapid, sensitive, and reliable results within the clinic or nearby laboratory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Frequency of sexually transmitted diseases and main methodological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaleida Napoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV persistence is the most important cervical cancer risk factor, while Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium(MG, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and parvum (UP are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs causing infertility, pregnancy complication, lung problems in newborns. Methods. 135 urine, 135 urethral swabs, 553 cervical swabs, 110 seminal fluids and 1440 Thin Prep, were tested with culture methods, Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR and multiplex SYBR Green PCR-endpoint to detect STDs. PCR- endpoint was performed to detect HPV. Results. Culture methods showed the lowest sensitivity: for MH it was only 24% (compared to RT-PCR. UP/UU were the most frequent pathogens (13% with culture, 29% with PCR-endpoint, 41,67% with RT-PCR. Turn Around Time was respectively: 48h, 6h and 2h. RT-PCR cervical frequencies for CT, MH, MG, UU, UP were: 5.42%, 11.03%, 1.81%, 11.21% and 35.08%. HPV positivity in primary and secondary screening was 17.33% and 51.14%. Highes t positivity age group was: 23-32 years for CT (17%, and 18-27 years for HPV (33%. Conclusions. RT-PCR is more sensitive, faster, less expensive than other molecular tests like PCR-endpoint and microarrays. It allows more efficient laboratory organization: pre-analytical phase is more automated and enable the implementation of further diagnostic tests for pathologies that need rapid identification, such as meningitidis and sepsis, with reduced human and instrumental resource. Regarding STDs screening, it should be performed in women: for CT at least up to 27 years; for HPV between 35-50 years, since persisting HR-HPV infection is responsible of high-grade lesions.

  20. Blind deconvolution of 3D transmitted light brightfield micrographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, T J; O'Connor, N J

    2000-11-01

    The blind deconvolution algorithm for 3D transmitted light brightfield (TLB) microscopy, published previously [Holmes et al. Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (1995)], is summarized with example images. The main emphasis of this paper is to discuss more thoroughly the importance and usefulness of this method and to provide more detailed evidence, some being quantitative, of its necessity. Samples of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-stained pyramidal neurones were prepared and evaluated for the ability to see fine structures clearly, including the dendrites and spines. It is demonstrated that the appearance of fine spine structure, and means of identifying spine categories, is made possible by using blind deconvolution. A comparison of images of the same sample from reflected light confocal microscopy, which is the conventional light microscopic way of viewing the 3D structure of these HRP-stained samples, shows that the blind deconvolution method is far superior for clearly showing the structure with less distortion and better resolution of the spines. The main significance of this research is that it is now possible to obtain clear images of 3D structure by light microscopy of absorbing stains. This is important because the TLB microscope is probably the most widely used modality in the life-science laboratory, yet, until now, there has been no reliable means for it to provide visualization of 3D structure clearly. The main importance of the blind deconvolution approach is that it obviates the need to measure the point spread function of the optical system, so that it now becomes realistic to provide a 3D light microscopic deconvolution method that can be pervasively used by microscopists.

  1. Identifying outbreaks of sexually transmitted infection: who cares?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Meirion R

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current routine surveillance schemes for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in the United Kingdom (UK are not designed for outbreak identification. Recognising STI outbreaks, therefore, depends almost entirely on the alertness of health professionals. The objective of this study was to explore health professionals' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, identification and investigation of STI outbreaks in Wales. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Wales in June 2005, and sent a questionnaire to consultants of genitourinary medicine (GUM, n = 11, a consultant microbiologist from each laboratory (n = 14, all consultants in communicable disease control (n = 5, and to epidemiologists of the National Public Health Service (n = 4. Results 26 (76% of 34 survey recipients responded. Of these, 17 (65% ranked the investigation of STI outbreaks as important or very important, and 19 (73% perceived participation in the investigation of an STI outbreak as part of their responsibility. Only six (25% respondents had actively searched their computer system or patient records for a possible STI outbreak in the previous twelve months, and 15 (63% had never looked for an outbreak. Of seven GUM physicians who said they had identified at least one STI outbreak, three had never informed public health authorities. Conclusion Prompt identification and coordinated investigation of outbreaks, usually through a multidisciplinary outbreak control team, is central to the control of many infectious diseases. This does not appear to be the case for STIs, which we believe represents a lost opportunity to reduce transmission. Besides improved surveillance methods, a change in culture towards STI outbreaks is needed among health professionals in Wales.

  2. Lifetime Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vinita; Mengeling, Michelle A; Booth, Brenda M; Torner, James C; Syrop, Craig H; Sadler, Anne G

    2017-07-01

    Women veterans report a high prevalence of sexual assault. Unfortunately, there are limited data on the reproductive health sequelae faced by these women. Our objective was to evaluate the association between completed lifetime sexual assault (LSA) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among a cohort of women veterans, adjusting for sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a retrospective study among women veterans aged 51 years or younger who enrolled for care at two Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare sites between 2000 and 2008. Participants completed a telephone interview assessing reproductive health and sexual violence history. We compared the frequencies of past STI diagnoses among those who had and had not experienced LSA. We used logistic regression to assess the effect of sexual assault with history of an STI diagnosis after adjusting for age, sexual risk behaviors, and substance abuse treatment. Among 996 women veterans, a history of STIs was reported by 32%, including a lifetime history of gonorrhea (5%), chlamydia (15%), genital herpes infection (8%), and human papillomavirus infection (15%), not mutually exclusive; 51% reported LSA. Women with a history of LSA were significantly more likely to report a history of STIs (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-2.50; adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.07-2.08). Women veterans who have experienced LSA are at increased risk for lifetime STI diagnoses. To adequately address the reproductive health needs of the growing population of women veterans, STI risk assessments should include queries of military service and LSA histories.

  3. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Guthrie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI.Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01.Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  4. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-27

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  5. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  6. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  7. Human papillomavirus infection in a male population attending a sexually transmitted infection service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Elena Álvarez-Argüelles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. PATIENTS AND SAMPLES: Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17-87 were collected for HPV-DNA testing. METHODS: A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. RESULTS: The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318 balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405 urethral (p35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104 of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy, and in 22.8% (61/267 without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56 men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109 of men with positive peniscopy. CONCLUSIONS: HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women.

  8. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linschooten, Joost O.; Verhofstad, Nicole; Gutzkow, Kristine; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Yauk, Carole; Oligschläger, Yvonne; Brunborg, Gunnar; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Paternal exposure to high levels of radioactivity causes heritable germline minisatellite mutations. However, the effect of more general paternal exposures, such as cigarette smoking, on germline mutations remains unexplored. We analyzed two of the most commonly used minisatellite loci (CEB1 and B6.7) to identify germline mutations in blood samples of complete mother–father–child triads from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The presence of mutations was subsequently related to general lifestyle factors, including paternal smoking before the partner became pregnant. Paternally derived mutations at the B6.7 locus (mutation frequency 0.07) were not affected by lifestyle. In contrast, high gross yearly income as a general measure of a healthy lifestyle coincided with low-mutation frequencies at the CEB1 locus (P=0.047). Income was inversely related to smoking behavior, and paternally derived CEB1 mutations were dose dependently increased when the father smoked in the 6 mo before pregnancy, 0.21 vs. 0.05 in smoking and nonsmoking fathers, respectively (P=0.061). These results suggest that paternal lifestyle can affect the chance of heritable mutations in unstable repetitive DNA sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting an effect of lifestyle on germline minisatellite mutation frequencies in a human population with moderate paternal exposures.—Linschooten, J. O., Verhofstad, N., Gutzkow, K., Olsen, A.-K., Yauk, C., Oligschläger, Y., Brunborg, G., van Schooten, F. J., Godschalk, R. W. L. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring. PMID:23538710

  9. A nuptially transmitted ichthyosporean symbiont of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Jeffrey C; Hartzer, Kris L; Kambhampati, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, harbors a symbiont that has spores with a thick, laminated wall and infects the fat body and ventral nerve chord of adult and larval beetles. In adult males, there is heavy infection of the epithelial cells of the testes and between testes lobes with occasional penetration of the lobes. Spores are enveloped in the spermatophores when they are formed at the time of mating and transferred to the female's bursa copulatrix. Infection has not been found in the ovaries. The sequence of the nuclear small subunit rDNA indicates that the symbiont is a member of the Ichthyosporea, a class of protists near the animal-fungi divergence. © 2012 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2012 International Society of Protistologists.

  10. Epidemiology of Leptospira Transmitted by Rodents in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielcarek, Mathilde; Tatard, Caroline; Chaval, Yannick; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Buchy, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses and has been identified as an important emerging global public health problem in Southeast Asia. Rodents are important reservoirs for human leptospirosis, but epidemiological data is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled rodents living in different habitats from seven localities distributed across Southeast Asia (Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia), between 2009 to 2010. Human isolates were also obtained from localities close to where rodents were sampled. The prevalence of Leptospira infection was assessed by real-time PCR using DNA extracted from rodent kidneys, targeting the lipL32 gene. Sequencing rrs and secY genes, and Multi Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on DNA extracted from rat kidneys for Leptospira isolates molecular typing. Four species were detected in rodents, L. borgpetersenii (56% of positive samples), L. interrogans (36%), L. kirschneri (3%) and L. weilli (2%), which were identical to human isolates. Mean prevalence in rodents was approximately 7%, and largely varied across localities and habitats, but not between rodent species. The two most abundant Leptospira species displayed different habitat requirements: L. interrogans was linked to humid habitats (rice fields and forests) while L. borgpetersenii was abundant in both humid and dry habitats (non-floodable lands). Conclusion/Significance L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii species are widely distributed amongst rodent populations, and strain typing confirmed rodents as reservoirs for human leptospirosis. Differences in habitat requirements for L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii supported differential transmission modes. In Southeast Asia, human infection risk is not only restricted to activities taking place in wetlands and rice fields as is commonly accepted, but should also include tasks such as forestry work, as well as the hunting and preparation of rodents for consumption, which

  11. A case report of transfusion-transmitted Plasmodium malariae from an asymptomatic non-immune traveller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Brouwer (Emmaline E); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); E. Slot (Ed); L. van Lieshout (Lisette); L.G. Visser (Leo); P.J. Wismans (Pieter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria is very low in non-endemic countries due to strict donor selection. The optimal strategy to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-endemic countries without unnecessary exclusion of blood donations is,

  12. 78 FR 16531 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof...,084; 7,453,605; 7,936,391; and 6,292,218 by certain electronic devices for capturing and transmitting....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket...

  13. 48 CFR 245.7206 - Transmitting DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitting DD Form 1342... Instructions 245.7206 Transmitting DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record. As a minimum, the plant clearance officer will provide the following information in a letter forwarding DD Forms 1342 to DSCR— (a) Number of DD...

  14. Drug resistance mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance: 2009 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Bennett (Diane); R.J. Camacho (Ricardo Jorge); D. Otelea (Dan); D.R. Kuritzkes (Daniel); H. Fleury (Hervé); M. Kiuchi (Mark); W. Heneine (Walid); R. Kantor (Rami); M.R. Jordan (Michael); J.M. Schapiro (Jonathan); A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); P. Sandstrom (Paul); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); S.Y. Rhee (Soo Yoon); T.F. Liu (Tommy); D. Pillay (Deenan); R.W. Shafer (Robert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPrograms that monitor local, national, and regional levels of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance inform treatment guidelines and provide feedback on the success of HIV-1 treatment and prevention programs. To accurately compare transmitted drug resistance rates across geographic regions

  15. Sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes among women attending inner city public sexually transmitted diseases clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hope L; Ghanem, Khalil G; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Erbelding, Emily J

    2011-03-01

    Studies in antenatal care clinics suggest that lower genital tract infections (LGTI) may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). We sought to characterize antenatal care patterns and determine whether LGTI are independently associated with preterm birth and/or low-birth weight among a high-risk public sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic population. Electronic STD clinic medical records and state birth records were matched for 730 pregnant women age 13 to 49 tested for 5 treatable LGTI (bacterial vaginosis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, early syphilis, and trichomoniasis) in a case-control analysis. Cases were women with preterm and/or low-birth weight newborns; controls were women without APO. The association between LGTI and APO was assessed using logistic regression. Although pregnant women attending STD clinics reported high risk behaviors and were found to have high rates of LGTI (55%), most of these women were engaged in antenatal care (85%). Of the pregnant women, 22% experienced an APO (7% preterm birth, 4% low birth weight, and 12% preterm birth and low birth weight). In multivariate analyses, chlamydia was associated with low-birth weight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-4.24), and gonorrhea was associated with preterm birth (aOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.02-3.97), particularly when diagnosed during the first trimester (aOR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.30-6.70). Our findings confirm the association of some LGTI with APO and suggest that timing of LGTI screening may affect outcomes. STD clinic visits represent a critical opportunity to target interventions aimed at improving pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Science for decision making: Transmitting hazard science using catastrophic scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ShakeOut and ARkStorm scenarios are scientifically-based, multi-disciplinary efforts to describe the damages and consequences of large, but plausible, natural disasters for use in emergency management and other planning. The ShakeOut earthquake scenario, completed in 2008, posits the occurrence of a major earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault. It was used by more than 5,000 emergency personnel in a California statewide exercise, and it underpins the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) Catastrophic Plan for Southern California. The ARkStorm winter storm scenario, to be completed in 2010, posits the occurrence of a statewide disaster like the storm that occurred during 1861-1862. The ARkStorm scenario will culminate with two planning summits comprised of federal and state agencies, because such an event would exceed local response and recovery capabilities. This talk will address the following questions that are critical to transmitting science for decision making with examples and observations from the two scenarios: 1) Who are the end users of the scenarios, what types of decisions can scenarios inform, and how are stakeholders engaged? 2) What forms of information and processes work best to communicate and apply the hazard science? 3) What are the challenges of using science in decision making? 4) What future directions shall we pursue? From my perspective as coordinator of economic consequences analyses for the two scenarios, I will share insights to these questions. Framing stakeholder decisions in terms of scale (e.g., household to State) and disaster phase (e.g., emergency response, recovery, and mitigation) allows us to align methods of stakeholder engagement with stakeholder decision making. For these regional-scale scenarios, the methods of engagement included stakeholder participation in project vision, scenario construction workshops, presentations, conferences, and emergency response and recovery exercises. Champions (self

  17. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A

    2013-04-22

    Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC overall, among pregnant women, and among women ≤25 years. During October 2004-September 2006, HIV-infected women at 3 obstetrics and gynecology clinics were asked about sexual behaviors and STI symptoms, physically examined, and screened for chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of infections. NNS was calculated using standard methods. Among 1,124 women, 526 (47.0%) had STI symptoms or signs, 469 (41.7%) had CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, and 133 (11.8%) had an STI. Correlates of having an STI included pregnancy and having STI signs. Among 469 women and 655 women with vs. without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, respectively, 43 (9.2%) vs. 31 (4.7%), 2 (0.4%) vs. 9 (1.4%), and 45 (9.6%) vs. 38 (5.8%) had CT, GC, or "CT or GC", respectively; correlates included receiving care at university hospitals and having sex with a casual partner within 3 months. NNS for women overall and women ≤25 years old were 18 (95% CI, 13-25) and 11 (95% CI, 6-23), respectively; and for pregnant and non-pregnant women, 8 (95% CI, 4-24) and 19 (95% CI, 14-27), respectively. STI prevalence among HIV-infected women, including CT and GC among those without symptoms or signs, was substantial. Screening for CT and GC, particularly for pregnant women, should be considered.

