According to the main argument in favour of the practice of racial profiling as a low enforcement tactic, the use of race as a targeting factor helps the police to apprehend more criminals. In the following, this argument is challenged. It is argued that, given the assumption that criminals...... are currently being punished too severely in Western countries, the apprehension of more criminals may not constitute a reason in favour of racial profiling at all....
Teasley, Martell Lee; Schiele, Jerome H; Adams, Charles; Okilwa, Nathern S
To address a critical gap in the social work literature, this article examines the deleterious effects of racial profiling as it pertains to police targeting of male African Americans. The authors use the Trayvon Martin court case to exemplify how racial profiling and black male stigma help perpetuate social inequality and injustice for black men. A racism-centered perspective is examined historically and contemporarily as a theoretical approach to understanding the role that race plays in social injustice through racial profiling. Implications for social work research design and practice aimed at increasing the social work knowledge base on racial profiling are discussed. The authors call for attention and advocacy by major social work organizations in the reduction of black male stigma and racial profiling. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Whalin Luke L.
Full Text Available Why is it that young Italian-American men were shooting each other over turf during the prohibition of alcohol in the 20th century, and young African-American men are shooting each other over turf in the 21st? Was this just a historical accident? Could it easily have been the other way around? That is the question with which the present paper attempts to wrestle.
Harvard Civil Rights Project, Cambridge, MA.
This guide to the rights of international students explains racial profiling and hate crimes. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many immigrants and international students have experienced heightened scrutiny and outright discrimination. Racial profiling refers to the reliance by law enforcement officers on a person's ethnicity,…
Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Giordano, Christine; Gizzi, Martin S
Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014). All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL) than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke risk factors examined in this study predicts the increase in the incidence of the disease, lack of knowledge/awareness and lack of affordable treatments for stroke risk factors among women and immigrants/non-US-born subpopulations may explain the observed associations.
Full Text Available Tefera Gezmu,1 Dona Schneider,1 Kitaw Demissie,2 Yong Lin,2 Christine Giordano,3 Martin S Gizzi4 1Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 2Rutgers School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ, 3Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 4New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Medical Center and Seton Hall University, Edison, NJ, USA Abstract: Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014. All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke
Booth, Jaime M; Teixeira, Samantha; Zuberi, Anita; Wallace, John M
Racial/ethnic disparities in self-rated health persist and according to the social determinants of health framework, may be partially explained by residential context. The relationship between neighborhood factors and self-rated health has been examined in isolation but a more holistic approach is needed to understand how these factors may cluster together and how these neighborhood typologies relate to health. To address this gap, we conducted a latent profile analysis using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS; N = 2969 respondents in 342 neighborhood clusters) to identify neighborhood profiles, examined differences in neighborhood characteristics among the identified typologies and tested their relationship to self-rated health. Results indicated four distinct classes of neighborhoods that vary significantly on most neighborhood-level social determinants of health and can be defined by racial/ethnic composition and class. Residents in Hispanic, majority black disadvantaged, and majority black non-poor neighborhoods all had significantly poorer self-rated health when compared to majority white neighborhoods. The difference between black non-poor and white neighborhoods in self-rated health was not significant when controlling for individual race/ethnicity. The results indicate that neighborhood factors do cluster by race and class of the neighborhood and that this clustering is related to poorer self-rated health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Worrell, Frank C; Andretta, James R; Woodland, Malcolm H
In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores in a sample of 477 African American adolescents who had been arrested in a city in the mid-Atlantic. Using cluster analysis, we also identified profiles of CRIS scores and compared adolescents with different profiles on Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scores. Results indicated that CRIS subscale scores were reliable, and the 6-factor structure of the CRIS was supported. Five nigrescence profiles were identified: Miseducation-Pro-Black, Conflicted-Self-Hatred, Multiculturalist, Low Race Salience, and Conflicted-Anti-White. Individuals with Conflicted-Self-Hatred profiles reported significantly and meaningfully higher scores on the 4 syndromes than did their peers, and individuals with the Multiculturalist and Low Race Salience profiles reported the lowest scores. A greater percentage of individuals with Conflicted racial identity profiles had syndrome scores in the clinically significant range. The results of this study demonstrate that some of the nigrescence profiles found in college-age students generalize to adolescents. The implications of the findings for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Metzger, Isha W.; Cooper, Shauna M.; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Onyeuku, Chisom; Griffin, Charity Brown
Though studies show that alcohol use and sexual activity increase during emerging adulthood, few studies examine within–ethnic group differences, particularly among African American college students. This investigation utilized a latent class analytic methodology to identify risk behavior profiles of alcohol use (frequency and amount of alcohol consumed), sexual activity (number of intimate partners), and co-occurring risk behaviors (drinking before sexual intercourse) among 228 African American college students. This investigation also examined whether identified risk behavior profiles were associated with stress (interpersonal, intraperso-nal, academic, and environmental), experiences of racial discrimination, and social support (from family, friends, and the college community). Results identified five distinct profiles within this sample: (a) High Sexual Risk—above-average sexual activity; (b) Abstainers—below-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (c) Low Risk—average alcohol use and sexual activity; (d) Alcohol Risk—above-average alcohol use and below-average sexual activity; and (e) Co-Occurring Risk—above-average alcohol use and sexual activity. Identified profiles differed across interpersonal and environmental stress, and self-reported frequency of experiences with racial discrimination. Implications for prevention programs and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol and sexual activity for African American college students are discussed. PMID:27215314
Metzger, Isha W; Cooper, Shauna M; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Onyeuku, Chisom; Griffin, Charity Brown
Though studies show that alcohol use and sexual activity increase during emerging adulthood, few studies examine within-ethnic group differences, particularly among African American college students. This investigation utilized a latent class analytic methodology to identify risk behavior profiles of alcohol use (frequency and amount of alcohol consumed), sexual activity (number of intimate partners), and co-occurring risk behaviors (drinking before sexual intercourse) among 228 African American college students. This investigation also examined whether identified risk behavior profiles were associated with stress (interpersonal, intrapersonal, academic, and environmental), experiences of racial discrimination, and social support (from family, friends, and the college community). Results identified five distinct profiles within this sample: (a) High Sexual Risk-above-average sexual activity; (b) Abstainers-below-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (c) Low Risk-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (d) Alcohol Risk-above-average alcohol use and below-average sexual activity; and (e) Co-Occurring Risk-above-average alcohol use and sexual activity. Identified profiles differed across interpersonal and environmental stress, and self-reported frequency of experiences with racial discrimination. Implications for prevention programs and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol and sexual activity for African American college students are discussed.
Full Text Available In August 2003, Canadian and international media broke news of Operation Thread, executed by the Canadian state security apparatus to apprehend 23 South-Asian Muslim members of a “possible Al-Qaeda sleeper cell” in the Greater Toronto Area. After exposing the suspects to domestic and international opprobrium, the state security apparatus conceded that the allegations of terrorism were unfounded. Using material from the National Post and The Globe and Mail, this paper interrogates the mass mediation of Operation Thread as a case of racial profiling situated in a moral panic over “Islamic terrorism” that was created by a section of the Canadian news media and the state security apparatus. Particularly, it shows that the media contested the discourse of the state security apparatus, thus reflecting the contested nature of news as a social power resource. However, there is still a need for the media to be more critical when dealing with cases such as Operation Thread that are informed by racial profiling post September 11.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA and Caucasians (CAU, and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. Results A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU. The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of 1.4 with a P value Conclusions These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.
Gosetti, Fabio; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio
list of the prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In WADA list steroids figure in three main classes, namely anabolic steroids, corticosteroids and substances with anti-estrogenic properties. It must be strongly reminded that assumption of doping agents not only leads to athletes the possible failing of doping tests but causes important health risk and WADA prohibited list establishes criteria to highlight the alteration of the natural steroid profile caused by exogenous administration. Doping control analyses are generally performed in urine, a matrix that provides a prolonged detection time window, and less often in blood, serum, plasma, hair, saliva, and nails. To identify the chemical structures of anabolic steroids the use of mass spectrometry detection is very advantageous. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques allowed for the development of comprehensive screening methods. GC-MS methods are sensitive and robust but present the disadvantages of time-consuming sample pretreatment, that is often based on hydrolysis and derivatisation reactions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods have been successfully used to identify and determinate steroids in different matrices, as well as to study their metabolisms. Nowadays, automatic rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry has become the technique of choice for steroid analysis. Due to its generally higher speed, sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity with respect to HPLC, it can be used to simultaneously separate and determinate multi component steroid mixtures. The technique is of huge interest to separate conjugates anabolic androgenic steroids, as it allows efficiency enhancement due to the small particle (sub-2μm) column packing, which provides high peak capacity within analysis times even 5-10 fold shorter than conventional HPLC methods. Modern multiplex instruments can analyze thousands of samples per month
Sternthal, Michelle J.; Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.
Despite the widespread assumption that racial differences in stress exist and that stress is a key mediator linking racial status to poor health, relatively few studies have explicitly examined this premise. We examine the distribution of stress across racial groups and the role of stress vulnerability and exposure in explaining racial differences in health in a community sample of Black, Hispanic, and White adults, employing a modeling strategy that accounts for the correlation between types of stressors and the accumulation of stressors in the prediction of health outcomes. We find significant racial differences in overall and cumulative exposure to eight stress domains. Blacks exhibit a higher prevalence and greater clustering of high stress scores than Whites. American-born Hispanics show prevalence rates and patterns of accumulation of stressors comparable to Blacks, while foreign-born Hispanics have stress profiles similar to Whites. Multiple stressors correlate with poor physical and mental health, with financial and relationship stressors exhibiting the largest and most consistent effects. Though we find no support for the stress-vulnerability hypothesis, the stress-exposure hypothesis does account for some racial health disparities. We discuss implications for future research and policy.
Full Text Available After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs for livestock, the feeding environment, including the composition of animal intestinal microbiota, has changed rapidly. We hypothesized that the microbial genomes have also been affected by this legal prohibition, and investigated an important member of the swine gut microbiota, Lactobacillus salivarius, with a pan-genomic approach. Here, we isolated 21 L. salivarius strains composed of 6 strains isolated before the AGP prohibition (SBPs and 15 strains isolated after the AGP prohibition (SAPs at an interval of a decade, and the draft genomes were generated de novo. Several genomic differences between SBPs and SAPs were identified, although the number and function of antibiotic resistance genes were not different. SBPs showed larger genome size and a higher number of orthologs, as well as lower genetic diversity, than SAPs. SBPs had genes associated with the utilization of L-rhamnose and D-tagatose for energy production. Because these sugars are also used in exopolysaccharide (EPS synthesis, we tried to identify differences in biofilm formation-associated genes. The genes for the production of EPSs and extracellular proteins were different in terms of amino acid sequences. Indeed, SAPs formed dense biofilm and survived better than SBPs in the swine intestinal environment. These results suggest that SAPs have evolved and adapted to protect themselves from new selection pressure of the swine intestinal microenvironment by forming dense biofilms, adopting a distinct antibiotic resistance strategy. This finding is particularly important to understand the evolutionary changes in host-microbe interaction and provide detailed insight for the development of effective probiotics for livestock.
Lee, Jun-Yeong; Han, Geon Goo; Lee, Ho-Bin; Lee, Sang-Mok; Kang, Sang-Kee; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Chae, Byung Jo; Choi, Yo Han; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie
After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for livestock, the feeding environment, including the composition of animal intestinal microbiota, has changed rapidly. We hypothesized that the microbial genomes have also been affected by this legal prohibition, and investigated an important member of the swine gut microbiota, Lactobacillus salivarius, with a pan-genomic approach. Here, we isolated 21 L. salivarius strains composed of 6 strains isolated before the AGP prohibition (SBPs) and 15 strains isolated after the AGP prohibition (SAPs) at an interval of a decade, and the draft genomes were generated de novo. Several genomic differences between SBPs and SAPs were identified, although the number and function of antibiotic resistance genes were not different. SBPs showed larger genome size and a higher number of orthologs, as well as lower genetic diversity, than SAPs. SBPs had genes associated with the utilization of L-rhamnose and D-tagatose for energy production. Because these sugars are also used in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, we tried to identify differences in biofilm formation-associated genes. The genes for the production of EPSs and extracellular proteins were different in terms of amino acid sequences. Indeed, SAPs formed dense biofilm and survived better than SBPs in the swine intestinal environment. These results suggest that SAPs have evolved and adapted to protect themselves from new selection pressure of the swine intestinal microenvironment by forming dense biofilms, adopting a distinct antibiotic resistance strategy. This finding is particularly important to understand the evolutionary changes in host-microbe interaction and provide detailed insight for the development of effective probiotics for livestock.
New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…
Mazzarino, Monica; de la Torre, Xavier; Fiacco, Ilaria; Palermo, Amelia; Botrè, Francesco
The present study was designed to provide preliminary information on the potential impact of metabolic drug-drug interaction on the effectiveness of doping control strategies currently followed by the anti-doping laboratories to detect the intake of banned agents. In vitro assays based on the use of human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms were designed and performed to characterize the phase I metabolic profile of the prohibited agent toremifene, selected as a prototype drug of the class of selective oestrogen receptor modulators, both in the absence and in the presence of medicaments (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, cimetidine, ranitidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, nefazodone) not included in the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances and methods and frequently administered to athletes. The results show that the in vitro model developed in this study was adequate to simulate the in vivo metabolism of toremifene, confirming the results obtained in previous studies. Furthermore, our data also show that ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nefazodone cause a marked modification in the production of the metabolic products (i.e. hydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites) normally selected by the anti-doping laboratories as target analytes to detect toremifene intake; moderate variations were registered in the presence of fluconazole, paroxetine and fluoxetine; while no significant modifications were measured in the presence of ranitidine and cimetidine. This evidence imposes that the potential effect of drug-drug interactions is duly taken into account in anti-doping analysis, also for a broader significance of the analytical results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M
Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.
