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Sample records for rad18 transmits dna

  1. Roles for the yeast RAD18 and RAD52 DNA repair genes in UV mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J D; Chadee, D N; Kunz, B A

    1994-11-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that although the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 and RAD52 genes are not required for nucleotide excision repair, they function in the processing of UV-induced DNA damage in yeast. Conflicting statements regarding the UV mutability of strains deleted for RAD18 prompted us to re-examine the influence of RAD18, and RAD52, on UV mutagenesis. To do so, we characterized mutations induced by UV in SUP4-o, a yeast suppressor tRNA gene. SUP4-o was maintained on a plasmid in isogenic strains that either carried one of two different rad18 deletions (rad18 delta) or had RAD52 disrupted. Both rad18 deletions decreased the frequency of UV-induced SUP4-o mutations to levels close to those for spontaneous mutagenesis in the rad18 delta backgrounds, and prevented a net increase in mutant yield. A detailed analysis of mutations isolated after UV irradiation of one of the rad18 delta strains uncovered little evidence of the specificity features typical for UV mutagenesis in the isogenic repair-proficient (RAD) parent (e.g., predominance of G.C-->A.T transitions). Evidently, UV induction of SUP4-o mutations is highly dependent on the RAD18 gene. Compared to the RAD strain, disruption of RAD52 reduced the frequency and yield of UV mutagenesis by about two-thirds. Closer inspection revealed that 80% of this reduction was due to a decrease in the frequency of G.C-->A.T transitions. In addition, there were differences in the distributions and site specificities of single base-pair substitutions. Thus, RAD52 also participates in UV mutagenesis of a plasmid-borne gene in yeast, but to a lesser extent than RAD18.

  2. Human RAD18 interacts with ubiquitylated chromatin components and facilitates RAD9 recruitment to DNA double strand breaks.

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    Akiko Inagaki

    Full Text Available RAD18 is an ubiquitin ligase involved in replicative damage bypass and DNA double-strand break (DSB repair processes. We found that RPA is required for the dynamic pattern of RAD18 localization during the cell cycle, and for accumulation of RAD18 at sites of γ-irradiation-induced DNA damage. In addition, RAD18 colocalizes with chromatin-associated conjugated ubiquitin and ubiquitylated H2A throughout the cell cycle and following irradiation. This localization pattern depends on the presence of an intact, ubiquitin-binding Zinc finger domain. Using a biochemical approach, we show that RAD18 directly binds to ubiquitylated H2A and several other unknown ubiquitylated chromatin components. This interaction also depends on the RAD18 Zinc finger, and increases upon the induction of DSBs by γ-irradiation. Intriguingly, RAD18 does not always colocalize with regions that show enhanced H2A ubiquitylation. In human female primary fibroblasts, where one of the two X chromosomes is inactivated to equalize X-chromosomal gene expression between male (XY and female (XX cells, this inactive X is enriched for ubiquitylated H2A, but only rarely accumulates RAD18. This indicates that the binding of RAD18 to ubiquitylated H2A is context-dependent. Regarding the functional relevance of RAD18 localization at DSBs, we found that RAD18 is required for recruitment of RAD9, one of the components of the 9-1-1 checkpoint complex, to these sites. Recruitment of RAD9 requires the functions of the RING and Zinc finger domains of RAD18. Together, our data indicate that association of RAD18 with DSBs through ubiquitylated H2A and other ubiquitylated chromatin components allows recruitment of RAD9, which may function directly in DSB repair, independent of downstream activation of the checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2.

  3. Single Cell Analysis of Human RAD18-Dependent DNA Post-Replication Repair by Alkaline Bromodeoxyuridine Comet Assay

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    Mórocz, Mónika; Gali, Himabindu; Raskó, István; Downes, C. Stephen; Haracska, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    Damage to DNA can block replication progression resulting in gaps in the newly synthesized DNA. Cells utilize a number of post-replication repair (PRR) mechanisms such as the RAD18 controlled translesion synthesis or template switching to overcome the discontinuities formed opposite the DNA lesions and to complete DNA replication. Gaining more insights into the role of PRR genes promotes better understanding of DNA damage tolerance and of how their malfunction can lead to increased genome instability and cancer. However, a simple and efficient method to characterise gene specific PRR deficiencies at a single cell level has not been developed. Here we describe the so named BrdU comet PRR assay to test the contribution of human RAD18 to PRR at a single cell level, by which we kinetically characterized the consequences of the deletion of human RAD18 on the replication of UV-damaged DNA. Moreover, we demonstrate the capability of our method to evaluate PRR at a single cell level in unsynchronized cell population. PMID:23936422

  4. nuvA, an Aspergillus nidulans gene involved in DNA repair and recombination, is a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 and Neurospora crassa uvs-2.

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    Iwanejko, L; Cotton, C; Jones, G; Tomsett, B; Strike, P

    1996-03-01

    A 40 kb genomic clone and 2.3 kb EcoRI subclone that rescued the DNA repair and recombination defects of the Aspergillus nidulans nuvA11 mutant were isolated and the subclone sequenced. The subclone hybridized to a cosmid in a chromosome-specific library confirming the assignment of nuvA to linkage group IV and indicating its closeness to bimD. Amplification by PCR clarified the relative positions of nuvA and bimD. A region identified within the subclone, encoding a C3HC4 zinc finger motif, was used as a probe to retrieve a cDNA clone. Sequencing of this clone showed that the nuvA gene has an ORF of 1329 bp with two introns of 51 bp and 60 bp. Expression of nuvA appears to be extremely low. The putative NUVA polypeptide has two zinc finger motifs, a molecular mass of 48906 Da and has 39% identity with the Neurospora crassa uvs-2 and 25% identity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 translation products. Although mutations in nuvA, uvs-2 and RAD18 produce similar phenotypes, only the nuvA11 mutation affects meiotic recombination. A role for nuvA in both DNA repair and genetic recombination is proposed.

  5. RAD18 mediates resistance to ionizing radiation in human glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Chen; Wang, Hongwei; Cheng, Hongbin; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Zhi; Yue, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • RAD18 is an important mediator of the IR-induced resistance in glioma cell lines. • RAD18 overexpression confers resistance to IR-mediated apoptosis. • The elevated expression of RAD18 is associated with recurrent GBM who underwent IR therapy. - Abstract: Radioresistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). RAD18 a central regulator of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), has been shown to play an important role in regulating genomic stability and DNA damage response. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between RAD18 and resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and examined the expression levels of RAD18 in primary and recurrent GBM specimens. Our results showed that RAD18 is an important mediator of the IR-induced resistance in GBM. The expression level of RAD18 in glioma cells correlates with their resistance to IR. Ectopic expression of RAD18 in RAD18-low A172 glioma cells confers significant resistance to IR treatment. Conversely, depletion of endogenous RAD18 in RAD18-high glioma cells sensitized these cells to IR treatment. Moreover, RAD18 overexpression confers resistance to IR-mediated apoptosis in RAD18-low A172 glioma cells, whereas cells deficient in RAD18 exhibit increased apoptosis induced by IR. Furthermore, knockdown of RAD18 in RAD18-high glioma cells disrupts HR-mediated repair, resulting in increased accumulation of DSB. In addition, clinical data indicated that RAD18 was significantly higher in recurrent GBM samples that were exposed to IR compared with the corresponding primary GBM samples. Collectively, our findings reveal that RAD18 may serve as a key mediator of the IR response and may function as a potential target for circumventing IR resistance in human GBM

  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 gene encodes a protein that contains potential zinc finger domains for nucleic acid binding and a putative nucleotide binding sequence

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    Jones, J.S.; Prakash, L. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (USA)); Weber, S. (Kodak Research Park, Rochester, NY (USA))

    1988-07-25

    The RAD18 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for postreplication repair of UV damaged DNA. The authors have isolated the RAD18 gene, determined its nucleotide sequence and examined if deletion mutations of this gene show different or more pronounced phenotypic effects than the previously described point mutations. The RAD18 gene open reading frame encodes a protein of 487 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 55,512. The RAD18 protein contains three potential zinc finger domains for nucleic acid binding, and a putative nucleotide binding sequence that is present in many proteins that bind and hydrolyze ATP. The DNA binding and nucleotide binding activities could enable the RAD18 protein to bind damaged sites in the template DNA with high affinity. Alternatively, or in addition, RAD18 protein may be a transcriptional regulator. The RAD18 deletion mutation resembles the previously described point mutations in its effects on viability, DNA repair, UV mutagenesis, and sporulation.

  7. Evidence for a Rad18-independent frameshift mutagenesis pathway in human cell-free extracts.

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    Régine Janel-Bintz

    Full Text Available Bypass of replication blocks by specialized DNA polymerases is crucial for cell survival but may promote mutagenesis and genome instability. To gain insight into mutagenic sub-pathways that coexist in mammalian cells, we examined N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF-induced frameshift mutagenesis by means of SV40-based shuttle vectors containing a single adduct. We found that in mammalian cells, as previously observed in E. coli, modification of the third guanine of two target sequences, 5'-GGG-3' (3G and 5'-GGCGCC-3' (NarI site, induces -1 and -2 frameshift mutations, respectively. Using an in vitro assay for translesion synthesis, we investigated the biochemical control of these events. We showed that Pol eta, but neither Pol iota nor Pol zeta, plays a major role in the frameshift bypass of the AAF adduct located in the 3G sequence. By complementing PCNA-depleted extracts with either a wild-type or a non-ubiquitinatable form of PCNA, we found that this Pol eta-mediated pathway requires Rad18 and ubiquitination of PCNA. In contrast, when the AAF adduct is located within the NarI site, TLS is only partially dependent upon Pol eta and Rad18, unravelling the existence of alternative pathways that concurrently bypass this lesion.

  8. RAD18 and associated proteins are immobilized in nuclear foci in human cells entering S-phase with ultraviolet light-induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Nicholas B.; Nelson, Eric; Digman, Michelle; Thornburg, Joshua A.; Alphenaar, Bruce W.; McGregor, W. Glenn

    2008-01-01

    Proteins required for translesion DNA synthesis localize in nuclear foci of cells with replication-blocking lesions. The dynamics of this process were examined in human cells with fluorescence-based biophysical techniques. Photobleaching recovery and raster image correlation spectroscopy experiments indicated that involvement in the nuclear foci reduced the movement of RAD18 from diffusion-controlled to virtual immobility. Examination of the mobility of REV1 indicated that it is similarly immobilized when it is observed in nuclear foci. Reducing the level of RAD18 greatly reduced the focal accumulation of REV1 and reduced UV mutagenesis to background frequencies. Fluorescence lifetime measurements indicated that RAD18 and RAD6A or polη only transferred resonance energy when these proteins colocalized in damage-induced nuclear foci, indicating a close physical association only within such foci. Our data support a model in which RAD18 within damage-induced nuclear foci is immobilized and is required for recruitment of Y-family DNA polymerases and subsequent mutagenesis. In the absence of damage these proteins are not physically associated within the nucleoplasm

  9. Non-canonical CRL4A/4B(CDT2 interacts with RAD18 to modulate post replication repair and cell survival.

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    Sarah Sertic

    Full Text Available The Cullin-4(CDT2 E3 ubiquitin ligase plays an essential role in DNA replication origin licensing directing degradation of several licensing factors at the G1/S transition in order to prevent DNA re-replication. Recently a RAD18-independent role of Cullin-4(CDT2 in PCNA monoubiquitylation has been proposed. In an effort to better understand the function of Cullin-4(CDT2 E3 ubiquitin ligase in mammalian Post-Replication Repair during an unperturbed S-phase, we show that down-regulation of Cullin-4(CDT2 leads to two distinguishable independent phenotypes in human cells that unveil at least two independent roles of Cullin-4(CDT2 in S-phase. Apart from the re-replication preventing activity, we identified a non-canonical Cullin-4(CDT2 complex, containing both CUL4A and CUL4B, associated to the COP9 signalosome, that controls a RAD18-dependent damage avoidance pathway essential during an unperturbed S-phase. Indeed, we show that the non-canonical Cullin-4A/4B(CDT2 complex binds to RAD18 and it is required to modulate RAD18 protein levels onto chromatin and the consequent dynamics of PCNA monoubiquitylation during a normal S-phase. This function prevents replication stress, ATR hyper-signaling and, ultimately, apoptosis. A very similar PRR regulatory mechanism has been recently described for Spartan. Our findings uncover a finely regulated process in mammalian cells involving Post-Replication Repair factors, COP9 signalosome and a non-canonical Cullin4-based E3 ligase which is essential to tolerate spontaneous damage and for cell survival during physiological DNA replication.

  10. Vaginal DNA vaccination against infectious diseases transmitted through the vagina.

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    Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-06-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of vaccines against genital virus infections that are transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, including the HIV and HPV. In general, the surface of female genital mucosa, including vaginal mucosa, is the most common site of initiation of these infections. Thus, it is becoming clear that successful vaccines must induce both cellular and humoral immune responses in both the local genital tract and systemically. We believe that a strong vaginal immune response could be obtained by inducing strong gene expression of antigen-coding DNA in the local targeted tissue. In order to improve transfection efficiency in the vagina, it is important that methods allowing breakthrough of the various barriers, such as the epithelial layer, cellular and nuclear membrane, are developed. Therefore, systems providing less invasive and more effective delivery into the subepithelial layer are required. In this review, we will introduce our studies into efficient vaginal DNA vaccination methods, focusing on the effects of the menstrual cycle, utilization of the combination of functional peptides, and use of a needle-free injector.

  11. The Aspergillus uvsH gene encodes a product homologous to yeast RAD18 and Neurospora UVS-2.

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    Yoon, J H; Lee, B J; Kang, H S

    1995-07-28

    The uvsH DNA repair gene of Aspergillus nidulans has been cloned by complementation of the uvsH77 mutation with a cosmid library containing genomic DNA inserts from a wild-type strain. Methylmethane sulfonate (MMS)-resistant transformants were obtained on medium containing 0.01% MMS, to which uvsH mutants exhibit high sensitivity. Retransformation of uvsH77 mutants with the rescued cosmids from the MMS-resistant transformants resulted in restoration of both UV and MMS resistance to wild-type levels. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the genomic DNA and cDNA of the uvsH gene shows that it has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1329 bp, interrupted by two introns of 51 and 61 bp. A 2.4 kb transcript of the uvsH gene was detected by Northern blot analysis. Primer extension analysis revealed that transcription starts at 31 bp upstream from the translation initiation codon. This gene encodes a predicted polypeptide of 443 amino acids, which has two unique zinc finger motifs. The proposed polypeptide displays 39% identity to the Neurospora crassa UVS-2 protein and 24% identity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 protein. The sequence similarity is particularly high in three domains. One zinc finger (RING finger) motif is located in the first domain close to the N-terminus. The other zinc finger motif is in the second domain. In the third domain, the mutation sites in both the uvsH77 and uvsH304 alleles were identified.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Michaela S.; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Zida, Elisabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    -day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA. Eighteen Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified......Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven...... samples collected in Central Burkina Faso confirming a common occurrence. E. sorghinum was highly predominant in seedlings both measured by DNA analysis and by isolation. The dominance of E. sorghinum was particularly strong in roots from poorly growing seedlings. Pathogenicity of E. sorghinum isolates...

  13. Comparable effects of 1800- and 2400-rad (18- and 24-Gy) cranial irradiation on height and weight in children treated for acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starceski, P.J.; Lee, P.A.; Blatt, J.; Finegold, D.; Brown, D.

    1987-01-01

    To examine the effects of low-dose cranial irradiation on growth and to determine if one can predict patients in whom growth will be most affected, we studied 47 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had been treated with 2400 rad (24 Gy), 1800 rad (18 Gy), or no whole-brain irradiation. Serial measurements of height, weight, and weight for height were obtained by retrospective chart review. The effects of 1800 rad (18 Gy) and 2400 rad (24 Gy) treatment were indistinguishable. Height percentiles among irradiated patients decreased by a mean of 12% six months after diagnosis, and growth generally did not catch up. Moreover, although 33 irradiated patients maintained heights within the normal range, In 11 patients (33%) a dramatic falloff occurred such that by three years following diagnosis their height for age was more than 30 percentiles below the original value. These patients were all identifiable at six months since their height percentiles had already decreased by more than 15%. Although weight percentiles did not change following irradiation, the weight-for-height ratio increased and patients were relatively stockier three years after therapy than they had been at diagnosis. In patients who had received chemotherapy alone, the weight-for-height ratio also increased, but this appeared to be due to a disproportionate increase in weight. Longer follow-up and evaluation of larger cohorts of patients treated with 1800 rad (18 Gy) will be needed to confirm these results

  14. Functions and Dynamics of DNA Repair Proteins in Mitosis and Meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Uringa

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMy PhD project encompassed studies on the functions of several different proteins, all involved in DNA repair, in somatic and germ-line cells. Hr6b and Rad18Sc are involved in a DNA repair mechanism called ‘Replicative Damage Bypass’ (RDB), and function as ubiquitin conjugating

  15. High prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug-resistance mutations from proviral DNA massively parallel sequencing data of therapy-naïve chronically infected Brazilian blood donors.

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    Rodrigo Pessôa

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of the prevalence of low-abundance transmitted drug-resistance mutations (TDRM in therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected patients may help determine which patients are the best candidates for therapy. In this study, we aimed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the evolving HIV-1 TDRM across the massive parallel sequences (MPS of the viral entire proviral genome in a well-characterized Brazilian blood donor naïve to antiretroviral drugs.The MPS data from 128 samples used in the analysis were sourced from Brazilian blood donors and were previously classified by less-sensitive (LS or "detuned" enzyme immunoassay as non-recent or longstanding HIV-1 infections. The Stanford HIV Resistance Database (HIVDBv 6.2 and IAS-USA mutation lists were used to interpret the pattern of drug resistance. The minority variants with TDRM were identified using a threshold of ≥ 1.0% and ≤ 20% of the reads sequenced. The rate of TDRM in the MPS data of the proviral genome were compared with the corresponding published consensus sequences of their plasma viruses.No TDRM were detected in the integrase or envelope regions. The overall prevalence of TDRM in the protease (PR and reverse transcriptase (RT regions of the HIV-1 pol gene was 44.5% (57/128, including any mutations to the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI. Of the 57 subjects, 43 (75.4% harbored a minority variant containing at least one clinically relevant TDRM. Among the 43 subjects, 33 (76.7% had detectable minority resistant variants to NRTIs, 6 (13.9% to NNRTIs, and 16 (37.2% to PR inhibitors. The comparison of viral sequences in both sources, plasma and cells, would have detected 48 DNA provirus disclosed TDRM by MPS previously missed by plasma bulk analysis.Our findings revealed a high prevalence of TDRM found in this group, as the use of MPS drastically increased the detection of these

  16. ATR-Chk1-APC/C-dependent stabilization of Cdc7-ASK (Dbf4) kinase is required for DNA lesion bypass under replication stress

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    Yamada, M.; Watanabe, K.; Mistrik, M.

    2013-01-01

    replication. Stalled DNA replication evoked stabilization of the Cdc7-ASK (Dbf4) complex in a manner dependent on ATR-Chk1-mediated checkpoint signaling and its interplay with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosomeCdh1 (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. Mechanistically, Chk1 kinase inactivates APC/C through...... degradation of Cdh1 upon replication block, thereby stabilizing APC/C substrates, including Cdc7-ASK (Dbf4). Furthermore, motif C of ASK (Dbf4) interacts with the N-terminal region of RAD18 ubiquitin ligase, and this interaction is required for chromatin binding of RAD18. Impaired interaction of ASK (Dbf4...

  17. The extremely divergent maternally- and paternally-transmitted mitochondrial genomes are co-expressed in somatic tissues of two freshwater mussel species with doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA

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    Breton, Sophie; Bouvet, Karim; Auclair, Gabrielle; Ghazal, Stephanie; Sietman, Bernard E.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Bettinazzi, Stefano; Dtewart, Donald T.; Guerra, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater mussel species with doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mtDNA are unique because they are naturally heteroplasmic for two extremely divergent mtDNAs with ~50% amino acid differences for protein-coding genes. The paternally-transmitted mtDNA (or M mtDNA) clearly functions in sperm in these species, but it is still unknown whether it is transcribed when present in male or female soma. In the present study, we used PCR and RT-PCR to detect the presence and expression of the M mtDNA in male and female somatic and gonadal tissues of the freshwater mussel species Venustaconcha ellipsiformis and Utterbackia peninsularis (Unionidae). This is the first study demonstrating that the M mtDNA is transcribed not only in male gonads, but also in male and female soma in freshwater mussels with DUI. Because of the potentially deleterious nature of heteroplasmy, we suggest the existence of different mechanisms in DUI species to deal with this possibly harmful situation, such as silencing mechanisms for the M mtDNA at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and/or post-translational levels. These hypotheses will necessitate additional studies in distantly-related DUI species that could possess different mechanisms of action to deal with heteroplasmy.

  18. Phosphorylation of human INO80 is involved in DNA damage tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Dai; Waki, Mayumi; Umezawa, Masaki; Aoki, Yuka; Utsugi, Takahiko; Ohtsu, Masaya; Murakami, Yasufumi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Depletion of hINO80 significantly reduced PCNA ubiquitination. ► Depletion of hINO80 significantly reduced nuclear dots intensity of RAD18 after UV irradiation. ► Western blot analyses showed phosphorylated hINO80 C-terminus. ► Overexpression of phosphorylation mutant hINO80 reduced PCNA ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Double strand breaks (DSBs) are the most serious type of DNA damage. DSBs can be generated directly by exposure to ionizing radiation or indirectly by replication fork collapse. The DNA damage tolerance pathway, which is conserved from bacteria to humans, prevents this collapse by overcoming replication blockages. The INO80 chromatin remodeling complex plays an important role in the DNA damage response. The yeast INO80 complex participates in the DNA damage tolerance pathway. The mechanisms regulating yINO80 complex are not fully understood, but yeast INO80 complex are necessary for efficient proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ubiquitination and for recruitment of Rad18 to replication forks. In contrast, the function of the mammalian INO80 complex in DNA damage tolerance is less clear. Here, we show that human INO80 was necessary for PCNA ubiquitination and recruitment of Rad18 to DNA damage sites. Moreover, the C-terminal region of human INO80 was phosphorylated, and overexpression of a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of human INO80 resulted in decreased ubiquitination of PCNA during DNA replication. These results suggest that the human INO80 complex, like the yeast complex, was involved in the DNA damage tolerance pathway and that phosphorylation of human INO80 was involved in the DNA damage tolerance pathway. These findings provide new insights into the DNA damage tolerance pathway in mammalian cells.

  19. Sexually transmitted diphtheria.

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    Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact.

  20. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard ... In Nigeria, the deteriorating economic situation has led to ..... female sex workers from Mexico City.

  1. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during...... recombination events in a PCNA interaction-dependent way but independently of its UvrD-like helicase domain. In accordance, we demonstrate that PARI inhibits HR in vivo, and its knockdown suppresses the UV sensitivity of RAD18-depleted cells. Our data reveal a novel human regulatory mechanism that limits...

  2. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    ... 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures - ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD ...

  3. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) is an unenveloped circular single-stranded DNA virus with a diameter of 30 to 32 nm that was first described in 1997 in Japan. TTV was detected in various populations without proven pathology, including blood donors and in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C ...

  4. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

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    ... Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections More about neglected tropical diseases News WHO recommends large-scale deworming to improve children’s health and nutrition 29 September 2017 About us ...

  5. DNA nanotechnology

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    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-01-01

    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  6. Congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis: report of two brazilian human cases

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    Myrlena Regina Machado Mescouto-Borges

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a relevant public health problem worldwide. Most of the reported cases in Latin America are from Brazil. Herein we report two human cases of congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis in two patients who developed symptoms during pregnancy. The diagnosis was made by visual examination of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates of the mothers and by detecting parasite kDNA in bone marrow samples of the newborn children using polymerase chain reaction.

  7. Internationalism in sexually transmitted infections.

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    Waugh, M A

    1997-12-01

    The International Union Against the Venereal Diseases and the Treponematoses (IUVDT) became the International Union Against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) at the Union's 37th General Assembly, held in Melbourne, Australia. The name change reflects the increasing use by international donor organizations of the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs are a major problem in Africa, South East Asia, India, Russia, and the European countries which were formerly within the Communist bloc. The epidemic of syphilis together with HIV increases daily in Eastern Europe and Russia. There have, however, been some successes in developing countries with the syndromic method, the promotion of sexual health, and the prevention of STIs. While the UK has the largest body of fully trained sexually transmitted disease (STD) specialists in the world, comparatively few of them participate in large international commitments. These specialists should instead become more involved with STIs in areas of need. Furthermore, more aid should be provided by governmental, nongovernmental, and charitable sources. IUSTI is willing to cooperate with any efforts to fight STDs anywhere in the world.

  8. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD30 gene, a homologue of Escherichia coli dinB and umuC, is DNA damage inducible and functions in a novel error-free postreplication repair mechanism

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    McDonald, J. P. [NIH, Bethesda, MD. (United States); Levine, A. S.; Woodgate, R.

    1997-12-15

    Damage-inducible mutagenesis in prokaryotes is largely dependent upon the activity of the UmuD'C-like proteins. Since many DNA repair processes are structurally and/or functionally conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, we investigated the role of RAD30, a previously uncharacterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene related to the Escherichia coli dinB, umuC and S. cerevisiae REV1 genes, in UV resistance and UV-induced mutagenesis. Similar to its prokaryotic homologues, RAD30 was found to be damage inducible. Like many S. cerevisiae genes involved in error-prone DNA repair, epistasis analysis clearly places RAD30 in the RAD6 group and rad30 mutants display moderate UV sensitivity reminiscent of rev mutants. However, unlike rev mutants, no defect in UV-induced reversion was seen in rad30 strains. While rad6 and rad18 are both epistatic to rad30, no epistasis was observed with rev1, rev3, rev7 or rad5, all of which are members of the RAD6 epistasis group. These findings suggest that RD30 participates in a novel error-free repair pathway dependent on RAD6 and RAD18, but independent of REV1, REV3, REV7 and RAD5. (author)

  9. Multiple repair pathways mediate cellular tolerance to resveratrol-induced DNA damage.

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    Liu, Ying; Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Ziyuan; Liu, Hao; Takeda, Shunichi; Qing, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) has been reported to exert health benefits for the prevention and treatment of many diseases, including cancer. The anticancer mechanisms of RSV seem to be complex and may be associated with genotoxic potential. To better understand the genotoxic mechanisms, we used wild-type (WT) and a panel of isogenic DNA-repair deficient DT40 cell lines to identify the DNA damage effects and molecular mechanisms of cellular tolerance to RSV. Our results showed that RSV induced significant formation of γ-H2AX foci and chromosome aberrations (CAs) in WT cells, suggesting direct DNA damage effects. Comparing the survival of WT with isogenic DNA-repair deficient DT40 cell lines demonstrated that single strand break repair (SSBR) deficient cell lines of Parp1 -/- , base excision repair (BER) deficient cell lines of Polβ -/- , homologous recombination (HR) mutants of Brca1 -/- and Brca2 -/- and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) mutants of Rev3 -/- and Rad18 -/- were more sensitive to RSV. The sensitivities of cells were associated with enhanced DNA damage comparing the accumulation of γ-H2AX foci and number of CAs of isogenic DNA-repair deficient DT40 cell lines with WT cells. These results clearly demonstrated that RSV-induced DNA damage in DT40 cells, and multiple repair pathways including BER, SSBR, HR and TLS, play critical roles in response to RSV- induced genotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES - HISTORY, TYPES, PREVALENCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Irmov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections affect persons of active sex and cause serious consequences for the human organism, society and the generation. They spread sporadically, epidemically, and in some of them there are pandemics. For example, humanity is currently in a third viral hepatitis pandemic and a first AIDS pandemic. Another group of diseases can also be transmitted through sexual contact, but this is not the main mode of transmission. Such are salmonellosis, amoebiasis, influenza, various causes of meningitis and pneumonia. Despite being sexually transmitted, this is not a major and almost irrelevant way of transmitting the infection. Therefore, the diseases themselves are not included in the group of sexually transmitted diseases.

  11. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  12. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation links the chromatin remodeler SMARCA5/SNF2H to RNF168-dependent DNA damage signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeenk, G.; Wiegant, W.W.; Luijsterburg, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) arising in native chromatin elicit an RNF8/RNF168-dependent ubiquitylation response, which triggers the recruitment of various repair factors. Precisely how this response is regulated in the context of chromatin remains largely...... unexplored. Here, we show that SMARCA5/SNF2H, the catalytic subunit of ISWI chromatin remodeling complexes, is recruited to DSBs in a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent manner. Remarkably, PARP activity, although dispensable for the efficient spreading of νH2AX into damaged chromatin......, selectively promotes spreading of SMARCA5, the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF168, ubiquitin conjugates and the ubiquitin-binding factors RAD18 and the RAP80-BRCA1 complex throughout DSB-flanking chromatin. This suggests that PARP regulates the spatial organization of the RNF168-driven ubiquitin response to DNA...

  13. Transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to brucella abortus biotype 1 in sprague-dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Baek, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    In the investigation on the transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to Brucella abortus biotype 1 in Sprague- Dawley rats, neither any stillbirth, abortion or premature birth nor any abnormality of fetus was observed in the infected group or in the control group. B. abortus biotype was isolated from the fetus of infected rats only. Only one band of 498 base pair DNA was obtained in polymerase chain reaction products from DNA of the fetuses of infected SD rats. (author)

  14. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  15. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  16. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  17. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2014: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures – ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data – 1996-2013 STD ...

  18. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    .... In addition, STDs increase the risk of HIV transmission. The Hidden Epidemic examines the scope of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and provides a critical assessment of the nation's response to this public health crisis...

  19. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in three public secondary schools in Ogbondoroko and Laduba .... population live in the rural areas where information on sexually transmitted ..... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Diagnoses of HIV ...

  20. USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    the TAG block for the correct transmitters, and then send to the USACE AIS network. B. Outbound openings in the USCG firewall for the USCG Message...USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...September 2014 Report No. CD-D-09-15 USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | I. Gonin et al. Public

  1. Ocular Manifestations of Mosquito-Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, James W; Mazzoli, Robert A; Heintz, Shannon K

    2018-03-01

    Of the 3,548 known mosquito species, about 100 transmit human diseases. Mosquitoes are distributed globally throughout tropical and temperate regions where standing water sources are available for egg laying and the maturation of larva. Female mosquitoes require blood meals for egg production. This is the main pathway for disease transmission. Mosquitoes carry several pathogenic organisms responsible for significant ocular pathology and vision loss including West Nile, Rift Valley, chikungunya, dengue viruses, various encephalitis viruses, malarial parasites, Francisella tularensis, microfilarial parasites, including Dirofilaria, Wuchereria, and Brugia spp., and human botfly larvae. Health care providers may not be familiar with many of these mosquito-transmitted diseases or their associated ocular findings delaying diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of visual function. This article aims to provide an overview of the ocular manifestations associated with mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  2. Adaptive transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit channel selection in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to- interference-plus- noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms, which are the dominant cancelation and the less complex arbitrary cancelation, are considered, for which the receive antenna array is assumed to have small angular spread. Analytical formulation for some performance measures in addition to several processing complexity and numerical comparisons between various adaptation schemes are presented. ©2010 IEEE.

  3. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.

  4. On reflectionless equi-transmitting matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kurasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflectionless equi-transmitting unitary matrices are studied in connection to matching conditions in quantum graphs. All possible such matrices of size 6 are described explicitly. It is shown that such matrices form 30 six-parameter families intersected along 12 five-parameter families closely connected to conference matrices.

  5. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    ... of Sexually Transmitted Diseases INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...

  6. [Condom effectiveness to prevent sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo

    2008-02-01

    Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.

  7. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools' curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before ...

  8. Inductive Reasoning about Causally Transmitted Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; Coley, John D.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2008-01-01

    Different intuitive theories constrain and guide inferences in different contexts. Formalizing simple intuitive theories as probabilistic processes operating over structured representations, we present a new computational model of category-based induction about causally transmitted properties. A first experiment demonstrates undergraduates'…

  9. Evaluation of transmitted images by teleradiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshikawa, Yoshikazu

    1993-01-01

    Teleradiology system is a combination of digital data networks and computer systems, which is the electric transmission of radiographs and/or radiologic images from local to center radiological system. The author evaluated reproducibility of transmitted images using Photophone (Image Data Corporation) as teleradiology system. Proven cases of abdominal free air (38 plain films, 15 CT), pneumothorax (24 plain films, 20 CT) and small bowel obstruction (30 plain films, 8 CT) were transmitted. Findings could be identified on non-magnified plain films in 75.6%, 83.3% and 96.7% respectively and on magnified CT in 100%, 100% and 100%. Transmitted images of 57 cases of abdominal trauma were read for positive findings and diagnosis by three radiologists. Average positive ratio was 47.3% on plain films and 70.9% on CT. Diagnosis was correct in 66.7% on CT. Specificity and sensitivity were 81.9% and 61.6% respectively on plain film and 88.6% and 93.9% on CT. The accuracy of transmitted images appears to be unsatisfactory on this study. It is suggested that the system is useful for consultation of already identified findings on the original images. (author)

  10. Evaluation of transmitted images by teleradiology system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshikawa, Yoshikazu (St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-12-01

    Teleradiology system is a combination of digital data networks and computer systems, which is the electric transmission of radiographs and/or radiologic images from local to center radiological system. The author evaluated reproducibility of transmitted images using Photophone (Image Data Corporation) as teleradiology system. Proven cases of abdominal free air (38 plain films, 15 CT), pneumothorax (24 plain films, 20 CT) and small bowel obstruction (30 plain films, 8 CT) were transmitted. Findings could be identified on non-magnified plain films in 75.6%, 83.3% and 96.7% respectively and on magnified CT in 100%, 100% and 100%. Transmitted images of 57 cases of abdominal trauma were read for positive findings and diagnosis by three radiologists. Average positive ratio was 47.3% on plain films and 70.9% on CT. Diagnosis was correct in 66.7% on CT. Specificity and sensitivity were 81.9% and 61.6% respectively on plain film and 88.6% and 93.9% on CT. The accuracy of transmitted images appears to be unsatisfactory on this study. It is suggested that the system is useful for consultation of already identified findings on the original images. (author).

  11. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developed and developing countries. Insufficient knowledge about STDs is a major impediment to successfully prevent the diseases among adolescent populations in developing countries. Objective: To ...

  12. Soil transmitted helminths infections, malnutrition and anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major public health problem in many developing countries. Establishment of prevalence and intensity of infections is important in designing, implementating and evaluating control programs. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and intensity of STH infections, malnutrition ...

  13. Ubiquitin-specific protease 5 is required for the efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakajima

    Full Text Available During the DNA damage response (DDR, ubiquitination plays an important role in the recruitment and regulation of repair proteins. However, little is known about elimination of the ubiquitination signal after repair is completed. Here we show that the ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5, a deubiquitinating enzyme, is involved in the elimination of the ubiquitin signal from damaged sites and is required for efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB repair. Depletion of USP5 sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agents, produces DSBs, causes delayed disappearance of γH2AX foci after Bleocin treatment, and influences DSB repair efficiency in the homologous recombination pathway but not in the non-homologous end joining pathway. USP5 co-localizes to DSBs induced by laser micro-irradiation in a RAD18-dependent manner. Importantly, polyubiquitin chains at sites of DNA damage remained for longer periods in USP5-depleted cells. Our results show that disassembly of polyubiquitin chains by USP5 at sites of damage is important for efficient DSB repair.

  14. [Diseases transmitted through water for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E; Dentamaro, M

    2003-01-01

    The water for human consumption maintains a biological risk and can transmit diseases. The classical waterborne and the presently frequent diseases caused by protozoi Giardia and Cryptosporidium are considered and Arcobacter butzleri, a new waterborne pathogen, is described. Many measures have been adopted by institutions to ensure the quality of the drinking water. Managers and public health operators is working in order to verify the efficiency of more suitable indicators for its monitoring.

  15. Testing of dogs with meningitis and meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology for vector-transmitted microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzerini, Kali

    2016-01-01

    In many cases of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system in dogs, no aetiological infectious agent can be found. These inflammatory conditions are thus named inflammations of unknown aetiology. Results of immunpathological studies imply that an antigen may trigger an autoimmune response (Hit-and-Run-Hypothesis). Serum was analyzed for antibodies against vector-transmitted pathogens and blood and cerebrospinal fluid for DNA of such infectious agents in order to further define th...

  16. Stochastic dynamics for reinfection by transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alessandro S.; Pinho, Suani T. R.

    2017-06-01

    The use of stochastic models to study the dynamics of infectious diseases is an important tool to understand the epidemiological process. For several directly transmitted diseases, reinfection is a relevant process, which can be expressed by endogenous reactivation of the pathogen or by exogenous reinfection due to direct contact with an infected individual (with smaller reinfection rate σ β than infection rate β ). In this paper, we examine the stochastic susceptible, infected, recovered, infected (SIRI) model simulating the endogenous reactivation by a spontaneous reaction, while exogenous reinfection by a catalytic reaction. Analyzing the mean-field approximations of a site and pairs of sites, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the particular case of exogenous reinfection, we obtained continuous phase transitions involving endemic, epidemic, and no transmission phases for the simple approach; the approach of pairs is better to describe the phase transition from endemic phase (susceptible, infected, susceptible (SIS)-like model) to epidemic phase (susceptible, infected, and removed or recovered (SIR)-like model) considering the comparison with MC results; the reinfection increases the peaks of outbreaks until the system reaches endemic phase. For the particular case of endogenous reactivation, the approach of pairs leads to a continuous phase transition from endemic phase (SIS-like model) to no transmission phase. Finally, there is no phase transition when both effects are taken into account. We hope the results of this study can be generalized for the susceptible, exposed, infected, and removed or recovered (SEIRIE) model, for which the state exposed (infected but not infectious), describing more realistically transmitted diseases such as tuberculosis. In future work, we also intend to investigate the effect of network topology on phase transitions when the SIRI model describes both transmitted diseases (σ social contagions (σ >1 ).