  18. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in rural South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Coetzee, D J; Fehler, H G; Bellingan, A; Dangor, Y; Radebe, F; Ballard, R C

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken in a rural area of South Africa, to develop a non-laboratory tool to screen for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among family planning clients. A cross sectional study was performed of 249 consecutive women attending a family planning service between November and December 1994. A questionnaire was administered, and a clinical examination and laboratory tests conducted. Sociodemographic, clinical, and other non-laboratory variables that were significantly associated with laboratory evidence of infection were combined to produce non-hierarchical scoring systems for three "syndromes": gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervical infection, trichomoniasis, and cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis combined. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the scoring systems as a screening tool were assessed against the gold standard of laboratory tests. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections among the study participants was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis 12%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 18%, and bacterial vaginosis 29%. Although vaginal discharge and other symptoms were frequently reported, symptoms bore no relation to the presence of infection. The following independent associations with gonococcal/chlamydial cervical infection were found: age less than 25 years and cervical mucopus and/or friability. Abnormal discharge on examination, visible inflammatory changes of the cervix (increased redness), no recent travel, and unemployment were associated with trichomoniasis. The combination of trichomonas and/or cervical infection ("STD syndrome") was associated with cervical mucopus/friability, unemployment, lack of financial support, and increased redness of the cervix. Of the three scoring systems developed on the basis of these associations, that of the "STD syndrome" achieved the best performance characteristics as a screening tool, with a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 74%, and

  19. Knowledge of adolescents regarding sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rebeca Aranha Arrais Santos; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Rolim, Isaura Letícia Tavares Palmeira; Hora, Jessica Marques da; Linard, Andrea Gomes; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Oliveira, Priscila da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge of adolescents related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), AIDS, and pregnancy, and understand the role of school in sex education. A qualitative descriptive study, developed through a semi-structured interview and a form for participant characterization, with 22 high school students from a public school aged 16 to 19 years. Data were submitted to content analysis. After analysis, four thematic categories were developed: sexuality and sex education; understanding of risk behaviors; knowledge of STI/AIDS; and knowledge of and practices for prevention. This study showed the need for preventive educational actions for adolescents, because the lack of information contributes to their vulnerability. The adolescents recognize the importance of sex education; therefore it is important to implement strategies to promote and protect health in the school environment to encourage and strengthen self-care in health. investigar o conhecimento de adolescentes relacionado às Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (IST), AIDS e gravidez, além de conhecer a compreensão sobre o papel da escola na educação sexual. estudo qualitativo, descritivo, desenvolvido por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e formulário para caracterização dos participantes, com 22 adolescentes entre 16 e 19 anos de idade, estudantes do Ensino Médio em uma escola pública. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo. da análise emergiram quatro categorias temáticas: Sexualidade e educação sexual; Compreensão de comportamentos de risco; Conhecimento de IST/AIDS; Conhecimento e práticas de prevenção. revelou-se a necessidade de ações educativas de prevenção para os adolescentes, pois a falta de informações contribui para a sua vulnerabilidade. Os adolescentes reconhecem a importância da educação sexual; consequentemente, é importante a implementação de estratégias de promoção e de proteção à saúde no ambiente escolar para contribuir e

  20. [Vector transmitted diseases and climate changes in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2014-09-01

    The increase in temperatures recorded since the mid-nineteenth century is unprecedented in the history of mankind. The consequences of climate changes are numerous and can affect human health through direct (extreme events, natural disasters) or indirect (alteration of the ecosystem) mechanisms. Climate changes have repercussions on ecosystems, agriculture, social conditions, migration, conflicts and the transmission mode of infectious diseases. Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomines, sand flies and flies. Epidemiological cornerstones of vector-borne diseases are: the ecology and behaviour of the host, the ecology and behaviour of the vector, and the population's degree of immunity. Mosquito vectors related to human diseases mainly belong to the genus Culex, Aedes and Mansonia. Climate changes in Europe have increased the spread of new vectors, such as Aedes albopictus, and in some situations have made it possible to sustain the autochthonous transmission of some diseases (outbreak of Chukungunya virus in northern Italy in 2007, cases of dengue in the South of France and in Croatia). Despite the eradication of malaria from Europe, anopheline carriers are still present, and they may allow the transmission of the disease if the climatic conditions favour the development of the vectors and their contacts with plasmodium carriers. The tick Ixodes ricinus is a vector whose expansion has been documented both in latitude and in altitude in relation to the temperature increase; at the same time the related main viral and bacterial infections have increased. In northern Italy and Germany, the appearance of Leishmaniasis has been associated to climatic conditions that favour the development of the vector Phlebotomus papatasi and the maturation of the parasite within the vector, although the increase of cases of visceral leishmaniasis is also related to host immune factors, particularly

  1. Secret-Sharing over Multiple-Antenna Channels with Transmit Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-01-07

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over Rayleigh fastfading channels with transmit correlation. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the transmit correlation matrix. First, We derive the expression of the key capacity under the considered setup. Then, we show that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the key capacity consists in transmitting Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the channel covariance matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution of a numerical optimization problem that we derive. We also provide a waterfilling interpretation of the optimal power allocation. Finally, we develop a necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming to be optimal, i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode only is key capacity-achieving.

  2. Tweet Content Related to Sexually Transmitted Diseases: No Joking Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie YS

    2014-01-01

    Background Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of “tweeters” (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of “tweet” messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. Objective The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs—chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. Methods We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words “chlamydia” or “HIV”, and the hashtags “#chlamydia” or “#HIV”. Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. Results A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words “chlamydia” and/or “HIV”. Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20

  3. Synthesis of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2008-11-18

    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  4. Influence of Stimuled Raman Scattering on Transmitted Optical Signal in WDM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Ružbarský

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper is focused on simulations behavior of signals in high-speed networks. Huge amount of transmitted information and increase in transmission speed create unwanted events in optical fiber. The main influences comprise effects such as: stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering. This paper is focused only on Raman scattering. For transmitting a signal through optical fiber one needs to select an appropriate wavelength. This is one of goals the experiment in this article. Signals were transmitted accordance with Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM and spacing among channels 100GHz.

  5. Adaptive Transmit Window Control for Channel State Based CDMA Downlink Packet Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuo; Naito, Katsuhiro; Kobayashi, Hideo

    This paper proposes adaptive transmit window control based on both location of mobile stations and traffic load for channel state based packet transmissions in CDMA cellular downlink communications. The proposed scheme constrains downlink packet transmissions by employing a transmit window individually given to each mobile station. The transmit window size is adjusted by using the optimum threshold value, which is selected with regard to both the mobile locations and the traffic load. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme improved the transmission delay and fairness of service compared with the conventional scheme.

  6. Acquired and Transmitted Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis: The Role of Social Determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Odone

    Full Text Available Although risk factors for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis are known, few studies have differentiated between acquired and transmitted resistance. It is important to identify factors associated with these different mechanisms to optimize control measures. We conducted a prospective cohort study of index TB patients and their household contacts in Lima, Peru to identify risk factors associated with acquired and transmitted resistance, respectively. Patients with higher socioeconomic status (SES had a 3-fold increased risk of transmitted resistance compared to those with lower SES when acquired resistance served as the baseline. Quality of housing mediated most of the impact of SES.

  7. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections for HIV prevention: end of the road or new beginning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Celum, Connie; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Wasserheit, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Observational and biological data provide compelling evidence of the importance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV transmission, but only one of nine intervention trials has shown an effect. This article reviews the observational studies, critically examines the nine randomized

  8. The vaginal microbiome: Associations with sexually transmitted infections and the mucosal immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, H.

    2016-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by lactobacilli. Disturbance of the microbiological vaginal microbiota balance ("dysbiosis") is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and preterm birth in pregnant women. Since 2002, studies have

  9. Transmit Energy Focusing for DOA Estimation in MIMO Radar with Colocated Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanien, Aboulnasr

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a transmit beamspace energy focusing technique for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar with application to direction finding for multiple targets. The general angular directions of the targets are assumed to be located within a certain spatial sector. We focus the energy of multiple (two or more) transmitted orthogonal waveforms within that spatial sector using transmit beamformers which are designed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain at each receive antenna. The subspace decomposition-based techniques such as MUSIC can then be used for direction finding for multiple targets. Moreover, the transmit beamformers can be designed so that matched-filtering the received data to the waveforms yields multiple (two or more) data sets with rotational invariance property that allows applying search-free direction finding techniques such as ESPRIT for two data sets or parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) for more than two data sets. Unlike previously reported MIMO radar ESPRIT...

  10. Influence of water immersion on the transmitted load of home reliners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamochi, Gou; Akiba, Norihisa; Tanimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Toshinari; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2018-01-30

    This study aimed to clarify how composition and water immersion of home reliners affect the attenuation of the transmitted load. To conduct a transmitted load measurement, we used three different home reliners (Tafugurippu Pink A, Liodent Pink, and Cushion Correct), which were combined acrylic resin disks. They were immersed in distilled water and then placed on a silicone quasi-mucosa (φ20×1.5 mm), which was set on a pressure sensor (φ8×0.35 mm), followed by the application of static load. Subsequently, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to clarify the composition of each home reliner. The attenuation of the transmitted load began 3 h after immersion. Moreover, both GPC and GC revealed a difference in composition among the three products. Further, the difference in the vinyl acetate molecular weight distribution and ethyl alcohol content affected the attenuation of the transmitted load of home reliners after water absorption.

  11. Analysis of Transmitted Optical Spectrum Enabling Accelerated Testing of CPV Designs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2009-07-01

    Reliability of CPV systems' materials is not well known; methods for accelerated UV testing have not been developed. UV and IR spectra transmitted through representative optical systems are evaluated.

  12. Recreational Drug Use During Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Clients of a City Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,

  13. SU-E-I-71: KVp Dependence of Transmitted Exposure for a Radiography Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Y; Lynch, D; So, J; Dutta, A [Columbia University Medical Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the kVp dependence of the transmitted exposure for a radiography x-ray unit. Methods: The study used a GE DiscoveryTM XR656 DR unit, a 30 (L) × 30 (W) × 25 cm thick Lucite phantom, two anthropomorphic phantoms (an Alderson RS-310 chest phantom and a 3M skull phantom), an Unfors detector, and a Radcal 10x9-6 ion chamber. We measured the entrance exposure and transmitted exposure of each phantom at 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120 kVp for mAs range from 2.5 to 200 mAs, without any additional filter. The FOV is 30×30 cm for the Lucite and chest phantom (AP view), and 20×20 cm for skull phantom (Lateral view). The transmitted exposure was measured at the phantom center of the x-ray exit side. For chest phantom, the transmitted exposures at 3 inch upper right and upper left from the center were also measured. We also checked the reproducibility and accuracy of the DR unit. Results: For each phantom, at every kVp and mAs setting, the transmitted exposure per mAs was calculated and normalized by the relative entrance exposure; the averaged transmitted exposure per mAs at each specific kVp was then determined. For chest phantom, the mean transmitted exposure per mAs was the average of three exit locations. The averaged transmitted exposure per mAs was fit as a power function of kVp. The result showed the transmitted exposure per mAs was approximately proportional to third power of the kVp for two anthropomorphic phantoms and forth power of the kVp for the Lucite phantom. Conclusion: The traditional assumption of fifth power kVp dependence to the transmitted exposure is inaccurate. At the normal radiography kVp range, the transmitted exposure is approximately proportional to third power of the kVp for a typical patient and up to forth power of the kVp for a large patient.

  14. Successive Interference Cancellation for DS-CDMA Systems with Transmit Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new successive interference cancellation (SIC technique for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA systems with transmit diversity. The transmit diversity is achieved with a space-time block code (STBC. In our work we first consider hard decision SIC with an STBC, and then investigate the performance of soft decision SIC with an STBC. System performance over a Rayleigh fading channel is investigated and the analysis is confirmed by simulation.

  15. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of sexually transmitted infections in hazardously-drinking incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Incarcerated women are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. Left untreated, these infections can have severe adverse health effects. In this study the authors present prevalence rates of trichomonas, chlamydia, and gonorrhea, and factors related to having a sexually transmitted infection in a sample of 245 hazardously-drinking incarcerated women who reported heterosexual intercourse in the previous 3 months. Vaginal swabs were collected following the self-report baseline assessment. Participants averaged 34.0 (±8.8) years of age; 174 (71.3%) were non-Hispanic Caucasian, 47 (19.3%) were African-American, 17 (7.0%) were Hispanic, and 6 (2.5%) were of other racial or ethnic origins. Twenty-three percent of participants tested positive for chlamydia, trichomonas, or gonorrhea. Being African-American, more frequent sex with a casual partner, and reporting more than one male partner were significantly positively related to sexually transmitted infection, while more frequent sex with a main partner was inversely related. Due to the high rates of infection in this population, jail admission provides a public health opportunity to access a concentrated group of sexually transmitted infectious women. Sexually transmitted infection testing targeted at specific demographic factors, for instance younger age, will miss infected women. Risky sexual partnerships, as well as the benefit of maintaining stable main partnerships may be important topics during sexually transmitted infection prevention interventions.