In the recent article, "Against the New Racial Naturalism", Adam Hochman (2013, p. 332) argues that new racial naturalists have been too hasty in their racial interpretation of genetic clustering results of human populations. While Hochman makes a number of good points, the purpose of this paper is to show that Hochman's attack on new racial naturalists is misguided due to his definition of 'racial naturalism'. Thus, I will show that Hochman's critique is merely a consequence of an unnatural interpretation of racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K
This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.
López-Candales, Angel; Aponte Rodríguez, Jaime; Harris, David
Hypertension not only is the most frequently listed cause of death worldwide; but also a well-recognized major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Based on the latest published statistics published by the American Heart Association, hypertension is very prevalent and found in one of every 3 US adults. Furthermore, data from NHANES 2007 to 2010 claims that almost 6% of US adults have undiagnosed hypertension. Despite this staggering statistic, previous US guidelines for the prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 7 [JNC 7]), released in 2003, stated that; "unfortunately, sufficient numbers of Mexican Americans and other Hispanic Americans... have not been included in most of the major clinical trials to allow reaching strong conclusions about their responses to individual antihypertensive therapies." However, the recently published JNC 8 offers no comment regarding recommendations or guideline treatment suggestions on Hispanics. The purpose of this article not only is to raise awareness of the lack of epidemiological data and treatment options regarding high blood pressure in the US Hispanic population; but also to make a case of the racial, cultural and social makeup of this ethnic group that places them at risk of cardiovascular complications related to hypertension.
Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as "races are subspecies", if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. However, he supports his preferred version of 'racial naturalism' with arguments that are not well described as 'naturalistic'. I argue that Spencer offers us an unnaturalised racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bjerre, Jacob Halvas
. This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...
Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)
Johnson, Alandis A.; Quaye, Stephen John
We used queer theory to encourage readers to think differently about previous theories about Black racial identity development. Queer theory facilitates new and deeper understandings of how Black people develop their racial identities, prompting more fluidity and nuance. Specifically, we present a queered model of Black racial identity development…
Whatever its causes, racial isolation is social dynamite. Problems and destiny of America and American education cannot be separated from fate of American cities, which daily grow poorer, more violent, less socially cohesive, and more isolated. Problems cannot be addressed without taking racism into account. Schools can help students understand…
Thomsen, Frej Klem
Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing...... sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three...... arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception....
Thomsen, Frej Klem
Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Sheikh, Sana; Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie
Explanations based in attribution theory claim that strong external controls such as parental restrictiveness and punishment undermine moral internalization. In contrast, three studies provide evidence that parental punishment does socialize morality, but of a particular sort: a morality focused on prohibitions (i.e., proscriptive orientation), rather than positive obligations (i.e., prescriptive orientation). Study 1 found young adults’ accounts of parental restrictiveness and punishment act...
Sheikh, Sana; Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie
Explanations based in attribution theory claim that strong external controls such as parental restrictiveness and punishment undermine moral internalization. In contrast, 3 studies provide evidence that parental punishment does socialize morality, but of a particular sort: a morality focused on prohibitions (i.e., proscriptive orientation) rather than positive obligations (i.e., prescriptive orientation). Study 1 found young adults' accounts of parental restrictiveness and punishment activated their sensitivity to prohibitions and predicted a proscriptive orientation. Consistent with the greater potency of temptations for proscriptively oriented children, as well as past research linking shame to proscriptive morality, Study 2 found that restrictive parenting was also associated with greater suppression of temptations. Finally, Studies 3A and 3B found that suppressing these immoral thoughts is paradoxically harder for those with strong proscriptive orientations; more specifically, priming a proscriptive (versus prescriptive) orientation and inducing mental suppression of "immoral" thoughts led to the most ego depletion for those with restrictive parents. Overall, individuals who had restrictive parents had the lowest self-regulatory ability to resist their "immoral" temptations after prohibitions were activated. In contrast to common attributional explanations, these studies suggest that harsh external control by parents does not undercut moral socialization but rather undermines individuals' ability to resist temptation.
... OF LSC FUNDS, PROGRAM INTEGRITY § 1610.3 Prohibition. A recipient may not use non-LSC funds for any purpose prohibited by the LSC Act or for any activity prohibited by or inconsistent with Section 504...
Moore, J. William; And Others
This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…
Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn; Park, Sung Gwan
Research on social identity contingencies suggests that situational cues, such as a numerical representation of social identities in a given social environment, can trigger identity-associated threat for individuals whose social identity is marginalized. Given that popular virtual worlds (e.g., Second Life [SL]) are often criticized for White-avatar dominance or White bias, we examined the psychological effects of the alleged White dominance in avatar-based virtual worlds by conducting two experiments in which participants read fictitious profiles of SL resident avatars. White and non-White participants were randomly assigned to view either a set of White-dominant avatar profiles or a set of racially diverse ones. After reading the profiles, participants had an opportunity to customize avatars using the SL interface. The findings of Experiment 1 (n=59) revealed that non-White participants exposed to the White-dominant avatar profiles, when compared with those exposed to the racially diverse profiles, reported significantly lower levels of sense of belonging and intention to participate in SL. Experiment 2 (n=64) demonstrated that non-White participants exposed to the White-dominant avatar profiles gave significantly higher estimation of the White user population within SL; the data also showed that exposure to the White-dominant avatar profiles resulted in a greater sense of limitation on skin customization among non-White participants than among White participants. The present research suggests that ethno-racial minorities, when exposed to avatar-based cues that signal White dominance, may perceive the virtual world as identity threatening, thereby feeling psychologically disconnected and detached from it. Implications regarding racial/ethnic diversity in virtual worlds are discussed.
Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward
How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.
Buchanan, Robert J; Rosenthal, Mark; Graber, David R; Wang, Suojin; Kim, Myung Suk
To present racial/ethnic comparisons of comprehensive profiles of nursing home residents at admission, including whites, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. More than 885,000 admission assessments recorded in the national Minimum Data Set (MDS) were analyzed. Racial and ethnic analyses of the MDS admission assessments were conducted using the software package SAS. There were significant racial/ethnic differences in gender and age, with minority residents more likely to be male and younger. African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islanders were significantly more likely than white residents to exhibit total dependence in the self-performance of the ADLs and to have greater cognitive impairments, with Asian/Pacific Islanders the most physically dependent and cognitively impaired. The results illustrate significant and substantive differences among the racial/ethnic groups for many demographic characteristics, as well as health-related indicators and conditions. This analysis suggests that the general perspective that economically disadvantaged minorities enter nursing homes in worse condition than whites is too simplistic. More research, particularly qualitative studies of specific minority groups, will advance our understanding of why members of some racial/ethnic groups require nursing home placement sooner than other groups.
..., and overall quality of Army life. Black soldiers also subscribe to more egalitarian attitudes concerning male/female work teams and performance but are more negative about racial discrimination and equal opportunity issues...
Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Vesla; Burch, Traci
Are racial disparities in the United States just as deep-rooted as they were before the 2008 presidential election, largely eliminated, or persistent but on the decline? One can easily find all of these pronouncements; rather than trying to adjudicate among them, this essay seeks to identify what is changing in the American racial order, what persists or is becoming even more entrenched, and what is likely to affect the balance between change and continuity. The authors focus on young America...
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.
The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared to the Achieved group. PMID:21875184
Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A
The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies ( n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.
The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited. ...
The purpose of this Act is to protect the health and safety of the people of Victoria and its environment by prohibiting nuclear activities from being carried out and regulating the possession of certain nuclear material in a manner consistent with assisting Australia in meeting its international nuclear non-proliferation objectives. (NEA) [fr
Haan, Marco A.
In this paper, we show that a policy that forbids cartels may benefit dominant firms, and hurt consumers. When cartels are prohibited, an incumbent monopolist can commit not to form a cartel should a new entrant enter the market. This reduces the entry threat, which implies that entry occurs less
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. [41 FR 49488, Nov. 9, 1976. Redesignated at...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited relationships. 891.685... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.685 Prohibited relationships. The requirements for prohibited relationships for 202/162 projects are provided in § 891.130. ...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a recipient...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.31 Section 1151.31... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.31 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the...
Macomber, Kris; Rusche, Sarah Nell
As teachers, the authors' lessons about contemporary racial inequality are complicated and contradicted by the rhetoric of color-blindness--the belief that race no longer matters for determining life chances--entrenched in the culture. Students remain attracted to notions of racism as a problem of the "past" and often reject the idea that racism…
Hook, Joshua N; Farrell, Jennifer E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Utsey, Shawn O
Racial microaggressions may contribute to poor counseling outcomes in racial/ethnic minority clients. The present study examined the occurrence of racial microaggressions in counseling using a large and diverse sample and explored the association between perceived cultural humility of the counselor and racial microaggressions. Racial/ethnic minority participants (N = 2,212) answered questions about the frequency and impact of racial microaggressions in counseling and the characteristics of their counselor. The majority of clients (81%) reported experiencing at least 1 racial microaggression in counseling. Participants most commonly reported racial microaggressions involving denial or lack of awareness of stereotypes and bias and avoidance of discussing cultural issues. There were few differences in racial microaggression frequency or impact based on client race/ethnicity and counselor race/ethnicity. Racially matched clients viewed racial microaggressions as more impactful than did clients who were not racially matched. Client-perceived cultural humility of the counselor was associated with fewer microaggressions experienced in counseling. We conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.
An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the stage for a more fruitful discussion about special education and racial justice. An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the…
Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Hottell, Derek
Using a phenomenological approach, rooted in critical theory's desire to challenge systemic structures of inequality, we explored the impact of racialized hate encountered on social media by students of color at a predominately White institution. The encounters of racialized hostility manifested as anti-Black sentiments and produced racial battle…
Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Gampel, Joanne; Richardson, Erin; Savage, Andrea; Wagler, Debra
Little attention has been given to racial/ethnic differences in studies of co-occurring disorders among women. In this article, we present findings from analyses conducted on the influence of racial/ethnic differences on the demographic and clinical profiles of 2,534 women in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration-sponsored…
..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.4 Activities prohibited. Law enforcement, public relations, harvesting, marketing and processing activities, construction of fisherman use facilities, and activities concerned with...
This study compares the effects of racial incidents on reported levels of satisfaction with military service across racial/ethnic groups by analyzing responses to the Armed Forces Equal Opportunity Survey (AFEOS...
This study compares the effects of racial incidents on reported levels of satisfaction with military service across racial/ethnic groups by analyzing responses to the Armed Forces Equal Opportunity Survey (AFEOS...
Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Turner, Kea
Racial equality and racial equity in U.S. education has been elusive although decades of education reform have them as goals. Current discourse advocate colorblind and post-racial solutions to racial inequality and racial inequity in education; these solutions implicate presentism, a view that exclusively circumscribes the existence of present-day…
Cathlena Martin explores in her paper "Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization" selected children's video games. Martin argues that children's video games often act as reinforcement for the games' television and film counterparts and their racializing characteristics and features. In Martin's analysis the video games discussed represent media through which to analyze racial identities and ideologies. In making the case for positive female minority leads in children's video games, ...
Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning ...
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Helms, Janet E.
The racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N=188) was assessed to examine the importance of race in their lives. Both racial identity status and reflected appraisals were significantly related to collective self-esteem as one measure of Asian American racial adjustment. Discusses the importance of the counselor's awareness of…
... not served on all parties; or (ii) Any oral communication concerning a matter in adjudication which is... oral or written ex parte communication relative to the merits of any proceedings under these Rules is a...) Prohibited oral ex parte communication. (i) If a prohibited oral ex parte communication is made to a decision...
... than a decisionmaker which is not served on all parties, (ii) Any oral communication other than a...) Prohibited ex parte communications. Any oral or written ex parte communication relative to the merits of a... circumstances shall be forwarded with the communication. (2) Prohibited oral ex parte communication. (i) If a...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207... § 560.207 Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... investment by a United States person in Iran or in property (including entities) owned or controlled by the...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited drugs. 120.31 Section 120.31... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under Â§ 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.31 Prohibited drugs. (a) Each...
... refusal to do business under this section for a United States person to provide management, procurement... race, religion, sex, or national origin of any U.S. person. (d) Furnishing information about business... OR BOYCOTTS § 760.2 Prohibitions. (a) Refusals to do business. Prohibition Against Refusals To Do...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited relationships. 891.832 Section 891.832 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 891.832 Prohibited relationships. Section 891.130 applies, except that in the mixed-finance program...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited relationships. 891.130 Section 891.130 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Requirements § 891.130 Prohibited relationships. This section shall apply to capital advances under the Section...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or segregation...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in part...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.12 Section 32.12 Labor Office... § 32.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B shall...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment in...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b) Specific...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity. ...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for the...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.103 Section... OF HANDICAP General Provisions § 1251.103 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified... of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination against...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited. (1...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2) A...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to discrimination...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. ...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of race...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under any...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination. ...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity to...
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program to...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance from...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.21 Section 1170.21... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.21 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under any...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination for...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.200 Section... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.200 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination under...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.300 Section... OF HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.300 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall... benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. ...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where the...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.4 Section 34... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.4 Discrimination... part applies. (b) Specific actions in which discrimination is prohibited. No person shall directly or...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.203 Section... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal financial...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b) Discriminatory...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.31 Section 1170.31... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Accessibility § 1170.31 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped... denied the benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies. (b...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits from...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited: (1...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2) A...
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 270.4 Section 270.4 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.4 Discrimination prohibited. No contract or subcontract to which...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9 Section... TRANSPORTATION § 271.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) All air carriers receiving subsidy under this part shall comply with the following: (1) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975; (2) The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited financing. 120.476... Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.476 Prohibited financing. An SBLC may not make a loan to a small business that has received financing (or a commitment for financing) from an SBIC that is an Associate of...