  17. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workowski, Kimberly A.; Bolan, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30–May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR–12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs. PMID:26042815

  18. Multiple routes transmitted epidemics on multiplex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dawei; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Luo, Qun; Yang, Yixian

    2014-01-01

    This letter investigates the multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. We propose detailed theoretical analysis that allows us to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. It is found that the epidemic can spread across the multiplex network even if all the network layers are well below their respective epidemic thresholds. Strong positive degree–degree correlation of nodes in multiplex network could lead to a much lower epidemic threshold and a relatively smaller outbreak size. However, the average similarity of neighbors from different layers of nodes has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. -- Highlights: •We studies multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. •SIR model and bond percolation theory are used to analyze the epidemic processes. •We derive equations to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •ASN has no effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •Strong positive DDC leads to a lower epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size.

  19. Multiple routes transmitted epidemics on multiplex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dawei [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computer Network, Shandong Computer Science Center, Jinan 250014 (China); Li, Lixiang [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Peng, Haipeng, E-mail: penghaipeng@bupt.edu.cn [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Luo, Qun; Yang, Yixian [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-02-01

    This letter investigates the multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. We propose detailed theoretical analysis that allows us to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. It is found that the epidemic can spread across the multiplex network even if all the network layers are well below their respective epidemic thresholds. Strong positive degree–degree correlation of nodes in multiplex network could lead to a much lower epidemic threshold and a relatively smaller outbreak size. However, the average similarity of neighbors from different layers of nodes has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. -- Highlights: •We studies multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. •SIR model and bond percolation theory are used to analyze the epidemic processes. •We derive equations to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •ASN has no effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •Strong positive DDC leads to a lower epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size.

  20. Mechanical design of DNA nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carlos E.; Su, Hai-Jun; Marras, Alexander E.; Zhou, Lifeng; Johnson, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that has demonstrated great potential for applications such as single molecule sensing, drug delivery, and templating molecular components. As the applications of DNA nanotechnology expand, a consideration of their mechanical behavior is becoming essential to understand how these structures will respond to physical interactions. This review considers three major avenues of recent progress in this area: (1) measuring and designing mechanical properties of DNA nanostructures, (2) designing complex nanostructures based on imposed mechanical stresses, and (3) designing and controlling structurally dynamic nanostructures. This work has laid the foundation for mechanically active nanomachines that can generate, transmit, and respond to physical cues in molecular systems.Structural DNA nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that has demonstrated great potential for applications such as single molecule sensing, drug delivery, and templating molecular components. As the applications of DNA nanotechnology expand, a consideration of their mechanical behavior is becoming essential to understand how these structures will respond to physical interactions. This review considers three major avenues of recent progress in this area: (1) measuring and designing mechanical properties of DNA nanostructures, (2) designing complex nanostructures based on imposed mechanical stresses, and (3) designing and controlling structurally dynamic nanostructures. This work has laid the foundation for mechanically active nanomachines that can generate, transmit, and respond to physical cues in molecular systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07153k

  1. The other epidemics. Sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1993-01-01

    Around 70% of female infertility in developing countries is caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that can be traced back to husbands or partners. STDs and reproductive tract infections cause 750,000 deaths and 75 million illnesses among women each year worldwide, and these deaths may more than double by the year 2000. Death rates are rising fastest in Africa, followed by Asia and Latin America. About 450,000 cases of potentially fatal reproductive tract cancers are diagnosed annually: an estimated 354,000 occur in Third World women, virtually all of whom die. Worldwide, roughly 250 million new infections of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and the human papillomavirus are sexually transmitted each year. Chlamydia and the human papillomavirus account for 50 million and 30 million new cases per year, respectively. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected 1 million people worldwide between April and December 1991, according to the World Health Organization. A study in the Indian state of Maharashtra revealed that 92% of the 650 rural women examined had an average of 3.6 infections of gynecological type or sexually transmitted type per women. Another study in 2 rural Egyptian villages found that half of 509 nonpregnant women aged 20 to 60 years had infections. Only 2 facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of STDs exist in all of Kenya. In Ibadan, Nigeria, with a population of 2 million, there is only 1 recognized STD clinic. The physical consequences of several STDs have been linked to increased risks of AIDS transmission. Early recognition and treatment of STDs in pregnant women would cut infant mortality. Maternal infections with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or herpes are transferred to infants at birth 25% to 50% of the time. In Africa, infant blindness caused by gonorrhea infection is 50 times more common than in industrial countries. The International Women's Health Coalition's March 1992 meeting of more than 50 Third World scientists, health advocates, and

  2. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  3. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S

    2008-12-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.

  4. Rapid diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Guerra, Luis; Fernández-Blázquez, Ana; Vazquez, Fernando

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are responsible for an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, millions of cases of STIs, such as syphilis, chlamydia, or gonorrhoea occur every year, and there is now an increase in antimicrobial resistance in pathogens, such as gonococcus. Delay in diagnosis is one of the factors that justifies the difficulty in controlling these infections. Rapid diagnostic tests allow the introduction of aetiological treatment at the first visit, and also leads to treating symptomatic and asymptomatic patients more effectively, as well as to interrupt the epidemiological transmission chain without delay. The World Health Organisation includes these tests in its global strategy against STIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Pattern of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective,data analysis of sexually transmitted diseases was carried out to study the pattern of these diseases prevalent in the region. One thousand′five hundred and seventy,one patients′were seen from January 1977 to October 1985. Maks constituted 95.5% of this group and females the remaining 4.5%. Commonest age group affected was 20-29 years in both sexes. Condytoma acuminata was the commonest STD (21.40/o, followed by gonorrhoea (16.9%, chancroid (12.2% genital herpes (11.4%, syphilis (10.4%, not′specific ulcers (7.1%, donovanosis (6.3%,mixed infections (5.3% and NSU (4.1% Secondary syphilis was the most common (48.6% presentation of syphik and in women it od 75.8% of all the cases of syphilis. In′more than a quarter of patients, psycho- problems were the reason for attendance.

  6. [Anorectal manifestations of sexually transmitted infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted infections is rising in Europe and in Switzerland since the beginning of the third millenium. Many organisms may affect the perianal skin and the anorectum. While some of these infections are a result of contigous spread from genital infection, most result from receptive anal intercourse affecting males who have sex with males but is seen increasingly in females as well since there is evidence of the increasing popularity of anal sex among heterosexuals. The symptoms of specific infections are largely dependent on the route and site of inoculation. Organisms that cause typical genital symptoms - such as syphilis, chancroid, herpes simplex or HPV-infection - result in similar symptoms when the perianal skin, the anoderm or the distal anal canal are the site of infection. Patients with proctitis may have unspecific signs in various degrees including mucous discharge, rectal bleeding, anorectal pain, superficial ulcers and sometimes generalized lymphadenopathy and fever. It is of utmost importance to include STIs (e. g. lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhea, non-LGV-chlamydia and herpes simplex) in the differential diagnosis in these patients. Unfortunately rectal infection with chlamydia and gonorrhea is asymptomatic in the majority of cases of men having sex with men and in high-risk females. A careful history and physical examination is essential in establishing a correct diagnosis, usually supported by proctoscopy, culture, PCR, serology and histology. Certain organisms, more commonly thought of as food- or water-borne disease may be sexually transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact from various sexual practices.

  7. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  8. Transmit-receive eddy current probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Sullivan, S.P.; Cecco, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, due to increased inspection demands, eddy current instrumentation has advanced from single-frequency, single-output instruments to multifrequency, computer-aided systems. This has significantly increased the scope of eddy current testing, but, unfortunately, it has also increased the cost and complexity of inspections. In addition, this approach has not always improved defect detectability or signal-to-noise. Most eddy current testing applications are still performed with impedance probes, which have well known limitations. However, recent research at AECL has led to improved eddy current inspections through the design and development of transmit-receive (T/R) probes. T/R eddy current probes, with laterally displaced transmit and receive coils, present a number of advantages over impedance probes. They have improved signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of variable lift-off compared to impedance probes. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection, and possess good phase discrimination to surface defects. They can significantly increase the scope of eddy current testing permitting reliable detection and sizing of cracks in heat exchanger tubing as well as in welded areas of both ferritic and non-ferromagnetic components. This presentation will describe the operating principles of T/R probes with the help of computer-derived normalized voltage diagrams. We will discuss their directional properties and analyze the advantages of using single and multiple T/R probes over impedance probes for specific inspection cases. Current applications to surface and tube testing and some typical inspection results will be described. (author)

  9. Strategies for detection of transfusion-transmitted viruses eluding identification by conventional serologic tests. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.

    1983-01-01

    The unavailability of serological tests for detection of several not yet characterized infectious agents transmitted by blood transfusion or by blood products prompted the development of alternative tests based on utilization of labeled nucleic acid probes specific for genomes of each of these agents. The prerequisite for the preparation of such probes is the demonstration in human plasma of nucleic acid sequences distinct from those present in host DNA or in genes of already characterized viruses occurring in plasma of infected individuals. To accomplish this, ultrasensitive tests for nucleic acids not dependent on their base sequence are needed. The authors describe a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for picogram quantities of DNA. Plasma (serum) specimens are treated with proteinase K in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and extracted with phenol. Nucleic acids are precipitated with ethanol in the presence of dextran (mol.wt. approx. 5X10 5 ) as carrier. Subsequently, DNA from the redissolved samples is adsorbed onto polylysine-coated wells of microtiter plates and detected by a double-antibody RIA using anti-DNA autoantibodies from NZB/NZW mice and 125 I-labelled antibodies to mouse immunoglobulins. DNA which did not hybridize with human DNA was detected by this method in sera containing hepatitis B virus used as a model system. (Auth.)

  10. Transmit Power Optimisation in Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Terziu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transmit power optimisation in wireless networks based on beamforming have emerged as a promising technique to enhance the spectrum efficiency of present and future wireless communication systems. The aim of this study is to minimise the access point power consumption in cellular networks while maintaining a targeted quality of service (QoS for the mobile terminals. In this study, the targeted quality of service is delivered to a mobile station by providing a desired level of Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR. Base-stations are coordinated across multiple cells in a multi-antenna beamforming system. This study focuses on a multi-cell multi-antenna downlink scenario where each mobile user is equipped with a single antenna, but where multiple mobile users may be active simultaneously in each cell and are separated via spatial multiplexing using beamforming. The design criteria is to minimize the total weighted transmitted power across the base-stations subject to SINR constraints at the mobile users. The main contribution of this study is to define an iterative algorithm that is capable of finding the joint optimal beamformers for all basestations, based on a correlation-based channel model, the full-correlation model. Among all correlated channel models, the correlated channel model used in this study is the most accurate, giving the best performance in terms of power consumption. The environment here in this study is chosen to be Non-Light of- Sight (NLOS condition, where a signal from a wireless transmitter passes several obstructions before arriving at a wireless receiver. Moreover there are many scatterers local to the mobile, and multiple reflections can occur among them before energy arrives at the mobile. The proposed algorithm is based on uplink-downlink duality using the Lagrangian duality theory. Time-Division Duplex (TDD is chosen as the platform for this study since it has been adopted to the latest technologies in Fourth

  11. RNA viral metagenome of whiteflies leads to the discovery and characterization of a whitefly-transmitted carlavirus in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Capobianco, Heather; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Breitbart, Mya; Polston, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies from the Bemisia tabaci species complex have the ability to transmit a large number of plant viruses and are some of the most detrimental pests in agriculture. Although whiteflies are known to transmit both DNA and RNA viruses, most of the diversity has been recorded for the former, specifically for the Begomovirus genus. This study investigated the total diversity of DNA and RNA viruses found in whiteflies collected from a single site in Florida to evaluate if there are additional, previously undetected viral types within the B. tabaci vector. Metagenomic analysis of viral DNA extracted from the whiteflies only resulted in the detection of begomoviruses. In contrast, whiteflies contained sequences similar to RNA viruses from divergent groups, with a diversity that extends beyond currently described viruses. The metagenomic analysis of whiteflies also led to the first report of a whitefly-transmitted RNA virus similar to Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV Florida) (genus Carlavirus) in North America. Further investigation resulted in the detection of CpMMV Florida in native and cultivated plants growing near the original field site of whitefly collection and determination of its experimental host range. Analysis of complete CpMMV Florida genomes recovered from whiteflies and plants suggests that the current classification criteria for carlaviruses need to be reevaluated. Overall, metagenomic analysis supports that DNA plant viruses carried by B. tabaci are dominated by begomoviruses, whereas significantly less is known about RNA viruses present in this damaging insect vector.

  12. RNA viral metagenome of whiteflies leads to the discovery and characterization of a whitefly-transmitted carlavirus in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyna Rosario

    Full Text Available Whiteflies from the Bemisia tabaci species complex have the ability to transmit a large number of plant viruses and are some of the most detrimental pests in agriculture. Although whiteflies are known to transmit both DNA and RNA viruses, most of the diversity has been recorded for the former, specifically for the Begomovirus genus. This study investigated the total diversity of DNA and RNA viruses found in whiteflies collected from a single site in Florida to evaluate if there are additional, previously undetected viral types within the B. tabaci vector. Metagenomic analysis of viral DNA extracted from the whiteflies only resulted in the detection of begomoviruses. In contrast, whiteflies contained sequences similar to RNA viruses from divergent groups, with a diversity that extends beyond currently described viruses. The metagenomic analysis of whiteflies also led to the first report of a whitefly-transmitted RNA virus similar to Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV Florida (genus Carlavirus in North America. Further investigation resulted in the detection of CpMMV Florida in native and cultivated plants growing near the original field site of whitefly collection and determination of its experimental host range. Analysis of complete CpMMV Florida genomes recovered from whiteflies and plants suggests that the current classification criteria for carlaviruses need to be reevaluated. Overall, metagenomic analysis supports that DNA plant viruses carried by B. tabaci are dominated by begomoviruses, whereas significantly less is known about RNA viruses present in this damaging insect vector.

  13. VIS-IR transmitting BGG glass windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayya, Shyam S.; Chin, Geoff D.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2003-09-01

    BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 (BGG) glasses have the desired properties for various window applications in the 0.5-5 μm wavelength region. These glasses are low cost alternatives to the currently used window materials. Fabrication of a high optical quality 18" diameter BGG glass window has been demonstrated with a transmitted wave front error of λ/10 at 632 nm. BGG substrates have also been successfully tested for environmental weatherability (MIL-F-48616) and rain erosion durability up to 300 mph. Preliminary EMI grids have been successfully applied on BGG glasses demonstrating attenuation of 20dB in X and Ku bands. Although the mechanical properties of BGG glasses are acceptable for various window applications, it is demonstrated here that the properties can be further improved significantly by the glassceramization process. The ceramization process does not add any significant cost to the final window material. The crystallite size in the present glass-ceramic limits its transmission to the 2-5 μm region.

  14. Inductive reasoning about causally transmitted properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; Coley, John D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2008-11-01

    Different intuitive theories constrain and guide inferences in different contexts. Formalizing simple intuitive theories as probabilistic processes operating over structured representations, we present a new computational model of category-based induction about causally transmitted properties. A first experiment demonstrates undergraduates' context-sensitive use of taxonomic and food web knowledge to guide reasoning about causal transmission and shows good qualitative agreement between model predictions and human inferences. A second experiment demonstrates strong quantitative and qualitative fits to inferences about a more complex artificial food web. A third experiment investigates human reasoning about complex novel food webs where species have known taxonomic relations. Results demonstrate a double-dissociation between the predictions of our causal model and a related taxonomic model [Kemp, C., & Tenenbaum, J. B. (2003). Learning domain structures. In Proceedings of the 25th annual conference of the cognitive science society]: the causal model predicts human inferences about diseases but not genes, while the taxonomic model predicts human inferences about genes but not diseases. We contrast our framework with previous models of category-based induction and previous formal instantiations of intuitive theories, and outline challenges in developing a complete model of context-sensitive reasoning.

  15. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam

    2006-03-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.

  16. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe A Teasdale

    Full Text Available Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI is high among pregnant women in certain settings. We estimated STI incidence and compared STI risk in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data came from the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. Women aged 18-50 years with at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of enrollment were included. Follow-up visits included laboratory testing for pregnancy, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV, as well as self-report of hormonal contraceptive (HC use, sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices. All visits were classified according to pregnancy status. Incidence of each STI was calculated using follow-up time. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using pregnancy as a time-varying exposure and sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices as time-varying covariates. Among 4,549 women, 766 (16.8% had a positive pregnancy test. Median follow-up time was 18 months [IQR: 12-24]. The overall incidence rate of chlamydia was 6.7 per 100 person years (py and 9.9/100py during pregnancy; gonorrhea incidence was 2.7/100py and 4.9/100py during pregnancy; trichomoniasis incidence was 7.1/100py overall and 9.2/100py during pregnancy. Overall HIV incidence was 3.9/100py and 3.8/100py during pregnancy. In crude models, pregnancy increased risk for chlamydia (hazard ratio (HR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.2, however there was no increased risk of any measured STI in adjusted models. STI Incidence was high during pregnancy however pregnancy did not increase STI risk after adjustment for sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to help pregnant women avoid STIs.

  17. Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani Tariq A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs in Saudi Arabia (SA and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%, trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%, gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%, syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%, human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%, genital warts (1382, 3.5%, genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%, and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%. The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.

  18. Modeling DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is life's most amazing molecule. It carries the genetic instructions that almost every organism needs to develop and reproduce. In the human genome alone, there are some three billion DNA base pairs. The most difficult part of teaching DNA structure, however, may be getting students to visualize something as small as a…

  19. Note on transmitted complexity for quantum dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noboru; Muto, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Transmitted complexity (mutual entropy) is one of the important measures for quantum information theory developed recently in several ways. We will review the fundamental concepts of the Kossakowski, Ohya and Watanabe entropy and define a transmitted complexity for quantum dynamical systems. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  20. Integrated Reconfigurable High-Voltage Transmitting Circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    -out and measurements are performed on the integrated circuit. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes, pulse voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V and frequencies up to 5 MHz. The area...

  1. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of transmitting stations. 25.271 Section 25.271 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.271 Control of transmitting stations. (a) The licensee of...

  2. GNSS satellite transmit power and its impact on orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Thoelert, Steffen; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2018-06-01

    Antenna thrust is a small acceleration acting on Global Navigation Satellite System satellites caused by the transmission of radio navigation signals. Knowledge about the transmit power and the mass of the satellites is required for the computation of this effect. The actual transmit power can be obtained from measurements with a high-gain antenna and knowledge about the properties of the transmit and receive antennas as well as losses along the propagation path. Transmit power measurements for different types of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou-2 satellites were taken with a 30-m dish antenna of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) located at its ground station in Weilheim. For GPS, total L-band transmit power levels of 50-240 W were obtained, 20-135 W for GLONASS, 95-265 W for Galileo, and 130-185 W for BeiDou-2. The transmit power differs usually only slightly for individual spacecraft within one satellite block. An exception are the GLONASS-M satellites where six subgroups with different transmit power levels could be identified. Considering the antenna thrust in precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites decreases the orbital radius by 1-27 mm depending on the transmit power, the satellite mass, and the orbital period.

  3. Discourse on the values transmitted in universities Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study delved into the values transmitted in Universities in Uganda. Data were collected from a sample of 850 respondents who were drawn from faith-based, for–profit and public universities in the country. It was found that material, social/ public, personal and religious values are transmitted to students in the selected ...

  4. 22 CFR 1203.735-214 - Transmitting communications and gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transmitting communications and gifts. 1203.735....735-214 Transmitting communications and gifts. (a) Correspondence. In corresponding with anyone other... it to be clearly in the public interest to do so. (c) Gifts. An employee shall not act as an agent...

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Maria Rita Teixeira; Campos, Lorenza Nogueira; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n=2145). More than one quarter of the sample (25.8%) reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA Camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-08

    1 DNA Camouflage Supplementary Information Bijan Zakeri1,2*, Timothy K. Lu1,2*, Peter A. Carr2,3* 1Department of Electrical Engineering and...ll.mit.edu). Distribution A: Public Release   2 Supplementary Figure 1 DNA camouflage with the 2-state device. (a) In the presence of Cre, DSD-2[α...10 1 + Cre 1 500 1,000 length (bp) chromatogram alignment template − Cre   4 Supplementary Figure 3 DNA camouflage with a switchable

  7. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  8. Window period donations during primary cytomegalovirus infection and risk of transfusion-transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Malte; Heuft, Hans-Gert; Frank, Kerstin; Kraas, Sabine; Görg, Siegfried; Hennig, Holger

    2013-05-01

    Donors with short interdonation intervals (e.g., apheresis donors) have an increased risk of window period donations. The frequency of cytomegalovirus (CMV) window period donations is important information to decide whether selection of seronegative donors might be advantageous for patients at risk for transfusion-transmitted CMV infections (TT-CMV). CMV seroconversion in 93 donors with positive results in routine CMV antibody testing within at most 35 days after the last seronegative sample was evaluated by Western blot and/or a second antibody test. In donors with unconfirmed seroconversion, an additional later sample was tested. Concentration of CMV DNA was determined in pre- and postseroconversion samples. CMV seroconversion was confirmed in 12 donors (13%). Among these, the last seronegative sample was CMV DNA positive in three donors (25%, below 30 IU/mL). The first seropositive sample was CMV DNA positive in 10 donors (83%, maximum 1600 IU/mL). Both prevalence and median concentration of CMV DNA were higher in the first seropositive sample (p = 0.004 and p = 0.02), with maximum concentrations being reached about 2 weeks after seroconversion. No CMV DNA was detected in samples from donors with unconfirmed seroconversion. At least in donors with short interdonation intervals, most suspected CMV seroconversions are due to false-positive results of the screening test. As window period donations are rare and contain less CMV DNA than the first seropositive donation, avoidance of blood products from primarily seropositive donors is especially helpful to avoid TT-CMV if donors with short interdonation intervals are concerned. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Switch and examine transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a switch and examine transmit diversity algorithm for spectrum sharing cognitive networks. We consider a cognitive network composed of a primary link that employs constant rate and constant power transmission scheme

  10. Adaptive single-antenna transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    -efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer

  11. Integrated reconfigurable high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a high-voltage transmitting circuit aimed for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in scanners for medical applications is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able...... to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes with voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V, frequencies up to 5 MHz and different driving slew rates. Measurements are performed on the circuit in order to assess its functionality and power consumption...... performance. The design occupies an on-chip area of 0.938 mm2 and the power consumption of a 128-element transmitting circuit array that would be used in an portable ultrasound scanner is found to be a maximum of 181 mW....

  12. Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ... sharing of personal effects, malnourishment and sexual harassment. ... Development of risk reduction and appropriate sexual health interventions targeted at prevention ...

  13. Pair formation models for sexually transmitted infections : A primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, MEE; Heijne, Janneke C M

    For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward

  14. DNA glue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Astakhova, Irina V.; Malakhov, Andrei D.

    2008-01-01

    Significant alterations in thermal stability of parallel DNA triplexes and antiparallel duplexes were observed upon changing the attachment of ethynylpyrenes from para to ortho in the structure of phenylmethylglycerol inserted as a bulge into DNA (TINA). Insertions of two ortho-TINAs as a pseudo...

  15. Hyperstretching DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakenraad, Koen; Biebricher, Andreas S.; Sebregts, Maarten; Ten Bensel, Brian; Peterman, Erwin J.G.; Wuite, Gijs J L; Heller, Iddo; Storm, Cornelis; Van Der Schoot, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of DNA is highly susceptible to changes by mechanical and biochemical cues in vivo and in vitro. In particular, large increases in base pair spacing compared to regular B-DNA are effected by mechanical (over)stretching and by intercalation of compounds that are widely

  16. Alfalfa Leaf Curl Virus: an Aphid-Transmitted Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumagnac, Philippe; Granier, Martine; Bernardo, Pauline; Deshoux, Maëlle; Ferdinand, Romain; Galzi, Serge; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Julian, Charlotte; Abt, Isabelle; Filloux, Denis; Mesléard, François; Varsani, Arvind; Blanc, Stéphane; Martin, Darren P; Peterschmitt, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises seven genera differentiated by genome organization, sequence similarity, and insect vector. Capulavirus, an eighth genus, has been proposed to accommodate two newly discovered highly divergent geminiviruses that presently have no known vector. Alfalfa leaf curl virus, identified here as a third capulavirus, is shown to be transmitted by Aphis craccivora. This is the first report of an aphid-transmitted geminivirus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON LIGHT TRANSMITTING CONCRETE BY USING OPTICAL FIBRE

    OpenAIRE

    S. Suganya; S. Minu Gopika

    2017-01-01

    Light transmitting concrete is one of the fibre reinforced concrete which is mainly used for aesthetic application by incorporating the optical fibres in concrete. Optical fibres help to transmit the light through the fibres and the end-light type of fibre is used to increase the aesthetic appearance of the concrete which is like a transparent concrete. Fibres are arranged in different layers, to increase the load carrying capacity and also the pattern can be created to make the concrete deco...

  18. Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aidong; Zhang Shou; Xia Yan; Fan Qiubo

    2006-01-01

    We propose the schemes of quantum secure direct communication based on a secret transmitting order of particles. In these protocols, the secret transmitting order of particles ensures the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the communication is interrupted for security. This strategy of security for communication is also generalized to a quantum dialogue. It not only ensures the unconditional security but also improves the efficiency of communication

  19. Nosocomial Infections Transmitted Via Computers : A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Atanda, Angela Achieng; Nwaoha, Nkechi Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to discuss how current literature described nosocomial infections transmitted via computers in hospitals. It also described the various methods used to disinfect computers. The research questions in this study were; What are nosocomial infections? How do contaminated computer devices transmit nosocomial infections? and What infection control methods are applied to decontaminate computers within hospitals? The aim of conducting this study was to create an aw...

  20. Some Models for Epidemics of Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Fred; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Mubayi, Anuj; Towers, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito) vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birt...

  1. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  2. DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelino, J

    1993-12-31

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with {sup 32}P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism`s genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens 10 figs, 2 tabs

  3. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  4. DNA data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  5. Detection of sexually transmitted infection and human papillomavirus in negative cytology by multiplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hyun-Jae

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV and 15 species that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs in negative cytology. In addition, we compared the diagnostic performance of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR with widely available techniques used to detect HPV. Methods We recruited 235 women of reproductive age who had negative cytology findings in a liquid-based cervical smear. STIs were identified by multiplex PCR, and HPV genotypes by multiplex PCR, hybrid capture 2, and DNA microaray; discordant results were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results Approximately 96.6% of patients with negative cytology results were positive for pathogens that cause STIs. The pathogens most frequently detected were Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum. The incidence of HPV in negative cytology was 23.3%. Low-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Chalmaydia trachomatis, and high-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Group β streptococcus. The analytical sensitivities of the multiplex PCR and DNA microarray were higher than 80%, and the analytical specificity was nearly 100% for all tests. Conclusions Multiplex PCR yielded results that most of patients with negative cytology were positive for pathogens that cause STIs, and were more similar to that of DNA microarray, than that of hybrid capture 2 in terms of analytical sensitivity and prediction value of HPV infection.

  6. The Control of Transmitted Power in an Active Isolation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, S.J.; Gardonio, P.; Pinnington, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The isolation of vibration through a system with multiple active mounts is discussed, in which each of the mounts can transmit vibration in several degrees of freedom. Theoretical models of the various parts of this system have been developed which include a flexible receiving structure and distr......The isolation of vibration through a system with multiple active mounts is discussed, in which each of the mounts can transmit vibration in several degrees of freedom. Theoretical models of the various parts of this system have been developed which include a flexible receiving structure...... and distributed active mounts, and these models can be connected together to produce an overall theoretical description of a realistic active isolation system. Total transmitted power has been found to be an excellent criterion to quantify the effect of various control strategies in this model in which...... the contributions to the transmitted power in the various degrees of freedom can be clearly understood. It has also been found, however, that an active control system which minimises a practical estimate of transmitted power, calculated from the product of the axial forces and velocities under the mounts, can give...

  7. Decreasing Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infection in Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion transmitted infections are major problem associated with blood transfusion. Accurate estimates of risk of TTIs are essential for monitoring the safety of blood supply and evaluating the efficacy of currently employed screening procedures. The present study was carried out to assess the percentage of voluntary donors and replacement donors and to find out prevalence and changing trends of various TTIs blood donors in recent years. A study was carried out on blood units of voluntary and replacement donors which were collected from January 2008 to December 2012. On screening of 180,371 replacement units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in replacement donors was 0.15% in HIV, 1.67% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.49% in hepatitis C virus, 0.01% in VDRL, and 0.009% in malaria. Of 11,977 voluntary units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in voluntary donors was 0.08% in HIV, 0.24% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.001% in hepatitis C virus, 0.008% in VDRL (sexually transmitted disease, and 0.01% in malaria. From results it has been concluded that prevalence of transfusion transmitted infection (HIV, HBV, HCV, VDRL, and malaria was more in replacement donors in comparison to voluntary donors. Extensive donor selection and screening procedures will help in improving the blood safety.

  8. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.

  9. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  10. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  11. Nematode infections: soil-transmitted helminths and trichinella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Stefanie; Steinmann, Peter; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-06-01

    Infection with soil-transmitted helminths occurs via ingestion of nematode eggs with contaminated food and water, via hands, or inhalation of dust, or by penetration of larvae through the skin. Trichinella infections are caused by the ingestion of larvae contained in undercooked meat. In highly endemic areas, preventive chemotherapy (ie, regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the key strategy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Integrated control approaches, including improved hygiene, sanitation, and water, are required for lasting effects. Because of growing tourism, travel, and migration, clinicians and specialized travel clinics must remain aware of the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of soil-transmitted helminth and Trichinella infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergence of Arthropod Transmitted infections in Kennel Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Jameel

    Full Text Available Changing scenario of climate resulting from global warming and adversity of nature has also resulted in emergence and re-emergence of diseases transmitted by arthropods. Increasing trends of population growth of dogs has increased the chance of disease transmission due to readily available susceptible host. Babesiosis and Hepatozoonosis and Ehrlichiosis are the main arthropod borne diseases of dogs prevalent in India. The present article explains the importance of these arthropod transmitted infections in kennel dogs, research progress and reason for their emergence in the present scenario. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 522-528

  13. Integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Farch, Kjartan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the integrated circuit in order...... to assess its performance. The circuit generates pulses at differential voltage levels of 60V, 80V and 100 V, a frequency up to 5MHz and a measured driving strength of 1.75 V/ns with the CMUT connected. The total on-chip area occupied by the transmitting circuit is 0.18 mm2 and the power consumption...

  14. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Yilmaz, Ahmet Oǧuz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oǧuz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. An Accurate Transmitting Power Control Method in Wireless Communication Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naikang; Wen, Zhiping; Hou, Xunping; Bi, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Power control circuits are widely used in transceivers aiming at stabilizing the transmitted signal power to a specified value, thereby reducing power consumption and interference to other frequency bands. In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional modes of power control, this paper proposes an accurate signal power detection method by multiplexing the receiver and realizes transmitting power control in the digital domain. The simulation results show that this novel digital power control approach has advantages of small delay, high precision and simplified design procedure. The proposed method is applicable to transceivers working at large frequency dynamic range, and has good engineering practicability.

  17. Transfusion-transmitted CMV infection - current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, M; Thiele, T

    2017-08-01

    Transmission of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) via transfusion (TT-CMV) may still occur and remains a challenge in the treatment of immunocompromised CMV-seronegative patients, e.g. after stem cell transplantation, and for low birthweight infants. Measures to reduce the risk of TT-CMV have been evaluated in clinical studies, including leucocyte depletion of cellular blood products and/or the selection of CMV-IgG-negative donations. Studies in large blood donor cohorts indicate that donations from newly CMV-IgG-positive donors should bear the highest risk for transmitting CMV infections because they contain the highest levels of CMV-DNA, and early CMV antibodies cannot neutralise CMV. Based on this knowledge, rational strategies to reduce the residual risk of TT-CMV using leucoreduced blood products could be designed. However, there is a lack of evidence that CMV is still transmitted by transfusion of leucoreduced units. In low birthweight infants, most (if not all) CMV infections are caused by breast milk feeding or congenital transmission rather than by transfusion of leucoreduced blood products. For other patients at risk, no definitive data exist about the relative importance of alternative transmission routes of CMV compared to blood transfusion. As a result, only the conduction of well-designed studies addressing strategies to prevent TT-CMV and the thorough examination of presumed cases of TT-CMV will achieve guidance for the best transfusion regimen in patients at risk. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Jordan R; Roberts, Sally A; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts.

  19. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan R Gaston

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA, serum resistance protein (dsrA, and a collagen adhesin (ncaA contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts.

  20. Current strategies and future directions for the prevention of transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmon CM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Charles M Harmon, Laura L Cooling Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a pervasive DNA virus that infects a significant portion of individuals worldwide, and may be transmitted through the transfusion of blood products. Although CMV infection is of little consequence in immunocompetent individuals, patients with an impaired immune system are at risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Unlike other blood-borne infectious agents, it is impractical to defer all CMV-positive individuals from blood donation as this would exclude a substantial number of otherwise eligible donors. Other methods such as transfusion of CMV-seronegative and leukoreduced blood products must be employed to prevent the transmission of CMV to at-risk patients. In this study, the widespread use of current strategies for the prevention of transfusion-transmitted CMV (TT-CMV infection and the evidence to support these methods in various at-risk groups were reviewed. In addition, emerging pathogen inactivation technologies that have the potential to eliminate TT-CMV were also discussed. Keywords: blood transfusion, cytomegalovirus, leukoreduction, pathogen inactivation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, very low birth weight infants

  1. Ultraviolet absorption detection of DNA in gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the detection and quantification of large fragments of unlabelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in agarose gels is presented. The technique is based on ultra-violet (UV) absorption by nucleotides. A deuterium lamp was used to illuminate regions of an electrophoresis gel. As DNA bands passed through the illuminated region of the gel the amount of UV light transmitted was reduced due to DNA absorption. Two detection systems were investigated. In the first system, synthetic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond strip detectors were used to locate regions of DNA in the gels by detecting the transmitted light. CVD diamond has a high indirect band gap of 5.45 eV and is therefore sensitive to UV photons of wavelengths < 224 nm. A number of CVD diamond samples were characterised to investigate their suitability as detectors for this application. The detectors' quantum efficiency, UV response and time response were measured. DNA bands containing as little as 20 ng were detected by the diamond. In a second system, a deuterium lamp was used to illuminate individual sample lanes of an electrophoresis gel via an array of optical fibres. During electrophoresis the regions of DNA were detected with illumination at 260 nm, using a UV-sensitive charge coupled device (CCD). As the absorption coefficient of a DNA sample is approximately proportional to its mass, the technique is inherently quantitative. This system had a detection limit of 0.25 ng compared with 2-10 ng for the most popular conventional technique, ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining. Using this detection technique, the DNA sample remains in its native state. The removal of carcinogenic dyes from the detection procedure greatly reduces associated biological hazards. (author)

  2. Transfusion transmitted malaria in three major blood banks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimates the risk of acquiring malaria from a single unit of blood in North of Pakistan. A prospective study was conducted to investigate transfusion transmitted malaria in three major blood banks of Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 1558 (1534 males and 24 females) healthy volunteer blood donors were screened for ...

  3. Adaptive single-antenna transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-10-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit selection with co-channel interference suppression in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms are considered. The first algorithm assumes that the receiver eliminates the impact of the strongest subset of interferers, whereas the second algorithm suggests random cancelation of interferers to further reduce processing complexity. The impact of outdated ordering of interferers powers on the efficiency of interference cancelation, and the effect of imperfect prediction of transmit channels for desired user adaptation are investigated. Analytical formulations for various performance measures and comparisons between the performance and processing complexity of different adaptation schemes are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.

  5. Nurses stigmatization of sufferers of sexually transmitted diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study's objective is to assess nurses' stigmatization of sufferers of sexual transmitted diseases and its implications on treatment options. The study's method was the survey research through structured questionnaire and interview technique for selected sample of students and nurses. The multistage random sampling ...

  6. High rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...

  7. Device for transmitting pictures and device for receiving said pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1993-01-01

    Device for transmitting television pictures in the form of transform coefficients and motion vectors. The motion vectors of a sub-picture are converted (20) into a series of difference vectors and a reference vector. Said series is subsequently applied to a variable-length encoder (22) which encodes

  8. A review of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of parasitic origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fore a now recognized mode of transmission – sexual contact. This in turn has led to giardiasis being classified as a sexually transmitted disease by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. This review identifies its occurrence mainly in homosexual populations of the developed world ...

  9. Fourier-Based Transmit Beampattern Design Using MIMO Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John

    2014-05-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar settings, it is often desirable to transmit power only to a given location or set of locations defined by a beampattern. Transmit waveform design is a topic that has received much attention recently, involving synthesis of both the signal covariance matrix,, as well as the actual waveforms. Current methods involve a two-step process of designing via iterative solutions and then using to generate waveforms that fulfill practical constraints such as having a constant-envelope or drawing from a finite alphabet. In this paper, a closed-form method to design for a uniform linear array is proposed that utilizes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients and Toeplitz matrices. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints such as positive semidefiniteness and the uniformelemental power constraint and provides performance similar to that of iterative methods, which require a much greater computation time. Next, a transmit architecture is presented that exploits the orthogonality of frequencies at discrete DFT values to transmit a sum of orthogonal signals from each antenna. The resulting waveforms provide a lower mean-square error than current methods at a much lower computational cost, and a simulated detection scenario demonstrates the performance advantages achieved.

  10. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.

  11. Transfusion transmitted infections – A retrospective analysis from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The emergence of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) especially HIV/AIDS has created a huge obstacle in ensuring blood safety. To assess the situation in Eritrea, we carried out a retrospective study of 29,501 blood donors for the prevalence of TTI's i.e. HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis. Methods: The study ...

