Van Zomeren, M.; Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Bettache, K.
This article examines whether and how moral convictions, defined as strong and absolute stances on moralized issues, motivate advantaged group members to challenge social inequality. Specifically, we propose that violations of moral convictions against social inequality motivate collective action
Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E
Few researchers have investigated the potentially predictive power of motives for childhood and adolescent animal cruelty as it is associated with interpersonal violence in adulthood. Based on a sample of 261 inmates at medium- and maximum-security prisons in a southern state, the present study examines the relationship among several retrospectively reported motives (anger, fun, dislike, and imitation) for animal cruelty and violent crime convictions (assault, rape, and murder). Almost half reported abusing animals out of anger, whereas more than one third did so for fun. Dislike for the animal and imitation were less frequently occurring motives. Participants who abused animals at an earlier age and those who did so out of anger or for fun were more likely to repeat the offense. Regression analyses revealed that abusing an animal out of fun in their youth was the most statistically salient motive for predicting later interpersonal violence as adults.
Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Williams, Terrinieka T; Chavous, Tabbye M
The persistent underachievement among African American boys has led to increased empirical inquiry, yet little research considers within-group variation in achievement nor positive youth characteristics that help explain positive achievement outcomes. This study conceptualized culturally-based factors (racial pride and religiosity) as adolescent assets that would promote African American boys' achievement and also enhance positive effects of other youth assets (positive educational utility beliefs) on achievement. Our sample included 158 adolescent boys (M = 17.08) from a large, socioeconomically diverse suburban community context. Accounting for demographic background variables, educational utility beliefs were positively associated with academic grade performance. A significant educational utility beliefs and racial pride interaction indicated a stronger, positive association of educational utility beliefs with grade performance among boys with higher racial pride relative to those with lower racial pride. Also, there was a stronger positive association between educational utility beliefs and grades for boys reporting lower religious importance, but boys endorsing both lower educational utility beliefs and religious importance were at highest risk for low grade performance. Overall results suggest the importance of considering culturally-based factors in studying achievement motivation processes among ethnic minority adolescents.
Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret
While studies investigating the health effects of racial discrimination for children and youth have examined a range of effect modifiers, to date, relationships between experiences of racial discrimination, student attitudes, and health outcomes remain unexplored. This study uniquely demonstrates the moderating effects of vicarious racism and motivated fairness on the association between direct experiences of racism and mental health outcomes, specifically depressive symptoms and loneliness, among primary and secondary school students. Across seven schools, 263 students (54.4% female), ranging from 8 to 17 years old (M = 11.2, SD = 2.2) reported attitudes about other racial/ethnic groups and experiences of racism. Students from minority ethnic groups (determined by country of birth) reported higher levels of loneliness and more racist experiences relative to the majority group students. Students from the majority racial/ethnic group reported higher levels of loneliness and depressive symptoms if they had more friends from different racial/ethnic groups, whereas the number of friends from different groups had no effect on minority students' loneliness or depressive symptoms. Direct experiences of racism were robustly related to higher loneliness and depressive symptoms in multivariate regression models. However, the association with depressive symptoms was reduced to marginal significance when students reported low motivated fairness. Elaborating on the negative health effects of racism in primary and secondary school students provides an impetus for future research and the development of appropriate interventions.
Williams, Melissa J; Eberhardt, Jennifer L
The present studies demonstrate that conceiving of racial group membership as biologically determined increases acceptance of racial inequities (Studies 1 and 2) and cools interest in interacting with racial outgroup members (Studies 3-5). These effects were generally independent of racial prejudice. It is argued that when race is cast as a biological marker of individuals, people perceive racial outgroup members as unrelated to the self and therefore unworthy of attention and affiliation. Biological conceptions of race therefore provide justification for a racially inequitable status quo and for the continued social marginalization of historically disadvantaged groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
Miller, Jonathan M; Wolfson, Julian; Laska, Melissa N; Nelson, Toben F; Pereira, Mark A
To test the effectiveness of an intervention to increase motivation for physical activity in racially diverse third- through fifth-grade students. Natural experiment. Elementary schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Two hundred ninety-one students in 18 Minne-Loppet Ski Program classes and 210 students in 12 control classrooms from the same schools. The Minne-Loppet Ski Program, an 8-week curriculum in elementary schools that teaches healthy physical activity behaviors through cross-country skiing. Pretest and posttest surveys measured self-determination theory outcomes: intrinsic exercise motivation, intrinsic ski motivation, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Hierarchical linear regression models tested treatment effects controlled for grade, race, sex, and baseline measures of the outcomes. Minne-Loppet program students showed significantly greater motivation to ski (β = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-1.75) and significantly greater perceived competence (β = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.06-1.50) than students in control classrooms. Treatment effects for general exercise motivation and perceived competence differed by race. African American students in Minne-Loppet classes showed significantly greater general exercise motivation (β = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.03-2.14) and perceived competence (β = 1.95, 95% CI: 0.91-2.99) than African American students in control classes. The Minne-Loppet program promoted perceived competence and motivation to ski. Future improvements to the Minne-Loppet and similar interventions should aim to build general motivation and provide support needed to better engage all participants.
Full Text Available Penalty, including imprisonment comprises one of the basic forms of reaction to crime. It differs from other possible penalties in the degree of discomfort and in the legal consequences. There are also different goals in case of criminal penalty as a legal and social consequence of a crime or misconduct. Imprisonment aims at taking different actions which consequently, should lead to the situation where the criminal does not return to committing crimes. It is so called penitentiary rehabilitation which is a multidimensional phenomenon and it should be considered from the modern society point of view. Its range includes correction of inadequate individual’s behavior and his or her adaptation of norms and values shared by the general public, as well as taking and being persistent in the process of designing oneself, own personality and consistent implementation of the self- vision in the future, organized hierarchically for the given time periods. Therefore, different means and action are taken under the implementation of imprisonment. Moreover, convicted prisoners are divided into different groups in penitentiaries. One of the groups is the group of young convicts. The goal of this article is to examine and describe the opinion of the young convicts on the penitentiary as a penal and rehabilitation institution. To perform the study, sixty young convicts were selected. In the test method, the diagnostic survey was applied. The original authoring questionnaire was used in the study. The study was performed in the Penitentiary in Radom, in December 2012.
Prior self-schema research focuses on benefits of being schematic vs. aschematic in stereotyped domains. The current studies build on this work, examining racial-ethnic self-schemas as multi-dimensional, containing multiple, conflicting, and non-integrated images. A multidimensional perspective captures complexity; examining net effects of dimensions predicts within-group differences in academic engagement and well-being. When racial-ethnicity self-schemas focus attention on membership in both in-group and broader society, engagement with school should increase since school is not seen as out-group defining. When racial-ethnicity self-schemas focus attention on inclusion (not obstacles to inclusion) in broader society, risk of depressive symptoms should decrease. Support for these hypotheses was found in two separate samples (8th graders, n = 213, 9th graders followed to 12th grade n = 141). PMID:19122837
Bastian, Brock; Zhang, Airong; Moffat, Kieren
When people are morally convicted regarding a specific issue, these convictions exert a powerful influence on their attitudes and behavior. In the current research we examined whether there are boundary conditions to the influence of this effect. Specifically, whether in the context of salient economic rewards, moral convictions may become weaker predictors of attitudes regarding resource use. Focusing on the issue of mining we gathered large-scale samples across three different continents (Australia, Chile, and China). We found that moral convictions against mining were related to a reduced acceptance of mining in each country, while perceived economic rewards from mining increased acceptance. These two motivations interacted, however, such that when perceived economic benefit from mining was high, the influence of moral conviction was weaker. The results highlight the importance of understanding the roles of both moral conviction and financial gain in motivating attitudes towards resource use.
Full Text Available When people are morally convicted regarding a specific issue, these convictions exert a powerful influence on their attitudes and behavior. In the current research we examined whether there are boundary conditions to the influence of this effect. Specifically, whether in the context of salient economic rewards, moral convictions may become weaker predictors of attitudes regarding resource use. Focusing on the issue of mining we gathered large-scale samples across three different continents (Australia, Chile, and China. We found that moral convictions against mining were related to a reduced acceptance of mining in each country, while perceived economic rewards from mining increased acceptance. These two motivations interacted, however, such that when perceived economic benefit from mining was high, the influence of moral conviction was weaker. The results highlight the importance of understanding the roles of both moral conviction and financial gain in motivating attitudes towards resource use.
Cropsey, Karen L; Leventhal, Adam M; Stevens, Erin N; Trent, Lindsay R; Clark, C Brendan; Lahti, Adrienne C; Hendricks, Peter S
Racial and gender disparities for smoking cessation might be accounted for by differences in expectancies for tobacco interventions, but few studies have investigated such differences or their relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. In this cross-sectional study, 673 smokers (African American: n = 443, 65.8%; women: n = 222, 33.0%) under criminal justice supervision who enrolled in a clinical smoking cessation trial in which all received bupropion and half received counseling. All participants completed pretreatment measures of expectancies for different tobacco interventions, motivation to quit, and abstinence self-efficacy. The indirect effects of race and gender on motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy through expectancies for different tobacco interventions were evaluated. African Americans' stronger expectancies that behavioral interventions would be effective accounted for their greater motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Women's stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy accounted for their greater motivation to quit, whereas their stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of behavioral treatments accounted for their greater abstinence self-efficacy. Findings point to the mediating role of expectancies for treatment effectiveness and suggest the importance of exploring expectancies among African Americans and women as a way to augment motivation and self-efficacy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
lowerthe threat of being sanctioned for a crime one commits, if two sanctions are not twiceas threatening as one. Second, if wrongful conviction halts further investigations thatmay lead to the true offender, and third, if a potential offender thinks that if he or shedoes not take advantage of a crime...
Full Text Available The relevance of this topic is caused by a significant number of crimes committed by law enforcement officers and the necessity of active prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes. The hypothesis was suggested that the main difference of individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes from individual psychological characteristics of law-abiding law enforcement officers is the difference between the principal values of the person both the main motives of activity adopted by an individual and the structure and the hierarchy of these values. This article describes the progress and results of empirical research conducted on the materials of psychodiagnostic examination of: employees who have been convicted of intentional crimes; law-abiding employees; people entering an internal affairs agency. Test subjects - men 18-46 years old, 90 people. Recommendations for practical psychologist of internal affairs agencies on detection of individual psychological personality features typical for law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes are formulated based on the obtained results.
Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)
Full Text Available Abstract The interest in scientific research of the self-efficacy phenomenon provides new data and reveals further relationships between this phenomenon and the functioning of the individual in the society. The Albert Bandura’s socio-cognitive theory presents its important and the most popular theoretical construct - self-efficacy, which is a part of the cognitive components of personality. It is an assessment of the individual's competences, its conviction about the possibility of managing planned activities in a given field. Studies on the relationship between coping with the learning process and self-efficacy seem to be particularly interesting. In the analysis of the problem, there are a number of personality variables that could be important for undertaking and continuing education and training in adulthood, which is particularly important among people performing medical professions, including midwives. Motivation, conscientiousness, conviction about self-efficacy or cognitive abilities are mentioned in literature of the subject.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conviction. 105-74.615 Section 105-74.615 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.615 Conviction...
Chambers, David W
Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.
Garety, Philippa A; Freeman, Daniel; Jolley, Suzanne; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul E; Fowler, David G; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Dudley, Robert
The aim of the study was to elucidate the factors contributing to the severity and persistence of delusional conviction. One hundred participants with current delusions, recruited for a treatment trial of psychological therapy (PRP trial), were assessed at baseline on measures of reasoning, emotions, and dimensions of delusional experience. Reasoning biases (belief inflexibility, jumping to conclusions, and extreme responding) were found to be present in one half of the sample. The hypothesis was confirmed that reasoning biases would be related to delusional conviction. There was evidence that belief inflexibility mediated the relationship between jumping to conclusions and delusional conviction. Emotional states were not associated with the reasoning processes investigated. Anxiety, but not depression, made an independent contribution to delusional conviction. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Programmes involving men convicted of intimate partner violence are subject to a wide range of discussions these days. There are numerous international debates regarding programmes aimed at men convicted of intimate partner violence. Some of the most controversial issues are: a intervention approaches, b the possibility of performing specific treatments according to the offender's characteristics, or c the need to take account of external factors such as institutional coordination or the specifics of the therapeutical process (context, therapeutical alliance, motivation of the convict, and the therapist. The aim of this article is to review the main themes that are the focus of this international debate and weigh their impact on the research and the principal programmes that exist in Spain for men convicted of gender violence. The conclusions show that research in Spain is gradually incorporating the topics identified internationally such as the efficacy of programmes in different contexts, the existence of typologies, motivational aspects, analysis of dropouts, risk factors, cultural aspects, or offenders' addictions problems. Nevertheless, it appears necessary to more closely align the programmes with the characteristics of the aggressor.
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal conviction. 14.5 Section 14.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... felony or of a misdemeanor involving fraud or involving moral turpitude in matters related to the...
Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie
The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…
Ackermann, Nicole; Goodman, Melody S; Gilbert, Keon; Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Pagano, Marcello
Previous analyses of Stand Your Ground (SYG) cases have been primarily descriptive. We examine the relationship between race of the victim and conviction of the defendant in SYG cases in Florida from 2005 to 2013. Using a regression analytic approach, we allow for simultaneous examination of multiple factors to better understand existing interrelationships. Data was obtained from the Tampa Bay Times SYG database (237 cases) which was supplemented with available online court documents and/or news reports. After excluding cases which were, still pending as of January 2015; had multiple outcomes (because of multiple suspects); and missing information on race of victim and weapon of victim, our final analytic sample has 204 cases. We chose whether the case resulted in a conviction as the outcome. We develop logistic regression models using significant bivariate predictors as candidates. These include race of the victim (White, non-White), whether the defendant could have retreated from the situation, whether the defendant pursued the victim, if the victim was unarmed, and who was the initiator of the confrontation. We find race of the victim to be a significant predictor of case outcome in this data set. After controlling for other variables, the defendant is two times (OR = 2.1, 95% CI [1.07, 4.10]) more likely to be convicted in a case that involves White victims compared to those involving non-White victims. Our results depict a disturbing message: SYG legislation in Florida has a quantifiable racial bias that reveals a leniency in convictions if the victim is non-White, which provides evidence towards unequal treatment under the law. Rather than attempting to hide the outcomes of these laws, as was done in Florida, other states with SYG laws should carry out similar analyses to see if their manifestations are the same as those in Florida, and all should remediate any injustices found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian; Ackerley, Elizabeth
Kidnapping has been a neglected crime in criminological research. In fact, there has been a dramatic increase in the yearly numbers of police recorded kidnapping offences in England and Wales in the last 25 years, but this has not been matched by a similar increase in convictions. This study focuses on the official criminal histories of the 7042 males and 545 females who were convicted at least once for kidnapping between 1979 and 2001. Of these, 3.9% of the males and 2.6% of the females had convictions for kidnapping on more than one occasion. We examined two subgroups to ensure long observation periods for prior and subsequent convictions. Of those convicted of kidnapping in 2001, around one-half (51.1%) of the males and around one-third (36.6%) of the females had previous convictions. The previous convictions consist of a wide range of offences, with the most common being theft and violent offences. A 20-year follow-up of those convicted in 1979-81 showed that three in five males and one in three females are subsequently convicted on at least one more occasion for a standard-list offence. An examination of convictions for other offences brought to court at the same time as the kidnap offence enabled a typology of kidnaps to be proposed. Those kidnaps with co-convictions of an acquisitive nature declined over the period, whereas other types, including sexual and violent, showed rises. Changing shifts in the nature of kidnaps have important policy implications.
Roberts, Foster; Thomas, Christopher H.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Ammeter, Anthony; Garner, Bart; Johnson, Paul; Popoola, Ifeoluwa
In this article, we develop an "integrated moral conviction theory of student cheating" by integrating moral conviction with (a) the dual-process model of Hunt-Vitell's theory that gives primacy to individual ethical philosophies when moral judgments are made and (b) the social cognitive conceptualization that gives primacy to moral…
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of a...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Convict Labor. 52.222-3... Labor. As prescribed in 22.202, insert the following clause: Convict Labor (JUN 2003) (a) Except as... union central bodies or similar labor union organizations have been consulted; (iii) Such paid...
Hickling, F W; Walcott, G
To establish the aetiology and historical prevalence of personality disorder in violent homicidal men in Jamaica. Examination and analysis of primary data from the psychosocial case study interviews of 36 convicted murderers from the Jamaican Government Barnett Commission of Enquiry in 1976. The disaggregated social and clinical data were analysed using a Chi-square statistical analysis. The mean age at time of arrest for the male convicted murderers was 24.26 ± 8.48 years. Twenty-three (66%) of the subjects had loving relationships with mothers, particularly in those men reared in the rural areas. Twenty-one (59%) cases showed marked paternal rejection and absence of integrated family life. Twenty-four (69%) of the cases experienced severe parental disciplinary methods, and two-thirds were illiterate or barely literate. Twenty-nine (83%) were from very poor socio-economic conditions. Thirty (86%) of all the murder victims were adult males. There were significant differences between the urban reared murderers (URM) and rural reared murderers (RRM). Sixteen (94%) of the victims of the URM ensued from robbery and police confrontation, while 13 (72%) of the victims of the RRM resulted from domestic disputes (p < 0.00). Seventeen (49%) of the men had normal personalities; 18 (51%) were diagnosed as having antisocial and inadequate personalities. Diagnosis of primary data using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria revealed 23 (66%) men with Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). There were significantly more APD in the URM than the RRM (p < 0.01). Antisocial personality disorder as an aetiological precursor of homicidal violence represents a major public health problem in contemporary Jamaica.
Hoffman, Sarah R; Stallings, Sarah F; Bessinger, Raymond C; Brooks, Gary T
Little research has been published concerning the differences between health oriented and ethically oriented vegetarians. The present study compared differences in conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence to vegetarianism between the two groups. Subjects completed an online survey and were grouped by original reason for becoming vegetarian (n=292, 58 health, 234 ethical), and current reason for remaining vegetarian (n=281, 49 health, 232 ethical). Whether grouped by current or original motivation, ethical vegetarians scored higher on the conviction instrument than health vegetarians and exhibited somewhat greater dietary restriction (significant when grouped by current motivation) and had been vegetarian for longer (significant when grouped by original motivation). Nutrition knowledge did not differ between the two groups. The results suggest that ethical vegetarians could experience stronger feelings of conviction and consume fewer animal products than health vegetarians, and may remain vegetarian longer. More research is necessary to understand how vegetarians' eating behaviors are influenced by their motivational profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The psychological approach to juvenile delinquency introduced in recent years postulates “empathy impairment” as one of the origins of youth criminal behaviour. This means that in order to be cruel, people need to be unable to imagine the pain their victims experience. To test that hypothesis, we compare a group of convicted juvenile offenders (N=43 with a control group of adolescents (N=47 on self-report and ability measures of cognitive empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, respectively. Discriminant Analysis reveals a significant difference between the two groups, most notably in the dimensions of personal distress, RMET score, and perspective taking. However, after the control for age and education, only the differences in measures of cognitive empathy remain. Although delinquents perceive themselves as less capable of taking the vantage point of another person and, when tested, prove themselves to be inferior in perceiving emotions and facial expressions, there are no differences in self-report scores of the affective component of empathy. On the basis of these findings, we draw several practical implications concerning everyday work with delinquents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018 i br. 47011
Postpenal treatment is, as of yet, a poorly researched concept in Slovenia. It deals with aiding and supporting convicts during their sentence and after their release from prison. This entails assis-tance in arranging accommodation, finding employment, psychological counselling for the convict as well as support for his family. Using qualitative research, I intend to explore how the postpenal treatment process takes place in practice. The research relates exclusively to the female populati...
In the recent article, "Against the New Racial Naturalism", Adam Hochman (2013, p. 332) argues that new racial naturalists have been too hasty in their racial interpretation of genetic clustering results of human populations. While Hochman makes a number of good points, the purpose of this paper is to show that Hochman's attack on new racial naturalists is misguided due to his definition of 'racial naturalism'. Thus, I will show that Hochman's critique is merely a consequence of an unnatural interpretation of racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wisneski, Daniel C; Skitka, Linda J
The current research tested whether exposure to disgusting images increases moral conviction and whether this happens in the presence of incidental disgust cues versus disgust cues relevant to the target of moralization. Across two studies, we exposed participants to one of the four sets of disgusting versus control images to test the moralization of abortion attitudes: pictures of aborted fetuses, animal abuse, non-harm related disgusting images, harm related disgusting images, or neutral pictures, at either sub- or supraliminal levels of awareness. Moral conviction about abortion increased (compared with control) only for participants exposed to abortion-related images at speeds slow enough to allow conscious awareness. Study 2 replicated this finding, and found that the relationship between attitudinally relevant disgust and moral conviction was mediated by disgust, and not anger or harm appraisals. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for intuitionist theories of morality and moral theories that emphasize harm.
The primary goal of the project was to document the demographic profile of OWI offenders in Iowa. The study is based on both aggregate and case-level data. The case level data produced a final sample of 118,675 OWI convictions. That occurred from 200...
Heinrichs, R. Walter; Sam, Eleanor P.
The schizophrenia-crime relationship was studied in 151 research participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and with histories positive or negative for criminal charges, convictions and offences involving violence. These crime-related variables were regressed on a block of nine predictors reflecting…
Cohen, N.E.; Brom, F.W.A.; Stassen, E.N.
In this paper the results are presented of a national survey in the Netherlands. The aim was to identify and describe the convictions about animals that people have in Dutch society and the role of these in judgments on the culling of healthy animals during an animal disease epidemic. A total of
The identification of a murderer and the eventual conviction was largely due to forensic dentistry and in particular the use of bite marks on the victim compared with casts of the teeth of the accused. The Bundy case has become notorious in American legal circles.
This study investigates, in case study format, all underage drivers in Michigan convicted of operating under the influence of liquor and causing a death (OUIL-death) during the two years following the enactment of this felony crime. All eight underag...
Flygare, Thomas J.
Recounts the case of "Turk v. Franklin Special School District" in Tennessee, in which the board's dismissal of a teacher was reversed by the Tennessee Supreme Court because the board failed to follow its own dismissal procedures and because the particular drunk driving conviction did not warrant dismissal. (RW)
Christoffersen, Mogens; Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian
-driving conviction increased substantially in rural areas compared to metropolitan areas. The study concludes that disadvantages during adolescence, including parental substance abuse, having a teenage mother, and domestic violence, are associated with a first-time drink-driving conviction....
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Denial of passports to certain convicted drug... Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.61 Denial of passports to certain convicted drug... felony conviction for a Federal or state drug offense, if the individual used a U.S. passport or...
Johnson, Terry L.
Wrongful criminal convictions have come to the attention of the public and the criminal justice community in recent decades as a result of DNA evidence that has proven innocence after conviction. Research has suggested that as many as 3% to 5% of people currently imprisoned did not, in fact, commit the crimes for which they were convicted. A…
Jenkins, China; Alfred, Mary
The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation for White professors in higher education to become culturally inclusive in their teaching practices and the transformational experiences that created this motivation and shaped their development. The findings revealed personal convictions that centred on moral obligations towards teaching was…
Neel, Rebecca; Shapiro, Jenessa R
How do Whites approach interracial interactions? We argue that a previously unexamined factor-beliefs about the malleability of racial bias-guides Whites' strategies for difficult interracial interactions. We predicted and found that those who believe racial bias is malleable favor learning-oriented strategies such as taking the other person's perspective and trying to learn why an interaction is challenging, whereas those who believe racial bias is fixed favor performance-oriented strategies such as overcompensating in the interaction and trying to end the interaction as quickly as possible. Four studies support these predictions. Whether measured (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or manipulated (Study 2), beliefs that racial bias is fixed versus malleable yielded these divergent strategies for difficult interracial interactions. Furthermore, beliefs about the malleability of racial bias are distinct from related constructs (e.g., prejudice and motivations to respond without prejudice; Studies 1, 3, and 4) and influence self-reported (Studies 1-3) and actual (Study 4) strategies in imagined (Studies 1-2) and real (Studies 3-4) interracial interactions. Together, these findings demonstrate that beliefs about the malleability of racial bias influence Whites' approaches to and strategies within interracial interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as "races are subspecies", if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. However, he supports his preferred version of 'racial naturalism' with arguments that are not well described as 'naturalistic'. I argue that Spencer offers us an unnaturalised racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Economic motivations were a big influence on consumer behavior motivation. In this context, it is considered that the general motives which give motivation to purchase content can be structured into rational and emotional motives, the motives innate and acquired motives, all gaining an individual or group event. The study of consumer behavior, with general motivations, attention increasingly larger granted special incentives, consisting of assertiveness feeling (emerging desire for a product)...
Bjerre, Jacob Halvas
. This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...
Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Hels, Tove; Hansen, Allan Steen
have been divided into subgroups by age and gender. The database of convicted drivers has been linked to databases with information about age, gender and various socio- demographic variables, such as education and employment. Per capita rates have been used to describe the changes in the road safety...... primary school education or workmen, unemployed drivers and drivers who use their car for work. Conclusion. Strategies against drink driving should bear in mind that a differentiation between men and women, young people and middle aged people is necessary, that education and occupation plays an important...
Francis, Brian; Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens
The conventional response to the atrocious crime of rape is punishment. However, the aim of criminal justice organizations should be to prevent the behaviour occurring in the first place. Using results from a prospective study of all boys born in 1966 in Denmark where those convicted of rape (N~9....... The fact that the risk factors for future violence are similar to those for rape endorses the point that rape is essentially a violence offence rather than a sex offence. It further demonstrates that prevention programmes for rape will have associated benefits....
Sternthal, Michelle J.; Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.
Despite the widespread assumption that racial differences in stress exist and that stress is a key mediator linking racial status to poor health, relatively few studies have explicitly examined this premise. We examine the distribution of stress across racial groups and the role of stress vulnerability and exposure in explaining racial differences in health in a community sample of Black, Hispanic, and White adults, employing a modeling strategy that accounts for the correlation between types of stressors and the accumulation of stressors in the prediction of health outcomes. We find significant racial differences in overall and cumulative exposure to eight stress domains. Blacks exhibit a higher prevalence and greater clustering of high stress scores than Whites. American-born Hispanics show prevalence rates and patterns of accumulation of stressors comparable to Blacks, while foreign-born Hispanics have stress profiles similar to Whites. Multiple stressors correlate with poor physical and mental health, with financial and relationship stressors exhibiting the largest and most consistent effects. Though we find no support for the stress-vulnerability hypothesis, the stress-exposure hypothesis does account for some racial health disparities. We discuss implications for future research and policy.
Ryan P. Balzan
Full Text Available A number of recent studies have identified an “overconfidence effect” in psychosis, whereby people with schizophrenia are overconfident in errors while simultaneously slightly underconfident when accurate. This effect may have implications for why delusions, which are based on inaccurate inferences, perceptions and judgements, are typically held with high conviction. Given the importance the overconfidence effect may have in accounting for delusional conviction, the current narrative review aims to summarise and critique the recent evidence for the effect within schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia were consistently found to be overconfident in errors and slightly underconfident in correct appraisals, and this effect appears not to be an artefact of poor task performance. While the overconfidence effect has been linked to delusion-proneness in the general population, there was less direct evidence linking overconfidence to delusional symptoms in clinical populations. Future studies need to adopt longitudinal designs and include additional measures of overconfidence to investigate this association more appropriately, and to also investigate possible mediators of this postulated relationship, such as dopaminergic activity.