  17. Transmit Delay Structure Design for Blind Channel Estimation over Multipath Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communications often exploit guard intervals between data blocks to reduce interblock interference in frequency-selective fading channels. Here we propose a dual-branch transmission scheme that utilizes guard intervals for blind channel estimation and equalization. Unlike existing transmit diversity schemes, in which different antennas transmit delayed, zero-padded, or time-reversed versions of the same signal, in the proposed transmission scheme, each antenna transmits an independent data stream. It is shown that for systems with two transmit antennas and one receive antenna, as in the case of one transmit antenna and two receive antennas, blind channel estimation and equalization can be carried out based only on the second-order statistics of symbol-rate sampled channel output. The proposed approach involves no preequalization and has no limitations on channel-zero locations. Moreover, extension of the proposed scheme to systems with multiple receive antennas and/or more than two transmit antennas is discussed. It is also shown that in combination with the threaded layered space-time (TST architecture and turbo coding, significant improvement can be achieved in the overall system performance.

  18. Human papillomavirus infection in a male population attending a sexually transmitted infection service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta Elena; Melón, Santiago; Junquera, Maria Luisa; Boga, Jose Antonio; Villa, Laura; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; de Oña, María

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. PATIENTS AND SAMPLES: Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17-87) were collected for HPV-DNA testing. A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318) balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405) urethral (pmen. Co-infections were present in 5.4% (80/1469) of cases. HPV was found in 43.9% (373/850) of men younger than 35 vs. 31.7% (187/589) of men aged >35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104) of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy), and in 22.8% (61/267) without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56) men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109) of men with positive peniscopy. HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women.

  19. Transfusion transmitted virus prevalence rate in IDU patients: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh AR, Nami MA, Hadjiabdolbaghi M, Kazemi B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transfusion-Transmitted Virus (TTV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded and circular DNA virus belongs to circuviridae family genus Anellovirus, discovered by Nishizawa in 1997. As the usage of common syringes is the known and most common route of the virus transmission, and because of increasing population of Injection drug users (IDU we decided to study infection rate in IDU population of our Society. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study at Infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, 60 IDU patients were studied. Blood samples were dispatched to lab in citrated test tube for Genome Virus isolation operation, using boiling method, then PCR assay performed based on their available primers. Patient's information gathered by interview and questionnaire methods."n "nResults: All of our 60 patients were men and their age average was 35.30(SD±9.68 years old. 26(43.3% patients had positive TTV PCR and 24(92.30% of them had prison history. 23(88.50% of these 26 patients had positive HCV Ab, 17(65.40% had positive HIV Ab and 8(30.80% had positive HBS Ag. Of 60 study patients 48(80% had HCV Ab+, 43(71.70% HIV Ab+, 26(43% TTV PCR and 43(26.70% had HBS Ag+ Of 26 patients who had TTV, 34.60% of them had no contemporary sickness and 11.50% of them displayed clear sign of hepatitis (fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, RUQ tenderness and Icter. 34.60% of them had LFT more than Upper limit normal (45u/l. Time average of injection in 26 TTV patient was 9 years (SD±7.16 and the patient's age average was 36.35%(SD±9.2. "nConclusions: One of the most important route of TTV infection is use of common syringes, TTV infection transmission chance is less than HIV and HCV infection and is more than HBV. In regard to high prevalence of TTV infection in IDU population and because there is no comprehensive information about pathogenesis of this virus in addition to another way of transmission of the virus, the fecal-oral way, we must make

  20. High Levels of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in a Study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavu, Evelyn; Kave, Ellan; Mosoro, Euodia; Markby, Jessica; Aleksic, Eman; Gare, Janet; Elsum, Imogen A; Nano, Gideon; Kaima, Petronia; Dala, Nick; Gurung, Anup; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Crowe, Suzanne M; Myatt, Mark; Hearps, Anna C; Jordan, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is a Pacific Island nation of 7.3 million people with an estimated HIV prevalence of 0.8%. ART initiation and monitoring are guided by clinical staging and CD4 cell counts, when available. Little is known about levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in recently infected individuals in Papua New Guinea. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a total of 123 individuals recently infected with HIV and aged less than 30 years was implemented in Port Moresby (n = 62) and Mount Hagen (n = 61) during the period May 2013-April 2014. HIV drug resistance testing was performed using dried blood spots. Transmitted HIV drug resistance was defined by the presence of one or more drug resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance drug resistance mutations list. The prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 16.1% (95% CI 8.8%-27.4%) and 8.2% (95% CI 3.2%-18.2%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 3.2% (95% CI 0.2%-11.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI 0.2%-11.8%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. No protease inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was observed. The level of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance in antiretroviral drug naïve individuals recently infected with HIV in Port Moresby is amongst the highest reported globally. This alarming level of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a young sexually active population threatens to limit the on-going effective use of NNRTIs as a component of first-line ART in Papua New Guinea. To support the choice of nationally recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy, representative surveillance of HIV drug resistance among antiretroviral therapy initiators in Papua New Guinea should be urgently implemented.

  1. Determination of GNSS satellite transmit power and impact on orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Thölert, Steffen; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites requires a best possible modeling of forces acting on the satellite. Antenna thrust is a small acceleration caused by the transmission of navigation signals of a GNSS satellite. It depends on the mass of the satellite and the total power of the transmitted signals and results in a mainly radial force changing the orbital radius by up to 2 cm. Within the International GNSS Service (IGS), antenna thrust is currently only considered for GPS and GLONASS. Transmit power levels for the different types of GPS satellites are based on the minimum received power near the Earth's surface as specified in the GPS interface control document. Empirical scaling factors take into account deviations from observed power levels resulting in IGS model values between 76 and 249 W. For GLONASS, a transmit power of 100 W is assumed. However, antenna thrust is currently ignored within the IGS for the emerging navigation systems Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS due to unknown transmit power levels. The effective isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of a GNSS satellite can be measured with a high gain antenna. Based on the gain pattern of the satellite antenna, the transmit power can be obtained. EIRP measurements were gathered with a 30 m high gain antenna operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR) at its ground station in Weilheim (Germany). In this presentation, we discuss the measurement setup and present the transmit power estimates for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou satellites in the L1, L2, L5/E5 and E6 frequency bands. Differences of the various satellite types as well as the scatter of the individual satellites within one type are analyzed. The GPS results are compared to the values of the current IGS model. Finally, the impact of taking into account antenna thrust based on the estimated transmit power on precise orbit determination is assessed.

  2. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  3. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  4. Risk Factors for Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: Implications for HIV/Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Liu, Hui; LIANG, GUOJUN; Chen, Xinguang; Yang, Hongmei; Hong, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify risk factors associated with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing in 2002. Migrants with STDs consisted of 432 migrants who sought STD care in two public STD clinics. Migrants without STDs included 892 migrants recruited from 10 occupational clusters. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Compared to migrants without STDs, migrants with STDs were more likely to report having engaged in comme...

  5. Adjacency Matrix-Based Transmit Power Allocation Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Consolini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an innovative transmit power control scheme, based on optimization theory, for wireless sensor networks (WSNs which use carrier sense multiple access (CSMA with collision avoidance (CA as medium access control (MAC protocol. In particular, we focus on schemes where several remote nodes send data directly to a common access point (AP. Under the assumption of finite overall network transmit power and low traffic load, we derive the optimal transmit power allocation strategy that minimizes the packet error rate (PER at the AP. This approach is based on modeling the CSMA/CA MAC protocol through a finite state machine and takes into account the network adjacency matrix, depending on the transmit power distribution and determining the network connectivity. It will be then shown that the transmit power allocation problem reduces to a convex constrained minimization problem. Our results show that, under the assumption of low traffic load, the power allocation strategy, which guarantees minimal delay, requires the maximization of network connectivity, which can be equivalently interpreted as the maximization of the number of non-zero entries of the adjacency matrix. The obtained theoretical results are confirmed by simulations for unslotted Zigbee WSNs.

  6. Super-Orthogonal Space-Time Turbo Transmit Diversity for CDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter G. W. van Rooyen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that transmit and receive diversity employing a combination of multiple transmit-receive antennas (given ideal channel state information (CSI and independent fading between antenna pairs will potentially yield maximum achievable system capacity. In this paper, the concept of a layered super-orthogonal turbo transmit diversity (SOTTD for downlink direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (CDMA systems is explored. This open-loop transmit diversity technique improves the downlink performance by using a small number of antenna elements at the base station and a single antenna at the handset. In the proposed technique, low-rate super-orthogonal code-spread CDMA is married with code-division transmit diversity (CDTD. At the mobile receiver, space-time (ST RAKE CDTD processing is combined with iterative turbo code-spread decoding to yield large ST gains. The performance of the SOTTD system is compared with single- and multiantenna turbo-coded (TC CDTD systems evaluated over a frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel. The evaluation is done both by means of analysis and computer simulations. The performance results illustrate the superior performance of SOTTD compared to TC CDTD systems over practically the complete useful capacity range of CDMA. It is shown that the performance degradation characteristic of TC CDTD at low system loads (due to the inherent TC error floor is alleviated by the SOTTD system.

  7. Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde-Jurado, Elizabeth; Estrada-Reyes, Elizabeth; Eraña-Guerra, Luis; Raya-Rivera, Atlántida; Velázquez-Armenta, E Yadira; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

    2003-01-01

    To identify clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence of a probable sexually transmitted infection associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. The medical records of female adolescents, aged 10-18 years were reviewed. These women received first-time medical care for vulvovaginitis, between 1995 and 1999 at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, (Children's Hospital). Comparisons between groups were performed, as appropriate, by the unpaired Student's t-test, the Z test or the chi-square test; statistically significant differences were set at a two-tailed p sexually transmitted microorganism and 52 of them denied ever having sexual activity. Age, education and socioeconomic level, development of sexual characters, and presence of menstruation did not differ between patients with and without sexually transmitted infections. The presence of sexually transmitted infections was associated with lower abdominal pain, abnormally colored vaginal discharge, a positive urine culture, and an abdominal ultrasonographic evidence, compatible with pelvic inflammatory disease (ultrasonographic odds ratio 144.8; 95% CI 51.0 to 411.3). There is an association between sexually transmitted infections in young women with vulvovaginitis and lower abdominal pain, abnormally colored vaginal discharge, a positive urine culture, and an abdominal ultrasonographic evidence compatible with pelvic inflammatory disease. The English version of this paper is available too at:http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  8. Adjacency Matrix-Based Transmit Power Allocation Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, Luca; Medagliani, Paolo; Ferrari, Gianluigi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative transmit power control scheme, based on optimization theory, for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which use carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) with collision avoidance (CA) as medium access control (MAC) protocol. In particular, we focus on schemes where several remote nodes send data directly to a common access point (AP). Under the assumption of finite overall network transmit power and low traffic load, we derive the optimal transmit power allocation strategy that minimizes the packet error rate (PER) at the AP. This approach is based on modeling the CSMA/CA MAC protocol through a finite state machine and takes into account the network adjacency matrix, depending on the transmit power distribution and determining the network connectivity. It will be then shown that the transmit power allocation problem reduces to a convex constrained minimization problem. Our results show that, under the assumption of low traffic load, the power allocation strategy, which guarantees minimal delay, requires the maximization of network connectivity, which can be equivalently interpreted as the maximization of the number of non-zero entries of the adjacency matrix. The obtained theoretical results are confirmed by simulations for unslotted Zigbee WSNs. PMID:22346705

  9. Maintaining Epigenetic Inheritance During DNA Replication in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Francisco M; Cerdán, Pablo D

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses alter the pattern of gene expression in plants. Depending on the frequency and duration of stress events, the effects on the transcriptional state of genes are "remembered" temporally or transmitted to daughter cells and, in some instances, even to offspring (transgenerational epigenetic inheritance). This "memory" effect, which can be found even in the absence of the original stress, has an epigenetic basis, through molecular mechanisms that take place at the chromatin and DNA level but do not imply changes in the DNA sequence. Many epigenetic mechanisms have been described and involve covalent modifications on the DNA and histones, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and methylation, and RNAi dependent silencing mechanisms. Some of these chromatin modifications need to be stable through cell division in order to be truly epigenetic. During DNA replication, histones are recycled during the formation of the new nucleosomes and this process is tightly regulated. Perturbations to the DNA replication process and/or the recycling of histones lead to epigenetic changes. In this mini-review, we discuss recent evidence aimed at linking DNA replication process to epigenetic inheritance in plants.

  10. Maintaining epigenetic inheritance during DNA replication in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eIglesias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses alter the pattern of gene expression in plants. Depending on the frequency and duration of stress events, the effects on the transcriptional state of genes are remembered temporally or transmitted to daughter cells and, in some instances, even to offspring (transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. This memory effect, which can be found even in the absence of the original stress, has an epigenetic basis, through molecular mechanisms that take place at the chromatin and DNA level but do not imply changes in the DNA sequence. Many epigenetic mechanisms have been described and involve covalent modifications on the DNA and histones, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and methylation, and RNAi dependent silencing mechanisms. Some of these chromatin modifications need to be stable through cell division in order to be truly epigenetic. During DNA replication, histones are recycled during the formation of the new nucleosomes and this process is tightly regulated. Perturbations to the DNA replication process and/or the recycling of histones lead to epigenetic changes. In this mini-review, we discuss recent evidence aimed at linking DNA replication process to epigenetic inheritance in plants.

  11. DNA tagged microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2015-05-05

    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  12. DNA computing models

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatova, Zoya; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    In this excellent text, the reader is given a comprehensive introduction to the field of DNA computing. The book emphasizes computational methods to tackle central problems of DNA computing, such as controlling living cells, building patterns, and generating nanomachines.

  13. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  14. On the performance of a code division multiple access scheme with transmit/receive conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, J. A.