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited acts. 430.61 Section 430.61 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Certification and... convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 430.61 Prohibited acts. (b) In accordance...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible the...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibitions. 93.801 Section 93.801 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.801 Prohibitions...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited investments. 703.16 Section 703.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.16 Prohibited investments. (a) Derivatives. A Federal credit union may...
Allen, G. E. Kawika; Garriott, Patton O.; Reyes, Carla J.; Hsieh, Catherine
This study examined racial identity, self-esteem, and phenotype among biracial Polynesian/White adults. Eighty-four Polynesian/White persons completed the Biracial Identity Attitude Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, and a Polynesian phenotype scale. Profile analyses showed participants identified more with their Polynesian parent. A…
Zakai, N A; McClure, L A
The incidence of venous thrombosis (VTE) varies by race, with African-Americans having over 5-fold greater incidence than Asian-ancestry populations, and an intermediate risk for European and Hispanic populations. Known racial differences in genetic polymorphisms associated with thrombosis do not account for this gradient of risk, nor do known racial variations in environmental risk factors. Data on the incidence of and risk factors for VTE outside of Europe and North America and in non-European ancestry populations are sparse. Common genetic polymorphisms in European-Ancestry populations, such as factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, and environmental risk factors, such as obesity, may account for some of the increased risk in European populations, and high factor VIII, high von Willebrand factor and low protein C levels and increased prevalence of obesity may explain some of the increased risk in African-Americans. The low rates in Asian populations may be partially explained by low clinical suspicion in a perceived low-risk population and lack of access to healthcare in other populations. As risk factors for thrombosis, such as surgery and treatment for cancer, are applicable to more people, as obesity increases in prevalence in the developing world, and as surveillance systems for VTE improve, VTE may increase in previously low-risk populations. While differences in VTE by race due to genetic predisposition will probably always be present, understanding the reasons for racial differences in VTE will help providers develop strategies to minimize VTE in all populations. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; Kobayashi, Audrey; James, Carl; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.
This article is based on data from a four-year national study of racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian universities. Its main conclusion is that whether one examines representation in terms of numbers of racialized and Indigenous faculty members and their positioning within the system, their earned income as compared to white faculty, their…
Kramarczuk Voulgarides, Catherine; Tefera, Adai
Racial disproportionality in special education is a deep seated and complex educational inequity plaguing the United States educational system. In this article we outline how the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, although a civil rights based legislation, cannot sufficiently address racially disproportionate outcomes in special…
Lagermann, Laila Colding
In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…
Full Text Available Personalized pharmacogenomics aims to use individual genotypes to direct medical treatment. Unfortunately, the loci relevant for the pharmacokinetics and especially the pharmacodynamics of most drugs are still unknown. Moreover, we still do not understand the role that individual genotypes play in modulating the pathogenesis, the clinical course and the susceptibility to drugs of human diseases which, although appearing homogeneous on the surface, may vary from patient to patient. To try to deal with this situation, it has been proposed to use interpopulational variability as a reference for drug development and prescription, leading to the development of "race-targeted drugs". Given the present limitations of genomic knowledge and of the tools needed to fully implement it today, some investigators have proposed to use racial criteria as a palliative measure until personalized pharmacogenomics is fully developed. This was the rationale for the FDA approval of BiDil for treatment of heart failure in African Americans. I will evaluate the efficacy and safety of racial pharmacogenomics here and conclude that it fails on both counts. Next I shall review the perspectives and the predicted rate of development of clinical genomic studies. The conclusion is that "next-generation" genomic sequencing is advancing at a tremendous rate and that true personalized pharmacogenomics, based on individual genotyping, should soon become a clinical reality.
We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Warren, Christopher A.
The proliferation of post-racial theory (PRT) in both social and political spheres of dominant American hegemony has illustrated a desire among academic circles to move past race and racial categories in social analysis. However, absent within post-racial rhetoric is critical language on how to abolish racism and racial inequality. (Samad 2009) It…
Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William
Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle of…
Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia
This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…
Mathews, Neilson M
With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.
Apfelbaum, Evan P; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R; Ambady, Nalini
Despite receiving little empirical assessment, the color-blind approach to managing diversity has become a leading institutional strategy for promoting racial equality, across domains and scales of practice. We gauged the utility of color blindness as a means to eliminating future racial inequity--its central objective--by assessing its impact on a sample of elementary-school students. Results demonstrated that students exposed to a color-blind mind-set, as opposed to a value-diversity mind-set, were actually less likely both to detect overt instances of racial discrimination and to describe such events in a manner that would prompt intervention by certified teachers. Institutional messages of color blindness may therefore artificially depress formal reporting of racial injustice. Color-blind messages may thus appear to function effectively on the surface even as they allow explicit forms of bias to persist.
Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.
A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.
Sakti D, Andika; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul
Based on the principle of conformity, a person tends to prefer a partner who has in common with him. But as the times goes by along with the era which is increasingly open, we have encountered inter-racial relationships, including in Indonesia. When couples come from different cultural backgrounds, the values, rules, standpoints, habits, and methods that used in relationship must also be different. The characteristics differences are tend to be the cause of conflict on inter-racial relationsh...
The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that 'race' is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social constructionism has always had its critics. Sesardic (2010) has compiled these criticisms into one of the strongest defences of racial naturalism in recent times. In this paper I argue that Sesardic equivocates between two versions of racial naturalism: a weak version and a strong version. As I shall argue, the strong version is not supported by the relevant science. The weak version, on the other hand, does not contrast properly with what social constructionists think about 'race'. By leaning on this weak view Sesardic's racial naturalism intermittently gains an appearance of plausibility, but this view is too weak to revive racial naturalism. As Sesardic demonstrates, there are new arguments for racial naturalism post-Human Genome Diversity Project. The positive message behind my critique is how to be a social constructionist about race in the post-genomic era. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X
Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender.
English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents’ racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents’ racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents’ perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents’ gender moderate associations between parents’ racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents’ racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents’ gender. PMID:27189721
Museus, Samuel D.; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Robinson, Thomas
The failure of many 2-year college students to persist and complete a post-secondary credential or degree remains a problem of paramount importance to higher education policymakers and practitioners. While racial representation--or the extent to which a student's racial group is represented on their respective campus--might be one factor that…
Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin
Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…
Coleman, Sherry; Stevenson, Howard C.
Research on the experience of faculty of color in predominately White independent schools (PWIS) is limited. This study explored faculty of varying racial backgrounds and their initiation of, interactions with, and stress reactions to racial conflicts within the school settings using an online survey. Several measures were developed according to…
Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Lee, J Katherine; Renauer, Brian; Henning, Kris R; Stewart, Greg
This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes. A serial multiple mediation model confirmed that racial minorities' self-rated phenotypic racial stereotypicality indirectly affected future cooperation through social identity threat and trust. Due to the lack of negative group stereotypes in policing, the model did not hold for Whites. This study provides evidence that phenotypic stereotypicality influences racial minorities' psychological experiences interacting with police.
Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo
This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.
Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232
Almond, Amanda Lee
The purpose of this study was to validate the already existing Racial Microaggression in Counseling Scale (RMCS) when the term 'therapist' was replaced with 'physician', thus constituting the modification as the Racial Microaggression in Medical Practice Scale (RMMPS). Racial microaggressions work at reinforcing inferior social status on a cognitive level. Unlike overt racism, messages behind microaggression are subtler and more every day. A lack of acceptance, respect, and regard emerges from interactions in medical contexts as there are layers of in-group and out-group statuses at play (e.g. physician-patient, Black-White, expert-lay, and Westernized-alternative). The layer focused on in this study was that of race or skin color. A sample of racial minorities in the Northeast (n = 91) was investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively to validate the modification and future use of a RMMPS. The scale was related to the racial incongruence between patient and provider. Qualitative findings support the original concepts and themes used when developing the 10-item measure in a counseling setting. Psychometric findings for the scale also supported its factorial structure using generalizability theory estimates. Future implications of this research relate to health behavior, trustworthiness, and health outcomes of minority patients. Its potential for use among various practitioners, educators, and researchers is also discussed.
This article employs two previously neglected indicators of racial prejudice from the British Social Attitudes surveys to examine the social distribution of prejudices against black and Asian Britons. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested: that racial prejudice is declining in Britain; that this decline is principally generational in nature; and that greater prejudice is shown towards more culturally distinct Asian minorities than black minorities. Strong evidence is found for the first two hypotheses, with evidence of an overall decline in prejudice and of a sharp decline in prejudices among generations who have grown up since mass black and Asian immigration began in the 1950s. Little evidence is found for the third hypothesis: British reactions towards black and Asian minorities are broadly similar suggesting racial differences may still be the main factor prompting white hostility to British minorities.
Bhoomi K. Thakore
Full Text Available As the internet has become an integral part of everyday life, it is understood that patterns of racial stereotyping and discrimination found in the offline world are often reproduced online. In our paper, we examine two exclusionary practices in an online environment for adult toy collectors: First, the exclusion of non-white individuals who are expected to form immediate friendships with other non-white members; and second, the essentializing of racial issues when concerns over the lack of racial diversity in the toys are discussed. This dismissal is often directly connected to non-white members’ decisions to no longer participate, resulting in a new form of segregation within virtual space.
Robert D. Crutchfield
Full Text Available Racial and ethnic violence takes many forms. Genocides, ethnic cleansing, pogroms, civil wars, and violent separatist movements are the most obvious and extreme expressions, but less organized violence such as rioting, and hate crimes by individuals or small groups are products of racial and ethnic conflict as well. Also, the distribution of criminal violence within societies, which may or may not be aimed at members of another group, is in some places a by-product of ongoing conflicts between superior and subordinated racial or ethnic groups. Although estimates of the number of deaths attributable to ethnic violence vary widely, range of eleven to twenty million given for the period between 1945 and the early 1990s show the gravity of this type of conflict (Williams 1994, 50. So it comes as no surprise that scholars have paid increasing attention to such conflicts over the last decades.
Pearce, Diana M.
This paper explores the problem of segregation due to racial patterns in housing by examining the role of real estate agents, acting as a community of gatekeepers, in the perpetration of racial segregation. (Author/EB)
Baber, Lorenzo DuBois
Despite traditional notions of meritocracy, higher education has a long history of exclusionary practices. This chapter explores connections between such practices and racial ideology in the United States, including the recent concept of "post-racialism."
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited gear and methods. 622.31... Management Measures § 622.31 Prohibited gear and methods. In addition to the prohibited gear/methods specified in this section, see §§ 622.33, 622.34, and 622.35 for seasonal/area prohibited gear/methods and...
Sawyer, Jeremy; Gampa, Anup
Lab-based interventions have been ineffective in changing individuals’ implicit racial attitudes for more than brief durations, and exposure to high-status Black exemplars like Obama has proven ineffective in shifting societal-level racial attitudes. Anti-racist social movements, however, offer a potential societal-level alternative for reducing racial bias. Racial attitudes were examined before and during Black Lives Matter (BLM) and its high points of struggle with 1,369,204 participants fr...
Presents findings from a research study on sibling loss in childhood which support the idea that the loss of a sibling in childhood may be an especially significant loss for a child, in that both internal, family, and societal influences prohibit the opportunity to mourn the loss. (Author/NRB)
... for consumer reports that bear on a consumer's credit worthiness, standing and capacity. Smith Co... information on consumers residing nationwide, and ceases to offer reports containing public record information... TREATMENT AS A NATIONWIDE CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCY § 611.2 General prohibition. (a) A consumer reporting...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service 36 CFR Part 261 RIN 0596-AD08 Prohibitions Governing Fire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Forest Service is making purely... Fire. * * * * * (j) Operating or using any internal or external combustion engine without a spark...
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Prohibited acts. 1104.3 Section 1104.3 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION..., or otherwise alter or deface any archaeological resource located on public lands unless such activity...
... Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2 Prohibited activities. (a) Evasion of law or regulation. No savings and loan holding... savings and loan holding company or subsidiary thereof that is not a savings association shall commence...
... Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.9 Prohibited acts. (a) Control of mutual savings association. No savings and loan holding company or any subsidiary thereof, or any director, officer, or employee of a savings and loan holding company or...
..., EUTHANASIA, AND MERCY KILLING § 1643.3 Prohibition. No recipient may use LSC funds to assist in, support, or... form of legal assistance for the purpose of: (a) Securing or funding any item, benefit, program, or..., euthanasia, or mercy killing of any individual; (b) Compelling any person, institution, or governmental...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office of... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.3 Discrimination... participation in JTPA, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, subjected to discrimination...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b) Specific...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2) A...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies. ...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. (b...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart applies...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...
..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.214 Prohibitions. No...
Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.
... STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Consumer Protection in Sales of... practice that would lead a consumer to believe that an extension of credit, in violation of section 106(b... agreement by the consumer not to obtain, or a prohibition on the consumer from obtaining, an insurance...
... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF... engage in any practice that would lead a consumer to believe that an extension of credit, in violation of...) An agreement by the consumer not to obtain, or a prohibition on the consumer from obtaining, an...
... Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES... in any practice that would lead a consumer to believe that an extension of credit, in violation of... agreement by the consumer not to obtain, or a prohibition on the consumer from obtaining, an insurance...
... CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE § 343.30 Prohibited practices. (a) Anticoercion and antitying rules. You may not engage in any practice that would lead a consumer to believe that an extension of... annuity sold or offered for sale by you or any subsidiary of the bank is not backed by the Federal...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition; sanctions. 420.22 Section 420.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... established water pricing schedules of the Commission) of any such use, withdrawal or diversion, and invoke...
... substance found within the wine, and health benefits or effects on health. The term includes both specific... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.39 Prohibited practices. (a) Statements on labels. Containers of wine, or any label on such containers, or any...
... found within the wine, and health benefits or effects on health. The term includes both specific health... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.64 Prohibited practices. (a) Restrictions. The advertisement of wine shall not contain: (1) Any statement that is false or...
... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.30 Retaliation prohibited. No licensee may refuse service to any customer for the purpose of retaliating against that customer for...
... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.22 Subleasing prohibited. No licensee may lease, sublet, rent, or sell any building that the licensee occupies for any purpose to any person...
..., curriculum, instructions, methods of instruction, and materials of instruction in any school as a condition... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.17 Prohibitions. (a) In carrying out the... limited to, laws relating to taxation, welfare, and public assistance programs. Expenditure of funds from...
... prohibition also applies to programs as to which a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance is (i... participate in the program as an employee but only to the extent set forth in paragraph (c) of this section... of defeating or substantially impairing accomplishment of the objectives of the program as respects...
... PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.104 Prohibitions. Except as provided in § 17.105, (a) Manatee sanctuary. It is unlawful for any person to engage in any waterborne activity within a manatee sanctuary. (b) Manatee refuge. It is...
Full Text Available Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal carcinoma (CRC are higher in African Americans (AAs than in Caucasian Americans (CAs. Deficient micronutrient intake due to dietary restrictions in racial/ethnic populations can alter genetic and molecular profiles leading to dysregulated methylation patterns and the inheritance of somatic to germline mutations.Total DNA and RNA samples of paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues were prepared from AA and CA CRC specimens. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS and RNA sequencing were employed to evaluate total genome methylation of 5'-regulatory regions and dysregulation of gene expression, respectively. Robust analysis was conducted using a trimming-and-retrieving scheme for RRBS library mapping in conjunction with the BStool toolkit.DNA from the tumor of AA CRC patients, compared to adjacent normal tissues, contained 1,588 hypermethylated and 100 hypomethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs. Whereas, 109 hypermethylated and 4 hypomethylated DMRs were observed in DNA from the tumor of CA CRC patients; representing a 14.6-fold and 25-fold change, respectively. Specifically; CHL1, 4 anti-inflammatory genes (i.e., NELL1, GDF1, ARHGEF4, and ITGA4, and 7 miRNAs (of which miR-9-3p and miR-124-3p have been implicated in CRC were hypermethylated in DNA samples from AA patients with CRC. From the same sample set, RNAseq analysis revealed 108 downregulated genes (including 14 ribosomal proteins and 34 upregulated genes (including POLR2B and CYP1B1 [targets of miR-124-3p] in AA patients with CRC versus CA patients.DNA methylation profile and/or products of its downstream targets could serve as biomarker(s addressing racial health disparity.
... prohibited oral ex parte communication is attempted to be made, shall refuse to listen to the communication... substance of the communication, if it was oral; (3) all written responses to the prohibited communication; and (4) memoranda stating the substance of all oral responses to the prohibited communication. The...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 1151... HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited General § 1151.16 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a) No... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which...
... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 3501.103 Prohibited interests in Federal lands. (a) Cross-references to statutory prohibitions—(1) Prohibited purchases of public land by Bureau... the Bureau of Land Management are prohibited by 43 U.S.C. 11 from directly or indirectly purchasing or...
... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited activities and circumvention... § 63.4 Prohibited activities and circumvention. (a) Prohibited activities. (1) No owner or operator... part. (3)-(5) [Reserved] (b) Circumvention. No owner or operator subject to the provisions of this part...
... partisan election. (b) In addition, certain political activities are prohibited by Federal criminal law: (1... Political Activity § 73.735-603 Prohibited activities. (a) The following are prohibited activities: (1) Serving as an officer of a political party, a member of a national, State or local committee of a...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on advertising... Prohibition on advertising. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1213.7101 and 1237.7003, insert the following clause: Prohibition on Advertising (JAN 1996) The contractor or its representatives (including training instructors...
Combining the conceptual approach of racial formation and racial projects with the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, Jeong-eun Rhee theorizes the "neoliberal racial project" (NRP) and examines contemporary meanings and operations of race and racism in relation to neoliberalism. She analyzes Amy Chua's popular parenting memoir,…
Racial awareness is a critical foundation to racial sensitivity, and it is a necessity for future professionals who want to be prepared to succeed in an increasingly diverse society. Several factors have been shown to influence racial awareness in professionals including their own race, their personal experience with racism, and the amount/quality…
Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Ronnkvist, Amy
Background: Educational research shows differences in experience, access, and outcomes across racial groups with some groups advantaged and others disadvantaged. One of the concepts used to explain racial differences, racialization, is a taken-for-granted term that is yet to be fully defined in the context of the school. We differentiate the term…
Critiques tendencies toward dogmatism and essentialism in current educational theories of racial inequality. Argues that different gender, class, and ethnic interests intersect with racial coordination and affiliation, and that to reduce racial antagonism or ameliorate educational inequities educators must consider the powerful role of nuance,…
Michel, George J.
Compares areas and levels of political conflict in racially isolated school districts by surveying six superintendents from racially isolated African-American schools and six superintendents from racially isolated white schools. Similar issues arise at every conflict level with small variations among issues between African-American and white…
Seguin, Charles; Nierobisz, Annette; Kozlowski, Karen Phelan
Students commonly hold erroneous notions of a "post-racial" world and individualistic worldviews that discount the role of structure in social outcomes. Jointly, these two preconceived beliefs can be powerful barriers to effective teaching of racial segregation: Students may be skeptical that racial segregation continues to exist, and…
Martinez, Martha Irene
Educational disparities are frequently framed in racial comparisons that are based on data generated by sorting and counting racial subgroups. Our reliance on these data, and the sorting and counting mechanisms entailed therein, is fundamental to debates about racial inequalities. What is largely ignored in achievement gap discourse is how racial…
Dalton, Jon C.
Reviews racial bias and racial intolerance among college students during the late 1980s. Asserts that campus bias-related indents are predictable outcomes of increasingly self-interested values and limited personal experience with racial and ethnic diversity. Discusses the need to create more opportunities for contact and interaction among…
The paper explores what racial integration is. Furthermore, it scrutinises how racial integration is currently managed in South African Public schools. The main argument of the paper defends a deliberative conception of managing racial integration in South African public schools. In light of this, there is some form of hope to ...
Pittman, Chavella T.
This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…
Wilson, Thomas C.
National survey data are used to test the relationship between urbanism and racial attitudes among Whites, and a liberalizing effect of urbanism is found. It appears that urbanism liberalizes racial attitudes by increasing equal-status, cooperative, and relatively personal contact between members of racial subcultures. (Author/RDN)
Analyzing schools as racial spaces can help researchers examine the role of teachers in the perpetuation of structural racism in schools. Based on ethnographic and autoethnographic work, this article offers examples of schools as racial spaces, spaces where whiteness controlled access. It also highlights four teachers who pursued racial equity in…
Li, Kelin; Wen, Ming; Fan, Jessie X
This study investigated the independent association between neighborhood racial/ethnic diversity and metabolic syndrome among US adults, and focused on how this association differed across individual and neighborhood characteristics (i.e., race/ethnicity, sex, age, urbanity, neighborhood poverty). Objectively-measured biomarker data from 2003 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were linked to census-tract profiles from 2000 decennial census (N = 10,122). Multilevel random intercept logistic regression models were estimated to examine the contextual effects of tract-level racial/ethnic diversity on individual risks of metabolic syndrome. Overall, more than 20% of the study population were identified as having metabolic syndrome, although the prevalence also varied across demographic subgroups and specific biomarkers. Multilevel analyses showed that increased racial/ethnic diversity within a census tract was associated with decreased likelihood of having metabolic syndrome (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96), particularly among female (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.43-0.96), young adults (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.39-0.93), and residents living in urban (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.48-0.93) or poverty neighborhoods (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.95). The findings point to the potential benefits of neighborhood racial/ethnic diversity on individual health risks.
Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.
Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an…
Da Costa, Alexandre Emboaba
This paper furthers current analysis of anti-racist, critical multicultural, and decolonial educational reforms in Brazil through a focus on the significant role played by post-racial ideology, black politics, and racial literacy in policy design and implementation. The paper first details the ways in which post-racial commonsense and anti-black…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Kyle, Jennifer; Lau, Cindy; Fefer, Keren; Fischetti, Jessica
The purpose of this study was to investigate ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students' experiences with racial microaggressions in school psychology graduate training. Through a national survey of ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students (N = 228), the study examined if level of graduate training (i.e., interns…
Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Wischnia, Sarah
Despite post-racial rhetoric, stereotypes remain salient for American youth. We surveyed 150 elementary and middle schoolers in Northern California and conducted case studies of 12 students. Findings showed that (a) students hold school-related stereotypes that get stronger in middle school, (b) African American and Latino students experience…
Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.
Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…
Diab, Rasha; Ferrel, Thomas; Godbee, Beth; Simpkins, Neil
In this article, we articulate a framework for making our commitments to racial justice actionable, a framework that moves from narrating confessional accounts to articulating our commitments and then acting on them through both self-work and work-with-others, a dialectic possibility we identify and explore. We model a method for moving beyond…
Hagan, John; Rymond-Richmond, Wenona; Palloni, Alberto
We used the Atrocities Documentation Survey to determine whether Sudanese government forces were involved in racially targeting sexual victimization toward ethnically African women in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The US State Department conducted the survey by interviewing a randomized multistage probability sample of 1136 Darfur refugees at 20 sites in Chad in 2004. For a subset of 932 respondents who had fled from village clusters that accounted for 15 or more respondents per cluster, we used hierarchical linear models to analyze village-level patterns of reported sexual violence. We statistically controlled for individual sexual victimization to remove bias. Respondents reported being subjected to racial epithets associated with sexual victimization significantly more often during combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces than during separate attacks by either force. Combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces led to racial epithets being used more often during sexual victimization in Darfur. Our results suggest that the Sudanese government is participating in the use of sexual assault as a racially targeted weapon against ethnically African civilians.
Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith
To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was…
Wolf, L.J.; Maio, G.R.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Leygue, C.
Because of the innocence and dependence of children, it would be reassuring to believe that implicit racial prejudice against out-group children is lower than implicit prejudice against out-group adults. Yet, prior research has not directly tested whether or not adults exhibit less spontaneous
An examination of data from several studies investigated white (n=1,825), African-American (n=328), and Chicano (n=340) college student perceptions of campus racial climate and institutional commitment to cultural diversity. Student demographic variables were considered. Results indicated common and distinct views concerning the environment types…
In this essay Michael Eldridge maintains that Frank Margonis has in a recent article ill-advisedly speculated about John Dewey's pedagogy, suggesting that his "racialized visions" of students and classroom communities involve a "false universalism" that is problematic for our multicultural society. Based on this understanding, Margonis concludes…
Desmond, Matthew; Emirbayer, Mustafa
At the conclusion of many courses on race and racism, students, having learned, some for the first time, about the existence, origins, and complex dimensions of racial domination in America, are left pondering their next steps. "What is to be done?" many ask. "And what, exactly, is it that we want?" Important as they are, these…
The aim of this research was to investigate possible relationships between physical activity and physical fitness of girls between the ages of 13 and 15 years and the role of different racial backgrounds in this relationship. A cross-sectional research design was used to obtain information from 290 girls between the ages of 13 ...
Hotchkins, Bryan K.
Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…
Education inequity is a persistent reality of American culture. As early as kindergarten, there are marked differences in academic performance between racial minority students and their peers. These differences are sustained as students progress through school. One aspect of students' social experience that may help to explain the gap is school…
The roots of racial conflict can be identified, and often predicted, says this author who directs the Community Relations Service of the Justice Department that has helped administrators in 2,000 cases. He lists 10 tension-breeding factors that, if found in your school, may mean you're flirting with a crisis. (Editor)
In dealing with racial tension and conflict, the principal is not limited to a wing and a prayer and benign neglect. The roots of conflict can be identified. Conflict can be planned for and utilized constructively. For 10 years, in approximately 2,000 instances, conciliators and mediators of the Community Relations Service have stood side-by-side…
Abstract. Background: Meningiomas are common brain tumours and display gender, racial and ethnic differences in their demographic profile. ... The mean age of patients was 45.7 ± 10.5 years with a female-to-male ratio of 3.8:1. The mean ...
Johnson, Alex; Jackson Williams, Dahra
Multicultural counseling competence (awareness, knowledge, and skills) is necessary to provide effective psychotherapy to an increasingly diverse client population (Sue, 2001). Previous research on predictors of competency among White clinicians finds that above having multicultural training, exposure to racially diverse clients, and social desirability, that White racial identity stages predict multicultural counseling competence (Ottavi et al., 1994). Research also suggests that higher color-blind racial attitudes (denying or minimizing racism in society) correlates with less advanced White racial identity stages (Gushue & Constantine, 2007). However, no studies have examined these variables together as they relate to and possibly predict multicultural counseling competence. The current study aims to add to this literature by investigating the effects of these variables together as potential predictors of multicultural counseling competence among (N = 487) White doctoral students studying clinical, counseling, and school psychology. Results of 3 hierarchical multiple regressions found above the effects of social desirability, demographic variables, and multicultural training, that colorblind racial attitudes and White racial identity stages added significant incremental variance in predicting multicultural counseling knowledge, awareness, and skills. These results add to the literature by finding different predictors for each domain of multicultural competence. Implications of the findings for future research and the clinical training of White doctoral trainees are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Neel, Rebecca; Shapiro, Jenessa R
How do Whites approach interracial interactions? We argue that a previously unexamined factor-beliefs about the malleability of racial bias-guides Whites' strategies for difficult interracial interactions. We predicted and found that those who believe racial bias is malleable favor learning-oriented strategies such as taking the other person's perspective and trying to learn why an interaction is challenging, whereas those who believe racial bias is fixed favor performance-oriented strategies such as overcompensating in the interaction and trying to end the interaction as quickly as possible. Four studies support these predictions. Whether measured (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or manipulated (Study 2), beliefs that racial bias is fixed versus malleable yielded these divergent strategies for difficult interracial interactions. Furthermore, beliefs about the malleability of racial bias are distinct from related constructs (e.g., prejudice and motivations to respond without prejudice; Studies 1, 3, and 4) and influence self-reported (Studies 1-3) and actual (Study 4) strategies in imagined (Studies 1-2) and real (Studies 3-4) interracial interactions. Together, these findings demonstrate that beliefs about the malleability of racial bias influence Whites' approaches to and strategies within interracial interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231
Ro, Annie E; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in North California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design.