Cynthia vanden Driesen
Full Text Available This paper is an offshoot of a larger project which explored the possibility for the erstwhile settler-colonizer undergoing the sea-change into settler-indigene emergent through a study of selected novels of Patrick White. It became apparent to me that the convict figure, who played an ancillary role in these works, could lay claim to the status of white indigene well ahead of the main protagonist. Robert Hughes (in The Fatal Shore discredits the idea of any bonding between the convict and the Aborigine but acknowledges examples of “white blackfellas”—white men who had successfully been adopted into Aboriginal societies. Martin Tucker’s nineteenth century work, Ralph Rashleigh, offers surprising testimony of a creative work which bears this out in a context where Australian literature generally reflected the national amnesia with regard to the Aborigine and barely accorded them human status. Grenville’s The Secret River (2005, based broadly on the history of her own ancestor, appears to support Hughes’ original contention but is also replete with ambivalences that work against a simple resolution. This paper will explore some of the ambivalences, the ‘food for thought’ on aspects of the Australian experience highlighted by these literary texts, and glances briefly also at variations on the theme in Carey’s Jack Maggs and the The True Story of the Kelly Gang.
Pasco, John Carlo; Anderson, Camille; DasGupta, Sayantani
Medical students across the USA have increasingly made the medical institution a place for speculating racially just futures. From die-ins in Fall 2014 to silent protests in response to racially motivated police brutality, medical schools have responded to the public health crisis that is racial injustice in the USA. Reading science fiction may benefit healthcare practitioners who are already invested in imagining a more just, healthier futurity. Fiction that rewrites the future in ways that undermine contemporary power regimes has been termed 'visionary fiction'. In this paper, the authors introduce 'visionary medicine' as a tool for teaching medical students to imagine and produce futures that preserve health and racial justice for all. This essay establishes the connections between racial justice, medicine and speculative fiction by examining medicine's racially unjust past practices, and the intersections of racial justice and traditional science and speculative fiction. It then examines speculative fiction author Octavia Butler's short story 'Bloodchild' as a text that can introduce students of the medical humanities to a liberatory imagining of health and embodiment, one that does not reify and reinscribe boundaries of difference, but reimagines the nature of Self and Other, power and collaboration, agency and justice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
... crimes against Medicaid. 1002.230 Section 1002.230 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE... MEDICAID Notification to OIG of State or Local Convictions of Crimes Against Medicaid § 1002.230 Notification of State or local convictions of crimes against Medicaid. (a) The State agency must notify the OIG...
... Conviction and Tax Delinquent Status for Corporate Applicants and Awardees AGENCY: Office of the Chief... associated with Representations Regarding Felony Conviction and Tax Delinquent Status for Corporate... alternative means for communication (Braille, large print, audio tape, etc) should contact the USDA Target...
Cortoni, Franca; Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J
Some jurisdictions have legally decreed that certain nonsexual offenses (e.g., promoting prostitution of a minor, arson, burglary) can be considered sexual offenses. Offenders convicted of these crimes can be subjected to sexual offender-specific social control policies such as registration, as well as be included in sexual offender research such as recidivism studies. No studies, however, have systematically examined differences and similarities between this new class of sexual offenders and more traditional sexual offenders. The current study used a sample of 94 women convicted of sexual offenses to investigate whether women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor differed on demographic and criminogenic features from those convicted of more traditional sexual offenses. Results show that women convicted of promoting prostitution offenses have criminal histories more consistent with general criminality and exhibit more general antisocial features than women convicted of traditional sexual offenses. These results support the notion that the inclusion of legally defined sexual offenders with traditional ones obscures important differences in criminogenic features among these women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Harmful activities by means of modern technology also include detrimental contacts when abchild is targeted and chosen as a victim by another child or adult person. The paper deals with presentation of preliminary research results concerning the group of harmful contacts that pertain to the involvement in activities related to the Internet child pornography. The research analyzed the probation service documentation of 76 cases of convicted perpetrators of child exploitation for purposes of the Internet pornography. The presentation of the results includes information on the perpetrators and type of offenses, in addition to other data which will contribute to better understanding of criminal offenses that harm children and juveniles through child pornography and electronic violence. The presentation of the results aims at objectives analysis but also contributes to the sparse field of research.
Johnson, Alandis A.; Quaye, Stephen John
We used queer theory to encourage readers to think differently about previous theories about Black racial identity development. Queer theory facilitates new and deeper understandings of how Black people develop their racial identities, prompting more fluidity and nuance. Specifically, we present a queered model of Black racial identity development…
Ryon J. Cobb
Full Text Available Research suggests that congregational characteristics are associated with the racial attitudes of American churchgoers. This study examines the relationship between congregational size and beliefs about the Black/White socioeconomic gap among religious adherents. Method. Drawing upon data from the General Social Survey and the National Congregations Study, we fit binary logistic regression models to estimate the association between congregational size and Americans’ explanations of Black/White economic inequality. Results. Findings reveal that attendees of larger congregations are less likely than attendees of smaller congregations to explain racial inequality as the result of the racial discrimination. The likelihood of explaining racial inequality in terms of personal motivation does not vary by congregation size. Conclusion. Despite the growing diversity in larger congregations in America, such congregations may steer attendees’ views about racial inequality away from systemic/structural factors, which may attenuate the ability of such congregations to bridge racial divisions.
This article argues that the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a new tactic in the history of American racism. Slavery was ended by the Civil War, but after Reconstruction, the gains of the former slaves were eroded by Jim Crow (a rigid pattern of racial segregation), lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, tenantry, unequal educational resources, terrorism, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Movement struck down legal barriers, but we have chosen to deal with the problems of poverty and race not so differently than we have in the past. The modern version of convict leasing, is mass incarceration. This article documents the dramatic change in American drug policy beginning with Reagan's October, 1982 announcement of the War on Drugs, the subsequent 274 percent growth in the prison and jail populations, and the devastating and disproportionate effect on inner city African Americans. Just as the Jim Crow laws were a reaction to the freeing of the slaves after the Civil War, mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement.
Whatever its causes, racial isolation is social dynamite. Problems and destiny of America and American education cannot be separated from fate of American cities, which daily grow poorer, more violent, less socially cohesive, and more isolated. Problems cannot be addressed without taking racism into account. Schools can help students understand…
Full Text Available Labeling theory suggests that criminal justice interventions amplify offending behavior. Theories of intergenerational transmission suggest why children of convicted parents have a higher risk of offending. This paper combines these two perspectives and investigates whether labeling effects might be stronger for children of convicted parents. We first investigated labeling effects within the individual: we examined the impact of a conviction between ages 19-26 on self-reported offending behavior between 27-32 while controlling for self-reported behavior between 15-18. Our results show that a conviction predicted someone's later self-reported offending behavior, even when previous offending behavior was taken into account. Second, we investigated whether having a convicted parent influenced this association. When we added this interaction to the analysis, a labeling effect was only visible among people with convicted parents. This supports the idea of cumulative disadvantage: Labeling seems stronger for people who are already in a disadvantaged situation having a convicted parent.
Full Text Available With the implementation of a prison sentence as a separate sentence, the need has arisen for finding treatment methods of convicts that will contribute to the basic tendency - not to commit new criminal offenses. The aim of this paper was to describe the implementation of education in prison, convicts' needs for education, forms and theoretical basis on which the educational practice has been developed, and the assessment of educational activities effectiveness for convicts. There has been a constant search for the educational model that will meet the needs for education of a specific convict, and on the other hand, the needs of society and the labor market that a convict will join after release from prison. It is necessary for a convict, on the basis of the quality and level of acquired knowledge in prison, to take his place in the world of labor and in legal ways for obtaining subsistence goods in the free world. Parallel expectations of convicts' educational processes are directed towards their regimentation in prison during serving a sentence. Prison is primarily the penalty. An additional factor of modulation is the rationalization of costs of budgetary allocations in order to achieve a better result with the minimum resources spent. Two centuries of such search may seem a long period. However, the practice of punishment has been lasting for thousands of years. In this relatively short time period, in different penal systems, a range of forms of convicts' training has been recorded. They were more or less successful. There is still no irrefutable agreement that basic endeavor has been achieved. The data on the impact of education on reducing recidivism of convicts and the quality of post-penal reintegration are inconsistent. The search still continues.
James F. Holmes
Full Text Available Introduction: Conviction rates for drivers driving under the influence (DUI and in motor vehicle collisions (MVC presenting to trauma centers are based primarily on data from the 1990s. Our goal was to identify DUI conviction rates of intoxicated drivers in MVCs presenting to a trauma center and to identify factors associated with the failure to obtain a DUI conviction. Methods: Retrospective study of adults (>18 years presenting to a trauma center emergency department (ED in 2007. Eligible subjects were drivers involved in a MVC with an ED blood alcohol level (BAL ≥ 80mg/dL. Subjects were matched to their Department of Motor Vehicle (DMV records to identify DUI convictions from the collision, the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC, and arresting officer’s impression of the driver’s sobriety. We entered potential variables predictive of failure to obtain a DUI conviction into a regression model. Results: The 241 included subjects had a mean age of 34.1 ± 12.8 years, and 185 (77% were male. Successful DUI convictions occurred in 142/241 (58.9%, 95% CI 52.4, 65.2% subjects. In a regression model, Injury Severity Score > 15 (odds ratio = 2.70 (95% CI 1.06, 6.85 and a lower ED BAL from 80 to 200mg/dL (odds ratio = 5.03 (95% CI 1.69, 14.9 were independently associated with a failure to obtain a DUI conviction. Conclusion: Slightly more than half of drivers who present to an ED after a MVC receive a DUI conviction. The most severely injured subjects and those with lower BALs are least likely to be convicted of a DUI.
Falk, Orjan; Wallinius, Märta; Lundström, Sebastian; Frisell, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Kerekes, Nóra
Population-based studies on violent crime and background factors may provide an understanding of the relationships between susceptibility factors and crime. We aimed to determine the distribution of violent crime convictions in the Swedish population 1973-2004 and to identify criminal, academic, parental, and psychiatric risk factors for persistence in violent crime. The nationwide multi-generation register was used with many other linked nationwide registers to select participants. All individuals born in 1958-1980 (2,393,765 individuals) were included. Persistent violent offenders (those with a lifetime history of three or more violent crime convictions) were compared with individuals having one or two such convictions, and to matched non-offenders. Independent variables were gender, age of first conviction for a violent crime, nonviolent crime convictions, and diagnoses for major mental disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders. A total of 93,642 individuals (3.9%) had at least one violent conviction. The distribution of convictions was highly skewed; 24,342 persistent violent offenders (1.0% of the total population) accounted for 63.2% of all convictions. Persistence in violence was associated with male sex (OR 2.5), personality disorder (OR 2.3), violent crime conviction before age 19 (OR 2.0), drug-related offenses (OR 1.9), nonviolent criminality (OR 1.9), substance use disorder (OR 1.9), and major mental disorder (OR 1.3). The majority of violent crimes are perpetrated by a small number of persistent violent offenders, typically males, characterized by early onset of violent criminality, substance abuse, personality disorders, and nonviolent criminality.
Cynkier, Przemysław N
The purpose of this paper was to draw attention to particularly important aspects of pronouncing forensic psychiatric judgment regarding the accused or convicted individuals' competency to stand trial. The level of a person's mental capacity should be established using a structured psychiatric interview concerning a variety of aspects of a trial. Emphasis should be placed on evaluating the defendant's consciousness of the charges, knowledge of the potential punishment, ability to make significant decisions and be engaged in defense, knowledge about the role that particular people present in the courtroom play, understanding of the meaning of the evidence gathered in the case, the risk of aggression. The analysis should take into account the specificity of the mental disorder, the influence of proceedings on the course of disorder, as well as the presence of reactive disorders. Using testing tools by the expert can facilitate the process of evaluation to a certain degree. Forensic psychiatric evaluations can give rise to difficulties for the experts, what with the changing legal regulations and their interpretations. It would be justified to develop the standards of evaluation in this kind of cases, which would on the one hand apply to experts but which would also be respected by the judicial organ.
de Melo Nunes, Adriana; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio
The proportion of women incarcerated is growing at a faster pace than that for men. The reasons for this important increase have been mainly attributed to drug-using lifestyle and drug-related offenses. About half of female inmates have history of substance misuse and one third demonstrate high impulsiveness levels. The objectives of this study were to (a) identify subtypes of alcohol and drug problems and impulsiveness among women convicted of homicide, and (b) examine the association between psychosocial and criminological features and the resulting clusters. Data come from 158 female inmates serving a sentence for homicide in the Penitentiary of Sant'Ana in São Paulo State, Brazil. Latent class analysis was used to group participants into substance misuse and impulsiveness classes. Two classes were identified: nonproblematic (cluster 1: 54.53%, n = 86) and problematic (cluster 2: 45.57%, n = 72) ones. After controlling for several psychosocial and criminological variables, cluster 2 inmates showed an earlier beginning of criminal activities and a lower educational level than their counterparts. To recognize the necessities of specific groups of female offenders is crucial for the development of an adequate system of health politics and for the decrease of criminal recidivism among those offenders who have shown higher risk.
Full Text Available The wrongful conviction of innocent people is being acknowledged in an increasing number of countries around the world. The problem of wrongful conviction is now framed as an international human rights issue. More attention is being given to whether criminal justice systems are providing sufficient measures for the effective review and rectification of wrongful convictions and whether international obligations in that regard are being met. England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Norway, Canada and the United States have substantial new mechanisms in place to better identify and correct wrongful convictions but Australia has been slower to respond. While some Australian states have introduced reforms such as DNA innocence testing and a new appeal avenue, many issues remain as highlighted in recent debates as to whether Australia should establish a Criminal Cases Review Commission.
... the criminal conviction information described in § 1000.150 only for applicant screening, lease... need for the information and who is an authorized officer, employee, or representative of the recipient...
Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Barta, William D; Fisher, Virginia; Hynes, Patrick
In some jurisdictions, persons who are convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) are allowed to serve some portion of their prison sentence under home confinement as part of Intensive Supervision Programs (ISPs) which include pre-release psycho-education and close post-release supervision. Test the hypothesis that persons convicted of DUI offenses who have spent some portion of their sentence under home confinement, as compared to a historical comparison group, will exhibit a relatively low re-conviction rate. Using administrative data for 1,410 repeat DUI offenders (302 members of the historical comparison group, 948 ISP members, and 160 persons who appear in both groups at different points in time), with a follow-up period of up to 3 years and 10 months, a marginal Cox model was employed to compare conviction rates of persons who experienced intensive supervision and home confinement with historical comparison group members. Persons with ISP + home confinement experience a re-conviction rate that is less than half that observed in the comparison group. Age, ethnicity (white vs. non-white), and gender are also significant predictors of re-conviction. Home confinement, in conjunction with psycho-education and other program elements, is one means of reducing the costs of incarceration. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to cost savings, states may realize a public safety benefit in the form of a reduction in DUI offense rates.
On March 18, after deliberating for approximately nine hours over two days, a Dedham, Massachusetts, jury found John Salvi guilty of two counts of first-degree murder for the December 1994 shooting deaths of Shannon Lowney and Lee Ann Nichols, receptionists at two Brookline, Massachusetts, women's health care clinics. Salvi was also convicted of five counts of assault with intent to murder (see RFN IV/1). Almost immediately, Norfolk Superior Court Judge Barbara Dortch-Okara ordered Salvi to serve the maximum sentence--two consecutive life terms in prison without parole--for the murders and an additional 90-100 years for the five assaults. Under Massachusetts law, the first-degree murder convictions will be automatically appealed. In reaching their verdict, the jury of six men and six women rejected Salvi's plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. The five-week trial included testimony from more than 100 witnesses. In the past two years, two other men have been convicted for the first-degree murders of abortion providers: Michael Griffin, who was convicted of murdering Dr. David Gunn in March 1994, is now serving a life sentence; and Paul Hill, who was convicted of murdering Dr. John Britton and James Barrett in November 1995, is on Florida's death row while his sentence is pending mandatory appeal (see RFN III/19, 22). full text
Moore, J. William; And Others
This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…
Gudjonsson, G H; Singh, K K
This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS), and number of previous convictions among 35 delinquent boys. The GSS measures two independent aspects of suggestibility. First, the extent to which subjects give in to suggestive questions. Second, the extent to which subjects give in to interpersonal pressure given in the form of critical feedback about test performance. The number of convictions were found to correlate negatively with the latter aspect of interrogative suggestibility, but not significantly with the former.
In June 2013, Texas Senate Bill 344 (SB 344) was signed into law after strong Innocence Project support. SB 344 has since transformed the Texan judicial landscape. Known as the ?Junk Science Writ?, SB 344 enables the court to grant habeas corpus relief based on scientific evidence that ?(1) was not available to be offered by a convicted person at the convicted person's trial; or (2) contradicts scientific evidence relied on by the state at trial?. Inmates, such as the ?San Antonio Four?, whos...
Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward
How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.
..., and overall quality of Army life. Black soldiers also subscribe to more egalitarian attitudes concerning male/female work teams and performance but are more negative about racial discrimination and equal opportunity issues...
... Assessment based on criminal conviction, immigration status, or mental capacity. 1515.5 Section 1515.5... criminal conviction, immigration status, or mental capacity. (a) Scope. This section applies to applicants... the immigration status requirements as described in 49 CFR 1572.105. (3) TSA has determined that an...
... intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. 410.250 Section 410.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... conviction of felonious and intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. An individual who has been finally convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction of the felonious and intentional homicide of a...
Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Vesla; Burch, Traci
Are racial disparities in the United States just as deep-rooted as they were before the 2008 presidential election, largely eliminated, or persistent but on the decline? One can easily find all of these pronouncements; rather than trying to adjudicate among them, this essay seeks to identify what is changing in the American racial order, what persists or is becoming even more entrenched, and what is likely to affect the balance between change and continuity. The authors focus on young America...
According to the main argument in favour of the practice of racial profiling as a low enforcement tactic, the use of race as a targeting factor helps the police to apprehend more criminals. In the following, this argument is challenged. It is argued that, given the assumption that criminals...... are currently being punished too severely in Western countries, the apprehension of more criminals may not constitute a reason in favour of racial profiling at all....
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.
The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared to the Achieved group. PMID:21875184
Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A
The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies ( n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.
Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric
Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex…
van den Berg, C.J.W.; Mesters, Geert
Objective We study the bi-directional relationship between employment and crime for individuals convicted for a sexual offense in their youth (JSO) and investigate the moderating influences of age and employment duration. Method A bi-variate dynamic binary choice model is developed to allow for
In June 2013, Texas Senate Bill 344 (SB 344) was signed into law after strong Innocence Project support. SB 344 has since transformed the Texan judicial landscape. Known as the 'Junk Science Writ', SB 344 enables the court to grant habeas corpus relief based on scientific evidence that '(1) was not available to be offered by a convicted person at the convicted person's trial; or (2) contradicts scientific evidence relied on by the state at trial'. Inmates, such as the 'San Antonio Four', whose convictions were based upon what is now considered 'faulty' medical and forensic testimony, have been released under SB 344. Yet, science, as a field dependent on innovation, is inherently prone to debunking the scientific and forensic methods the law has relied upon to convict individuals. This commentary identifies policy behind SB 344, how SB 344 may influence the perception of science in the courtroom, and how 'junk science' is defined and/or limited. Furthermore, this commentary concludes that to achieve justice in the legal system through habeas relief based on 'junk science', it is necessary to revitalize and standardize forensic science.
.g. disadvantages during adolescence, severe psychological problems, prior criminal history, living in rural vs. metropolitan area, and their present social position, e.g. educational background). In order to evaluate the effect of changed legislation on the incidence of first-time drink-driving convictions among...
Full Text Available Background: Lack of emotional intelligence (EI may lead to maladjustment and inability to achieve desired goals. A relationship between low levels of EI and crime has been proposed. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between EI and criminal behavior. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 202 subjects, in whom 101 subjects were convicted offenders, and 101 were matched normal controls. Offender group comprised of individuals convicted for different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery, selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India based on purposive sampling. Sample of the normal control group was taken from Ranchi and nearby areas. All subjects gave informed consent for participating in the study. Both the groups were matched on age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status. All participants were assessed on General Health Questionnaire-12 and Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII. The results were analyzed using statistical package SPSS-version 20. Results: The group of convicted offenders obtained significantly lower scores on all the domains of MEII such as intrapersonal awareness (own emotions, interpersonal awareness (others emotions, intrapersonal management (own emotions and interpersonal management (others emotions, and aggregate emotional quotient in comparison to their normal counterparts. Conclusion: The convicted offenders group had significantly lower EI compared to normal subjects. Starting EI enhancement program in prison can help the inmates better understand their feelings and emotions.
In June 2013, Texas Senate Bill 344 (SB 344) was signed into law after strong Innocence Project support. SB 344 has since transformed the Texan judicial landscape. Known as the ‘Junk Science Writ’, SB 344 enables the court to grant habeas corpus relief based on scientific evidence that ‘(1) was not available to be offered by a convicted person at the convicted person's trial; or (2) contradicts scientific evidence relied on by the state at trial’. Inmates, such as the ‘San Antonio Four’, whose convictions were based upon what is now considered ‘faulty’ medical and forensic testimony, have been released under SB 344. Yet, science, as a field dependent on innovation, is inherently prone to debunking the scientific and forensic methods the law has relied upon to convict individuals. This commentary identifies policy behind SB 344, how SB 344 may influence the perception of science in the courtroom, and how ‘junk science’ is defined and/or limited. Furthermore, this commentary concludes that to achieve justice in the legal system through habeas relief based on ‘junk science’, it is necessary to revitalize and standardize forensic science. PMID:27774192
In June 2011, fifteen months after he had been found guilty of hate speech and discrimination, African National Congress (ANC)Youth President Julius issued a formal apology and agreed to pay a R50,000 (CAN$7,120) fine that was part of the conviction.
Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.
Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of and employee sanctions for convictions of criminal drug offenses. 17.635 Section 17.635 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE...
Rakt, M. van de; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Apel, R.
Background Crime runs in families. Previous research has shown the existence of intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which variation in criminal convictions may be explained by the criminality of siblings and by the
On 18 September 2014, the Amsterdam Court handed down the first national application of the EU Court of Justice’s Google Spain judgment. The case was initiated by a convicted criminal after Google had not fully granted his online removal requests. The court rejected the claim, but it should be noted
...-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov... Act prohibits from serving as representative payees persons convicted of Social Security fraud \\1\\ and... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0076] Individuals With Certain Criminal...
Beck, Kenneth H.; Summons, Terry G.
Surveyed college students (N=272) and convicted DWI offenders (N=261). The results revealed that DWI offenders tend to drink in their own home, alone, and to relieve stress; whereas college students are more likely to drink at a party, for the enjoyment of taste, and to get drunk. (JAC)
Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David
Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…
Sorensen, Jon; Cunningham, Mark D.
The characteristics of, and 2003 disciplinary data on, 51,527 inmates in the Florida Department of Corrections, including 9,586 inmates who had been convicted of some degree of homicide, were examined for rates and correlates of prison misconduct and violence. Disciplinary misconduct and institutional acts of violence committed by an admissions…
..., Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) (Pub. L. 109-59). In preparing this... personnel understand the importance of timely conviction reporting. FMCSA evaluates compliance of the SDLA... OIG report and to ensure compliance by using available electronic reporting and manual auditing...
The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008
... commission of a capital crime where a person has not been convicted due to death or flight to avoid... of a capital crime where a person has not been convicted due to death or flight to avoid prosecution... committed a Federal or State capital crime of which he or she was not convicted due to death or flight to...
Phillips, Charles D; Nwaiwu, Obioma; McMaughan Moudouni, Darcy K; Edwards, Rachel; Lin, Szu-hsuan
We explored differences in criminal convictions between holders and nonholders of a concealed handgun license (CHL) in Texas. The Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) provides annual data on criminal convictions of holders and nonholders of CHLs. We used 2001 to 2009 DPS data to investigate the differences in the distribution of convictions for these 2 groups across 9 types of criminal offenses. We calculated z scores for the differences in the types of crimes for which CHL holders and nonholders were convicted. CHL holders were much less likely than nonlicensees to be convicted of crimes. Most nonholder convictions involved higher-prevalence crimes (burglary, robbery, or simple assault). CHL holders' convictions were more likely to involve lower-prevalence crimes, such as sexual offenses, gun offenses, or offenses involving a death. Our results imply that expanding the settings in which concealed carry is permitted may increase the risk of specific types of crimes, some quite serious in those settings. These increased risks may be relatively small. Nonetheless, policymakers should consider these risks when contemplating reducing the scope of gun-free zones.
Luis Sebastian Contreras-Huerta
Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that perceiving the pain of others activates brain regions in the observer associated with both somatosensory and affective-motivational aspects of pain, principally involving regions of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex. The degree of these empathic neural responses is modulated by racial bias, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by observing pain in people of the same racial group compared with people of another racial group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a more general social group category, other than race, could similarly modulate neural empathic responses and perhaps account for the apparent racial bias reported in previous studies. Using a minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We use the term race to refer to the Chinese or Caucasian appearance of faces and whether the ethnic group represented was the same or different from the appearance of the participant' own face. Using fMRI, we measured neural empathic responses as participants observed members of their own group or other group, and members of their own race or other race, receiving either painful or non-painful touch. Participants showed clear group biases, with no significant effect of race, on behavioral measures of implicit (affective priming and explicit group identification. Neural responses to observed pain in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and somatosensory areas showed significantly greater activation when observing pain in own-race compared with other-race individuals, with no significant effect of minimal groups. These results suggest that racial bias in neural empathic responses is not influenced by minimal forms of group categorization, despite the clear association participants showed with in-group more than out-group members. We suggest that race may be an automatic and unconscious mechanism that drives the initial neural responses to
Contreras-Huerta, Luis Sebastian; Baker, Katharine S.; Reynolds, Katherine J.; Batalha, Luisa; Cunnington, Ross
Recent studies have shown that perceiving the pain of others activates brain regions in the observer associated with both somatosensory and affective-motivational aspects of pain, principally involving regions of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex. The degree of these empathic neural responses is modulated by racial bias, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by observing pain in people of the same racial group compared with people of another racial group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a more general social group category, other than race, could similarly modulate neural empathic responses and perhaps account for the apparent racial bias reported in previous studies. Using a minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We use the term race to refer to the Chinese or Caucasian appearance of faces and whether the ethnic group represented was the same or different from the appearance of the participant' own face. Using fMRI, we measured neural empathic responses as participants observed members of their own group or other group, and members of their own race or other race, receiving either painful or non-painful touch. Participants showed clear group biases, with no significant effect of race, on behavioral measures of implicit (affective priming) and explicit group identification. Neural responses to observed pain in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and somatosensory areas showed significantly greater activation when observing pain in own-race compared with other-race individuals, with no significant effect of minimal groups. These results suggest that racial bias in neural empathic responses is not influenced by minimal forms of group categorization, despite the clear association participants showed with in-group more than out-group members. We suggest that race may be an automatic and unconscious mechanism that drives the initial neural responses to observed pain in
Kim, Sunha; Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Allen, Katherine R.