  12. An autochthonous sexually transmitted Zika virus infection in Italy 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Percivalle, Elena; Campanini, Giulia; Sarasini, Antonella; Premoli, Marta; Zavattoni, Maurizio; Girello, Alessia; Dalla Gasperina, Daniela; Balsamo, Maria Luisa; Baldanti, Fausto; Rovida, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    We describe two cases of Zika virus infection involving an Italian patient returning from the Dominican Republic and his wife, who remained in Italy and had not travelled to Zika virus endemic areas in the previous months. The infection was transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse after the man's return to Italy.

  13. Knowledge and practices related to sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. The knowledge and .... With the help of local leaders, one of 4 in- terview teams approached ... Ethical clearance to conduct the study was sought from the Makerere University School ...

  14. Geospatial forecast model for tsetse-transmitted animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that GIS model developed for parasitic diseases based on growing degree day (GDD) concept can be applied to tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis. GIS for animal trypanosomosis was created using Food and Agriculture Organization – Crop Production System Zones (FAO-CPSZ) database and Normalized ...

  15. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, F.D.H.; Vriend, H.J.; Veen, M.G. van; Coul, E.L.M. Op de; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Sighem, A.I. van; Verheij, R.A.; Sande, M.A.B. van der

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis. Chlamydia was the most common bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) diagnosed in Dutch STI centres in 2008. Similar to previous years, infections were reported as occurring especially in young heterosexuals and men who have sex with men (MSM) in 2008, the

  16. Profile Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In And Around Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal A K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was undertaken from the year 1988 to 1998 to study the pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in and around Lucknow. Among 1890 patients examined, chancroid predominated followed by syphilis, gonorrhoea, genital warts, herpes genitalis, LGV and non-specific urethritis. The incidence of donovanosis was the lowest.

  17. partner notification in the management of sexually transmitted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-12-12

    Dec 12, 2003 ... Objective: To assess utilization of partner notification as a tool in prevention and control of Sexually transmitted ... being out of town (44.6%) fear of quarrels and violence from partners (32.5%) and ..... More than half of the men in this study reported ... patients give reasons that justify their actions. Such.

  18. Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion...... environment. The genome sequence predicts previously unknown functions for the hydrogenosome, which support a common evolutionary origin of this unusual organelle with mitochondria....

  19. Sexually transmitted infections and mate-finding Allee effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Janoušková, E.; Theuer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, APR 01 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 0040-5809 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Allee effect * mating * sexually transmitted disease Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040580916301186

  20. Mechanical transport and dissemination of soil-transmitted helminth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous studies, helminth eggs were isolated from wild-caught Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). This laboratory study investigated the potential of the fly for mechanical transport and transmission of soil-transmitted helminths. Naïve, 2-3 day old, laboratory-reared adult flies were exposed to a mixture of Ascaris ...

  1. ABO, rhesus blood groups and transfusion-transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Few studies focused on the study of blood groups in Gabon. This study aimed to determine the phenotypic frequency of ABO and Rhesus antigens in blood donors of Libreville and to assess the association between ABO blood groups and transfusion-transmitted infections. Materials and Methods: The study of ...

  2. Some models for epidemics of vector-transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Brauer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birth defects.We formulate and analyze two epidemic models for vector-transmitted diseases, one appropriate for dengue and chikungunya fever outbreaks and one that includes direct transmission appropriate for Zika virus outbreaks. This is especially important because the Zika virus is the first example of a disease that can be spread both indirectly through a vector and directly (through sexual contact. In both cases, we obtain expressions for the basic reproduction number and show how to use the initial exponential growth rate to estimate the basic reproduction number. However, for the model that includes direct transmission some additional data would be needed to identify the fraction of cases transmitted directly. Data for the 2015 Zika virus outbreak in Barranquilla, Colombia has been used to fit parameters to the model developed here and to estimate the basic reproduction number.

  3. Multielement Synthetic Transmit Aperture Imaging Using Temporal Encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    A new method to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of synthetic transmit aperture imaging is investigated. The approach utilizes multiple elements to emulate a spherical wave, and the conventional short excitation pulse is replaced by a linear frequency-modulated (FM) signal. The approach i...

  4. Digital Receiver Design for Transmitted Reference Ultra-Wideband Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Leus, G.; Van der Veen, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    A complete detection, channel estimation, synchronization, and equalization scheme for a transmitted reference (TR) ultra-wideband (UWB) system is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on a data model which admits a moderate data rate and takes both the interframe interference (IFI) and the

  5. Comparative Costs of Antibacterial Usage in Sexually Transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To evaluate the cost of antibacterial usage to patients in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Methods: Drug utilization evaluation was carried out retrospectively among patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) over a one-year period between 2005 and 2006 in Lagos University. Teaching Hospital (LUTH) ...

  6. Stigma and stereotypes: women and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections have long been associated with stigma and stereotypes due to their very nature. Throughout history sexually transmitted infections have been associated with female prostitution and deviant immoral behaviour making women who contract these infections particularly vulnerable to being stigmatised and stereotyped. Although the stigma attached to such infections has previously been documented in the literature, the aim of this research was to gain in depth insight into young Australian women's experiences of having a sexually transmitted infection from a feminist perspective. Findings from this study provide insight into the onerous effects stigma can have on women with these infections and sheds light on how these effects can influence self-perceptions, fear of rejection and feelings of unworthiness. These findings can provide nurses with greater understanding and insight into the effects of stigma on women's experiences of having a sexually transmitted infection. Having this understanding and insight has the potential to promote therapeutic care and minimise the stigma that may be felt among women who have contracted this type of infection.

  7. Transmit beamforming for optimal second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoilund-Kaupang, Halvard; Masoy, Svein-Erik

    2011-08-01

    A simulation study of transmit ultrasound beams from several transducer configurations is conducted to compare second-harmonic imaging at 3.5 MHz and 11 MHz. Second- harmonic generation and the ability to suppress near field echoes are compared. Each transducer configuration is defined by a chosen f-number and focal depth, and the transmit pressure is estimated to not exceed a mechanical index of 1.2. The medium resembles homogeneous muscle tissue with nonlinear elasticity and power-law attenuation. To improve computational efficiency, the KZK equation is utilized, and all transducers are circular-symmetric. Previous literature shows that second-harmonic generation is proportional to the square of the transmit pressure, and that transducer configurations with different transmit frequencies, but equal aperture and focal depth in terms of wavelengths, generate identical second-harmonic fields in terms of shape. Results verify this for a medium with attenuation f1. For attenuation f1.1, deviations are found, and the high frequency subsequently performs worse than the low frequency. The results suggest that high frequencies are less able to suppress near-field echoes in the presence of a heterogeneous body wall than low frequencies.

  8. Effect of window glazing on colour quality of transmitted daylight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangol, R.; Kruisselbrink, T.W.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The

  9. GOOD HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOUR DECREASE PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISSEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The homosexual behaviour were become indicators of sexually transmitted diseases’s (STDs prevalencies. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual community was very high but until recently study it was conducted sporadically. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation of homosexual behaviour with prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency. Method:  Analytic design with cross sectional methode was used in this study. The population were all visitors of Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency (353 people. Sample were 40 people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was homosexual behaviour and the dependent variable was prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Data for homosexual behaviour were collected by using questionnaire and indhept interview with content analyze and data for prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were collected by using laboratorium test for STDs. Result: The research result was presented in the form diagram, table of cross tabulation and analyzed by using Spearman Rho with significance level ρ=0.005. The result showed that there was correlation of homosexual knowledge (ρ=0.001, attitude (ρ=0.000 and  practice (ρ=0.000 with prevalence of STDs. Dsicussion:  It can be concluded that the better knowledge, attitude and practice of homosexual could be decrease prevalence of STDs. Futher studies are recomended to analyze the correlation between homosexual behaviour and prevalence of STDs with Health Believe approach.

  10. Signaling Architectures that Transmit Unidirectional Information Despite Retroactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rushina; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2017-08-08

    A signaling pathway transmits information from an upstream system to downstream systems, ideally in a unidirectional fashion. A key obstacle to unidirectional transmission is retroactivity, the additional reaction flux that affects a system once its species interact with those of downstream systems. This raises the fundamental question of whether signaling pathways have developed specialized architectures that overcome retroactivity and transmit unidirectional signals. Here, we propose a general procedure based on mathematical analysis that provides an answer to this question. Using this procedure, we analyze the ability of a variety of signaling architectures to transmit one-way (from upstream to downstream) signals, as key biological parameters are tuned. We find that single stage phosphorylation and phosphotransfer systems that transmit signals from a kinase show a stringent design tradeoff that hampers their ability to overcome retroactivity. Interestingly, cascades of these architectures, which are highly represented in nature, can overcome this tradeoff and thus enable unidirectional transmission. By contrast, phosphotransfer systems, and single and double phosphorylation cycles that transmit signals from a substrate, are unable to mitigate retroactivity effects, even when cascaded, and hence are not well suited for unidirectional information transmission. These results are largely independent of the specific reaction-rate constant values, and depend on the topology of the architectures. Our results therefore identify signaling architectures that, allowing unidirectional transmission of signals, embody modular processes that conserve their input/output behavior across multiple contexts. These findings can be used to decompose natural signal transduction networks into modules, and at the same time, they establish a library of devices that can be used in synthetic biology to facilitate modular circuit design. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by

  11. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL .... tein vaccines require expensive virus/protein purification tech- niques as ... sphere continue to remain major health hazards in developing nations. ... significance since it can be produced at a very low cost and can be stored ...

  12. DNA Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ellen S.; Bertino, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity that allow students to work through the exercise of DNA profiling and to grapple with some analytical and ethical questions involving a couple arranging with a surrogate mother to have a baby. Can be used to teach the principles of restriction enzyme digestion, gel electrophoresis, and probe hybridization. (MDH)

  13. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  14. Environmental pollution with soil-transmitted helminths in Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulukanligil Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infection are endemic in developing countries. A study was carried out of sewage farms, streams and vegetables to determine the sources and routes of STH infection in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Stool samples from farmhouse inhabitants as well as soil and vegetable samples from the gardens were collected and examined. In addition, water samples from streams and vegetable samples from the city market were collected and examined. One hundred and eighty-seven (59.5% of a total of 314 samples, including 88.4% of the stool samples, 60.8% of the water samples, 84.4% of the soil samples and 14% of the vegetable samples, were found to be positive for STH eggs. These results indicate that the water, soil and vegetables are heavily contaminated, and suggest a vicious circle between humans and the environment. Improving environmental sanitation is imperative for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sanliurfa.

  15. Primary care management of sexually transmitted urethritis in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Claire E

    2003-04-01

    To describe current knowledge about diagnosis, screening, and treatment of sexually transmitted urethritis among adolescent and young adult males. Current research, systematic reviews, consensus guidelines and the author's clinical experience. Urethritis, the most common sexually transmitted syndrome in young males, is most frequently caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhea. Symptoms include dysuria and penile discharge, although up to 50% of males are asymptomatic. Risky sexual behaviors and lack of access to healthcare increase incidence of this infection. Transmission to female partners can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and neonatal infection. Young males with urethritis must be treated as soon as diagnosis is established. Consensus guidelines exist for diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis. Careful patient education is necessary to ensure successful treatment. Prevention of repeat infections requires partner treatment and detailed education about safer sexual practices. Improved access to preventive services for young males should be a healthcare priority.

  16. Spectrally efficient switched transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to increase the spectral efficiency of the secondary link. The proposed bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) uses the scan and wait (SWC) combining technique where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In our scheme, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. Selected numerical examples show that the BES scheme increases the capacity of the secondary link when compared to an existing switching efficient scheme (SES). This spectral efficiency comes at the expense of an increased average number of switched branches and thus an increased average delay. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Spectrally efficient switched transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2011-09-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to increase the spectral efficiency of the secondary link. The proposed bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) uses the scan and wait (SWC) combining technique where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In our scheme, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. Selected numerical examples show that the BES scheme increases the capacity of the secondary link when compared to an existing switching efficient scheme (SES). This spectral efficiency comes at the expense of an increased average number of switched branches and thus an increased average delay. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  19. Canadian Laboratory Standards for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Best Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.

  20. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals

  1. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  2. Using Piezoelectric Devices to Transmit Power through Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2008-01-01

    A method denoted wireless acoustic-electric feed-through (WAEF) has been conceived for transmitting power and/or data signals through walls or other solid objects made of a variety of elastic materials that could be electrically conductive or nonconductive. WAEF would make it unnecessary to use wires, optical fibers, tubes, or other discrete wall-penetrating signal-transmitting components, thereby eliminating the potential for structural weakening or leakage at such penetrations. Avoidance of such penetrations could be essential in some applications in which maintenance of pressure, vacuum, or chemical or biological isolation is required. In a basic WAEF setup, a transmitting piezoelectric transducer on one side of a wall would be driven at resonance to excite ultrasonic vibrations in the wall. A receiving piezoelectric transducer on the opposite side of the wall would convert the vibrations back to an ultrasonic AC electric signal, which would then be detected and otherwise processed in a manner that would depend on the modulation (if any) applied to the signal and whether the signal was used to transmit power, data, or both. An electromechanical-network model has been derived as a computationally efficient means of analyzing and designing a WAEF system. This model is a variant of a prior model, known in the piezoelectric-transducer art as Mason's equivalent-circuit model, in which the electrical and mechanical dynamics, including electromechanical couplings, are expressed as electrical circuit elements that can include inductors, capacitors, and lumped-parameter complex impedances. The real parts of the complex impedances are used to account for dielectric, mechanical, and coupling losses in all components (including all piezoelectric-transducer, wall, and intermediate material layers). In an application to a three-layer piezoelectric structure, this model was shown to yield the same results as do solutions of the wave equations of piezoelectricity and acoustic

  3. Transmit coil design for Wireless Power Transfer for medical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemdiasov, Rosti; Venkatasubramanian, Arun

    2017-07-01

    A new design approach for the design of transmit coils for Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is presented. The theoretical formulation involves a figure of merit that has to be maximized to solve for the surface current. Numerical predictions and comparisons with practical measurements for the coil parameters (inductance. resistance) underscore the success of this approach in terms of achieving strong coupling with a receive coil while maintaining low resistance.

  4. Perception of health care providers about sexually transmitted infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Izhar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections represent a global health problem leading to social stigma and early morbidity and mortality. Prior to this study, different health care providers were dealing with sexually transmitted infections with various parameters and were not following the standard regime given by the WHO. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of health care providers about sexually transmitted infections and its treatment guidelines. Methods: Cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted from health care providers(specialists, family physicians, homeopaths and others )of Lahore from Jan 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected with consent through convenience purposive sampling of randomly selected 100 specialists, 200 family physicians, 100 homeopaths and 100 others. Trained investigators pre-tested the validity and reliability of the questionnaire before use. Data of response was coded, entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Out of 500 practitioners 475 (95%) completed the questionnaire. Those excluded were due to insufficient data in questionnaire. Almost all respondents were aware of STIs and the guidelines and claimed to have decent knowledge. Apart from some disagreement on the user- friendliness and communication facilitating properties, the health care provider's attitude were positive. Conclusion: Overall, all the health care providers knew about sexually transmitted infections. It was the treatment according to the guidelines, in which they differed. Specialists and Family physician in Lahore, Pakistan knew and followed the STIs guidelines while managing the patients. Homeopaths and others were receiving patients and treating most of these infections but were not aware of the standard guidelines yet somehow their patients were treated and satisfied. Enhancing the familiarity of the guidelines among users can result in a positive outcome on the treatment of STIs. (author)

  5. Automatic Identification System (AIS) Transmit Testing in Louisville Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Firewall Louisville QM 65.206.28.x NAIS Site Controller PC RS232 Serial cable TV32 Computer Cmd Center Serial splitter SAAB R40 AIS Base Station...172.17.14.6 Rack mount computer AIS Radio Interface Ethernet Switch 192.168.0.x Firewall Cable Modem 192.168.0.1 VTS Accred. Boundary serial connection...Automatic Identification System ( AIS ) Transmit Testing in Louisville Phase 2 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release

  6. Pattern of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in and Around Udaipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Bansal

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The patients who attended the STD clinic of our hospital during the last 10 years were studied retrospectively to work out the pattern of major sexually transmitted diseases viz. -syphilis, ionorrhoea, chancroid, lymphogranuloma vencreum and donovinosis. The total number of patients was 1093, The relative incidence of chancroid was found. higher (37.78% than syphilis (32.47%, gonorrhoea (24 79% mixed infections (3.38%, donovanosis (1.18% and lymphogranuloma venereum (0.36%.

  7. Recommendation on vectors and vector-transmitted diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority

    2009-01-01

    In view of their increasing risk of introduction and their possible implications in causing major disease outbreaks, vectors, as well as vector-transmitted diseases like dengue, West Nile disease, Lyme disease and bluetongue need to be recognised as a threat to public and animal health and to the economy, also in the Netherlands. There has been an increase in the incidence of these diseases in the past two to three decades. Climate changes and changes in the use of land, water managemen...

  8. MIMO Radar Transmit Beampattern Design Without Synthesising the Covariance Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2013-10-28

    Compared to phased-array, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars provide more degrees-offreedom (DOF) that can be exploited for improved spatial resolution, better parametric identifiability, lower side-lobe levels at the transmitter/receiver, and design variety of transmit beampatterns. The design of the transmit beampattern generally requires the waveforms to have arbitrary auto- and crosscorrelation properties. The generation of such waveforms is a two step complicated process. In the first step a waveform covariance matrix is synthesised, which is a constrained optimisation problem. In the second step, to realise this covariance matrix actual waveforms are designed, which is also a constrained optimisation problem. Our proposed scheme converts this two step constrained optimisation problem into a one step unconstrained optimisation problem. In the proposed scheme, in contrast to synthesising the covariance matrix for the desired beampattern, nT independent finite-alphabet constantenvelope waveforms are generated and pre-processed, with weight matrix W, before transmitting from the antennas. In this work, two weight matrices are proposed that can be easily optimised for the desired symmetric and non-symmetric beampatterns and guarantee equal average power transmission from each antenna. Simulation results validate our claims.

  9. Imperfect generalized transmit beamforming with co-channel interference cancelation

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-10-01

    The performance of a generalized single-stream transmit beamforming scheme employing receive co-channel interference -steering algorithms in slowly varying and flat fading channels is analyzed. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information (CSI) for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels is considered. Both dominant interference cancelation and adaptive arbitrary interference cancelation algorithms for closely spaced receive antennas are used. The impact of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers instantaneous powers on the effectiveness of dominant interference cancelation is investigated against the less complex adaptive arbitrary cancelation scheme. For the system models described above, new exact formulas for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) are derived, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission (MRT) and best transmit channel selection schemes can be deduced as limiting cases. The results presented herein can be used to obtain quantitative measure for various performance metrics, and in addition to investigate the performance-complexity tradeoff for different multiple-antenna system models. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. Selective wave-transmitting electromagnetic absorber through composite metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Junming; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Tian; Feng, Yijun

    2017-11-01

    Selective wave-transmitting absorbers which have one or more narrow transmission bands inside a wide absorption band are often demanded in wireless communication and radome applications for reducing the coupling between different systems, improving anti-jamming capability, and reducing antennas' radar cross section. Here we propose a feasible method that utilizing composite of two metasurfaces with different polarization dependent characteristics, one works as electromagnetic polarization rotator and the other as a wideband polarization dependent electromagnetic wave absorber. The polarization rotator produces a cross polarization output in the wave-transmitting band, while preserves the polarization of the incidence outside the band. The metasurface absorber works for certain linear polarization with a much wider absorption band covering the wave-transmitting frequency. When combining these two metasurfaces properly, the whole structure behaves as a wideband absorber with a certain frequency transmission window. The proposal may be applied in radome designs to reduce the radar cross section of antenna or improving the electromagnetic compatibility in communication devices.

  11. Switch and examine transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a switch and examine transmit diversity algorithm for spectrum sharing cognitive networks. We consider a cognitive network composed of a primary link that employs constant rate and constant power transmission scheme with automatic-and-repeat request (ARQ) protocol, while the secondary link is composed of a fixed power multiple-antenna secondary transmitter and a single antenna receiver. Our objective is to develop a low complex transmit diversity algorithm at the secondary transmitter that maximizes the performance of the secondary link in terms of the effective throughput while maintaining a predetermined maximum loss in the packet rate of the primary link. In achieving this objective, we develop an algorithm that selects the best antenna, which maintains the quality of the secondary link in terms of signal-to-noise ratio above a specific threshold, based on overhearing the acknowledgment (ACK) and negative acknowledgment (NACK) feedback messages transmitted over the primary link. We also develop closed form expressions for the bit error rates and the effective throughput of the secondary link. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej eHajdusek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.

  13. Pair formation models for sexually transmitted infections: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Kretzschmar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward transmission of the infection as long as they persist. In addition, for curable infections re-infection from an infected partner may occur. Furthermore, interventions based on contact tracing rely on the possibility of identifying and treating partners of infected individuals. To reflect these features in a mathematical model, pair formation models were introduced to mathematical epidemiology in the 1980's. They have since been developed into a widely used tool in modelling sexually transmitted infections and the impact of interventions. Here we give a basic introduction to the concepts of pair formation models for a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS epidemic. We review some results and applications of pair formation models mainly in the context of chlamydia infection. Keywords: Pair formation, Mathematical model, Partnership duration, Sexually transmitted infections, Basic reproduction number

  14. Estimating Transmitted-Signal Phase Variations for Uplink Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paal, Leslie; Mukai, Ryan; Vilntrotter, Victor; Cornish, Timothy; Lee, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A method of estimating phase drifts of microwave signals distributed to, and transmitted by, antennas in an array involves the use of the signals themselves as phase references. The method was conceived as part of the solution of the problem of maintaining precise phase calibration required for proper operation of an array of Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas on Earth used for communicating with distant spacecraft at frequencies between 7 and 8 GHz. The method could also be applied to purely terrestrial phased-array radar and other radio antenna array systems. In the DSN application, the electrical lengths (effective signal-propagation path lengths) of the various branches of the system for distributing the transmitted signals to the antennas are not precisely known, and they vary with time. The variations are attributable mostly to thermal expansion and contraction of fiber-optic and electrical signal cables and to a variety of causes associated with aging of signal-handling components. The variations are large enough to introduce large phase drifts at the signal frequency. It is necessary to measure and correct for these phase drifts in order to maintain phase calibration of the antennas. A prior method of measuring phase drifts involves the use of reference-frequency signals separate from the transmitted signals. A major impediment to accurate measurement of phase drifts over time by the prior method is the fact that although DSN reference-frequency sources separate from the transmitting signal sources are stable and accurate enough for most DSN purposes, they are not stable enough for use in maintaining phase calibrations, as required, to within a few degrees over times as long as days or possibly even weeks. By eliminating reliance on the reference-frequency subsystem, the present method overcomes this impediment. In a DSN array to which the present method applies (see figure), the microwave signals to be transmitted are generated by exciters in a signal

  15. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeeland, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter a series of DNA repair pathways are discussed which are available to the cell to cope with the problem of DNA damaged by chemical or physical agents. In the case of microorganisms our knowledge about the precise mechanism of each DNA repair pathway and the regulation of it has been improved considerably when mutants deficient in these repair mechanisms became available. In the case of mammalian cells in culture, until recently there were very little repair deficient mutants available, because in almost all mammalian cells in culture at least the diploid number of chromosomes is present. Therefore the frequency of repair deficient mutants in such populations is very low. Nevertheless because replica plating techniques are improving some mutants from Chinese hamsters ovary cells and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells are now available. In the case of human cells, cultures obtained from patients with certain genetic diseases are available. A number of cells appear to be sensitive to some chemical or physical mutagens. These include cells from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum, Ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne's syndrome. However, only in the case of xeroderma pigmentosum cells, has the sensitivity to ultraviolet light been clearly correlated with a deficiency in excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. Furthermore the work with strains obtained from biopsies from man is difficult because these cells generally have low cloning efficiencies and also have a limited lifespan in vitro. It is therefore very important that more repair deficient mutants will become available from established cell lines from human or animal origin

  16. Gene-expression analysis of cold-stress response in the sexually transmitted protist Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Kai; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Lin, Rose; Chao, Mei; Tang, Petrus

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease in the world. This infection affects millions of individuals worldwide annually. Although direct sexual contact is the most common mode of transmission, increasing evidence indicates that T. vaginalis can survive in the external environment and can be transmitted by contaminated utensils. We found that the growth of T. vaginalis under cold conditions is greatly inhibited, but recovers after placing these stressed cells at the normal cultivation temperature of 37 °C. However, the mechanisms by which T. vaginalis regulates this adaptive process are unclear. An expressed sequence tag (EST) database generated from a complementary DNA library of T. vaginalis messenger RNAs expressed under cold-culture conditions (4 °C, TvC) was compared with a previously published normal-cultured EST library (37 °C, TvE) to assess the cold-stress responses of T. vaginalis. A total of 9780 clones were sequenced from the TvC library and were mapped to 2934 genes in the T. vaginalis genome. A total of 1254 genes were expressed in both the TvE and TvC libraries, and 1680 genes were only found in the TvC library. A functional analysis showed that cold temperature has effects on many cellular mechanisms, including increased H2O2 tolerance, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, induction of iron-sulfur cluster assembly, and reduced energy metabolism and enzyme expression. The current study is the first large-scale transcriptomic analysis in cold-stressed T. vaginalis and the results enhance our understanding of this important protist. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Quantitative Estimation of Transmitted and Reflected Lamb Waves at Discontinuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    For the application of Lamb wave to structural health monitoring(SHM), understanding its physical characteristic and interaction between Lamb wave and defect of the host structure is an important issue. In this study, reflected, transmitted and mode converted Lamb waves at discontinuity of a plate structure were simulated and the amplitude ratios are calculated theoretically using Modal decomposition method. The predicted results were verified comparing with finite element method(FEM) and experimental results simulating attached PZTs. The result shows that the theoretical prediction is close to the FEM and the experimental verification. Moreover, quantitative estimation method was suggested using amplitude ratio of Lamb wave at discontinuity

  18. Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-08-25

    Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common-shot gather should abruptly change near the surface projection of the fault. We present ray-map imaging method that migrates transmitted surface waves to the fault plane, and therefore it roughly estimates the orientation, depth, and location of the near-surface fault. The main benefits of this method are that it is computationally inexpensive and robust in the presence of noise.

  19. Venereal worms: sexually transmitted nematodes in the decorated cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, L T; Platzer, E G; Zuk, M; Giblin-Davis, R M

    2000-06-01

    The nematode, Mehdinema alii, occurs in the alimentary canal of the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus. Adult nematodes occur primarily in the hindgut of mature male crickets, whereas juvenile nematodes are found in the genital chambers of mature male and female crickets. Here, we present experimental evidence for the venereal transmission of M. alii in G. sigillatus. Infectivity experiments were conducted to test for transmission via oral-fecal contamination, same-sex contact, and copulation. The infective dauers of the nematode are transferred from male to female crickets during copulation. Adult female crickets harboring infective dauers subsequently transfer the nematode to their next mates. Thus, M. alii is transmitted sexually during copulation.

  20. Counterfactual quantum cloning without transmitting any physical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Zhai, Shuqin; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2017-11-01

    We propose a counterfactual 1 →2 economical phase-covariant cloning scheme. Compared with the existing protocols using flying qubits, the main difference of the presented scheme is that the cloning can be achieved without transmitting the photon between the two parties. In addition, this counterfactual scheme does not need to construct controlled quantum gates to perform joint logical operations between the cloned qubit and the blank copy. We also numerically evaluate the performance of the present scheme in the practical experiment, which shows this cloning scheme can be implemented with a high success of probability and the fidelity is close to the optimal value in the ideal asymptotic limit.

  1. The value transmitted by woman in Disney animated films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Marín Díaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The animated films, has taken in the last decade of great relevance. This study aims to analyse the values that the female of the films from Disney. Through a descriptive and correlational study, we have proceeded to consult a group of teachers (N = 27 of said educational level, through a questionnaire of Marin and Sanchez (2015. The main result achieved has been the realization of the development of women and their role in society. It has also been confirmed that all transmit at least one traditional socially accepted value.

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. A female perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, M

    2012-02-03

    Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.

  3. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Data Transmitted from Satellite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USCRN Raw Transmitted Data is level 0 data received from the USCRN stations that are transmitted continuously. The data values are ingested with a unique 18-bit...

  4. Comparisons of receive array interference reduction techniques under erroneous generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    information for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels on the effectiveness of transmit beamforming for different interference reduction techniques is investigated. The case of over-loaded receive array with closely-spaced elements

  5. 75 FR 79006 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Transfusion-Transmitted Retrovirus and Hepatitis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Transfusion- Transmitted Retrovirus and Hepatitis Virus Rates and Risk Factors: Improving... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Transfusion-transmitted retrovirus and hepatitis virus rates...

  6. [Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O.P.; Meijden, W.I. van der; Wittenberg, J.; Bergen, J.E. van; Boeke, A.J.; Doornum, G.J.J. van; Henquet, C.J.; Galama, J.M.D.; Postma, M.J.; Prins, J.M.; Voorst Vader, P.C. van

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes' summarises the current scientific position on the diagnosis and treatment of a great number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and neonatal herpes. Symptomatic treatment of

  7. The capacity to transmit classical information via black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Christoph; Ver Steeg, Greg

    2013-03-01

    One of the most vexing problems in theoretical physics is the relationship between quantum mechanics and gravity. According to an argument originally by Hawking, a black hole must destroy any information that is incident on it because the only radiation that a black hole releases during its evaporation (the Hawking radiation) is precisely thermal. Surprisingly, this claim has never been investigated within a quantum information-theoretic framework, where the black hole is treated as a quantum channel to transmit classical information. We calculate the capacity of the quantum black hole channel to transmit classical information (the Holevo capacity) within curved-space quantum field theory, and show that the information carried by late-time particles sent into a black hole can be recovered with arbitrary accuracy, from the signature left behind by the stimulated emission of radiation that must accompany any absorption event. We also show that this stimulated emission turns the black hole into an almost-optimal quantum cloning machine, where the violation of the no-cloning theorem is ensured by the noise provided by the Hawking radiation. Thus, rather than threatening the consistency of theoretical physics, Hawking radiation manages to save it instead.

  8. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva, the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved, and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water the control and prevention in veterinary health must be directed to investigation regarding intermediate stages of these parasites in fishes for human alimentation; if present, they must be eliminated. The helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infected mammals meats, are represented by taeniasis (Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. saginata asiatica, where man id definitive host and the infection is caused by ingestion of bovine or swine meat, containing larvae of these cestodes, and by trichinellosis, where humans represent a intermediate stage, and the eventual pathology is caused as by adult (acute infection as by larvae (chronic infection of this nematode: usually the meats responsible are infected pork, wild pork or horse (Trichinella spp. Is inside the meats of these animals. So the veterinary control and prophylaxis are necessary to avoid this disease and preventing the infection that could be severe.

  9. Indigenous Healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Mulaudzi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Grounded Theory study has been used, based on its Theory of Symbolic Interactionism, to explore indigenous healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases amongst the Vhavenda. Initial data collection has been done, using purposive sampling and when categories started emerging, theoretical sampling was then used. Data were analysed by using three basic types of coding namely, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The findings of the study revealed a variety of terms used to identify STDs. It then also became evident that there are similarities between gonorrhoea, syphilis and condylomata as shown in the orthodox Sexually transmitted diseases posters used in orthodox medicine with some of the STDs that the indigenous healers are familiar with. In accordance with the Grounded Theory, the description of types of diseases, disease patterns as well as signs and symptoms culminated in the emergence of the Dirt Theory. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that guidelines for designing a module for teaching health professionals be formulated to assist nurses in understanding the beliefs and practices of the people they serve.

  10. MIMO transmit scheme based on morphological perceptron with competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Raul Ambrozio; Abrão, Taufik

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmit scheme aided by artificial neural network (ANN). The morphological perceptron with competitive learning (MP/CL) concept is deployed as a decision rule in the MIMO detection stage. The proposed MIMO transmission scheme is able to achieve double spectral efficiency; hence, in each time-slot the receiver decodes two symbols at a time instead one as Alamouti scheme. Other advantage of the proposed transmit scheme with MP/CL-aided detector is its polynomial complexity according to modulation order, while it becomes linear when the data stream length is greater than modulation order. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared to the traditional MIMO schemes, namely Alamouti scheme and maximum-likelihood MIMO (ML-MIMO) detector. Also, the proposed scheme is evaluated in a scenario with variable channel information along the frame. Numerical results have shown that the diversity gain under space-time coding Alamouti scheme is partially lost, which slightly reduces the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the proposed MP/CL-NN MIMO scheme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Narrative Review: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Homeless Youth-What Do We Know About Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevalence and Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P

    2017-08-01

    Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000-2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review.

  12. Transmission of HBV DNA Mediated by Ceramide-Triggered Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Takahiro; Hirata, Yuichi; Naito, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Ishida, Yuji; Yamasaki, Chihiro; Tateno, Chise; Ochiya, Takahiro; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-03-01

    An extracellular vesicle (EV) is a nanovesicle that shuttles proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, thereby influencing cell behavior. A recent crop of reports have shown that EVs are involved in infectious biology, influencing host immunity and playing a role in the viral life cycle. In the present work, we investigated the EV-mediated transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We investigated the EV-mediated transmission of HBV infection by using a HBV infectious culture system that uses primary human hepatocytes derived from humanized chimeric mice (PXB-cells). Purified EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation. To analyze the EVs and virions, we used stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Purified EVs from HBV-infected PXB-cells were shown to contain HBV DNA and to be capable of transmitting HBV DNA to naive PXB-cells. These HBV-DNA-transmitting EVs were shown to be generated through a ceramide-triggered EV production pathway. Furthermore, we showed that these HBV-DNA-transmitting EVs were resistant to antibody neutralization; stimulated emission depletion microscopy showed that EVs lacked hepatitis B surface antigen, the target of neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that EVs harbor a DNA cargo capable of transmitting viral DNA into hepatocytes during HBV infection, representing an additional antibody-neutralization-resistant route of HBV infection.

  13. Genome erosion in a nitrogen-fixing vertically transmitted endosymbiotic multicellular cyanobacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An ancient cyanobacterial incorporation into a eukaryotic organism led to the evolution of plastids (chloroplasts and subsequently to the origin of the plant kingdom. The underlying mechanism and the identities of the partners in this monophyletic event remain elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To shed light on this evolutionary process, we sequenced the genome of a cyanobacterium residing extracellularly in an endosymbiosis with a plant, the water-fern Azolla filiculoides Lam. This symbiosis was selected as it has characters which make it unique among extant cyanobacterial plant symbioses: the cyanobacterium lacks autonomous growth and is vertically transmitted between plant generations. Our results reveal features of evolutionary significance. The genome is in an eroding state, evidenced by a large proportion of pseudogenes (31.2% and a high frequency of transposable elements (approximately 600 scattered throughout the genome. Pseudogenization is found in genes such as the replication initiator dnaA and DNA repair genes, considered essential to free-living cyanobacteria. For some functional categories of genes pseudogenes are more prevalent than functional genes. Loss of function is apparent even within the 'core' gene categories of bacteria, such as genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient uptake. In contrast, serving as a critical source of nitrogen for the host, genes related to metabolic processes such as cell differentiation and nitrogen-fixation are well preserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first finding of genome degradation in a plant symbiont and phenotypically complex cyanobacterium and one of only a few extracellular endosymbionts described showing signs of reductive genome evolution. Our findings suggest an ongoing selective streamlining of this cyanobacterial genome which has resulted in an organism devoted to nitrogen fixation and devoid of autonomous growth. The cyanobacterial symbiont of Azolla

  14. Nuclear insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor phosphorylates proliferating cell nuclear antigen and rescues stalled replication forks after DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waraky, Ahmed; Lin, Yingbo; Warsito, Dudi; Haglund, Felix; Aleem, Eiman; Larsson, Olle

    2017-11-03

    We have previously shown that the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) translocates to the cell nucleus, where it binds to enhancer-like regions and increases gene transcription. Further studies have demonstrated that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) physically and functionally interacts with some nuclear proteins, i.e. the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1), histone H3, and Brahma-related gene-1 proteins. In this study, we identified the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a nIGF-1R-binding partner. PCNA is a pivotal component of the replication fork machinery and a main regulator of the DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathway. We found that IGF-1R interacts with and phosphorylates PCNA in human embryonic stem cells and other cell lines. In vitro MS analysis of PCNA co-incubated with the IGF-1R kinase indicated tyrosine residues 60, 133, and 250 in PCNA as IGF-1R targets, and PCNA phosphorylation was followed by mono- and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that these ubiquitination events may be mediated by DDT-dependent E2/E3 ligases ( e.g. RAD18 and SHPRH/HLTF). Absence of IGF-1R or mutation of Tyr-60, Tyr-133, or Tyr-250 in PCNA abrogated its ubiquitination. Unlike in cells expressing IGF-1R, externally induced DNA damage in IGF-1R-negative cells caused G 1 cell cycle arrest and S phase fork stalling. Taken together, our results suggest a role of IGF-1R in DDT. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... diameter of 30 to 32 nm that was first described in 1997 in Japan. TTV was detected in ... serum of a Japanese patient with fulminant hepatitis and chronic liver ..... Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel DNA virus ...

  16. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA molecule which makes it ideal for storage and propagation of genetic information. ... of these errors are broadly referred to as DNA repair. DNA can ... changes occur in the human genome per day. ..... nails, frequent physical and mental.