Ana Maria Lacerda Teixeira Pires
Full Text Available El estudio trataba de medir las manifestaciones del prejuicio racial en una muestra de la población brasileña, utilizando las escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee y Batts (1981 y la escala de racismo cordial de Turra y Venturi (1995 y Venturi (2003. Se aplicó los cuestionarios a un total de 101 estudiantes de diversas universidades en la región sur de Brasil. Los resultados muestran que las dos escalas difieren entre si respecto a captar las expresiones del prejuicio. Las personas declararon mayor racismo moderno que racismo cordial. También hemos estudiado las variables que influyen en el prejuicio racial declarado por los participantes. La variable género y orientación a la dominancia social son variables que predicen el racismo moderno en la muestra estudiada. Los participantes indicaron, en mayor medida, la manifestación del prejuicio racial de forma encubierta y lo hacen más abiertamente cuando hay la posibilidad del contacto personal y estrecho.O estudo avaliou as manifestações de preconceito racial em uma amostra da população brasileira, usando escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee e Batts (1981, escala racismo cordial do Datafolha (1995 e Venturi, G. (2003. Os questionários foram aplicados a um total de 101 estudantes de várias universidades da região sul do Brasil. Os resultados mostram que as duas escalas diferem entre si sobre como capturar as expressões de preconceito. As pessoas relataram mais racismo moderno que racismo cordial. Estudamos também as variáveis que influenciam o preconceito racial declarado pelos participantes. As variáveis gênero e orientação à dominância social são preditores do racismo moderno na amostra estudada. Os participantes indicaram, em maior medida, a manifestação do preconceito racial dissimulado e o fazem mais abertamente quando existe a possibilidade do contato pessoal e estreito.This study measured the manifestations of racial prejudice in a sample of
Beletsky, Leo; Davis, Corey S
More than a decade in the making, America's opioid crisis has morphed from being driven by prescription drugs to one fuelled by heroin and, increasingly, fentanyl. Drawing on historical lessons of the era of National Alcohol Prohibition highlights the unintended, but predictable impact of supply-side interventions on the dynamics of illicit drug markets. Under the Iron Law of Prohibition, efforts to interrupt and suppress the illicit drug supply produce economic and logistical pressures favouring ever-more compact substitutes. This iatrogenic progression towards increasingly potent illicit drugs can be curtailed only through evidence-based harm reduction and demand reduction policies that acknowledge the structural determinants of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
.... (i) A member bank with deposits of less than $100,000,000 may by an annual resolution of its board of... of the date of the resolution; (C) The bank meets or exceeds, on a fully-phased in basis, all... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General prohibitions. 215.4 Section 215.4 Banks...
Fernando Rey Martínez
Throughout the forty years of validity of the 1978 Constitution, the traditional right of equality has been enriched by the emergence of a new branch of the legal system: Anti-Discriminatory Law. The text draws the conceptual grammar of the new categories and their jurisprudential development. The study analyzes what equality means in a precise juridical sense, which includes the constitutional prohibition against discrimination in general and equality between women and men, ethnic / racial equality, equality of persons with any type of disability or for reasons of sexual orientation and identity.
Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.
Study Objectives: We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. Methods: This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification (never vs. remitted vs. current) and self-reported habitual sleep duration (normal vs. short). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Results: Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Conclusions: Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease
Based on interviews carried out with people from overseas working in Parisian hospitals and observations made of women from Central and North Africa working in care facilities for elderly or disabled people, this article discusses the issue of racial discrimination. We focus on the way discrimination develops, its manifestations in the care sector and the way in which it is handled. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Studies on college students' racial identities seldom focus on geographic context, despite existing research documenting its role in how racial groups construct and express racial identities. Drawing on theories of ecological systems and racial formation, I explored experiences of race and racial identity among 10 Asian American students who…
University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Geospatial vector polygon data defining shellfishing prohibition areas, seasonal, and conditional shellfish closure areas, and areas open to legal shellfish...
This qualitative interview study examined experiences of racialization and coping among 14 adult international adoptees in Finland. The results show that adoptees encounter a range of racializations by which they are made ‘other’ and excluded from Finnishness. Racialization mostly occurs indirectly and subtly, and often by significant others, and consequently is more difficult to cope with. The findings suggest that the Finnish adoption community and adoption research should pa...
Green, Joshua Aaron
Since Barack Obama's presidential campaign of 2008, media outlets have changed how race is covered and framed during political campaigns. In the so-called "post-racial" era of American politics when race is supposed to matter less, we are still very much attuned to stories that are framed by racial conflict. When the media wraps a "racial mode of interpretation" around a conflict between two candidates, there are potential electoral penalties involved for either a white or black candidate who...
Franco, Marisa G; O'Brien, Karen M
Racial identity invalidation, others' denial of an individual's racial identity, is a salient racial stressor with harmful effects on the mental health and well-being of Multiracial individuals. The purpose of this study was to create a psychometrically sound measure to assess racial identity invalidation for use with Multiracial individuals (N = 497). The present sample was mostly female (75%) with a mean age of 26.52 years (SD = 9.60). The most common racial backgrounds represented were Asian/White (33.4%) and Black/White (23.7%). Participants completed several online measures via Qualtrics. Exploratory factor analyses revealed 3 racial identity invalidation factors: behavior invalidation, phenotype invalidation, and identity incongruent discrimination. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the initial factor structure. Alternative model testing indicated that the bifactor model was superior to the 3-factor model. Thus, a total score and/or 3 subscale scores can be used when administering this instrument. Support was found for the reliability and validity of the total scale and subscales. In line with the minority stress theory, challenges with racial identity mediated relationships between racial identity invalidation and mental health and well-being outcomes. The findings highlight the different dimensions of racial identity invalidation and indicate their negative associations with connectedness and psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon
This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…
Johnson, Lamar L.
Through a series of racialized stories, I illustrate the familial knowledge, racial hauntings, and educational experiences that forge(d) the beginning and the continuing of my racial identity as a Black male. To examine these stories, I employ racial storytelling as a theoretical, methodological, curricular, and pedagogical tool to assist me in a…
Cummings, Janet R; Case, Brady G; Ji, Xu; Chae, David H; Druss, Benjamin G
Racial/ethnic differences in the course of treatment for a major depressive episode (MDE) among adolescents may arise, in part, from variation in the perceived rationale for treatment. We examined racial/ethnic differences in the perceived reasons for receiving mental health (MH) treatment among adolescents with an MDE. A total of 2,789 adolescent participants who experienced an MDE and received MH treatment in the past year were drawn from the 2005 to 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Adolescents reported the settings in which they received care and reasons for their most recent visit to each setting. Distributions of specific depressive symptoms were compared across racial/ethnic groups. Racial/ethnic differences in endorsing each of 11 possible reasons for receiving treatment were examined using weighted probit regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, health and mental health status, treatment setting, and survey year. Despite similar depressive symptom profiles, Hispanic adolescents were more likely than whites to endorse "breaking rules" or getting into physical fights as reasons for MH treatment. Black adolescents were more likely than white adolescents to endorse "problems at school" but less likely to endorse "felt very afraid or tense" or "eating problems" as reasons for treatment. Asian adolescents were more likely to endorse "problems with people other than friends or family" but less likely than whites to endorse "suicidal thoughts/attempt" and "felt depressed" as reasons for treatment. Racial/ethnic minority participants were more likely than white participants to endorse externalizing or interpersonal problems and less likely to endorse internalizing problems as reasons for MH treatment. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in the patient's perceived treatment rationale can offer opportunities to enhance outcomes for depression among diverse populations. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent
... Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright... nonsubstantial correction to its regulation announcing the prohibition against circumvention of technological... the final rule governing exemption to prohibition on circumvention of copyright protection systems for...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs. In this study, we estimate the burden of disease due to exposure to racial discrimination and measure the cost of this exposure. Methods Using prevalence surveys and data on the association of racial discrimination with health outcomes from a global meta-analysis, we apply a cost of illness method to measure the impact of racial discrimination. This estimate indicates the direct health cost attributable to racial discrimination and we convert the estimates to monetary values based on conventional parameters. Results Racial discrimination costs the Australian economy 235,452 in disability adjusted life years lost, equivalent to $37.9 billion per annum, roughly 3.02% of annual gross domestic product (GDP over 2001–11, indicating a sizeable loss for the economy. Conclusion Substantial cost is incurred due to increased prevalence of racial discrimination as a result of its association with negative health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety and PTSD. This implies that potentially significant cost savings can be made through measures that target racial discrimination. Our research contributes to the debate on the social impact of racial discrimination, with implications for policies and efforts addressing it.
Scholars have suggested that racism has not disappeared but has undergone a transformation into new subtle or symbolic forms. Since university life is a microcosm of United States society. racial prejudice can be found in most colleges and universities. The literature reveals three subtle forms of racism: modern racism, symbolic racism, and…
Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha
Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 1153... §§ 1153.130 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the agency. (b)(1) The agency, in...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 707.6.... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS § 707.6 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a) No qualified individual... benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 606... THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.30 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a) No qualified... benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the...
Abstract. Ethiopia prohibited direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for any drug product since the early 1980s. This total drug advertising prohibition is rare, and possibly unique, in the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and perceptions of health professionals on issues regarding DTCA.
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of prohibited communications... unauthorized ex parte communication, shall place or cause to be placed on the public record of the proceeding... rebut those contained in the prohibited communication. All such responses shall be placed in the public...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate practices prohibited....50 Real estate practices prohibited. (a) This subpart provides the Department's interpretation of... in, any multiple-listing service, real estate brokers' association, or other service organization or...
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on buy outs. 76.505 Section 76.505... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Ownership of Cable Systems § 76.505 Prohibition on buy outs. (a) No local... operator's franchise area. (c) A local exchange carrier and a cable operator whose telephone service area...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited actions by employer. 313.99 Section 313.99 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.99 Prohibited actions by...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.17 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.17 Use of prohibited drugs. (a) Each employer shall provide...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.33 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL... prohibited drugs. (a) This section applies to individuals who perform a function listed in subpart E of this...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND... for prohibited drugs. (a) Each certificate holder or operator shall test each of its employees who...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on gambling. 228.14 Section 228.14...) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.14 Prohibition on gambling. Participating in games for money or other personal property, or the operating of gambling devices, the conduct of a lottery, or the selling...
... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circumvention and prohibited... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE General Provisions § 65.11 Circumvention and prohibited activities. (a) Circumvention. (1) No owner or operator subject to the provisions of this part shall build...
... SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES Prohibition § 585.30 What actions are prohibited? (a) Person. If a...: (1) Become, or continue as, an institution-affiliated party with respect to any savings and loan holding company. (2) Own or control, directly or indirectly, any savings and loan holding company. A...
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited frequency bands. 18.303 Section 18.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Technical Standards § 18.303 Prohibited frequency bands. Operation of ISM equipment within the...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on alcohol. 228.10 Section 228.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.10 Prohibition on alcohol. Entering or being on protected property...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Prohibited payroll deductions. 3.9 Section 3.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON PUBLIC BUILDING OR PUBLIC WORK FINANCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY LOANS OR GRANTS FROM THE UNITED STATES § 3.9 Prohibited payroll deductions...
... MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.2 What are the prohibited activities? (a) Who is ineligible to receive a... senior management employees is tied to the profit or sale of the business or commercial endeavor for... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the prohibited activities? 723.2...
... political campaigns, except as may be provided by or pursuant to statute. All such persons shall retain the... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against political activity. 4... PRACTICES (RULE IV) § 4.1 Prohibition against political activity. No person employed in the executive branch...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 101-6.204 Section 101-6.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal Financial Assistance § 101-6.204 Discrimination prohibited. ...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibition against discrimination. 28.130....130 General prohibition against discrimination. (a) No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the Department. (b)(1) The Department...
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination... CONDUCTED BY SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM § 1699.130 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a) No... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited... § 28.149 Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. Except as otherwise provided in § 28.150, no... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the Department. ...
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program accessibility: discrimination prohibited... CONDUCTED BY SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM § 1699.149 Program accessibility: discrimination prohibited. Except as... participation in, or otherwise be subject to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials... tanks: Prohibited materials. (a) A fuel tank must not be constructed from terneplate. (b) Unless it has an inorganic sacrificial galvanic coating on the inside and outside of the tank, a fuel tank must not...
... CONDUCT Financial Interest § 73.735-802 Executive order prohibitions. (a) Basic prohibition of Executive Order 11222. (1) An employee shall not have a direct or indirect financial interest that conflicts... employee need not have a financial interest that actually conflicts with his or her duties to violate the...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited investments and prudential rules... prudential rules. (a) Prohibited investments. A Bank may not invest in: (1) Instruments that provide an... the Bank provides to the issuer the customized terms, necessary liquidity, or favorable pricing...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot deposit...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage prohibited. 2.13 Section 2.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.13 Audiovisual coverage prohibited. The Department shall not permit audiovisual coverage of the...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper disposition of prohibited gifts... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Gifts From Outside Sources § 2635.205 Proper disposition of prohibited gifts. (a) An employee who has received a gift that cannot be accepted...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 2490.130 Section 2490.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.130 General prohibitions...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited... accordance with § 12.100(a) shall be seized under 19 U.S.C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable liquids...
King, LaGarrett Jarriel
Scholars have long promoted black history as an appropriate space to promote the development of racial literacy. Few research studies, however, have examined how teacher education uses black history as a heuristic to teach about race. Using racial literacy as a framework, this article examined the varied ways four social studies pre-service…
Williams, David R.