This study examined the dropout trajectories of racial and linguistic minority students and explored the effects of students' contextual factors on their high school dropout risks. Our motivation was to identify the dropout patterns of Black, Hispanic, and Hispanic English language learner (ELL) students, who have comparatively high dropout rates,…
Macomber, Kris; Rusche, Sarah Nell
As teachers, the authors' lessons about contemporary racial inequality are complicated and contradicted by the rhetoric of color-blindness--the belief that race no longer matters for determining life chances--entrenched in the culture. Students remain attracted to notions of racism as a problem of the "past" and often reject the idea that racism…
Hook, Joshua N; Farrell, Jennifer E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Utsey, Shawn O
Racial microaggressions may contribute to poor counseling outcomes in racial/ethnic minority clients. The present study examined the occurrence of racial microaggressions in counseling using a large and diverse sample and explored the association between perceived cultural humility of the counselor and racial microaggressions. Racial/ethnic minority participants (N = 2,212) answered questions about the frequency and impact of racial microaggressions in counseling and the characteristics of their counselor. The majority of clients (81%) reported experiencing at least 1 racial microaggression in counseling. Participants most commonly reported racial microaggressions involving denial or lack of awareness of stereotypes and bias and avoidance of discussing cultural issues. There were few differences in racial microaggression frequency or impact based on client race/ethnicity and counselor race/ethnicity. Racially matched clients viewed racial microaggressions as more impactful than did clients who were not racially matched. Client-perceived cultural humility of the counselor was associated with fewer microaggressions experienced in counseling. We conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.
An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the stage for a more fruitful discussion about special education and racial justice. An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the…
Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Hottell, Derek
Using a phenomenological approach, rooted in critical theory's desire to challenge systemic structures of inequality, we explored the impact of racialized hate encountered on social media by students of color at a predominately White institution. The encounters of racialized hostility manifested as anti-Black sentiments and produced racial battle…
Tuckett, David; Nikolic, Milena
We propose conviction narrative theory (CNT) to broaden decision-making theory in order to better understand and analyse how subjectively means–end rational actors cope in contexts in which the traditional assumptions in decision-making models fail to hold. Conviction narratives enable actors to draw on their beliefs, causal models, and rules of thumb to identify opportunities worth acting on, to simulate the future outcome of their actions, and to feel sufficiently convinced to act. The framework focuses on how narrative and emotion combine to allow actors to deliberate and to select actions that they think will produce the outcomes they desire. It specifies connections between particular emotions and deliberative thought, hypothesising that approach and avoidance emotions evoked during narrative simulation play a crucial role. Two mental states, Divided and Integrated, in which narratives can be formed or updated, are introduced and used to explain some familiar problems that traditional models cannot. PMID:28804217
Full Text Available Objectives: The research devotes particular attention to the timing of biological sampling in the case of convicted persons. The main idea of the research is the factual situation regarding the criminal case law, which is not unified; problematic that prevents the formation of the National System of Judicial Genetic Data. Materials and Methods: The study focuses on evaluating the two opinions of jurisprudence on the implementation of the text of the law (Law no. 76/2008. Results: The carried research on different cases has shown that legal text is not mandatory, but its application is arbitrary, at the discretion of the court, but, nevertheless, the biological sampling in the case of convicted persons disregards the form for penalty. Conclusions: In the context of the creation of the National System of Judicial Genetic Data is a control condition on the typology of criminal profiling, we believe that biological sampling should be a priority to ensure safety of the individual.
Tuckett, David; Nikolic, Milena
We propose conviction narrative theory (CNT) to broaden decision-making theory in order to better understand and analyse how subjectively means-end rational actors cope in contexts in which the traditional assumptions in decision-making models fail to hold. Conviction narratives enable actors to draw on their beliefs, causal models, and rules of thumb to identify opportunities worth acting on, to simulate the future outcome of their actions, and to feel sufficiently convinced to act. The framework focuses on how narrative and emotion combine to allow actors to deliberate and to select actions that they think will produce the outcomes they desire. It specifies connections between particular emotions and deliberative thought, hypothesising that approach and avoidance emotions evoked during narrative simulation play a crucial role. Two mental states, Divided and Integrated, in which narratives can be formed or updated, are introduced and used to explain some familiar problems that traditional models cannot.
The aims and objectives of this work are to consider the socio-economic conditions prevailing in county Tipperary during the period in question. The affects on those residing within the county, both rural and urban, and to try and understand how socioeconomic conditions had such an influence in the perpetration of crime and the resulting cases of transportation. The investigation of why, when and how convicts were transported to Australia from the late eighteenth up to the midd...
Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Michael’s Game is a card game targeting the ability to generate alternative hypotheses to explain a given experience. The main objective was to evaluate the effect of MG on delusional conviction as measured by the primary study outcome: the change in scores on the conviction subscale of the Peters Delusions Inventory (PDI-21. Other variables of interest were the change in scores on the distress and preoccupation subscales of the PDI-21, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, and belief flexibility assessed with the Maudsley Assessment of Delusions Schedule. Methods: We performed a parallel, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled superiority trial comparing treatment as usual plus participation in Michael’s Game (MG with treatment as usual plus being on a waiting list (TAU in a sample of adult outpatients with psychotic disorders and persistent positive psychotic symptoms at inclusion. Results: The 172 participants were randomised, with 86 included in each study arm. Assessments were performed at inclusion (T1: baseline, at 3 months (T2: post-treatment, and at 6 months after the second assessment (T3: follow-up. At T2, a positive treatment effect was observed on the primary outcome, the PDI-21 conviction subscale (p=0.005. At T3, a sustained effect was observed for the conviction subscale (p=0.002. Further effects were also observed at T3 on the PDI-21 distress (p=0.002 and preoccupation subscales (p=0.001, as well as on one of the MADS measures of belief flexibility (anything against the belief (p=0.001. Conclusions: The study demonstrated some significant beneficial effect of MG. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN37178153/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation Grant 32003B-121038
Gifford, Elizabeth J; Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Evans, Kelly E
This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children's academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005-2012. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics; for example, mother's educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much--but not all--of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.
This study compares the effects of racial incidents on reported levels of satisfaction with military service across racial/ethnic groups by analyzing responses to the Armed Forces Equal Opportunity Survey (AFEOS...
This study compares the effects of racial incidents on reported levels of satisfaction with military service across racial/ethnic groups by analyzing responses to the Armed Forces Equal Opportunity Survey (AFEOS...
Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel
Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major
Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.
. This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...
Deci, Edward L.
The paper draws together a wide variety of research which relates to the topic of intrinsic motivation; intrinsically motivated activities are defined as those which a person does for no apparent reward except the activity itself or the feelings which result from the activity. Most of this research was not originally reported within the framework…
Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.
Gerontechnology’s framework has been formulated in a functional way, with little attention paid to motivation. Abraham H. Maslow’s theory of human motivation (1943) can fill this gap with his hierarchy of needs to be fulfilled in the following order: physiological, safety related, social, esteem and
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H
This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...
Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Turner, Kea
Racial equality and racial equity in U.S. education has been elusive although decades of education reform have them as goals. Current discourse advocate colorblind and post-racial solutions to racial inequality and racial inequity in education; these solutions implicate presentism, a view that exclusively circumscribes the existence of present-day…
Cathlena Martin explores in her paper "Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization" selected children's video games. Martin argues that children's video games often act as reinforcement for the games' television and film counterparts and their racializing characteristics and features. In Martin's analysis the video games discussed represent media through which to analyze racial identities and ideologies. In making the case for positive female minority leads in children's video games, ...
Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning ...
Pao Lee Vue
Full Text Available Through a close examination of the Dylan Yang-Isaiah Powell case in Wausau, Wisconsin, we argue that while Hmong experiences may have remained marginalized or invisible in the era of Black Lives Matter, this case and the mobilization efforts around it suggest both commonalities and disjunctures among boys of color, especially in relation to the US justice system. The Dylan Yang case, in which a Hmong teen was convicted of murder for the stabbing of another boy, perceived to be black Latino, in an altercation at his home, demands comparative racialization analytics to gain perspective on the implementation of unequal justice. Unpacking the effects of the gangster stereotype, especially for Southeast Asian youth, we suggest how, despite the Asian American model minority trope, Hmong American boys have been racialized as monstrous thugs comparable (but not identical to their black and Latino counterparts, and thus treated by law enforcement as suspects in need of “cataloging” as part of the school-to-prison pipeline. We also delve into the actual practices of young men in order to reveal their strategies in tense and conflictual multiracial contexts, then turn to issues such as long sentences and juvenile solitary confinement that imply the disposability of young lives of color. We conclude with a curation of links to articles, blogs and social media that we invite readers to explore using the critical lens we provide.
An earthquake of M6.3 killed 309 people in L'Aquila, Italy, on 6 April 2011. Subsequently, a judge in L'Aquila convicted seven who had participated in an emergency meeting on March 30, assessing the probability of a major event to follow the ongoing earthquake swarm. The sentence was six years in prison, a combine fine of 2 million Euros, loss of job, loss of retirement rent, and lawyer's costs. The judge followed the prosecution's accusation that the review by the Commission of Great Risks had conveyed a false sense of security to the population, which consequently did not take their usual precautionary measures before the deadly earthquake. He did not consider the facts that (1) one of the convicted was not a member of the commission and had merrily obeyed orders to bring the latest seismological facts to the discussion, (2) another was an engineer who was not required to have any expertise regarding the probability of earthquakes, (3) and two others were seismologists not invited to speak to the public at a TV interview and a press conference. This exaggerated judgment was the consequence of an uproar in the population, who felt misinformed and even mislead. Faced with a population worried by an earthquake swarm, the head of the Italian Civil Defense is on record ordering that the population be calmed, and the vice head executed this order in a TV interview one hour before the meeting of the Commission by stating "the scientific community continues to tell me that the situation is favorable and that there is a discharge of energy." The first lesson to be learned is that communications to the public about earthquake hazard and risk must not be left in the hands of someone who has gross misunderstandings about seismology. They must be carefully prepared by experts. The more significant lesson is that the approach to calm the population and the standard probabilistic hazard and risk assessment, as practiced by GSHAP, are misleading. The later has been criticized as
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Helms, Janet E.
The racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N=188) was assessed to examine the importance of race in their lives. Both racial identity status and reflected appraisals were significantly related to collective self-esteem as one measure of Asian American racial adjustment. Discusses the importance of the counselor's awareness of…
Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Crucitti, Manuela; Conti, Claudio; Quattrone, Diego; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna
Background and aims While the association between health anxiety and maladaptive Internet use is a well-established finding, no studies have been performed to examine the possible effect of abnormal illness behavior (AIB). AIB is a maladaptive manner of experiencing, evaluating, or acting in response to health and illness that is disproportionate to evident pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AIB and Internet addiction (IA) severity in a sample of Italian University students. The possible effect of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression was also taken into account. Methods Participants were 115 men and 163 women (mean age = 23.62 ± 4.38 years); AIB was measured via the Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), and IA severity by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Results The most powerful IBQ factor predicting IA severity scores was disease conviction. Irritability was the only emotional IBQ factor associated with IA severity. Nevertheless, disease conviction and alexithymia remained the only significant predictors of IAT scores when hierarchical regression analysis was executed. Discussion and conclusions Our results support previous findings showing that those characterized by health anxiety are more prone to an excessive and maladaptive use of Internet. Moreover, this study showed that irritability was the only emotional aspect of AIB predicting IA severity. This finding is consistent with the cognitive model of hypochondria, which states that cognitive factors (dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions) play a major role in the explanation of this psychopathological condition. PMID:28245678
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A; Bolen, Rebecca M
Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscuous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation toward sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for referral to the hospital and 112 emergency ambulance service uses patterns of the inmates and convicts in an E type prison. Material and Method: In this descriptive study, it was evaluated the prison records associated with referral to the hospital and 112 emergency ambulance service uses for one year in 2010- 2011. Of the statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test and Fisher%u2019s Exact Test were used. Results: All inmates and convicts were man, the median of age was 30,0 (min 18- max 68 years and substance use was 34,5%. The number of prisoners were referred to the hospital 815, total referrals were 1491; (referrals ranged from one to six and most common in January; and according to frequency, reasons of the referral were eyes problems, musculoskeletal disorders and psychological problems. Emergency medical service was used for in medical causes (78,3%, accident, trauma and injuries (16,4%, suicide (5,3%. Discussion: Findings from the study show that prisoners are more likely to have suffered physical and mental health problems that compared to the rest of society and have significantly high substance use rates.
Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Crucitti, Manuela; Conti, Claudio; Quattrone, Diego; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna
Background and aims While the association between health anxiety and maladaptive Internet use is a well-established finding, no studies have been performed to examine the possible effect of abnormal illness behavior (AIB). AIB is a maladaptive manner of experiencing, evaluating, or acting in response to health and illness that is disproportionate to evident pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AIB and Internet addiction (IA) severity in a sample of Italian University students. The possible effect of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression was also taken into account. Methods Participants were 115 men and 163 women (mean age = 23.62 ± 4.38 years); AIB was measured via the Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), and IA severity by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Results The most powerful IBQ factor predicting IA severity scores was disease conviction. Irritability was the only emotional IBQ factor associated with IA severity. Nevertheless, disease conviction and alexithymia remained the only significant predictors of IAT scores when hierarchical regression analysis was executed. Discussion and conclusions Our results support previous findings showing that those characterized by health anxiety are more prone to an excessive and maladaptive use of Internet. Moreover, this study showed that irritability was the only emotional aspect of AIB predicting IA severity. This finding is consistent with the cognitive model of hypochondria, which states that cognitive factors (dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions) play a major role in the explanation of this psychopathological condition.
Zakai, N A; McClure, L A
The incidence of venous thrombosis (VTE) varies by race, with African-Americans having over 5-fold greater incidence than Asian-ancestry populations, and an intermediate risk for European and Hispanic populations. Known racial differences in genetic polymorphisms associated with thrombosis do not account for this gradient of risk, nor do known racial variations in environmental risk factors. Data on the incidence of and risk factors for VTE outside of Europe and North America and in non-European ancestry populations are sparse. Common genetic polymorphisms in European-Ancestry populations, such as factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, and environmental risk factors, such as obesity, may account for some of the increased risk in European populations, and high factor VIII, high von Willebrand factor and low protein C levels and increased prevalence of obesity may explain some of the increased risk in African-Americans. The low rates in Asian populations may be partially explained by low clinical suspicion in a perceived low-risk population and lack of access to healthcare in other populations. As risk factors for thrombosis, such as surgery and treatment for cancer, are applicable to more people, as obesity increases in prevalence in the developing world, and as surveillance systems for VTE improve, VTE may increase in previously low-risk populations. While differences in VTE by race due to genetic predisposition will probably always be present, understanding the reasons for racial differences in VTE will help providers develop strategies to minimize VTE in all populations. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Donehew, G R
Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.
How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...
Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; Kobayashi, Audrey; James, Carl; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.
This article is based on data from a four-year national study of racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian universities. Its main conclusion is that whether one examines representation in terms of numbers of racialized and Indigenous faculty members and their positioning within the system, their earned income as compared to white faculty, their…
Kramarczuk Voulgarides, Catherine; Tefera, Adai
Racial disproportionality in special education is a deep seated and complex educational inequity plaguing the United States educational system. In this article we outline how the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, although a civil rights based legislation, cannot sufficiently address racially disproportionate outcomes in special…
Lagermann, Laila Colding
In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…
Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M
Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.
Full Text Available Personalized pharmacogenomics aims to use individual genotypes to direct medical treatment. Unfortunately, the loci relevant for the pharmacokinetics and especially the pharmacodynamics of most drugs are still unknown. Moreover, we still do not understand the role that individual genotypes play in modulating the pathogenesis, the clinical course and the susceptibility to drugs of human diseases which, although appearing homogeneous on the surface, may vary from patient to patient. To try to deal with this situation, it has been proposed to use interpopulational variability as a reference for drug development and prescription, leading to the development of "race-targeted drugs". Given the present limitations of genomic knowledge and of the tools needed to fully implement it today, some investigators have proposed to use racial criteria as a palliative measure until personalized pharmacogenomics is fully developed. This was the rationale for the FDA approval of BiDil for treatment of heart failure in African Americans. I will evaluate the efficacy and safety of racial pharmacogenomics here and conclude that it fails on both counts. Next I shall review the perspectives and the predicted rate of development of clinical genomic studies. The conclusion is that "next-generation" genomic sequencing is advancing at a tremendous rate and that true personalized pharmacogenomics, based on individual genotyping, should soon become a clinical reality.
... calendar days of learning about an employee's conviction, you must either— (1) Take appropriate personnel... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What actions must I take concerning employees who are convicted of drug violations in the workplace? 21.225 Section 21.225 Housing and Urban...
..., or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs. 5.35 Section 5.35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction...
Jusyte, Aiste; Pfister, Roland; Mayer, Sarah V; Schwarz, Katharina A; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried; Schönenberg, Michael
Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. In the current study, we validate these findings by showing that convicted criminals, i.e., individuals with a history of habitual and severe forms of rule violations, can free themselves from such cognitive conflict in a similarly controlled laboratory task. These findings support an emerging view that aims at understanding rule violations from the perspective of the violating agent rather than from the perspective of outside observer.
Eric L. Nelson
Full Text Available Problem: Even though reforms in the past 40 years mandated police response to domestic violence (DV crime, and in many states also mandated arrest, never-the-less baseline rates of DV prosecution remain low. Background: The nature of prosecution is reviewed, noting that nearly all criminal cases are resolved through plea bargaining in state and federal cases. Thus, the nature of plea bargaining is examined from a perspective of negotiable currency. Past research demonstrates that if multiple crimes are described and listed in the first responding police officer’s written report, there is a substantially greater odds that the suspect will be prosecuted and found guilty. Those extra charges can be dropped by prosecutors in exchange for a plea of guilt. Purpose: This empirical study examines a discretionary best practices crime investigation method that can be operationalized by first responding police officers, in situ, to determine whether its use leads to a significant increase in rates of prosecution and criminal conviction for DV crime. The methodology is the choice to thoroughly investigate each DV crime to uncover concurrent and also past-but-still-chargeable crimes. This optional work is time-consuming because children, neighbors, the 911 caller, and others must be contacted and interviewed. Method: Randomly selected police reports (n = 366 were found to contain 22 combinations of crime codes listed as violations, for DV and other concurrent crimes. The reports were evaluated on a number of prosecutorial outcomes. Frequency statistics were calculated, and logistic regression was used to confirm key relationships. Results: Only one third of all submitted reports listed more than one crime. For those investigations that did lead to prosecution, 97% resolved through plea bargaining. Most single charge misdemeanor DV police reports were found to be “dead upon arrival” at the prosecutor’s office, with only 29% resulting in any type of
Heeramun, Ragini; Magnusson, Cecilia; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Granath, Sven; Lundberg, Michael; Dalman, Christina; Rai, Dheeraj
Recent systematic reviews have highlighted that the relationship between autism and violent offending is still unclear, but some cases have received extensive media scrutiny. We investigated whether autism is associated with convictions for violent crimes, and studied the associated risk and protective factors. We analyzed data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort, a total population-based record-linkage cohort in Stockholm County comprising 295,734 individuals followed up between 15 and 27 years of age. Of these, 5,739 individuals had a recorded autism diagnosis. The main outcome measure was a conviction for violent crimes identified using the Swedish National Crime Register. Individuals with autism, particularly those without intellectual disability, initially appeared to have a higher risk of violent offending (adjusted relative risk = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.23-1.58). However, these associations markedly attenuated after co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or conduct disorder were taken into account (adjusted relative risk = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.97). Among individuals with autism, male sex and psychiatric conditions were the strongest predictors of violent criminality, along with parental criminal and psychiatric history and socioeconomic characteristics. There was some evidence that a delayed diagnosis of autism was associated with a greater risk of violent crime. Better school performance and intellectual disability appeared to be protective. An initially observed association between autism and violent crimes at a population level was explained by comorbidity with ADHD and conduct disorder. Better understanding and management of comorbid psychopathology in autism may potentially help preventive action against offending behaviors in people with autism. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salvagni, Fernanda Auciello; de Siqueira, Adriana; Fukushima, Andre Rinaldi; Landi, Marina Frota de Albuquerque; Ponge-Ferreira, Heidi; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar
Animal cruelty is a known behavior of psychopaths, and although the serial killing of humans is widely acknowledged worldwide, this type of crime against animals is seldom discussed. This report describes the necropsy and toxicological findings of 37 dogs and cats, which were found dead in plastic bags in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The animals had all been in the care of an alleged animal rescuer and were to be referred for adoption before being found dead. In the necropsy, the animals showed varying degrees of putrefaction, indicating different periods of death, as well as single or multiple perforations on the thorax. The perforations reached the heart, lungs or large thoracic vessels, culminating in hemopericardium and hemothorax that led to death by circulatory failure and cardiac tamponade. Blood from the heart and thoracic cavity was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tested positive for ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic. The suspect declared that she had killed only five of the animals and that they had all been fatally sick. The necropsy proved that all 37 animals were killed in the same way, that none of the animals had any terminal diseases and that a restricted drug was used. The suspect was sentenced to 12 years, 6 months and 14days of prison for the killing of the 37 animals. This was the first conviction for the crime of animal cruelty in Brazil. The combined role of police, forensic veterinary pathologists and prosecutors were essential to the conviction, which was a great historical occasion in the fight against animal cruelty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Full Text Available This research is an investigation into the language use in peoples opinions of capital punishment for drug convicts in The Jakarta Post. Capital punishment was executed to six drug convicts on January 18th , 2015. Controversy about this action has risen before and after the execution. People give their opinions in social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, blogs, and newspapers. The Jakarta Post is a well-known English newspaper in Indonesia which has a lot of readers. People choose this newspaper to convey their ideas so that their opinions will be read by people around the world. As the issue about capital punishment is popular recently, this research attempts at finding out peoples ideology about capital punishment for drug convicts. Critical discourse analysis was conducted in this research as an approach to figure out how language use by the people can reveal their ideology of capital punishment. This research focused on observing four opinions of capital punishment for drug convicts in The Jakarta Post. The analysis shows that material processes dominate the opinions, followed by relational, mental and verbal processes. The ideologies revealed in the opinions are power, pessimism, and criticism. Before the execution, pessimism dominates the opinions, while after the execution criticism appears most in the opinions.
... WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED General Provisions Rights and Penalties... correctional facility due to a State or Federal felony conviction, he or she forfeits all rights to...
This article, written from an insider perspective, and in a personal capacity (the author has been involved with the Council of Europe's work on religion and education since its inception in 2002), gives an account of the developing interest in the study of religions (and latterly non-religious convictions) in publicly funded schools by the…
... intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. 725.228 Section 725.228 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. An individual who has been convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of a miner or other beneficiary shall not be entitled to receive any benefits payable...
Warren, Christopher A.
The proliferation of post-racial theory (PRT) in both social and political spheres of dominant American hegemony has illustrated a desire among academic circles to move past race and racial categories in social analysis. However, absent within post-racial rhetoric is critical language on how to abolish racism and racial inequality. (Samad 2009) It…
Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William
Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle of…
Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia
This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…
Olshan, Andrew F; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Nielsen, Matthew E; Purdue, Mark P; Rathmell, W Kimryn
In the United States, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has rapidly increased in incidence for over two decades. The most common histologic subtypes of RCC, clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe have distinct genetic and clinical characteristics; however, epidemiologic features of these subtypes have not been well characterized, particularly regarding any associations between race, disease subtypes, and recent incidence trends. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, we examined differences in the age-adjusted incidence rates and trends of RCC subtypes, including analysis focusing on racial differences. Incidence rates increased over time (2001–2009) for all three subtypes. However, the proportion of white cases with clear cell histology was higher than among blacks (50% vs. 31%, respectively), whereas black cases were more likely than white cases to have papillary RCC (23% vs. 9%, respectively). Moreover, papillary RCC incidence increased more rapidly for blacks than whites (P < 0.01) over this period. We also observed that increased incidence of papillary histology among blacks is not limited to the smallest size strata. We observed racial differences in proportionate incidence of RCC subtypes, which appear to be increasing over time; this novel finding motivates further etiologic, clinical, molecular, and genetic studies. Using national data, we observed a higher proportion of black renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases with papillary histology compared to Caucasian cases. We also observed time trends in black-white incidence differences in histologic RCC subtypes, with rapid increases in the disproportionate share of black cases with papillary histology
Agadjanian, Victor; Menjívar, Cecilia; Zotova, Natalya
Using data from a structured survey and in-depth interviews in three Russian cities, our study engages the scholarship on immigration legal regimes and racialization practices to examine the experiences of ethnoracially motivated harassment among working migrant women from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Russia. The results of statistical analyses show that regularized legal status is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing harassment at the hands of law enforcement agents and other actors alike. Regardless of legal status, however, the analyses reveal significant variations across the three migrant groups, with members of the group that is seen as racially most distinct from the host population having the highest odds of reporting harassment. The analysis of in-depth interviews confirms and expands on these patterns, providing additional insights into the complex expressions and interplay of legality and race in migrants' everyday experiences. The study findings are situated within the cross-national literature on migrants' legal and ethnoracial exclusion in receiving contexts.
Agadjanian, Victor; Menjívar, Cecilia; Zotova, Natalya
Using data from a structured survey and in-depth interviews in three Russian cities, our study engages the scholarship on immigration legal regimes and racialization practices to examine the experiences of ethnoracially motivated harassment among working migrant women from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Russia. The results of statistical analyses show that regularized legal status is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of experiencing harassment at the hands of law enforcement agents and other actors alike. Regardless of legal status, however, the analyses reveal significant variations across the three migrant groups, with members of the group that is seen as racially most distinct from the host population having the highest odds of reporting harassment. The analysis of in-depth interviews confirms and expands on these patterns, providing additional insights into the complex expressions and interplay of legality and race in migrants’ everyday experiences. The study findings are situated within the cross-national literature on migrants’ legal and ethnoracial exclusion in receiving contexts. PMID:29109593
Full Text Available As mass digitization brings new opportunities for analysing criminal and convict records, this article considers how we can recover the personal histories of the convicted. It proposes ‘intimate reading’ as a complementary approach to large-scale data mining and distant reading methods currently being developed to analyse large prison cohorts. Immersive reading, integrating quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple sources, permits investigation of specific individuals, their interaction with others, and their engagement – however unequal – with the record-makers. It helps us detect the agency of those who have left few traces of personal testimony but whose lives were captured in abstract information garnered by officialdom. The article focuses on male convicts who served time at Great Yarmouth in the 1830s and 1840s and were transported to Van Diemen’s Land where arrivals were interrogated on their offending histories, occupations and family ties, and their bodies inspected for distinguishing characteristics. Comparing convict records with other documentation on their former lives allows us to explore what exiles revealed and concealed from the authorities about their past. Social profiling of this group exposes patterns in employment, family and social networks that are not so readily apparent when reading fragmentary evidence of individual lives. Small-scale data analysis enables us to decode the more personal testimony unwittingly preserved by the penal authorities when they transcribed the convicts’ tattoos. The article concludes with an intimate reading of the elaborate tattoos of one Yarmouth convict that spectacularly depicted the man he felt himself to be.
Full Text Available Ensaio em que se defende a necessidade de o pesquisador estar atento para as diferenças entre a indagação e a convicção. Ciência e ideologia situam-se em domínios distintos - o da indagação e o da convicção - o da produção do conhecimento e o da ação política. No âmbito das Ciências Sociais e Humanas, as fronteiras entre esses dois planos são frequentemente problematizadas, seja para negar, seja para afirmar a sua pertinência. Admitindo as dificuldades de traçar essas fronteiras, o ensaio defende a procedência de se procurar preservar o distanciamento entre os dois âmbitos. No campo científico, a curiosidade e a indagação, o escrutínio racional da realidade são os móveis legítimos do ofício. Após indicar algumas questões derivadas do trânsito entre ideologia e ciência na pesquisa em educação, finaliza indicando problemas que decorrem das políticas acadêmicasThis essay defends the researcher's need to be attentive to the differences between inquiry and conviction. Science and ideology are situated in different domains - those of inquiry (production of knowledge and those of conviction (political action. In the Social and Human Sciences the frontiers between these two planes are frequently questioned, either by denying them or by affirming them. Assuming the difficulty in drawing these frontiers, this essay defends the need to preserve the distance between the two domains. In the scientific field, curiosity and inquiry - the rational scrutiny of reality - are the researcher's legitimate motive. After indicating some questions that result from the transit between ideology and science in educational research, the essay ends by indicating problems that derive from present academic policies
Apfelbaum, Evan P; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R; Ambady, Nalini
Despite receiving little empirical assessment, the color-blind approach to managing diversity has become a leading institutional strategy for promoting racial equality, across domains and scales of practice. We gauged the utility of color blindness as a means to eliminating future racial inequity--its central objective--by assessing its impact on a sample of elementary-school students. Results demonstrated that students exposed to a color-blind mind-set, as opposed to a value-diversity mind-set, were actually less likely both to detect overt instances of racial discrimination and to describe such events in a manner that would prompt intervention by certified teachers. Institutional messages of color blindness may therefore artificially depress formal reporting of racial injustice. Color-blind messages may thus appear to function effectively on the surface even as they allow explicit forms of bias to persist.
Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.
A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.
Sakti D, Andika; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul
Based on the principle of conformity, a person tends to prefer a partner who has in common with him. But as the times goes by along with the era which is increasingly open, we have encountered inter-racial relationships, including in Indonesia. When couples come from different cultural backgrounds, the values, rules, standpoints, habits, and methods that used in relationship must also be different. The characteristics differences are tend to be the cause of conflict on inter-racial relationsh...
The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that 'race' is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social constructionism has always had its critics. Sesardic (2010) has compiled these criticisms into one of the strongest defences of racial naturalism in recent times. In this paper I argue that Sesardic equivocates between two versions of racial naturalism: a weak version and a strong version. As I shall argue, the strong version is not supported by the relevant science. The weak version, on the other hand, does not contrast properly with what social constructionists think about 'race'. By leaning on this weak view Sesardic's racial naturalism intermittently gains an appearance of plausibility, but this view is too weak to revive racial naturalism. As Sesardic demonstrates, there are new arguments for racial naturalism post-Human Genome Diversity Project. The positive message behind my critique is how to be a social constructionist about race in the post-genomic era. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X
Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender.
English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents’ racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents’ racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents’ perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents’ gender moderate associations between parents’ racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents’ racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents’ gender. PMID:27189721
Yao, Shuyang; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Thornton, Laura M; Norring, Claes; Almqvist, Catarina; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; Bulik, Cynthia M; Larsson, Henrik
We examined epidemiological associations between anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and risks of committing theft and other crimes in a nationwide female population. Females born in Sweden during 1979-1998 (N = 957,106) were followed from age 15 for up to 20 years using information on clinically diagnosed AN and BN (exposures), convictions of theft and other crimes (outcomes), psychiatric comorbidities, and familial relatedness from Swedish national registers. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of criminality in exposed versus unexposed females using Cox proportional hazards regressions and explored how comorbidities and unmeasured familial factors explained the associations. The cumulative incidence of convictions of theft (primarily petty theft) and other crimes was higher in exposed females (AN: 11.60% theft, 7.39% other convictions; BN: 17.97% theft, 13.17% other convictions) than in unexposed females (∼5% theft, ∼6% other convictions). The significantly increased risk of being convicted of theft in exposed females (AN: HR = 2.51, 95% confidence interval = [2.29, 2.74], BN: 4.31 [3.68, 5.05]) was partially explained by comorbidities; unmeasured familial factors partially explained the association with convictions of theft in BN but not in AN. Females with BN had a doubled risk of convictions of other crimes, which was partially explained by comorbidities. Individuals with eating disorders had increased risk for convictions of theft and potentially other crimes. Results underscore the importance of regular forensic screening and encourage research on mechanisms underlying the relation between crime and eating disorder psychopathology and efforts to determine how best to address such relation in treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Larm, Peter; Silva, Teresa C; Hodgins, Sheilagh
Little is known about adult outcomes of males who as adolescents sought treatment for alcohol misuse or drug use, and who additionally were engaging or not engaging in other forms of delinquency. Since the rates of negative outcomes vary in the general population, the study determined whether the sub-groups of clinic attendees fared differently as compared to males of the same age who had not sought treatment for substance misuse from age 21 to 45. Adolescent males who consulted the only substance misuse clinic in a Swedish city between 1968 and 1971 were divided into four groups: ALCOHOL no drug use, no criminal offending (n=52); ALCOHOL+D no drug use, plus criminal offending (n=105); DRUG use, no criminal offending (n=92); and DRUG+D plus criminal offending (n=474). These four groups were compared to a general population sample (GP) of males matched on age and birthplace, who did not seek treatment for SM in adolescence. National Swedish registers provided data on death, hospitalizations for substance misuse (SM), mental and physical disorders, and criminal convictions. Compared to the GP, and after controlling for co-occurring adult outcomes, ALCOHOL showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization and convictions for violent crimes, and DRUG showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization, convictions for non-violent crimes, and hospitalization for psychosis. ALCOHOL+D and DRUG+D showed increased risk for SM hospitalization, violent and non-violent convictions, and DRUG+D additionally, for death, and hospitalizations for psychosis and physical illness. Misuse of alcohol without drug use or other delinquency in adolescence was associated with increased risk for convictions for violent crimes during the subsequent 25 years, in addition to SM, while adolescent drug use without other forms of delinquency was associated with increased risks for convictions for non-violent crimes, hospitalizations for SM, and non-affective psychosis. Cannabis use, with and without
Museus, Samuel D.; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Robinson, Thomas
The failure of many 2-year college students to persist and complete a post-secondary credential or degree remains a problem of paramount importance to higher education policymakers and practitioners. While racial representation--or the extent to which a student's racial group is represented on their respective campus--might be one factor that…
Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin
Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…
Coleman, Sherry; Stevenson, Howard C.
Research on the experience of faculty of color in predominately White independent schools (PWIS) is limited. This study explored faculty of varying racial backgrounds and their initiation of, interactions with, and stress reactions to racial conflicts within the school settings using an online survey. Several measures were developed according to…
Nash, Kyle; McGregor, Ian; Prentice, Mike
Four studies investigated a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty threat (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) and ideological defense. Participants (N = 444) were randomly assigned to have achievement or relationship goals implicitly primed. The implicit goal primes were followed by randomly assigned achievement or relationship threats that have reliably caused generalized, reactive approach motivation and ideological defense in past research. The threats caused anxious uncertainty (Study 1), reactive approach motivation (Studies 2 and 3), and reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) only when threat-relevant goals had first been primed, but not when threat-irrelevant goals had first been primed. Reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) was eliminated if participants were given an opportunity to attribute their anxiety to a mundane source. Results support a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty, threat, and defense with potential for integrating theories of defensive compensation.
Bragg, Marie A.; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Kaye, Lily B.; Desmond, Frederic
Background: Obesity rates are rising in the United States, especially among low-income and racial/ethnic minority individuals. Exploring motivators and barriers relative to engaging in physical activity is imperative. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify motivators and barriers relative to engagement in physical activity as reported…
Bacio, Guadalupe A; Guzman, Iris Y; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A
The prevalence of smoking across racial/ethnic groups has declined over the years, yet racial health disparities for smoking persist. Studies indicate that non-Hispanic Black smokers attempt to quit smoking more often compared to non-Hispanic White smokers but are less successful at doing so. Research suggests that motives to quit smoking differ by race, however, less is known about the role of motives to smoke in explaining racial differences in attempts to quit smoking. This study examined whether smoking motives accounted for the differential rates in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black (n=155) and non-Hispanic White (n=159) smokers. Data were culled from a larger study of heavy-drinking smokers. The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assessed motives to smoke. As expected, Black and White smokers reported similar smoking patterns, yet Black smokers reported higher rates of failed attempts to quit smoking than White smokers. Findings indicated that Black, compared to White, smokers endorsed lower scores in the negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and taste WISDM subscales and scores in these subscales mediated the relationship between race and quit attempts. In this study, Blacks, compared to Whites, endorsed lower motives to smoke, which are generally associated with successful quit attempts, yet they experienced more failed attempts to quit smoking. This study demonstrates racial health disparities at the level of smoking motives and suggests that Black smokers remain vulnerable to failed quit attempts despite reporting lower motives to smoke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Frierson, Georita M; Pinto, Bernardine M; Denman, Deanna C; Leon, Pierre A; Jaffe, Alex D
Lack of African American females in breast cancer research has been receiving substantial attention. This study seeks to identify research perceptions and motivating factors needed to increase racial/ethnic minority participation in breast cancer research. A total of 57 African American women (Σ = 47.8 years), from Rhode Island and Texas, completed a questionnaire and focus group. While many participants were not breast cancer survivors, they reported knowledge of their racial group's risk for breast cancer. One major finding that could be seen as both a facilitator and barrier is racial concordance between participant and researcher. Cultural sensitivity and trust building is recommended to increase minority participation.
Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Lee, J Katherine; Renauer, Brian; Henning, Kris R; Stewart, Greg
This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes. A serial multiple mediation model confirmed that racial minorities' self-rated phenotypic racial stereotypicality indirectly affected future cooperation through social identity threat and trust. Due to the lack of negative group stereotypes in policing, the model did not hold for Whites. This study provides evidence that phenotypic stereotypicality influences racial minorities' psychological experiences interacting with police.
Rouder, Jeffrey N; Wixted, John T; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S
Cognitive psychologists are familiar with how their expertise in understanding human perception, memory, and decision-making is applicable to the justice system. They may be less familiar with how their expertise in statistical decision-making and their comfort working in noisy real-world environments is just as applicable. Here we show how this expertise in ideal-observer models may be leveraged to calculate the probability of guilt of Gary Leiterman, a man convicted of murder on the basis of DNA evidence. We show by common probability theory that Leiterman is likely a victim of a tragic contamination event rather than a murderer. Making any calculation of the probability of guilt necessarily relies on subjective assumptions. The conclusion about Leiterman's innocence is not overly sensitive to the assumptions-the probability of innocence remains high for a wide range of reasonable assumptions. We note that cognitive psychologists may be well suited to make these calculations because as working scientists they may be comfortable with the role a reasonable degree of subjectivity plays in analysis.
Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia
Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. © The Author(s) 2013.
Ashley R. ROBART
The differential allocation hypothesis predicts individuals will increase their reproductive investment when mated to a high quality partner.In many species of fish with biparental care females prefer large males due to the males' greater ability to raise more offspring to independence.I examined the relationship between mate quality,parental care and number of offspring in a natural population of convict cichlids Amatitlania siquia.The frequency of frontal displays by females was positively correlated with male standard length.Additionally,as males increased in length relative to their mate,females increased the frequency of chases towards predators,while males decreased the number of displays towards brood predators.This trade-off in parental effort within a pair due to mate quality is a key prediction of differential allocation.The number of offspring was correlated with male,but not female,standard length.These results support the differential allocation hypothesis in that females offered more parental care to offspring of a larger male,while their mates decreased the amount of care they provided.Additionally,females benefited in terms of number of offspring by pairing with higher quality mates.Increased female investment may provide an incentive to ensure male care and maintain pair bonding,which could lead to greater reproductive success through increased offspring survival [Current Zoology 58 (1):66-72,2012].
Ashley R. ROBART
Full Text Available The differential allocation hypothesis predicts individuals will increase their reproductive investment when mated to a high quality partner. In many species of fish with biparental care females prefer large males due to the males’ greater ability to raise more offspring to independence. I examined the relationship between mate quality, parental care and number of offspring in a natural population of convict cichlids Amatitlania siquia. The frequency of frontal displays by females was positively correlated with male standard length. Additionally, as males increased in length relative to their mate, females increased the frequency of chases towards predators, while males decreased the number of displays towards brood predators. This trade-off in parental effort within a pair due to mate quality is a key prediction of differential allocation. The number of offspring was correlated with male, but not female, standard length. These results support the differential allocation hypothesis in that females offered more parental care to offspring of a larger male, while their mates decreased the amount of care they provided. Additionally, females benefited in terms of number of offspring by pairing with higher quality mates. Increased female investment may provide an incentive to ensure male care and maintain pair bonding, which could lead to greater reproductive success through increased offspring survival [Current Zoology 58 (1: 66–72, 2012].
Harding, David J; Morenoff, Jeffrey D; Nguyen, Anh P; Bushway, Shawn D
A substantial contributor to prison admissions is the return of individuals recently released from prison, which has come to be known as prison's "revolving door." However, it is unclear whether being sentenced to prison itself has a causal effect on the probability of a subsequent return to prison or on criminal behavior. To examine the causal effect of being sentenced to prison on subsequent offending and reimprisonment, we leverage a natural experiment using the random assignment of judges with different propensities for sentencing offenders to prison. Drawing on data on all individuals sentenced for a felony in Michigan between 2003 and 2006, we compare individuals sentenced to prison to those sentenced to probation, taking into account sentence lengths and stratifying our analysis by race. Results show that being sentenced to prison rather than probation increases the probability of imprisonment in the first 3 years after release from prison by 18 percentage points among nonwhites and 19 percentage points among whites. Further results show that such effects are driven primarily by imprisonment for technical violations of community supervision rather than new felony convictions. This suggests that more stringent postprison parole supervision (relative to probation supervision) increases imprisonment through the detection and punishment of low-level offending or violation behavior. Such behavior would not otherwise result in imprisonment for someone who had not already been to prison or who was not on parole. These results demonstrate that the revolving door of prison is in part an effect of the nature of postprison supervision.
Full Text Available The freedom of the judge to express his personal opinions and convictions is limited by his special position. The question arises where these limits lie: what are the possibilities for judges to express their personal views on religious, political or other subjects, whether it is through speech, writing, wearing religious symbols or membership of an association or church? In this article the limits of the freedom of the judge will be studied as they appear from the case law of the ECtHR. Two types of cases from this case law are relevant for this subject: cases based on complaints from judges about a violation of their rights under Article 9-11 ECHR and cases based on complaints from litigants and suspects about a violation of their right to a fair trial under Article 6(1 ECHR. The question is asked how the limits of judicial freedom are defined in the case law of the ECtHR and where these limits lie.
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to penal stress and its manifestations at the convicts, suspects and accused persons. This topic has been poorly studied. It is necessary to identify the groups of people especially most in need of prevention and correction of stress state and to define the target effects. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the concepts of biological and psychological stress. Our theoretical work is mainly devoted to phenomenon of penal stress and factors affecting its formation. We suggested the definition of penal stress concept on the basis of the analyzed literature. The sample included 69 male persons (31 from predetention center, 38 from penal colony, aged 19 to 47 years old. Experimental psychological method of research was mainly used. In the practical part of the paper presents data on the prevalence of the penal stress in predetention centers and penal colonies. In addition, we have studied the relationship of penal stress with punishment stage, the crime characteristics of subjects, individual psychological characteristics, current state. The study allows us to reveal the groups of people in need of the prevention and correction of the penal stress state. We identified some target corrective action also.
Hopperdietzel, C; Hirschberg, R M; Hünigen, H; Wolter, J; Richardson, K; Plendl, J
The primary objectives of this study were to document the macroscopic and histological structure of the alimentary tract (AT) of the convict cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata, because there are no data available for this omnivorous freshwater fish of the family Cichlidae. The morphology of the AT of A. nigrofasciata resembles that of related species. While having morphological criteria of the AT typical of most omnivorous fishes, such as a blind sac stomach and medium length intestine, A. nigrofasciata also has some structural peculiarities: the oesophagus is lined by a uniform stratified squamous epithelial layer with interspersed goblet cells along its entire length. Additionally, it has well-developed layers of the tunica muscularis including muscle fibre bundles that ascend into its mucosal folds. Occasionally, taste buds are present. In the transitional area between oesophagus and stomach, a prominent torus-like closure device is present. The mucosa of the stomach cannot be divided into different regions according to mucosal and morphological properties. The simple pattern of intestinal loops of A. nigrofasciata has few variations, irrespective of sex, mass and length of the individual fish. The first segment of the intestine is characterized by the largest mucososerosal ratio and the most complex mucosal surface architecture. A distinction of midgut and hindgut was not possible in A. nigrofasciata due to lack of defining structural components as described for other fish species. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Budd, Kristen M; Mancini, Christina
In the United States, electronic monitoring (EM) and global positioning systems (GPS) are new applications that are used to extensively monitor and track convicted sex offenders. What is unclear though are public perceptions of this strategy. This research examines public perceptions of a national sample of Americans on the use of GPS/EM with convicted sex offenders as a method to reduce their sexual recidivism. Using a multinomial regression model, we analyze the effects of sex offender myths and parental status on public perceptions that sex offender GPS/EM is very effective in reducing sexual recidivism. Findings suggest that public perceptions of effectiveness are partially driven by myths and also that parents are unsure of this strategy. The analysis contributes to the growing body of knowledge on public perceptions of GPS/EM to manage sex offenders in communities. Implications of the study and areas for future research are discussed in light of the findings.
Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T
The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo
This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reveal the features of family relationship, style of parental bonding and relationship with family members of convicts. The tasks of the research: 1 to analyse the relationships experienced in families of convicts and the subjectively perceived style of parental bonding in their childhood; 2 to assess the relationships of convicts (men and women with their families; 3 to compare the attachment styles of convicts analysing different close relationships (with parents, relatives, partner or a close friend. The research was carried out in Panevėžys Correctional Facility and Lukiškės Remand Prison – Closed Prison. In total, the research involved 63 subjects, out of whom 33 were men and 30 women. The female subjects were 18–64 years old, males – 18–45 years old. The following tools were used: Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker G. et al., 1997, Familial Relationship Quality Measure (Ryan & Willits, 2007, Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR – RS; Fraley, Waller, & Brennan, 2000 and demographic questionnaire. The findings have showed that were no statistically significant differences with regard to gender were established assessing the subjectively perceived style of parental bonding, satisfaction with familial relationships and the attachment style in different close relationships. Both male and female subjects attributed the subjectively perceived upbringing style of a father to “overprotection”, that of a mother – to “care”. The attachment style of males characterised as “avoidance” is insignificantly higher than females, whereas the “anxiety” style of attachment in samples of males and females showed almost no differences. A positive relationship was established between the satisfaction with experienced familial relationships and the “caring” style of upbringing of both parents. Satisfaction with familial relationships positively correlates with the importance of
Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is revealing the correlations between social anxiety, forgiveness and values among convict-prisoners in penal institutions. Relational screening model was adopted in the present research. Relational screening is used to reveal the relationships between two or more variables, and cause-and-effect relationships. The universe of the present research consists of convicts and prisoners in Konya penal institutions in 2013-2014 years. The work group of the present research consists of 680 volunteer convicts and prisoners selected randomly among these. The data collection tool in research value scale, the scale of forgiveness and social anxiety scale was used. The results obtained from this study; The findings of the present research showed that the most important independent variable that affected values was forgiveness, In addition, the most important variable that affects social anxiety in the tested model is values variable and Additionally, second most important variable that affects social anxiety indirectly in the tested model is forgiveness variable.
Freeman, Daniel; Bradley, Jonathan; Antley, Angus; Bourke, Emilie; DeWeever, Natalie; Evans, Nicole; Černis, Emma; Sheaves, Bryony; Waite, Felicity; Dunn, Graham; Slater, Mel; Clark, David M.
Background Persecutory delusions may be unfounded threat beliefs maintained by safety-seeking behaviours that prevent disconfirmatory evidence being successfully processed. Use of virtual reality could facilitate new learning. Aims To test the hypothesis that enabling patients to test the threat predictions of persecutory delusions in virtual reality social environments with the dropping of safety-seeking behaviours (virtual reality cognitive therapy) would lead to greater delusion reduction than exposure alone (virtual reality exposure). Method Conviction in delusions and distress in a real-world situation were assessed in 30 patients with persecutory delusions. Patients were then randomised to virtual reality cognitive therapy or virtual reality exposure, both with 30 min in graded virtual reality social environments. Delusion conviction and real-world distress were then reassessed. Results In comparison with exposure, virtual reality cognitive therapy led to large reductions in delusional conviction (reduction 22.0%, P = 0.024, Cohen's d = 1.3) and real-world distress (reduction 19.6%, P = 0.020, Cohen's d = 0.8). Conclusion Cognitive therapy using virtual reality could prove highly effective in treating delusions. PMID:27151071
Natalie April van Breukelen
Full Text Available The convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata has been extensively examined in relation to many behavioral topics, such as courtship, pair-bonding, bi-parental care, and territoriality. Recently, this model species has been utilized in studies on genetics, endocrinology, and neuroanatomy, with an ultimate goal of connecting behavior with its underlying mechanisms. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1 profile the circulating levels of plasma 11KT in the male convict cichlid at multiple points during the reproductive cycle and (2 generally compare the hormonal profiles of the widely used laboratory populations and those of a free-living population in the streams of Costa Rica. The results of the field experiment showed that male convict cichlids had higher levels of circulating 11KT during courtship and lower during the parental care and non-breeding phases. The profile of the laboratory population was similar to the profile of the free-living individuals, with significantly higher levels of 11KT occurring during courtship than during parental care, though the level of 11KT during non-breeding phase was elevated in the laboratory. The high levels of 11KT during courtship and low levels of 11KT during parental care found in both the field and the laboratory is similar to what has been reported in other species of teleosts, and may suggest an important function of 11KT in the expression of courtship behavior and the subsequent onset of parental behaviors in this model species.
Rash, Christina L; McGrath, Daniel S
Motivational models have been shown to usefully describe reasons for engaging in addictive behaviors including gambling disorder. Although most scales designed to measure motives have been derived statistically, self-generated open-ended responses have also shown utility for identifying unique motives for gambling. While the motivational structure for gambling disorder has been extensively explored, there has been a paucity of research examining motives for choosing not to gamble. This is not the case for other addictive behaviors such as alcohol use where motives for abstaining from drinking have been well defined. The primary goal of this study was to qualitatively explore and identify motives for not gambling in a sample of young adult non-gamblers using open-ended responses. A sample (N = 196) of undergraduate current non-gamblers, defined as no gambling activity over the previous 12 months, completed a series of questionnaires on demographics, gambling behavior, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, they were asked to provide their top three reasons for not gambling in rank order. The results revealed eight specific motives for why participants chose not to gamble: 'financial reasons and risk aversion'; 'disinterest and other priorities'; 'personal and religious convictions'; 'addiction concerns'; 'influence of others' values'; 'awareness of the odds'; 'lack of access, opportunity, or skill'; and 'emotional distress'. Personal and religious convictions reasons were also related to lifetime non-drinking, suggesting that these motives are associated with decreased addictive behaviors in general. Ultimately, these results may help to inform the design of prevention strategies for gambling disorder.
Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.
Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232
..., breach of trust, or money laundering. Convictions do not cover arrests, pending cases not brought to... for a criminal offense involving dishonesty, breach of trust or money laundering. A pretrial diversion...
Almond, Amanda Lee
The purpose of this study was to validate the already existing Racial Microaggression in Counseling Scale (RMCS) when the term 'therapist' was replaced with 'physician', thus constituting the modification as the Racial Microaggression in Medical Practice Scale (RMMPS). Racial microaggressions work at reinforcing inferior social status on a cognitive level. Unlike overt racism, messages behind microaggression are subtler and more every day. A lack of acceptance, respect, and regard emerges from interactions in medical contexts as there are layers of in-group and out-group statuses at play (e.g. physician-patient, Black-White, expert-lay, and Westernized-alternative). The layer focused on in this study was that of race or skin color. A sample of racial minorities in the Northeast (n = 91) was investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively to validate the modification and future use of a RMMPS. The scale was related to the racial incongruence between patient and provider. Qualitative findings support the original concepts and themes used when developing the 10-item measure in a counseling setting. Psychometric findings for the scale also supported its factorial structure using generalizability theory estimates. Future implications of this research relate to health behavior, trustworthiness, and health outcomes of minority patients. Its potential for use among various practitioners, educators, and researchers is also discussed.
This article examines the phenomenon of convict transportation between Mexico and the Philippines during the 17th century. Utilising sources located within the Archivo General de la Nación (México) and the Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla), I argue that was this convict transportation both helped the Spanish extend their power within the Pacific and functioned as a criminal justice measure in response to the emergence of an unruly and disobedient plebeian underclass in the cities and along ...
Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.
The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536
This article employs two previously neglected indicators of racial prejudice from the British Social Attitudes surveys to examine the social distribution of prejudices against black and Asian Britons. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested: that racial prejudice is declining in Britain; that this decline is principally generational in nature; and that greater prejudice is shown towards more culturally distinct Asian minorities than black minorities. Strong evidence is found for the first two hypotheses, with evidence of an overall decline in prejudice and of a sharp decline in prejudices among generations who have grown up since mass black and Asian immigration began in the 1950s. Little evidence is found for the third hypothesis: British reactions towards black and Asian minorities are broadly similar suggesting racial differences may still be the main factor prompting white hostility to British minorities.
Bhoomi K. Thakore
Full Text Available As the internet has become an integral part of everyday life, it is understood that patterns of racial stereotyping and discrimination found in the offline world are often reproduced online. In our paper, we examine two exclusionary practices in an online environment for adult toy collectors: First, the exclusion of non-white individuals who are expected to form immediate friendships with other non-white members; and second, the essentializing of racial issues when concerns over the lack of racial diversity in the toys are discussed. This dismissal is often directly connected to non-white members’ decisions to no longer participate, resulting in a new form of segregation within virtual space.
Robert D. Crutchfield
Full Text Available Racial and ethnic violence takes many forms. Genocides, ethnic cleansing, pogroms, civil wars, and violent separatist movements are the most obvious and extreme expressions, but less organized violence such as rioting, and hate crimes by individuals or small groups are products of racial and ethnic conflict as well. Also, the distribution of criminal violence within societies, which may or may not be aimed at members of another group, is in some places a by-product of ongoing conflicts between superior and subordinated racial or ethnic groups. Although estimates of the number of deaths attributable to ethnic violence vary widely, range of eleven to twenty million given for the period between 1945 and the early 1990s show the gravity of this type of conflict (Williams 1994, 50. So it comes as no surprise that scholars have paid increasing attention to such conflicts over the last decades.
Pearce, Diana M.
This paper explores the problem of segregation due to racial patterns in housing by examining the role of real estate agents, acting as a community of gatekeepers, in the perpetration of racial segregation. (Author/EB)
Baber, Lorenzo DuBois
Despite traditional notions of meritocracy, higher education has a long history of exclusionary practices. This chapter explores connections between such practices and racial ideology in the United States, including the recent concept of "post-racialism."
Sawyer, Jeremy; Gampa, Anup
Lab-based interventions have been ineffective in changing individuals’ implicit racial attitudes for more than brief durations, and exposure to high-status Black exemplars like Obama has proven ineffective in shifting societal-level racial attitudes. Anti-racist social movements, however, offer a potential societal-level alternative for reducing racial bias. Racial attitudes were examined before and during Black Lives Matter (BLM) and its high points of struggle with 1,369,204 participants fr...