    One of the benefits of spread spectrum is that by assigning each user a different orthogonal signal set, multiple transmissions can occur simultaneously. This possibility is utilized in new access schemes called Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The present investigation is concerned with a particular CDMA implementation in which the transmit times for each symbol are exactly determined in a distributed manner such that both sender and receiver know them. In connection with a decision whether to transmit or receive, the loss of a symbol in one of the channels results. The system employs thus a coding technique which permits correct decoding of a codeword even if some constituent symbols are missing or in error. The technique used is Reed Solomon coding. The performance of this system is analyzed, and attention is given to the optimum strategy which should be used in deciding whether to receive or transmit.

  15. Impact of sensing errors on the queueing delay and transmit power in cognitive radio access

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2011-03-01

    We study a multiple-access system with a primary user (PU) and a secondary user (SU) utilizing the same frequency band and communicating with a common receiver. Both users transmit with a fixed transmission rate by employing a channel inversion power control scheme. The SU transmits with a certain probability that depends on the sensing outcome, its queue length and whether it has a new packet arrival. We consider the case of erroneous sensing. The goal of the SU is to find the optimal transmission scheduling policy so as to minimize its queueing delay under constraints on its average transmit power and the maximum tolerable primary outage probability caused by miss-detection. The access probabilities are obtained efficiently using linear programming. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Information guided channel hopping with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2012-10-01

    In order to realize the information guided channel hopping, also known as spatial modulation, with more design flexibility, in this paper we propose a novel scheme that allows operation with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas. Once the number of transmit antennas is not a power of two, the antennas\\' symbols are mapped by different numbers of bits. Subsequently, constellations with different orders are exploited for the modulation of radiated symbols so as to guarantee that the total number of bits transmitted at each time slot remains the same. Furthermore, we introduce a decoding algorithm with low complexity for this design. Numerical results on bit error rate performance are provided and substantiate that the proposed scheme turns out to be a promising alternative to the design of information guided channel hopping. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Coherent Code Tracking for Spatial Transmit Diversity DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Stewart

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial transmit diversity schemes are now well integrated into third-generation cellular mobile communication system specifications. When DS-CDMA-based technology is deployed in typical macro- and microcell environments, multipath diversity and spatial diversity may be exploited simultaneously by a 2D RAKE receiver. The work presented in this paper focuses on taking advantage of spatial transmit diversity in synchronising the 2D RAKE structure. We investigate the use of coherent and noncoherent techniques for tracking the timing parameters of each multipath component. It is shown that both noncoherent and coherent techniques benefit from transmit diversity. Additionally the performance gap between these two techniques increases with the number of antennas.

  18. Cooperative Spatial Reuse with Transmit Beamforming in Multi-rate Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Chenguang; Fitzek, Frank; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a cooperative spatial reuse (CSR) scheme as a cooperative extension of the current TDMA-based MAC to enable spatial reuse in multi-rate wireless networks. We model spatial reuse as a cooperation problem on utilizing the time slots obtained from the TDMA-based MAC. In CSR, there are two...... will leave spatial reuse mode and switch back to TDMA. In this work, we focus on the transmit beamforming techniques to enable CSR by interference cancellation on MISO (Multiple Input Single Output) links. We compare the CSR scheme using zero-forcing (ZF) transmit beamforming, namely ZF-CSR, to the TDMA......-based MAC using maximum ratio combining (MRC) transmit beamforming, namely MRC-TDMA. The numerical results of a simulated two 2 × 1 MISO links scenario show the great potential of CSR to substantially increase the capacity and energy efficiency. Udgivelsesdato: Feb. 2009...

  19. Transmit Array Interpolation for DOA Estimation via Tensor Decomposition in 2-D MIMO Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ming-Yang; Vorobyov, Sergiy A.; Hassanien, Aboulnasr

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a two-dimensional (2D) joint transmit array interpolation and beamspace design for planar array mono-static multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) radar for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation via tensor modeling. Our underlying idea is to map the transmit array to a desired array and suppress the transmit power outside the spatial sector of interest. In doing so, the signal-tonoise ratio is improved at the receive array. Then, we fold the received data along each dimension into a tensorial structure and apply tensor-based methods to obtain DOA estimates. In addition, we derive a close-form expression for DOA estimation bias caused by interpolation errors and argue for using a specially designed look-up table to compensate the bias. The corresponding Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) is also derived. Simulation results are provided to show the performance of the proposed method and compare its performance to CRB.

  20. The educational legislation in inclusive Education in Europe. The importance of transmitting intercultural values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Beatriz Manzano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the intercultural values that are transmitted in the different laws of European Basic Education. With this goal, it tries to assess if the inclusive intercultural education is encouraged from the first legislative ladder. For this reason, a qualitative analysis was made through a system of categories intercultural values, previously validated, by the laws of Basic Education within 32 countries of the European continent. The results were analyzed by means of qualitative software Atlas. And the scores were normalized using a formula to get percentages. Within the most relevant conclusions are all the educational legislation assessed values transmitted intercultural and the most transmitted values are the intercultural primary values.

  1. Influence of Transmitting Pointing Errors on High Speed WDM-AMI-Is-OWC Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatnawi, Abdallah Ahmad; Bin Mohd Warip, Mohd Nazri; Safar, Anuar Mat

    2017-12-01

    Inter-satellite communication is one of the revolutionary techniques that can be used to transmit the high speed date between satellites. However, space turbulences such as transmitting pointing errors play a significant role while designing inter-satellite communication systems. Those turbulences cause shutdown of inter-satellite link due to increase of attenuation during data transmission through link. The present work aims to develop an integrated data transmission system incorporating alternate mark inversion (AMI), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and polarization interleaving (PI) scheme for transmitting data 160 Gbps over inter-satellite link of 1,000 km under the influence of space turbulences. The performance of the integrated data transmission of 160 Gbps data up to 1,000 km will be evaluated under the influence of space turbulences by means of signal to noise ratio (SNR), total received power, bit error rate and eye diagram.

  2. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  3. DNA damage response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Giglia-Mari (Giuseppina); A. Zotter (Angelika); W. Vermeulen (Wim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractStructural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network ofDNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance

  4. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nal factors such as UV radiation, high energy radiation such as X-. Keywords. DNA repair, DNA damage, base excision repair, nucleotide exci- sion repair, methlyl-directed mis- match repair, Nobel Prize. rays and gamma rays, mutagenic chemicals and viruses. Different types of DNA ... be especially important in plants.

  5. Co-infection with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths in rural South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvik, Mari; Helland, Elin; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases and may lead to severe consequences. We assessed the extent of co-infection between Schistosoma haematobium and the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... interval =1.58–2.93; plumbricoides and T. trichiura infection. We have demonstrated a highly significant correlation and overall association between urogenital...... schistosomiasis and A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. We cautiously suggest that all S. haematobium endemic areas should be treated for STH infections....

  6. Global challenges of malaria risk - perspectives from Transfusion-transmitted malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Ofori, Alex; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Bates, Imelda

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a protozoan disease that is transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito. It can however be transmitted by blood transfusion if the blood donor is parasitaemic. Of the five species of Plasmodium that causes malaria, P. falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria. Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk of malaria. Mortality due to malaria has reduced by 48% from 839,000 deaths in 2000 to 438,000 deaths in 2015. This is largely due to a combination of two approaches, vector ...

  7. Colour-reproduction algorithm for transmitting variable video frames and its application to capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Tareq; Shrestha, Ravi; Imtiaz, Md. Shamin; Khan A. Wahid

    2015-01-01

    Presented is a new power-efficient colour generation algorithm for wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) application. In WCE, transmitting colour image data from the human intestine through radio frequency (RF) consumes a huge amount of power. The conventional way is to transmit all R, G and B components of all frames. Using the proposed dictionary-based colour generation scheme, instead of sending all R, G and B frames, first one colour frame is sent followed by a series of grey-scale frames. At ...

  8. A Multiuser MIMO Transmit Beamformer Based on the Statistics of the Signal-to-Leakage Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalise BatuK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO downlink communication system is analyzed in a Rayleigh fading environment. The approximate closed-form expressions for the probability density function (PDF of the signal-to-leakage ratio (SLR, its average, and the outage probability have been derived in terms of the transmit beamformer weight vector. With the help of some conservative derivations, it has been shown that the transmit beamformer which maximizes the average SLR also minimizes the outage probability of the SLR. Computer simulations are carried out to compare the theoretical and simulation results for the channels whose spatial correlations are modeled with different methods.

  9. A Study Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases With Application Of Syndromic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Hasan Hana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in Assam Medical College was studied for a period of one year. The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases was 1.43%. Out of 150 patients the number of patients with genitoulcerative diseases was syphilis 27 (18%, herpes genitalis 26(17.33%, condyloma acuminate 30 (20%, chancroid 11 (7.33%, donovanosis 2(1.33% and LGV 1(0.67%. Patients with urethral or vaginal discharge comprised of gonorrhoea 4(2.67% Vulvovaginitis 14 (9.33%, NGU 12(8.00%, trichomoniasis 2(1.33%, balanoposthitis 17(11.33%.

  10. Prevention and control of Zika fever as a mosquito-borne and sexually transmitted disease

    OpenAIRE

    Daozhou Gao; Yijun Lou; Daihai He; Travis C Porco; Yang Kuang; Gerardo Chowell; Shigui Ruan

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic poses a major global public health emergency. It is known that ZIKV is spread by \\textit{Aedes} mosquitoes, recent studies show that ZIKV can also be transmitted via sexual contact and cases of sexually transmitted ZIKV have been confirmed in the U.S., France, and Italy. How sexual transmission affects the spread and control of ZIKV infection is not well-understood. We presented a mathematical model to investigate the impact of mosquito-borne and sexual ...

  11. Fast phylogenetic DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Willerslev, Eske

    2008-01-01

    We present a heuristic approach to the DNA assignment problem based on phylogenetic inferences using constrained neighbour joining and non-parametric bootstrapping. We show that this method performs as well as the more computationally intensive full Bayesian approach in an analysis of 500 insect...... DNA sequences obtained from GenBank. We also analyse a previously published dataset of environmental DNA sequences from soil from New Zealand and Siberia, and use these data to illustrate the fact that statistical approaches to the DNA assignment problem allow for more appropriate criteria...... for determining the taxonomic level at which a particular DNA sequence can be assigned....

  12. DNA: Structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...... for a long period of time before its information is accessed by the cell. Although DNA plays a critical role as an informational storage molecule, it is by no means as unexciting as a computer tape or disk drive. The structure of the DNA described by Watson and Crick in 1953 is a right handed helix of two...

  13. Archaeal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  14. DNA structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-06-01

    The proposal of a double-helical structure for DNA over 60 years ago provided an eminently satisfying explanation for the heritability of genetic information. But why is DNA, and not RNA, now the dominant biological information store? We argue that, in addition to its coding function, the ability of DNA, unlike RNA, to adopt a B-DNA structure confers advantages both for information accessibility and for packaging. The information encoded by DNA is both digital - the precise base specifying, for example, amino acid sequences - and analogue. The latter determines the sequence-dependent physicochemical properties of DNA, for example, its stiffness and susceptibility to strand separation. Most importantly, DNA chirality enables the formation of supercoiling under torsional stress. We review recent evidence suggesting that DNA supercoiling, particularly that generated by DNA translocases, is a major driver of gene regulation and patterns of chromosomal gene organization, and in its guise as a promoter of DNA packaging enables DNA to act as an energy store to facilitate the passage of translocating enzymes such as RNA polymerase. © 2015 FEBS.

  15. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis x labruscana and Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Poojari, S; Alabi, O J; Naidu, R A; Walsh, D B

    2013-12-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and European fruit lecanium scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché), are the predominant species of Coccoidea in Washington State vineyards. The grape mealybug has been established as a vector of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) between wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, elevating its pest status. The objective of this study was to determine if GLRaV-3 could be transmitted between Vitis x labruscana L. and V. vinifera by the grape mealybug and scale insects. Three transmission experiments were conducted with regard to direction; from V. vinifera to V. x labruscana L., from V. x labruscana L. to V. x labruscana L., and from V. x labruscana L. to V. vinifera. Each experiment was replicated 15 times for each vector species. Crawlers (first-instars) of each vector species were allowed 1-wk acquisition and inoculation access periods. The identities of viral and vector species were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of species-specific DNA fragments. GLRaV-3 was successfully transmitted by both species in all experiments, although Ps. maritimus was a more efficient vector under our experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first documented evidence of interspecific transmission of GLRaV-3 between two disparate Vitis species. It also highlights the potential role of V. x labruscana L. in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease as a symptomless source of GLRaV-3 inoculum.

  16. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  17. Biophysics of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.

  18. Voice-band Modem: A Device to Transmit Data over Telephone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 6. Voice-band Modem: A Device to Transmit Data over Telephone Networks - Advanced Ideas which made ... Author Affiliations. V Umapathi Reddy1. Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  19. Voice-band Modems: A Device to Transmit Data Over Telephone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. Voice-band Modems: A Device to Transmit Data Over Telephone Networks - Basic Principles of Data ... Author Affiliations. V Umapathi Reddy1. Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  20. Project Trans(m)it: Creating Dance Collaboratively via Technology--A Best Practices Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rebecca; Mizanty, Megan; Allen, Lora

    2017-01-01

    Project Trans(m)it is a collaborative research project among a cohort of intercontinental artists exploring dance creation via technological platforms. This paper seeks to disseminate our practice-led research findings on "best practices" for transferring embodied information via technology, as well as posit how technology will shape and…

  1. Low HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in Bulgaria against a background of high clade diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexiev, Ivailo; Shankar, Anupama; Wensing, A. M. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30817724X; Beshkov, Danail; Elenkov, Ivaylo; Stoycheva, Mariyana; Nikolova, Daniela; Nikolova, Maria; Switzer, William M.

    Objectives To determine transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bulgaria. Methods The prevalence of TDR and HIV-1 subtypes was determined in 305/1446 (21.1%) persons newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS from 1988 to 2011. TDR mutations (TDRMs) in protease and reverse transcriptase

  2. The risk of HIV infection being transmitted by the oral route | Matee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparently, the risk of HIV infection being transmitted by the oral route is small. This information should serve to alleviate fears and concerns of the rapidly growing number of household members and other close. contacts of patients with AIDS, professionals attending these patients, as well as the population at large.