  17. Synthesis of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2008-11-18

    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  18. Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Novel Screening Strategy for Improving Women’s Health in Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Elena R.; Fasoli, Ester; Martinelli, Marianna; Colzani, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Carnelli, Luciana; Amendola, Antonella; Olivani, Pierfranco; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Background: Migrant women are one of the most vulnerable population to health problems and well-being. This study aimed at implementing a counseling and preventive strategy for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in undocumented migrant women in Milan, Italy. Methods: Women (ages 18–65) were enrolled at the NAGA Centre (2012–2013) and asked for a urine sample in order to carry out molecular detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng)-DNA. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior information were collected. All HPV/Ct+ women were offered Pap tests and/or were prescribed antibiotic treatment. Results: 537/757 women participated in the study (acceptability rate: 70.9%). Most of the women were from Latin America (45.6%) and Eastern Europe (30.7%); >60% of them had stable partners, did not use contraception and had had at least one pregnancy. The prevalence rates of HPV, Ct, Tv and Ng infections were 24.2%, 7.8%, 4.8% and 0%, respectively. In all, 43.2% of the positive women agreed to undergo a gynecological examination and accepted suitable treatment. Conclusions: This study shows an overall high prevalence of STIs in undocumented migrant women in Milan. The screening strategy based on counseling and urine testing contributed to the successfully high acceptability rate. More appropriate health services that adequately address all aspects of women’s health are required. PMID:28632191

  19. Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Novel Screening Strategy for Improving Women's Health in Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Elena R; Fasoli, Ester; Martinelli, Marianna; Colzani, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Carnelli, Luciana; Amendola, Antonella; Olivani, Pierfranco; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2017-06-20

    Migrant women are one of the most vulnerable population to health problems and well-being. This study aimed at implementing a counseling and preventive strategy for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in undocumented migrant women in Milan, Italy. Women (ages 18-65) were enrolled at the NAGA Centre (2012-2013) and asked for a urine sample in order to carry out molecular detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis ( Ct ), Trichomonas vaginalis ( Tv ), Neisseria gonorrhoeae ( Ng )-DNA. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior information were collected. All HPV/ Ct + women were offered Pap tests and/or were prescribed antibiotic treatment. 537/757 women participated in the study (acceptability rate: 70.9%). Most of the women were from Latin America (45.6%) and Eastern Europe (30.7%); >60% of them had stable partners, did not use contraception and had had at least one pregnancy. The prevalence rates of HPV, Ct , Tv and Ng infections were 24.2%, 7.8%, 4.8% and 0%, respectively. In all, 43.2% of the positive women agreed to undergo a gynecological examination and accepted suitable treatment. This study shows an overall high prevalence of STIs in undocumented migrant women in Milan. The screening strategy based on counseling and urine testing contributed to the successfully high acceptability rate. More appropriate health services that adequately address all aspects of women's health are required.

  20. Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Novel Screening Strategy for Improving Women’s Health in Vulnerable Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R. Frati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migrant women are one of the most vulnerable population to health problems and well-being. This study aimed at implementing a counseling and preventive strategy for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in undocumented migrant women in Milan, Italy. Methods: Women (ages 18–65 were enrolled at the NAGA Centre (2012–2013 and asked for a urine sample in order to carry out molecular detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct, Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng-DNA. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior information were collected. All HPV/Ct+ women were offered Pap tests and/or were prescribed antibiotic treatment. Results: 537/757 women participated in the study (acceptability rate: 70.9%. Most of the women were from Latin America (45.6% and Eastern Europe (30.7%; >60% of them had stable partners, did not use contraception and had had at least one pregnancy. The prevalence rates of HPV, Ct, Tv and Ng infections were 24.2%, 7.8%, 4.8% and 0%, respectively. In all, 43.2% of the positive women agreed to undergo a gynecological examination and accepted suitable treatment. Conclusions: This study shows an overall high prevalence of STIs in undocumented migrant women in Milan. The screening strategy based on counseling and urine testing contributed to the successfully high acceptability rate. More appropriate health services that adequately address all aspects of women’s health are required.

  1. Sexually transmitted infections: old foes on the rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Kainz, Katharina; Madeo, Frank

    2016-09-05

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are commonly spread via sexual contact. It is estimated that one million STIs are acquired every day worldwide. Besides their impact on sexual, reproductive and neonatal health, they can cause disastrous and life-threatening complications if left untreated. In addition to this personal burden, STIs also represent a socioeconomic problem, deriving in treatment costs of tremendous proportions. Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis, treatment and prevention, the incidence of many common STIs is increasing, and STIs continue to represent a global public health problem and a major cause for morbidity and mortality. With this Special Issue, Microbial Cell provides an in-depth overview of the eight major STIs, covering all relevant features of each infection.

  2. Closed form fourier-based transmit beamforming for MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John J.

    2014-05-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar setting, it is often desirable to design correlated waveforms such that power is transmitted only to a given set of locations, a process known as beampattern design. To design desired beam-pattern, current research uses iterative algorithms, first to synthesize the waveform covariance matrix, R, then to design the actual waveforms to realize R. In contrast to this, we present a closed form method to design R that exploits discrete Fourier transform and Toeplitz matrix. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints and performance is similar to that of iterative methods. Next, we present a radar architecture for the desired beampattern that does not require the synthesis of covariance matrix nor the design of correlated waveforms. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Microanalysis by spectroscopy of transmitted electron energy losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colliex, C.; Trebbia, P.

    1978-01-01

    Among the various signals which, in a transmission electron microscope, result from the interactions between the primary beam of well defined energy E 0 and the sample, the spectrum of the energy distribution of the electrons transmitted contains useful informations on the chemical and physical properties of the sample. Consequently the adaptation of an energy dispersive system on an electron microscope enables new fields of research to be investigated, particularly a localised chemical analysis technique with a space resolution scale equal to that of the electron microscope. It is this second aspect that we suggest describing in particular here. Already, this technique appears to be indispensable in the problems arising from the analysis of very small quantities of matter: detection limits in the order of 10 -19 to 10 -20 g (around 100 to 1000 atoms) would seem to be resonably possible [fr

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis - an indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases and 68 men counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female SID cases′ and in 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 216 cases of T.vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with infection with Candida species; 29 (23% with Neisseria gonorrhoea. 18 cases (14.3% with Haemophilus ducreyi and 11 cases (8.7%, Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constituted a low percentage. Present study highlighted the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-third cases which suggested that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy: a synthesis of particularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mariana Carvalho; Bornhausen Demarch, Eduardo; Azulay, David Rubem; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Nery, José Augusto da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a significant prevalence in both the general population and pregnant women. Accordingly, we consider the physiological changes of the maternal organism that can alter the clinical course of these diseases. In addition, obstetric and neonatal complications may occur, resulting in increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We explore features of the natural course and treatment during pregnancy of the major STDs: soft chancre, donovanosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, viral hepatitis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, and vulvovaginitis. We believe that health professionals should pay careful attention to STDs, particularly in relation to early diagnosis and precautions on the use of drugs during pregnancy. Prevention and partner treatment to achieve effective results are also extremely relevant.

  6. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  7. Transmitting information of an object behind the obstacle to infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bai Bing; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Meng, Ling Ling; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-08-01

    We propose an illusion device that transforms a metallic cylinder into a Luneburg lens by using transformation optics. Such a transformed focusing lens guides electromagnetic waves to propagate around the central metallic cylinder smoothly and be focused on one spot, and thus the information of an object behind the obstacle can be transmitted to infinity. In order to realize the required-anisotropic parameters with high permittivity and low permeability, we design embedded split-ring resonators (SRRs) to increase the permittivity of the traditional SRR structures. In experiments, we fabricate and measure the transformed lens, and the tested results agree well with the numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. The proposed transformation lens can mimic some properties of Einstein gravitational lens because their wave propagation behaviors are very similar.

  8. Polarization Patterns of Transmitted Celestial Light under Wavy Water Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to describe the polarization patterns of celestial light, which includes sunlight and skylight, when refracted by wavy water surfaces. The polarization patterns and intensity distribution of refracted light through the wave water surface were calculated. The model was validated by underwater experimental measurements. The experimental and theoretical values agree well qualitatively. This work provides a quantitative description of the repolarization and transmittance of celestial light transmitted through wave water surfaces. The effects of wind speed and incident sources on the underwater refraction polarization patterns are discussed. Scattering skylight dominates the polarization patterns while direct solar light is the dominant source of the intensity of the underwater light field. Wind speed has an influence on disturbing the patterns under water.

  9. Hiv infection in patients of sexually transmitted disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1027 male patients suffering from sexually transmitted diseases (STD during 1990 to 1996 were screened for HIV infection. All cases were in the age group 17 years to 48 years. One hundred and sixty-seven STD cases (16.3% were found to have HIV infection. A rising trend in incidence of HIV infection in STD patients from 1990 (2.8% to 1996 (27.8% was noticed countrary to declining trend of STDs from 213 cases in 1990 to 79 cases in 1996. The incidence of HIV infection was 30.3% in lymphogranuloma venereum, 19.5% in chancroid, 13.5% in syphilis, 17.6% in herpes genitatis, 6.7% in gonorrhoea and 11.2% in other STD cases.

  10. Dynein Transmits Polarized Actomyosin Cortical Flows to Promote Centrosome Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Simone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The two centrosomes present at the onset of mitosis must separate in a timely and accurate fashion to ensure proper bipolar spindle assembly. The minus-end-directed motor dynein plays a pivotal role in centrosome separation, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, particularly regarding how dynein coordinates this process in space and time. We addressed these questions in the one-cell C. elegans embryo, using a combination of 3D time-lapse microscopy and computational modeling. Our analysis reveals that centrosome separation is powered by the joint action of dynein at the nuclear envelope and at the cell cortex. Strikingly, we demonstrate that dynein at the cell cortex acts as a force-transmitting device that harnesses polarized actomyosin cortical flows initiated by the centrosomes earlier in the cell cycle. This mechanism elegantly couples cell polarization with centrosome separation, thus ensuring faithful cell division.

  11. Searching for unknown transfusion-transmitted hepatitis viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, G.; Hjalgrim, H.; Rostgaard, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Both hepatitis B and C viruses were transmitted through blood transfusion before implementation of donor screening. The existence of additional, yet unknown transfusion transmittable agents causing liver disease could have important public health implications. Methods: Analyses were...... 1992 to account for the effect of screening for hepatitis C virus. Results: A total of 1 482 922 transfused patients were included in the analyses. Analyses showed evidence of transfusion transmission of liver diseases before, but not after the implementation of hepatitis C virus screening in 1992...... for transfusion transmission of agents causing liver disease after the implementation of screening for hepatitis B and C, and suggest that if such transmission does occur, it is rare....

  12. Arsenolite: a quasi-hydrostatic solid pressure-transmitting medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sans, J A; Manjón, F J; Popescu, C; Muñoz, A; Rodríguez-Hernández, P; Jordá, J L; Rey, F

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the experimental characterization of the hydrostatic properties of arsenolite (As 4 O 6 ), a molecular solid which is one of the softest minerals in the absence of hydrogen bonding. The high compressibility of arsenolite and its stability up to 15 GPa have been proved by x-ray diffraction measurements, and the progressive loss of hydrostaticity with increasing pressure up to 20 GPa has been monitored by ruby photoluminescence. Arsenolite has been found to exhibit hydrostatic behavior up to 2.5 GPa and a quasi-hydrostatic behavior up to 10 GPa at room temperature. This result opens the way to explore other molecular solids as possible quasi-hydrostatic pressure-transmitting media. The validity of arsenolite as an insulating, stable, non-penetrating and quasi-hydrostatic medium is explored by the study of the x-ray diffraction of zeolite ITQ-29 at high pressure. (paper)

  13. The pressure distribution for biharmonic transmitting array: theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, A.

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the paper is theoretical analysis of the finite amplitude waves interaction problem for the biharmonic transmitting array. We assume that the array consists of 16 circular pistons of the same dimensions that regrouped in two sections. Two different arrangements of radiating elements were considered. In this situation the radiating surface is non-continuous without axial symmetry. The mathematical model was built on the basis of the Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation. To solve the problem the finite-difference method was applied. On-axis pressure amplitude for different frequency waves as a function of distance from the source, transverse pressure distribution of these waves at fixed distances from the source and pressure amplitude distribution for them at fixed planes were examined. Especially changes of normalized pressure amplitude for difference frequency were studied. The paper presents mathematical model and some results of theoretical investigations obtained for different values of source parameters.

  14. Vaccination strategies for SIR vector-transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Pacheco, Gustavo; Esteva, Lourdes; Vargas, Cristobal

    2014-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the major public health problems in the world with the fastest spreading rate. Control measures have been focused on vector control, with poor results in most cases. Vaccines should help to reduce the diseases incidence, but vaccination strategies should also be defined. In this work, we propose a vector-transmitted SIR disease model with age-structured population subject to a vaccination program. We find an expression for the age-dependent basic reproductive number R(0), and we show that the disease-free equilibrium is locally stable for R(0) ≤ 1, and a unique endemic equilibrium exists for R(0) > 1. We apply the theoretical results to public data to evaluate vaccination strategies, immunization levels, and optimal age of vaccination for dengue disease.

  15. Drug resistance in the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REBECCA L DUNNE; LINDA A DUNN; PETER UPCROFT; PETER J O'DONOGHUE; JACQUELINE A UPCROFT

    2003-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the highest prevalence and incidence of any sexually transmitted infection. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs, of which metronidazole is the most prescribed, are the only approved,effective drugs to treat trichomoniasis. Resistance against metronidazole is frequently reported and crossresistance among the family of 5-nitroimidazole drugs is common, leaving no alternative for treatment, with some cases remaining unresolved. The mechanism of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis from treatment failures is not well understood, unlike resistance which is developed in the laboratory under increasing metronidazole pressure. In the latter situation, hydrogenosomal function which is involved in activation of the prodrug, metronidazole, is down-regulated. Reversion to sensitivity is incomplete after removal of drug pressure in the highly resistant parasites while clinically resistant strains, so far analysed, maintain their resistance levels in the absence of drug pressure. Although anaerobic resistance has been regarded as a laboratory induced phenomenon, it clearly has been demonstrated in clinical isolates. Pursuit of both approaches will allow dissection of the underlying mechanisms. Many alternative drugs and treatments have been tested in vivo in cases of refractory trichomoniasis, as well as in vitro with some successes including the broad spectrum anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide. Drug resistance incidence in T. vaginalis appears to be on the increase and improved surveillance of treatment failures is urged.

  16. Transfusion transmitted virus in screened United Arab Emirates blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaresi, Mubarak S.; Alzaabi, Azza S.; Islam, Adeel A.; Elkoush, Abida A.; Elnazer, Ayat M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the rate of infection caused by Torque teno virus (TTV) in United Arab Emirates (UAEs) healthy population as a pilot study in detecting TTV DNA in 100 healthy blood donors. We randomly choose a total of 100 healthy blood donors who attended Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE from January 20 to May 30, 2005. We carried out a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect TTV DNA. Real-time for TTV was positive in 75 (75%) donors. Eight (73%) non-UAE donors were TTV positive while 67 (75%) were UAEs. Among these donors, 72 (77%) were males and 3 (50%) were females. Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of TTV in UAE. (author)

  17. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  18. PREVALENCE OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS, MALARIA AND SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN A COMMUNITY OF BARDIYA DISTRICT, WESTERN NEPAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Alifrangis, Michael; Adhikari, Madhav; Olsen, Annette; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2014-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), malaria and soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) cause major health problems in Nepal, but in spite of this very few stud- ies have been carried out on these parasitic infections in Nepal. A cross sectional survey of all three categories of parasitic infections was carried out in Deuda- kala Village of Bardiya District, western Nepal. A total of 510 individuals aged 5 years and above were examined from finger prick blood for circulating filarial antigen (CFA), malaria antigen using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and malaria DNA using a PCR-based assay. In addition, 317 individuals were examined for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of LF, malaria (antigen) and STH infection was 25.1%, 0.6% and 18.3%, respectively. PCR analysis did not detect any additional malaria cases. The prevalence of LF and STH infections differ significantly among different age groups and ethnic communities. The high prevalence of LF in the community studied indicates an immediate need for implementing a mass drug administration program for its control in this particular geographical area of Nepal.

  19. An ascovirus isolated from Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) transmitted by the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Braconidae: Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Eiko; Ishii, Kazuo; Ishii, Hiroki; Sagawa, Shiori; Makiyama, Nao; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Katayama, Yukie; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Inoue, Maki N; Nakai, Madoka

    2018-04-01

    The family Ascoviridae is a recently described virus family whose members are transmitted by parasitoids and cause chronic and lethal infections in lepidopteran insects. Little is known about the biology and ecology of ascoviruses, and few isolates have been found outside the United States. We report here the isolation of a new ascovirus variant from Spodoptera litura in Japan. Full genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that this virus was closely related to variants in Heliothis virescens ascovirus-3a, and it was named HvAV-3j. HvAV-3j has a DNA genome of 191 718 bp, with 189 putative ORFs and a GC content of 45.6 %, and is highly similar to HvAV-3h, which was isolated in China. In a field survey, the endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis caused a high percentage of parasitization in populations of S. litura larvae, and under laboratory conditions M. pulchricornis was able to transmit HvAV-3j from infected to uninfected larvae by oviposition. Meteorus pulchricornis is thus likely to be a major vector for HvAV-3j transmission in Japan. This species is recognized here for the first time as a vector of ascoviruses that parasitizes a range of host species that extends across families.

  20. Pharmacist-led screening in sexually transmitted infections: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood H

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen Wood, Sajni Gudka School of Allied Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia Introduction: Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening is a crucial initiative that aims to reduce the increasing global prevalence of many common STIs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes simplex virus (HSV. Many STIs are either asymptomatic or show mild symptoms that are often attributed to other infections; hence, screening is the only way to identify – and by extension, treat – them. In this way, the spread of STIs can be reduced, and the health implications of an untreated STI are minimized. Community pharmacies could provide an avenue to convenient, confidential STI screening by using noninvasive or minimally invasive sample collection techniques that are used by the consumer or pharmacist. We identified the most common STIs found globally and investigated the current and potential role of pharmacists in provision of STI screening interventions.Discussion: There is sufficient evidence for pharmacy-based chlamydia screening, with many consumers and pharmacists finding it an acceptable and highly valued service. Some evidence was found for pharmacy-based gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV screening. Appropriate sample collection for gonorrhea screening needs to be further examined in a pharmacy setting. HBV screening presented an increased risk of personal injury to pharmacists through the collection of whole blood specimens, which could be reduced through consumer self-sampling. Pharmacist-collected specimens for HIV is less risky as an oral swab can be used, nullifying the risk of transmission; but pre- and post-screen consultations can be time-intensive; hence, pharmacists would require remuneration to provide an ongoing HIV screening service. Not enough evidence was found for syphilis screening through community pharmacies; more studies are

  1. Can blood tranfusion transmit cancer? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hung; Lee, June; Seed, Clive R; Keller, Anthony J

    2010-07-01

    Blood services around the world face increasing challenges in recruiting voluntary blood donors. With increasing donor restrictions and ageing populations, it is essential to look for any existing restrictions that may be relaxed in the light of currently available evidence. We propose that one such restriction is the exclusion of blood donors with a history of a malignancy. Most blood services apart from the United States and Australia continue the historical precaution of permanently excluding donors with a history of cancer, despite the absence of any convincing reports of cancer transmission among the millions of allogeneic blood transfusions performed since the advent of blood banking. In 2007, workers in Scandinavia published convincing data from the SCANDAT (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database that showed no increase in cancer risk among recipients of blood from "precancerous" donors (ie, donors who were later diagnosed with cancer within 5 years of donating) vs recipients of blood from other donors. This review aims to reconcile this finding with other data available in the published literature that is pertinent to the risk of transmitting cancer via blood transfusion, with a view to establishing that there is now sufficient evidence to support the acceptance of carefully selected blood donors with a history of malignant disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Parasitic zoonoses transmitted by drinking water. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, M; Gornik, V

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the parasitic zoonose organisms Giardia lamblia und Cryptosporidium spp. are among the most relevant pathogens of drinking water-associated disease outbreaks. These pathogens are transmitted via a fecal-oral route; in both cases the dose of infection is low. Apart from person-to-person or animal-to-person transmissions, the consumption of contaminated food and water are further modes of transmission. The disease is mainly characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. In industrialized countries, the prevalence rate of giardiasis is 2-5 % and of cryptosporidiosis 1-3%. Throughout the world, a large number of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with drinking water were published; in 2001 the first case in Germany was identified. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are detected in surface water and sporadically in unprotected groundwater. Use of these waters for drinking water abstraction makes high demands on the technology of the treatment process: because of the disinfectant resistance of the parasites, safe elimination methods are needed, which even at high contamination levels of source water guarantee safe drinking water. Further measures for prevention and control are implementation of the HACCP concept, which includes the whole chain of procedures of drinking water supply from catchment via treatment to tap and a quality management system.

  3. Failure to transmit avian vacuolar myelinopathy to mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.S.; Nutter, F.B.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease that has been diagnosed in free-ranging birds in the southeastern United States. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leuocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been affected. Previous investigations have not determined the etiology of this disease. In November and December 2002, we attempted to induce AVM in game-farmed mallards through four, 7-day exposure trials. Mallards were housed in six groups of eight, with two of these groups serving as controls. One group was housed with AVM-affected coots; one group was tube fed daily with water from the lake where affected coots were captured; one group was tube fed daily with aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla verticillata) from the same lake; and another group was tube fed daily with sediment from the lake. No ducks exhibited clinical neurologic abnormalities consistent with AVM and no evidence of AVM was present at histopathologic examination of brain tissue. Although limitations in sample size, quantity of individual doses, frequency of dose administration, duration of exposure, and timing of these trials restrict the interpretation of the findings, AVM was not readily transmitted by direct contact, water, hydrilla, or sediment in this investigation.

  4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling.

  5. Physical and Sexual Violence and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mallika; Redding, Colleen A.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate whether women aged 13–35 who were victims of interpersonal violence were more likely than nonvictims to experience incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods We examined 542 women aged 13–35 enrolled in Project PROTECT, a randomized clinical trial that compared two different methods of computer-based intervention to promote the use of dual methods of contraception. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included questions about their history of interpersonal violence and were followed for incident STIs over the 2-year study period. We compared the incidence of STIs in women with and without a history of interpersonal violence using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Results In the bivariate analyses, STI incidence was found to be significantly associated with African American race/ethnicity, a higher number of sexual partners in the past month, and a lower likelihood of avoidance of sexual partners who pressure to have sex without a condom. In both crude and adjusted regression analyses, time to STI incidence was faster among women who reported physical or sexual abuse in the year before study enrollment (HRRadj = 1.68, 95% CI 1.06, 2.65). Conclusions Women with a recent history of abuse are at significantly increased risk of STI incidence than are nonvictims. PMID:19245303

  6. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  7. Prevalence and patterns of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos R; García-Morales, Claudia; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Escobar, Ingrid; Mendizabal, Ricardo; Girón, Amalia; García, Leticia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Guatemala. One hundred forty-five antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients referred to the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City were enrolled from October 2010 to March 2011. Plasma HIV pol sequences were obtained and TDR was assessed with the Stanford algorithm and the World Health Organization (WHO) TDR surveillance mutation list. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Guatemala (96.6%, 140/145), and a 2.8% (4/145) prevalence of BF1 recombinants and 0.7% (1/145) prevalence of subtype C viruses were found. TDR prevalence for the study period was 8.3% (12/145) with the Stanford database algorithm (score > 15) and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. Most TDR cases were associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (83.3%, 10/12); a low prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors was observed in the cohort (Guatemala. TDR prevalence in Guatemala was at the intermediate level. Most TDR cases were associated with NNRTIs. Further and continuous TDR surveillance is necessary to gain more indepth knowledge about TDR spread and trends in Guatemala and to optimize treatment outcomes in the country.

  8. Trichomoniasis as sexually transmitted disease in sex partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 30 male consorts of 30 cases of vaginal trichomoniasis with high levels of parasitic infection was undertaken to evaluate the sexually transmitted role of trichomoniasis in sex partners. There were 20 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic male partners, who revealed T. vaginalis in 80.0% and 60.0 of the cases respectively and the overall prevalence was 73.3% (22 Of 30. T. vaginalis was detected in 83.3% male with urethritis and 50.0% males with prostatitis. Detection of trichomonas in urethral discharge, morning drop secretion, urine deposit and prostatic fluid was 80.0%, 50.0% 35.7% and 21.4% in that order. It is evident from these results that the sex consorts of all cases of trichomoniasis should be considered as harbouring T. vaginalis in their genito-urinary tract as carriers and be treated to break the chain of transmission. Fontanna smear was superior to culture and wet mount in the detection of T. vaginalis, the success rates being 73.3%, 63.3% and 53.3%. A good correlation was observed between smear and culture at high levels of parasitic infection.

  9. The capacity of black holes to transmit quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brádler, Kamil; Adami, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We study the properties of the quantum information transmission channel that emerges from the quantum dynamics of particles interacting with a black hole horizon. We calculate the quantum channel capacity in two limiting cases where a single-letter capacity is known to exist: the limit of perfectly reflecting and perfectly absorbing black holes. We find that the perfectly reflecting black hole channel is closely related to the Unruh channel and that its capacity is non-vanishing, allowing for the perfect reconstruction of quantum information outside of the black hole horizon. We also find that the complementary channel (transmitting entanglement behind the horizon) is entanglement-breaking in this case, with vanishing capacity. We then calculate the quantum capacity of the black hole channel in the limit of a perfectly absorbing black hole and find that this capacity vanishes, while the capacity of the complementary channel is non-vanishing instead. Rather than inviting a new crisis for quantum physics, this finding instead is in accordance with the quantum no-cloning theorem, because it guarantees that there are no space-like surfaces that contain both the sender’s quantum state and the receiver’s reconstructed quantum state

  10. On the power amplifier nonlinearity in MIMO transmit beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, single-carrier multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity are investigated. Specifically, due to the suboptimality of the conventional maximal ratio transmission/maximal ratio combining (MRT/MRC) under HPA nonlinearity, we propose the optimal TB scheme with the optimal beamforming weight vector and combining vector, for MIMO systems with nonlinear HPAs. Moreover, an alternative suboptimal but much simpler TB scheme, namely, quantized equal gain transmission (QEGT), is proposed. The latter profits from the property that the elements of the beamforming weight vector have the same constant modulus. The performance of the proposed optimal TB scheme and QEGT/MRC technique in the presence of the HPA nonlinearity is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability and mutual information with the Gaussian input, considering the transmission over uncorrelated quasi-static frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects on the performance of several system parameters, namely, the HPA parameters, numbers of antennas, quadrature amplitude modulation modulation order, number of pilot symbols, and cardinality of the beamforming weight vector codebook for QEGT. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Sex Work Regulation and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Troy; Gonzalez, Fidel

    2017-05-01

    While reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections is a common argument for regulating sex work, relatively little empirical evidence is available regarding the effectiveness of these policies. We investigate the effects of highly publicized sex work regulations introduced in 2005 in Tijuana, Mexico on the incidence of trichomoniasis. State-level, annual data for the 1995-2012 period are employed that include the incidence rates of trichomoniasis by age group and predictor variables. We find that the regulations led to a decrease in the incidence rate of trichomoniasis. Specifically, while our estimates are somewhat noisy, the all-ages incidence rate in the 2005-2012 period is roughly 37% lower than what is predicted by our synthetic control estimates and corresponds to approximately 800 fewer reported cases of trichomoniasis per year. We find that the decreases are especially pronounced for 15-24 and 25-44 age cohorts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The role of fear in predicting sexually transmitted infection screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lee; Smith, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    This study assessed the extent to which social-cognitive factors (attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and the fear of a positive test result predict sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening intentions and subsequent behaviour. Study 1 (N = 85) used a longitudinal design to assess the factors that predict STI screening intention and future screening behaviour measured one month later at Time 2. Study 2 (N = 102) used an experimental design to determine whether the relationship between fear and screening varied depending on whether STI or HIV screening was being assessed both before and after controlling for social-cognitive factors. Across the studies the outcome measures were sexual health screening. In both studies, the fear of having an STI positively predicted STI screening intention. In Study 1, fear, but not the social-cognitive factors, also predicted subsequent STI screening behaviour. In Study 2, the fear of having HIV did not predict HIV screening intention, but attitude negatively and response efficacy positively predicted screening intention. This study highlights the importance of considering the nature of the health condition when assessing the role of fear on health promotion.

  13. Reflection on care in recurrent sexually transmitted co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparello, Joel Zamora; Beyers, Carl; Por, Jitna

    Reflection is a skill that nurses are expected to practise to help them continually re-evaluate their personal effectiveness in problem solving. This skill is necessary when caring for patients who are experiencing the complex challenges linked to psychosexual and psychosociological behavioural changes associated with HIV infection and recurrent sexually transmitted co-infections (STC-I). The Johns model of structured reflection was used in the reflection described here to aid the critical thinking process in helping a nurse to manage and deliver up-to-date, effective care and to develop a strong nurse-patient therapeutic relationship. A holistic approach is key to delivering care to patients with recurrent STC-I. This involves taking a sexual health history and establishing the correct diagnosis, followed by the administration of pharmaceutical and psychotherapeutic treatments to facilitate psychosexual, psychosocial, and psychological changes. This article uses a reflective learning experience in caring for a patient with recurrent STC-I to give insights on psychosexual and psychosociological behavioural strategies. Used with a diagnosis and pharmacological intervention, these strategies can be put into nursing practice and enhance the quality of nursing care.

  14. On Secure NOMA Systems with Transmit Antenna Selection Schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Jianming; Park, Kihong; Xu, Peng; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Pan, Gaofeng; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the secrecy performance of a two-user downlink non-orthogonal multiple access systems. Both single-input and single-output and multiple-input and singleoutput systems with different transmit antenna selection (TAS) strategies are considered. Depending on whether the base station has the global channel state information of both the main and wiretap channels, the exact closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) with suboptimal antenna selection and optimal antenna selection schemes are obtained and compared with the traditional space-time transmission scheme. To obtain further insights, the asymptotic analysis of the SOP in high average channel power gains regime is presented and it is found that the secrecy diversity order for all the TAS schemes with fixed power allocation is zero. Furthermore, an effective power allocation scheme is proposed to obtain the nonzero diversity order with all the TAS schemes. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to verify the proposed analytical results.

  15. Haemophilus ducreyi: from sexually transmitted infection to skin ulcer pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David A; Mitjà, Oriol

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the biology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tests, and treatment of Haemophilus ducreyi infection, with special reference to the decline of chancroid and the recent emergence of H. ducreyi as a pathogen responsible for chronic limb ulceration clinically similar to yaws. Chancroid has declined in importance as a sexually transmitted infection in most countries where it was previously endemic. Chancroid may be caused by either class I or class II H. ducreyi isolates; these two classes diverged from each other approximately 1.95 million years ago. H. ducreyi has recently emerged as a cause of chronic skin ulceration in the Pacific region and Africa. Based on sequencing of whole genomes and defined genetic loci, it appears that the cutaneous H. ducreyi strains diverged from the class I genital strains relatively recently. H. ducreyi should be considered as a major cause of chronic limb ulceration in both adults and children and appropriate molecular diagnostic assays are required to determine ulcer aetiology. The high prevalence of H. ducreyi-related cutaneous ulceration in yaws-endemic countries has challenged the validity of observational surveys to monitor the effectiveness of the WHO's yaws eradication campaign.

  16. The capacity of black holes to transmit quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brádler, Kamil [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University,Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Adami, Christoph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    We study the properties of the quantum information transmission channel that emerges from the quantum dynamics of particles interacting with a black hole horizon. We calculate the quantum channel capacity in two limiting cases where a single-letter capacity is known to exist: the limit of perfectly reflecting and perfectly absorbing black holes. We find that the perfectly reflecting black hole channel is closely related to the Unruh channel and that its capacity is non-vanishing, allowing for the perfect reconstruction of quantum information outside of the black hole horizon. We also find that the complementary channel (transmitting entanglement behind the horizon) is entanglement-breaking in this case, with vanishing capacity. We then calculate the quantum capacity of the black hole channel in the limit of a perfectly absorbing black hole and find that this capacity vanishes, while the capacity of the complementary channel is non-vanishing instead. Rather than inviting a new crisis for quantum physics, this finding instead is in accordance with the quantum no-cloning theorem, because it guarantees that there are no space-like surfaces that contain both the sender’s quantum state and the receiver’s reconstructed quantum state.

  17. On Secure NOMA Systems with Transmit Antenna Selection Schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-08-09

    This paper investigates the secrecy performance of a two-user downlink non-orthogonal multiple access systems. Both single-input and single-output and multiple-input and singleoutput systems with different transmit antenna selection (TAS) strategies are considered. Depending on whether the base station has the global channel state information of both the main and wiretap channels, the exact closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) with suboptimal antenna selection and optimal antenna selection schemes are obtained and compared with the traditional space-time transmission scheme. To obtain further insights, the asymptotic analysis of the SOP in high average channel power gains regime is presented and it is found that the secrecy diversity order for all the TAS schemes with fixed power allocation is zero. Furthermore, an effective power allocation scheme is proposed to obtain the nonzero diversity order with all the TAS schemes. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to verify the proposed analytical results.

  18. [Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Argentina. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socías, M Eugenia; Fernández, Anabel; Gil, José F; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered.

  19. [Awareness and education regarding sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments.

  20. Digital Receiver Design for Transmitted Reference Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiyin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A complete detection, channel estimation, synchronization, and equalization scheme for a transmitted reference (TR ultra-wideband (UWB system is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on a data model which admits a moderate data rate and takes both the interframe interference (IFI and the intersymbol interference (ISI into consideration. Moreover, the bias caused by the interpulse interference (IPI in one frame is also taken into account. Based on the analysis of the stochastic properties of the received signals, several detectors are studied and evaluated. Furthermore, a data-aided two-stage synchronization strategy is proposed, which obtains sample-level timing in the range of one symbol at the first stage and then pursues symbol-level synchronization by looking for the header at the second stage. Three channel estimators are derived to achieve joint channel and timing estimates for the first stage, namely, the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE estimator, the least squares (LS estimator, and the matched filter (MF. We check the performance of different combinations of channel estimation and equalization schemes and try to find the best combination, that is, the one providing a good tradeoff between complexity and performance.

  1. Digital Receiver Design for Transmitted Reference Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete detection, channel estimation, synchronization, and equalization scheme for a transmitted reference (TR ultra-wideband (UWB system is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on a data model which admits a moderate data rate and takes both the interframe interference (IFI and the intersymbol interference (ISI into consideration. Moreover, the bias caused by the interpulse interference (IPI in one frame is also taken into account. Based on the analysis of the stochastic properties of the received signals, several detectors are studied and evaluated. Furthermore, a data-aided two-stage synchronization strategy is proposed, which obtains sample-level timing in the range of one symbol at the first stage and then pursues symbol-level synchronization by looking for the header at the second stage. Three channel estimators are derived to achieve joint channel and timing estimates for the first stage, namely, the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE estimator, the least squares (LS estimator, and the matched filter (MF. We check the performance of different combinations of channel estimation and equalization schemes and try to find the best combination, that is, the one providing a good tradeoff between complexity and performance.

  2. Potential drug development candidates for human soil-transmitted helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Olliaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Few drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH; the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are the only drugs being used for preventive chemotherapy as they can be given in one single dose with no weight adjustment. While generally safe and effective in reducing intensity of infection, they are contra-indicated in first-trimester pregnancy and have suboptimal efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. In addition, drug resistance is a threat. It is therefore important to find alternatives.We searched the literature and the animal health marketed products and pipeline for potential drug development candidates. Recently registered veterinary products offer advantages in that they have undergone extensive and rigorous animal testing, thus reducing the risk, cost and time to approval for human trials. For selected compounds, we retrieved and summarised publicly available information (through US Freedom of Information (FoI statements, European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR and published literature. Concomitantly, we developed a target product profile (TPP against which the products were compared.The paper summarizes the general findings including various classes of compounds, and more specific information on two veterinary anthelmintics (monepantel, emodepside and nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoal drug, compiled from the EMA EPAR and FDA registration files.Few of the compounds already approved for use in human or animal medicine qualify for development track decision. Fast-tracking to approval for human studies may be possible for veterinary compounds like emodepside and monepantel, but additional information remains to be acquired before an informed decision can be made.

  3. Nudging Armed Groups: How Civilians Transmit Norms of Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kaplan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What are the varying roles that norms play to either enable or constrain violence in armed conflict settings? The article examines this question by drawing on experiences from communities and armed groups in Colombia and Syria. It begins by presenting an explanation of how norms of violence and nonviolence may arise within communities and influence the behavior of civilian residents, reducing the chances of them becoming involved with armed groups. It then considers how civilian communities can transmit those same norms, shared understandings, and patterns of interaction to the ranks of illegal armed groups and subsequently shape their decisions about the use of violence against civilians. The author argues that civilians may be better positioned to promote the principles codified in International Humanitarian Law than international humanitarian organizations because they have closer contact with irregular armed actors and are viewed with greater legitimacy. The analysis illustrates that to better understand civilian protection mechanisms it is essential to study the interactions between communities and armed actors.

  4. EPA-Registered Repellents for Mosquitoes Transmitting Emerging Viral Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Radha V; Shaeer, Kristy M; Patel, Pooja; Garmaza, Aleksey; Wiangkham, Kornwalee; Franks, Rachel B; Pane, Olivia; Carris, Nicholas W

    2016-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing to use DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify which EPA-registered personal mosquito repellent provides the best protection from A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We abstracted data from 62 published reports of EPA-registered mosquito repellents. The conventional repellent picaridin has the strongest data to support its use as a second-line agent, while IR3535 and oil of lemon eucalyptus are reasonably effective natural products. Citronella, catnip, and 2-undecanone offer limited protection or have limited data. These results can be used by pharmacists and other health care professionals to advise patients on the selection of an EPA-registered mosquito repellent. Regardless of the repellent chosen, it is vital for patients to follow all instructions/precautions in the product labeling to ensure safe and effective use. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  5. Aerosols transmit prions to immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haybaeck

    Full Text Available Prions, the agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, colonize the brain of hosts after oral, parenteral, intralingual, or even transdermal uptake. However, prions are not generally considered to be airborne. Here we report that inbred and crossbred wild-type mice, as well as tga20 transgenic mice overexpressing PrP(C, efficiently develop scrapie upon exposure to aerosolized prions. NSE-PrP transgenic mice, which express PrP(C selectively in neurons, were also susceptible to airborne prions. Aerogenic infection occurred also in mice lacking B- and T-lymphocytes, NK-cells, follicular dendritic cells or complement components. Brains of diseased mice contained PrP(Sc and transmitted scrapie when inoculated into further mice. We conclude that aerogenic exposure to prions is very efficacious and can lead to direct invasion of neural pathways without an obligatory replicative phase in lymphoid organs. This previously unappreciated risk for airborne prion transmission may warrant re-thinking on prion biosafety guidelines in research and diagnostic laboratories.