Average height of the free population in the United States born in the mid-1830s began to decline despite growing per capita incomes. Explanations for this "antebellum puzzle" revolve around a possibly deteriorating disease environment promoted by urban agglomeration and increases in the relative price of protein-rich foods. However, several groups were immune to the effect, including members of the middle class, whose income was high enough, and increased enough to overcome the adverse developments and maintain their nutritional status. Although at the opposite end of the social spectrum, the height of male slaves also increased, as it was in their owners' interest to raise their slaves' food allotments. The height of Tennessee convicts, analyzed in this article, also increased in the late-1830s, being the third exception to the "antebellum puzzle." Mid-19th century Tennessee was integrated into interstate commerce in cotton and tobacco and experienced considerable movement of people who would have brought with them diseases from elsewhere, hence, it would have been integrated into the US disease pool, and the fact that heights did not decline in the 1830s is therefore an indication that the antebellum puzzle cannot be explained exclusively by the spread of diseases. Yet, Tennessee's economy was quite different to that of the rest of the country. Although it did export live swine to the South, these exports did not increase during the antebellum decades. Hence, Tennessee remained self-sufficient in pork, and consumption of pork did not decline. Thus, the evidence presented here is consistent with the economic interpretation of the "antebellum puzzle": self-sufficiency in protein production protected even the members of the lower-classes of Tennessee from the negative externalities associated with the onset of industrialization.
Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W
Recent research on a risk assessment tool for child pornography offending suggests that admission of sexual interest in children is a risk factor for any sexual recidivism. Admission is easily vulnerable to lying, however, or to refusals to respond when asked about sexual interests. This may become a particular issue when individuals are concerned about the potential impact of admission of sexual interest on sentencing and other risk-related decisions. In this study, we identified the following behavioral correlates (coded yes/no) of admission of sexual interest in children in the risk tool development sample of 286 men convicted of child pornography offenses: (a) never married (54% of sample), (b) child pornography content included child sexual abuse videos (64%), (c) child pornography content included sex stories involving children (31%), (d) evidence of interest in child pornography spanned 2 or more years (55%), (e) volunteered in a role with high access to children (7%), and (f) engaged in online sexual communication with a minor or officer posing as a minor (10%). When summed, the average score on this Correlates of Admission of Sexual Interest in Children (CASIC) measure was 2.21 (SD = 1.22, range 0-6) out of a possible 6, and the CASIC score was significantly associated with admission of sexual interest in children, area under the curve (AUC) = .71, 95% CI [ .65, .77]. The CASIC had a stronger relationship with admission in a small cross-validation sample of 60 child pornography offenders, AUC = .81, 95% CI [.68, .95]. CASIC scores may substitute for admission of sexual interest in risk assessment involving those with child pornography offenses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Maes, Hermine H; Morris, Nancy A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina
Prior twin and adoption studies have demonstrated the importance of both genetic and shared environmental factors in the etiology of criminal behavior (CB). However, despite substantial interest in life-course theories of CB, few genetically informative studies have examined CB in a developmental context. In 69,767 male-male twin pairs and full-sibling pairs with ≤ 2 years' difference in age, born 1958-1976 and ascertained from the Swedish Twin and Population Registries, we obtained information on all criminal convictions from 1973 to 2011 from the Swedish Crime Register. We fitted a Cholesky structural model, using the OpenMx package, to CB in these pairs over three age periods: 15-19, 20-24, and 25-29. The Cholesky model had two main genetic factors. The first began at ages 15-19 and declined in importance over development. The second started at ages 20-24 and was stable over time. Only one major shared environmental factor was seen, beginning at ages 15-19. Heritability for CB declined from ages 15-29, as did shared environmental effects, although at a slower rate. Genetic risk factors for CB in males are developmentally dynamic, demonstrating both innovation and attenuation. These results are consistent with theories of adolescent-limited and life-course persistent CB subtypes. Heritability for CB did not increase over time as might be predicted from active gene-environmental correlation. However, consistent with expectation, the proportion of variability explained by shared environmental effects declined slightly as individuals aged and moved away from their original homes and neighborhoods.
Combining the conceptual approach of racial formation and racial projects with the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, Jeong-eun Rhee theorizes the "neoliberal racial project" (NRP) and examines contemporary meanings and operations of race and racism in relation to neoliberalism. She analyzes Amy Chua's popular parenting memoir,…
Racial awareness is a critical foundation to racial sensitivity, and it is a necessity for future professionals who want to be prepared to succeed in an increasingly diverse society. Several factors have been shown to influence racial awareness in professionals including their own race, their personal experience with racism, and the amount/quality…
Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Ronnkvist, Amy
Background: Educational research shows differences in experience, access, and outcomes across racial groups with some groups advantaged and others disadvantaged. One of the concepts used to explain racial differences, racialization, is a taken-for-granted term that is yet to be fully defined in the context of the school. We differentiate the term…
Critiques tendencies toward dogmatism and essentialism in current educational theories of racial inequality. Argues that different gender, class, and ethnic interests intersect with racial coordination and affiliation, and that to reduce racial antagonism or ameliorate educational inequities educators must consider the powerful role of nuance,…
Michel, George J.
Compares areas and levels of political conflict in racially isolated school districts by surveying six superintendents from racially isolated African-American schools and six superintendents from racially isolated white schools. Similar issues arise at every conflict level with small variations among issues between African-American and white…
Seguin, Charles; Nierobisz, Annette; Kozlowski, Karen Phelan
Students commonly hold erroneous notions of a "post-racial" world and individualistic worldviews that discount the role of structure in social outcomes. Jointly, these two preconceived beliefs can be powerful barriers to effective teaching of racial segregation: Students may be skeptical that racial segregation continues to exist, and…
Martinez, Martha Irene
Educational disparities are frequently framed in racial comparisons that are based on data generated by sorting and counting racial subgroups. Our reliance on these data, and the sorting and counting mechanisms entailed therein, is fundamental to debates about racial inequalities. What is largely ignored in achievement gap discourse is how racial…
Dalton, Jon C.
Reviews racial bias and racial intolerance among college students during the late 1980s. Asserts that campus bias-related indents are predictable outcomes of increasingly self-interested values and limited personal experience with racial and ethnic diversity. Discusses the need to create more opportunities for contact and interaction among…
The paper explores what racial integration is. Furthermore, it scrutinises how racial integration is currently managed in South African Public schools. The main argument of the paper defends a deliberative conception of managing racial integration in South African public schools. In light of this, there is some form of hope to ...
Pittman, Chavella T.
This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…
Wilson, Thomas C.
National survey data are used to test the relationship between urbanism and racial attitudes among Whites, and a liberalizing effect of urbanism is found. It appears that urbanism liberalizes racial attitudes by increasing equal-status, cooperative, and relatively personal contact between members of racial subcultures. (Author/RDN)
Analyzing schools as racial spaces can help researchers examine the role of teachers in the perpetuation of structural racism in schools. Based on ethnographic and autoethnographic work, this article offers examples of schools as racial spaces, spaces where whiteness controlled access. It also highlights four teachers who pursued racial equity in…
Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory
Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an…
Da Costa, Alexandre Emboaba
This paper furthers current analysis of anti-racist, critical multicultural, and decolonial educational reforms in Brazil through a focus on the significant role played by post-racial ideology, black politics, and racial literacy in policy design and implementation. The paper first details the ways in which post-racial commonsense and anti-black…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Kyle, Jennifer; Lau, Cindy; Fefer, Keren; Fischetti, Jessica
The purpose of this study was to investigate ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students' experiences with racial microaggressions in school psychology graduate training. Through a national survey of ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students (N = 228), the study examined if level of graduate training (i.e., interns…
Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Wischnia, Sarah
Despite post-racial rhetoric, stereotypes remain salient for American youth. We surveyed 150 elementary and middle schoolers in Northern California and conducted case studies of 12 students. Findings showed that (a) students hold school-related stereotypes that get stronger in middle school, (b) African American and Latino students experience…
Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.
Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…
Diab, Rasha; Ferrel, Thomas; Godbee, Beth; Simpkins, Neil
In this article, we articulate a framework for making our commitments to racial justice actionable, a framework that moves from narrating confessional accounts to articulating our commitments and then acting on them through both self-work and work-with-others, a dialectic possibility we identify and explore. We model a method for moving beyond…
Hagan, John; Rymond-Richmond, Wenona; Palloni, Alberto
We used the Atrocities Documentation Survey to determine whether Sudanese government forces were involved in racially targeting sexual victimization toward ethnically African women in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The US State Department conducted the survey by interviewing a randomized multistage probability sample of 1136 Darfur refugees at 20 sites in Chad in 2004. For a subset of 932 respondents who had fled from village clusters that accounted for 15 or more respondents per cluster, we used hierarchical linear models to analyze village-level patterns of reported sexual violence. We statistically controlled for individual sexual victimization to remove bias. Respondents reported being subjected to racial epithets associated with sexual victimization significantly more often during combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces than during separate attacks by either force. Combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces led to racial epithets being used more often during sexual victimization in Darfur. Our results suggest that the Sudanese government is participating in the use of sexual assault as a racially targeted weapon against ethnically African civilians.
Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith
To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was…
Wolf, L.J.; Maio, G.R.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Leygue, C.
Because of the innocence and dependence of children, it would be reassuring to believe that implicit racial prejudice against out-group children is lower than implicit prejudice against out-group adults. Yet, prior research has not directly tested whether or not adults exhibit less spontaneous
An examination of data from several studies investigated white (n=1,825), African-American (n=328), and Chicano (n=340) college student perceptions of campus racial climate and institutional commitment to cultural diversity. Student demographic variables were considered. Results indicated common and distinct views concerning the environment types…
In this essay Michael Eldridge maintains that Frank Margonis has in a recent article ill-advisedly speculated about John Dewey's pedagogy, suggesting that his "racialized visions" of students and classroom communities involve a "false universalism" that is problematic for our multicultural society. Based on this understanding, Margonis concludes…
Desmond, Matthew; Emirbayer, Mustafa
At the conclusion of many courses on race and racism, students, having learned, some for the first time, about the existence, origins, and complex dimensions of racial domination in America, are left pondering their next steps. "What is to be done?" many ask. "And what, exactly, is it that we want?" Important as they are, these…
The aim of this research was to investigate possible relationships between physical activity and physical fitness of girls between the ages of 13 and 15 years and the role of different racial backgrounds in this relationship. A cross-sectional research design was used to obtain information from 290 girls between the ages of 13 ...
Hotchkins, Bryan K.
Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…
Education inequity is a persistent reality of American culture. As early as kindergarten, there are marked differences in academic performance between racial minority students and their peers. These differences are sustained as students progress through school. One aspect of students' social experience that may help to explain the gap is school…
The roots of racial conflict can be identified, and often predicted, says this author who directs the Community Relations Service of the Justice Department that has helped administrators in 2,000 cases. He lists 10 tension-breeding factors that, if found in your school, may mean you're flirting with a crisis. (Editor)
In dealing with racial tension and conflict, the principal is not limited to a wing and a prayer and benign neglect. The roots of conflict can be identified. Conflict can be planned for and utilized constructively. For 10 years, in approximately 2,000 instances, conciliators and mediators of the Community Relations Service have stood side-by-side…
Johnson, Alex; Jackson Williams, Dahra
Multicultural counseling competence (awareness, knowledge, and skills) is necessary to provide effective psychotherapy to an increasingly diverse client population (Sue, 2001). Previous research on predictors of competency among White clinicians finds that above having multicultural training, exposure to racially diverse clients, and social desirability, that White racial identity stages predict multicultural counseling competence (Ottavi et al., 1994). Research also suggests that higher color-blind racial attitudes (denying or minimizing racism in society) correlates with less advanced White racial identity stages (Gushue & Constantine, 2007). However, no studies have examined these variables together as they relate to and possibly predict multicultural counseling competence. The current study aims to add to this literature by investigating the effects of these variables together as potential predictors of multicultural counseling competence among (N = 487) White doctoral students studying clinical, counseling, and school psychology. Results of 3 hierarchical multiple regressions found above the effects of social desirability, demographic variables, and multicultural training, that colorblind racial attitudes and White racial identity stages added significant incremental variance in predicting multicultural counseling knowledge, awareness, and skills. These results add to the literature by finding different predictors for each domain of multicultural competence. Implications of the findings for future research and the clinical training of White doctoral trainees are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231
Ro, Annie E; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in North California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design.
Ana Maria Lacerda Teixeira Pires
Full Text Available El estudio trataba de medir las manifestaciones del prejuicio racial en una muestra de la población brasileña, utilizando las escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee y Batts (1981 y la escala de racismo cordial de Turra y Venturi (1995 y Venturi (2003. Se aplicó los cuestionarios a un total de 101 estudiantes de diversas universidades en la región sur de Brasil. Los resultados muestran que las dos escalas difieren entre si respecto a captar las expresiones del prejuicio. Las personas declararon mayor racismo moderno que racismo cordial. También hemos estudiado las variables que influyen en el prejuicio racial declarado por los participantes. La variable género y orientación a la dominancia social son variables que predicen el racismo moderno en la muestra estudiada. Los participantes indicaron, en mayor medida, la manifestación del prejuicio racial de forma encubierta y lo hacen más abiertamente cuando hay la posibilidad del contacto personal y estrecho.O estudo avaliou as manifestações de preconceito racial em uma amostra da população brasileira, usando escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee e Batts (1981, escala racismo cordial do Datafolha (1995 e Venturi, G. (2003. Os questionários foram aplicados a um total de 101 estudantes de várias universidades da região sul do Brasil. Os resultados mostram que as duas escalas diferem entre si sobre como capturar as expressões de preconceito. As pessoas relataram mais racismo moderno que racismo cordial. Estudamos também as variáveis que influenciam o preconceito racial declarado pelos participantes. As variáveis gênero e orientação à dominância social são preditores do racismo moderno na amostra estudada. Os participantes indicaram, em maior medida, a manifestação do preconceito racial dissimulado e o fazem mais abertamente quando existe a possibilidade do contato pessoal e estreito.This study measured the manifestations of racial prejudice in a sample of
Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj
In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...
Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.
Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…
Sutantoputri, Novita W.; Watt, Helen M. G.
The study explores the possibilities of gender, ethnicity, and religion differences on attributions (locus of control, stability, personal and external control), motivational goals (learning, performance approach, performance avoidance, and work avoidance), self-efficacy, intelligence beliefs, religiosity, racial/ethnic identity, and academic…
Rule, Audrey C.; Atwood-Blaine, Dana; Edwards, Clayton M.; Gordon, Mindy M.
Creativity is essential for solving problems in the workplace, natural environment, and everyday life, necessitating that creativity be nurtured in schools. Identification of factors that intrinsically motivate students to learn difficult or initially unappealing content is also important. This project, in which 24 racially diverse fifth grade…
Full Text Available Recent legal changes in Spain have led to an important increase in the number of men court-mandated to community-based partner violence offender intervention programmes. However, just a few of those interventions have been systematically examined. This study aims to predict success indicators of an intervention programme for convicted intimate-partner violence offenders. The sample consisted of 212 convicted intimate-partner violence offenders who participated in the Contexto Programme. Three “intervention gains” or target criteria were established (increasing the perceived severity of violence, increasing the responsibility assumption for one’s actions, and reducing the risk of recidivism. A structural equations model was tested, fitting data appropriately. Participants with major gain in recidivism risk were those who presented lower levels of alcohol consumption, shorter sentences, lower impulsivity, and a higher degree of life satisfaction. The largest gain in perceived severity was found in younger participants, participants with shorter sentences, lower alcohol consumption, higher life satisfaction, higher participation in their community, and higher self-esteem. And, finally, participants with the highest gains in responsibility assumption were older participants, participants who presented higher intimate support, higher anxiety, higher sexism, lower anger control, higher depression, higher impulsivity and higher self-esteem.
Full Text Available This article examines the phenomenon of convict transportation between Mexico and the Philippines during the 17th century. Utilising sources located within the Archivo General de la Nación (México and the Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, I argue that was this convict transportation both helped the Spanish extend their power within the Pacific and functioned as a criminal justice measure in response to the emergence of an unruly and disobedient plebeian underclass in the cities and along the highways of New Spain.Este artículo examina el fenómeno del transporte de soldados forzados entre México y las Filipinas durante el siglo XVII. Utilizando fuentes del Archivo General de la Nación (México y del Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, sostengo que este tipo de transporte forzado ayudó a los españoles a ampliar su poder en el Pacífico. Así mismo, actuó como una medida de justicia penal en respuesta a la aparición de plebeyos rebeldes y desobedientes dentro las ciudades y en las carreteras de la Nueva España.
Guerrero-Molina, Mónica; Moreno-Manso, Juan Manuel; Guerrero-Barona, Eloísa; Cruz-Márquez, Beatriz
This work analyzes how the assumption of responsibility by aggressors convicted for gender-based violence is related to sexist attitudes, self-esteem and perceived functional social support. Similarly, the predictive capacity of these variables is studied with respect to the aggressors' minimization of the harm done and a lack of attributing responsibility to themselves. The participants in the research were males condemned to prison sentences for crimes related with gender-based violence in Spain. The instruments applied were the Attribution of Responsibility and Minimization of Harm Scale, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and the Social Desirability Scale (SDS). The study concludes that sexist attitudes are related with a greater lack of attribution of responsibility, as well as with a greater tendency to minimize the harm done by the aggression. In addition, the aggressors with low self-esteem use self-defense as a strategy to justify the violence. Similarly, the presence of an adequate social support network for the aggressor increases the attribution of responsibility on the part of those convicted for gender-based violence.
Based on interviews carried out with people from overseas working in Parisian hospitals and observations made of women from Central and North Africa working in care facilities for elderly or disabled people, this article discusses the issue of racial discrimination. We focus on the way discrimination develops, its manifestations in the care sector and the way in which it is handled. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...
Studies on college students' racial identities seldom focus on geographic context, despite existing research documenting its role in how racial groups construct and express racial identities. Drawing on theories of ecological systems and racial formation, I explored experiences of race and racial identity among 10 Asian American students who…
Finestone, Hillel M; Guo, Meiqi; O'Hara, Paddi; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Marshall, Shawn C; Hunt, Lynn; Jessup, Anita; Biggs, Jennifer
Research on stroke survivors' driving safety has typically used either self-reports or government records, but the extent to which the 2 may differ is not known. We compared government records and self-reports of motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions in a sample of stroke survivors. The 56 participants were originally recruited for a prospective study on driving and community re-integration post-stroke; the study population consisted of moderately impaired stroke survivors without severe communication disorders who had been referred for a driving assessment. The driving records of the 56 participants for the 5 years before study entry and the 1-year study period were acquired with written consent from the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO), Canada. Self-reports of collisions and convictions were acquired via a semistructured interview and then compared with the MTO records. Forty-three participants completed the study. For 7 (13.5%) the MTO records did not match the self-reports regarding collision involvement, and for 9 (17.3%) the MTO records did not match self-reports regarding driving convictions. The kappa coefficient for the correlation between MTO records and self-reports was 0.52 for collisions and 0.47 for convictions (both in the moderate range of agreement). When both sources of data were consulted, up to 56 percent more accidents and up to 46 percent more convictions were identified in the study population in the 5 years before study entry compared to when either source was used alone. In our population of stroke survivors, self-reports of motor vehicle collisions and driving convictions differed from government records. In future studies, the use of both government and self-reported data would ensure a more accurate picture of driving safety post-stroke.
Duffy, Grace F; Shupe, Emily Stave; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K
The study objectives were to characterize botanical dietary supplement (BDS) use and to compare the motivations for botanical supplement (BS) use to the efficacy of the botanical in a socioeconomically and racially diverse urban adult population. Subjects were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, a 20-year prospective health disparities study with African American and white adults from Baltimore, Maryland. All study participants completed two dietary recalls and a dietary supplement (DS) questionnaire in Wave 3 (n = 2140). Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and the Mean Adequacy Ratio for 17 micronutrients. A comparison of reported motivations to efficacy reported in the literature of single BS was conducted. Approximately 50% (1062/2140) of participants took DS. Of these, 8% (n = 178) reported taking either BS or BDS. It was found that BDS users had better diet quality than DS users as well as nonusers of DS. The top three motivations for BDS users were to improve overall health, to maintain health, and to supplement the diet. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of most BS. Review of the efficacy of the 15 BS reported by ≥5% of the study population revealed beneficial health roles for only fiber, gingko biloba extract EGb 761, and hawthorn berry. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report a better quality diet with BDS use for a racially diverse urban population. Yet, improvement in diet is needed because overall quality did not achieve current recommendations. To improve overall health, it may be beneficial for this population to focus on dietary modifications to reduce the risks associated with chronic diseases. In general, the reported motivations for BS use were not supported by clinical evidence.
Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S
Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.
This qualitative interview study examined experiences of racialization and coping among 14 adult international adoptees in Finland. The results show that adoptees encounter a range of racializations by which they are made ‘other’ and excluded from Finnishness. Racialization mostly occurs indirectly and subtly, and often by significant others, and consequently is more difficult to cope with. The findings suggest that the Finnish adoption community and adoption research should pa...
Green, Joshua Aaron
Since Barack Obama's presidential campaign of 2008, media outlets have changed how race is covered and framed during political campaigns. In the so-called "post-racial" era of American politics when race is supposed to matter less, we are still very much attuned to stories that are framed by racial conflict. When the media wraps a "racial mode of interpretation" around a conflict between two candidates, there are potential electoral penalties involved for either a white or black candidate who...
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....
Franco, Marisa G; O'Brien, Karen M
Racial identity invalidation, others' denial of an individual's racial identity, is a salient racial stressor with harmful effects on the mental health and well-being of Multiracial individuals. The purpose of this study was to create a psychometrically sound measure to assess racial identity invalidation for use with Multiracial individuals (N = 497). The present sample was mostly female (75%) with a mean age of 26.52 years (SD = 9.60). The most common racial backgrounds represented were Asian/White (33.4%) and Black/White (23.7%). Participants completed several online measures via Qualtrics. Exploratory factor analyses revealed 3 racial identity invalidation factors: behavior invalidation, phenotype invalidation, and identity incongruent discrimination. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the initial factor structure. Alternative model testing indicated that the bifactor model was superior to the 3-factor model. Thus, a total score and/or 3 subscale scores can be used when administering this instrument. Support was found for the reliability and validity of the total scale and subscales. In line with the minority stress theory, challenges with racial identity mediated relationships between racial identity invalidation and mental health and well-being outcomes. The findings highlight the different dimensions of racial identity invalidation and indicate their negative associations with connectedness and psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon
This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…
Johnson, Lamar L.
Through a series of racialized stories, I illustrate the familial knowledge, racial hauntings, and educational experiences that forge(d) the beginning and the continuing of my racial identity as a Black male. To examine these stories, I employ racial storytelling as a theoretical, methodological, curricular, and pedagogical tool to assist me in a…
Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P; Jennings, Wesley G
Two prominent criminological theories offer time discounting, or the preference for an immediate reward over a later one, as a central part of understanding involvement in criminal activity. Yet, there exist only a few studies investigating this issue, and they are limited in a few respects. The current study extends prior work in this area by using multiple measures of time discounting collected at three different periods of the life course to examine the link to criminal offending into late middle adulthood in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Results show that greater time discounting is positively related to a higher number of criminal convictions by late middle adulthood, and this effect remains after controlling for early life-course individual and environmental risk in a multivariate framework. Study limitations and implications are also discussed.
Full Text Available In 1996, a coordinated community response (CCR was formally established in a mid-sized Midwestern city to improve the criminal justice response to intimate partner violence (IPV. Data for this study included all IPV-related incidents to which the local police department responded since the establishment of the CCR for a fourteen year period. Effective CCRs provide for IPV offender accountability through citation and prosecution of IPV-related crimes. Concerns about demographic variables affecting citation and prosecution rates have been identified in the literature. Compared to national statistics, gender differences were consistent but higher citation and conviction rates were identified in this community. While differences related to race were found, they were small in size. Although lack of data available from the time prior to the implementation of the CCR model for comparison precludes a definitive conclusion about the effectiveness of the CCR, our findings suggest there is benefit to having one.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs. In this study, we estimate the burden of disease due to exposure to racial discrimination and measure the cost of this exposure. Methods Using prevalence surveys and data on the association of racial discrimination with health outcomes from a global meta-analysis, we apply a cost of illness method to measure the impact of racial discrimination. This estimate indicates the direct health cost attributable to racial discrimination and we convert the estimates to monetary values based on conventional parameters. Results Racial discrimination costs the Australian economy 235,452 in disability adjusted life years lost, equivalent to $37.9 billion per annum, roughly 3.02% of annual gross domestic product (GDP over 2001–11, indicating a sizeable loss for the economy. Conclusion Substantial cost is incurred due to increased prevalence of racial discrimination as a result of its association with negative health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety and PTSD. This implies that potentially significant cost savings can be made through measures that target racial discrimination. Our research contributes to the debate on the social impact of racial discrimination, with implications for policies and efforts addressing it.
Scholars have suggested that racism has not disappeared but has undergone a transformation into new subtle or symbolic forms. Since university life is a microcosm of United States society. racial prejudice can be found in most colleges and universities. The literature reveals three subtle forms of racism: modern racism, symbolic racism, and…
Marzana, Daniela; Vecina, María L; Alfieri, Sara
The phenomenon of abuse toward women is a prevalent social problem in most societies. In the present work, we take into consideration the abusive man's point of view with particular reference to the sphere of their morality and set as aims: (a) to show that high levels of self-deception are mediating between an extreme moral worldview, called moral absolutism, and a functional high moral self-concept, (b) to analyze the relation of the five moral foundations (Harm, Fairness, Ingroup, Authority, and Purity) with this moral absolutism, and (c) to test a comprehensive model of the relationships between the individuated variables in the preceding hypotheses. Participants are 264 men convicted of domestic violence offenses, who, having begun court-mandated psychological treatment lasting 12 weeks, have filled out a self-report questionnaire during the second meeting. The results reveal that (a) self-deception is as a full mediator between moral absolutism and moral self-concept in men convicted of domestic violence and in such a way that the more they felt right about their moral beliefs, the more they deceived themselves, and the more they felt good about themselves, (b) the moral foundations could be explaining moral absolutism understood as a rigid moral vision of the world, and (c) the tested model produces satisfying fit indices. Finally, we discuss the applied implications, for example, a key role can be played by the family and the school: Moral socialization begins within the family and there finds the first push that will accompany it the rest of life.
Lindner, James R.
Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)
Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland
Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.
White, S J; Generali, J A
Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.
Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha
Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301
... address of the reporting entity; and (xiv) The name, title and telephone number of the responsible official submitting the report on behalf of the reporting entity. (c) Entities described in paragraph (a... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting Federal or State criminal convictions...
Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo
A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...
Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...
The main objective of this diploma thesis is to outline various theories of work motivation, career growth and their practical application in sales team management within a sales organization. In the theoretical part the paper deals with the definition of essential terms including but not limited to motivation, work motivation, career and work career. Moreover, it focuses on selected motivational theories, basic criteria and current principles of managing the work career, career growth and de...
M.Com. (Business Management) Personnel motivation is one of management's most important tasks, but due to a lack of understanding of the nature of motivation, it is also frequently neglected resulting in losses to the organisation. The purpose of this document was to perform a motivation study on the supervisory staff of a railway maintenance depot. With the results of this study the cause of the low level of motivation was determined, followed by recommendations to management in order to ...
Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder
Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...
Daskalovska, Nina; Gudeva, Liljana Koleva; Ivanovska, Biljana
There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...
Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…
Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others
Includes "How Do I Turn Your Crank to Get You Going?" (Gartin); "How Do You Say 'I Don't Know' and Not Feel Guilty?" (Dickson); "Basics of Motivation" (Rankin); "Challenge to Lead Motivates Students" (D'Haem, Krueger); "Don't Just Tell Me, Teach Me!" (Custer, Leugers); "The 'I' in Motivation" (Woody); and "Student Self Discipline Scale" (Coffman).…
Olmstead, Joseph A.
There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…
Helmreich, Robert L.
Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.
Olsen, Jan Brødslev
ses som forskelle i deres personlighed og i deres motivation. Kapitlet er opbygget således, at ganske kort præciseres først de to begreber, personlighed og motivation, hvorefter udvalgte teoretiske perspektiver på personlighed og motivation tages op. Til sammen vil disse bidrage til at besvare...