  3. Paradoxical associations between soil-transmitted helminths and Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián A; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Cucunubá, Zulma M; Reyes-Harker, Patricia; Guerra, Ángela P; Moncada, Ligia I; López, Myriam C; Barrera, Sandra M; Cortés, Liliana J; Olivera, Mario; Nicholls, Rubén S

    2012-11-01

    Evidence on the comorbidity between soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria is scarce and divergent. This study explored the interactions between soil-transmitted helminth infections and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of Colombia. A paired case-control study matched by sex, age and location in Tierralta, Cordoba, was done between January and September 2010. The incident cases were 68 patients with falciparum malaria and 178 asymptomatic controls. A questionnaire was used to gather information on sociodemographic variables. Additionally physical examinations were carried out, stool samples were analysed for intestinal parasites and blood samples for Ig E concentrations. We found associations between infection with hookworm (OR: 4.21; 95% CI: 1.68-11.31) and Ascaris lumbricoides (OR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.18-1.04) and the occurrence of falciparum malaria. The effects of soil-transmitted helminths on the occurrence of malaria were found to be paradoxical. While hookworm is a risk factor, A. lumbricoides has a protective effect. The findings suggest that, in addition to the comorbidity, the presence of common determinants of soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria could also exist. While the biological mechanisms involved are not clear, public health policies aimed at the control of their common social and environmental determinants are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recruitment Strategies and Motivations for Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Zenilman, Jonathan; Nanda, Joy P.; Mark, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated procedures for recruiting college students for sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing as part of a research study examining the impact of HSV serologic testing. Participants: A convenience sample of 100 students was drawn from students aged 18 to 35 years enrolled at one university in a mid-Atlantic state…

  5. Is the begomovirus, sweet potato leaf curl virus, really seed transmitted in sweetpotato?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato is one of the major root crops in the world and is also widely grown in the southern United States. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) is a begomovirus posing a serious threat to sweetpotato production worldwide and is primarily transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) or through veget...

  6. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  7. Optimal control design of turbo spin-echo sequences with applications to parallel-transmit systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbrizzi, Alessandro; Hoogduin, Hans; Hajnal, Joseph V; van den Berg, CAT; Luijten, Peter R; Malik, Shaihan J

    PURPOSE: The design of turbo spin-echo sequences is modeled as a dynamic optimization problem which includes the case of inhomogeneous transmit radiofrequency fields. This problem is efficiently solved by optimal control techniques making it possible to design patient-specific sequences online.

  8. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013.  Created: 10/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/23/2014.

  9. An attributional analysis of stigma associated with sexually transmitted diseases and its relationship with communication efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jina H; Jang, Suahn

    2012-05-21

    People typically attribute more responsibility to those individuals who are infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) than other diseases. This study tested how different routes (i.e., sexually transmitted or foodborne) of transmission have an impact on individuals' general perception on stigma/shame and the attributions of responsibility, when controlling for symptoms/conditions of the hypothetical virus infection. Two hundreds and ninety eight college students were recruited for the study. As predicted, people who were attributed with control over contracting the virus (i.e., sexually transmitted route) were likely to be assigned a greater level of personal responsibility and were more likely to receive blame from others than people who were attributed relatively less control over contracting the virus (i.e., foodborne). The relationship between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy was also assessed. The results supported our prediction that there was a significant association between the attribution of responsibility and communication efficacy, in that the perceived controllability of the situation, perceived responsibility for the situation, and blame were all significantly correlated with communication efficacy in a negative direction. Practical applications by evaluating the effectiveness of the actual Merck's Gardasil advertisement were discussed that the Gardasil advertisement appears to reduce the perceived shame and stigma associated with the sexually transmitted nature of the virus by not revealing the true nature of the virus upfront.

  10. NMR transmit-receive system with short recovery time and effective isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurga, K.; Reynhardt, E. C.; Jurga, S.

    A transmit-receive system with a short recovery time and excellent isolation has been developed. The system operates in conjunction with an ENI Model 3200L broadband amplifier and a spin-lock NMR pulse spectrometer. The system has been tested in the frequency range 5.5 to 52 MHz and seems not to generate any background noise.

  11. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  12. A 32-channel lattice transmission line array for parallel transmit and receive MRI at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriany, Gregor; Auerbach, Edward J; Snyder, Carl J; Gözübüyük, Ark; Moeller, Steen; Ritter, Johannes; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Vaughan, Tommy; Uğurbil, Kâmil

    2010-06-01

    Transmit and receive RF coil arrays have proven to be particularly beneficial for ultra-high-field MR. Transmit coil arrays enable such techniques as B(1) (+) shimming to substantially improve transmit B(1) homogeneity compared to conventional volume coil designs, and receive coil arrays offer enhanced parallel imaging performance and SNR. Concentric coil arrangements hold promise for developing transceiver arrays incorporating large numbers of coil elements. At magnetic field strengths of 7 tesla and higher where the Larmor frequencies of interest can exceed 300 MHz, the coil array design must also overcome the problem of the coil conductor length approaching the RF wavelength. In this study, a novel concentric arrangement of resonance elements built from capacitively-shortened half-wavelength transmission lines is presented. This approach was utilized to construct an array with whole-brain coverage using 16 transceiver elements and 16 receive-only elements, resulting in a coil with a total of 16 transmit and 32 receive channels. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. 15 CFR 30.9 - Transmitting and correcting Electronic Export Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmitting and correcting Electronic Export Information. 30.9 Section 30.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements...

  14. 77 FR 4059 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt... Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade...

  15. 77 FR 11588 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint...

  16. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Dekkers, O.M.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth

  17. A comparison of Internet search trends and sexually transmitted infection rates using Google trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy K; Mehta, Supriya D

    2014-01-01

    Google Trends was used to determine the relationship between sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related search engine trends and STI rates. Trends seem to be similar to the relative rates of STIs and to regional differences in rates. Search engine trends are an innovative tool to integrate into STI surveillance.

  18. Digital beam forming on transmit and receive with an AESA FMCW radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Lievers, C.M.; Rossum, W.L. van; Maas, A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an active electronically scanned array (AESA) FMCW radar with eight transceivers. Each transceiver has its own Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) for signal generation which enables digital beam forming on transmit as well as on receive. The coherent operation of the eight

  19. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

  20. Temporal trends of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a multinational seroconversion cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olson, Ashley; Bannert, Norbert; Sönnerborg, Anders; de Mendoza, Carmen; Price, Matthew; Zangerle, Robert; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Prins, Maria; Kran, Anne-Marte Bakken; Gill, John; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Porter, Kholoud

    2018-01-01

    The rate of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) may increase with wider use of antiretroviral therapy and can contribute to therapeutic failure. We analysed time trends in TDR among HIV seroconverters. Using CASCADE data of individuals with well estimated dates of HIV seroconversion, we examined HIV

  1. HIV in Kenya: Sexual behaviour and quality of care of sexually transmitted diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health

  2. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Netherlands in 2004 An update: November 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar MJW van de; Boer IM de; Koedijk FDH; Op de Coul ELM; HIV Monitoring Foundation and; STI sentinel surveillance network; ISIS laboratory surveillance; ISIS/Osiris - Inspectorate of Health; Healthcare Insurance Board; CIE

    2005-01-01

    The increasing trend of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) has continued further in 2004, despite a slight levelling off in 2003. The rise was observed both in the number of consultations and STI among heterosexuals and men having sex with men (MSM). In 2004, the number of new HIV diagnoses in

  3. Bacterial etiology of sexually transmitted infections at a STI clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial etiology of sexually transmitted infections at a STI clinic in Ghana; use of multiplex real time PCR. Augustina A Sylverken, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Denis D Yar, Samson P Salifu, Nana Yaa Awua-Boateng, John H Amuasi, Portia B Okyere, Thomas Agyarko-Poku ...

  4. Intravaginal practices, vaginal flora disturbances, and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwean women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wijgert, J. H.; Mason, P. R.; Gwanzura, L.; Mbizvo, M. T.; Chirenje, Z. M.; Iliff, V.; Shiboski, S.; Padian, N. S.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred sixty-nine Zimbabwean women were studied to determine whether the use of intravaginal practices (cleaning with the fingers, wiping the vagina, and inserting traditional substances) are associated with disturbances of vaginal flora and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

  5. An Intervention to Promote the Female Condom to Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Lynn; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kelaghan, Joseph; Austin, Harland; Fleenor, Michael; Robey, Lawrence; Hook, III, Edward W.; Brill, Ilene

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a 1-hour behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and safer sex to women at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The intervention includes a promotional videotape; a skills-oriented counseling session with a nurse clinician; assorted take-home items, including a videotape for men; and free…

  6. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  7. Voice-band Modems: A Device to Transmit Data Over Telephone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disciplines, communication theory, signal processing and iriformation theory. In this article, we begin with a brief introduction of voice-band modems and then introduce the basic principles of data transmis- sion. Introduction. Voice-band modems were introduced in the late 1950s to transmit data through the public switched ...

  8. Power balance and loss mechanism analysis in RF transmit coil arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Andre; Goluch, Sigrun; Waxmann, Patrick; Seifert, Frank; Ittermann, Bernd; Moser, Ewald; Laistler, Elmar

    2015-10-01

    To establish a framework for transmit array power balance calculations based on power correlation matrices to accurately quantify the loss contributions from different mechanisms such as coupling, lumped components, and radiation. Starting from Poynting's theorem, power correlation matrices are derived for all terms in the power balance, which is formulated as a matrix equation. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of two 7 T eight-channel head array coils at 297.2 MHz are used to verify the theoretical considerations and demonstrate their application. Care is taken to accurately incorporate all loss mechanisms. The power balance for static B1 phase shims as well as two-dimensional spatially selective transmit SENSE pulses is shown. The simulated power balance shows an excellent agreement with theory, with a maximum power imbalance of less than 0.11%. Power loss contributions from the different loss mechanisms vary significantly between the investigated setups, and depending on the excitation mode imposed on the coil. The presented approach enables a straightforward loss evaluation for an arbitrary excitation of transmit coil arrays. Worst-case power imbalance and losses are calculated in a straightforward manner. This allows for deeper insight into transmit array loss mechanisms, incorporation of radiated power components in specific absorption rate calculations and verification of electromagnetic simulations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Near-field short correlation in optical waves transmitted through random media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emiliani, V.; Intonti, F.; caza, M.; Wiersma, D.S.; Colocci, M.; Aliev, F.; Lagendijk, Aart

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional near-field images of light transmitted through a disordered dielectric structure have been measured for two probe wavelengths. From these data, the 2D spatial dependence of the intensity correlation function, C(¿R¿), has been extracted. We observe that the spatial dependence of C is

  10. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  11. Comparisons of receive array interference reduction techniques under erroneous generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    This paper studies generalized single-stream transmit beamforming employing receive array co-channel interference reduction algorithms under slow and flat fading multiuser wireless systems. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels on the effectiveness of transmit beamforming for different interference reduction techniques is investigated. The case of over-loaded receive array with closely-spaced elements is considered, wherein it can be configured to specified interfering sources. Both dominant interference reduction and adaptive interference reduction techniques for statistically ordered and unordered interferers powers, respectively, are thoroughly studied. The effect of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers powers on the efficiency of dominant interference reduction is studied and then compared against the adaptive interference reduction. For the system models described above, new analytical formulations for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio are presented, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission and single-antenna best transmit selection can be directly deduced as limiting cases. These results are then utilized to obtain quantitative measures for various performance metrics. They are also used to compare the achieved performance of various configuration models under consideration. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  12. Arrangement of nuclear structures is not transmitted through mitosis but is identical in sister cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlova, Darya Yu; Stixová, Lenka; Kozubek, Stanislav; Gierman, Hinco J.; Šustáčková, Gabriela; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Medvedev, Ruslan N.; Legartová, Soňa; Versteeg, Rogier; Matula, Pavel; Stoklasa, Roman; Bártová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that chromosomes are non-randomly organized during interphase, it is not completely clear whether higher-order chromatin structure is transmitted from mother to daughter cells. Therefore, we addressed the question of how chromatin is rearranged during interphase and whether

  13. Interaction specificity between leaf-cutting ants and vertically transmitted Pseudonocardia bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum Andersen, Sandra; Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R.

    2015-01-01

    against the fungal parasite Escovopsis and possibly other pathogens. Panamanian Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants primarily associate with actinomycetes of the genus Pseudonocardia. Colonies are inoculated with one of two vertically transmitted phylotypes (Ps1 or Ps2), and maintain the same...

  14. Preliminary In-vivo Results For Spatially Coded Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound Based On Frequency Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using spatial coding based on frequency division for in-vivo synthetic transmit aperture (STA) ultrasound imaging. When using spatial encoding for STA, it is possible to use several transmitters simultaneously and separate the signals at the receiver. Th...

  15. 47 CFR 90.185 - Multiple licensing of radio transmitting equipment in the mobile radio service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple licensing of radio transmitting equipment in the mobile radio service. 90.185 Section 90.185 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Policies...

  16. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results: The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%. The use of the intrauterine device (IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Fennema, JSA; Postma, MJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV screening of patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Amsterdam. Design: Cost effectiveness analysis. Methods: A Bernoulli model for the secondary transmission of HIV was linked with epidemiological data on

  18. EveryBody[TM]: Preventing HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberlein, Deborah

    EveryBody is a curriculum that emphasizes prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among early adolescents. It fosters active learning and facilitates communication about HIV/STD prevention and promotes safer behaviors. EveryBody incorporates current research on adolescent development so it…

  19. Calculation of genomic predicted transmitting abilities for bovine respiratory disease complex in Holsteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex is a disease that is very costly to the dairy industry. Genomic selection may be an effective tool to improve host resistance to the pathogens that cause this disease. Use of genomic predicted transmitting abilities (GPTA) for selection has had a dramatic effect on...

  20. K-space model of motion artifacts in synthetic transmit aperture ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging gives the possibility to acquire an image with only few emissions and is appealing for 3D ultrasound imaging. Even though the number of emissions is low, the change in position of the scatterers prohibits the coherent summations of ultrasound echoes...