  6. On the power amplifier nonlinearity in MIMO transmit beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, single-carrier multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity are investigated. Specifically, due to the suboptimality of the conventional maximal ratio transmission/maximal ratio combining (MRT/MRC) under HPA nonlinearity, we propose the optimal TB scheme with the optimal beamforming weight vector and combining vector, for MIMO systems with nonlinear HPAs. Moreover, an alternative suboptimal but much simpler TB scheme, namely, quantized equal gain transmission (QEGT), is proposed. The latter profits from the property that the elements of the beamforming weight vector have the same constant modulus. The performance of the proposed optimal TB scheme and QEGT/MRC technique in the presence of the HPA nonlinearity is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability and mutual information with the Gaussian input, considering the transmission over uncorrelated quasi-static frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects on the performance of several system parameters, namely, the HPA parameters, numbers of antennas, quadrature amplitude modulation modulation order, number of pilot symbols, and cardinality of the beamforming weight vector codebook for QEGT. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  8. Molecular Diagnostics Update for the Emerging (If Not Already Widespread) Sexually Transmitted Infection Agent Mycoplasma genitalium: Just About Ready for Prime Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Erik

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an important and emerging agent of sexually transmitted infection in females and males, carrying the potential for postinfection genital tract sequelae. Past efforts to identify this organism on a routine basis, which were problematic due to the fastidious nature of the bacterium and its antigenic intricacies, have recently become supplemented by molecular diagnostics. A number of these assays are available commercially. This minireview describes the format and performance indices of a number of M. genitalium DNA- and RNA-based amplification assays; many of these assays have contributed to an improved clinical and epidemiologic understanding of this organism. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. [Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Borrull, C; Palà, M; Caubet, I; Bach, P; Nuín, C; Espinet, L; Torres, J; Mirada, G

    2003-01-01

    The chlorination of public water supplies has led researchers to largely discard drinking water as a potential source of gastroenteritis outbreaks. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak of waterborne disease associated with drinking water from public supplies. A historical cohort study was carried out following notification of a gastroenteritis outbreak in Baqueira (Valle de Arán, Spain). We used systematic sampling to select 87 individuals staying at hotels and 67 staying in apartments in the target area. Information was gathered on four factors (consumption of water from the public water supply, sandwiches, water and food in the ski resorts) as well as on symptoms. We assessed residual chlorine in drinking water, analyzed samples of drinking water, and studied stool cultures from 4 patients. The risk associated with each water source and food type was assessed by means of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall attack rate was 51.0% (76/149). The main symptoms were diarrhea 87.5%, abdominal pain 80.0%, nausea 50.7%, vomiting 30.3%, and fever 27.0%. The only factor associated with a statistically significant risk of disease was consumption of drinking water (RR = 11.0; 95% CI, 1.6-74.7). No residual chlorine was detected in the drinking water, which was judged acceptable. A problem associated with the location of the chlorinator was observed and corrected. We also recommended an increase in chlorine levels, which was followed by a reduction in the number of cases. The results of stool cultures of the four patients were negative for enterobacteria. This study highlights the potential importance of waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis transmitted through drinking water considered acceptable and suggests the need to improve microbiological research into these outbreaks (viruses and protozoa detection).

  10. Observations of sexually transmitted disease consultations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, T E; Smith, G D; Kantharaj, K; Mugrditchian, D; Radhakrishnan, K M

    1998-03-01

    To assess the quality of sexually transmitted disease (STD) case management provided in public and private health facilities in selected areas of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India, in order to make recommendations for improving the quality of care and promote the syndromic approach to STD treatment. Structured observations of consultations for STDs in health care facilities. Scoring of the observations according to standards for history taking, examination, treatment and provision of basic health promotion advice allows evaluation of STD case management. With STD treatment adequacy scored against Indian national guidelines (which recommend aetiologic treatment), history taking, examination and treatment were satisfactory in 76 out of 108 (70%) of observed consultations. However, if STD treatment adequacy is scored with respect to the syndrome approach towards selected STD (male urethritis and non herpetic genital ulcer for both sexes), only 8 out of 81 (10%) of the patients were satisfactory managed. During 32 out of 108 (30%) of the consultations, advice on the use of condoms in order to prevent STD or HIV/AIDS was given. Instructions regarding how to use condoms were offered to seven (6%) patients and condoms were only provided to one patient (1%). Patients were urged to refer their partner(s) for treatment during 29 (27%) of consultations. A criterion of adequate use of the STD consultation for health promotion, requiring both promotion of condoms and encouragement to refer partner(s) for treatment, was met during 13 (12%) of consultations. Monitoring and improving the standards of care at facilities at which STDs are treated have become key roles of STD/HIV/AIDS programmes. The present report suggests that in Madras the activities of medical practitioners who treat STD patients are far from ideal at present. Improvements would involve simplifying existing treatment guidelines by promoting the syndromic approach to STD management, continuing education programmes for

  11. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs among young adult in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Salfa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs include a large group of widespread infectious diseases, which may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long term complications.The control and prevention of these infections are public health priorities for several reasons: • the large number of people that acquire an STI per year; • the major proportion of asymptomatic infected individuals; • the high circulation in patients with sexual risk behavior (young adults, pluripartner, men who have sex with men, foreigners, commercial sex workers; • increased biological susceptibility of some subjects, such as young adults (immature genital tissues and more receptive to pathogens, women (genital apparatus more complex and extended in which pathogens are more likely to settle, or individuals carrying states of severe immunodeficiency; • the serious complications in the event of failure or incorrect diagnosis and treatment (chronic disease, infertility, oncogenic transformation, synergy with HIV infection; • the possibility of preventing and treating many of these infections. Therefore, recent guidelines from international agencies have recommended countries from the European Union to improve epidemiological STI surveillance systems in order to standardize data collection to facilitate their comparability between different geographical areas and to improve the information flow for faster tracking of the impact; furthermore, to extend surveillance to widespread, but often asymptomatic, disease (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, to conduct behavioural surveillance in patients with STIs, to increase public awareness of the role of STIs in the transmission/acquisition of HIV, and to increase the commitment of institutions in the prevention and control of STIs.

  12. Improving sexually transmitted infection results notification via mobile phone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Huppert, Jill S; Taylor, Regina G; Gillespie, Gordon L; Byczkowski, Terri L; Kahn, Jessica A; Alessandrini, Evaline A

    2014-11-01

    To improve adolescent notification of positive sexually transmitted infection (STI) tests using mobile phone technology and STI information cards. A randomized intervention among 14- to 21-year olds in a pediatric emergency department (PED). A 2 × 3 factorial design with replication was used to evaluate the effectiveness of six combinations of two factors on the proportion of STI-positive adolescents notified within 7 days of testing. Independent factors included method of notification (call, text message, or call + text message) and provision of an STI information card with or without a phone number to obtain results. Covariates for logistic regression included age, empiric STI treatment, days until first attempted notification, and documentation of confidential phone number. Approximately half of the 383 females and 201 males enrolled were ≥18 years of age. Texting only or type of card was not significantly associated with patient notification rates, and there was no significant interaction between card and notification method. For females, successful notification was significantly greater for call + text message (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.9), and documenting a confidential phone number was independently associated with successful notification (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.5). We found no significant predictors of successful notification for males. Of patients with a documented confidential phone number who received a call + text message, 94% of females and 83% of males were successfully notified. Obtaining a confidential phone number and using call + text message improved STI notification rates among female but not male adolescents in a pediatric emergency department. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Partner notification of sexually transmitted diseases: practices and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursahaney, Priya R; Jeong, Kwonho; Dixon, Bruce W; Wiesenfeld, Harold C

    2011-09-01

    Timely notification and treatment of sex partners exposed to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is essential to reduce reinfection and transmission. Our objectives were to determine factors associated with patient-initiated notification of sex partners and preferences regarding standard partner referral versus expedited partner therapy (EPT). Participants diagnosed with gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, or nongonococcal urethritis within the previous year were administered a baseline survey asking about demographics, sexual history, and partner treatment preferences (standard partner referral vs. EPT). They identified up to 4 sex partners within the past 2 months, and answered questions on relationship characteristics, quality, and notification self-efficacy. At follow-up, participants with a current STD were asked whether they notified their partners. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between predictor variables and partner notification. Of the 201 subjects enrolled, 157 had a current STD diagnosis, and 289 sex partners were identified. The rate of successful partner notification was 77.3% (157/203 sex partners). Partner notification was increased if the subject had a long-term relationship with a sex partner (odds ratio: 3.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), considered the partner to be a main partner (odds ratio: 2.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), or had increased notification self-efficacy. Overall, participants did not prefer EPT over standard referral; however, females, those with higher education levels, and those with a prior STD preferred EPT. Patient-initiated partner referral is more successful in patients with increased self-efficacy who have stronger interpersonal relationships with their sex partners.

  14. AABB Committee Report: reducing transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddle, Nancy M; Boeckh, Michael; Grossman, Brenda; Jacobson, Jessica; Kleinman, Steven; Tobian, Aaron A R; Webert, Kathryn; Wong, Edward C C; Roback, John D

    2016-06-01

    Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (TT-CMV) is often asymptomatic, but certain patient populations, such as very low birth weight neonates, fetuses requiring intrauterine transfusion, pregnant women, patients with primary immunodeficiencies, transplant recipients, and patients receiving chemotherapy or transplantation for malignant disease, may be at risk of life-threatening CMV infection. It is unclear whether leukoreduction of cellular blood components is sufficient to reduce TT-CMV or whether CMV serological testing adds additional benefit to leukoreduction. The AABB CMV Prevention Work Group commissioned a systematic review to address these issues and subsequently develop clinical practice guidelines. However, the data were of poor quality, and no studies of significant size have been performed for over a decade. Rather than creating guidelines of questionable utility, the Work Group (with approval of the AABB Board of Directors) voted to prepare this Committee Report. There is wide variation in practices of using leukoreduced components alone or combining CMV-serology and leukoreduction to prevent TT-CMV for at-risk patients. Other approaches may also be feasible to prevent TT-CMV, including plasma nucleic acid testing, pathogen inactivation, and patient blood management programs to reduce the frequency of inappropriate transfusions. It is unlikely that future large-scale clinical trials will be performed to determine whether leukoreduction, CMV-serology, or a combination of both is superior. Consequently, alternative strategies including pragmatic randomized controlled trials, registries, and collaborations for electronic data merging, nontraditional approaches to inform evidence, or development of a systematic approach to inform expert opinion may help to address the issue of CMV-safe blood components. © 2016 AABB.

  15. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Guthrie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI.Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01.Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  16. [Sexually transmitted infections in Germany : The current epidemiological situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Viviane; Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Buder, Susanne; An der Heiden, Matthias; Jansen, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can impair sexual health. Surveillance and study data were used to provide an overview over STIs in Germany. We estimated 3900 new HIV diagnoses in 2015. Of newly diagnosed infections, 57% were attributed to men who have sex with men (MSM). It was further estimated that there were 3200 new HIV infections and 84,700 people living with HIV in 2015. A total of 6834 syphilis infections were recorded in 2015, which corresponds to an increase of 149% since 2009. The incidence in men was 16-times higher than in women. Of syphilis infections, 85% could be attributed to MSM. Antimicrobial resistance of gonococci against the broad-spectrum antibiotic cefixime decreased between 2014 and 2016 after a change of therapy guidelines and remained stable on a low level regarding the antibiotic ceftriaxone. After an increase of resistance against the antibiotic azithromycin to 11.3% in 2015, we observed a decreasing trend in 2016. Between 2013 and 2015, 2,355,336 chlamydia tests were reported through the chlamydia sentinel network. Of these, 92.5% of samples were from women. Uptake for screening for women human papilloma virus (HPV) of 38.1% was observed. A total of 30.5% of 15-year-old women were vaccinated against HPV in 2014. Data suggest that STIs represent a high burden of disease. Knowledge of STI prevention should be improved by targeted education campaigns. Extending existing offers for counselling and testing through cooperation between different health sectors would improve early diagnosis and treatment of STIs.

  17. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-27

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  18. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  19. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  20. Diagnosis of vascular injuries caused by hand-transmitted vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, N; Mahbub, M H

    2008-04-01

    For a reliable objective diagnosis of vascular injuries in hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), the standardized cold provocation tests--finger skin temperature measurement during hand(s) immersion in cold water (FST test) and finger systolic blood pressure measurement during local cold exposure (FSBP test)--are widely used. In recent years there is a growing controversy regarding the diagnostic value of these tests. The aim of this study was to describe particularly the diagnostic performance of FST and FSBP tests, and also to focus on the problems and uncertainties regarding the test conditions and results, in the laboratory diagnosis of vascular injuries caused by hand-transmitted vibration. A review of pertinent published English- and Japanese-language articles and conference proceedings (between 1976 and 2006) was conducted. From the reports with regard to diagnostic significance of the FSBP test, it seems to be an important laboratory test for diagnosing vibration-induced white finger (VWF). On the other hand, despite a large number of research studies with the FST test, there is a lack of data for the standardized FST test, which can confirm the value of it in diagnosing VWF. Moreover, there is no agreement on effective parameter/s to quantify and compare the responses in FST induced by immersion in cold water. While assessing and staging vascular injuries in HAVS, inquiry regarding finger coldness appears to be useful. As there is no single test with satisfactory diagnostic ability for VWF, at present it is reasonable to use the cold provocation tests as a part of the comprehensive approach to evaluate HAVS patients. In addition to the objective methods, the index of finger coldness may be useful while diagnosing the vascular component of HAVS.

  1. Parental perspectives on vaccinating children against sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Rose M; Sturm, Lynne A; Zimet, Gregory D

    2004-04-01

    Several vaccines for sexually transmitted infections (STI) are presently in development and the eventual availability of such vaccines is expected to result in the prevention of a significant number of burdensome conditions. Young adolescents are presumed to be likely targets for these vaccines since adolescents' risk for STI increases as they age and become sexually active. It is unclear, however, to what extent parents will agree to having adolescents receive STI vaccines. Inasmuch as acceptance is the foundation for effective immunization programs, an understanding of parental perspectives about this issue is required to inform future STI vaccine program strategies. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that used in-depth interviews to elicit attitudes from 34 parents about accepting vaccines for genital herpes, human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus and gonorrhea for their children (aged 8-17). Data were collected from parents bringing their children for care at an urban clinic and a suburban private office. Content analysis of the responses revealed that most parents (>70%) approved the administration of all four of the STI vaccines proposed. Parents' reasons for acceptance included wanting to protect their children, being concerned about specific disease characteristics, and previous experience with the infections. Parents who declined the vaccines did so primarily because they perceived their children to be at low risk for the infections or they had low concern about features of the diseases. Most parents thought they should be the decision-maker regarding children receiving an STI vaccine. Results from this study will be used to plan subsequent investigations of the determinants of STI vaccine acceptance by parents.

  2. Frequency of sexually transmitted diseases and main methodological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaleida Napoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV persistence is the most important cervical cancer risk factor, while Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium(MG, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and parvum (UP are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs causing infertility, pregnancy complication, lung problems in newborns. Methods. 135 urine, 135 urethral swabs, 553 cervical swabs, 110 seminal fluids and 1440 Thin Prep, were tested with culture methods, Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR and multiplex SYBR Green PCR-endpoint to detect STDs. PCR- endpoint was performed to detect HPV. Results. Culture methods showed the lowest sensitivity: for MH it was only 24% (compared to RT-PCR. UP/UU were the most frequent pathogens (13% with culture, 29% with PCR-endpoint, 41,67% with RT-PCR. Turn Around Time was respectively: 48h, 6h and 2h. RT-PCR cervical frequencies for CT, MH, MG, UU, UP were: 5.42%, 11.03%, 1.81%, 11.21% and 35.08%. HPV positivity in primary and secondary screening was 17.33% and 51.14%. Highes t positivity age group was: 23-32 years for CT (17%, and 18-27 years for HPV (33%. Conclusions. RT-PCR is more sensitive, faster, less expensive than other molecular tests like PCR-endpoint and microarrays. It allows more efficient laboratory organization: pre-analytical phase is more automated and enable the implementation of further diagnostic tests for pathologies that need rapid identification, such as meningitidis and sepsis, with reduced human and instrumental resource. Regarding STDs screening, it should be performed in women: for CT at least up to 27 years; for HPV between 35-50 years, since persisting HR-HPV infection is responsible of high-grade lesions.

  3. Evolution of the apomixis transmitting chromosome in Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada-Akiyama Hitomi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apomixis is an intriguing trait in plants that results in maternal clones through seed reproduction. Apomixis is an elusive, but potentially revolutionary, trait for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Recent studies arguing that apomicts are not evolutionary dead ends have generated further interest in the evolution of asexual flowering plants. Results In the present study, we investigate karyotypic variation in a single chromosome responsible for transmitting apomixis, the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region carrier chromosome, in relation to species phylogeny in the genera Pennisetum and Cenchrus. A 1 kb region from the 3' end of the ndhF gene and a 900 bp region from trnL-F were sequenced from 12 apomictic and eight sexual species in the genus Pennisetum and allied genus Cenchrus. An 800 bp region from the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region also was sequenced from the 12 apomicts. Molecular cytological analysis was conducted in sixteen Pennisetum and two Cenchrus species. Our results indicate that the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region is shared by all apomictic species while it is absent from all sexual species or cytotypes. Contrary to our previous observations in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, retrotransposon sequences of the Opie-2-like family were not closely associated with the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region in all apomictic species, suggesting that they may have been accumulated after the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region originated. Conclusions Given that phylogenetic analysis merged Cenchrus and newly investigated Pennisetum species into a single clade containing a terminal cluster of Cenchrus apomicts, the presumed monophyletic origin of Cenchrus is supported. The Apospory-Specific Genomic Region likely preceded speciation in Cenchrus and its lateral transfer through hybridization and subsequent chromosome repatterning may have contributed to further speciation in the two genera.

  4. Can Chlamydia abortus be transmitted by embryo transfer in goats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseikria, M; Pellerin, J L; Rodolakis, A; Vorimore, F; Laroucau, K; Bruyas, J F; Roux, C; Michaud, S; Larrat, M; Fieni, F

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether Chlamydia abortus would adhere to or penetrate the intact zona pellucida (ZP-intact) of early in vivo-derived caprine embryos, after in vitro infection; and (ii) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol for bovine embryos. Fifty-two ZP-intact embryos (8-16 cells), obtained from 14 donors were used in this experiment. The embryos were randomly divided into 12 batches. Nine batches (ZP-intact) of five embryos were incubated in a medium containing 4 × 10(7)Chlamydia/mL of AB7 strain. After incubation for 18 hours at 37 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, the embryos were washed in batches in 10 successive baths of a phosphate buffer saline and 5% fetal calf serum solution in accordance with IETS guidelines. In parallel, three batches of ZP-intact embryos were used as controls by being subjected to similar procedures but without exposure to C. abortus. The 10 wash baths were collected separately and centrifuged for 1 hour at 13,000 × g. The washed embryos and the pellets of the 10 centrifuged wash baths were frozen at -20 °C before examination for evidence of C. abortus using polymerase chain reaction. C. abortus DNA was found in all of the infected batches of ZP-intact embryos (9/9) after 10 successive washes. It was also detected in the 10th wash fluid for seven batches of embryos, whereas for the two other batches, the last positive wash bath was the eighth and the ninth, respectively. In contrast, none of the embryos or their washing fluids in the control batches were DNA positive. These results report that C. abortus adheres to and/or penetrates the ZP of in vivo caprine embryos after in vitro infection, and that the standard washing protocol recommended by the IETS for bovine embryos, failed to remove it. The persistence of these bacteria after washing makes the embryo a potential means of transmission of the bacterium during embryo transfer from

  5. DNA preservation in silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yawen; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Gong, He; Liu, Meng; Guo, Shaozhe; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2017-06-27

    The structure of DNA is susceptible to alterations at high temperature and on changing pH, irradiation and exposure to DNase. Options to protect and preserve DNA during storage are important for applications in genetic diagnosis, identity authentication, drug development and bioresearch. In the present study, the stability of total DNA purified from human dermal fibroblast cells, as well as that of plasmid DNA, was studied in silk protein materials. The DNA/silk mixtures were stabilized on filter paper (silk/DNA + filter) or filter paper pre-coated with silk and treated with methanol (silk/DNA + PT-filter) as a route to practical utility. After air-drying and water extraction, 50-70% of the DNA and silk could be retrieved and showed a single band on electrophoretic gels. 6% silk/DNA + PT-filter samples provided improved stability in comparison with 3% silk/DNA + filter samples and DNA + filter samples for DNA preservation, with ∼40% of the band intensity remaining at 37 °C after 40 days and ∼10% after exposure to UV light for 10 hours. Quantitative analysis using the PicoGreen assay confirmed the results. The use of Tris/borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer enhanced the preservation and/or extraction of the DNA. The DNA extracted after storage maintained integrity and function based on serving as a functional template for PCR amplification of the gene for zinc finger protein 750 (ZNF750) and for transgene expression of red fluorescence protein (dsRed) in HEK293 cells. The high molecular weight and high content of a crystalline beta-sheet structure formed on the coated surfaces likely accounted for the preservation effects observed for the silk/DNA + PT-filter samples. Although similar preservation effects were also obtained for lyophilized silk/DNA samples, the rapid and simple processing available with the silk-DNA-filter membrane system makes it appealing for future applications.

  6. Force induced DNA melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K

    2009-01-01

    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f m , at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  7. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  8. A nuptially transmitted ichthyosporean symbiont of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Jeffrey C; Hartzer, Kris L; Kambhampati, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, harbors a symbiont that has spores with a thick, laminated wall and infects the fat body and ventral nerve chord of adult and larval beetles. In adult males, there is heavy infection of the epithelial cells of the testes and between testes lobes with occasional penetration of the lobes. Spores are enveloped in the spermatophores when they are formed at the time of mating and transferred to the female's bursa copulatrix. Infection has not been found in the ovaries. The sequence of the nuclear small subunit rDNA indicates that the symbiont is a member of the Ichthyosporea, a class of protists near the animal-fungi divergence. © 2012 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2012 International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Epidemiology of Leptospira Transmitted by Rodents in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielcarek, Mathilde; Tatard, Caroline; Chaval, Yannick; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Buchy, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses and has been identified as an important emerging global public health problem in Southeast Asia. Rodents are important reservoirs for human leptospirosis, but epidemiological data is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled rodents living in different habitats from seven localities distributed across Southeast Asia (Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia), between 2009 to 2010. Human isolates were also obtained from localities close to where rodents were sampled. The prevalence of Leptospira infection was assessed by real-time PCR using DNA extracted from rodent kidneys, targeting the lipL32 gene. Sequencing rrs and secY genes, and Multi Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on DNA extracted from rat kidneys for Leptospira isolates molecular typing. Four species were detected in rodents, L. borgpetersenii (56% of positive samples), L. interrogans (36%), L. kirschneri (3%) and L. weilli (2%), which were identical to human isolates. Mean prevalence in rodents was approximately 7%, and largely varied across localities and habitats, but not between rodent species. The two most abundant Leptospira species displayed different habitat requirements: L. interrogans was linked to humid habitats (rice fields and forests) while L. borgpetersenii was abundant in both humid and dry habitats (non-floodable lands). Conclusion/Significance L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii species are widely distributed amongst rodent populations, and strain typing confirmed rodents as reservoirs for human leptospirosis. Differences in habitat requirements for L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii supported differential transmission modes. In Southeast Asia, human infection risk is not only restricted to activities taking place in wetlands and rice fields as is commonly accepted, but should also include tasks such as forestry work, as well as the hunting and preparation of rodents for consumption, which

  10. DNA Open states and DNA hydratation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lema-Larre, B. de; Martin-Landrove, M

    1995-01-01

    It is a very well-known fact that an protonic exchange exists among natural DNA filaments and synthetic polynucleotides with the solvent (1--2). The existence of DNA open states, that is to say states for which the interior of the DNA molecule is exposed to the external environment, it has been demonstrated by means of proton-deuterium exchange (3). This work has carried out experiments measuring the dispersion of the traverse relaxation rate (4), as a pulsation rate function in a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulses sequence rate, to determine changes in the moist layer of the DNA molecule. The experiments were carried out under different experimental conditions in order to vary the probability that open states occurs, such as temperature or the exposure to electromagnetic fields. Some theoretical models were supposed to adjust the experimental results including those related to DNA non linear dynamic [es

  11. Immunoassay of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparro, F.P.; Santella, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The direct photomodification of DNA by ultraviolet light or the photo-induced addition of exogenous compounds to DNA components results in alterations of DNA structure ranging from subtle to profound. There are two consequences of these conformational changes. First, cells in which the DNA has been damaged are capable of executing repair steps. Second, the DNA which is usually of very low immunogenicity now becomes highly antigenic. This latter property has allowed the production of a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize photo-induced DNA damage. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated that recognize the 4',5'-monoadduct and the crosslink of 8-methoxypsoralen in DNA. In addition, another antibody has been prepared which recognizes the furan-side monoadduct of 6,4,4'-trimethylangelicin in DNA. These monoclonal antibodies have been characterized as to sensitivity and specificity using non-competitive and competitive enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA). (author)

  12. Immunoassay of DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparro, F P; Santella, R M

    1988-09-01

    The direct photomodification of DNA by ultraviolet light or the photo-induced addition of exogenous compounds to DNA components results in alterations of DNA structure ranging from subtle to profound. There are two consequences of these conformational changes. First, cells in which the DNA has been damaged are capable of executing repair steps. Second, the DNA which is usually of very low immunogenicity now becomes highly antigenic. This latter property has allowed the production of a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize photo-induced DNA damage. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated that recognize the 4',5'-monoadduct and the crosslink of 8-methoxypsoralen in DNA. In addition, another antibody has been prepared which recognizes the furan-side monoadduct of 6,4,4'-trimethylangelicin in DNA. These monoclonal antibodies have been characterized as to sensitivity and specificity using non-competitive and competitive enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

  13. DNA computing models

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatova, Zoya; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    In this excellent text, the reader is given a comprehensive introduction to the field of DNA computing. The book emphasizes computational methods to tackle central problems of DNA computing, such as controlling living cells, building patterns, and generating nanomachines.

  14. DNA tagged microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2015-05-05

    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  15. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  16. A New Resource for STD Clinical Providers: The Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinical Consultation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragol, Laura A; Wendel, Karen A; Anderson, Teri S; Burnside, Helen C; Finkenbinder, Allison; Fitch, John D; Kelley, Destiny H; Stewart, Terry W; Thrun, Mark; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A

    2017-08-01

    An online consultation tool, the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinical Consultation Network is a new resource for sexually transmitted disease clinicians and clinic managers. An initial evaluation shows that most requests (29%) were from medical doctors, followed by nurse practitioners (22%). Syphilis queries comprised 39% of consults followed by gonorrhea (12%) and chlamydia (11%).

  17. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations. 25.220 Section 25.220 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.220 Non-conforming transmit/receive...

  18. 48 CFR 245.7206 - Transmitting DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitting DD Form 1342... Instructions 245.7206 Transmitting DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record. As a minimum, the plant clearance officer will provide the following information in a letter forwarding DD Forms 1342 to DSCR— (a) Number of DD...

  19. 76 FR 75523 - Vessel Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service Providers for Use in... relevant features of the enhanced mobile transmitting unit (E-MTU) VMS and communications service providers... with the Orbcomm mobile communications provider service. Skymate can be reached at 866-SKYMATE and...

  20. 75 FR 63445 - Vessel Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service Providers for Use in the... features of the VMS. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the list of NOAA-approved VMS mobile transmitting units and NOAA-approved VMS communications service providers, please contact the VMS Support Center at...

  1. A final size relation for epidemic models of vector-transmitted diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Brauer

    2017-01-01

    We formulate and analyze an age of infection model for epidemics of diseases transmitted by a vector, including the possibility of direct transmission as well. We show how to determine a basic reproduction number. While there is no explicit final size relation as for diseases transmitted directly, we are able to obtain estimates for the final size of the epidemic.

  2. Transmission of HBV DNA Mediated by Ceramide-Triggered Extracellular VesiclesSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Sanada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: An extracellular vesicle (EV is a nanovesicle that shuttles proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, thereby influencing cell behavior. A recent crop of reports have shown that EVs are involved in infectious biology, influencing host immunity and playing a role in the viral life cycle. In the present work, we investigated the EV-mediated transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Methods: We investigated the EV-mediated transmission of HBV infection by using a HBV infectious culture system that uses primary human hepatocytes derived from humanized chimeric mice (PXB-cells. Purified EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation. To analyze the EVs and virions, we used stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Results: Purified EVs from HBV-infected PXB-cells were shown to contain HBV DNA and to be capable of transmitting HBV DNA to naive PXB-cells. These HBV-DNA–transmitting EVs were shown to be generated through a ceramide-triggered EV production pathway. Furthermore, we showed that these HBV-DNA–transmitting EVs were resistant to antibody neutralization; stimulated emission depletion microscopy showed that EVs lacked hepatitis B surface antigen, the target of neutralizing antibodies. Conclusions: These findings suggest that EVs harbor a DNA cargo capable of transmitting viral DNA into hepatocytes during HBV infection, representing an additional antibody-neutralization–resistant route of HBV infection. Keywords: HBV, Extracellular Vesicles, Transmission Pathway

  3. Secret-Sharing over Multiple-Antenna Channels with Transmit Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-01-07

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over Rayleigh fastfading channels with transmit correlation. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the transmit correlation matrix. First, We derive the expression of the key capacity under the considered setup. Then, we show that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the key capacity consists in transmitting Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the channel covariance matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution of a numerical optimization problem that we derive. We also provide a waterfilling interpretation of the optimal power allocation. Finally, we develop a necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming to be optimal, i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode only is key capacity-achieving.

  4. Secret-Sharing over Multiple-Antenna Channels with Transmit Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over Rayleigh fastfading channels with transmit correlation. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the transmit correlation matrix. First, We derive the expression of the key capacity under the considered setup. Then, we show that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the key capacity consists in transmitting Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the channel covariance matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution of a numerical optimization problem that we derive. We also provide a waterfilling interpretation of the optimal power allocation. Finally, we develop a necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming to be optimal, i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode only is key capacity-achieving.

  5. Interlaboratory comparison of dicentric chromosome assay using electronically transmitted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M. B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M. R.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Lamadrid, A. I.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Romero, I.; Mandina, T.; Pantelias, G.; Terzoudi, G.; Guerrero-Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.; Oliveros, N.; Martinez-Lopez, W.; Di Tomaso, M. V.; Mendez-Acuna, L.; Puig, R.; Roy, L.; Barquinero, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The bottleneck in data acquisition during biological dosimetry based on a dicentric assay is the need to score dicentrics in a large number of lymphocytes. One way to increase the capacity of a given laboratory is to use the ability of skilled operators from other laboratories. This can be done using image analysis systems and distributing images all around the world. Two exercises were conducted to test the efficiency of such an approach involving 10 laboratories. During the first exercise (E1), the participant laboratories analysed the same images derived from cells exposed to 0.5 and 3 Gy; 100 images were sent to all participants for both doses. Whatever the dose, only about half of the cells were complete with well-spread metaphases suitable for analysis. A coefficient of variation (CV) on the standard deviation of 15 % was obtained for both doses. The trueness was better for 3 Gy (0.6 %) than for 0.5 Gy (37.8 %). The number of estimated doses classified as satisfactory according to the z-score was 3 at 0.5 Gy and 8 at 3 Gy for 10 dose estimations. In the second exercise, an emergency situation was tested, each laboratory was required to score a different set of 50 images in 2 d extracted from 500 downloaded images derived from cells exposed to 0.5 Gy. Then the remaining 450 images had to be scored within a week. Using 50 different images, the CV on the estimated doses (79.2 %) was not as good as in E1, probably associated to a lower number of cells analysed (50 vs. 100) or from the fact that laboratories analysed a different set of images. The trueness for the dose was better after scoring 500 cells (22.5 %) than after 50 cells (26.8 %). For the 10 dose estimations, the number of doses classified as satisfactory according to the z-score was 9, for both 50 and 500 cells. Overall, the results obtained support the feasibility of networking using electronically transmitted images. However, before its implementation some issues should be elucidated, such as the

  6. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in rural South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Coetzee, D J; Fehler, H G; Bellingan, A; Dangor, Y; Radebe, F; Ballard, R C

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken in a rural area of South Africa, to develop a non-laboratory tool to screen for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among family planning clients. A cross sectional study was performed of 249 consecutive women attending a family planning service between November and December 1994. A questionnaire was administered, and a clinical examination and laboratory tests conducted. Sociodemographic, clinical, and other non-laboratory variables that were significantly associated with laboratory evidence of infection were combined to produce non-hierarchical scoring systems for three "syndromes": gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervical infection, trichomoniasis, and cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis combined. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the scoring systems as a screening tool were assessed against the gold standard of laboratory tests. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections among the study participants was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis 12%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 18%, and bacterial vaginosis 29%. Although vaginal discharge and other symptoms were frequently reported, symptoms bore no relation to the presence of infection. The following independent associations with gonococcal/chlamydial cervical infection were found: age less than 25 years and cervical mucopus and/or friability. Abnormal discharge on examination, visible inflammatory changes of the cervix (increased redness), no recent travel, and unemployment were associated with trichomoniasis. The combination of trichomonas and/or cervical infection ("STD syndrome") was associated with cervical mucopus/friability, unemployment, lack of financial support, and increased redness of the cervix. Of the three scoring systems developed on the basis of these associations, that of the "STD syndrome" achieved the best performance characteristics as a screening tool, with a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 74%, and

  7. [Vector transmitted diseases and climate changes in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2014-09-01

    The increase in temperatures recorded since the mid-nineteenth century is unprecedented in the history of mankind. The consequences of climate changes are numerous and can affect human health through direct (extreme events, natural disasters) or indirect (alteration of the ecosystem) mechanisms. Climate changes have repercussions on ecosystems, agriculture, social conditions, migration, conflicts and the transmission mode of infectious diseases. Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomines, sand flies and flies. Epidemiological cornerstones of vector-borne diseases are: the ecology and behaviour of the host, the ecology and behaviour of the vector, and the population's degree of immunity. Mosquito vectors related to human diseases mainly belong to the genus Culex, Aedes and Mansonia. Climate changes in Europe have increased the spread of new vectors, such as Aedes albopictus, and in some situations have made it possible to sustain the autochthonous transmission of some diseases (outbreak of Chukungunya virus in northern Italy in 2007, cases of dengue in the South of France and in Croatia). Despite the eradication of malaria from Europe, anopheline carriers are still present, and they may allow the transmission of the disease if the climatic conditions favour the development of the vectors and their contacts with plasmodium carriers. The tick Ixodes ricinus is a vector whose expansion has been documented both in latitude and in altitude in relation to the temperature increase; at the same time the related main viral and bacterial infections have increased. In northern Italy and Germany, the appearance of Leishmaniasis has been associated to climatic conditions that favour the development of the vector Phlebotomus papatasi and the maturation of the parasite within the vector, although the increase of cases of visceral leishmaniasis is also related to host immune factors, particularly

  8. Knowledge of adolescents regarding sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rebeca Aranha Arrais Santos; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Rolim, Isaura Letícia Tavares Palmeira; Hora, Jessica Marques da; Linard, Andrea Gomes; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Oliveira, Priscila da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge of adolescents related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), AIDS, and pregnancy, and understand the role of school in sex education. A qualitative descriptive study, developed through a semi-structured interview and a form for participant characterization, with 22 high school students from a public school aged 16 to 19 years. Data were submitted to content analysis. After analysis, four thematic categories were developed: sexuality and sex education; understanding of risk behaviors; knowledge of STI/AIDS; and knowledge of and practices for prevention. This study showed the need for preventive educational actions for adolescents, because the lack of information contributes to their vulnerability. The adolescents recognize the importance of sex education; therefore it is important to implement strategies to promote and protect health in the school environment to encourage and strengthen self-care in health. investigar o conhecimento de adolescentes relacionado às Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (IST), AIDS e gravidez, além de conhecer a compreensão sobre o papel da escola na educação sexual. estudo qualitativo, descritivo, desenvolvido por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e formulário para caracterização dos participantes, com 22 adolescentes entre 16 e 19 anos de idade, estudantes do Ensino Médio em uma escola pública. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo. da análise emergiram quatro categorias temáticas: Sexualidade e educação sexual; Compreensão de comportamentos de risco; Conhecimento de IST/AIDS; Conhecimento e práticas de prevenção. revelou-se a necessidade de ações educativas de prevenção para os adolescentes, pois a falta de informações contribui para a sua vulnerabilidade. Os adolescentes reconhecem a importância da educação sexual; consequentemente, é importante a implementação de estratégias de promoção e de proteção à saúde no ambiente escolar para contribuir e

  9. DNA: Structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...

  10. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  11. Analytical Model and Optimized Design of Power Transmitting Coil for Inductively Coupled Endoscope Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Quan; Luo, Weijie; Yan, Guozheng; Yang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    A wireless power transfer system based on the weakly inductive coupling makes it possible to provide the endoscope microrobot (EMR) with infinite power. To facilitate the patients' inspection with the EMR system, the diameter of the transmitting coil is enlarged to 69 cm. Due to the large transmitting range, a high quality factor of the Litz-wire transmitting coil is a necessity to ensure the intensity of magnetic field generated efficiently. Thus, this paper builds an analytical model of the transmitting coil, and then, optimizes the parameters of the coil by enlarging the quality factor. The lumped model of the transmitting coil includes three parameters: ac resistance, self-inductance, and stray capacitance. Based on the exact two-dimension solution, the accurate analytical expression of ac resistance is derived. Several transmitting coils of different specifications are utilized to verify this analytical expression, being in good agreements with the measured results except the coils with a large number of strands. Then, the quality factor of transmitting coils can be well predicted with the available analytical expressions of self- inductance and stray capacitance. Owing to the exact estimation of quality factor, the appropriate coil turns of the transmitting coil is set to 18-40 within the restrictions of transmitting circuit and human tissue issues. To supply enough energy for the next generation of the EMR equipped with a Ø9.5×10.1 mm receiving coil, the coil turns of the transmitting coil is optimally set to 28, which can transfer a maximum power of 750 mW with the remarkable delivering efficiency of 3.55%.