Alkaabi, Sultan Ali R.; Alkaabi, Warda; Vyver, Glen
Motivation has been studied by different scientists in different fields of knowledge such as biology, psychology, and education for a long period, which has cultivated a wealth of knowledge in these disciplines. The richness in motivation theories poses complexity in motivation research. Due to these complexities, many researchers focus on using a…
King, LaGarrett Jarriel
Scholars have long promoted black history as an appropriate space to promote the development of racial literacy. Few research studies, however, have examined how teacher education uses black history as a heuristic to teach about race. Using racial literacy as a framework, this article examined the varied ways four social studies pre-service…
Williams, David R.
Large, pervasive, and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, courses, and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. There is an urgent need to build the science base that would identify…
Lee, Stacey J.; Park, Eujin; Wong, Jia-Hui Stefanie
Racial categories, inequalities, and hierarchies have shaped life in the United States since the formation of the country. For children and youth in the immigrant and second generations, schools are central sites of racialization. In this article, we focus on what the educational research suggests about the role of schooling in the racialization…
Davis, Jessica L.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.
Examines the nature of racial group identity in an effort to determine its role in the formation of African-American media evaluations. Views racial identity as one of many forms of individual identity that help to shape our relations with others. Focuses on areas of domestic violence and the image of Black men. (MMU)
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.
This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…
Toutkoushian, Robert K.
Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…
Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Knight, Sarah; Radimer, Scott; Lewis, Jonathan; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.
In the 21st century, mobile, low-friction, and easy to use social media have changed the landscape of college campuses. Social media have opened the doors for racial hostility to be displayed on campus in new ways and have been widely used to express racial aggressions toward students of color. Anonymity allows these behaviors to be freely enacted…
Helms, Janet E.; Piper, Ralph E.
Although racial identity theory has the potential to explain some aspects of career development, its value would be increased by conceptualizing race as a dependent variable in research and theory. Examples involving career salience, satisfaction, and satisfactoriness demonstrate the limitations of racial comparison studies. (SK)
Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia
Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception.
Harris, Jessica C.
Researchers have explored how multiracial women students encounter different racialized experiences when compared to their monoracial peers and multiracial men on campus, suggesting that their experiences with racial stereotypes may also diverge from both of these populations. Guided by critical race theory, in this study I explored 10 multiracial…
Based on a 3-year ethnographic project at a public elementary school in North Carolina, this article discusses how the concept of racial realism can be useful to researchers trying to live up to the goals of critical race studies in school-based research. Racial realism maintains that racism is a permanent aspect of U.S. society and schools. A…
Ong, Anthony D.; Burrow, Anthony L.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Ja, Nicole M.; Sue, Derald Wing
Although epidemiological studies and community surveys of Asian Americans have found that lifetime occurrences of racial discrimination are associated with increased risk for psychological morbidity, little is known about how exposure to racial discrimination is patterned in everyday life. Extrapolating from previous qualitative research (Sue,…
Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol
Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and
Mary E. Northridge
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Methods Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR, this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents, executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. Results While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24 and numbers of participants (n = 194. Conclusions This study adds to the
Proctor, E K; Davis, L E
Just as racial injustice negatively affects the plight of minorities in society, racial tensions impede professional helping. Often, the racially dissimilar social worker and client approach each other with little understanding of each other's social realities and with unfounded assumptions. Unfortunately, professionals find it difficult to acknowledge such differences or their effect on their relationships. Yet the fruitfulness of the helping encounter often depends on the ability to develop and invest in a trusting relationship. This article identifies the societal roots of the stresses associated with cross-racial relationships. Three concerns commonly experienced by clients whose workers are racially different are identified: (1) Is the helper a person of goodwill? (2) Is the helper trained and skilled? (3) Is the help offered valid and meaningful for me and my social reality? Case vignettes are used to illustrate how each concern is typically mishandled. The importance of successfully managing each concern is stressed, and skills for successful management are illustrated.
Full Text Available Does media exposure to salient criminological events exacerbate racialized perceptions of injustice? We examine whether closely following media coverage of the fatal encounter of George Zimmerman’s shooting of Trayvon Martin moderates racial and ethnic differences in opinion surrounding the event and the U.S. criminal justice system. Our analysis addresses several key aspects of the case: Whether Zimmerman would have been arrested sooner if Martin had been white, whether respondents felt Zimmerman’s acquittal was justified, and whether there is racial bias against African Americans in the criminal justice system. Relying on national opinion surveys before and after Zimmerman’s trial verdict, our findings support the racial gradient thesis by demonstrating that sustained exposure to racialized framing of the incident in the media affects Hispanics the most and hardens entrenched attitudes among African Americans relative to whites. The analysis supports the continuing relevance of the mass media in attitude formation.
McDonald, Angelic P
The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.
Fileve T. Palmer
Full Text Available Despite a commitment to non-racialism in the South African Constitution and anthropology’s steadfast position that race is a social construction, race is still a highly valued ideology with real-life implications for citizens. In South Africa, racialism particularly affects heterogeneous, multigenerational, multiethnic creole people known as “Coloureds.” The larger category of Coloured is often essentialized based on its intermediary status between Black and White and its relationship to South Africa’s “mother city” (Cape Town, where the majority of Coloured people live. Through research on Coloured identity in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, I show how the nuances of personal and collective histories, spatial constraints, and education affect the identities of youth and elders differently from their Cape counterparts. By incorporating a photo-voice methodology, which I called Photo Ethnography Project (PEP, participants produced their own visual materials and challenged essentialized versions of themselves (specifically and South Africa (in general. Through three public displays of photography and narratives, youth in three communities answered the question of what it means to be Coloured in today’s rainbow nation.
Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano
The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.
Full Text Available A review of several studies of teachers’ career motivation since Bulgarian Renaissance till nowadays is presented in this paper. 203 Bulgarian teachers in public schools were studied by means of a questionnaire created by Slavchov & Stoyanova (2007 measuring career motivational types, according to Moses’ typology (2003. The career motivational type of Authenticity seekers was the most preferred by the studied Bulgarian teachers, followed by Personal developers and Stability seekers. Career builders as a career motivational type was minor career motivator, the least preferred one by Bulgarian teachers. A lot of significant positive correlations existed between teachers’ career motivational types. Some social-demographic factors (such as gender, specialty, work experience, and age differentiated teachers’ career motivators. The type of Autonomy seekers was more preferred career motivator by male teachers than by female teachers in correspondence to the traditional stereotypes for men. Longer teachers’ work experience and teachers’ advance in age were related to more frequency of Stability seekers, but less frequency of Novelty seekers career motivator. Preschool and elementary school teachers preferred more strongly Authenticity seekers as a career motivator than teachers in natural sciences and mathematics. Establishing major career motivators for teachers may be related to opportunities for improvement of performance and work satisfaction.
Using original telephone survey data collected from adult residents of Toronto (n = 685) and Vancouver (n = 814) in 2009, I investigate associations between mental and physical health and variously conceived racial identities. An 'expressed racial identity' is a self-identification with a racial grouping that a person will readily express to others when asked to fit into official racial classifications presented by Census forms, survey researchers, insurance forms, and the like. Distinguishing between Asian, Black, South Asian, and White expressed racial identities, I find that survey respondents expressing Black identity are the most likely to report high blood pressure or hypertension, a risk that is slightly attenuated by socioeconomic status, and that respondents expressing Asian identity are the most likely to report poorer self-rated mental health and self-rated overall health, risks that are not explained by socioeconomic status. I also find that darker-skinned Black respondents are more likely than lighter-skinned Black respondents to report poor health outcomes, indicating that colourism, processes of discrimination which privilege lighter-skinned people of colour over their darker-skinned counterparts, exists and has implications for well-being in Canada as it does in the United States. Finally, 'reflected racial identity' refers to the racial identity that a person believes that others tend to perceive him or her to be. I find that expressed and reflected racial identities differ from one another for large proportions of self-expressed Black and South Asian respondents and relatively few self-expressed White and Asian respondents. I also find that mismatched racial identities correspond with relatively high risks of various poor health outcomes, especially for respondents who consider themselves White but believe that others tend to think they are something else. I conclude by presenting a framework for conceptualizing multifaceted suites of racial
Eitam, Baruch; Kennedy, Patrick M; Tory Higgins, E
Human motivation is sensitive to value-to the outcomes of actions. People invest mental and physical resources for obtaining desired results or for stopping and reversing undesired ones. Accordingly, people's motivation is sensitive to information about their standing in relation to outcome attainment ('outcome feedback'). In this paper, we argue and present the first evidence for the existence of another motivational sensitivity in humans-a sensitivity to our degree of control on the environment and hence to information about that control ('control feedback'). We show that when actions have even trivial and constant perceptual effects, participants' motivation to perform is enhanced. We then show that increased motivation is not because more information about task performance is available and that motivation is increased only in conditions in which control over the effects can be firmly established by the mind. We speculate on the implications for understanding motivation, and potentially, physical and mental health.
Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.
Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete
Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...
Smith, William A.; Hung, Man; Franklin, Jeremy D.
Black men's lives are racialized contradictions, They are told that contemporary educational and professional institutions--particularly historically White institutions (HWls)--are places where, through hard work, they can achieve the so-called American dream. However, for far too many Black men, HWIs represent racial climates that are replete…
Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra
A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…
Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney
The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
Motivated employees are crucial to all organizations, but some management initiatives may actually decrease motivation. Motivation crowding theory thus expects that command and incentives – if they are perceived as controlling - crowd out intrinsic motivation. The perception is thus expected...
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.
Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja
The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Barth, Joan M; McDonald, Kristina L; Lochman, John E; Boxmeyer, Carolyn; Powell, Nicole; Dillon, Casey; Sallee, Meghann
The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects that a child's race and the racial composition of a classroom have on a variety of sociometric measures. Sociometric nominations were collected from 872 fifth-grade students (48% male, 48% Black) who were in classrooms that ranged from nearly all Black to nearly all White students. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses indicated that the race of the child, the race of the rater, and the classroom race composition each impacted sociometric nominations. Results suggest that schools that are more balanced in the distribution of Black and White students might promote more positive interracial peer relationships. However, opportunities to be highly liked and to be perceived as a leader might be greatest in a school in which the child is in the clear racial majority. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Rauscher, Lauren; Wilson, Bianca D M
This article explores the complex relationships between race and occupational stressors among an ethnically diverse sample of high school teachers and their implications for women's mental health. Interviews with Black, White, and Mexican American teachers suggest that workplaces are organized by subtle forms of gender and racial discrimination as well as White racial privilege; this context shapes women's experiences of occupational stressors. The data indicate that teachers experience racially specific stressors at work and make racially specific appraisals about common stressors among all teachers. Black and Mexican American women report chronic strains, such as differential workloads, perceptions of incompetence, and lack of support from administrators, whereas White teachers report, yet minimize, sexual harassment from male colleagues. Student misbehavior, a stressor shared by all teachers, is experienced and understood as a personal failing by White teachers and as a manifestation of systemic racism by teachers of color. The interviews offer important insights into the ways professional workplaces remain an arena marked by racial inequality and White privilege and that racialized stressors are differentially distributed among women. Findings support claims from intersectionality in that race, racism, and racial privilege operate in multiplicative ways that create different constellations of occupational stressors among women, which in turn have implications for wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia
Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.
Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…
Nadal, Kevin L.; Wong, Yinglee; Griffin, Katie E.; Davidoff, Kristin; Sriken, Julie
Racial microaggressions are subtle (often unintentional or unconscious) forms of racial discrimination that negatively affect victims' mental health. Utilizing an undergraduate student sample (N = 225), the current study examined the relationship between racial microaggressions and self-esteem. Results indicate that racial microaggressions…
Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.
Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…
Leslie, Leigh A.; Smith, Jocelyn R.; Hrapczynski, Katie M.; Riley, Debbie
Racial socialization protects minority adolescents from stress associated with racial discrimination. The process of racial socialization, however, may be challenging in transracial adoptive families. White parents may struggle with preparing their children for discrimination and fostering the development of racial pride. Thus, transracially…
Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine
The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students’ lives; expectancy of success and feelings of being in control and satisfaction in the outcome for motivation are described. The skills that ESP learners need to develop are specified. The description of approaches to motivational psychology is proposed, as motivation is of great significance in foreign language learning.
Singh, Savita; Plaga, Alexis; Shukla, Girish C
Population specific studies in prostate cancer (PCa) reveal a unique heterogeneous etiology. Various factors, such as genetics, environment and dietary regimen seems to determine disease progression, therapeutic resistance and rate of mortality. Enormous disparity documented in disease incidences, aggressiveness and mortality in PCa among AAs (African Americans) and CAs (Caucasian Americans) is attributed to the variations in genetics, epigenetics and their association with metabolism. Scientific and clinical evidences have revealed the influence of variations in Androgen Receptor (AR), RNAse L, macrophage scavenger receptor 1 ( MRS1 ), androgen metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4, differential regulation of microRNAs, epigenetic alterations and diet in racial disparity in PCa incidences and mortality. Concerted efforts are needed to identify race specific prognostic markers and treatment regimen for a better management of the disease.
The present research was an observational study of casual interracial and intraracial public-group interactions among African American, Asian American, Latino, and White students at 6 southern California State University campuses. Results indicated (a) that at these racially diverse public-university campuses, there was no difference between the percentages of interracial and intraracial groups; (b) specifically, that at the campus with the second largest percentage of non-White students, there were more interracial than intraracial interactions; and (c) that for each of the 4 ethnic groups, at the campuses with the largest percentages of the specific group, interactions were more likely to be intraracial than they were at campuses that had smaller percentages of the specific group. Despite reports of self-segregation, these findings suggest that when Whites are not the majority of students, interracial interactions are common.
Sean F. Reardon
Full Text Available Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since James Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine sixteen distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find clear evidence that one aspect of segregation in particular—the disparity in average school poverty rates between white and black students’ schools—is consistently the single most powerful correlate of achievement gaps, a pattern that holds in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. This implies that high-poverty schools are, on average, much less effective than lower-poverty schools and suggests that strategies that reduce the differential exposure of black, Hispanic, and white students to poor schoolmates may lead to meaningful reductions in academic achievement gaps.
The aim of this bachelor work is analysis of remuneration and motivation in travel agencies and companies, where is established performance pay system for self-employed. Work consists of literature review and practical part. Literature review contains information about motivation and remuneration. Practical part includes information about analyzed companies, analysis remuneration and motivation, evaluation analyzed companies and conceiving performance pay system, in which are participants sel...
This project is dedicated to study of motivation in experiential courses. More exactly it tries to describe motivation means suitable for teenage trainees to make them cooperate willingly and actively on course asset. And not just that. It also describes factors which have influence on quality and quantity of aplicated effort, manners how to enforce trainees to carry on working when some problem appears and also how the motivation is affected by the instructor's and peers' admittance. The pro...
The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...
Miguel, Caio F.
Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of motivating operation (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of drive. Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on how to study motivation by shifting its origins from the organism to the environment. Michael's account also served to stimulate applied research and to better understand behavioral functio...
concept of motivation at all. Nuttin (1973) placed -5- Landy: ONR Annual Report certain hedonistic overtones on White’s principle of effectance motivation...deficiencies of motivation theories become particularly apparent in dealing with the issue of boredom . Tn terms of objective reality, it would seem...with expcsure to a c nstant stimulus set, we might justifiably conclude that there is a regular sequence which characterizes the appearance of boredom
Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul
We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....
Financial incentives that match level of achievement • Regular, constructive feedback. Hierarchy of Needs ( Abraham H. Maslow ) Team members can be...Much has been written regarding motivational Defense AT&L: November-December 2009 58 theory . To further complicate mat- ters, some motivational... theories clearly contradict others, and a manager’s ability to motivate is, to no small degree, related to his or her leadership approach and inter
Billinger, Michael S
Human racial classification has long been a problem for the discipline of anthropology, but much of the criticism of the race concept has focused on its social and political connotations. The central argument of this paper is that race is not a specifically human problem, but one that exists in evolutionary thought in general. This paper looks at various disciplinary approaches to racial or subspecies classification, extending its focus beyond the anthropological race concept by providing a comparative analysis of the use of racial classification in evolutionary biology, genetics, and anthropology.
1 | P a g e Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0802 TITLE: " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alfred I...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0802 " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC094372 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...developed the tools/methods for working with SEER-Medicare. We plan to use analytic approaches and methods to explore racial disparities in the use of
Full Text Available L’objectif de l’article est d’évaluer l’effectivité des lois visant à lutter contre les discriminations raciales à partir du point de vue du sujet et dans une perspective de genre. L’hypothèse principale est que les femmes et les hommes utilisent le droit de manière différente lorsqu’ils sont confrontés à une discrimination raciale, parce qu’ils développent différentes représentations du droit et ont des expériences différenciées de la discrimination. L’usage ou le non-usage du droit dépend également de l’identité personnelle et sociale que la personne entend se construire. Pour le démontrer, nous nous appuierons sur des méthodes quantitatives (analyse de la jurisprudence et de dossiers de plainte et qualitatives (entretiens avec des juristes et des plaignants. Les différences par genre seront analysées à trois niveaux : celui de l’expérience différenciée de la discrimination raciale, celui de l’utilisation des ressources, celui enfin, des motivations du recours au droit.
Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A
Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. This analysis examined chronic (day-to-day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and non-racial (eg, age, gender or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health study. Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.85) and chronic non-racial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and non-racial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Racial and non-racial discrimination may be related to South African adults' smoking behaviour, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalisability and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available The purpose of the appliance of non-custodial penalties, completed by the necessity of respecting the measures of surveillance and/or certain obligations imposed by the court, is to ensure the re-socialization and reintegration into the community to which they belong. In this context, at the European Union’s level it was adopted 2008/947/JHA Framework Decision of the Council on 27 November 2008 regarding the appliance of mutual recognition principle in the case of judgments and probation decisions for supervising the probation measures and alternative sanctions. The most important criterion under which judicial decision can be transmitted to another Member State is referring to the convicted person residency, considering that adopting such a measure the chances of social reintegration of the sentenced person will increase, allowing them to preserve the family, linguistic, cultural links. The probation service has a critical role for community supervision of the measures and obligations imposed by the Romanian court to the sentenced person. This institution has a number of specific tasks even when the Romanian court sends the legal judgment accompanied by the certificate in another Member State, seeking its recognition and enforcement. These responsibilities relate in particular to the cooperation activity that needs to be carried out with similarauthority of the executing Member State, since it can always intervene the possibility of restoring the competence of executing the decision of the Romanian court. The critical observations relate to the legislative act both European and our internal law.
Boots, Denise Paquette; Heide, Kathleen M; Cochran, John K
The U.S. Supreme Court recently re-examined the constitutionality of the death penalty in the context of two of three special offender populations of murderers (juveniles, mentally retarded, and mentally incompetent). The Court reaffirmed the imposition of the death penalty for juveniles 16 and 17, while reversing itself on the mentally retarded. In reaching its decision, the Court relied on society's "evolving standards of decency." Using Likert-type items, this study is the first to have prospective jurors assess support for the death penalty for these specific offender groups. The public's support for the execution of each of the groups is then compared with existing case law. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that, as expected, the levels of support for the applicability of capital punishment to the various special offender populations are much lower than that for the general adult offender. Moreover, these findings are congruent with the holdings of the Court with one notable exception: a slight majority of respondents supported executing the mentally incompetent. Reasons for the public's apparent departure from the Supreme Court holding prohibiting the execution of mentally incompetent convicted murderers are discussed. The Court's continued role in protecting marginalized populations from "cruel and unusual punishment" is explored in the context of strong public sentiment demanding justice and finality despite changes in offenders' mental capacity. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory
Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Arafat, Hassan A.; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel
Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe
Handayani, Fadlilah Satya
Khaled Hosseini's novel entitled The Kite Runner is an American bestseller novel that represents racial conflict between the Pashtuns and Hazaras, two different races and ethnics in Afghanistan. The aims of this study are to find out the causes of racial discrimination, to analyze examples of racial discrimination, and to analyze the impacts of racial discrimination as depicted in The Kite Runner. Sociological approach and theories on racism and racial discrimination are used in this study. T...
This article proposes a further conceptualization of ethnic and racial identity (ERI) as a fundamental topic in developmental research. Adding to important recent efforts to conceptually integrate and synthesize this field, it is argued that ERI research will be enhanced by more fully considering the implications of the social identity approach. These implications include (a) the conceptualization of social identity, (b) the importance of identity motives, (c) systematic ways for theorizing and examining the critical role of situational and societal contexts, and (d) a dynamic model of the relation between ERI and context. These implications have not been fully considered in the developmental literature but offer important possibilities for moving the field forward in new directions. © 2016 The Author. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Snyder, Cyndy R; Frogner, Bianca K; Skillman, Susan M
Racial and ethnic diversity in the health workforce can facilitate access to healthcare for underserved populations and meet the health needs of an increasingly diverse population. In this study, we explored 1) changes in the racial and ethnic diversity of the health workforce in the United States over the last decade, and 2) evidence on the effectiveness of programs designed to promote racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S. health workforce. Findings suggest that although the health workforce overall is becoming more diverse, people of color are most often represented among the entry-level, lower-skilled health occupations. Promising practices to help facilitate diversity in the health professions were identified in the literature, namely comprehensive programs that integrated multiple interventions and strategies. While some efforts have been found to be promising in increasing the interest, application, and enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities into health profession schools, there is still a missing link in understanding persistence, graduation, and careers.
Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A; Salvatore, Jessica; Trawalter, Sophie
Previous research has suggested that Blacks like White interaction partners who make an effort to appear unbiased more than those who do not. We tested the hypothesis that, ironically, Blacks perceive White interaction partners who are more racially biased more positively than less biased White partners, primarily because the former group must make more of an effort to control racial bias than the latter. White participants in this study completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of racial bias and then discussed race relations with either a White or a Black partner. Whites' IAT scores predicted how positively they were perceived by Black (but not White) interaction partners, and this relationship was mediated by Blacks' perceptions of how engaged the White participants were during the interaction. We discuss implications of the finding that Blacks may, ironically, prefer to interact with highly racially biased Whites, at least in short interactions.
Full Text Available The study is about a close look at Conrad's trans-racial romance related to the Victorian period. Trans-racial love between white men and non-white women becomes a popular theme in the early works of Josep Conrad, a famous writer of the late Victorian period. Using a closely technical reading in the three of Conrad's works Lord Jim, Almayer's Folly, and An Outcast of the Island, we can show that such a trans-racial romance is not merely meant for appreciating equivalence. In turn, the trans-racial romance of Conrad's can be understood as the reflection of the Western colonization on the East where the white men take a role as subjects who had dominately explored while the non-white women as objects who are passively being explored. Key words: colonization, race, romance plot, subject, object, and dominance
Liss, Moe; Robinson, James C.
Describes the Human Relations Peer Group Leadership Training Program that has eliminated racial conflict in Carteret High School. The initial step was a four-day intensive training program that took place in a closed setting. (Author/IRT)
Norton, Michael I; Mason, Malia F; Vandello, Joseph A; Biga, Andrew; Dyer, Rebecca
We explore the existence and underlying neural mechanism of a new norm endorsed by both black and white Americans for managing interracial interactions: "racial paralysis', the tendency to opt out of decisions involving members of different races. We show that people are more willing to make choices--such as who is more intelligent, or who is more polite-between two white individuals (same-race decisions) than between a white and a black individual (cross-race decisions), a tendency which was evident more when judgments involved traits related to black stereotypes. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, revealing greater recruitment of brain regions implicated in socially appropriate behavior (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), conflict detection (anterior cingulate cortex), deliberative processing (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and inhibition (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). We also discuss the impact of racial paralysis on the quality of interracial relations.
Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.
This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…
Hauptman, Allyson L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…
Helgeson, Vicki S.; Mickelson, Kristin D.
Hendriks, P.H.J.; Alves de Sousa, C.A.
This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said
The story of biology is far more complex and fascinating than straightforward facts or neatly labeled diagrams of structures and systems. Although exams can motivate students, the key to using these extrinsic motivators to increase student understanding lies in the way the assessments are designed and what they measure. Those involved in…
Waters, T. R.
Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)
Boekaerts, Monique, Ed.
Nine papers on the interrelationship between emotion, motivation, and learning are presented. Articles focusing on motivation were presented at the Second Conference of the European Association of Learning and Instruction in Tubingin, West Germany. Three other papers focus on anxiety, optimism-pessimism, stress, coping, and social support. (TJH)
Gray, N. D.
Guide has been published which deals with various aspects of employee motivation. Training methods are designed to improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, to create feeling of achievement and recognition for every employee, and to retain personnel confidence in spite of some negative motivators. End result of training is reduction or prevention of errors.
Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M. B.
Background: Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well...
Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis
Hutters, Camilla; Katznelson, Noemi
Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring.......Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring....
Peters, O.; Almekinders, Johan; van Buren, Ruud; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline
This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience
Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.
To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…
Presents an approach that teachers can use to promote and investigate students' motivation to learn in the classroom. Notes that the strategies used are from Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking courses. Explains the following motivational devices: dual-entry diary; clusters; know/want to know/learned; think/pair/share; discussion web;…
Marlon B. Ross
Full Text Available When Ernest Gaines chooses a woman as the individual subject for collective memorialization and the ideal medium of racial memory in his 1971 novel, The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, he participates in a significant but overlooked genre of black masculine discourse, the composition of black authorship as historical/national authority through the voice and viewpoint of a female protagonist. This cross-gendering of the racial imaginary, introjecting a male vision of racial collectivity and history through a female’s frame of reference, though not exactly a form of cross-dressing, can be usefully analyzed as such. Erecting a feminine monument to emblematize and materialize highly abstract notions like nationhood, justice, peace, warfare, virtue, democracy, pro/creativity, and truth has a long history in many cultures across the globe. It is a long-standing practice within many patriarchal cultures, in other words, to project highly abstract masculine visions of established power onto a female form, draped in feminine attire. Whether this occurs metaphorically, as in the case of gendering the nation-state as feminine (Britannia for the United Kingdom, Columbia for the United States, St. Joan for France, etc., or through more literal iconography, such as the Statue of Liberty, the feminine form serves to purify, emblematize, and collectivize—and thus to transcendentalize—concepts of rightful dis/empowerment that are otherwise fraught with cultural-historical strife. The static nature of such imagery distances us from the contentiousness of the act of cross-gendering that occurs ideologically in the enunciation or re-erection of patriarchal power through an objectified, if celebrated, feminine icon.We can find evidence of this conventionally patriarchal kind of feminine iconography in black cultural practice. For instance, in black nationalist discourse of the 1960s and ’70s (whether in the Black Power movement in the United States or
This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...
Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander
It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...
Dominguez, Tyan Parker
While the biologic authenticity of race remains a contentious issue, the social significance of race is indisputable. The chronic stress of racism and the social inequality it engenders may be underlying social determinants of persistent racial disparities in health, including infant mortality, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. This article describes the problem of racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes; outlines the multidimensional nature of racism and the pathways by which it may adversely affect health; and discusses the implications for clinical practice.
KIRK, DAVID S.
This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with a focus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disad...