Large, pervasive, and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, courses, and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. There is an urgent need to build the science base that would identify…
Lee, Stacey J.; Park, Eujin; Wong, Jia-Hui Stefanie
Racial categories, inequalities, and hierarchies have shaped life in the United States since the formation of the country. For children and youth in the immigrant and second generations, schools are central sites of racialization. In this article, we focus on what the educational research suggests about the role of schooling in the racialization…
Davis, Jessica L.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.
Examines the nature of racial group identity in an effort to determine its role in the formation of African-American media evaluations. Views racial identity as one of many forms of individual identity that help to shape our relations with others. Focuses on areas of domestic violence and the image of Black men. (MMU)
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.
This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…
Toutkoushian, Robert K.
Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…
Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Knight, Sarah; Radimer, Scott; Lewis, Jonathan; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.
In the 21st century, mobile, low-friction, and easy to use social media have changed the landscape of college campuses. Social media have opened the doors for racial hostility to be displayed on campus in new ways and have been widely used to express racial aggressions toward students of color. Anonymity allows these behaviors to be freely enacted…
Helms, Janet E.; Piper, Ralph E.
Although racial identity theory has the potential to explain some aspects of career development, its value would be increased by conceptualizing race as a dependent variable in research and theory. Examples involving career salience, satisfaction, and satisfactoriness demonstrate the limitations of racial comparison studies. (SK)
Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia
Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception.
Harris, Jessica C.
Researchers have explored how multiracial women students encounter different racialized experiences when compared to their monoracial peers and multiracial men on campus, suggesting that their experiences with racial stereotypes may also diverge from both of these populations. Guided by critical race theory, in this study I explored 10 multiracial…
Based on a 3-year ethnographic project at a public elementary school in North Carolina, this article discusses how the concept of racial realism can be useful to researchers trying to live up to the goals of critical race studies in school-based research. Racial realism maintains that racism is a permanent aspect of U.S. society and schools. A…
Ong, Anthony D.; Burrow, Anthony L.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Ja, Nicole M.; Sue, Derald Wing
Although epidemiological studies and community surveys of Asian Americans have found that lifetime occurrences of racial discrimination are associated with increased risk for psychological morbidity, little is known about how exposure to racial discrimination is patterned in everyday life. Extrapolating from previous qualitative research (Sue,…
Proctor, E K; Davis, L E
Just as racial injustice negatively affects the plight of minorities in society, racial tensions impede professional helping. Often, the racially dissimilar social worker and client approach each other with little understanding of each other's social realities and with unfounded assumptions. Unfortunately, professionals find it difficult to acknowledge such differences or their effect on their relationships. Yet the fruitfulness of the helping encounter often depends on the ability to develop and invest in a trusting relationship. This article identifies the societal roots of the stresses associated with cross-racial relationships. Three concerns commonly experienced by clients whose workers are racially different are identified: (1) Is the helper a person of goodwill? (2) Is the helper trained and skilled? (3) Is the help offered valid and meaningful for me and my social reality? Case vignettes are used to illustrate how each concern is typically mishandled. The importance of successfully managing each concern is stressed, and skills for successful management are illustrated.
Full Text Available Does media exposure to salient criminological events exacerbate racialized perceptions of injustice? We examine whether closely following media coverage of the fatal encounter of George Zimmerman’s shooting of Trayvon Martin moderates racial and ethnic differences in opinion surrounding the event and the U.S. criminal justice system. Our analysis addresses several key aspects of the case: Whether Zimmerman would have been arrested sooner if Martin had been white, whether respondents felt Zimmerman’s acquittal was justified, and whether there is racial bias against African Americans in the criminal justice system. Relying on national opinion surveys before and after Zimmerman’s trial verdict, our findings support the racial gradient thesis by demonstrating that sustained exposure to racialized framing of the incident in the media affects Hispanics the most and hardens entrenched attitudes among African Americans relative to whites. The analysis supports the continuing relevance of the mass media in attitude formation.
Fileve T. Palmer
Full Text Available Despite a commitment to non-racialism in the South African Constitution and anthropology’s steadfast position that race is a social construction, race is still a highly valued ideology with real-life implications for citizens. In South Africa, racialism particularly affects heterogeneous, multigenerational, multiethnic creole people known as “Coloureds.” The larger category of Coloured is often essentialized based on its intermediary status between Black and White and its relationship to South Africa’s “mother city” (Cape Town, where the majority of Coloured people live. Through research on Coloured identity in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, I show how the nuances of personal and collective histories, spatial constraints, and education affect the identities of youth and elders differently from their Cape counterparts. By incorporating a photo-voice methodology, which I called Photo Ethnography Project (PEP, participants produced their own visual materials and challenged essentialized versions of themselves (specifically and South Africa (in general. Through three public displays of photography and narratives, youth in three communities answered the question of what it means to be Coloured in today’s rainbow nation.
Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano
The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.
Using original telephone survey data collected from adult residents of Toronto (n = 685) and Vancouver (n = 814) in 2009, I investigate associations between mental and physical health and variously conceived racial identities. An 'expressed racial identity' is a self-identification with a racial grouping that a person will readily express to others when asked to fit into official racial classifications presented by Census forms, survey researchers, insurance forms, and the like. Distinguishing between Asian, Black, South Asian, and White expressed racial identities, I find that survey respondents expressing Black identity are the most likely to report high blood pressure or hypertension, a risk that is slightly attenuated by socioeconomic status, and that respondents expressing Asian identity are the most likely to report poorer self-rated mental health and self-rated overall health, risks that are not explained by socioeconomic status. I also find that darker-skinned Black respondents are more likely than lighter-skinned Black respondents to report poor health outcomes, indicating that colourism, processes of discrimination which privilege lighter-skinned people of colour over their darker-skinned counterparts, exists and has implications for well-being in Canada as it does in the United States. Finally, 'reflected racial identity' refers to the racial identity that a person believes that others tend to perceive him or her to be. I find that expressed and reflected racial identities differ from one another for large proportions of self-expressed Black and South Asian respondents and relatively few self-expressed White and Asian respondents. I also find that mismatched racial identities correspond with relatively high risks of various poor health outcomes, especially for respondents who consider themselves White but believe that others tend to think they are something else. I conclude by presenting a framework for conceptualizing multifaceted suites of racial
Huang, Deborah L; Park, Mijung
This study aims to examine if older adults living in poverty and from minority racial/ethnic groups experienced disproportionately high rates of poor oral health outcomes measured by oral health quality of life (OHQOL) and number of permanent teeth. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,745 community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. Oral health outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using the NHANES-Oral Health Impact Profile for OHQOL and standardized examination for dentition. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between oral health outcomes and predictors of interest. All analyses were weighted to account for complex survey sampling methods. Both poverty and minority race/ethnicity were significantly associated with poor oral health outcomes in OHQOL and number of permanent teeth. Distribution of scores for each OHQOL domain varied by minority racial/ethnic group. Oral health disparities persist in older adults living in poverty and among those from minority racial/ethnic groups. The racial/ethnic variation in OHQOL domains should be further examined to develop interventions to improve the oral health of these groups. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Smith, William A.; Hung, Man; Franklin, Jeremy D.
Black men's lives are racialized contradictions, They are told that contemporary educational and professional institutions--particularly historically White institutions (HWls)--are places where, through hard work, they can achieve the so-called American dream. However, for far too many Black men, HWIs represent racial climates that are replete…
Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra
A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…
Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney
The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…
Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Murray, David M; Brownson, Ross C
We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000-2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17, -0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = -0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile.
Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Murray, David M.; Brownson, Ross C.
Objectives. We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. Methods. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000–2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Results. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.17, −0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = −0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. Conclusions. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile. PMID:21778484
Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L
We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification ( never vs. remitted vs. current ) and self-reported habitual sleep duration ( normal vs. short ). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease and psychiatric illness. © 2016 Associated
Barth, Joan M; McDonald, Kristina L; Lochman, John E; Boxmeyer, Carolyn; Powell, Nicole; Dillon, Casey; Sallee, Meghann
The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects that a child's race and the racial composition of a classroom have on a variety of sociometric measures. Sociometric nominations were collected from 872 fifth-grade students (48% male, 48% Black) who were in classrooms that ranged from nearly all Black to nearly all White students. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses indicated that the race of the child, the race of the rater, and the classroom race composition each impacted sociometric nominations. Results suggest that schools that are more balanced in the distribution of Black and White students might promote more positive interracial peer relationships. However, opportunities to be highly liked and to be perceived as a leader might be greatest in a school in which the child is in the clear racial majority. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Rauscher, Lauren; Wilson, Bianca D M
This article explores the complex relationships between race and occupational stressors among an ethnically diverse sample of high school teachers and their implications for women's mental health. Interviews with Black, White, and Mexican American teachers suggest that workplaces are organized by subtle forms of gender and racial discrimination as well as White racial privilege; this context shapes women's experiences of occupational stressors. The data indicate that teachers experience racially specific stressors at work and make racially specific appraisals about common stressors among all teachers. Black and Mexican American women report chronic strains, such as differential workloads, perceptions of incompetence, and lack of support from administrators, whereas White teachers report, yet minimize, sexual harassment from male colleagues. Student misbehavior, a stressor shared by all teachers, is experienced and understood as a personal failing by White teachers and as a manifestation of systemic racism by teachers of color. The interviews offer important insights into the ways professional workplaces remain an arena marked by racial inequality and White privilege and that racialized stressors are differentially distributed among women. Findings support claims from intersectionality in that race, racism, and racial privilege operate in multiplicative ways that create different constellations of occupational stressors among women, which in turn have implications for wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Pasco, John Carlo; Anderson, Camille; DasGupta, Sayantani
Medical students across the USA have increasingly made the medical institution a place for speculating racially just futures. From die-ins in Fall 2014 to silent protests in response to racially motivated police brutality, medical schools have responded to the public health crisis that is racial injustice in the USA. Reading science fiction may benefit healthcare practitioners who are already invested in imagining a more just, healthier futurity. Fiction that rewrites the future in ways that undermine contemporary power regimes has been termed 'visionary fiction'. In this paper, the authors introduce 'visionary medicine' as a tool for teaching medical students to imagine and produce futures that preserve health and racial justice for all. This essay establishes the connections between racial justice, medicine and speculative fiction by examining medicine's racially unjust past practices, and the intersections of racial justice and traditional science and speculative fiction. It then examines speculative fiction author Octavia Butler's short story 'Bloodchild' as a text that can introduce students of the medical humanities to a liberatory imagining of health and embodiment, one that does not reify and reinscribe boundaries of difference, but reimagines the nature of Self and Other, power and collaboration, agency and justice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia
Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.
Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…
Nadal, Kevin L.; Wong, Yinglee; Griffin, Katie E.; Davidoff, Kristin; Sriken, Julie
Racial microaggressions are subtle (often unintentional or unconscious) forms of racial discrimination that negatively affect victims' mental health. Utilizing an undergraduate student sample (N = 225), the current study examined the relationship between racial microaggressions and self-esteem. Results indicate that racial microaggressions…
Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.
Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…
Leslie, Leigh A.; Smith, Jocelyn R.; Hrapczynski, Katie M.; Riley, Debbie
Racial socialization protects minority adolescents from stress associated with racial discrimination. The process of racial socialization, however, may be challenging in transracial adoptive families. White parents may struggle with preparing their children for discrimination and fostering the development of racial pride. Thus, transracially…
Singh, Savita; Plaga, Alexis; Shukla, Girish C
Population specific studies in prostate cancer (PCa) reveal a unique heterogeneous etiology. Various factors, such as genetics, environment and dietary regimen seems to determine disease progression, therapeutic resistance and rate of mortality. Enormous disparity documented in disease incidences, aggressiveness and mortality in PCa among AAs (African Americans) and CAs (Caucasian Americans) is attributed to the variations in genetics, epigenetics and their association with metabolism. Scientific and clinical evidences have revealed the influence of variations in Androgen Receptor (AR), RNAse L, macrophage scavenger receptor 1 ( MRS1 ), androgen metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4, differential regulation of microRNAs, epigenetic alterations and diet in racial disparity in PCa incidences and mortality. Concerted efforts are needed to identify race specific prognostic markers and treatment regimen for a better management of the disease.
The present research was an observational study of casual interracial and intraracial public-group interactions among African American, Asian American, Latino, and White students at 6 southern California State University campuses. Results indicated (a) that at these racially diverse public-university campuses, there was no difference between the percentages of interracial and intraracial groups; (b) specifically, that at the campus with the second largest percentage of non-White students, there were more interracial than intraracial interactions; and (c) that for each of the 4 ethnic groups, at the campuses with the largest percentages of the specific group, interactions were more likely to be intraracial than they were at campuses that had smaller percentages of the specific group. Despite reports of self-segregation, these findings suggest that when Whites are not the majority of students, interracial interactions are common.
Sean F. Reardon
Full Text Available Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since James Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine sixteen distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find clear evidence that one aspect of segregation in particular—the disparity in average school poverty rates between white and black students’ schools—is consistently the single most powerful correlate of achievement gaps, a pattern that holds in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. This implies that high-poverty schools are, on average, much less effective than lower-poverty schools and suggests that strategies that reduce the differential exposure of black, Hispanic, and white students to poor schoolmates may lead to meaningful reductions in academic achievement gaps.
Billinger, Michael S
Human racial classification has long been a problem for the discipline of anthropology, but much of the criticism of the race concept has focused on its social and political connotations. The central argument of this paper is that race is not a specifically human problem, but one that exists in evolutionary thought in general. This paper looks at various disciplinary approaches to racial or subspecies classification, extending its focus beyond the anthropological race concept by providing a comparative analysis of the use of racial classification in evolutionary biology, genetics, and anthropology.