  12. Maintaining epigenetic inheritance during DNA replication in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eIglesias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses alter the pattern of gene expression in plants. Depending on the frequency and duration of stress events, the effects on the transcriptional state of genes are remembered temporally or transmitted to daughter cells and, in some instances, even to offspring (transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. This memory effect, which can be found even in the absence of the original stress, has an epigenetic basis, through molecular mechanisms that take place at the chromatin and DNA level but do not imply changes in the DNA sequence. Many epigenetic mechanisms have been described and involve covalent modifications on the DNA and histones, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and methylation, and RNAi dependent silencing mechanisms. Some of these chromatin modifications need to be stable through cell division in order to be truly epigenetic. During DNA replication, histones are recycled during the formation of the new nucleosomes and this process is tightly regulated. Perturbations to the DNA replication process and/or the recycling of histones lead to epigenetic changes. In this mini-review, we discuss recent evidence aimed at linking DNA replication process to epigenetic inheritance in plants.

  13. Fast phylogenetic DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Willerslev, Eske

    2008-01-01

    We present a heuristic approach to the DNA assignment problem based on phylogenetic inferences using constrained neighbour joining and non-parametric bootstrapping. We show that this method performs as well as the more computationally intensive full Bayesian approach in an analysis of 500 insect...... DNA sequences obtained from GenBank. We also analyse a previously published dataset of environmental DNA sequences from soil from New Zealand and Siberia, and use these data to illustrate the fact that statistical approaches to the DNA assignment problem allow for more appropriate criteria...... for determining the taxonomic level at which a particular DNA sequence can be assigned....

  14. Radiation and DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riabchenko, N I

    1979-01-01

    Consideration is given to the effects of ionizing radiation on the structure of DNA. Physical and chemical methods of determining radiation damage to the primary (polynucleotide chain and nitrogenous base) and secondary (helical) structure of DNA are discussed, and the effects of ionizing radiation on deoxyribonucleoprotein complexes are considered. The radiolysis of DNA in vitro and in bacterial and mammalian cells is examined and cellular mechanisms for the repair of radiation-damaged DNA are considered, taking into account single-strand and double-strand breaks, gamma-radiation damage and deoxyribonucleoprotein-membrane complex damage. Postradiation DNA degradation in bacteria and lymphatic cells is also discussed.

  15. DNA-Mediated Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Buzzeo, Marisa C.

    2009-01-01

    The base pair stack of DNA has been demonstrated as a medium for long range charge transport chemistry both in solution and at DNA-modified surfaces. This chemistry is exquisitely sensitive to structural perturbations in the base pair stack as occur with lesions, single base mismatches, and protein binding. We have exploited this sensitivity for the development of reliable electrochemical assays based on DNA charge transport at self-assembled DNA monolayers. Here we discuss the characteristic features, applications, and advantages of DNA-mediated electrochemistry. PMID:18980370

  16. Prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and impact of transmitted resistance on treatment success in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bartmeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance, TDR, and the impact of TDR on treatment success in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort. METHODS: Genotypic resistance analysis was performed in treatment-naïve study patients whose sample was available 1,312/1,564 (83.9% October 2008. A genotypic resistance result was obtained for 1,276/1,312 (97.3%. The resistance associated mutations were identified according to the surveillance drug resistance mutations list recommended for drug-naïve patients. Treatment success was determined as viral suppression below 500 copies/ml. RESULTS: Prevalence of TDR was stable at a high level between 1996 and 2007 in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort (N = 158/1,276; 12.4%; CI(wilson 10.7-14.3; p(for trend = 0.25. NRTI resistance was predominant (7.5% but decreased significantly over time (CI(Wilson: 6.2-9.1, p(for trend = 0.02. NNRTI resistance tended to increase over time (NNRTI: 3.5%; CI(Wilson: 2.6-4.6; p(for trend= 0.07, whereas PI resistance remained stable (PI: 3.0%; CI(Wilson: 2.1-4.0; p(for trend = 0.24. Resistance to all drug classes was frequently caused by singleton resistance mutations (NRTI 55.6%, PI 68.4%, NNRTI 99.1%. The majority of NRTI-resistant strains (79.8% carried resistance-associated mutations selected by the thymidine analogues zidovudine and stavudine. Preferably 2NRTI/1PIr combinations were prescribed as first line regimen in patients with resistant HIV as well as in patients with susceptible strains (susceptible 45.3%; 173/382 vs. resistant 65.5%; 40/61. The majority of patients in both groups were treated successfully within the first year after ART-initiation (susceptible: 89.9%; 62/69; resistant: 7/9; 77.8%. CONCLUSION: Overall prevalence of TDR remained stable at a high level but trends of resistance against drug classes differed over time. The significant decrease of NRTI-resistance in patients newly infected

  17. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  18. Biophysics of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA sequence characteristics modulate the size of the genetic bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian J; Carling, Phillipa J; Alston, Charlotte L; Floros, Vasileios I; Pyle, Angela; Hudson, Gavin; Sallevelt, Suzanne C E H; Lamperti, Costanza; Carelli, Valerio; Bindoff, Laurence A; Samuels, David C; Wonnapinij, Passorn; Zeviani, Massimo; Taylor, Robert W; Smeets, Hubert J M; Horvath, Rita; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2016-03-01

    With a combined carrier frequency of 1:200, heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations cause human disease in ∼1:5000 of the population. Rapid shifts in the level of heteroplasmy seen within a single generation contribute to the wide range in the severity of clinical phenotypes seen in families transmitting mtDNA disease, consistent with a genetic bottleneck during transmission. Although preliminary evidence from human pedigrees points towards a random drift process underlying the shifting heteroplasmy, some reports describe differences in segregation pattern between different mtDNA mutations. However, based on limited observations and with no direct comparisons, it is not clear whether these observations simply reflect pedigree ascertainment and publication bias. To address this issue, we studied 577 mother-child pairs transmitting the m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A, m.8344A>G, m.8993T>G/C and m.3243A>G mtDNA mutations. Our analysis controlled for inter-assay differences, inter-laboratory variation and ascertainment bias. We found no evidence of selection during transmission but show that different mtDNA mutations segregate at different rates in human pedigrees. m.8993T>G/C segregated significantly faster than m.11778G>A, m.8344A>G and m.3243A>G, consistent with a tighter mtDNA genetic bottleneck in m.8993T>G/C pedigrees. Our observations support the existence of different genetic bottlenecks primarily determined by the underlying mtDNA mutation, explaining the different inheritance patterns observed in human pedigrees transmitting pathogenic mtDNA mutations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Tweet content related to sexually transmitted diseases: no joking matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie Y S

    2014-10-06

    Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of "tweeters" (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of "tweet" messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs-chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words "chlamydia" or "HIV", and the hashtags "#chlamydia" or "#HIV". Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words "chlamydia" and/or "HIV". Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20.6%, 128/620), using a logo avatar (66.9%, 415/620), and with identifiable

  1. Effects of a transmitted light device for pediatric peripheral venipuncture and intravenous cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Shinya Yamazaki1, Shu Tomita1, Masahiro Watanabe1, Hiroyoshi Kawaai1, Kazuhiro Shimamura2 1Department of Dental Anesthesiology; 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Ohu University Dental Hospital, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Abstract: Pediatric peripheral venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are difficult. However, successful venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are absolutely required for pediatric clinical risk management. This study assessed the success rate of venipuncture and intravenous cannulation when transmitted light was applied to the pediatric dorsum manus. The subjects included 100 young children who were scheduled for dental treatment or oral surgery under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced, and insertion of an intravenous catheter into the dorsum manus was attempted with or without using transmitted light. The patients were evaluated to determine whether the venipuncture was successful, and whether the intravenous cannulation of the external catheter was successful. The success rate of venipuncture was 100% when transmitted light was used, and 83% when the transmitted light was not used (P = 0.000016. In addition, the success rate of intravenous cannulation was 88% when transmitted light was used, and 55% when the transmitted light was not used (P = 0.0000002. The shape of the vein in the dorsum manus can be clearly recognized when transmitted light is used. The use of light significantly increased the success rate of intravenous cannulation, because it allowed direct confirmation of the direction to push the intravenous catheter forward. The use of transmitted light allows for more successful venipuncture and intravenous cannulation in young children. Keywords: transmitted light, pediatric peripheral venipuncture, pediatric peripheral intravenous cannulation

  2. Effect of backing material on the transmitting response level and bandwidth of a wideband underwater transmitting transducer using 1-3 piezocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nicolaides, K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available : Transducer design The 1-3 piezocomposite (40% VF) active element was designed to resonate at around 300 kHz see figure 2. 1-3 piezocomposite material with 40% VF was selected due its excellent wide bandwidth and high transmitting response characteristics... is shown in figure 3(a). These results demonstrate the wide bandwidth characteristics for such a design. The transmitting response and acoustic characteristics (bandwidth and level) of this configuration will be used as our base line and all...

  3. Beyond DNA repair: DNA-PK function in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Jonathan F.; Knudsen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a pivotal component of the DNA repair machinery that governs the response to DNA damage, serving to maintain genome integrity. However, the DNA-PK kinase component was initially isolated with transcriptional complexes, and recent findings have illuminated the impact of DNA-PK-mediated transcriptional regulation on tumor progression and therapeutic response. DNA-PK expression has also been correlated with poor outcome in selected tumor types, furthe...

  4. DNA repair decline during mouse spermiogenesis results in the accumulation of heritable DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wryobek, Andrew J

    2008-02-21

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7- 1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomalaberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  5. DNA Repair Decline During Mouse Spermiogenesis Results in the Accumulation of Heritable DNA Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7-1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  6. DNA topology and transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzine, Fedor; Levens, David; Baranello, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is a complex assembly that compacts DNA inside the nucleus while providing the necessary level of accessibility to regulatory factors conscripted by cellular signaling systems. In this superstructure, DNA is the subject of mechanical forces applied by variety of molecular motors. Rather than being a rigid stick, DNA possesses dynamic structural variability that could be harnessed during critical steps of genome functioning. The strong relationship between DNA structure and key genomic processes necessitates the study of physical constrains acting on the double helix. Here we provide insight into the source, dynamics, and biology of DNA topological domains in the eukaryotic cells and summarize their possible involvement in gene transcription. We emphasize recent studies that might inspire and impact future experiments on the involvement of DNA topology in cellular functions. PMID:24755522

  7. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Danish sheep: confirmation by DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamsborg Stig M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an Ixodes ricinus transmitted bacterium, was investigated in two flocks of Danish grazing lambs. Direct PCR detection was performed on DNA extracted from blood and serum with subsequent confirmation by DNA sequencing. Methods 31 samples obtained from clinically normal lambs in 2000 from Fussingø, Jutland and 12 samples from ten lambs and two ewes from a clinical outbreak at Feddet, Zealand in 2006 were included in the study. Some of the animals from Feddet had shown clinical signs of polyarthritis and general unthriftiness prior to sampling. DNA extraction was optimized from blood and serum and detection achieved by a 16S rRNA targeted PCR with verification of the product by DNA sequencing. Results Five DNA extracts were found positive by PCR, including two samples from 2000 and three from 2006. For both series of samples the product was verified as A. phagocytophilum by DNA sequencing. Conclusions A. phagocytophilum was detected by molecular methods for the first time in Danish grazing lambs during the two seasons investigated (2000 and 2006.

  9. DNA-based machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  10. DNA repair and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, Shakuntla; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Gaur, Sudha

    2012-01-01

    DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecule that encode it's genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as UV light and radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many one million individual molecular lesions per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions include potentially harmful mutation in cell's genome which affect the survival of it's daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a consequence, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure. Inherited mutation that affect DNA repair genes are strongly associated with high cancer risks in humans. Hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is strongly associated with specific mutation in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. BRCA1, BRCA2 two famous mutation conferring a hugely increased risk of breast cancer on carrier, are both associated with a large number of DNA repair pathway, especially NHEJ and homologous recombination. Cancer therapy procedures such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy work by overwhelming the capacity of the cell to repair DNA damage, resulting in cell death. Cells that are most rapidly dividing most typically cancer cells are preferentially affected. The side effect is that other non-cancerous but rapidly dividing cells such as stem cells in the bone marrow are also affected. Modern cancer treatment attempt to localize the DNA damage to cells and tissue only associated with cancer, either by physical means (concentrating the therapeutic agent in the region of the tumor) or by biochemical means (exploiting a feature unique to cancer cells in the body). (author)

  11. Transfusion transmitted virus prevalence rate in IDU patients: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh AR, Nami MA, Hadjiabdolbaghi M, Kazemi B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transfusion-Transmitted Virus (TTV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded and circular DNA virus belongs to circuviridae family genus Anellovirus, discovered by Nishizawa in 1997. As the usage of common syringes is the known and most common route of the virus transmission, and because of increasing population of Injection drug users (IDU we decided to study infection rate in IDU population of our Society. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study at Infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, 60 IDU patients were studied. Blood samples were dispatched to lab in citrated test tube for Genome Virus isolation operation, using boiling method, then PCR assay performed based on their available primers. Patient's information gathered by interview and questionnaire methods."n "nResults: All of our 60 patients were men and their age average was 35.30(SD±9.68 years old. 26(43.3% patients had positive TTV PCR and 24(92.30% of them had prison history. 23(88.50% of these 26 patients had positive HCV Ab, 17(65.40% had positive HIV Ab and 8(30.80% had positive HBS Ag. Of 60 study patients 48(80% had HCV Ab+, 43(71.70% HIV Ab+, 26(43% TTV PCR and 43(26.70% had HBS Ag+ Of 26 patients who had TTV, 34.60% of them had no contemporary sickness and 11.50% of them displayed clear sign of hepatitis (fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, RUQ tenderness and Icter. 34.60% of them had LFT more than Upper limit normal (45u/l. Time average of injection in 26 TTV patient was 9 years (SD±7.16 and the patient's age average was 36.35%(SD±9.2. "nConclusions: One of the most important route of TTV infection is use of common syringes, TTV infection transmission chance is less than HIV and HCV infection and is more than HBV. In regard to high prevalence of TTV infection in IDU population and because there is no comprehensive information about pathogenesis of this virus in addition to another way of transmission of the virus, the fecal-oral way, we must make

  12. Combined evaluation of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected pregnant women and infant HIV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiahong; Yeganeh, Nava; Camarca, Margaret; Morgado, Mariza G.; Watts, D. Heather; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Joao, Esau; Gray, Glenda; Theron, Gerhard; Santos, Breno; Fonseca, Rosana; Kreitchmann, Regis; Pinto, Jorge; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Ceriotto, Mariana; Machado, Daisy Maria; Bryson, Yvonne J.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Moye, Jack; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Bristow, Claire C.; Dickover, Ruth; Mirochnick, Mark; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. The role of combined maternal STIs in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in mother-infant pairs from NICHD HPTN 040. Methodology Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women during labor were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CT, NG, and CMV. Infant HIV infection was determined by serial HIV DNA PCR testing. Maternal syphilis was tested by VDRL and confirmatory treponemal antibodies. Results A total of 899 mother-infant pairs were evaluated. Over 30% had at least one of the following infections (TP, CT, NG, and/or CMV) detected at the time of delivery. High rates of TP (8.7%), CT (17.8%), NG (4%), and CMV (6.3%) were observed. HIV MTCT was 9.1% (n = 82 infants). HIV MTCT was 12.5%, 10.3%, 11.1%, and 26.3% among infants born to women with CT, TP, NG or CMV respectively. Forty-two percent of HIV-infected infants were born to women with at least one of these 4 infections. Women with these infections were nearly twice as likely to have an HIV-infected infant (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.0), particularly those with 2 STIs (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.5–7.7). Individually, maternal CMV (aOR 4.4 1.5–13.0) and infant congenital CMV (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.2–7.8) but not other STIs (TP, CT, or NG) were associated with an increased risk of HIV MTCT. Conclusion HIV-infected pregnant women identified during labor are at high risk for STIs. Co-infection with STIs including CMV nearly doubles HIV MTCT risk. CMV infection appears to confer the largest risk of HIV MTCT. Trial registration NCT00099359. PMID:29304083

  13. Analysis of Transmitted Optical Spectrum Enabling Accelerated Testing of CPV Designs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2009-07-01

    Reliability of CPV systems' materials is not well known; methods for accelerated UV testing have not been developed. UV and IR spectra transmitted through representative optical systems are evaluated.

  14. The vaginal microbiome: Associations with sexually transmitted infections and the mucosal immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, H.

    2016-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by lactobacilli. Disturbance of the microbiological vaginal microbiota balance ("dysbiosis") is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and preterm birth in pregnant women. Since 2002, studies have

  15. Preliminary In-vivo Results For Spatially Coded Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound Based On Frequency Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using spatial coding based on frequency division for in-vivo synthetic transmit aperture (STA) ultrasound imaging. When using spatial encoding for STA, it is possible to use several transmitters simultaneously and separate the signals at the receiver....... This increases the maximum transmit power compared to conventional STA, where only one transmitter can be active. The signal-to-noise-ratio can therefore he increased and better penetration can be obtained. For frequency division, the coding is achieved by designing a number of transmit waveforms with disjoint...... spectral support, spanning the passband of the ultrasound transducer. The signals can therefore he separated at the receiver using matched filtering. The method is tested using a commercial linear array transducer with a center frequency of 9 MHz and 68% fractional bandwidth. In this paper, the transmit...

  16. Joint switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Bouida, Zied; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to minimize the average number of switched branches at the secondary

  17. Lethal pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome due to Leptospira infection transmitted by pet rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of leptospirosis was made after the patient died. The transmitting animal was a pet rat. Leptospirosis has to be considered in case of rapid multi-organ failure presenting with pulmonary hemorrhage.

  18. Transmit Antenna Selection for Multi-User Underlay Cognitive Transmission with Zero-Forcing Beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We present a transmit antenna subset selection scheme for an underlay cognitive system serving multiple secondary receivers. The secondary system employs zero-forcing beamforming to nullify the interference to multiple primary users and eliminate

  19. Transmit Antenna Selection for Underlay Cognitive Radio with Instantaneous Interference Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad; Yang, Hong Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) technology addresses the problem of spectrum under-utilization. In underlay CR mode, the secondary users are allowed to communicate provided that their transmission is not detrimental to primary user communication. Transmit

  20. An Update on the Potential of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit West Nile Virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turell, Michael J; Dohm, David J; Sardelis, Michael R; O 'Guinn, Monica L; Andreadis, Theodore G; Blow, Jamie A

    2004-01-01

    .... To develop appropriate surveillance and control strategies, the identification of which mosquito species are competent vectors and how various factors influence their ability to transmit this virus must be determined...

  1. Voice-band Modem: A Device to Transmit Data over Telephone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    over Telephone Networks. 2. Advanced Ideas ... transmitted signal power and No is the noise power spec- ... power distribution over all frequencies, and the samples of noise .... Figure 3, dmin=2fl, and average signal energy, assum- ing that ...

  2. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections for HIV prevention: end of the road or new beginning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Celum, Connie; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Wasserheit, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Observational and biological data provide compelling evidence of the importance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV transmission, but only one of nine intervention trials has shown an effect. This article reviews the observational studies, critically examines the nine randomized

  3. Recreational Drug Use During Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Clients of a City Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,

  4. Nonisotopic DNA probe techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kricka, Larry J

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this book is to bring together descriptions of the principal nonisotopic methods for DNA hybridization assays, together with experimental details of the methods, including labelling...

  5. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  6. Forensic DNA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2011-12-01

    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  7. Structure of DNA toroids and electrostatic attraction of DNA duplexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherstvy, A G

    2005-01-01

    DNA-DNA electrostatic attraction is considered as the driving force for the formation of DNA toroids in the presence of DNA condensing cations. This attraction comes from the DNA helical charge distribution and favours hexagonal toroidal cross-sections. The latter is in agreement with recent cryo-electron microscopy studies on DNA condensed with cobalt hexammine. We treat the DNA-DNA interactions within the modern theory of electrostatic interaction between helical macromolecules. The size and thickness of the toroids is calculated within a simple model; other models of stability of DNA toroids are discussed and compared

  8. The Affordability of Providing Sexually Transmitted Disease Services at a Safety-net Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; Montgomery, Madeline C; Raifman, Julia; Nunn, Amy; Bertrand, Thomas; Almonte, Alexi; Chan, Philip A

    2018-04-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases continue to increase in the U.S. There is a growing need for financially viable models to ensure the longevity of safety-net sexually transmitted disease clinics, which provide testing and treatment to high-risk populations. This micro-costing analysis estimated the number of visits required to balance cost and revenue of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in a Medicaid expansion state. In 2017, actual and projected cost and revenues were estimated from the Rhode Island sexually transmitted disease clinic in 2015. Projected revenues for a hypothetical clinic offering a standard set of sexually transmitted disease services were based on Medicaid; private ("commercial") insurance; and institutional ("list price") reimbursement rates. The number of visits needed to cover clinic costs at each rate was assessed. Total operating cost for 2,153 clinic visits was estimated at $255,769, or $119 per visit. Laboratory testing and salaries each accounted for 44% of operating costs, medications for treatment 7%, supplies 5%, and 28% of visits used insurance. For a standard clinic offering a basic set of sexually transmitted disease services to break even, a projected 73% of visits need to be covered at the Medicaid rate, 38% at private rate, or 11% at institutional rate. Sexually transmitted disease clinics may be financially viable when a majority of visits are billed at a Medicaid rate; however, mixed private/public models may be needed if not all visits are billed. In this manner, sexually transmitted disease clinics can be solvent even if not all visits are billed to insurance, thus ensuring access to uninsured or underinsured patients. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Performance of an 8-channel Digital Phased Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-16

    hardware. An 8-channel ALSTAR array prototype was constructed and demonstrated to achieve 125.5 dB effective isotropic isolation between broadside...transmit and receive beams over a 100 MHz instantaneous band centered at 2.45 GHz. I. INTRODUCTION A phased array capable of Simultaneous Transmit and...Receive (STAR) could provide significant benefits for many applications including communications, radar, spectral sens- ing, and multifunctional systems

  10. Successive Interference Cancellation for DS-CDMA Systems with Transmit Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new successive interference cancellation (SIC technique for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA systems with transmit diversity. The transmit diversity is achieved with a space-time block code (STBC. In our work we first consider hard decision SIC with an STBC, and then investigate the performance of soft decision SIC with an STBC. System performance over a Rayleigh fading channel is investigated and the analysis is confirmed by simulation.

  11. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray Bozkurt; Aydan Biri; Ümit Korucuoglu; Nur Aksakal; Tuncay Nas; Onur Karabacak; Özdemir Himmetoglu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. METHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS: Mean age of the ...

  12. Sexually transmitted parasites and host mating behavior in the decorated cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Lien T. Luong; Harry K. Kaya

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases play a potentially important role in the ecology and evolution of host mating behavior. Here, we use a sexually transmitted nematode-cricket (Mehdinema alii--Gryllodes sigillatus) system to examine the effects of parasitism on host mating activity and female choice. Previous work has shown that infected male crickets produce a significantly smaller nuptial gift (spermatophylax) than uninfected males. This is expected to result in reduced spermatophylax feeding du...

  13. Sexually transmitted nematodes affect spermatophylax production in the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus

    OpenAIRE

    Lien T. Luong; Harry K. Kaya

    2005-01-01

    Parasites can influence various aspects of host reproduction and mating, including spermatophore production. In the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, males transfer to females a two-part spermatophore containing a sperm-filled ampulla and a gelatinous spermatophylax (nuptial gift). Here we investigate the effects of a sexually transmitted nematode on male spermatophylax production. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to reduce host fertility or fecundity in insect hosts. To o...

  14. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI

  15. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI.

  16. Compressing DNA sequence databases with coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Michael D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly available DNA sequence databases such as GenBank are large, and are growing at an exponential rate. The sheer volume of data being dealt with presents serious storage and data communications problems. Currently, sequence data is usually kept in large "flat files," which are then compressed using standard Lempel-Ziv (gzip compression – an approach which rarely achieves good compression ratios. While much research has been done on compressing individual DNA sequences, surprisingly little has focused on the compression of entire databases of such sequences. In this study we introduce the sequence database compression software coil. Results We have designed and implemented a portable software package, coil, for compressing and decompressing DNA sequence databases based on the idea of edit-tree coding. coil is geared towards achieving high compression ratios at the expense of execution time and memory usage during compression – the compression time represents a "one-off investment" whose cost is quickly amortised if the resulting compressed file is transmitted many times. Decompression requires little memory and is extremely fast. We demonstrate a 5% improvement in compression ratio over state-of-the-art general-purpose compression tools for a large GenBank database file containing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. Finally, coil can efficiently encode incremental additions to a sequence database. Conclusion coil presents a compelling alternative to conventional compression of flat files for the storage and distribution of DNA sequence databases having a narrow distribution of sequence lengths, such as EST data. Increasing compression levels for databases having a wide distribution of sequence lengths is a direction for future work.

  17. Extended DNA Tile Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Martin; Kryger, Mille; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic linear DNA tile actuator is expanded to three new structures of higher complexity. The original DNA actuator was constructed from a central roller strand which hybridizes with two piston strands by forming two half-crossover junctions. A linear expansion of the actuator is obtained...

  18. Dna fingerprinting - review paper

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, Renald

    2006-01-01

    Before the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was established, DNA fingerprinting technology has relied for years on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Variable Number of Tandom Repeats (VNTR) analysis, a very efficient technique but quite laborious and not suitable for high throughput mapping. Since its, development, PCR has provided a new and powerful tool for DNA fingerprinting.

  19. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanks to the pioneering research work of Lindahl, Sancar, Modrich and their colleagues, we now have an holistic awareness of how DNA damage occurs and how the damage is rectified in bacteria as well as in higher organisms including human beings. A comprehensive understanding of DNA repair has proven crucial ...

  20. DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, Mitsuoki

    1995-01-01

    Fission yeast S. pombe is assumed to be a good model for cloning of human DNA repair genes, because human gene is normally expressed in S. pombe and has a very similar protein sequence to yeast protein. We have tried to elucidate the DNA repair mechanisms of S. pombe as a model system for those of mammals. (J.P.N.)

  1. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2018-05-15

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  2. Characterization of muntjac DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in muntjac chromosomes is generally proportional to the chromosomal DNA content, but the SCE frequency is reduced in the heterochromatic neck region of the X chromosome. The physical properties of muntjac DNA and the kinetics of repair of UV damage in muntjac heterochromatin and euchromatin were examined and compared with the distribution of sister chromatid exchange

  3. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  4. Characterization of muntjac DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.C.

    1981-05-27

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in muntjac chromosomes is generally proportional to the chromosomal DNA content, but the SCE frequency is reduced in the heterochromatic neck region of the X chromosome. The physical properties of muntjac DNA and the kinetics of repair of UV damage in muntjac heterochromatin and euchromatin were examined and compared with the distribution of sister chromatid exchange.

  5. Whose DNA is this?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taroni, Franco; Biedermann, Alex; Vuille, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    This communication seeks to draw the attention of researchers and practitioners dealing with forensic DNA profiling analyses to the following question: is a scientist's report, offering support to a hypothesis according to which a particular individual is the source of DNA detected during...... evoked during the international conference "The hidden side of DNA profiles. Artifacts, errors and uncertain evidence" held in Rome (April 27th to 28th, 2012). Indeed, despite the fact that this conference brought together some of the world's leading forensic DNA specialists, it appeared clearly...... talk considerably different languages. It thus is fundamental to address this issue of communication about results of forensic DNA analyses, and open a dialogue with practicing non-scientists at large who need to make meaningful use of scientific results to approach and help solve judicial cases...

  6. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  7. Racemic DNA crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pradeep K; Collie, Gavin W; Kauffmann, Brice; Huc, Ivan

    2014-12-22

    Racemates increase the chances of crystallization by allowing molecular contacts to be formed in a greater number of ways. With the advent of protein synthesis, the production of protein racemates and racemic-protein crystallography are now possible. Curiously, racemic DNA crystallography had not been investigated despite the commercial availability of L- and D-deoxyribo-oligonucleotides. Here, we report a study into racemic DNA crystallography showing the strong propensity of racemic DNA mixtures to form racemic crystals. We describe racemic crystal structures of various DNA sequences and folded conformations, including duplexes, quadruplexes, and a four-way junction, showing that the advantages of racemic crystallography should extend to DNA. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. High Levels of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in a Study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavu, Evelyn; Kave, Ellan; Mosoro, Euodia; Markby, Jessica; Aleksic, Eman; Gare, Janet; Elsum, Imogen A; Nano, Gideon; Kaima, Petronia; Dala, Nick; Gurung, Anup; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Crowe, Suzanne M; Myatt, Mark; Hearps, Anna C; Jordan, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is a Pacific Island nation of 7.3 million people with an estimated HIV prevalence of 0.8%. ART initiation and monitoring are guided by clinical staging and CD4 cell counts, when available. Little is known about levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in recently infected individuals in Papua New Guinea. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a total of 123 individuals recently infected with HIV and aged less than 30 years was implemented in Port Moresby (n = 62) and Mount Hagen (n = 61) during the period May 2013-April 2014. HIV drug resistance testing was performed using dried blood spots. Transmitted HIV drug resistance was defined by the presence of one or more drug resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance drug resistance mutations list. The prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 16.1% (95% CI 8.8%-27.4%) and 8.2% (95% CI 3.2%-18.2%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 3.2% (95% CI 0.2%-11.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI 0.2%-11.8%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. No protease inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was observed. The level of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance in antiretroviral drug naïve individuals recently infected with HIV in Port Moresby is amongst the highest reported globally. This alarming level of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a young sexually active population threatens to limit the on-going effective use of NNRTIs as a component of first-line ART in Papua New Guinea. To support the choice of nationally recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy, representative surveillance of HIV drug resistance among antiretroviral therapy initiators in Papua New Guinea should be urgently implemented.

  9. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar distribution and other sexually transmitted coinfections in subjects attending an STD outpatients clinic in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Nardini, Paola; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Banzola, Nicoletta; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Russo, Incoronata; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto

    2012-04-01

    We studied the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) urogenital infection and the distribution of different genotypes in a non-selected STD population of 1625 patients, evaluating presence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted diseases. Each patient was bled to perform serological tests for syphilis and HIV, then urethral or endocervical swabs were obtained for the detection of CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by culture. DNA extracted from remnant positive swabs was amplified by omp1 Nested PCR and products were sequenced. Total prevalence of CT infection was 6.3% (103/1625), with strong differences between men and women (11.4% vs 3.9%, Pmen than in women (Pmen and women (P=0.042) and among patients with or without coinfection (P=0.035); patients infected by serovar D/Da showed the highest coinfection rate. This study can be considered a contribution in increasing knowledge on CT serovar distribution in Italy. Further studies are needed to better define molecular epidemiology of CT infection and to investigate its correlation with other STDs.

  11. Nanostructures via DNA scaffold metallization

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, C.; Zinchenko, A.; Baigl, D.; Pyshkina, O.; Sergeyev, V.; Endo, Kazunaka; Yoshikawa, K.

    2005-01-01

    The critical role of polymers in process of noble metals nanostructures formation is well known, however, the use of DNA chain template in this process is yet largely unknown. In this study we demonstrate different ways of silver deposition on DNA template and report the influence of silver nanostructures formation on DNA conformational state. Metallization of DNA chain proceeds by two different scenarios depending on DNA conformation. If DNA chain is unfolded (elongated) chain, silver reduct...

  12. DNA damage and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeremy; Poon, Randy Y C

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that polyploidization triggers chromosomal instability and contributes to tumorigenesis. DNA damage is increasingly being recognized for its roles in promoting polyploidization. Although elegant mechanisms known as the DNA damage checkpoints are responsible for halting the cell cycle after DNA damage, agents that uncouple the checkpoints can induce unscheduled entry into mitosis. Likewise, defects of the checkpoints in several disorders permit mitotic entry even in the presence of DNA damage. Forcing cells with damaged DNA into mitosis causes severe chromosome segregation defects, including lagging chromosomes, chromosomal fragments and chromosomal bridges. The presence of these lesions in the cleavage plane is believed to abort cytokinesis. It is postulated that if cytokinesis failure is coupled with defects of the p53-dependent postmitotic checkpoint pathway, cells can enter S phase and become polyploids. Progress in the past several years has unraveled some of the underlying principles of these pathways and underscored the important role of DNA damage in polyploidization. Furthermore, polyploidization per se may also be an important determinant of sensitivity to DNA damage, thereby may offer an opportunity for novel therapies.

  13. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2008-01-28

    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  14. Regulating DNA Self-assembly by DNA-Surface Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longfei; Li, Yulin; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Jianwei; Mao, Chengde

    2017-12-14

    DNA self-assembly provides a powerful approach for preparation of nanostructures. It is often studied in bulk solution and involves only DNA-DNA interactions. When confined to surfaces, DNA-surface interactions become an additional, important factor to DNA self-assembly. However, the way in which DNA-surface interactions influence DNA self-assembly is not well studied. In this study, we showed that weak DNA-DNA interactions could be stabilized by DNA-surface interactions to allow large DNA nanostructures to form. In addition, the assembly can be conducted isothermally at room temperature in as little as 5 seconds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Modeling the transmitted and stored energy in multilayer protective clothing under low-level radiant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yun; He, Jiazhen; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical model from heating source to skin tissues through multilayer fabric system is developed. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • The model is used to investigate the relationship between the transmitted and stored energy and the influencing factors. - Abstract: A finite difference model was introduced to simulate the transmitted and stored energy in firefighters' protective clothing exposed to low-level thermal radiation. The model domain consists of a three-layer fire-resistant fabric system (outer shell, moisture barrier, and thermal liner), the human skin, and the air gap between clothing and the skin. The model accounted for the relationship between the transmitted heat during the exposure and the discharged heat during the cooling-down period. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data. Additionally, the parameters that affect the transmitted and stored energy of protective clothing were investigated. The results demonstrate that for the typical multilayer firefighter protective clothing, the transmitted heat during exposure and the discharged heat after exposure totally determine the skin burn under low-level heat exposure, especially for third-degree skin burns. The findings obtained in this study can be used to engineer fabric systems that provide better protection for the stored thermal burn.

  16. Super-Orthogonal Space-Time Turbo Transmit Diversity for CDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter G. W. van Rooyen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that transmit and receive diversity employing a combination of multiple transmit-receive antennas (given ideal channel state information (CSI and independent fading between antenna pairs will potentially yield maximum achievable system capacity. In this paper, the concept of a layered super-orthogonal turbo transmit diversity (SOTTD for downlink direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (CDMA systems is explored. This open-loop transmit diversity technique improves the downlink performance by using a small number of antenna elements at the base station and a single antenna at the handset. In the proposed technique, low-rate super-orthogonal code-spread CDMA is married with code-division transmit diversity (CDTD. At the mobile receiver, space-time (ST RAKE CDTD processing is combined with iterative turbo code-spread decoding to yield large ST gains. The performance of the SOTTD system is compared with single- and multiantenna turbo-coded (TC CDTD systems evaluated over a frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel. The evaluation is done both by means of analysis and computer simulations. The performance results illustrate the superior performance of SOTTD compared to TC CDTD systems over practically the complete useful capacity range of CDMA. It is shown that the performance degradation characteristic of TC CDTD at low system loads (due to the inherent TC error floor is alleviated by the SOTTD system.

  17. Reduction of vibration forces transmitted from a radiator cooling fan to a vehicle body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jonghyuk; Sim, Woojeong; Yun, Seen; Lee, Dongkon; Chung, Jintai

    2018-04-01

    This article presents methods for reducing transmitted vibration forces caused by mass unbalance of the radiator cooling fan during vehicle idling. To identify the effects of mass unbalance upon the vibration characteristics, vibration signals of the fan blades were experimentally measured both with and without an added mass. For analyzing the vibration forces transmitted to the vehicle body, a dynamic simulation model was established that reflected the vibration characteristics of the actual system. This process included a method described herein for calculating the equivalent stiffness and the equivalent damping of the shroud stators and rubber mountings. The dynamic simulation model was verified by comparing its results with experimental results of the radiator cooling fan. The dynamic simulation model was used to analyze the transmitted vibration forces at the rubber mountings. Also, a measure was established to evaluate the effects of varying the design parameters upon the transmitted vibration forces. We present design guidelines based on these analyses to reduce the transmitted vibration forces of the radiator cooling fan.

  18. Selfish DNA in protein-coding genes of Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, H; Audic, S; Barbe, V; Artiguenave, F; Fournier, P E; Raoult, D; Claverie, J M

    2000-10-13

    Rickettsia conorii, the aetiological agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, is an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. Preliminary analyses of the nearly complete genome sequence of R. conorii have revealed 44 occurrences of a previously undescribed palindromic repeat (150 base pairs long) throughout the genome. Unexpectedly, this repeat was found inserted in-frame within 19 different R. conorii open reading frames likely to encode functional proteins. We found the same repeat in proteins of other Rickettsia species. The finding of a mobile element inserted in many unrelated genes suggests the potential role of selfish DNA in the creation of new protein sequences.

  19. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  20. "Artifactual" arsenate DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    The recent claim by Wolfe-Simon et al. that the Halomonas bacterial strain GFAJ-1 when grown in arsenate-containing medium with limiting phosphate is able to substitute phosphate with arsenate in biomolecules including nucleic acids and in particular DNA(1) arose much skepticism, primarily due...... to the very limited chemical stability of arsenate esters (see ref. 2 and references therein). A major part of the criticisms was concerned with the insufficient (bio)chemical evidence in the Wolfe-Simon study for the actual chemical incorporation of arsenate in DNA (and/or RNA). Redfield et al. now present...... evidence that the identification of arsenate DNA was artifactual....