  1. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian; Coipan, Claudia; Wagemakers, Alex; Fonville, Manoj; Ersöz, Jasmin; Oei, Anneke; Földvári, Gábor; Hovius, Joppe; Takken, Willem; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi

  2. Risk behaviors and level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Margarita Villafañe-Ferrer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections are an epidemiologic and clinical problem of first order in all the world by effect that can produce and their economic consequences. Adolescents and young are in most risk to have these diseases by facts such as premature sexual relationships and promiscuity. The objective of this investigation was to determine risk behaviors and level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections in students’ community. Correlational cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was applied to determine risk behaviors and level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections to 128 students’ community. In this study was found 78.1% of students had sexual relationships. 55% of students drink alcohol before a sexual relationship. By means of statistical analysis was found association between sexually transmitted infections and drug use (p=0.042. Students had a regular level of knowledge. It not was found association between risk behaviors and level of knowledge (p>0.05. Results found in this investigation demonstrate the necessity of making activities for prevention of these infections and motivating changes of behaviors for reducing risk of contagion of these infections

  3. Drug resistance mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance: 2009 update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E Bennett

    Full Text Available Programs that monitor local, national, and regional levels of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance inform treatment guidelines and provide feedback on the success of HIV-1 treatment and prevention programs. To accurately compare transmitted drug resistance rates across geographic regions and times, the World Health Organization has recommended the adoption of a consensus genotypic definition of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance. In January 2007, we outlined criteria for developing a list of mutations for drug-resistance surveillance and compiled a list of 80 RT and protease mutations meeting these criteria (surveillance drug resistance mutations; SDRMs. Since January 2007, several new drugs have been approved and several new drug-resistance mutations have been identified. In this paper, we follow the same procedures described previously to develop an updated list of SDRMs that are likely to be useful for ongoing and future studies of transmitted drug resistance. The updated SDRM list has 93 mutations including 34 NRTI-resistance mutations at 15 RT positions, 19 NNRTI-resistance mutations at 10 RT positions, and 40 PI-resistance mutations at 18 protease positions.

  4. Sociodemographic profile of blind people: associations with knowledge, attitude and practice about sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Kaline Ferreira Araújo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze associations among sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge, attitude and practice ofblind people about sexually transmitted infections. Methods: descriptive transversal study with a quantitative approach.Participants were 36 blind individuals. The questionnaire Knowledge, attitude and practice about sexually transmittedinfections was used. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. There were Chi-square test and chi-square Exact.Results: most participants are elderly, unmarried, with elementary school and not working. Knowledge, attitude andpractice about sexually transmitted infections are inadequate (p<0.05. Religion (p<0.001, work (p<0.001, not workingreason (p<0.001 and education (p=0.003 had associations with the attitude about sexually transmitted infections. Gender(p<0.001, marital status (p=0.019 and education (p=0.020 had associations with practice. There was no associationbetween sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge. Conclusion: sociodemographic characteristics may interferewith the attitude and practice of blind people about sexually transmitted infections, and the nurse should consider thesecharacteristics in professional practice with those subjects.

  5. SEEKING MEDICAL-CARE FOR A SEXUALLY-TRANSMITTED DISEASE - DETERMINANTS OF DELAY-BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENAARS, PEM; ROMBOUTS, R; KOK, G

    1993-01-01

    Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is important considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and sequelae, their social and economic impact and their role in increasing transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Unfortunately, a common response to illness is

  6. Pocket Book to Enhance Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Prevention of Soil-Transmitted Helminth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiana, Liena; Ayu, Suci Musvita

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia, being a tropical area with high humidity, is a source of proliferation of worms. Soil-Transmitted Helminths infection is widespread in all rural and urban areas. Children who are infected usually experience lethargy, pallor or anemia, weight loss and listlessness, as well as decreasing their learning concentration and productivity.…

  7. DNA Repair Decline During Mouse Spermiogenesis Results in the Accumulation of Heritable DNA Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7-1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  8. DNA repair decline during mouse spermiogenesis results in the accumulation of heritable DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wryobek, Andrew J

    2008-02-21

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7- 1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomalaberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  9. The Safety of Using Body-Transmit MRI in Patients with Implanted Deep Brain Stimulation Devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kahan

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an established treatment for patients with movement disorders. Patients receiving chronic DBS provide a unique opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms of DBS using functional MRI. It has been shown that the main safety concern with MRI in these patients is heating at the electrode tips - which can be minimised with strict adherence to a supervised acquisition protocol using a head-transmit/receive coil at 1.5T. MRI using the body-transmit coil with a multi-channel receive head coil has a number of potential advantages including an improved signal-to-noise ratio.We compared the safety of cranial MRI in an in vitro model of bilateral DBS using both head-transmit and body-transmit coils. We performed fibre-optic thermometry at a Medtronic ActivaPC device and Medtronic 3389 electrodes during turbo-spin echo (TSE MRI using both coil arrangements at 1.5T and 3T, in addition to gradient-echo echo-planar fMRI exposure at 1.5T. Finally, we investigated the effect of transmit-coil choice on DBS stimulus delivery during MRI.Temperature increases were consistently largest at the electrode tips. Changing from head- to body-transmit coil significantly increased the electrode temperature elevation during TSE scans with scanner-reported head SAR 0.2W/kg from 0.45°C to 0.79°C (p<0.001 at 1.5T, and from 1.25°C to 1.44°C (p<0.001 at 3T. The position of the phantom relative to the body coil significantly impacted on electrode heating at 1.5T; however, the greatest heating observed in any position tested remained <1°C at this field strength.We conclude that (1 with our specific hardware and SAR-limited protocol, body-transmit cranial MRI at 1.5T does not produce heating exceeding international guidelines, even in cases of poorly positioned patients, (2 cranial MRI at 3T can readily produce heating exceeding international guidelines, (3 patients with ActivaPC Medtronic systems are safe to be recruited to future f

  10. DNA origami: the art of folding DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccà, Barbara; Niemeyer, Christof M

    2012-01-02

    The advent of DNA origami technology greatly simplified the design and construction of nanometer-sized DNA objects. The self-assembly of a DNA-origami structure is a straightforward process in which a long single-stranded scaffold (often from the phage M13mp18) is folded into basically any desired shape with the help of a multitude of short helper strands. This approach enables the ready generation of objects with an addressable surface area of a few thousand nm(2) and with a single "pixel" resolution of about 6 nm. The process is rapid, puts low demands on experimental conditions, and delivers target products in high yields. These features make DNA origami the method of choice in structural DNA nanotechnology when two- and three-dimensional objects are desired. This Minireview summarizes recent advances in the design of DNA origami nanostructures, which open the door to numerous exciting applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Danish sheep: confirmation by DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamsborg Stig M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an Ixodes ricinus transmitted bacterium, was investigated in two flocks of Danish grazing lambs. Direct PCR detection was performed on DNA extracted from blood and serum with subsequent confirmation by DNA sequencing. Methods 31 samples obtained from clinically normal lambs in 2000 from Fussingø, Jutland and 12 samples from ten lambs and two ewes from a clinical outbreak at Feddet, Zealand in 2006 were included in the study. Some of the animals from Feddet had shown clinical signs of polyarthritis and general unthriftiness prior to sampling. DNA extraction was optimized from blood and serum and detection achieved by a 16S rRNA targeted PCR with verification of the product by DNA sequencing. Results Five DNA extracts were found positive by PCR, including two samples from 2000 and three from 2006. For both series of samples the product was verified as A. phagocytophilum by DNA sequencing. Conclusions A. phagocytophilum was detected by molecular methods for the first time in Danish grazing lambs during the two seasons investigated (2000 and 2006.

  12. Transmit-receive eddy current probes for defect detection and sizing in steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Cecco, V.S.; Sullivan, S.P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    Inspection of steam generator tubes in aging Nuclear Generating Stations is increasingly important. Defect detection and sizing, especially in defect prone areas such as the tubesheet, support plates and U-bend regions, are required to assess the fitness-for-service of the steam generators. Information about defect morphology is required to address operational integrity issues, i.e., risk of tube rupture, number of tubes at risk, consequential leakage. A major challenge continues to be the detection and sizing of circumferential cracks. Utilities around the world have experienced this type of tube failure. Conventional in-service inspection, performed with eddy current bobbin probes, is ineffectual in detecting circumferential cracks in tubing. It has been demonstrated in CANDU steam generators, with deformation, magnetite and copper deposits that multi-channel probes with transmit-receive eddy current coils are superior to those using surface impedance coils. Transmit-receive probes have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization according to crack orientation. They are less sensitive to lift-off noise and magnetite deposits and possess good discrimination to internal defects. A single pass C3 array transmit-receive probe developed by AECL can detect and size circumferential stress corrosion cracks as shallow as 40% through-wall. Since its first trial in 1992, it has been used routinely for steam generator in-service inspection of four CANDU plants, preventing unscheduled shutdowns due to leaking steam generator tubes. More recently, a need has surfaced for simultaneous detection of both circumferential and axial cracks. The C5 probe was designed to address this concern. It combines transmit-receive array probe technology for equal sensitivity to axial and circumferential cracks with a bobbin probe for historical reference. This paper will discuss the operating principles of transmit-receive probes, along with inspection results.

  13. [Sexuality Risk Factors among People with Suspect of Sexually Transmitted Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Morente, María Ángeles; Cano-Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Ocón, María Teresa; Castro-López, Esperanza; Jiménez-Bautista, Francisco; Hueso-Montoro, César

    2017-01-25

    Describing determinants factors in Sexually Transmitted Diseases is necessary to evaluate and design effective measures for prevention and treatment. The aim of this research was to determine the sexual risk factors of people who are treated at Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre and to analyze differences based on gender. Cross-sectional study on 496 clinical reports, period of time 2010 to 2014, of people who come to the Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Orientation Centre of Granada, for suspected of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Sociodemographic, clinical and sexual patterns data were collected. Calculation of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test to compare proportions were performed. 56% men and 44% women. The mean age was 29,01 years (SD=9,07). Most of the sample were single (85,9%). 54,2% had a higher education level. The most prevalent infections were the Human Papilloma-virus (18,8%), followed Molluscum contagiosum (5,6%) and Candidiasis (3,8%). Significant differences were found by sex with sexual behavior, there are more gay men (n=89) and bisexual (n=22) than women (n=4, n=7, respectively) (p smaller than 0,001); differences between sex and sexual life were also found, finding higher prevalence of men with 10-20 couples (n=23) and more than 20 couples (n=20) than women (n=10, n=4, respectively). The user profile is a young, single, with higher education. The most prevalent infection is the Human Papillomavirus. Men are a vulnerable population for contracting sexually transmitted diseases because of their sexual practices.

  14. DNA methylation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, B F

    2006-01-01

    DNA in plants is highly methylated, containing 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and N6-methyladenine (m6A); m5C is located mainly in symmetrical CG and CNG sequences but it may occur also in other non-symmetrical contexts. m6A but not m5C was found in plant mitochondrial DNA. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific. It is controlled by phytohormones and changes on seed germination, flowering and under the influence of various pathogens (viral, bacterial, fungal). DNA methylation controls plant growth and development, with particular involvement in regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. DNA replication is accompanied by the appearance of under-methylated, newly formed DNA strands including Okazaki fragments; asymmetry of strand DNA methylation disappears until the end of the cell cycle. A model for regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Cytosine DNA methylation in plants is more rich and diverse compared with animals. It is carried out by the families of specific enzymes that belong to at least three classes of DNA methyltransferases. Open reading frames (ORF) for adenine DNA methyltransferases are found in plant and animal genomes, and a first eukaryotic (plant) adenine DNA methyltransferase (wadmtase) is described; the enzyme seems to be involved in regulation of the mitochondria replication. Like in animals, DNA methylation in plants is closely associated with histone modifications and it affects binding of specific proteins to DNA and formation of respective transcription complexes in chromatin. The same gene (DRM2) in Arabidopsis thaliana is methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues; thus, at least two different, and probably interdependent, systems of DNA modification are present in plants. Plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. RNA-directed DNA methylation has been observed in plants; it involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues in a region of siRNA-DNA

  15. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... to promote genome integrity during DNA replication. This includes suppressing new replication origin firing, stabilization of replicating forks, and the safe restart of forks to prevent any loss of genetic information. Here, we describe mechanisms by which oncogenes can interfere with DNA replication thereby...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  16. DNA barcoding fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, Lee A; Driskell, Amy C; Baldwin, Carole C; Ormos, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of the techniques for DNA barcoding of fishes from field collection to DNA sequence analysis. Recommendations for modifications of field protocols and best tissue sampling practices are made. A variety of DNA extraction protocols is provided, including high-throughput robot-assisted methods. A pair of well-tested forward and reverse primers for PCR amplification and sequencing are presented. These primers have been successfully used for DNA barcode on a wide array of marine fish taxa and also work well in most freshwater and cartilaginous fishes. Recipes and cycling protocols for both PCR amplification and sequencing and cleanup methods for the reaction products are provided. A method for the consistent production of high-quality DNA barcodes from DNA sequence data is given and stringent guidelines for judging the quality of raw sequence data are laid out.

  17. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  18. Compressing DNA sequence databases with coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Michael D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly available DNA sequence databases such as GenBank are large, and are growing at an exponential rate. The sheer volume of data being dealt with presents serious storage and data communications problems. Currently, sequence data is usually kept in large "flat files," which are then compressed using standard Lempel-Ziv (gzip compression – an approach which rarely achieves good compression ratios. While much research has been done on compressing individual DNA sequences, surprisingly little has focused on the compression of entire databases of such sequences. In this study we introduce the sequence database compression software coil. Results We have designed and implemented a portable software package, coil, for compressing and decompressing DNA sequence databases based on the idea of edit-tree coding. coil is geared towards achieving high compression ratios at the expense of execution time and memory usage during compression – the compression time represents a "one-off investment" whose cost is quickly amortised if the resulting compressed file is transmitted many times. Decompression requires little memory and is extremely fast. We demonstrate a 5% improvement in compression ratio over state-of-the-art general-purpose compression tools for a large GenBank database file containing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. Finally, coil can efficiently encode incremental additions to a sequence database. Conclusion coil presents a compelling alternative to conventional compression of flat files for the storage and distribution of DNA sequence databases having a narrow distribution of sequence lengths, such as EST data. Increasing compression levels for databases having a wide distribution of sequence lengths is a direction for future work.