1 | P a g e Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0802 TITLE: " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alfred I...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0802 " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC094372 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...developed the tools/methods for working with SEER-Medicare. We plan to use analytic approaches and methods to explore racial disparities in the use of
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Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A
Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. This analysis examined chronic (day-to-day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and non-racial (eg, age, gender or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health study. Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.85) and chronic non-racial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and non-racial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Racial and non-racial discrimination may be related to South African adults' smoking behaviour, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalisability and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Handayani, Fadlilah Satya
Khaled Hosseini's novel entitled The Kite Runner is an American bestseller novel that represents racial conflict between the Pashtuns and Hazaras, two different races and ethnics in Afghanistan. The aims of this study are to find out the causes of racial discrimination, to analyze examples of racial discrimination, and to analyze the impacts of racial discrimination as depicted in The Kite Runner. Sociological approach and theories on racism and racial discrimination are used in this study. T...
Swartz, Jonathan S
On July 31, 2001, the U.S. House of Representatives passed The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001. The legislation proposes a complete ban on somatic cell nuclear transfer to create cloned human embryos; it threatens transgressors with criminal punishment and civil fines. House Bill 2505 is the first human cloning prohibition to pass either chamber of Congress. This note argues that the bill is unconstitutionally vague and inconsistent with the Supreme Court's recent Commerce Clause jurisprudence.
The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients.
Snyder, Cyndy R; Frogner, Bianca K; Skillman, Susan M
Racial and ethnic diversity in the health workforce can facilitate access to healthcare for underserved populations and meet the health needs of an increasingly diverse population. In this study, we explored 1) changes in the racial and ethnic diversity of the health workforce in the United States over the last decade, and 2) evidence on the effectiveness of programs designed to promote racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S. health workforce. Findings suggest that although the health workforce overall is becoming more diverse, people of color are most often represented among the entry-level, lower-skilled health occupations. Promising practices to help facilitate diversity in the health professions were identified in the literature, namely comprehensive programs that integrated multiple interventions and strategies. While some efforts have been found to be promising in increasing the interest, application, and enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities into health profession schools, there is still a missing link in understanding persistence, graduation, and careers.
Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A; Salvatore, Jessica; Trawalter, Sophie
Previous research has suggested that Blacks like White interaction partners who make an effort to appear unbiased more than those who do not. We tested the hypothesis that, ironically, Blacks perceive White interaction partners who are more racially biased more positively than less biased White partners, primarily because the former group must make more of an effort to control racial bias than the latter. White participants in this study completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of racial bias and then discussed race relations with either a White or a Black partner. Whites' IAT scores predicted how positively they were perceived by Black (but not White) interaction partners, and this relationship was mediated by Blacks' perceptions of how engaged the White participants were during the interaction. We discuss implications of the finding that Blacks may, ironically, prefer to interact with highly racially biased Whites, at least in short interactions.
Full Text Available The study is about a close look at Conrad's trans-racial romance related to the Victorian period. Trans-racial love between white men and non-white women becomes a popular theme in the early works of Josep Conrad, a famous writer of the late Victorian period. Using a closely technical reading in the three of Conrad's works Lord Jim, Almayer's Folly, and An Outcast of the Island, we can show that such a trans-racial romance is not merely meant for appreciating equivalence. In turn, the trans-racial romance of Conrad's can be understood as the reflection of the Western colonization on the East where the white men take a role as subjects who had dominately explored while the non-white women as objects who are passively being explored. Key words: colonization, race, romance plot, subject, object, and dominance
Liss, Moe; Robinson, James C.
Describes the Human Relations Peer Group Leadership Training Program that has eliminated racial conflict in Carteret High School. The initial step was a four-day intensive training program that took place in a closed setting. (Author/IRT)
Norton, Michael I; Mason, Malia F; Vandello, Joseph A; Biga, Andrew; Dyer, Rebecca
We explore the existence and underlying neural mechanism of a new norm endorsed by both black and white Americans for managing interracial interactions: "racial paralysis', the tendency to opt out of decisions involving members of different races. We show that people are more willing to make choices--such as who is more intelligent, or who is more polite-between two white individuals (same-race decisions) than between a white and a black individual (cross-race decisions), a tendency which was evident more when judgments involved traits related to black stereotypes. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, revealing greater recruitment of brain regions implicated in socially appropriate behavior (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), conflict detection (anterior cingulate cortex), deliberative processing (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and inhibition (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). We also discuss the impact of racial paralysis on the quality of interracial relations.
Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.
This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.
Marlon B. Ross
Full Text Available When Ernest Gaines chooses a woman as the individual subject for collective memorialization and the ideal medium of racial memory in his 1971 novel, The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, he participates in a significant but overlooked genre of black masculine discourse, the composition of black authorship as historical/national authority through the voice and viewpoint of a female protagonist. This cross-gendering of the racial imaginary, introjecting a male vision of racial collectivity and history through a female’s frame of reference, though not exactly a form of cross-dressing, can be usefully analyzed as such. Erecting a feminine monument to emblematize and materialize highly abstract notions like nationhood, justice, peace, warfare, virtue, democracy, pro/creativity, and truth has a long history in many cultures across the globe. It is a long-standing practice within many patriarchal cultures, in other words, to project highly abstract masculine visions of established power onto a female form, draped in feminine attire. Whether this occurs metaphorically, as in the case of gendering the nation-state as feminine (Britannia for the United Kingdom, Columbia for the United States, St. Joan for France, etc., or through more literal iconography, such as the Statue of Liberty, the feminine form serves to purify, emblematize, and collectivize—and thus to transcendentalize—concepts of rightful dis/empowerment that are otherwise fraught with cultural-historical strife. The static nature of such imagery distances us from the contentiousness of the act of cross-gendering that occurs ideologically in the enunciation or re-erection of patriarchal power through an objectified, if celebrated, feminine icon.We can find evidence of this conventionally patriarchal kind of feminine iconography in black cultural practice. For instance, in black nationalist discourse of the 1960s and ’70s (whether in the Black Power movement in the United States or
Rae, Jonathan A.
This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise th...
Dominguez, Tyan Parker
While the biologic authenticity of race remains a contentious issue, the social significance of race is indisputable. The chronic stress of racism and the social inequality it engenders may be underlying social determinants of persistent racial disparities in health, including infant mortality, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. This article describes the problem of racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes; outlines the multidimensional nature of racism and the pathways by which it may adversely affect health; and discusses the implications for clinical practice.
KIRK, DAVID S.
This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with a focus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disad...
Lavner, Justin A; Barton, Allen W; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H
Racial discrimination is a common stressor for African Americans, with negative consequences for mental and physical well-being. It is likely that these effects extend into the family, but little research has examined the association between racial discrimination and couple functioning. This study used dyadic data from 344 rural, predominantly low-income heterosexual African American couples with an early adolescent child to examine associations between self-reported racial discrimination, psychological and physical aggression, and relationship satisfaction and instability. Experiences of discrimination were common among men and women and were negatively associated with relationship functioning. Specifically, men reported higher levels of psychological aggression and relationship instability if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination, and women reported higher levels of physical aggression if they experienced higher levels of racial discrimination. All results replicated when controlling for financial hardship, indicating unique effects for discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination may be negatively associated with relationship functioning among African Americans and call for further research on the processes underlying these associations and their long-term consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670
Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena
This study investigated roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 non-adopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than non-adopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. Moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas, ethnic socialization buffered this link for non-adopted Korean American adolescents. Findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. PMID:26479418
Mattison, Erica; Aber, Mark S
This study investigated the relationship between school racial climate and students' self-reports of academic and discipline outcomes, including whether racial climate mediated and/or moderated the relationship between race and outcomes. Using the Racial Climate Survey-High School Version (M. Aber et al., unpublished), data were gathered from African American (n = 382) and European American students (n = 1456) regarding their perceptions of racial climate. About 18% of the respondents were low-income and approximately 50% were male. Positive perceptions of the racial climate were associated with higher student achievement and fewer discipline problems. Further, race moderated the relationship between racial climate and both achievement and discipline outcomes. Finally, racial differences in students' grades and discipline outcomes were associated with differences in perceptions of racial climate. Results suggest careful attention should be given to the racial climate of secondary schools, particularly for adolescents who perceive schools as unfair.
Tiago Fernandes Maranhao
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.
Rugh, Jacob S; Massey, Douglas S
Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble.
Rugh, Jacob S.; Massey, Douglas S.
Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973
Andrey V. Skorobogatov
Full Text Available Objective to identify characteristics of the nature content and functioning of prohibition in the legal reality of Russia. nbsp Methods the methodological basis of research is the dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors as well as a postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutic discursive. Results the paper proposes a definition of prohibition as a state socio volitional constraining limiting means that under the threat of legal liability is intended to prevent the wrongful act of the subject physical or legal entity and ensure the maintenance of law and order. Prohibition is a necessary means of ensuring the discipline of public relations and the consolidation of legal values designed to assure the effectiveness of legal regulation. Scientific novelty for the first time the article shows that prohibition as a legal category is the ontological basis of legal reality and acts as a determining factor in the content and focus not only of lawmaking and law enforcement but legal behavior as well. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching when considering questions about the nature content and functioning of prohibitions.
RCRA Sect. 3004(j) prohibits storage of wastes that have been prohibited from land disposal, unless that storage is for the purpose of accumulating sufficient quantities of hazardous wastes to facilitate proper recovery, treatment, or disposal. This requirement was incorporated as part of the Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) regulations. Under the LDR storage prohibition, facilities may only store restricted wastes in containers and tanks. As stated in the Third LDR rule, storage of prohibited waste is only allowed in non-land based storage units since land-based storage is a form of disposal. The EPA has recognized that generators and storers of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) may find it impossible to comply with storage prohibition in cases where no available treatment capacity exists. Additionally, under the current regulatory interpretation, there is no provision that would allow for storage of wastes for which treatment capacity and capability are not available, even where capacity is legitimately being developed. Under the LDR program, restricted wastes that are disposed of, or placed into storage before an LDR effective date, are not subject to the LDR requirements. However, if such wastes are removed from a storage or disposal site after the effective date, such wastes would be subject to LDR requirements. The purpose of this information brief is to clarify what waste management practices constitute removal from storage
Williams, Melissa J; Eberhardt, Jennifer L
The present studies demonstrate that conceiving of racial group membership as biologically determined increases acceptance of racial inequities (Studies 1 and 2) and cools interest in interacting with racial outgroup members (Studies 3-5). These effects were generally independent of racial prejudice. It is argued that when race is cast as a biological marker of individuals, people perceive racial outgroup members as unrelated to the self and therefore unworthy of attention and affiliation. Biological conceptions of race therefore provide justification for a racially inequitable status quo and for the continued social marginalization of historically disadvantaged groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. METHODS: Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS: South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. DISCUSSION: Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.
Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S
Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.
Xue, Ying; Brewer, Carol
The objective of this article is to examine the racial and ethnic diversity profile of the nurse workforce over time and by geographic region. We conducted survey analysis using the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses from 1988 to 2008, and further supplemented our trend analysis using published findings from the 2013 National Workforce Survey of Registered Nurses. The gap in racial/ethnic minority representation between the RN workforce and the population has been persistent and has widened over time. This diversity gap is primarily due to underrepresentation of Hispanics and Blacks in the RN workforce, which varied across states and regions, with the largest gaps occurring for Hispanics in the South and West and for Blacks in the South. Greater levels of sustained and targeted support to increase nurse workforce diversity are needed and should be geared not only to specific underrepresented groups but also to the regions and states with the greatest needs. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
José Paulo Paes
Full Text Available O artigo se propõe analisar as idéias expressas pelos principais personagens de Canaã, de Graça Aranha, em torno dos vínculos entre raça e cultura, do processo de mestiçagem e do futuro embranquecimento da população brasileira numa utopia fraterno-solar. Essas idéias são correlacionadas, de um lado, às preocupações de Silvio Romero, Euclides da Cunha e Araripe Júnior com a adequação entre meio geográfico, raça e cultura, e, de outro lado, ao empenho do modernismo paulista em definir um caráter nacional brasileiro. Empenho discernível, no nível da representação simbólica, em Macunaíma e, no da teorização mais sistemática, em Retrato do Brasil, que chega a falar de eugenia ao discutir o futuro tipo étnico brasileiro.The article purports to examine the ideas which the main characters of Canaã, by Graça Aranha, express on the relations between race and culture, as well as on the racial melting process and the future whitening of the population of Brazil in a brotherly and solar Utopia. These ideas are correlated, on one side, to the concern of Silvio Romero, Euclides da Cunha and Araripe Jr. with the adequation between geography, race and culture; on the other side, to the concern of S. Paulo's Modernist movement to define a Brazilian national character. This concern can be seen, on the level of symbolical representation, in Macunaíma and, on the level of a more systematic theorizing, in Portrait of Brazil, which goes so far as to mention eugenics when discussing the future Brazilian ethnical type.
Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M
Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child's diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children.