  1. Cooperative Spatial Reuse with Transmit Beamforming in Multi-rate Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Chenguang; Fitzek, Frank; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a cooperative spatial reuse (CSR) scheme as a cooperative extension of the current TDMA-based MAC to enable spatial reuse in multi-rate wireless networks. We model spatial reuse as a cooperation problem on utilizing the time slots obtained from the TDMA-based MAC. In CSR, there are two...... operation modes. One is TDMA mode while the other is spatial reuse mode in which links transmit simultaneously. Links contribute their own time slots to form a cooperative group to do spatial reuse. Each link joins the group only if it can benefit in capacity or energy efficiency. Otherwise, the link...... will leave spatial reuse mode and switch back to TDMA. In this work, we focus on the transmit beamforming techniques to enable CSR by interference cancellation on MISO (Multiple Input Single Output) links. We compare the CSR scheme using zero-forcing (ZF) transmit beamforming, namely ZF-CSR, to the TDMA...

  2. Information guided channel hopping with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize the information guided channel hopping, also known as spatial modulation, with more design flexibility, in this paper we propose a novel scheme that allows operation with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas. Once the number of transmit antennas is not a power of two, the antennas' symbols are mapped by different numbers of bits. Subsequently, constellations with different orders are exploited for the modulation of radiated symbols so as to guarantee that the total number of bits transmitted at each time slot remains the same. Furthermore, we introduce a decoding algorithm with low complexity for this design. Numerical results on bit error rate performance are provided and substantiate that the proposed scheme turns out to be a promising alternative to the design of information guided channel hopping. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Information guided channel hopping with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2012-10-01

    In order to realize the information guided channel hopping, also known as spatial modulation, with more design flexibility, in this paper we propose a novel scheme that allows operation with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas. Once the number of transmit antennas is not a power of two, the antennas\\' symbols are mapped by different numbers of bits. Subsequently, constellations with different orders are exploited for the modulation of radiated symbols so as to guarantee that the total number of bits transmitted at each time slot remains the same. Furthermore, we introduce a decoding algorithm with low complexity for this design. Numerical results on bit error rate performance are provided and substantiate that the proposed scheme turns out to be a promising alternative to the design of information guided channel hopping. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Impact of sensing errors on the queueing delay and transmit power in cognitive radio access

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    We study a multiple-access system with a primary user (PU) and a secondary user (SU) utilizing the same frequency band and communicating with a common receiver. Both users transmit with a fixed transmission rate by employing a channel inversion power control scheme. The SU transmits with a certain probability that depends on the sensing outcome, its queue length and whether it has a new packet arrival. We consider the case of erroneous sensing. The goal of the SU is to find the optimal transmission scheduling policy so as to minimize its queueing delay under constraints on its average transmit power and the maximum tolerable primary outage probability caused by miss-detection. The access probabilities are obtained efficiently using linear programming. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Coherent Code Tracking for Spatial Transmit Diversity DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Stewart

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial transmit diversity schemes are now well integrated into third-generation cellular mobile communication system specifications. When DS-CDMA-based technology is deployed in typical macro- and microcell environments, multipath diversity and spatial diversity may be exploited simultaneously by a 2D RAKE receiver. The work presented in this paper focuses on taking advantage of spatial transmit diversity in synchronising the 2D RAKE structure. We investigate the use of coherent and noncoherent techniques for tracking the timing parameters of each multipath component. It is shown that both noncoherent and coherent techniques benefit from transmit diversity. Additionally the performance gap between these two techniques increases with the number of antennas.

  6. Three Co-Existing Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a Heterosexual Male Youth: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theetat M. Surawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are asymptomatic, leading to widespread underdiagnoses estimated at 50% or higher. The presence of one STD significantly indicates an individual’s sexual health risk since an STD contributes to the transmission and acquisition of other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Multiple co-existing STDs, thus, further increase the susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by twofold or more. Therefore, the comprehensive STD prevention strategies play a major role in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. We report an interesting case of a heterosexual male youth who presented at dermatology clinic with three concurrent sexually transmitted diseases: gonococcal urethritis, genital wart, and late latent syphilis. The case demonstrated significant issues for appropriate approaches and management of multiple co-existing STDs. Also, it reinforced the necessity for STD counselling for the patient, his partners, and family.

  7. Impact of sensing errors on the queueing delay and transmit power in cognitive radio access

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2011-03-01

    We study a multiple-access system with a primary user (PU) and a secondary user (SU) utilizing the same frequency band and communicating with a common receiver. Both users transmit with a fixed transmission rate by employing a channel inversion power control scheme. The SU transmits with a certain probability that depends on the sensing outcome, its queue length and whether it has a new packet arrival. We consider the case of erroneous sensing. The goal of the SU is to find the optimal transmission scheduling policy so as to minimize its queueing delay under constraints on its average transmit power and the maximum tolerable primary outage probability caused by miss-detection. The access probabilities are obtained efficiently using linear programming. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Vector-transmitted disease vaccines: targeting salivary proteins in transmission (SPIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mary Ann

    2015-08-01

    More than half the population of the world is at risk for morbidity and mortality from vector-transmitted diseases, and emerging vector-transmitted infections are threatening new populations. Rising insecticide resistance and lack of efficacious vaccines highlight the need for novel control measures. One such approach is targeting the vector-host interface by incorporating vector salivary proteins in anti-pathogen vaccines. Debate remains about whether vector saliva exposure exacerbates or protects against more severe clinical manifestations, induces immunity through natural exposure or extends to all vector species and associated pathogens. Nevertheless, exploiting this unique biology holds promise as a viable strategy for the development of vaccines against vector-transmitted diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanisms of DNA damage repair in adult stem cells and implications for cancer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Clare E; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse

    2018-01-01

    Maintenance of genomic integrity in tissue-specific stem cells is critical for tissue homeostasis and the prevention of deleterious diseases such as cancer. Stem cells are subject to DNA damage induced by endogenous replication mishaps or exposure to exogenous agents. The type of DNA lesion and the cell cycle stage will invoke different DNA repair mechanisms depending on the intrinsic DNA repair machinery of a cell. Inappropriate DNA repair in stem cells can lead to cell death, or to the formation and accumulation of genetic alterations that can be transmitted to daughter cells and so is linked to cancer formation. DNA mutational signatures that are associated with DNA repair deficiencies or exposure to carcinogenic agents have been described in cancer. Here we review the most recent findings on DNA repair pathways activated in epithelial tissue stem and progenitor cells and their implications for cancer mutational signatures. We discuss how deep knowledge of early molecular events leading to carcinogenesis provides insights into DNA repair mechanisms operating in tumours and how these could be exploited therapeutically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted

    2011-01-01

    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  11. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  12. DNA Sampling Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  13. Retroviral DNA Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The integration of a DNA copy of the viral RNA genome into host chromatin is the defining step of retroviral replication. This enzymatic process is catalyzed by the virus-encoded integrase protein, which is conserved among retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons. Retroviral integration proceeds via two integrase activities: 3′-processing of the viral DNA ends, followed by the strand transfer of the processed ends into host cell chromosomal DNA. Herein we review the molecular mechanism of retroviral DNA integration, with an emphasis on reaction chemistries and architectures of the nucleoprotein complexes involved. We additionally discuss the latest advances on anti-integrase drug development for the treatment of AIDS and the utility of integrating retroviral vectors in gene therapy applications. PMID:27198982

  14. DNA damage and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelow, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Although cancer may arise as a result of many different types of molecular changes, there is little reason to doubt that changes to DNA are one of the more important ones in cancer initiation. Although DNA repair mechanisms seem able to eliminate a very large fraction of deleterious changes to DNA, we not only have little insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in such repair, but have a negligible amount of information to permit us to estimate the shape of dose response relations at low doses. The case of skin cancer is a special one, in that the average population is exposed to sufficient solar uv so that the effects of small increments in uv dose may be estimated. An approximate 85% reduction in DNA repair increases skin cancer incidence 10 4 fold

  15. DNA-Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Niels Vinther; Tørring, Thomas; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2010-01-01

    DNA-nanostrukturer giver nye muligheder for studier af individuelle molekyler. Ved at udnytte DNAs unikke selvsamlende egenskaber kan man designe systemer, hvorpå der kan studeres kemiske reaktioner, fluoroforer og biiomolekyler på enkeltmolekyle-niveau....

  16. DNA Microarray Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content DNA Microarray Technology Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  17. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  18. Close encounters with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeo, C.; Yoo, J.; Comer, J.; Wells, D. B.; Luan, B.; Aksimentiev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena and we review the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field. PMID:25238560

  19. Gomphid DNA sequence data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — DNA sequence data for several genetic loci. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: It's already publicly available on GenBank. It can be accessed through...

  20. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test References Hacker NF. Cervical dysplasia and cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ...

  1. Close encounters with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeo, C; Yoo, J; Comer, J; Wells, D B; Luan, B; Aksimentiev, A

    2014-10-15

    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena. We also discuss the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field.

  2. FBI's DNA analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John R.

    1994-03-01

    Forensic DNA profiling technology is a significant law enforcement tool due to its superior discriminating power. Applying the principles of population genetics to the DNA profile obtained in violent crime investigations results in low frequency of occurrence estimates for the DNA profile. These estimates often range from a frequency of occurrence of 1 in 50 unrelated individuals to 1 in a million unrelated individuals or even smaller. It is this power to discriminate among individuals in the population that has propelled forensic DNA technology to the forefront of forensic testing in violent crime cases. Not only is the technology extremely powerful in including or excluding a criminal suspect as the perpetrator, but it also gives rise to the potential of identifying criminal suspects in cases where the investigators of unknown suspect cases have exhausted all other available leads.

  3. Making DNA Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunley, Kathie F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity to simulate electrophoresis using everyday items. Uses adding machine paper to construct a set of DNA fingerprints that can be used to solve crime cases designed by students in any biology class. (JRH)

  4. Radiation damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, V.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments are described with the purpose to obtain a better insight in the chemical nature and the biological significance of radiation-induced damage in DNA, with some emphasis on the significance of alkali-labile sites. It is shown that not only reactions of OH radicals but also of H radicals introduce breaks and other inactivating damage in single-standed phiX174 DNA. It is found that phosphate buffer is very suitable for the study of the reactions of H radicals with DNA, as the H 2 PO 4 - ions convert the hydrated electrons into H radicals. The hydrated electron, which does react with DNA, does not cause a detectable inactivation. (Auth.)

  5. DNA to DNA transcription might exist in eukaryotic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gao-De

    2016-01-01

    Till now, in biological sciences, the term, transcription, mainly refers to DNA to RNA transcription. But our recently published experimental findings obtained from Plasmodium falciparum strongly suggest the existence of DNA to DNA transcription in the genome of eukaryotic cells, which could shed some light on the functions of certain noncoding DNA in the human and other eukaryotic genomes.

  6. Double-transmitting and Sextuple-receiving Borehole Transient Electromagnetic Method and Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous improvement of precision requirements for borehole geophysical exploration, the application of transient electromagnetic method (from now on referred to as TEM in a borehole has become a hot spot. The conventional borehole TEM can only determine the longitudinal depth of the geological anomaly, the radial azimuth and depth cannot be resolved. A double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM is proposed, through which the radial anomaly is excited by the electromagnetic field generated by the double-emitting loops, and the azimuth and depth of the anomaly will be identified by the difference characteristics of the six receiving loops signals. In this paper, the response equations of the transmitting-receiving mode of double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM are deduced, and the response characteristics of the induction segment and the attenuation segment of the receiving loops are obtained based on the response equations under ramp function turn-off condition, providing the basis for theoretical analysis. Due to the negative value of the double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving transient electromagnetic response signals, a negative transformation algorithm under the double logarithmic coordinate system is proposed to provide the essential method for the analysis of two kinds of physical simulation experimental data of the radial azimuth and radial depth detection of the anomaly. The results show that the double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM has decent resolution ability in detecting the radial azimuth of the anomaly, and the effective resolution is 30°. The geometric difference among induced voltages of different measuring points can be used to evaluate the radial depth of the anomaly qualitatively. It is expected that the double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM can provide technical guidance for little borehole geophysical exploration in the fields of oil, natural

  7. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  8. Das DNA-Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.

  9. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  10. Racemic DNA Crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal , Pradeep K.; Collie , Gavin W.; Kauffmann , Brice; Huc , Ivan

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Racemates increase the chances of crystallization by allowing molecular contacts to be formed in a greater number of ways. With the advent of protein synthesis, the production of protein racemates and racemic-protein crystallography are now possible. Curiously, racemic DNA crystallography had not been investigated despite the commercial availability of Land D-deoxyribo-oligonucleotides. Here, we report a study into racemic DNA crystallography showing the strong propens...

  11. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-03

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an

  13. Simplified methods for estimating gamma exposure fields transmitted through straight rectangular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultis, J.K.; Thompson, K.R.; Faw, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Approximate computational models are developed to describe the spatial variation in the radiation field transmitted through a straight reactangular duct obliquely illuminated by monoenergetic gamma photons. These models account for single and multiple scattering from the duct walls and lips as well as for direct penetration by the photons. Results of calculations are compared to results from a recent benchmark duct streaming experiment, and empirical correction factors are obtained which enable the models to predict the transmitted exposure rates to within 20% of the experimental values

  14. Inter-Vehicle Communication System Utilizing Autonomous Distributed Transmit Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yukio; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

    In ad-hoc network such as inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system, safety applications that vehicles broadcast the information such as car velocity, position and so on periodically are considered. In these applications, if there are many vehicles broadcast data in a communication area, congestion incurs a problem decreasing communication reliability. We propose autonomous distributed transmit power control method to keep high communication reliability. In this method, each vehicle controls its transmit power using feed back control. Furthermore, we design a communication protocol to realize the proposed method, and we evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method using computer simulation.

  15. Multiple X-ray tomography using transmitted, scattered and fluorescent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Golosio, B.; Lopes, R.T.; Barroso, R.C.; Donativi, M.; Castellano, A.; Quarta, S.

    2003-01-01

    A multiple CT-scanner is described, which contemporaneously uses transmitted, scattered and fluorescent X-rays for Imaging. The scanner is characterized by a small size X-ray tube and by four detectors: a ''pencil'' X-ray NaI(Tl) for transmitted tomography, a larger size NaI(Tl) for 90 C o Compton tomography, a thermoelectrically cooled Si-PIN or CdZnTe for fluorescent imaging and a CdZnTe for Rayleigh (or diffraction) tomography. Examples of applications are shown

  16. A Study Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases With Application Of Syndromic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Hasan Hana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in Assam Medical College was studied for a period of one year. The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases was 1.43%. Out of 150 patients the number of patients with genitoulcerative diseases was syphilis 27 (18%, herpes genitalis 26(17.33%, condyloma acuminate 30 (20%, chancroid 11 (7.33%, donovanosis 2(1.33% and LGV 1(0.67%. Patients with urethral or vaginal discharge comprised of gonorrhoea 4(2.67% Vulvovaginitis 14 (9.33%, NGU 12(8.00%, trichomoniasis 2(1.33%, balanoposthitis 17(11.33%.

  17. Introduction to DNA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this session is to discuss the various possibilities for detecting modifications in DNA after irradiation and whether these changes can be utilized as an indicator for the irradiation treatment of foods. The requirement to be fulfilled is that the method be able to distinguish irradiated food without the presence of a control sample, thus the measured response after irradiation must be large enough to supersede background levels from other treatments. Much work has been performed on the effects of radiation on DNA, particularly due to its importance in radiation biology. The main lesions of DNA as a result of irradiation are base damage, damage of the sugar moiety, single strand and double strand breaks. Crosslinking between bases also occurs, e.g. production of thymine dimers, or between DNA and protein. A valuable review on how to utilize these DNA changes for detection purposes has already appeared. Tables 1, 2 and 3 list the proposed methods of detecting changes in irradiated DNA, some identified products as examples for a possible irradiation indicator, in the case of immunoassay the substance used as antigen, and some selected literature references. In this short review, it is not intended to provide a complete literature survey

  18. Variations in brain DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus eAvila

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that DNA sequences are conserved in the diverse cell types present in a multicellular organism like the human being. Thus, in order to compare the sequences in the genome of DNA from different individuals, nucleic acid is commonly isolated from a single tissue. In this regard, blood cells are widely used for this purpose because of their availability. Thus blood DNA has been used to study genetic familiar diseases that affect other tissues and organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain. While this approach is valid for the identification of familial diseases in which mutations are present in parental germinal cells and, therefore, in all the cells of a given organism, it is not suitable to identify sporadic diseases in which mutations might occur in specific somatic cells. This review addresses somatic DNA variations in different tissues or cells (mainly in the brain of single individuals and discusses whether the dogma of DNA invariance between cell types is indeed correct. We will also discuss how single nucleotide somatic variations arise, focusing on the presence of specific DNA mutations in the brain.

  19. Molecular cloning and transcriptional activity of a new Petunia calreticulin gene involved in pistil transmitting tract maturation, progamic phase, and double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowski, Robert; Suwińska, Anna; Prusińska, Justyna; Gumowski, Krzysztof; Lenartowska, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed Ca²⁺-binding protein in multicellular eukaryotes. As an endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein, CRT plays a key role in many cellular processes including Ca²⁺ storage and release, protein synthesis, and molecular chaperoning in both animals and plants. CRT has long been suggested to play a role in plant sexual reproduction. To begin to address this possibility, we cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA of a new CRT gene (PhCRT) from Petunia. The deduced amino acid sequence of PhCRT shares homology with other known plant CRTs, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the PhCRT cDNA clone belongs to the CRT1/CRT2 subclass. Northern blot analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization were used to assess PhCRT gene expression in different parts of the pistil before pollination, during subsequent stages of the progamic phase, and at fertilization. The highest level of PhCRT mRNA was detected in the stigma-style part of the unpollinated pistil 1 day before anthesis and during the early stage of the progamic phase, when pollen is germinated and tubes outgrow on the stigma. In the ovary, PhCRT mRNA was most abundant after pollination and reached maximum at the late stage of the progamic phase, when pollen tubes grow into the ovules and fertilization occurs. PhCRT mRNA transcripts were seen to accumulate predominantly in transmitting tract cells of maturing and receptive stigma, in germinated pollen/growing tubes, and at the micropylar region of the ovule, where the female gametophyte is located. From these results, we suggest that PhCRT gene expression is up-regulated during secretory activity of the pistil transmitting tract cells, pollen germination and outgrowth of the tubes, and then during gamete fusion and early embryogenesis.

  20. Blood extracellular DNA after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.G.; Tishchenko, L.I.; Surkova, E.A.; Vasil'eva, I.N.

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown that blood extracellular DNA of irradiated rats largely consists of the low-molecular DNA and its oligomers. Molecular masses of oligomers are multiple to molecular mass of monomer fragment with nucleosome size. The low-molecular DNA has linear form. The average content of GC-pairs in low-molecular DNA is higher than in total rat's DNA (48.5% against 41.5%). The low-molecular DNA is a part of complex containing RNA, acidic proteins and lipids. It is assumed that the formation of low-molecular DNA is a result of Ca/Mg - dependent nuclear endonuclease action

  1. DNA Knots: Theory and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumners, D. W.

    Cellular DNA is a long, thread-like molecule with remarkably complex topology. Enzymes that manipulate the geometry and topology of cellular DNA perform many vital cellular processes (including segregation of daughter chromosomes, gene regulation, DNA repair, and generation of antibody diversity). Some enzymes pass DNA through itself via enzyme-bridged transient breaks in the DNA; other enzymes break the DNA apart and reconnect it to different ends. In the topological approach to enzymology, circular DNA is incubated with an enzyme, producing an enzyme signature in the form of DNA knots and links. By observing the changes in DNA geometry (supercoiling) and topology (knotting and linking) due to enzyme action, the enzyme binding and mechanism can often be characterized. This paper will discuss some personal research history, and the tangle model for the analysis of site-specific recombination experiments on circular DNA.

  2. Number and location of mouse mammary tumor virus proviral DNA in mouse DNA of normal tissue and of mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, B; Hynes, N E

    1980-01-01

    The Southern DNA filter transfer technique was used to characterize the genomic location of the mouse mammary tumor proviral DNA in different inbred strains of mice. Two of the strains (C3H and CBA) arose from a cross of a Bagg albino (BALB/c) mouse and a DBA mouse. The mouse mammary tumor virus-containing restriction enzyme DNA fragments of these strains had similar patterns, suggesting that the proviruses of these mice are in similar genomic locations. Conversely, the pattern arising from the DNA of the GR mouse, a strain genetically unrelated to the others, appeared different, suggesting that its mouse mammary tumor proviruses are located in different genomic sites. The structure of another gene, that coding for beta-globin, was also compared. The mice strains which we studied can be categorized into two classes, expressing either one or two beta-globin proteins. The macroenvironment of the beta-globin gene appeared similar among the mice strains belonging to one genetic class. Female mice of the C3H strain exogenously transmit mouse mammary tumor virus via the milk, and their offspring have a high incidence of mammary tumor occurrence. DNA isolated from individual mammary tumors taken from C3H mice or from BALB/c mice foster nursed on C3H mothers was analyzed by the DNA filter transfer technique. Additional mouse mammary tumor virus-containing fragments were found in the DNA isolated from each mammary tumor. These proviral sequences were integrated into different genomic sites in each tumor. Images PMID:6245257

  3. Controlling the transmitted information of a multi-photon interacting with a single-Cooper pair box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadry, Heba, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com; Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com; Zakaria, Nordin, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com [Computer and Information Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Cheong, Lee Yen [Fundamental and Applied Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    We study a model of a multi-photon interaction of a single Cooper pair box with a cavity field. The exchange of the information using this system is studied. We quantify the fidelity of the transmitted information. The effect of the system parameters (detuning parameter, field photons, state density and mean photon number) in the fidelity of the transmitted information is investigated. We found that the fidelity of the transmitted information can be controlled using the system parameters.

  4. Controlling the transmitted information of a multi-photon interacting with a single-Cooper pair box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadry, Heba; Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem; Zakaria, Nordin; Cheong, Lee Yen

    2014-01-01

    We study a model of a multi-photon interaction of a single Cooper pair box with a cavity field. The exchange of the information using this system is studied. We quantify the fidelity of the transmitted information. The effect of the system parameters (detuning parameter, field photons, state density and mean photon number) in the fidelity of the transmitted information is investigated. We found that the fidelity of the transmitted information can be controlled using the system parameters

  5. [Current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis monitoring in China and working keys in future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-dan; Zang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Soil-transmitted nematodiasis is widely epidemic in rural areas in China. It was showed that the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19.56% while the overall number of persons infected was 129,000,000, which was supported by the results of the National Survey of Current Situation of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China in 2005 published by former Ministry of Health. Therefore, soil-transmitted nematodiasis was included in the national infectious diseases and pathogenic media monitoring system by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2006, and subsequently 22 monitoring spots were established nationwide. From 2006 to 2013, the human infection rate of intestinal nematodes in national monitoring spots decreased from 20.88% to 3.12%, which showed a declining trend year by year. Meanwhile, the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis decreased from 10.10%, 5.88%, 8.88%, 10.00% in 2006 to 0.76%, 0.42%, 2.04%, 6.78% in 2013 respectively. In this paper, the current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis is overviewed based on a summary of the 8 years' monitoring work, as well as the experiences, challenges and key of monitoring work in the future.

  6. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in Zarima town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Abebe; Atnafu, Asmamaw; Addis, Zelalem; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Teklu, Takele; Mathewos, Biniam; Birhan, Wubet; Gebretsadik, Simon; Gelaw, Baye

    2011-07-09

    In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22%) followed by Hookworms (19%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%). Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH) and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  7. A fluid-coupled transmitting CMUT operated in collapse mode : Semi-analytic modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekař, Martin; van Nispen, Stephan H.M.; Fey, Rob H.B.; Shulepov, Sergei; Mihajlović, Nenad; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2017-01-01

    An electro-mechanical, semi-analytic, reduced-order (RO) model of a fluid-loaded transmitting capacitive-micromachined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) operated in collapse mode is developed. Simulation of static deflections, approximated by a linear combination of six mode shapes, are benchmarked

  8. Blind synchronization in asynchronous UWB networks based on the transmit-reference scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djapic, R.; Leus, G.; Veen, A.-J. van der; Trindade, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communication systems are based on the transmission of extremely narrow pulses, with a duration inferior to a nanosecond. The application of transmit reference(TR) to UWB systems allows to side-step channel estimation at the receiver, with a tradeoff of the effective

  9. [Soil-transmitted helminth trends and prevalence in La Virgen, Colombia 1995-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián A; Reyes-Harker, Patricia; Moncada-Alvarez, Ligia I; López, Myriam C; Cháves, María Del Pilar; Knudson, Angélica; Ariza, Yoseth

    2007-01-01

    Describing soil-transmitted helminthiasis prevalence and trends in children aged less than 15 in the village of La Virgen, Cundinamarca. Three non-random surveys were carried out on school-children aged 0 to 15 years. Intestinal parasitism was determined In the three cross-sectional studies by direct examination of fecal samples and modified Ritchie-Frick concentration method. Intestinal parasitism distribution was analysed and the trend during 1995-2005 described. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children aged less than 5 increased from 62,5 % in 1995 to 66,7 % in 2001 and to 69 % in 2005; soil-transmitted helminthiasis prevalence in this age group was 37,5 % in 1995, 23,6 % in 2001 and 27,6 % in 2005. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism for children aged over 5 increased from 86,2 % in 1995 to 89,1 % in 2005; soil-transmitted helminthiasis prevalence was 62,9 % in 1995, 39,8 % in 2001 and 23,9 % in 2005. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis was endemic and presented high prevalence during the study period. Effective control measures are needed to prevent intestinal parasitism in pre-school and schoolchildren.

  10. Paradoxical associations between soil-transmitted helminths and Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián A; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Cucunubá, Zulma M; Reyes-Harker, Patricia; Guerra, Ángela P; Moncada, Ligia I; López, Myriam C; Barrera, Sandra M; Cortés, Liliana J; Olivera, Mario; Nicholls, Rubén S

    2012-11-01

    Evidence on the comorbidity between soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria is scarce and divergent. This study explored the interactions between soil-transmitted helminth infections and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of Colombia. A paired case-control study matched by sex, age and location in Tierralta, Cordoba, was done between January and September 2010. The incident cases were 68 patients with falciparum malaria and 178 asymptomatic controls. A questionnaire was used to gather information on sociodemographic variables. Additionally physical examinations were carried out, stool samples were analysed for intestinal parasites and blood samples for Ig E concentrations. We found associations between infection with hookworm (OR: 4.21; 95% CI: 1.68-11.31) and Ascaris lumbricoides (OR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.18-1.04) and the occurrence of falciparum malaria. The effects of soil-transmitted helminths on the occurrence of malaria were found to be paradoxical. While hookworm is a risk factor, A. lumbricoides has a protective effect. The findings suggest that, in addition to the comorbidity, the presence of common determinants of soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria could also exist. While the biological mechanisms involved are not clear, public health policies aimed at the control of their common social and environmental determinants are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NMR transmit-receive system with short recovery time and effective isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurga, K.; Reynhardt, E. C.; Jurga, S.

    A transmit-receive system with a short recovery time and excellent isolation has been developed. The system operates in conjunction with an ENI Model 3200L broadband amplifier and a spin-lock NMR pulse spectrometer. The system has been tested in the frequency range 5.5 to 52 MHz and seems not to generate any background noise.

  12. 15 CFR 30.9 - Transmitting and correcting Electronic Export Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmitting and correcting Electronic Export Information. 30.9 Section 30.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements...

  13. 77 FR 4059 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2869] Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting... Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Electronic...

  14. 77 FR 11588 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-831] Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission... Trade Commission on January 10, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C...

  15. The Effects of Cultural Transmission Are Modulated by the Amount of Information Transmitted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L.; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Kalish, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Information changes as it is passed from person to person, with this process of cultural transmission allowing the minds of individuals to shape the information that they transmit. We present mathematical models of cultural transmission which predict that the amount of information passed from person to person should affect the rate at which that…

  16. Developing hygiene protocols against mechanically transmitted pathogens in greenhouse tomato production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse tomato propagation and production require intensive crop work that promotes the spread of mechanically transmitted pathogens (e.g. fungi, bacteria, viruses and viroids). Therefore, a clean seed program is very important to prevent any un-intentional introduction of seed-borne pathogens t...

  17. Individuality evaluation for paper based artifact-metrics using transmitted light image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Manabu; Tanaka, Junichi; Furuie, Makoto; Hirabayashi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Tsutomu

    2008-02-01

    Artifact-metrics is an automated method of authenticating artifacts based on a measurable intrinsic characteristic. Intrinsic characters, such as microscopic random-patterns made during the manufacturing process, are very difficult to copy. A transmitted light image of the distribution can be used for artifact-metrics, since the fiber distribution of paper is random. Little is known about the individuality of the transmitted light image although it is an important requirement for intrinsic characteristic artifact-metrics. Measuring individuality requires that the intrinsic characteristic of each artifact significantly differs, so having sufficient individuality can make an artifact-metric system highly resistant to brute force attack. Here we investigate the influence of paper category, matching size of sample, and image-resolution on the individuality of a transmitted light image of paper through a matching test using those images. More concretely, we evaluate FMR/FNMR curves by calculating similarity scores with matches using correlation coefficients between pairs of scanner input images, and the individuality of paper by way of estimated EER with probabilistic measure through a matching method based on line segments, which can localize the influence of rotation gaps of a sample in the case of large matching size. As a result, we found that the transmitted light image of paper has a sufficient individuality.

  18. Low complexity transmit antenna selection with power balancing in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Ko, Youngchai; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    of the power amplifier of the RF chain. Applying transmit antenna selection and fixed-power variable-rate transmission per subcarrier as a function of channel variations, we propose an implementation-friendly antenna selection method which offers a reduced

  19. Comparisons of receive array interference reduction techniques under erroneous generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    This paper studies generalized single-stream transmit beamforming employing receive array co-channel interference reduction algorithms under slow and flat fading multiuser wireless systems. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels on the effectiveness of transmit beamforming for different interference reduction techniques is investigated. The case of over-loaded receive array with closely-spaced elements is considered, wherein it can be configured to specified interfering sources. Both dominant interference reduction and adaptive interference reduction techniques for statistically ordered and unordered interferers powers, respectively, are thoroughly studied. The effect of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers powers on the efficiency of dominant interference reduction is studied and then compared against the adaptive interference reduction. For the system models described above, new analytical formulations for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio are presented, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission and single-antenna best transmit selection can be directly deduced as limiting cases. These results are then utilized to obtain quantitative measures for various performance metrics. They are also used to compare the achieved performance of various configuration models under consideration. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  20. Vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses are found across three insect families and have dynamic interactions with their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Day, Jonathan P; Schulz, Nora; Leftwich, Philip T; de Jong, Maaike A; Breuker, Casper J; Gibbs, Melanie; Obbard, Darren J; Wilfert, Lena; Smith, Sophia C L; McGonigle, John E; Houslay, Thomas M; Wright, Lucy I; Livraghi, Luca; Evans, Luke C; Friend, Lucy A; Chapman, Tracey; Vontas, John; Kambouraki, Natasa; Jiggins, Francis M

    2017-01-25

    A small number of free-living viruses have been found to be obligately vertically transmitted, but it remains uncertain how widespread vertically transmitted viruses are and how quickly they can spread through host populations. Recent metagenomic studies have found several insects to be infected with sigma viruses (Rhabdoviridae). Here, we report that sigma viruses that infect Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata), Drosophila immigrans, and speckled wood butterflies (Pararge aegeria) are all vertically transmitted. We find patterns of vertical transmission that are consistent with those seen in Drosophila sigma viruses, with high rates of maternal transmission, and lower rates of paternal transmission. This mode of transmission allows them to spread rapidly in populations, and using viral sequence data we found the viruses in D. immigrans and C. capitata had both recently swept through host populations. The viruses were common in nature, with mean prevalences of 12% in C. capitata, 38% in D. immigrans and 74% in P. aegeria We conclude that vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses may be widespread in a broad range of insect taxa, and that these viruses can have dynamic interactions with their hosts. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses are found across three insect families and have dynamic interactions with their hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jonathan P.; Schulz, Nora; Leftwich, Philip T.; de Jong, Maaike A.; Wilfert, Lena; Smith, Sophia C. L.; McGonigle, John E.; Houslay, Thomas M.; Livraghi, Luca; Evans, Luke C.; Friend, Lucy A.; Vontas, John; Kambouraki, Natasa

    2017-01-01

    A small number of free-living viruses have been found to be obligately vertically transmitted, but it remains uncertain how widespread vertically transmitted viruses are and how quickly they can spread through host populations. Recent metagenomic studies have found several insects to be infected with sigma viruses (Rhabdoviridae). Here, we report that sigma viruses that infect Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata), Drosophila immigrans, and speckled wood butterflies (Pararge aegeria) are all vertically transmitted. We find patterns of vertical transmission that are consistent with those seen in Drosophila sigma viruses, with high rates of maternal transmission, and lower rates of paternal transmission. This mode of transmission allows them to spread rapidly in populations, and using viral sequence data we found the viruses in D. immigrans and C. capitata had both recently swept through host populations. The viruses were common in nature, with mean prevalences of 12% in C. capitata, 38% in D. immigrans and 74% in P. aegeria. We conclude that vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses may be widespread in a broad range of insect taxa, and that these viruses can have dynamic interactions with their hosts. PMID:28100819

  2. Blind Synchronization in Asynchronous UWB Networks Based on the Transmit-Reference Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djapic, R.; Leus, G.; Van Der Veen, A.J.; Trinda, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communication systems are based on the transmission of extremely narrow pulses, with a duration inferior to a nanosecond. The application of transmit reference (TR) to UWB systems allows to side-step channel estimation at the receiver, with a tradeoff of the effective

  3. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013.  Created: 10/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/23/2014.

  4. Is the begomovirus, sweet potato leaf curl virus, really seed transmitted in sweetpotato?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato is one of the major root crops in the world and is also widely grown in the southern United States. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) is a begomovirus posing a serious threat to sweetpotato production worldwide and is primarily transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) or through veget...

  5. Urban Men's Knowledge and Perceptions regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…

  6. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Bozkurt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tMETHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tRESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 27.5±4.08. When they were asked about contraceptive methods, 61.2 % had knowledge about oral contraceptives, 78.7 % about preservatives, and 38 % had knowledge about tube ligation. 96.1 % of patients cited AIDS, 39.2 % hepatitis B and C, 29.4 % gonorrhea, 3.9 % chlamydia, 9.8 % herpes virus, 11.8 % HPV (genital wart and 27.5 % syphilisis as sexually transmitted diseases.\tCONCLUSION: The reason why this study is performed with pregnant women is that they have a sexual life, they are under the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and they need contraception. Finding out that pregnant women don’t have enough knowledge is important in regard to education of the population and preventive medicine.

  7. HIV in Kenya: Sexual behaviour and quality of care of sexually transmitted diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health

  8. Housing values of adult children and their parents. Is the quality of housing transmitted between generations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.; Michielin, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent the value of housing is transmitted from one generation to the next. Using the Social Statistical dataBase (SSB) for the Netherlands in 2003 and OLS regression analysis, it is found that the value of the parents’ home is an important predictor of housing value.

  9. Power balance and loss mechanism analysis in RF transmit coil arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Andre; Goluch, Sigrun; Waxmann, Patrick; Seifert, Frank; Ittermann, Bernd; Moser, Ewald; Laistler, Elmar

    2015-10-01

    To establish a framework for transmit array power balance calculations based on power correlation matrices to accurately quantify the loss contributions from different mechanisms such as coupling, lumped components, and radiation. Starting from Poynting's theorem, power correlation matrices are derived for all terms in the power balance, which is formulated as a matrix equation. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of two 7 T eight-channel head array coils at 297.2 MHz are used to verify the theoretical considerations and demonstrate their application. Care is taken to accurately incorporate all loss mechanisms. The power balance for static B1 phase shims as well as two-dimensional spatially selective transmit SENSE pulses is shown. The simulated power balance shows an excellent agreement with theory, with a maximum power imbalance of less than 0.11%. Power loss contributions from the different loss mechanisms vary significantly between the investigated setups, and depending on the excitation mode imposed on the coil. The presented approach enables a straightforward loss evaluation for an arbitrary excitation of transmit coil arrays. Worst-case power imbalance and losses are calculated in a straightforward manner. This allows for deeper insight into transmit array loss mechanisms, incorporation of radiated power components in specific absorption rate calculations and verification of electromagnetic simulations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Stability analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model of a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-07-01

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the population is in steady state and the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We determine the steady states and examine their stabilities. (author). 24 refs

  11. Transmitted wavefront testing with large dynamic range based on computer-aided deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daodang; Xu, Ping; Gong, Zhidong; Xie, Zhongmin; Liang, Rongguang; Xu, Xinke; Kong, Ming; Zhao, Jun

    2018-06-01

    The transmitted wavefront testing technique is demanded for the performance evaluation of transmission optics and transparent glass, in which the achievable dynamic range is a key issue. A computer-aided deflectometric testing method with fringe projection is proposed for the accurate testing of transmitted wavefronts with a large dynamic range. Ray tracing of the modeled testing system is carried out to achieve the virtual ‘null’ testing of transmitted wavefront aberrations. The ray aberration is obtained from the ray tracing result and measured slope, with which the test wavefront aberration can be reconstructed. To eliminate testing system modeling errors, a system geometry calibration based on computer-aided reverse optimization is applied to realize accurate testing. Both numerical simulation and experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and high accuracy of the proposed testing method. The proposed testing method can achieve a large dynamic range compared with the interferometric method, providing a simple, low-cost and accurate way for the testing of transmitted wavefronts from various kinds of optics and a large amount of industrial transmission elements.

  12. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  13. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  14. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Dekkers, O.M.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth

  15. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS: In this...