  19. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA- REVOLUTIONARY EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidhehi Narayan Nayak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mitochondrion, the sausage-shaped organelle residing in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, apart from being the power house, represents endosymbiotic evolution of a free living organism to intracellular structure. Anthropologically, mitochondrial DNA is the fossilised source to trace the human ancestry particularly of maternal lineage. This article attempts to highlight the various biological functions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA with a note on its forensic application.

  20. Doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the freshwater bivalve Anodonta woodiana (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the vast majority of organisms in which mitochondrial DNA is transmitted maternally (standard mitochondrial inheritance, SMI), some marine or freshwater bivalves exhibit a different pattern of mtDNA transmission, named doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI). In this case there are two types of mtDNA, i.e. the female-transmitted (F-type) and the male-transmitted (M-type), the latter being present only in the male gonads of Unionidae bivalves. Current knowledge on DUI does not cover any freshwater mussels that are found in Poland. This study confirms DUI ofmtDNA in A. woodiana, a Chinese mussel discovered in Poland in 1993. The sequence divergence in the COI gene region for the F-type ranged between 0% (separately for Polish and Japanese mussels) and 8.1% (between Polish and Japanese specimens). On the other hand, this parameter was higher for the M-type, reaching 9.7% between Polish and Japanese specimens. Sequence divergence between the F- and M-types reached 34-35% and, although very high, was still characteristic for the bivalves in which DUI had been found.

  1. Mononucleated Blood Cell Populations Display Different Abilities To Transmit Prion Disease by the Transfusion Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Jean-Yves; Lacroux, Caroline; Litaise, Claire; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Arnold, Mark; Simmons, Hugh; Aron, Naima; Costes, Pierrette; Tillier, Cécile; Cassard, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous experiments carried out in a sheep scrapie model demonstrated that the transfusion of 200 μl of prion-infected whole blood has an apparent 100% efficacy for disease transmission. These experiments also indicated that, despite the apparent low infectious titer, the intravenous administration of white blood cells (WBC) resulted in efficient disease transmission. In the study presented here, using the same transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal model, our aim was to determine the minimal number of white blood cells and the specific abilities of mononucleated cell populations to transmit scrapie by the transfusion route. Our results confirmed that the transfusion of 100 μl, but not 10 μl, of fresh whole blood collected in asymptomatic scrapie-infected donor sheep can transmit the disease. The data also show that the intravenous administration of 105 WBCs is sufficient to cause scrapie in recipient sheep. Cell-sorted CD45R+ (predominantly B lymphocytes), CD4+/CD8+ (T lymphocytes), and CD14+ (monocytes/macrophages) blood cell subpopulations all were shown to contain prion infectivity by bioassays in ovine PrP transgenic mice. However, while the intravenous administration of 106 CD45+ or CD4+/8+ living cells was able to transmit the disease, similar numbers of CD14+ cells failed to infect the recipients. These data support the contention that mononucleated blood cell populations display different abilities to transmit TSE by the transfusion route. They also represent an important input for the risk assessment of blood-borne prion disease transmission and for refining the target performance of leukoreduction processes that currently are applied to mitigate the transmission risk in transfusion medicine. IMPORTANCE Interindividual variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) transmission through blood and blood-derived products is considered a major public health issue in transfusion medicine. Over the last decade, TSE in sheep has emerged as a

  2. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  3. DNA origami nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas A W; Engst, Christian R; Ablay, Marc; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Liedl, Tim; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2012-01-11

    We demonstrate the assembly of functional hybrid nanopores for single molecule sensing by inserting DNA origami structures into solid-state nanopores. In our experiments, single artificial nanopores based on DNA origami are repeatedly inserted in and ejected from solid-state nanopores with diameters around 15 nm. We show that these hybrid nanopores can be employed for the detection of λ-DNA molecules. Our approach paves the way for future development of adaptable single-molecule nanopore sensors based on the combination of solid-state nanopores and DNA self-assembly. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among healthy Korean women: implications of multiplex PCR pathogen detection on antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using multiplex real-time PCR assay in healthy Korean women. We also evaluated the risk factors of STIs, and compared the various factors between the STI-positive and the STI-negative groups. A total of 799 endocervical swab samples from healthy Korean women who visited our hospital for general medical check-ups during January 2012 to October 2012 were included. Eight STIs including Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) were detected using Anyplex II STI-7 Detection assay Detection (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) and Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) according manufacture's protocols. Ninety-seven (12.1%) subjects were positive for HPV. Of 393 (49.2%) subjects were infected with at least one microorganism and a total of 499 STIs were identified. Among the 393 STI-positive subjects, the proportion of single, double and triple infection was 76.3%, 20.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The median age of the STI-positive group (47 years, range 42-52) was younger than the STI-negative group (49 years, range 43-56; P < 0.001). The infection rate of HPV was significantly higher in the STI-positive group (15.8%, 62/393) than the STI-negative group (8.6%, 35/406) (P = 0.002). Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transmitted drug resistance in women with intrapartum HIV-1 diagnosis: a pilot epidemiological survey in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cecchini

    2014-11-01

    -infected (positive proviral DNA at 24 hours of life, wild-type HIV. Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that levels of transmitted resistance in this high-risk population of pregnant women could be moderate to high. We preliminarily observed high-level resistance to NVP: if this finding is confirmed with a larger sample, it could potentially jeopardize the utility of this drug in the combined neonatal prophylaxis recommended in the absence of maternal antiretroviral therapy.

  6. Systematic review of interventions to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, among young people in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union.......To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union....

  7. 18 CFR 2.20 - Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting utilities. 2.20 Section 2.20 Conservation of... Power Act § 2.20 Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting...

  8. Probing DNA-DNA electrostatic friction in tight superhelical DNA plies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherstvy, A G

    2009-04-23

    We estimate theoretically the strength of DNA-DNA electrostatic friction forces emerging upon a slow drag of one DNA over another one in a close juxtaposition. For ideally helical DNA duplexes, this friction occurs due to correlations in electrostatic potential near the DNA surface. The latter originate from the intrinsic helicity of DNA phosphates and adsorbed cations on a scale of 3.4 nm. They produce positive-negative charge interlocking along the DNA-DNA contact. For realistic nonideally helical DNAs, where electrostatic potential barriers become decorrelated due to accumulation of mismatches in DNA structure, DNA-DNA frictional forces are strongly impeded. We discuss possibilities of probing the DNA-DNA intermolecular interactions in strongly confined DNA superhelical plies, as obtained in single-molecule experiments.

  9. Novel mtDNA mutations and oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction in Russian LHON families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M D; Zhadanov, S; Allen, J C; Hosseini, S; Newman, N J; Atamonov, V V; Mikhailovskaya, I E; Sukernik, R I; Wallace, D C

    2001-07-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by maternally transmitted, bilateral, central vision loss in young adults. It is caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoded genes that contribute polypeptides to NADH dehydrogenase or complex I. Four mtDNA variants, the nucleotide pair (np) 3460A, 11778A, 14484C, and 14459A mutations, are known as "primary" LHON mutations and are found in most, but not all, of the LHON families reported to date. Here, we report the extensive genetic and biochemical analysis of five Russian families from the Novosibirsk region of Siberia manifesting maternally transmitted optic atrophy consistent with LHON. Three of the five families harbor known LHON primary mutations. Complete sequence analysis of proband mtDNA in the other two families has revealed novel complex I mutations at nps 3635A and 4640C, respectively. These mutations are homoplasmic and have not been reported in the literature. Biochemical analysis of complex I in patient lymphoblasts and transmitochondrial cybrids demonstrated a respiration defect with complex-I-linked substrates, although the specific activity of complex I was not reduced. Overall, our data suggests that the spectrum of mtDNA mutations associated with LHON in Russia is similar to that in Europe and North America and that the np 3635A and 4640C mutations may be additional mtDNA complex I mutations contributing to LHON expression.

  10. A Simple Differential Modulation Scheme for Quasi-Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes with Partial Transmit Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyang Song

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple differential modulation scheme for quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes. A new class of quasi-orthogonal coding structures that can provide partial transmit diversity is presented for various numbers of transmit antennas. Differential encoding and decoding can be simplified for differential Alamouti-like codes by grouping the signals in the transmitted matrix and decoupling the detection of data symbols, respectively. The new scheme can achieve constant amplitude of transmitted signals, and avoid signal constellation expansion; in addition it has a linear signal detector with very low complexity. Simulation results show that these partial-diversity codes can provide very useful results at low SNR for current communication systems. Extension to more than four transmit antennas is also considered.

  11. Proton Transmitting Energy Spectra and Transmission Electron Microscope Examinations of Biological Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chun-yu; Xia, Yue-yuan; Zhang, Jian-hua; Mu, Yu-guang; Wang, Rui-jin; Liu, Ji-tian; Liu, Xiang-dong; Yu, Zeng-liang

    1999-02-01

    Transmission energy spectra of 530 keV H+ ion penetrating 140 μm thick seed coat of maize and fruit peel of grape with thickness of 100 μm were measured. The result indicates that these thick biological targets, as seen by the penetrating ions, are inhomogeneous, and there are open "channel like" paths along which the incident ions can transmit the targets easily. While most of the incident ions are stopped in the targets, some of the transmitting ions only lose a small fraction of their initial incident energy. The transmission energy spectra show a pure electronic stopping feature. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographes taken from the samples of seed coat of maize and fruit peel of tomato with thickness of 60 μm indicate that 150 keV electron beam from the TEM can penetrate the thick samples to give very good images with clear contrasts.

  12. Rabies transmitted by vampire bats to humans: an emerging zoonotic disease in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Human rabies transmitted by vampire bats reached new heights in Latin America in 2005. A total of 55 human cases were reported in several outbreaks, 41 of them in the Amazon region of Brazil. Peru and Brazil had the highest number of reported cases from 1975 to 2006. In Peru, outbreaks involving more than 20 cases of bat-transmitted human rabies were reported during the 1980s and 1990s. During this period, a smaller number of cases were reported from outbreaks in Brazil. A comparison of data from field studies conducted in Brazil in 2005 with those from the previous decade suggests similar bat-bite situations at the local level. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiological situation and, on the basis of this information, discuss possible factors associated with the outbreaks. Prevention and control measures already recommended for dealing with this problem are also reviewed, and some further suggestions are provided.

  13. Public Health benefits of partner notification for sexually transmitted infections and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Low, N; Martin Hilber, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Background European countries have used partner notification as one of a range of measures to control sexually transmitted infections (STI) since the early 1900s. Besides clinical benefits, public health benefits are also recognised such as controlling the spread of STI, reducing STI-related morb......Background European countries have used partner notification as one of a range of measures to control sexually transmitted infections (STI) since the early 1900s. Besides clinical benefits, public health benefits are also recognised such as controlling the spread of STI, reducing STI...... as patient referral, provider referral, and contract or conditional referral. Lack of consensus about the most effective methods of partner notification is another reason for the diversity of practice across countries and also represents a challenge to improving partner efforts....

  14. Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2006-11-01

    We analyzed the security of the secure direct communication protocol based on the secret transmitting order of particles recently proposed by Zhu, Xia, Fan, and Zhang[Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006)] and found that this scheme is insecure if an eavesdropper, say Eve, wants to steal the secret message with Trojan horse attack strategies. The vital loophole in this scheme is that the two authorized users check the security of their quantum channel only once. Eve can insert another spy photon, an invisible photon, or a delay one in each photon which the sender Alice sends to the receiver Bob, and capture the spy photon when it returns from Bob to Alice. After the authorized users check the security, Eve can obtain the secret message according to the information about the transmitting order published by Bob. Finally, we present a possible improvement of this protocol.

  15. High-voltage integrated transmitting circuit with differential driving for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Færch, Kjartan Ullitz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high-voltage integrated differential transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is presented. Due to its application, area and power consumption are critical and need to be minimized. The circuitry...... is designed and implemented in AMS 0.35 μ m high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the fabricated integrated circuit in order to assess its performance. The transmitting circuit consists of a low-voltage control logic, pulse-triggered level shifters and a differential output stage that generates...... conditions is 0.936 mW including the load. The integrated circuits measured prove to be consistent and robust to local process variations by measurements....

  16. Sex work and sexually transmitted infections in Asia: a biosocial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D; Kaufman, Joan; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Kleinman, Arthur

    2011-12-01

    The Harvard University Asia Center hosted a symposium in October 2010 focused on sex work and sexually transmitted infections in Asia, engaging a biosocial approach to promote sexual health in this region. Asia has an estimated 151 million cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs; eg, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia) each year, with commercial sex interactions playing a large role in ongoing transmission. Substantial human movement and migration, gender inequalities, and incipient medical and legal systems in many states stymie effective STI control in Asia. The articles in this supplement provide theoretical and empirical pathways to improving the sexual health of those who sell and purchase commercial sex in Asia. The unintended health consequences of various forms of regulating commercial sex are also reviewed, emphasizing the need to carefully consider the medical and public health consequences of new and existing policies and laws.

  17. Transmit Antenna Selection for Underlay Cognitive Radio with Instantaneous Interference Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad

    2016-03-28

    Cognitive radio (CR) technology addresses the problem of spectrum under-utilization. In underlay CR mode, the secondary users are allowed to communicate provided that their transmission is not detrimental to primary user communication. Transmit antenna selection is one of the low-complexity methods to increase the capacity of wireless communication systems. In this article, we propose and analyze the performance benefit of a transmit antenna selection scheme for underlay secondary system that ensures the instantaneous interference caused by the secondary transmitter to the primary receiver is below a predetermined level. Closed-form expressions of the secondary link outage probability, higher order amount of fading, and ergodic capacity are derived for the proposed scheme. Monte-carlo simulations are also carried out to confirm various mathematical results presented in this article.