Lavner, Justin A; Barton, Allen W; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H
Racial discrimination is a common stressor for African Americans, with negative consequences for mental and physical well-being. It is likely that these effects extend into the family, but little research has examined the association between racial discrimination and couple functioning. This study used dyadic data from 344 rural, predominantly low-income heterosexual African American couples with an early adolescent child to examine associations between self-reported racial discrimination, psychological and physical aggression, and relationship satisfaction and instability. Experiences of discrimination were common among men and women and were negatively associated with relationship functioning. Specifically, men reported higher levels of psychological aggression and relationship instability if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination, and women reported higher levels of physical aggression if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination. All results replicated when controlling for financial hardship, indicating unique effects for discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination may be negatively associated with relationship functioning among African Americans and call for further research on the processes underlying these associations and their long-term consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670
Northridge, Mary E; Schenkel, Andrew B; Birenz, Shirley; Estrada, Ivette; Metcalf, Sara S; Wolff, Mark S
To help eliminate reported racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequities in oral health care, listening to the perspectives of racial/ethnic minority older adults on their experiences with dental school clinics is needed. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican older adults who attend senior centers in upper Manhattan, New York City, regarding the care received at dental school clinics. Focus groups were conducted from 2013 to 2015 with 194 racial/ethnic minority men and women aged 50 years and older living in upper Manhattan. All of the 24 focus group sessions were digitally audiorecorded and transcribed for analysis. Groups conducted in Spanish were transcribed first in Spanish and then translated into English. Analysis of the transcripts was conducted using thematic content analysis. Seven subthemes were manifest in the data related to these adults' positive experiences with dental school clinics: excellent outcomes and dentists, painless and safe treatment, affordable care, honest and reputable, benefits of student training, accepting and helpful, and recommended by family and friends. Negative experiences centered around four subthemes: multiple visits required for treatment, loss of interpersonal communication due to use of technology, inconvenient location, and perceived stigma with Medicaid. This study provided novel evidence of the largely positive experiences with dental schools of racial/ethnic minority senior center attendees. Interventions targeted at the organization and provider level, including organizational motivation, resources, staff attributes, climate, and teamwork plus payment programs and services, insurance and affordability, and provider- and system-level supports, may improve health care processes and patient experiences of care.
Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena
This study investigated roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 non-adopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than non-adopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. Moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas, ethnic socialization buffered this link for non-adopted Korean American adolescents. Findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. PMID:26479418
Cristian Fabiano Guimarães
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo conhecer as mulheres de um grupo de apenados e identificar as discriminações que elas sofrem, incluindo as de gênero. Buscamos identificar os possíveis estigmas relacionados à situação de aprisionamento e as estratégias de resistência utilizadas por estas mulheres no cotidiano. A metodologia da pesquisa é qualitativa e as informações foram obtidas por meio de observação participante e de grupos focais com mulheres de presos albergados em um presídio de uma cidade da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre-RS, em regime semi-aberto. As mulheres dos apenados se submetem a situações de controle, baseadas nos sistemas de dominação de classe e de gênero. O estigma em relação a este grupo social apareceu nas entrelinhas dos depoimentos, porém as mulheres resistem ativamente às violências, apoiando-se em redes de parentesco e de vizinhança. A precariedade de redes de apoio social e a falta de informação e acesso ao mercado de trabalho contribuem para a marginalização do apenado e de sua família, deixando clara a importância de estudos que busquem a inclusão deste grupo social.The objective of this research was to know the wives of a group of convicted men, serving their time partially at home, and to identify the discriminations they had to go through, including those of gender. We searched to identify the possible labeling for having a convicted relative and the strategies of resistance that these women use in everyday life. The research method is qualitative and information was obtained by means of participation-observation and focal groups with the wives of convicts in a prison facility in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, RS, in a semi-open regime. The wives of convicts submit themselves to situations of control, based on the systems of class and gender domination. From our analysis, the labeling in relation to this social group was found in-between the lines, in other words
Santos, Glenn-Milo; Makofane, Keletso; Arreola, Sonya; Do, Tri; Ayala, George
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Criminalisation of homosexuality may impede access to HIV services. We evaluated the effect of the enforcement of laws criminalising homosexuality on access to services. Using data from a 2012 global online survey that was published in a prior paper, we conducted a secondary analysis evaluating differences in perceived accessibility to health services (ie, 'how accessible are ____' services) between MSM who responded 'yes'/'no' to: 'have you ever been arrested or convicted for being gay/MSM?' Of the 4020 participants who completed the study and were included in the analysis, 8% reported ever being arrested or convicted under laws relevant to being MSM. Arrests and convictions were most common in sub-Saharan Africa (23.6% (58/246)), Eastern Europe/Central Asia (18.1% (123/680)), the Caribbean (15% (15/100)), Middle East/North Africa (13.2% (10/76)) and Latin America (9.7% (58/599)). Those arrested or convicted had significantly lower access to sexually transmitted infection treatment (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.81; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.97), condoms (aOR=0.77; 95% CI 0.61 to 0.99) and medical care (aOR=0.70; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.90), compared with other MSM, while accounting for clustering by country and adjusting for age, HIV status, education and country-level income. Arrests and convictions under laws relevant to being MSM have a strong negative association with access to HIV prevention and care services. Creating an enabling legal and policy environment, and increasing efforts to mitigate antihomosexuality stigma to ensure equitable access to HIV services are needed, along with decriminalisation of homosexuality, to effectively address the public health needs of this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Fischer, Hans Ernst; Horstendahl, Michaela
Being involved in science education we cannot avoid confronting the problem of students' waning interest in physics. Therefore, we want to focus on arguments developed by new theoretical work in the field of motivation. Especially, we are attracted by the theory of motivation featured by Deci and Ryan, because it is related to an assumptions of human development similar to our own approach. Beneath elements of cognitive development, motivation is seen as a basic concept to describe students' learning in a physics classroom. German students at lower and upper secondary level regard physics as very difficult to learn, very abstract and dominated by male students. As a result physics at school continuously loses importance and acceptance although a lot of work has been done to modernise and develop the related physics courses. We assume that knowing about the influence of motivation on learning physics may lead to new insights in the design of classroom settings. Referring to Deci and Ryan, we use a model of motivation to describe the influence of two different teaching strategies (teacher and discourse oriented) on learning. Electrostatics was taught in year 8. The outcomes of a questionnaire which is able to evaluate defined, motivational states are compared with the interpretation of the same student's interaction in the related situation of the physics classroom. The scales of the questionnaire and the categories of analysis of the video-recording are derived from the same model of motivation.
Mattison, Erica; Aber, Mark S
This study investigated the relationship between school racial climate and students' self-reports of academic and discipline outcomes, including whether racial climate mediated and/or moderated the relationship between race and outcomes. Using the Racial Climate Survey-High School Version (M. Aber et al., unpublished), data were gathered from African American (n = 382) and European American students (n = 1456) regarding their perceptions of racial climate. About 18% of the respondents were low-income and approximately 50% were male. Positive perceptions of the racial climate were associated with higher student achievement and fewer discipline problems. Further, race moderated the relationship between racial climate and both achievement and discipline outcomes. Finally, racial differences in students' grades and discipline outcomes were associated with differences in perceptions of racial climate. Results suggest careful attention should be given to the racial climate of secondary schools, particularly for adolescents who perceive schools as unfair.
Tiago Fernandes Maranhao
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.
Rugh, Jacob S; Massey, Douglas S
Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble.
Rugh, Jacob S.; Massey, Douglas S.
Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973
Stella Maris Vásquez
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relationship between motivation and volitional processes as described by current motivation theories. The root of the separation between both moments of behavioris traced back to Tetens and Kant’s threefold view of the mind. Sensory perception is reduced to feeling and the will to energy without a proper object. The history of this conception isoutlined. Nuttin’s motivation theory is presented as an alternative to the limitations of other contemporary theories. Some educational consequences are sketched out.
Gevarter, William B.
A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.
Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Angst, Lukas
In this article we study the determinants of decision rights transfer and its effects on the motivation of an agent. The study is based on a laboratory experiment conducted on 130 subjects playing an innovative principal-agent game. Interestingly, the results show that agents do not favour...... a delegation and a decision is considered rather burdensome. Although the experiment could not give support for the behavioural hypothesis of higher effort provided by participants who receive choice subsequently, the survey illuminates the interaction between delegation motives, effort motivators, goals...
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher
Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...
Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Emotion, Motivation und Volition / D. Ulich ; V. Brandstätter ; P. M. Gollwitzer. - In: Psychologie / hrsg. von Dietrich Dörner ... - 2., überarb. und erw. Aufl. - Stuttgart u.a. : Kohlhammer, 1996. - S. 115-135
Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.
To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.
Shearer, Dana Ann
According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.
Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of participants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and participants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.
Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions...... for lossless compression. The structural complexity resulting from successive repetitions of patterns can be controlled through a simple modelling of cycles. Generally, motivic patterns cannot always be defined solely as sequences of descriptions in a fixed set of dimensions: throughout the descriptions...... of the successive notes and intervals, various sets of musical parameters may be invoked. In this chapter, a method is presented that allows for these heterogeneous patterns to be discovered. Motivic repetition with local ornamentation is detected by reconstructing, on top of “surface-level” monodic voices, longer...
van Eerde, W.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.
Reward systems are identified as one of the human resource management (HRM) practices that may impact motivation. Reward systems may consist of several components, including financial and nonfinancial rewards, in fixed and variable amounts. Reinforcement, expectancy, and equity principles are
Taylor, J. Rodney
The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)
Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.
It is known to all that motivation is one of the most important elements in EFL learning.This study analyzes the type of English learning motivations and learning achievements within non-English majors’ students (Bilingual program in Highway School and Architecture) in Chang’an University, who has been considered English as the foreign language. This thesis intends to put forward certain strategies in promoting foreign language teaching.
Frey, Bruno S; Stutzer, Alois
This chapter discusses the role of environmental morale and environmental motivation in individual behavior from the point of view of economics and psychology. It deals with the fundamental public good problem, and presents empirical (laboratory and field) evidence on how the cooperation problem can be overcome. Four different theoretical approaches are distinguished according to how individualsï¿½ underlying environmental motivation is modeled. Specifically, we look at the interaction betwee...
sættes læring i forbindelse med begrebet motivation. I blandt andet Banduras teori, understreges vigtigheden af en tæt forbindelse mellem elevens mestring og lærerens passende målsætning. Med afsæt i (fx) Vygotsky’s ’Zonen for nærmeste udvikling’ belyser artiklen hvordan elevernes motivation kan blive...
The study assesses whether organizations' motivational practices affect volunteer motivation and levels of performance. This study was guided by the following two research questions: first, what motivation practices exist in Volunteer Involving Organizations and whether such affect volunteers' motivation to volunteer again?
José Paulo Paes
Full Text Available O artigo se propõe analisar as idéias expressas pelos principais personagens de Canaã, de Graça Aranha, em torno dos vínculos entre raça e cultura, do processo de mestiçagem e do futuro embranquecimento da população brasileira numa utopia fraterno-solar. Essas idéias são correlacionadas, de um lado, às preocupações de Silvio Romero, Euclides da Cunha e Araripe Júnior com a adequação entre meio geográfico, raça e cultura, e, de outro lado, ao empenho do modernismo paulista em definir um caráter nacional brasileiro. Empenho discernível, no nível da representação simbólica, em Macunaíma e, no da teorização mais sistemática, em Retrato do Brasil, que chega a falar de eugenia ao discutir o futuro tipo étnico brasileiro.The article purports to examine the ideas which the main characters of Canaã, by Graça Aranha, express on the relations between race and culture, as well as on the racial melting process and the future whitening of the population of Brazil in a brotherly and solar Utopia. These ideas are correlated, on one side, to the concern of Silvio Romero, Euclides da Cunha and Araripe Jr. with the adequation between geography, race and culture; on the other side, to the concern of S. Paulo's Modernist movement to define a Brazilian national character. This concern can be seen, on the level of symbolical representation, in Macunaíma and, on the level of a more systematic theorizing, in Portrait of Brazil, which goes so far as to mention eugenics when discussing the future Brazilian ethnical type.
Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Balán, Iván C.; Patel, Sapana R.; Sánchez-Lacay, J. Arturo; Alfonso, César; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Blanco, Carlos; Schmidt, Andrew; Jiang, Huiping; Schneier, Franklin; Moyers, Theresa B.
Compared to non-Latino Whites, US racial/ethnic minority groups show higher non-adherence with outpatient antidepressant therapy, including lower retention, despite adjusting for sociodemographic and insurance covariates. Culturally salient concerns about antidepressants leading to ambivalence about treatment engagement may contribute to this discrepancy. To improve treatment adherence among depressed Latinos, we developed Motivational Pharmacotherapy, a novel approach that combines Motivational Interviewing, standard pharmacotherapy, and attention to Latino cultural concerns about antidepressants. This 12-week, open-trial, pre-post pilot study assessed the impact of Motivational Pharmacotherapy on antidepressant therapy retention, response (symptoms, functioning, and quality of life), and visit duration among N=50 first-generation Latino outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder. At study endpoint, 20% of patients discontinued treatment, with a mean therapy duration of 74.2 out of 84 days. Patients’ symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life improved significantly. Mean visit length was 36.7 minutes for visit 1 and 24.3 minutes for subsequent visits, compatible with use in community clinics. Responder and remitter rates were 82% and 68%. Compared to published Latino proportions of non-retention (32-53%) and previous studies at our clinic with similar samples and medications (36-46%), Motivational Pharmacotherapy appears to improve Latino retention in antidepressant therapy, and should be investigated further in controlled designs. PMID:23965261
Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M
Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child's diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children.
Zou, Linda X; Cheryan, Sapna
Theories of race relations have been shaped by the concept of a racial hierarchy along which Whites are the most advantaged and African Americans the most disadvantaged. However, the recent precipitated growth of Latinos and Asian Americans in the United States underscores the need for a framework that integrates more groups. The current work proposes that racial and ethnic minority groups are disadvantaged along 2 distinct dimensions of perceived inferiority and perceived cultural foreignness , such that the 4 largest groups in the United States are located in 4 discrete quadrants: Whites are perceived and treated as superior and American; African Americans as inferior and relatively American compared with Latinos and Asian Americans; Latinos as inferior and foreign; and Asian Americans as foreign and relatively superior compared to African Americans and Latinos. Support for this Racial Position Model is first obtained from targets' perspectives. Different groups experience distinct patterns of racial prejudice that are predicted by their 2-dimensional group positions (Studies 1 and 2). From perceivers' perspectives, these group positions are reflected in the content of racial stereotypes (Study 3), and are well-known and consensually recognized (Study 4). Implications of this new model for studying contemporary race relations (e.g., prejudice, threat, and interminority dynamics) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sue, Derald Wing; Rivera, David P; Watkins, Nicole L; Kim, Rachel H; Kim, Suah; Williams, Chantea D
Research on the experiences of faculty of color in predominantly White institutions (PWIs) suggests that they often experience the campus climate as invalidating, alienating, and hostile. Few studies, however, have actually focused on the classroom experiences of faculty of color when difficult racial dialogues occur. Using Consensually Qualitative Research, eight faculty of color were interviewed about their experiences in the classroom when racially tinged topics arose. Three major findings emerged. First, difficult racial dialogues were frequently instigated by the presence of racial microaggressions delivered toward students of color or the professor. Dialogues on race were made more difficult when the classrooms were diverse, when heated emotions arose, when there was a strong fear of self-disclosure, and when racial perspectives differed. Second, all faculty experienced an internal struggle between balancing their own values and beliefs with an attempt to remain objective. This conflict was often described as exhausting and energy-depleting. Third, faculty of color described both successful and unsuccessful strategies in facilitating difficult dialogues on race that arose in the course of their teaching. These findings have major implications for how PWIs can develop new programs, policies, and practices that will aid and support colleagues of color.
Buchanan, Robert J; Rosenthal, Mark; Graber, David R; Wang, Suojin; Kim, Myung Suk
To present racial/ethnic comparisons of comprehensive profiles of nursing home residents at admission, including whites, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. More than 885,000 admission assessments recorded in the national Minimum Data Set (MDS) were analyzed. Racial and ethnic analyses of the MDS admission assessments were conducted using the software package SAS. There were significant racial/ethnic differences in gender and age, with minority residents more likely to be male and younger. African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islanders were significantly more likely than white residents to exhibit total dependence in the self-performance of the ADLs and to have greater cognitive impairments, with Asian/Pacific Islanders the most physically dependent and cognitively impaired. The results illustrate significant and substantive differences among the racial/ethnic groups for many demographic characteristics, as well as health-related indicators and conditions. This analysis suggests that the general perspective that economically disadvantaged minorities enter nursing homes in worse condition than whites is too simplistic. More research, particularly qualitative studies of specific minority groups, will advance our understanding of why members of some racial/ethnic groups require nursing home placement sooner than other groups.
Maner, Jon K; Miller, Saul L; Moss, Justin H; Leo, Jennifer L; Plant, E Ashby
This article presents an evolutionary framework for identifying the characteristics people use to categorize members of their social world. Findings suggest that fundamental social motives lead people to implicitly categorize social targets based on whether those targets display goal-relevant phenotypic traits. A mate-search prime caused participants to categorize opposite-sex targets (but not same-sex targets) based on their level of physical attractiveness (Experiment 1). A mate-guarding prime interacted with relationship investment, causing participants to categorize same-sex targets (but not opposite-sex targets) based on their physical attractiveness (Experiment 2). A self-protection prime interacted with chronic beliefs about danger, increasing participants' tendency to categorize targets based on their racial group membership (Black or White; Experiment 3). This work demonstrates that people categorize others based on whether they display goal-relevant characteristics reflecting high levels of perceived desirability or threat. Social categorization is guided by fundamental evolved motives designed to enhance adaptive social outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.
Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609
Gilchrist, Elizabeth Allison; Ireland, Lana; Forsyth, Alasdair; Godwin, Jon; Laxton, Tim
Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams. Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2). There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA. Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Khusainova, Rushana; de Jong, Ad; Lee, Nick
The construct of motivation is one of the central themes in selling and sales management research. Yet, to-date no review article exists that surveys the construct (both from an extrinsic and intrinsic motivation context), critically evaluates its current status, examines various key challenges...... apparent from the extant research, and suggests new research opportunities based on a thorough review of past work. The authors explore how motivation is defined, major theories underpinning motivation, how motivation has historically been measured, and key methodologies used over time. In addition......, attention is given to principal drivers and outcomes of salesperson motivation. A summarizing appendix of key articles in salesperson motivation is provided....
María Inés Táboas-Pais
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the representation of race through images that are published in Spanish physical education textbooks for secondary schools and to offer an insight into students’ beliefs related to racial stereotypes in physical education. The sample was composed of 2,583 images and 87 secondary school pupils. The analysis was carried out through the elaboration of an ad hoc coding scheme. The results showed that people whose appearance is similar to the in-group predominate. The kind of physical activity, the field, space, and level of competence vary according to race. The textbooks analyzed in this study engender a stigmatized vision of racial diversity, and the images reproduce and reinforce racial prejudice.
Otanez, Staci; Torr, Berna M
There are substantial racial and ethnic disparities in the vaccination rate for human papillomavirus (HPV), which helps protect against cervical cancer. Using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, we explore differences between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in attitudes toward vaccinating adolescent girls for HPV. We use logistic regression models to explore whether racial/ethnic differences in attitudes toward HPV vaccinations are explained by HPV knowledge, demographic and socioeconomic status, and/or general distrust of the healthcare system. We include interactions to explore whether the effects of HPV knowledge and doctor distrust vary by racial/ethnic group. We find that greater HPV knowledge increases general willingness to vaccinate for all groups except Blacks. Our findings point to a need for additional research and design of culturally appropriate interventions that address barriers to vaccination.
Danielle Fuentes Morgan
Full Text Available This article, “Post What? The Liminality of Multi-Racial Identity,” argues that the successes and failures of 21st-century satire reveal the myth of post-raciality while simultaneously dismissing racial essentialism. I focus on three critical moments: the commercial success of Mat Johnson’s Loving Day, a text and forthcoming television show that examines the shifting self-identities of mixed-race individuals; the inability of a potential love interest on the television series, Louie, to accept a black woman as the ex-wife of the titular protagonist’s phenotypically white daughters; and Barack Obama’s self-designation as “black” on the census shortly after his election. I argue that the widespread reach of these instances, coupled with audience engagement and response, underscores the ways that the public realm frames a contemporary understanding of race as both meaningful and absurd.
Full Text Available Racial disparities in achievement are a persistent fact of the US educational system. An often cited but rarely directly studied explanation for these disparities is that adolescents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are exposed to different peers and have different friends. In this article I identify the impact of friends on racial and ethnic achievement disparities. Using data from Add Health and an instrumental variable approach, I show that the achievement characteristics of youths’ friends drive friend effects; adolescents with friends with higher grades are more likely to increase their grades compared to those with lower-achieving friends. Although these effects do not differ across race/ethnicity, given differences in friendship patterns, if black and Latino adolescents had friends with the achievement characteristics of white students, the GPA gap would be 17 to 19 percent smaller. Although modest, this effect represents an important and often overlooked source of difference among black and Latino youth.
Salter, Phia S; Kelley, Nicholas J; Molina, Ludwin E; Thai, Luyen T
Photographs provide critical retrieval cues for personal remembering, but few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. In this research, we examined the psychological consequences of visual attention to the presence (or absence) of racially charged retrieval cues within American racial segregation photographs. We hypothesised that attention to racial retrieval cues embedded in historical photographs would increase social justice concept accessibility. In Study 1, we recorded gaze patterns with an eye-tracker among participants viewing images that contained racial retrieval cues or were digitally manipulated to remove them. In Study 2, we manipulated participants' gaze behaviour by either directing visual attention toward racial retrieval cues, away from racial retrieval cues, or directing attention within photographs where racial retrieval cues were missing. Across Studies 1 and 2, visual attention to racial retrieval cues in photographs documenting historical segregation predicted social justice concept accessibility.
... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ...
The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...
Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Rewa...
Full Text Available Motivation is a process, which can be fostered or killed in the name of education. In this paper, the author explores two theories of motivation-Expectancy-Value and Three Elements of Intrinsic Motivation-within the context of unschooling and within a school system. Based on the concepts presented through these theories, the author concludes that unschoolers hold on to their intrinsic motivation while schooled childrens motivation may be killed by attending school.
Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Haardörfer, Regine; McBride, Colleen M.
Research about relationships between place characteristics and racial/ethnic inequities in health has largely ignored conceptual advances about race and place within the discipline of geography. Research has also almost exclusively quantified these relationships using effect estimates (e.g., odds ratios), statistics that fail to adequately capture the full impact of place characteristics on inequities and thus undermine our ability to translate research into action. We draw on geography to further develop the concept of “racialized risk environments,” and we argue for the routine calculation of race/ethnicity-specific population-attributable risk percentages. PMID:27552263
Killian, K D
This study explores the process by which interracial spouses construct narratives about their racial histories, identities, and experiences in their relationship together. Ten black-white couples were interviewed individually and conjointly. The results reflected interracial spouses' experience of their life together, their perception of others' perceptions of them, and their unique processes of negotiating racial, gender, and class differences. Black spouses, compared with white spouses, demonstrated a greater awareness of and sensitivity to social resistance to interracial couples, and black spouses' familial and personal histories were sometimes relegated to silence in the couple relationship. I discuss recommendations for marriage and family therapists working with interracial spouses.
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher
Motivation is probably one of the most important determinants for organizational performance, because it stimulates effort and effective behaviors among people in the organization. But what type of motivation should public managers rely on? The PSM literature has argued that public service...... motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...... theory, on the other hand, argues that the relationship is opposite, so it is the degree of incentives that affects motivation. Both arguments lead to expectations of an association between public service motivation and monetary incentives, but so far this complex relationship has not been entangled...
Title: Motivation for risk sports Objectives: The aim of our thesis is to find out primary and secondary motives of athletes for the operation of high-risk sports and coming back to it. We also want to find out what is the starter for doing risk sports. Other questions are why athletes keep doing it and how perceive the potential risk. Methods: In our study, we chose qualitative investigation method and semistructured interview with eight respondents. For the interview, we drew up a list of q...
В. В. Вапнярчук
Full Text Available In the article the need for such a level of mental regulation of behavior of proving motivation. The latter refers to internal motivation conscious entity Criminal Procedure proof, due to specific needs, interests and goals that cause a person to act rishymist. Detailed attention is given to the first two determinants, namely the nature of needs and interests. In particular, analyzes highlighted in the literature variety of needs (physiological, ekzistentsionalni, social, prestige, cognitive, aesthetic and spiritual and the manifestation of some of them in the criminal procedural proof.
College students are frequent social media users. Heightened racial tensions across college campuses and the United States have increased the volume of racial discourse on social media, suggesting a need to understand social media's influence on how students make meaning of race. Using symbolic interactionism and racial identity theories, this…
Kohatsu, Eric L.; Victoria, Rodolfo; Lau, Andrew; Flores, Michelle; Salazar, Andrea
The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent both racial identity and color-blind racial attitudes help explain anti-Asian prejudice across different socioracial groups. Participants of color from a culturally diverse West Coast university were surveyed (N = 260). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that resistance racial identity…
Smith, Timothy B.; Bowman, Raquel; Hsu, Sungti
College campuses are becoming increasingly racially diverse and may provide an optimal setting for the reduction of racial stereotypes and prejudices perpetuated in society. To better understand racism among college students, this study evaluated the attitudes of Asian and White European Americans toward several racial out-groups. Participants…
Brown, Anthony L.
This paper argues that implicit racial bias regarding black males is a manifestation of a long trajectory of Western racial memory and anti-blackness where black males have been considered subhuman or as human kinds. The author draws from theological, scientific, and social science literature to illustrate how racial discourses have historically…
New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…
Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.
In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…
Wijeyesinghe, Charmaine L., Ed.; Jackson, Bailey W., III, Ed.
This book presents a collection of essays on racial identity development in a variety of racial populations, focusing on the application of racial identity development theories and their expansion beyond their original borders. The 10 chapters are (1) "Black Identity Development: Further Analysis and Elaboration" (Bailey W. Jackson III);…
Lockett, Charles T.; Harrell, Jules P.
To examine the relationship between racial identity, self-esteem, and academic achievement, this study administered the Racial Identity Attitude Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a background questionnaire to African American students from a historically black college. Results showed that the unique effect of racial identity on academic…
Qian, Miao K.; Heyman, Gail D.; Quinn, Paul C.; Messi, Francoise A.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial…
and hence, motivating them more strongly to continue. Thoughts of protecting their home, lives and local ideals were subconsciously aroused by the...perspective. There was a clear bias , but they aimed not to broadcast lies. The BBC broadcast in 45 languages with 107 news transmissions daily
Murtonen, Mari; Olkinuora, Erkki; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai; Lehtinen, Erno
The rapid development in working life during recent decades has changed the structures of work organisations and expectations of employees' work. Differing forms of professional employment and different types of organisational environments likely promote different types of motivational patterns in workers. The aim of this study was to apply a…
The aim of this study is to contribute to the achievement of educational goals by determining teachers' levels of motivation. With this aim in mind, the opinions of 386 teachers employed in primary schools in Tokat province were sought. According to the findings of the study, the teachers stated that their needs were not fulfilled according to…
Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino
This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal value...
Lee, Romy van der
Morality is of particular importance to people: People want to be considered moral and want to belong to moral groups. Consequently, morality judgments have the potential to motivate individuals to behave in ways that are considered to be ‘good’. In the current dissertation, I examined the impact of
Describes the use of job enrichment techniques as tools for increased productivity and organizational change. The author's motivational work design model changes not only the job design but also structural elements such as physical layout, workflow, and organizational relationships. Behavior change is more important than job enrichment. (MF)
Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.
Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…
This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically,
DeLon, Barbara A.