  16. Arrangement of nuclear structures is not transmitted through mitosis but is identical in sister cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlova, Darya Yu; Stixová, Lenka; Kozubek, Stanislav; Gierman, Hinco J.; Šustáčková, Gabriela; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Medvedev, Ruslan N.; Legartová, Soňa; Versteeg, Rogier; Matula, Pavel; Stoklasa, Roman; Bártová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that chromosomes are non-randomly organized during interphase, it is not completely clear whether higher-order chromatin structure is transmitted from mother to daughter cells. Therefore, we addressed the question of how chromatin is rearranged during interphase and whether

  17. Sexually transmitted diseases: educational intervention among teenagers in a technical-professional teaching center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dair García de la Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sexually transmitted diseases are among the leading health problems of humankind. They are highly prevalent diseases that cause distress, disability and significant severe complications. These infections do not have high mortality rates in general, with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, and Hepatitis B that cause a significant number of deaths. Objective. To improve the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among a group of teenagers of Bernabé Boza Technical School, county of Camagüey, and assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods. Knowledge assessments were conducted before and after the intervention in Bernabé Boza Technical School between January and June 2012. The sample universe was 120 students who comprised the complete second year enrollment. Results. There was a predominance of female sixteen-year-old teenagers. The knowledge level about features of sexually transmitted diseases increased significantly after the intervention among the teenagers in the study (71.7% versus 95.8% p<0.0001, route of infection (74.2% versus 100% p<0.0001, and prevention (20% versus 91.7% p<0.0001. Conclusion. The educational intervention increased significantly the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among the teenagers, Thus, this is an important educational tool in this age group.

  18. Management of whitefly-transmitted viruses in open-field production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteflies are a key pest of crops in open field production throughout the tropics and subtropics. This is due in large part to the long and diverse list of devastating plant viruses transmitted by these vectors. Open field production provides many challenges to manage these viruses and in many case...

  19. Inflammasomes and Their Role in Innate Immunity of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Vivek; Dhanda, Rakesh Singh; Møller, Niels Frimodt

    2016-01-01

    the mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced inflammasome activation is important if we are to develop novel therapeutic strategies to target sexually transmitted infections (STIs) related pathogens. This information is currently lacking in literature. In this review, we have discussed the role of various...

  20. Voice-band Modems: A Device to Transmit Data Over Telephone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Voice-band Modems: A Device to Transmit Data. Over Telephone Networks. 1. Basic Principles of Data Trans.mission v U Reddy is with the. Electrical Communica- tion Engineering. Department, Indian. Institute of Science. His research areas are adaptive signal process- ing, multirate filtering and wavelets, and multi-.

  1. Identification of structural similarities between putative transmission proteins of Polymyxa and Spongospora transmitted bymoviruses and furoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessens, J T; Meyer, M

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of amino acid sequence and hydropathy profiles shows conserved, structural similarities between the capsid readthrough protein of potato mop top virus (transmitted by Spongospora subterranea) and furovirus and bymovirus proteins implicated in transmission by Polymyxa spp. This suggests that these proteins have a common ancestry and are involved in a common biological process: virus transmission by plasmodiophorid fungi.

  2. Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.

  3. A 32-channel lattice transmission line array for parallel transmit and receive MRI at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriany, Gregor; Auerbach, Edward J; Snyder, Carl J; Gözübüyük, Ark; Moeller, Steen; Ritter, Johannes; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Vaughan, Tommy; Uğurbil, Kâmil

    2010-06-01

    Transmit and receive RF coil arrays have proven to be particularly beneficial for ultra-high-field MR. Transmit coil arrays enable such techniques as B(1) (+) shimming to substantially improve transmit B(1) homogeneity compared to conventional volume coil designs, and receive coil arrays offer enhanced parallel imaging performance and SNR. Concentric coil arrangements hold promise for developing transceiver arrays incorporating large numbers of coil elements. At magnetic field strengths of 7 tesla and higher where the Larmor frequencies of interest can exceed 300 MHz, the coil array design must also overcome the problem of the coil conductor length approaching the RF wavelength. In this study, a novel concentric arrangement of resonance elements built from capacitively-shortened half-wavelength transmission lines is presented. This approach was utilized to construct an array with whole-brain coverage using 16 transceiver elements and 16 receive-only elements, resulting in a coil with a total of 16 transmit and 32 receive channels. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  5. Sensitivity and Specificity of Empiric Treatment for Sexually Transmitted Infections in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Kristen; Tuchman, Lisa; Hayes, Katie L; Badolato, Gia; Goyal, Monika K

    2017-10-01

    To determine test characteristics of provider judgment for empiric antibiotic provision to patients undergoing testing for a sexually transmitted infection. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional electronic health record review of all patients aged 13-19 years who had Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing sent from an urban, academic pediatric emergency department in 2012. We abstracted data, including patient demographics, chief complaint, sexually transmitted infection test results, and treatment. We calculated test characteristics comparing clinician judgment for presumptive treatment for a sexually transmitted infection with the reference standard of the actual results of testing for a sexually transmitted infection. Of 1223 patient visits meeting inclusion criteria, 284 (23.2%) had a positive GC and/or CT test result. Empiric treatment was provided in 615 encounters (50.3%). Provider judgment for presumptive treatment had an overall sensitivity of 67.6% (95% CI, 61.8-73.0) and a specificity of 55% (95% CI, 51.7-58.2) for accurate GC and/or CT detection. Many adolescents tested for GC and CT receive empiric treatment at the initial emergency department visit. Provider judgment may lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity for identifying infected patients, resulting in the potential for undertreatment of true disease, overtreatment of uninfected patients, or both. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

  7. 1993 ABC of Sexually Transmitted Diseases· Introduction to Minimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    covering the major sexually transmitted disease syndromes such as urethral and vaginal discharges and genital ... will certainly be a worthwhile investment. J. Terblanche. ABC of Brainstem Death· ... In the early 1980's the cultural implications of brainstem death were largely unexplored. Today the criteria must be.

  8. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Coipan, Claudia; Wagemakers, Alex; Fonville, Manoj; Ersöz, Jasmin; Oei, Anneke; Földvári, Gábor; Hovius, Joppe; Takken, Willem; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi (s.l) is

  9. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian; Coipan, Claudia; Wagemakers, Alex; Fonville, Manoj; Ersöz, Jasmin; Oei, Anneke; Földvári, Gábor; Hovius, Joppe; Takken, Willem; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi

  10. Optimal control design of turbo spin-echo sequences with applications to parallel-transmit systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbrizzi, Alessandro; Hoogduin, Hans; Hajnal, Joseph V; van den Berg, CAT; Luijten, Peter R; Malik, Shaihan J

    PURPOSE: The design of turbo spin-echo sequences is modeled as a dynamic optimization problem which includes the case of inhomogeneous transmit radiofrequency fields. This problem is efficiently solved by optimal control techniques making it possible to design patient-specific sequences online.

  11. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results: The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%. The use of the intrauterine device (IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.

  12. Determining composition of a substance by the use of both reflected and transmitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, S.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for the determination of the content of sulfur in hydrocarbon fuels comprising a primary and a secondary source of γ- or x-rays arranged on opposite sides of a test zone and a detector connected to a recording device for detecting and recording backscattered and transmitted rays emitted by the radiation sources is described

  13. The risk of HIV infection being transmitted by the oral route | Matee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparently, the risk of HIV infection being transmitted by the oral route is small. This information should serve to alleviate fears and concerns of the rapidly growing number of household members and other close. contacts of patients with AIDS, professionals attending these patients, as well as the population at large.

  14. Transcription-induced DNA supercoiling: New roles of intranucleosomal DNA loops in DNA repair and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, N S; Pestov, N A; Kulaeva, O I; Clark, D J; Studitsky, V M

    2016-05-26

    RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through chromatin is accompanied by formation of small intranucleosomal DNA loops. Pol II captured within a small loop drives accumulation of DNA supercoiling, facilitating further transcription. DNA breaks relieve supercoiling and induce Pol II arrest, allowing detection of DNA damage hidden in chromatin structure.

  15. An Evaluation of Phylogenetic Methods for Reconstructing Transmitted HIV Variants using Longitudinal Clonal HIV Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Rosemary M.; Liang, Richard H.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Brumme, Zabrina L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A population of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) within a host often descends from a single transmitted/founder virus. The high mutation rate of HIV, coupled with long delays between infection and diagnosis, make isolating and characterizing this strain a challenge. In theory, ancestral reconstruction could be used to recover this strain from sequences sampled in chronic infection; however, the accuracy of phylogenetic techniques in this context is unknown. To evaluate the accuracy of these methods, we applied ancestral reconstruction to a large panel of published longitudinal clonal and/or single-genome-amplification HIV sequence data sets with at least one intrapatient sequence set sampled within 6 months of infection or seroconversion (n = 19,486 sequences, median [interquartile range] = 49 [20 to 86] sequences/set). The consensus of the earliest sequences was used as the best possible estimate of the transmitted/founder. These sequences were compared to ancestral reconstructions from sequences sampled at later time points using both phylogenetic and phylogeny-naive methods. Overall, phylogenetic methods conferred a 16% improvement in reproducing the consensus of early sequences, compared to phylogeny-naive methods. This relative advantage increased with intrapatient sequence diversity (P reconstructing ancestral indel variation, especially within indel-rich regions of the HIV genome. Although further improvements are needed, our results indicate that phylogenetic methods for ancestral reconstruction significantly outperform phylogeny-naive alternatives, and we identify experimental conditions and study designs that can enhance accuracy of transmitted/founder virus reconstruction. IMPORTANCE When HIV is transmitted into a new host, most of the viruses fail to infect host cells. Consequently, an HIV infection tends to be descended from a single “founder” virus. A priority target for the vaccine research, these transmitted/founder viruses are

  16. Sexually transmitted infections: prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices among female sex workers in a cosmopolitan city in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, Adekemi O; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Onajole, Adebayo T; Odeyemi, Kofoworola A

    2013-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard for female sex workers. Targeted interventions for this population can reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus, but barriers exists which can hinder effective implementation of such programs. This descriptive cross sectional study sought to assess the prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices of sexually transmitted infections among brothel based female sex workers. Three hundred and twenty three consenting female sex workers were surveyed using pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaires. More than half of the respondents (54.2%) had poor knowledge of symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Only 13.9% were aware that sexually transmitted infections could be asymptomatic. The self reported prevalence of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections was 36.5%. About half of those with sexually transmitted infectionss sought treatment in a hospital or health centre while 32.5% from a patent medicine vendor. Most respondents (53.8%) mentioned the perceived quality of care as the main reason for seeking treatment in their chosen place. More of the respondents with good knowledge of sexually transmitted infections reported symptoms compared to those with fair and poor knowledge. The knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among these female sex workers is poor and the prevalence is relatively high. Efforts to improve knowledge promote and encourage preventive as well as effective treatment practices must be made for this population.

  17. Eukaryotic DNA Replicases

    KAUST Repository

    Zaher, Manal S.; Oke, Muse; Hamdan, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The current model of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork includes three replicative DNA polymerases, polymerase α/primase complex (Pol α), polymerase δ (Pol δ), and polymerase ε (Pol ε). The primase synthesizes 8–12 nucleotide RNA primers that are extended by the DNA polymerization activity of Pol α into 30–35 nucleotide RNA-DNA primers. Replication factor C (RFC) opens the polymerase clamp-like processivity factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and loads it onto the primer-template. Pol δ utilizes PCNA to mediate highly processive DNA synthesis, while Pol ε has intrinsic high processivity that is modestly stimulated by PCNA. Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand in a division of labor that is not strict. The three polymerases are comprised of multiple subunits and share unifying features in their large catalytic and B subunits. The remaining subunits are evolutionarily not related and perform diverse functions. The catalytic subunits are members of family B, which are distinguished by their larger sizes due to inserts in their N- and C-terminal regions. The sizes of these inserts vary among the three polymerases, and their functions remain largely unknown. Strikingly, the quaternary structures of Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ε are arranged similarly. The catalytic subunits adopt a globular structure that is linked via its conserved C-terminal region to the B subunit. The remaining subunits are linked to the catalytic and B subunits in a highly flexible manner.

  18. Eukaryotic DNA Replicases

    KAUST Repository

    Zaher, Manal S.

    2014-11-21

    The current model of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork includes three replicative DNA polymerases, polymerase α/primase complex (Pol α), polymerase δ (Pol δ), and polymerase ε (Pol ε). The primase synthesizes 8–12 nucleotide RNA primers that are extended by the DNA polymerization activity of Pol α into 30–35 nucleotide RNA-DNA primers. Replication factor C (RFC) opens the polymerase clamp-like processivity factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and loads it onto the primer-template. Pol δ utilizes PCNA to mediate highly processive DNA synthesis, while Pol ε has intrinsic high processivity that is modestly stimulated by PCNA. Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand in a division of labor that is not strict. The three polymerases are comprised of multiple subunits and share unifying features in their large catalytic and B subunits. The remaining subunits are evolutionarily not related and perform diverse functions. The catalytic subunits are members of family B, which are distinguished by their larger sizes due to inserts in their N- and C-terminal regions. The sizes of these inserts vary among the three polymerases, and their functions remain largely unknown. Strikingly, the quaternary structures of Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ε are arranged similarly. The catalytic subunits adopt a globular structure that is linked via its conserved C-terminal region to the B subunit. The remaining subunits are linked to the catalytic and B subunits in a highly flexible manner.

  19. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D.; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100–200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how “normal” copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a “normal” rDNA copy number. PMID:28915237

  20. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  1. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Salim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  2. DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts requires DNA polymerase delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, C.; Reinhard, P.; Linn, S.

    1988-01-01

    When UV-irradiated cultured diploid human fibroblasts were permeabilized with Brij-58 then separated from soluble material by centrifugation, conservative DNA repair synthesis could be restored by a soluble factor obtained from the supernatant of similarly treated HeLa cells. Extensive purification of this factor yielded a 10.2 S, 220,000-dalton polypeptide with the DNA polymerase and 3'- to 5'-exonuclease activities reported for DNA polymerase delta II. Monoclonal antibody to KB cell DNA polymerase alpha, while binding to HeLa DNA polymerase alpha, did not bind to the HeLa DNA polymerase delta. Moreover, at micromolar concentrations N2-(p-n-butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (BuPdGTP) and 2-(p-n-butylanilino)-2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (BuAdATP) were potent inhibitors of DNA polymerase alpha, but did not inhibit the DNA polymerase delta. Neither purified DNA polymerase alpha nor beta could promote repair DNA synthesis in the permeabilized cells. Furthermore, under conditions which inhibited purified DNA polymerase alpha by greater than 90%, neither monoclonal antibodies to DNA polymerase alpha, BuPdGTP, nor BuAdATP was able to inhibit significantly the DNA repair synthesis mediated by the DNA polymerase delta. Thus, it appears that a major portion of DNA repair synthesis induced by UV irradiation might be catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta. When xeroderma pigmentosum human diploid fibroblasts were utilized, DNA repair synthesis dependent upon ultraviolet light could be restored by addition of both T4 endonuclease V and DNA polymerase delta, but not by addition of either one alone

  3. Principles of DNA architectonics: design of DNA-based nanoobjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, O A; Pyshnyi, D V

    2012-01-01

    The methods of preparation of monomeric DNA blocks that serve as key building units for the construction of complex DNA objects are described. Examples are given of the formation of DNA blocks based on native and modified oligonucleotide components using hydrogen bonding and nucleic acid-specific types of bonding and also some affinity interactions with RNA, proteins, ligands. The static discrete and periodic two- and three-dimensional DNA objects reported to date are described systematically. Methods used to prove the structures of DNA objects and the prospects for practical application of nanostructures based on DNA and its analogues in biology, medicine and biophysics are considered. The bibliography includes 195 references.

  4. Response to DNA damage: why do we need to focus on protein phosphatases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori eShimada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells are continuously threatened by unavoidable errors during normal DNA replication or various sources of genotoxic stresses that cause DNA damage or stalled replication. To maintain genomic integrity, cells have developed a coordinated signaling network, known as the DNA damage response (DDR. Following DNA damage, sensor molecules detect the presence of DNA damage and transmit signals to downstream transducer molecules. This in turn conveys the signals to numerous effectors, which initiate a large number of specific biological responses, including transient cell cycle arrest mediated by checkpoints, DNA repair, and apoptosis. It is recently becoming clear that dephosphorylation events are involved in keeping DDR factors inactive during normal cell growth. Moreover, dephosphorylation is required to shut off checkpoint arrest following DNA damage and has been implicated in the activation of the DDR. Spatial and temporal regulation of phosphorylation events is essential for the DDR, and fine-tuning of phosphorylation is partly mediated by protein phosphatases. While the role of kinases in the DDR has been well documented, the complex roles of protein dephosphorylation have only recently begun to be investigated. Therefore, it is important to focus on the role of phosphatases and to determine how their activity is regulated upon DNA damage. In this work, we summarize current knowledge on the involvement of serine/threonine phosphatases, especially the protein phosphatase 1, protein phosphatase 2A, and protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent families, in the DDR.

  5. DNA Topoisomerases in Transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Morten Terpager

    2015-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the main results of my studies on the interplay between DNA topoisomerases and transcription. The work was performed from 2011 to 2015 at Aarhus University in the Laboratory of Genome Research, and was supervised by associate professor Anni H. Andersen. Most of the ex......This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the main results of my studies on the interplay between DNA topoisomerases and transcription. The work was performed from 2011 to 2015 at Aarhus University in the Laboratory of Genome Research, and was supervised by associate professor Anni H. Andersen. Most...... topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex. The second study is an investigation of how topoisomerases influence gene regulation by keeping the genome in an optimal topological state....

  6. Duplication in DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masami; Kari, Lila; Kincaid, Zachary; Seki, Shinnosuke

    The duplication and repeat-deletion operations are the basis of a formal language theoretic model of errors that can occur during DNA replication. During DNA replication, subsequences of a strand of DNA may be copied several times (resulting in duplications) or skipped (resulting in repeat-deletions). As formal language operations, iterated duplication and repeat-deletion of words and languages have been well studied in the literature. However, little is known about single-step duplications and repeat-deletions. In this paper, we investigate several properties of these operations, including closure properties of language families in the Chomsky hierarchy and equations involving these operations. We also make progress toward a characterization of regular languages that are generated by duplicating a regular language.

  7. DNA methylation in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pokrywka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes, have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described.

  8. The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme and the Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme on soil-transmitted helminthiasis in schoolchildren in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Khalid; Magnussen, Pascal; Sheshe, Amir; Ntakamulenga, Robert; Ndawi, Benedict; Olsen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (LFEP) and the National Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme (NSSCP) on soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) was evaluated. In September 2004, before mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP in October, the prevalence and intensity of STH were recorded in 228 pupils in one primary school. After 8 months, all available pupils were re-examined, and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm had decreased from 0.9 to 0.7% (P=0.84), from 4.8 to 0.7% (P=0.004) and from 45.6 to 11.9% (P<0.001), respectively. Overall, 81.2% of the schoolchildren stated that they were treated by the LFEP in October 2004. After the 8 months follow-up, pupils were treated with praziquantel and albendazole by the present project (substitute for the NSSCP). After another 4 months (at 12 months follow-up), the prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced to 4.8% (P=0.003), while the prevalence of T. trichiura was reduced to 0.3% (P=0.54) and the prevalence of A. lumbricoides remained unchanged. Mass co-administration of ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP had a significant effect on STH, which was further amplified by treatment with praziquantel and albendazole 4 months later.

  9. Chloroplast DNA footprints of postglacial recolonization by oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Rémy J.; Pineau, Emmanuel; Demesure, Brigitte; Bacilieri, Roberto; Ducousso, Alexis; Kremer, Antoine

    1997-01-01

    Recolonization of Europe by forest tree species after the last glaciation is well documented in the fossil pollen record. This spread may have been achieved at low densities by rare events of long-distance dispersal, rather than by a compact wave of advance, generating a patchy genetic structure through founder effects. In long-lived oak species, this structure could still be discernible by using maternally transmitted genetic markers. To test this hypothesis, a fine-scale study of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variability of two sympatric oak species was carried out in western France. The distributions of six cpDNA length variants were analyzed at 188 localities over a 200 × 300 km area. A cpDNA map was obtained by applying geostatistics methods to the complete data set. Patches of several hundred square kilometers exist which are virtually fixed for a single haplotype for both oak species. This local systematic interspecific sharing of the maternal genome strongly suggests that long-distance seed dispersal events followed by interspecific exchanges were involved at the time of colonization, about 10,000 years ago. PMID:11038572

  10. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  11. The distribution of sexually-transmitted Human Papillomaviruses in HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hause Lara

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomaviruses (HPV are double-stranded DNA viruses, considered to be the primary etiological agents in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Approximately 15–20 of the 40 mucosal HPVs confer a high-risk of progression of lesions to invasive cancer. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted HPVs in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa. The rate of high-risk HPV genotypes worldwide varies within each country. Thus, we sought to investigate the rates of HPV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential role of HIV in affecting the HPV genotype distribution. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study reports findings on the association and effects of HIV on HPV infections in an existing cohort of patients at University Teaching Hospital (UTH Lusaka, Zambia. The objective of this study was to assess HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and to identify co-factors that influence HPV infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with two standard consensus primer sets (CpI/II and GP5+/6+ was used to test for the presence of HPV DNA. Primers specific for β-actin were used to monitor DNA quality. Vaginal lavage samples, collected between 1998-1999 from a total of 70 women, were part of a larger cohort that was also analyzed for HIV and human herpesvirus infection. Seventy of the samples yielded usable DNA. HIV status was determined by two rapid assays, Capillus and Determine. The incidence of HIV and HPV infections and HPV genotype distributions were calculated and statistical significance was determined by Chi-Squared test. Results We determined that most common HPV genotypes detected among these Zambian patients were types 16 and 18 (21.6% each, which is approximately three-fold greater than the rates for HPV16, and ten-fold greater than the rates for HPV18 in the United States. The worldwide prevalence of HPV16 is approximately 14

  12. DNA Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinit; Palazzolo, Stefano; Bayda, Samer; Corona, Giuseppe; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Rizzolio, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology is an emerging and exciting field, and represents a forefront frontier for the biomedical field. The specificity of the interactions between complementary base pairs makes DNA an incredible building material for programmable and very versatile two- and three-dimensional nanostructures called DNA origami. Here, we analyze the DNA origami and DNA-based nanostructures as a drug delivery system. Besides their physical-chemical nature, we dissect the critical factors such as stability, loading capability, release and immunocompatibility, which mainly limit in vivo applications. Special attention was dedicated to highlighting the boundaries to be overcome to bring DNA nanostructures closer to the bedside of patients. PMID:27022418

  13. Spatio-temporal distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Guimarães, Luiz H; Scholte, Ronaldo Gc; Bavia, Mara E; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2014-09-18

    In Brazil, preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminthiasis is being scaled-up. Hence, spatially explicit estimates of infection risks providing information about the current situation are needed to guide interventions. Available high-resolution national model-based estimates either rely on analyses of data restricted to a given period of time, or on historical data collected over a longer period. While efforts have been made to take into account the spatial structure of the data in the modelling approach, little emphasis has been placed on the temporal dimension. We extracted georeferenced survey data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura) in Brazil from the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases (GNTD) database. Selection of the most important predictors of infection risk was carried out using a Bayesian geostatistical approach and temporal models that address non-linearity and correlation of the explanatory variables. The spatial process was estimated through a predictive process approximation. Spatio-temporal models were built on the selected predictors with integrated nested Laplace approximation using stochastic partial differential equations. Our models revealed that, over the past 20 years, the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection has decreased in Brazil, mainly because of the reduction of A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections. From 2010 onwards, we estimate that the infection prevalences with A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura are 3.6%, 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively. We also provide a map highlighting municipalities in need of preventive chemotherapy, based on a predicted soil-transmitted helminth infection risk in excess of 20%. The need for treatments in the school-aged population at the municipality level was estimated at 1.8 million doses of anthelminthic tablets per year. The analysis of the spatio-temporal aspect of the risk of infection

  14. DNA profiling of trace DNA recovered from bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Susan F; Bright, Jo-Anne; Cockerton, Sarah L

    2006-05-25

    Trace DNA is often detected on handled items and worn clothing examined in forensic laboratories. In this study, the potential transfer of trace DNA to bedding by normal contact, when an individual sleeps in a bed, is examined. Volunteers slept one night on a new, lower bed sheet in their own bed and one night in a bed foreign to them. Samples from the sheets were collected and analysed by DNA profiling. The results indicate that the DNA profile of an individual can be obtained from bedding after one night of sleeping in a bed. The DNA profile of the owner of the bed could also be detected in the foreign bed experiments. Since mixed DNA profiles can be obtained from trace DNA on bedding, caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions from DNA profiling results obtained from such samples. This transfer may have important repercussions in sexual assault investigations.

  15. DNA tagged microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George R.; Leif, Roald N.; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2016-03-22

    In one embodiment, a product includes a plurality of particles, each particle including: a carrier that includes a non-toxic material; and at least one DNA barcode coupled to the carrier, where the particles each have a diameter in a range from about 1 nanometer to about 100 microns.

  16. 18 CFR 2.20 - Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting utilities. 2.20 Section 2.20 Conservation of... Power Act § 2.20 Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting...

  17. The dynamic interplay between DNA topoisomerases and DNA topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Yeonee; Neuman, Keir C

    2016-11-01

    Topological properties of DNA influence its structure and biochemical interactions. Within the cell, DNA topology is constantly in flux. Transcription and other essential processes, including DNA replication and repair, not only alter the topology of the genome but also introduce additional complications associated with DNA knotting and catenation. These topological perturbations are counteracted by the action of topoisomerases, a specialized class of highly conserved and essential enzymes that actively regulate the topological state of the genome. This dynamic interplay among DNA topology, DNA processing enzymes, and DNA topoisomerases is a pervasive factor that influences DNA metabolism in vivo. Building on the extensive structural and biochemical characterization over the past four decades that has established the fundamental mechanistic basis of topoisomerase activity, scientists have begun to explore the unique roles played by DNA topology in modulating and influencing the activity of topoisomerases. In this review we survey established and emerging DNA topology-dependent protein-DNA interactions with a focus on in vitro measurements of the dynamic interplay between DNA topology and topoisomerase activity.

  18. A Simple Differential Modulation Scheme for Quasi-Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes with Partial Transmit Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyang Song

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple differential modulation scheme for quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes. A new class of quasi-orthogonal coding structures that can provide partial transmit diversity is presented for various numbers of transmit antennas. Differential encoding and decoding can be simplified for differential Alamouti-like codes by grouping the signals in the transmitted matrix and decoupling the detection of data symbols, respectively. The new scheme can achieve constant amplitude of transmitted signals, and avoid signal constellation expansion; in addition it has a linear signal detector with very low complexity. Simulation results show that these partial-diversity codes can provide very useful results at low SNR for current communication systems. Extension to more than four transmit antennas is also considered.

  19. The effect of abortion legalization on sexual behavior: evidence from sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, Jonathan; Stratmann, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Unwanted pregnancy represents a major cost of sexual activity. When abortion was legalized in a number of states in 1969 and 1970 (and nationally in 1973), this cost was reduced. We predict that abortion legalization generated incentives leading to an increase in sexual activity, accompanied by an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using Centers for Disease Control data on the incidence of gonorrhea and syphilis by state, we test the hypothesis that abortion legalization led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. We find that gonorrhea and syphilis incidences are significantly and positively correlated with abortion legalization. Further, we find a divergence in STD rates among early legalizing states and late legalizing states starting in 1970 and a subsequent convergence after the Roe v. Wade decision, indicating that the relation between STDs and abortion is casual. Abortion legalization accounts for about one-fourth of the average disease incidence.

  20. Reproduction of cultural values: a cross-cultural examination of stories people create and transmit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Yussen, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Narratives are one of the oldest and universal forms of communication in human societies. In the present research, the authors hypothesized that narratives play an important role in the reproduction of cultural values. To test this idea, Study 1 examined the contents of stories created by American and Japanese participants for their reflection of individualistic and collectivistic values, and Study 2 examined whether information consistent with cultural values would be more likely to be retained and passed onto others. The studies found that American participants created stories that reflected individualistic values and retained more individualistic information than collectivistic information when they transmitted a story to others. In contrast, Japanese participants created stories that reflected collectivistic values and retained more collectivistic information than individualistic information when they transmitted a story to others. These findings support the idea that narrative communication is an important part of cultural reproduction mechanism.

  1. Where do youth in foster care receive information about preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transmit power optimization for green multihop relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimal transmit power strategy to maximize the energy efficiency of a multihop relaying network. Considering the communication between a source and a destination through multiple Amplify-and-Forward relays, we first give the expression of the total instantaneous system energy consumption. Then, we define the energy efficiency in our context and obtain its expression in closed-form when the communication is over Nakagami-m fading channels. The analysis yields to the derivation of a global transmit power strategy where each individual node is contributing to the end-to-end overall energy efficiency. Numercial results are presented to illustrate the analysis. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulation results confirms the accuracy of our derivations, and assesses the gains of the proposed power optimization strategy. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Transmitted ion energy loss distributions to detect cluster formation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selen, L.J.M.; Loon, A. van; IJzendoorn, L.J. van; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    2002-01-01

    The energy loss distribution of ions transmitted through a 5.7±0.2 μm thick Si crystal was measured and simulated with the Monte Carlo channeling simulation code FLUX. A general resemblance between the measured and simulated energy loss distributions was obtained after incorporation of an energy dependent energy loss in the simulation program. The energy loss calculations are used to investigate the feasibility to detect the presence of light element dopant clusters in a host crystal from the shape of the energy loss distribution, with transmission ion channeling. A curved crystal structure is used as a model for a region in the host crystal with clusters. The presence of the curvature does have a large influence on the transmitted energy distribution, which offers the possibility to determine the presence of dopant clusters in a host crystal with transmission ion channeling

  4. Low complexity transmit antenna selection with power balancing in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-carrier systems with multiple transmit antennas under the power balancing constraint, which is defined as the constraint that the power on each antenna should be limited under a certain level due to the linearity of the power amplifier of the RF chain. Applying transmit antenna selection and fixed-power variable-rate transmission per subcarrier as a function of channel variations, we propose an implementation-friendly antenna selection method which offers a reduced complexity in comparison with the optimal antenna selection scheme. More specifically, in order to solve the subcarrier imbalance across the antennas, we operate a two-step reallocation procedure to minimize the loss of spectral efficiency. We also provide an analytic lower bound on the spectral efficiency for the proposed scheme. From selected numerical results, we show that our suboptimal scheme offers almost the same spectral efficiency as the optimal one. © 2010 IEEE.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. High-voltage integrated transmitting circuit with differential driving for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Færch, Kjartan Ullitz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high-voltage integrated differential transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is presented. Due to its application, area and power consumption are critical and need to be minimized. The circuitry...... is designed and implemented in AMS 0.35 μ m high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the fabricated integrated circuit in order to assess its performance. The transmitting circuit consists of a low-voltage control logic, pulse-triggered level shifters and a differential output stage that generates...... conditions is 0.936 mW including the load. The integrated circuits measured prove to be consistent and robust to local process variations by measurements....

  7. Recent advances towards azobenzene-based light-driven real-time information-transmitting materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume García-Amorós

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Photochromic switches that are able to transmit information in a quick fashion have attracted a growing interest within materials science during the last few decades. Although very fast photochromic switching materials working within hundreds of nanoseconds based on other chromophores, such as spiropyranes, have been successfully achieved, reaching such fast relaxation times for azobenzene-based photochromic molecular switches is still a challenge. This review focuses on the most recent achievements on azobenzene-based light-driven real-time information-transmitting systems. Besides, the main relationships between the structural features of the azo-chromophore and the thermal cis-to-trans isomerisation, the kinetics and mechanism are also discussed as a key point for reaching azoderivatives endowed with fast thermal back-isomerisation kinetics.

  8. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  9. [Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola Vidaurre, M; Benito, J; Azcona, B; Zubeldía, N

    2009-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are those where the principal path of infection is through intimate contact. Numerous patients attend Accidents and emergencies for this reason, both because of the clinical features and because of social implications. The most frequent symptoms are lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or excessive or troubling vaginal flow. Vulvovaginites are one of the principal problems in the everyday clinical practice of gynaecology. A genital ulcer whose principal aetiology is herpes, followed by syphilis and chancroid, increases the risk of contracting HIV infection and alters the course of other sexually transmitted diseases. Inflammatory pelvic disease encompasses infections of the upper female genital tract. The importance of early diagnosis and suitable treatment is both due to the complications in its acute phase and to its sequels, which include chronic pain and sterility.

  10. An industrial radiography exposure device based on measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polee, C; Chankow, N; Srisatit, S; Thong-Aram, D

    2015-01-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking information of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a small detector. Application software was developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display counting data via Bluetooth communication. Prior to film exposure, the device is placed behind a specimen to measure transmitted intensity which is inversely proportional to the exposure. Unlike in using the conventional exposure curve, correction factors for source decay, source-to- film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material are not needed. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable. (paper)

  11. An Industrial Radipgraphy Exposure Device Based on Measurement of Transmitted Gamma-Ray Intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polee, C.; Chankow, N.; Srisatit, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2014-01-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking knowledge of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a D3372 Hamamatsu small GM tube. Application software is developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display the counting data via Bluetooth. Prior to placing film, the device is placed behind the specimen to be radiographed to determine the exposure time from the transmitted intensity which is independent on source activity, source-to-film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable.

  12. Dual branch transmit switch-and-stay diversity for underlay cognitive networks

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study applying dual branch transmit switch-and-stay combining (SSC) technique for underlay cognitive radio (UCR) networks. In UCR, the secondary user is allowed to share the spectrum with the primary (licensed) user under the condition that interference at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. Assuming binary phaseshift keying (BPSK) modulation and Rayleigh fading channels, we develop a closed form expression for the average bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link as a function of the switching threshold. We then find a closed form expression for the optimal switching threshold in the sense of minimizing the average BER. For the sake of comparison we derive an expression for the average BER of the dual branch transmit selection combining (SC) technique. We finally investigate the effect of correlation between secondary and interference channels on the average BER and the associated optimal switching threshold. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Eddy Current Signal Analysis for Transmit-Receive Pancake Coil on ECT Array Probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyang Beom

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the eddy current signals come from a pair of transmit-receive (T/R) pancake coil on ECT array Probe are analyzed with the variations of the lift-of and of the distance between transmit and receive coils. To obtain the electromagnetic characteristics of the probes, the governing equation describing the eddy current problems is derived from Maxwell's equation and is solved using three-dimensional finite element method. Eddy current signals from T/R coils on ECT array probe have quite different characteristics compared with ones from impedance coil on rotating pancake coil probe. The results in this paper ran be helpful when the field eddy current signals from ECT array probe are evaluated

  14. Transmit Antenna Selection for Underlay Cognitive Radio with Instantaneous Interference Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad

    2016-03-28

    Cognitive radio (CR) technology addresses the problem of spectrum under-utilization. In underlay CR mode, the secondary users are allowed to communicate provided that their transmission is not detrimental to primary user communication. Transmit antenna selection is one of the low-complexity methods to increase the capacity of wireless communication systems. In this article, we propose and analyze the performance benefit of a transmit antenna selection scheme for underlay secondary system that ensures the instantaneous interference caused by the secondary transmitter to the primary receiver is below a predetermined level. Closed-form expressions of the secondary link outage probability, higher order amount of fading, and ergodic capacity are derived for the proposed scheme. Monte-carlo simulations are also carried out to confirm various mathematical results presented in this article.

  15. Dual branch transmit switch-and-stay diversity for underlay cognitive networks

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we study applying dual branch transmit switch-and-stay combining (SSC) technique for underlay cognitive radio (UCR) networks. In UCR, the secondary user is allowed to share the spectrum with the primary (licensed) user under the condition that interference at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. Assuming binary phaseshift keying (BPSK) modulation and Rayleigh fading channels, we develop a closed form expression for the average bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link as a function of the switching threshold. We then find a closed form expression for the optimal switching threshold in the sense of minimizing the average BER. For the sake of comparison we derive an expression for the average BER of the dual branch transmit selection combining (SC) technique. We finally investigate the effect of correlation between secondary and interference channels on the average BER and the associated optimal switching threshold. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Transmit power optimization for green multihop relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa; Benjillali, Mustapha; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimal transmit power strategy to maximize the energy efficiency of a multihop relaying network. Considering the communication between a source and a destination through multiple Amplify-and-Forward relays, we first give the expression of the total instantaneous system energy consumption. Then, we define the energy efficiency in our context and obtain its expression in closed-form when the communication is over Nakagami-m fading channels. The analysis yields to the derivation of a global transmit power strategy where each individual node is contributing to the end-to-end overall energy efficiency. Numercial results are presented to illustrate the analysis. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulation results confirms the accuracy of our derivations, and assesses the gains of the proposed power optimization strategy. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. Joint Transmit Antenna Selection and Power Allocation for ISDF Relaying Mobile-to-Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingwei; Zhang, Hao; Gulliver, T Aaron

    2016-02-19

    The outage probability (OP) performance of multiple-relay incremental-selective decode-and-forward (ISDF) relaying mobile-to-mobile (M2M) sensor networks with transmit antenna selection (TAS) over N-Nakagami fading channels is investigated. Exact closed-form OP expressions for both optimal and suboptimal TAS schemes are derived. The power allocation problem is formulated to determine the optimal division of transmit power between the broadcast and relay phases. The OP performance under different conditions is evaluated via numerical simulation to verify the analysis. These results show that the optimal TAS scheme has better OP performance than the suboptimal scheme. Further, the power allocation parameter has a significant influence on the OP performance.

  18. On the performance of transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ahmet Oǧuz; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oǧuz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a transmit antenna selection scheme, which is based on shadowing side information, is investigated. In this scheme, the selected single transmit antenna provides the highest shadowing coefficient between a transmitter and a receiver. By the proposed technique, the frequency of the usage of the feedback channel from the receiver to the transmitter and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We study the performance of our proposed technique, and in the analysis, we consider an independent but not identically distributed generalized-K composite fading model. More specifically, exact and closed-form expressions for the outage probability, the moment-generating function, the moments of signal-to-noise ratio, and the average symbol error probability (SEP) are derived. In addition, asymptotic outage probability and SP expressions are also presented to investigate the diversity order and the array gain. Finally, our theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by

  20. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)