  18. Rabies transmitted by vampire bats to humans: an emerging zoonotic disease in Latin America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Romijn, Phyllis Catharina; Uieda, Wilson; Tamayo, Hugo; da Silva, Daniela Fernandes; Belotto, Albino; da Silva, Jarbas Barbosa; Leanes, Luis Fernando

    2009-03-01

    Human rabies transmitted by vampire bats reached new heights in Latin America in 2005. A total of 55 human cases were reported in several outbreaks, 41 of them in the Amazon region of Brazil. Peru and Brazil had the highest number of reported cases from 1975 to 2006. In Peru, outbreaks involving more than 20 cases of bat-transmitted human rabies were reported during the 1980s and 1990s. During this period, a smaller number of cases were reported from outbreaks in Brazil. A comparison of data from field studies conducted in Brazil in 2005 with those from the previous decade suggests similar bat-bite situations at the local level. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiological situation and, on the basis of this information, discuss possible factors associated with the outbreaks. Prevention and control measures already recommended for dealing with this problem are also reviewed, and some further suggestions are provided.

  19. Antenna Switching Schemes for Downlink Time Switched Transmit Diversity with ARQ in Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Cha-Eul; Hwang, Seung-Hoon

    For automatic repeat request (ARQ)-aided TSTD (Time Switched Transmit Diversity) system, a receiver sends the acknowledgement signal (ACK or NACK) to a transmitter in order to predict the condition of the channel. In this paper, two antenna switching schemes, in which the NACK trigger the transmit antenna switching in the proposed antenna switching patterns, are proposed for the TSTD with the ARQ in WCDMA LCR-TDD systems. In addition, the system performances are investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that the performances of the TSTD systems can be improved by applying the ARQ scheme. Furthermore, the performances of ARQ-aided TSTD systems may be significantly improved by applying the proposed antenna switching schemes, especially when the mobile's speed is low.

  20. Sentinel surveillance of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in selected local government units in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizario, Vicente Y; de Leon, Winifreda U; Lumampao, Yvonne F; Anastacio, Marilyn Benedith M; Tai, Cyndi Mae C

    2009-01-01

    This study describes baseline prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections as well as baseline anthropometric and school performance data among public elementary school children in 6 sentinel provinces in the Philippines. Stratified cluster sampling was used to select 6 provinces, where grade 3 elementary school pupils were surveyed. Secondary anthropometric data and achievement test results of the immediate past academic year were examined. Overall cumulative prevalence and proportion of heavy intensity infections for the 6 selected provinces were 54.0% and 23.1%, respectively. These recent findings further support the need for mass treatment to be given at least twice a year. The findings of the study also demonstrate the relationship that exists between worm burden and nutritional status. Strategies focusing on mass treatment integration, environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, and health education should be developed to control soil-transmitted helminth infections and their detrimental effects.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Transmit Beampattern Synthesis with Constant Beamwidth and Sidelobe Control for Wideband MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A beampattern synthesis approach is proposed to design the power spectral density matrix (PSDM, which is chosen to achieve a given transmit beampattern in wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar systems. The proposed approach focuses on transmit beampattern synthesis with constant beamwidth and sidelobe control. Moreover, the design problem is further converted to a convex optimization problem, which is solved efficiently via the modeling system CVX. In comparison to these recently developed wideband MIMO beampattern synthesis methods, the proposed approach maintains a constant beamwidth across the entire frequency band and provides a great improvement in sidelobe control. Numerical simulation results are obtained to validate the effectiveness of this approach.

  3. Studies on transmitted beam modulation effect from laser induced damage on fused silica optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Ma, Ping; Li, Haibo; Liu, Zhichao; Chen, Songlin

    2013-07-15

    UV laser induced damage (LID) on exit surface of fused silica could cause modulation effect to transmitted beam and further influence downstream propagation properties. This paper presents our experimental and analytical studies on this topic. In experiment, a series of measurement instruments are applied, including beam profiler, interferometer, microscope, and optical coherent tomography (OCT). Creating and characterizing of LID on fused silica sample have been implemented. Morphological features are studied based on their particular modulation effects on transmitted beam. In theoretical investigation, analytical modeling and numerical simulation are performed. Modulation effects from amplitude, phase, and size factors are analyzed respectively. Furthermore, we have novelly designed a simplified polygon model to simulate actual damage site with multiform modulation features, and the simulation results demonstrate that the modeling is usable and representative.

  4. Transmit power optimization for green multihop relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimal transmit power strategy to maximize the energy efficiency of a multihop relaying network. Considering the communication between a source and a destination through multiple Amplify-and-Forward relays, we first give the expression of the total instantaneous system energy consumption. Then, we define the energy efficiency in our context and obtain its expression in closed-form when the communication is over Nakagami-m fading channels. The analysis yields to the derivation of a global transmit power strategy where each individual node is contributing to the end-to-end overall energy efficiency. Numercial results are presented to illustrate the analysis. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulation results confirms the accuracy of our derivations, and assesses the gains of the proposed power optimization strategy. © 2014 IEEE.

  5. Dual branch transmit switch-and-stay diversity for underlay cognitive networks

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we study applying dual branch transmit switch-and-stay combining (SSC) technique for underlay cognitive radio (UCR) networks. In UCR, the secondary user is allowed to share the spectrum with the primary (licensed) user under the condition that interference at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. Assuming binary phaseshift keying (BPSK) modulation and Rayleigh fading channels, we develop a closed form expression for the average bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link as a function of the switching threshold. We then find a closed form expression for the optimal switching threshold in the sense of minimizing the average BER. For the sake of comparison we derive an expression for the average BER of the dual branch transmit selection combining (SC) technique. We finally investigate the effect of correlation between secondary and interference channels on the average BER and the associated optimal switching threshold. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. High-index-contrast grating reflector with beam steering ability for the transmitted beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carletti, Luca; Malureanu, Radu; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    High-index contrast grating mirrors providing wave front control of the transmitted light as well as high reflectivity over a broad bandwidth are suggested and both numerically and experimentally investigated. General design rules to engineer these structures for different applications are derive....... Such grating mirrors would have a significant impact on low cost laser fabrication, since a more efficient integration of optoelectronic modules can be achieved by avoiding expensive external lens systems.......High-index contrast grating mirrors providing wave front control of the transmitted light as well as high reflectivity over a broad bandwidth are suggested and both numerically and experimentally investigated. General design rules to engineer these structures for different applications are derived...

  7. On the performance of transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ahmet Oǧuz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a transmit antenna selection scheme, which is based on shadowing side information, is investigated. In this scheme, the selected single transmit antenna provides the highest shadowing coefficient between a transmitter and a receiver. By the proposed technique, the frequency of the usage of the feedback channel from the receiver to the transmitter and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We study the performance of our proposed technique, and in the analysis, we consider an independent but not identically distributed generalized-K composite fading model. More specifically, exact and closed-form expressions for the outage probability, the moment-generating function, the moments of signal-to-noise ratio, and the average symbol error probability (SEP) are derived. In addition, asymptotic outage probability and SP expressions are also presented to investigate the diversity order and the array gain. Finally, our theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  9. Low complexity transmit antenna selection with power balancing in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-carrier systems with multiple transmit antennas under the power balancing constraint, which is defined as the constraint that the power on each antenna should be limited under a certain level due to the linearity of the power amplifier of the RF chain. Applying transmit antenna selection and fixed-power variable-rate transmission per subcarrier as a function of channel variations, we propose an implementation-friendly antenna selection method which offers a reduced complexity in comparison with the optimal antenna selection scheme. More specifically, in order to solve the subcarrier imbalance across the antennas, we operate a two-step reallocation procedure to minimize the loss of spectral efficiency. We also provide an analytic lower bound on the spectral efficiency for the proposed scheme. From selected numerical results, we show that our suboptimal scheme offers almost the same spectral efficiency as the optimal one. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. Noise reduction for ultrasonic elastography using transmit-side frequency compounding: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoguo; Liu, Dong C

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasonic elastography is an imaging technique providing information about the relative stiffness of biological tissues. In general, elastography suffers from noise artifacts, which degrade lesion detectability and increase the likelihood of misdiagnosis. This paper proposes a method called transmit- side frequency compounding for elastography (TSFC). Beamforming is modified to transmit frames with N alternating center frequencies. Pairs of frames with the same center frequency are used to calculate sub-elastograms that are then averaged to produce one compounded elastogram. Simulation results based on an uniformly elastic tissue model demonstrate the decorrelation among sub-elastograms and the improvement in elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) achieved by compounding sub-elastograms. An elastic phantom experiment further validates the noise reduction obtained by the proposed technique.

  11. Correlation of Red Blood Cell Aggregate Size with Transmitted Light Intensity Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Darren L.

    1998-11-01

    Under sufficiently low shear rates, such as those encountered in the microcirculation, human red blood cells are known to form aggregate structures (`rouleaux'). These aggregates may range in size from a simple chain containing only a few cells to complex three-dimensional structures containing tens of cells. Previous studies have attempted to characterize the aggregate size by examining the spatial distribution of transmitted light intensity resulting from transillumination of the blood flow. For experiments performed in vitro and in vivo, spectral analysis of the transmitted light intensities has shown that the presence of aggregates in the flow can linked with an increase in the spectral power at small wavenumbers. The magnitudes of the affected wavenumbers correspond to structures considerably larger than individual cells. A precise numerical correlation, however, is difficult to establish. In this work, computer simulations of aggregating blood flow are used along with statistical considerations in an attempt to better correlate the observed spectral trends with actual aggregate size.

  12. Reproduction of cultural values: a cross-cultural examination of stories people create and transmit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Yussen, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Narratives are one of the oldest and universal forms of communication in human societies. In the present research, the authors hypothesized that narratives play an important role in the reproduction of cultural values. To test this idea, Study 1 examined the contents of stories created by American and Japanese participants for their reflection of individualistic and collectivistic values, and Study 2 examined whether information consistent with cultural values would be more likely to be retained and passed onto others. The studies found that American participants created stories that reflected individualistic values and retained more individualistic information than collectivistic information when they transmitted a story to others. In contrast, Japanese participants created stories that reflected collectivistic values and retained more collectivistic information than individualistic information when they transmitted a story to others. These findings support the idea that narrative communication is an important part of cultural reproduction mechanism.

  13. Are seismic communication signals transmitted by bone conduction in the blind mole rat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, R; Himelfarb, M; Arensburg, B; Terkel, J; Wollberg, Z

    1989-08-01

    The anatomy of the middle ear of the blind mole rat, a subterranean rodent that uses seismic signals for long distance communication, is described qualitatively and quantitatively. The ossicular chain is of the parallel type with a lever arms ratio of 0.55 and an effective areal ratio of stapedial footplate to eardrum of 0.09. Assuming an ideal mechanical transform, the calculated fraction of acoustical energy theoretically transmitted to the cochlea, indicate low efficiency for airborne sounds. This is in accordance with the relatively high electrophysiological and behavioral threshold, shown previously. We suggest that a unique morphology of the middle ear and of the articulation between the lower jaw and the skull, as well as a peculiar 'jaw listening behavior' enable seismic vibrations to be transmitted to the inner ear mainly by bone conduction, thereby compensating for the limitation in receiving airborne signals.

  14. Where do youth in foster care receive information about preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Species-specific associations between soil-transmitted helminths and micronutrients in Vietnamese schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and micronutrient deficiencies are closely related and often coexist among low-income populations. We studied the association between infections with specific STH species and micronutrient status in rural Vietnamese schoolchildren. Children (N = 510) age...... and micronutrient status in children. The different life cycles of STH species might have specific effects on the absorption or loss of specific micronutrients. Tailor-made combinations of deworming and nutritional interventions may be needed to improve child health and nutrition....

  16. Transmitted and acquired determinants for childhood asthma : from genes to teens

    OpenAIRE

    Ullemar, Vilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between genetic and environmental factors is central to childhood asthma and allergic disease. Transmitted and acquired risk factors collaborate to produce the phenotypic variation of a trait within the population. In this work, we have employed studies of twins to illustrate the relationship between twinship itself, early growth, and genetic and epigenetic factors with childhood asthma. Twins have been suggested to be a high risk group for asthma. Study I was...

  17. [Validation of an HIV and other sexually transmitted infections knowledge scale in an adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José Pedro; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to specifically assess the knowledge of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a Spanish adolescent population. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. A total of 17 schools in five Spanish provinces. A total of 1,570 adolescent schoolchildren between 13 and 17 years old. A pool of 40 items relating to knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections was established. This pool was analyzed by an expert panel. It was then administered to a pilot group with the same demographic characteristics of the sample, to ensure comprehension. Item analysis, internal consistency, test/retest and exploratory factorial analysis. A factor analysis was performed, in which five factors that explained 46% of the total variance were retained: general knowledge about HIV, condom as a protective method, routes of HIV transmission, the prevention of HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Reliability measures ranged from 0.66 to 0.88. The test-retest correlation was 0.59. There were gender differences in the knowledge of infections. These factors have adequate internal consistency and acceptable test-retest correlation. Theoretically, these factors fit properly with the content of the items. The factors have a moderate relationship, indicating that a high degree of knowledge about an aspect, but not a guarantee of general knowledge. The availability of a questionnaire to assess knowledge of sexually transmitted infections is helpful to evaluate prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Medical and Legal Implications of Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Guillén, Christina D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child can have, in addition to medical implications, serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse, and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possib...

  19. Transmit Antenna Selection for Multi-User Underlay Cognitive Transmission with Zero-Forcing Beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad

    2017-03-20

    We present a transmit antenna subset selection scheme for an underlay cognitive system serving multiple secondary receivers. The secondary system employs zero-forcing beamforming to nullify the interference to multiple primary users and eliminate inter-user interference to the secondary users simultaneously. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves near-optimal performance with low computational complexity. Lastly, an optimal power allocation strategy is also introduced to improve the secondary network throughput.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Impulsive Forming Processes Using Various Energy Sources and Transmitting Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Sabelkin, V.; Taran, V.; Vovk, A.; Vovk, V. (Vitaliy)

    2006-01-01

    High-speed forming uses high explosives, gun powder, combustible gas mixes and compressed gases as sources of energy. Special mathematical models are used to take into account specific dynamic properties. Different technological processes of forming have been modeled in the work. They use liquid (water), elastic (polyurethane), and gaseous transmitting medium. The difference between impulse energy transference, load distribution on a blank and tool surface, and also wave propagation is sho...