Discusses the problem of keeping library staff motivated when promotions are not available. Topics addressed include the importance of management training that emphasizes communication skills; alternative ways to help employees grow, including staff development programs, lateral transfers, job rotation, and short-term projects; and helpful…
Buckley, Patrick; Doyle, Elaine
The literature suggests that gamified learning interventions may increase student engagement and enhance learning. We empirically investigate this by exploring the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on the participation and performance of over 100 undergraduate students in an online gamified learning intervention. The paper makes a…
Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm
Der har i flere år være en interesse for at undersøge motivationen hos producenterne af offentlige ydelser, mens der i mindre grad findes empiriske analyser af brugernes handlingskapacitet. Artiklen råder bod på dette ved at analysere forskelle i motivation og handlingskapacitet på fire serviceom......Der har i flere år være en interesse for at undersøge motivationen hos producenterne af offentlige ydelser, mens der i mindre grad findes empiriske analyser af brugernes handlingskapacitet. Artiklen råder bod på dette ved at analysere forskelle i motivation og handlingskapacitet på fire...... serviceområder (skoler, dagpasning, hospitaler og videregående uddannelser). Der anvendes henholdsvis et veletableret mål for public service motivation (n=377 producenter) og et nyudviklet mål for handlingskapacitet (n=1056 brugere). Resultaterne viser, at der er relativt højest handlingskapacitet og public...... service motivation på daginstitutionsområdet efterfulgt af skoleområdet, mens de videregående uddannelser placerer sig relativt lavest på begge variable. Hospitalsbrugerne har næsten lige så lav handlingskapacitet som brugerne af de videregående uddannelser, mens de hospitalsansattes public service...
Vorholt, Julie; Harris, Erica
This article describes a three-week project-based unit on entrepreneurship conducted with students in communications classes in an Academic English context. A detailed road map of the project is given, starting with an introduction and ending with final presentations and poster sessions. Students were motivated by their own interests in business…
Hardeman, Rachel R; Kozhimannil, Katy B
The imperative to diversify the health care workforce is evident: increased diversity contributes to the overall health of the nation. Given persistent racial and ethnic disparities in birth outcomes, workforce diversity is particularly urgent in the context of clinical and supportive care during pregnancy and childbirth. The goal of this analysis was to characterize the intentions and motivations of racially and ethnically diverse women who chose to become doulas (maternal support professionals) and to describe their early doula careers, including the experiences that sustain their work. In 2014, 12 women of color in the Minneapolis, Minnesota, metropolitan area (eg, African American, Somali, Hmong, Latina, American Indian) applied and were selected (from a pool of 58) to receive doula training and certification. In January and February 2015, we conducted semistructured interviews (30 to 90 minutes) with the newly trained doulas. We used an inductive qualitative approach to analyze key themes related to motivation and satisfaction with doula work. For many of the women of color we interviewed, the underlying motivation for becoming a doula was related directly to a desire to support women from the doula's own racial, ethnic, and cultural community. Other key themes related to both motivation and satisfaction included perceiving birth work as a calling, easing women's transitions to motherhood by "holding space," honoring the ritual and ceremony of childbirth, and providing culturally competent support, often as the sole source of cultural knowledge during labor and birth. Doulas of color have a strong commitment to supporting women from their communities. Given the evidence linking doula support to improved birth outcomes, successful recruitment and retention of women of color as doulas may support broader efforts to reduce long-standing disparities in birth outcomes. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Molloy, Brianne K; Lambert, Sharon F
Racial discrimination is associated with alcohol use and risky sex cognitions and behaviors, which are risk factors for negative health outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current study investigated the causal impact of racial discrimination on alcohol and sexual-risk cognitions while exploring potential mediators that might help explain this relation: negative affect, perceived control, and meaningful existence. We also examined if past discrimination impacts the strength of (moderates) these effects. Participants were 287 Black/African American young adults aged 18-25. They were randomly assigned to be excluded or included by White peers via the game Cyberball. Racial exclusion (vs. inclusion) predicted greater: perceived racial discrimination, negative affect, alcohol use willingness, and reduced perceived control and meaningful existence. Furthermore, excluded participants who experienced more past racial discrimination reported the lowest perceived control, and greatest negative affect and alcohol-risk cognitions. The findings suggest that past racial discrimination exacerbates the harmful health effects of immediate experiences of discrimination.
Cid, Rodrigo D
Like other Latin American democratic societies, Chile is supposed to respect legal rights of mentally ill people who are in trouble with the law, and provide them protection, treatment and welfare. Therefore, in this decade, the Chilean Criminal Justice and Mental Health System has undergone significant changes. Because this article is related to the recent social features that involve different areas such as justice, mental health assistance and forensic psychiatry systems, and thereby the nonexistence of current literature that reviews this matter from a global perspective and its implications for the mental health population involved in the justice system, its review and analysis seems to be interesting. The 'New Forensic Psychiatry Network' (NFPN) has been putting in relevant efforts to offer proper treatment and forensic assessment taking into account the civil rights of mentally insane people, and the 'Criminal Justice System Reform' (CJSR) is making possible legal conditions for better justice ensuring a more just resolution of insane defendants' and mentally ill convicts' lawsuits. From the author's viewpoint, all these changes are leading to a deep cultural impact on a Chilean's mind, changing their vision of justice and how society should respect insane defendants' and mentally ill convicts' legal rights.
Sawyer, Jeremy; Gampa, Anup
Lab-based interventions have been ineffective in changing individuals' implicit racial attitudes for more than brief durations, and exposure to high-status Black exemplars like Obama has proven ineffective in shifting societal-level racial attitudes. Antiracist social movements, however, offer a potential societal-level alternative for reducing racial bias. Racial attitudes were examined before and during Black Lives Matter (BLM) and its high points of struggle with 1,369,204 participants from 2009 to 2016. After controlling for changes in participant demographics, overall implicit attitudes were less pro-White during BLM than pre-BLM, became increasingly less pro-White across BLM, and were less pro-White during most periods of high BLM struggle. Considering changes in implicit attitudes by participant race, Whites became less implicitly pro-White during BLM, whereas Blacks showed little change. Regarding explicit attitudes, Whites became less pro-White and Blacks became less pro-Black during BLM, each moving toward an egalitarian "no preference" position.
Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.
Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…
Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N
African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.
Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, US Department of Education, 2016
Diversity is inherently valuable. Research shows that diversity in schools, including racial diversity among teachers, can provide significant benefits to students. While students of color are expected to make up 56 percent of the student population by 2024, the elementary and secondary educator workforce is still overwhelmingly white. The most…
LeSure-Lester, G. Evelyn; King, Nancy
The present study investigated racial-ethnic differences in social anxiety among college students in two-year colleges. The sample consisted of 189 Asian American, African American, White American, and Hispanic American students from two colleges in the Southeast. Participants completed a questionnaire measure of social anxiety. The results…
Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; James, Carl E.; Kobayashi, Audrey; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.
The university is often regarded as a bastion of liberal democracy where equity and diversity are promoted and racism does not exist. In reality, the university still excludes many people and is a site of racialization that is subtle, complex, and sophisticated. While some studies do point to the persistence of systemic barriers to equity and…
Shim, Jenna Min
This study is to empirically investigate both residual and emergent factors that undergird one teacher's understanding of race, racism, and racialization as he responds to two fictional stories and one film. Informed by an assemblage of Bourdieu's concept of habitus and his sociological theory of practice, Gee's concept of primary Discourses, and…
Paul H. Gobster
A major planning effort for Chicago's largest park provided an opprotunity yto examine outdoor recreation use patterns and preferences among a racially and ethnically diverse clientele. Results from on-site surveys of 898 park users (217 Black, 210 Latino, 182 Asian, and 289 White) showed that park users shared a core set of interests, preferences, and concerns...
Wann, Chelsea Guillermo
As the expanding post-civil rights multiracial population is likely to transform the demographics of American colleges and universities, its perceived growth is also misused to advance neo-conservative agendas and post-racial views about the declining significance of race. Politicized issues around multiraciality frame and impact the campus…
Sue, Derald Wing; Nadal, Kevin L.; Capodilupo, Christina M.; Lin, Annie I.; Torino, Gina C.; Rivera, David P.
Racial microaggression themes were identified using a focus-group analysis of self-identified Black participants. Six categories of demeaning and invalidating messages reflected beliefs of White supremacy that were unintentionally conveyed by perpetrators. Implications for counselors and the counseling process are discussed.
Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…
Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.
Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…
Croteau, James M.
Understanding the collective versus individualistic viewpoint is important to understanding racism in America. The author applies lessons learned in dealing with homophobia to the matter of racism. Forming for oneself a white version of racial identity is the key to white's active personal involvement and identification with being anti-racist.…
With Barack Obama ensconced as the nation's first Black president, plenty of voices in the national conversation are trumpeting America as a post-racial society--that race matters much less than it used to, that the boundaries of race have been overcome, that racism is no longer a big problem. In this article, longtime scholars whose life's work…
Gagnon, Douglas J.; Mattingly, Marybeth J.
Research is just beginning to describe with precision determinants of racial and ethnic achievement gaps. Work by Reardon, Kalogrides, and Shores found that factors such as parental income, parental education, and segregation are the strongest predictors of achievement gaps. In this study we expand this line of inquiry to examine the role of…
Conclusions: We found that EoE occurs more frequently in Caucasian EGID patients than Asian EGID patients, while the reverse is true for EGE. Also, racial disparities in symptoms and eosinophil-infiltrated tissues were observed. Our findings suggest further genetic and environmental studies to elucidate the etiology of EGID.
This article is a report of a critical constructivist study of racial identity and performance among 13 Black, traditional-age students enrolled at three different colleges, two historically Black and one predominantly White. The study's approach understood identity to be socially constructed and reliant upon community affirmation and validation.…
The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore, Allison B.; MacGregor, Cynthia; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the relationship between student achievement and racial congruence of school personnel and students to help educators and policy makers narrow the achievement gap. Design/methodology/approach: This quasi-experimental, correlational study used publicly available data from 158 elementary schools in the Houston…
Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle
In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…
Davis, Tomeka M.
Three arguments regarding racial equity have arisen in the school choice debate. Choice advocates charge that choice will improve access to quality schools for disadvantaged minority students (Chubb & Moe 1990; Coons & Sugarman, 1978; Godwin & Kemerer, 2002; Viteritti, 1999). Critics argue that choice is unlikely to benefit minority…
Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.
Educational success among Asian American students has often been misunderstood as an occupational development separate from any experience of racism. However, several theorists have suggested that racial barriers in occupational mobility correlate with educational pursuits. Therefore, this research aims to examine the direct effect of perceived…
Intrieri, Robert C.; Kurth, Maria L.
The present study assessed knowledge of aging, attitudes toward aging, ageism, and contact with older adults in a sample of 271 Non-Hispanic White and African-American undergraduates. Research examining racial differences in knowledge of aging, attitudes toward aging, ageism, and contact with older adults has been sparse. Results for the current…
Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.
Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…
The aim of this article is to give a descriptive-empirical description of the relationship between the DRC and race by using the Church Mirror surveys. An altered social distance scale is used to measure church acceptance. In the discourse on race, acceptance and unity in the DRC with regard to racial prejudice and attitudes ...
Tuch, Steven A.
Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…
Hoang, Haivan V.
If college writing faculty wish to prepare students to engage in civic forums, then how might we prepare students to write and speak amid racial politics on our campuses? This article explores the college student discourse that shaped an interracial conflict at a public California university in 2002 and questions the "rhetoric of injury"…
Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda
Knowledge about how race governs partner selection has been predominantly studied in the United States, yet it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to nations with different racial and immigration patterns. Using a large-scale sample of online daters in nine European countries, we
Parker, Priya Narayan
Across American campuses, racial tension and other issues of diversity remain a major challenge. The majority of this country's institutions demonstrate that they value and promote diversity through efforts in affirmative action, minority student and faculty recruitment, minority retention, administration of special scholarships, diversity Web…
relationship between income and racial segregation in certain areas. ... living spaces of the Black, Coloured and Indian race groups, apartheid policies ..... middle class and affluent) as determined in relation to the poverty line. .... areas will attract economic growth and developments due to their higher spending power.
Gordon, Thomas F.; Surlin, Stuart H.
Random telephone surveys in a northern and a southern city were initiated to determine attitudes toward "informative" and "direct reference" mass media political advertisements. Responses were organized in regional, social, and racial categories. The results quantified reactions to the two types of political messages of blacks…
Kirk, David S
This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.
Chen, Jie; Rizzo, John A
Little is known about racial and ethnic disparities in health care utilization, expenditures and drug choice in the antidepressant market. This study investigates factors associated with the racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use. We seek to determine the extent to which disparities reflect differences in observable population characteristics versus heterogeneity across racial and ethnic groups. Among the population characteristics, we are interested in identifying which factors are most important in accounting for racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use. Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 1996-2003, we have an available sample of 10,416 Caucasian, 1,089 African American and 1,539 Hispanic antidepressant drug users aged 18 to 64 years. We estimate individual out-of-pocket payments, total prescription drug expenditures, drug utilization, the probability of taking generic versus brand name antidepressants, and the share of drugs that are older types of antidepressants (e.g., TCAs and MAOIs) for these individuals during a calendar year. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition techniques are employed to determine the extent to which disparities reflect differences in observable population characteristics versus unobserved heterogeneity across racial and ethnic groups. Caucasians have the highest antidepressant drug expenditures and utilization. African-Americans have the lowest drug expenditures and Hispanics have the lowest drug utilization. Relative to Caucasians and Hispanics, African-Americans are more likely to purchase generics and use a higher share of older drugs (e.g., TCAs and MAOIs). Differences in observable characteristics explain most of the racial/ethnic differences in these outcomes, with the exception of drug utilization. Differences in health insurance and education levels are particularly important factors in explaining disparities. In contrast, differences in drug utilization largely reflect unobserved
TICHINDELEAN Mihai; VINEREAN Simona
The purpose of the paper is to understand and measure consumer's motives as part of the complex mental structure which has as result a certain buying behavior. To achieve this goal, the authors structured the paper in two parts: the first part contains a literature review regarding the concepts of motivation and motives, while the second part tries to measure and explain several dimensions of buying motives by using a statistical analysis tool - exploratory factor analysis.
Yeom, Hye-A; Fleury, Julie
There has been limited empirical support for interventions designed to promote physical activity targeting mobility in racially diverse older adults. This study aims to examine the effects of a Motivational Physical Activity Intervention (MPAI) on social resource, behavioral change process, physical activity, and mobility variables in sedentary older Korean Americans. A quasi-experimental, repeated-measure, pre- and post-tests design was used. Sixty-four community-dwelling, sedentary older Korean Americans (n = 33 for MPAI group, n = 31 for Attention Control group) participated in the study. There were significant improvements in social resources, including social support from family and friends; behavioral change process variables, including self-efficacy; motivational appraisal; and self-regulation for physical activity. There were significant intervention effects on physical activity, walking endurance, and flexibility. The MPAI is supported as improving mobility and physical activity, as well as increasing motivation for physical activity in older Korean Americans. © The Author(s) 2013.
Gerbig, Kori M.
Motivational processes are the foundation for coordinating cognitive goals and strategies in reading. Becoming an excellent, active reader involves attunement of motivational processes with cognitive and language processes in reading. This article presents K-12 strategies for motivating reading success. It describes 10 instructional elements that…
Motivation is critical in English learning of middle school,thus,how to effectively motivate students in English learning is an important problem.This study intends to find ways to motivate students of middle school.Self-report data were collected from 45 students in The Experiment Middle School Attached to Yunnan Normal University by using a close-ended questionnaire.
Miner, John B.
Research on motivation to manage can be summarized in five points: (1) motivation to manage is a major factor for success; (2) motivation to manage declined in students from the 1960's to the 1970's; (3) this decline is evident in the relevant age groups; (4) differences between United States students and foreign students place the United States…
Clark, Khaya D; Yovanoff, Paul; Tate, Charlotte Ursula
The Racial Attitudes Index (RAI) measures a child's racial attitudes. Designed for children aged 5-9 years, the RAI is delivered over the Internet using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI). Unlike traditional binary forced-choice instruments, the RAI uses an expanded response format permitting a more nuanced understanding of patterns of children's racial attitudes. In addition to establishing psychometric evidence of the RAI technical adequacy, hypotheses about RAI item response patterns were tested. The racial attitudes of 336 Black and White children in grades K-3 were assessed using a forced-choice instrument (Preschool Racial Attitudes Measure II) and the RAI. Findings from this study indicate measures obtained with the RAI are technically adequate, and the measure functions invariantly across racial groups. Also, patterns of children's racial attitudes measured with the RAI are more nuanced than those obtained using the forced-choice response format.
Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy
Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.
Neville, Helen A; Awad, Germine H; Brooks, James E; Flores, Michelle P; Bluemel, Jamie
Synthesizing the interdisciplinary literature, we characterize color-blind racial ideology (CBRI) as consisting of two interrelated domains: color-evasion (i.e., denial of racial differences by emphasizing sameness) and power-evasion (i.e., denial of racism by emphasizing equal opportunities). Mounting empirical data suggest that the color-evasion dimension is ineffective and in fact promotes interracial tension and potential inequality. CBRI may be conceived as an ultramodern or contemporary form of racism and a legitimizing ideology used to justify the racial status quo. Four types of CBRI are described: denial of (a) race, (b) blatant racial issues, (c) institutional racism, and (d) White privilege. We discuss empirical findings suggesting a relationship between CBRI and increased racial prejudice, racial anger, and racial fear. Implications for education, training, and research are provided. © 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney
The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
Smith, William L.; Brown, Anthony L.
Drawing from the work of "cultural memory" and "racial formation theory" (Omi and Winant 1994) we explore the ascension of Barack Obama as an illustration of how "race" is understood and remembered. This article focuses on the public media discourse of the 2012 Obama re-election to illustrate how the narrative morphed…
My bachelor thesis is focused on motivation and assessment of employees in the company. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of team building and benefits on employees' motivation. Literature based theoretical part of my thesis describes and investigates the real meaning and purpose of motivation and basic motivational concepts. Furthermore, I outlined the basics behind employee benefits, team building and also stated the current given trends in these areas. The practical pa...
Motivation is inseparable from human work. It is also one of the five most important elements of the management process. The ability to determine the level of motivation would therefore be very useful in the work of every manager. This paper is an attempt to quantify motivation and evaluate its size, using the concept of entropy. The main reason to try defining a method of measuring the amount of motivation is to improve the management techniques of companies.
Full Text Available Terrorism is a relatively new phenomenon, and data on terrorist motivations and psychological profiles of terrorists are fairly scarce and limited. In theory, there is a large number of quantitative analyses of collective violence, murder, and crime, however, none of these can be identified with terrorism. Most current studies do not consider a great heterogeneity of terrorists, and numerous practical, conceptual, and psychological barriers slow down the science of learning about terrorism. Psychology, as a science of behavior, certainly makes a great contribution to the study of terrorism as a very complex phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to analyze and synthesize social and psychological determinants which contribute to the development of terrorist motives, and to elaborate on those facts which have been discussed in scientific and professional literature so far.
Vörösmarty, Gyöngyi; Dobos, Imre; Tátrai, Tünde
Sustainability issues in purchasing are receiving greater attention. Literature is rapidly growing, with several research programs being initiated to investigate the topic. This study presents the results of a research project which aims to reveal and structure the motivating forces leading companies to make efforts in sustainability purchasing and the means used to attain achievements in some fields of sustainability. Results presented in the literature are scattered in terms of ...
Beck, Mathilde Therese Claudine; Harvey, John Carr; Trauth, Christina
An increasing number of people are adopting a vegan lifestyle, which means to stop consuming products, that are made from or based on animals, like meat, dairy or eggs. However, the number of research concerning veganism is limited. As the existing research is mainly concentrating on the process of adopting a vegan lifestyle and the view of vegans, these findings shall be examined further with the question, What are the motivation and difficulties about adopting a plant based vegan diet in We...
Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter
The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…
Jones, Cynthia Cavenaugh
Two motivational theories considered particularly useful in administering early childhood programs are discussed, and guidelines for motivating staff, parents, and children are provided. First, the two-factor theory of motivation within organizations, as outlined by Herzberg (1959), is described. Offered in this section are a list of motivators…
Katzell, Raymond A.; Thompson, Donna E.
Presents theories of motivation classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. The following strategies for improving work motivation are discussed: (1) personal motives; (2) incentives and rewards; (3) reinforcement; (4) goal-setting techniques; (5) personal and material resources; (6) social and group…
Graafland, J.J.; Mazereeuw V/d Duijn Schouten, C.
In this article we analyze the motives of executives to take responsibility for the labor, environmental and social aspects of their business. We distinguish three motives: one extrinsic (financial) and two intrinsic (ethical and altruistic) motives and empirically investigate the influences of
Kappes, Heather Barry; Balcetis, Emily; De Cremer, David
This research shows how job postings can lead job candidates to see themselves as particularly deserving of hiring and high salary. We propose that these entitlement beliefs entail both personal motivations to see oneself as deserving and the ability to justify those motivated judgments. Accordingly, we predict that people feel more deserving when qualifications for a job are vague and thus amenable to motivated reasoning, whereby people use information selectively to reach a desired conclusion. We tested this hypothesis with a 2-phase experiment (N = 892) using materials drawn from real online job postings. In the first phase of the experiment, participants believed themselves to be more deserving of hiring and deserving of higher pay after reading postings composed of vaguer types of qualifications. In the second phase, yoked observers believed that participants were less entitled overall, but did not selectively discount endorsement of vaguer qualifications, suggesting they were unaware of this effect. A follow-up preregistered experiment (N = 905) using postings with mixed qualification types replicated the effect of including more vague qualifications on participants' entitlement beliefs. Entitlement beliefs are widely seen as problematic for recruitment and retention, and these results suggest that reducing the inclusion of vague qualifications in job postings would dampen the emergence of these beliefs in applicants, albeit at the cost of decreasing application rates and lowering applicants' confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Students’ low level of motivation becomes a matter of concern to be addressed immediately. Students' motivation needs to be improved as it is a factor that will affect their lives in the future. This study aims to observe or examine the effectiveness of motivation training in increasing students' motivation.The research method used was the pre-experiment with one group pre-test post-test design. The subjects of this study were 15 boy and girl students of Grade X of SMK who had a low level of motivation. The measuring instruments were the motivation scales given during the pre-test and post-test. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon test with non-parametric measurements to determine the significance of difference in the motivation level before and after the training. The data were tested using SPSS 17.0 for Windows.The result of Wilcoxon analysis to test the hypothesis whether there is a difference between the pre-test and post-test of students' motivation showed that the p = 0.025 (p < 0.05. This means that there was a significant difference between the motivation before the treatment (pre-test and after the treatment (post-test, which indicated that the students' motivation increased after a treatment in the form of motivation training.
van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Wilschut, Janneke A; Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M
Medical specialists face the challenge of maintaining their knowledge and skills and continuing professional development, that is, lifelong learning. Motivation may play an integral role in many of the challenges facing the physician workforce today including maintenance of a high performance. The aim of this study was to determine whether medical specialists show different motivational profiles and if these profiles predict differences in motivation for lifelong learning. An online questionnaire was sent to every medical specialist working in five hospitals in the Netherlands. The questionnaire included the validated Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning together with background questions like age, gender, and type of hospital. Respondents were grouped into different motivational profiles by using a two-step clustering approach. Four motivational profiles were identified: (1) HAMC profile (for High Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (2) MAMC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Moderate Controlled motivation), (3) MALC profile (for Moderate Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation), and (4) HALC profile (for High Autonomous and Low Controlled motivation). Most of the female specialists that work in an academic hospital and specialists with a surgical specialty were represented in the HALC profile. Four motivational profiles were found among medical specialists, differing in gender, experience and type of specialization. The profiles are based on the combination of autonomous motivation (AM) and controlled motivation (CM) in the specialists. The profiles that have a high score on autonomous motivation have a positive association with lifelong learning.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work
Katt, James A.; Condly, Steven J.
This study seeks to begin answering two simple questions: "What motivates our students?" and its corollary, "What prevents our students from being motivated?" The motivation-hygiene theory (F. Herzberg, "Work and the nature of man," World Publishing, Cleveland, OH, 1966), a well-tested theory from organizational…
Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R
The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of
Smith, Emilie Phillips; Atkins, Jacqueline; Connell, Christian M
This study examined family, school, and community factors and the relationships to racial-ethnic attitudes and academic achievement among 98 African American fourth-grade children. It has been posited that young people who feel better about their racial-ethnic background have better behavioral and academic outcomes, yet there is a need for more empirical tests of this premise. Psychometric information is reported on measures of parent, teacher, and child racial-ethnic attitudes. Path analysis was used to investigate ecological variables potentially related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and achievement. Parental education and level of racial-ethnic pride were correlated and both were related to children's achievement though in the final path model, only the path from parental education level was statistically significant. Children whose teachers exhibited higher levels of racial-ethnic trust and perceived fewer barriers due to race and ethnicity evidenced more trust and optimism as well. Children living in communities with higher proportions of college-educated residents also exhibited more positive racial-ethnic attitudes. For children, higher racial-ethnic pride was related to higher achievement measured by grades and standardized test scores, while racial distrust and perception of barriers due to race were related to reduced performance. This study suggests that family, school, and community are all important factors related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and also to their academic achievement.
Patten, Christi A; Clinic, Mayo; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber; Williams, Karen; Decker, Paul A; Clinic, Mayo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Catley, Delwyn
Research examining relationships between social support and smoking cessation has paid little attention to non-treatment seeking smokers and not considered the role of autonomy support for fostering quitting motivation. This study examined if autonomy support received from family and friends was associated with quitting motivation and making a quit attempt among diverse smokers with varying levels of quitting motivation. Demographic characteristics associated with autonomy support were explored. Participants (N=312) responded to advertisements seeking smokers "not quite ready to quit," and were primarily Black, low-income, and unemployed. Most (255) enrolled in a clinical trial of smoking cessation induction strategies (treatment sample). An additional 57 not meeting the trial eligibility criteria of low quitting motivation enrolled for baseline assessments only. Participants completed baseline measures of autonomy support received from friends and autonomous quitting motivation. In the treatment sample, quit attempts were assessed at 6-months follow-up. Females reported higher levels than males of autonomy support from friends (p=0.003). Participants with a high school diploma/GED reported higher levels of support from family (pautonomy support scores were significantly, albeit weakly, associated with autonomous quitting motivation. Autonomy support was not associated with making a quit attempt. Support from family and friends may promote autonomous reasons to quit among diverse smokers. Research is needed to assess the role of social support in the pre-quitting phases among racial and socio-economically diverse populations.
People of Color experience acute or chronic stress from discriminatory treatment and racial microaggressions, decreasing their biopsychosocial health. Racial microaggressions include but are not limited to merciless and mundane exclusionary messages, being treated as less than fully human, and civil and human rights violations. Racial microaggressions are key to understanding increases in Racial Battle Fatigue (Smith, 2004) resulting from the psychological and physiological stress that racially marginalized individuals/groups experience in response to specific race-related interactions between them and the surrounding dominant environment. Race-related stress taxes and exceeds available resilient coping resources for People of Color, while many Whites easily build sociocultural and economic environments and resources that shield them from race-based stress and threats to their racial entitlements.What is at stake, here, is the quest for equilibrium versus disequilibrium in a society that marginalizes human beings into substandard racial groups. Identifying and counteracting the biopsychosocial and behavioral consequences of actual or perceived racism, gendered-racism, and Racial Battle Fatigue is a premier challenge of the 21st Century. The term "racial microaggressions" was introduced in the 1970's to help psychiatrists and psychologists understand the enormity and complications of the subtle but constant racial blows faced by People of Color. Today, racial microaggressions continue to contribute to the negative workplace experiences of women, people of color, and other marginalized groups in astronomy and planetary science (Clancy et al. 2017). This presentation will focus on the definition, identification, and long-term effects of racial microaggressions and the resultant racial battle fatigue in STEM work environments.