Zou, Linda X; Cheryan, Sapna
Theories of race relations have been shaped by the concept of a racial hierarchy along which Whites are the most advantaged and African Americans the most disadvantaged. However, the recent precipitated growth of Latinos and Asian Americans in the United States underscores the need for a framework that integrates more groups. The current work proposes that racial and ethnic minority groups are disadvantaged along 2 distinct dimensions of perceived inferiority and perceived cultural foreignness , such that the 4 largest groups in the United States are located in 4 discrete quadrants: Whites are perceived and treated as superior and American; African Americans as inferior and relatively American compared with Latinos and Asian Americans; Latinos as inferior and foreign; and Asian Americans as foreign and relatively superior compared to African Americans and Latinos. Support for this Racial Position Model is first obtained from targets' perspectives. Different groups experience distinct patterns of racial prejudice that are predicted by their 2-dimensional group positions (Studies 1 and 2). From perceivers' perspectives, these group positions are reflected in the content of racial stereotypes (Study 3), and are well-known and consensually recognized (Study 4). Implications of this new model for studying contemporary race relations (e.g., prejudice, threat, and interminority dynamics) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sue, Derald Wing; Rivera, David P; Watkins, Nicole L; Kim, Rachel H; Kim, Suah; Williams, Chantea D
Research on the experiences of faculty of color in predominantly White institutions (PWIs) suggests that they often experience the campus climate as invalidating, alienating, and hostile. Few studies, however, have actually focused on the classroom experiences of faculty of color when difficult racial dialogues occur. Using Consensually Qualitative Research, eight faculty of color were interviewed about their experiences in the classroom when racially tinged topics arose. Three major findings emerged. First, difficult racial dialogues were frequently instigated by the presence of racial microaggressions delivered toward students of color or the professor. Dialogues on race were made more difficult when the classrooms were diverse, when heated emotions arose, when there was a strong fear of self-disclosure, and when racial perspectives differed. Second, all faculty experienced an internal struggle between balancing their own values and beliefs with an attempt to remain objective. This conflict was often described as exhausting and energy-depleting. Third, faculty of color described both successful and unsuccessful strategies in facilitating difficult dialogues on race that arose in the course of their teaching. These findings have major implications for how PWIs can develop new programs, policies, and practices that will aid and support colleagues of color.
Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...
María Inés Táboas-Pais
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the representation of race through images that are published in Spanish physical education textbooks for secondary schools and to offer an insight into students’ beliefs related to racial stereotypes in physical education. The sample was composed of 2,583 images and 87 secondary school pupils. The analysis was carried out through the elaboration of an ad hoc coding scheme. The results showed that people whose appearance is similar to the in-group predominate. The kind of physical activity, the field, space, and level of competence vary according to race. The textbooks analyzed in this study engender a stigmatized vision of racial diversity, and the images reproduce and reinforce racial prejudice.
Otanez, Staci; Torr, Berna M
There are substantial racial and ethnic disparities in the vaccination rate for human papillomavirus (HPV), which helps protect against cervical cancer. Using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, we explore differences between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in attitudes toward vaccinating adolescent girls for HPV. We use logistic regression models to explore whether racial/ethnic differences in attitudes toward HPV vaccinations are explained by HPV knowledge, demographic and socioeconomic status, and/or general distrust of the healthcare system. We include interactions to explore whether the effects of HPV knowledge and doctor distrust vary by racial/ethnic group. We find that greater HPV knowledge increases general willingness to vaccinate for all groups except Blacks. Our findings point to a need for additional research and design of culturally appropriate interventions that address barriers to vaccination.
Danielle Fuentes Morgan
Full Text Available This article, “Post What? The Liminality of Multi-Racial Identity,” argues that the successes and failures of 21st-century satire reveal the myth of post-raciality while simultaneously dismissing racial essentialism. I focus on three critical moments: the commercial success of Mat Johnson’s Loving Day, a text and forthcoming television show that examines the shifting self-identities of mixed-race individuals; the inability of a potential love interest on the television series, Louie, to accept a black woman as the ex-wife of the titular protagonist’s phenotypically white daughters; and Barack Obama’s self-designation as “black” on the census shortly after his election. I argue that the widespread reach of these instances, coupled with audience engagement and response, underscores the ways that the public realm frames a contemporary understanding of race as both meaningful and absurd.
Full Text Available Racial disparities in achievement are a persistent fact of the US educational system. An often cited but rarely directly studied explanation for these disparities is that adolescents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are exposed to different peers and have different friends. In this article I identify the impact of friends on racial and ethnic achievement disparities. Using data from Add Health and an instrumental variable approach, I show that the achievement characteristics of youths’ friends drive friend effects; adolescents with friends with higher grades are more likely to increase their grades compared to those with lower-achieving friends. Although these effects do not differ across race/ethnicity, given differences in friendship patterns, if black and Latino adolescents had friends with the achievement characteristics of white students, the GPA gap would be 17 to 19 percent smaller. Although modest, this effect represents an important and often overlooked source of difference among black and Latino youth.
Salter, Phia S; Kelley, Nicholas J; Molina, Ludwin E; Thai, Luyen T
Photographs provide critical retrieval cues for personal remembering, but few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. In this research, we examined the psychological consequences of visual attention to the presence (or absence) of racially charged retrieval cues within American racial segregation photographs. We hypothesised that attention to racial retrieval cues embedded in historical photographs would increase social justice concept accessibility. In Study 1, we recorded gaze patterns with an eye-tracker among participants viewing images that contained racial retrieval cues or were digitally manipulated to remove them. In Study 2, we manipulated participants' gaze behaviour by either directing visual attention toward racial retrieval cues, away from racial retrieval cues, or directing attention within photographs where racial retrieval cues were missing. Across Studies 1 and 2, visual attention to racial retrieval cues in photographs documenting historical segregation predicted social justice concept accessibility.
... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ...
Faisal, Farzana A; Sundi, Debasish; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Choeurng, Voleak; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Ross, Ashley E; Klein, Eric; Den, Robert; Dicker, Adam; Erho, Nicholas; Davicioni, Elai; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M
Prostate cancer (PCa) subtypes based on ETS gene expression have been described. Recent studies suggest there are racial differences in tumor location, with PCa located anteriorly more often among African-American (AA) compared to Caucasian-American (CA) men. In this retrospective analysis of a multi-institutional cohort treated by radical prostatectomy (179 CA, 121 AA), we evaluated associations among molecular subtype, race, anatomic tumor location, and androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Subtype (m-ERG(+), m-ETS(+), m-SPINK1(+), or triple-negative) was determined using distribution-based outlier analysis. AR signaling was investigated using gene expression profiling of canonical AR targets. m-ERG(+) was more common in CA than AA men (47% vs 22%, pprostate cancer molecular subtypes, and tumor location. Location-specific differences in androgen regulation may further underlie these relationships. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... prescribes policies prohibiting interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel, as required by section... ancillary positions, including as trainers of, and advisors to, interrogations, if the contractor personnel...
... prohibited. 1608.6 Section 1608.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS... guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion shall be made in advertising or... conforms to a flammability standard in effect under the act. ...
Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Haardörfer, Regine; McBride, Colleen M.
Research about relationships between place characteristics and racial/ethnic inequities in health has largely ignored conceptual advances about race and place within the discipline of geography. Research has also almost exclusively quantified these relationships using effect estimates (e.g., odds ratios), statistics that fail to adequately capture the full impact of place characteristics on inequities and thus undermine our ability to translate research into action. We draw on geography to further develop the concept of “racialized risk environments,” and we argue for the routine calculation of race/ethnicity-specific population-attributable risk percentages. PMID:27552263
Killian, K D
This study explores the process by which interracial spouses construct narratives about their racial histories, identities, and experiences in their relationship together. Ten black-white couples were interviewed individually and conjointly. The results reflected interracial spouses' experience of their life together, their perception of others' perceptions of them, and their unique processes of negotiating racial, gender, and class differences. Black spouses, compared with white spouses, demonstrated a greater awareness of and sensitivity to social resistance to interracial couples, and black spouses' familial and personal histories were sometimes relegated to silence in the couple relationship. I discuss recommendations for marriage and family therapists working with interracial spouses.
This paper examines the impact of drug prohibition on society. It analyzes starting-points and aims of prohibition and shows, how prohibition attempts to achieve its goals. Furthermore, it explores social costs of prohibition, mainly the impact on potencial health risks of drug use and property and violent crimes. Then it presents main reasons of failure to achieve its goals. Furthemore, this paper estimates probable budgetary implications of marijuana legalization. This estimate is based on ...
Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf
psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...
College students are frequent social media users. Heightened racial tensions across college campuses and the United States have increased the volume of racial discourse on social media, suggesting a need to understand social media's influence on how students make meaning of race. Using symbolic interactionism and racial identity theories, this…
Kohatsu, Eric L.; Victoria, Rodolfo; Lau, Andrew; Flores, Michelle; Salazar, Andrea
The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent both racial identity and color-blind racial attitudes help explain anti-Asian prejudice across different socioracial groups. Participants of color from a culturally diverse West Coast university were surveyed (N = 260). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that resistance racial identity…
Smith, Timothy B.; Bowman, Raquel; Hsu, Sungti
College campuses are becoming increasingly racially diverse and may provide an optimal setting for the reduction of racial stereotypes and prejudices perpetuated in society. To better understand racism among college students, this study evaluated the attitudes of Asian and White European Americans toward several racial out-groups. Participants…
Brown, Anthony L.
This paper argues that implicit racial bias regarding black males is a manifestation of a long trajectory of Western racial memory and anti-blackness where black males have been considered subhuman or as human kinds. The author draws from theological, scientific, and social science literature to illustrate how racial discourses have historically…
Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.
In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…
Wijeyesinghe, Charmaine L., Ed.; Jackson, Bailey W., III, Ed.
This book presents a collection of essays on racial identity development in a variety of racial populations, focusing on the application of racial identity development theories and their expansion beyond their original borders. The 10 chapters are (1) "Black Identity Development: Further Analysis and Elaboration" (Bailey W. Jackson III);…
Lockett, Charles T.; Harrell, Jules P.
To examine the relationship between racial identity, self-esteem, and academic achievement, this study administered the Racial Identity Attitude Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a background questionnaire to African American students from a historically black college. Results showed that the unique effect of racial identity on academic…
Qian, Miao K.; Heyman, Gail D.; Quinn, Paul C.; Messi, Francoise A.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited. 95.3 Section 95.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...
... reports of groundfish landings, containing all data, and in the exact manner, required by the regulation.../Biogenic Area, Farallon Islands/Fanny Shoal, Half Moon Bay, Monterey Bay/Canyon, Point Sur Deep, Big Sur... prohibited from fishing, landing, or processing primary season Pacific whiting with a catcher/processor...
The purpose of this Act is to protect the health and safety of the people of New South Wales and its environment. Accordingly it prohibits prospecting or mining for uranium and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr
... communication shall place or cause to be placed on the public record of the proceeding: (1) The communication... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of prohibited communications; penalties. 102.132 Section 102.132 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS...
... passed, it was found to be not adulterated. (3) Mechanically Separated (MS)(Beef) means a meat food... were created. (3) Records must be retained at the manufacturing or processing establishment or at a... deemed adulterated under section 402(a)(3) of the act. (3) Food additive status. Prohibited cattle...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2570 RIN 1210-AA98 Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans Correction In proposed rule document 2010-21073 beginning on page 53172 in the issue of Monday, August 30, 2010, make the following correction...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2570 RIN 1210-AB49 Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security... Determinations, Employee Benefits Security Administration, Room N-5700, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC...
... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 6401.102 Prohibited financial... having outside employment with or holding stock or any other financial interest in companies that... apply to companies with subsidiaries in these areas but do not include retail distributors to the...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT....C. 1001. (b) A failure to report to the Commission in a timely fashion as required by this part is a...
... FTC announces revised monetary thresholds for three exemptions from the Franchise Rule. FTC is... July 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Craig Tregillus, Franchise Rule Coordinator, Division of... and Prohibitions Concerning Franchising'' (Franchise Rule or Rule) \\1\\ provides three exemptions based...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separate classes prohibited. 76.657 Section 76.657 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... separately on the basis of school enrollment or religion of the students if: (a) The classes are at the same...
... from a cruise ship, any material or other matter, except: (A) Fish, fish parts, chumming materials, or... MBTA. (6) Flying motorized aircraft, except as necessary for valid law enforcement purposes, at less... prohibition does not apply to possession of fish resulting from fishing below 3000 feet within the Davidson...
... assurance in this section is satisfied by the use of an accounting system that includes an “audit trail” of... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Statement of Assurances § 303.123 Prohibition against commingling. The statement must include an assurance satisfactory to the Secretary that funds made...
....130 Section 201.130 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF... Conducted by the U.S. International Trade Commission § 201.130 General prohibitions against discrimination... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 410.130 Section 410.130 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED...
... Section 6201.102 Administrative Personnel EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES § 6201.102 Prohibited...) All exporters that, during the preceding two fiscal years, exported an aggregate dollar volume of...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 410.149 Section 410.149 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED...
... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for... than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum size limit that applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a spiny lobster with less than a 5...
... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits... States other than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum size limit that applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a Caribbean spiny lobster...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibitions against misuse of seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL... character, or with wrongful or fraudulent intent, using, buying, procuring, selling or transferring to...
... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.4 Persons prohibited from discriminating. Section 11....4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... employee” because the employee has exercised rights under the Act. Section 3(4) of the Act defines “person...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions on lie detector use. 801.4 Section 801.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION... complaint, for testifying in any proceeding, or for exercising any rights afforded by the Act. (b) An...
...: Discrimination prohibited. 51-10.149 Section 51-10.149 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 10... FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-10.149 Program accessibility...
... an exotic species of plant, invertebrate, fish, amphibian, or mammals into the Sanctuary. (8) Damage... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited activities-Sanctuary-wide... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary...
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacture and importation...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.165 Manufacture...
Jonathan A Rae
Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controls and prohibitions on gasoline... prohibitions on gasoline volatility. (a)(1) Prohibited activities in 1991. During the 1991 regulatory control... shall sell, offer for sale, dispense, supply, offer for supply, or transport gasoline whose Reid vapor...
... compensable interest prohibition? 51.42 Section 51.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... exceptions to this compensable interest prohibition? Two exceptions to this compensable interest prohibition... owned in fee simple by a concessioner or owned in fee simple by a concessioner's predecessor before the...
...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (Pub. L. 111-84) prohibits the interrogation of..., to add DFARS 237.173, Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by Contractor Personnel, adding a...
... information; prohibition on dissemination. 4.37 Section 4.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY... § 4.37 Persons and entities with access to OCC information; prohibition on dissemination. (a) Current... agreement to abide by, the prohibition on the dissemination of non-public OCC information contained in...
Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Molloy, Brianne K; Lambert, Sharon F
Racial discrimination is associated with alcohol use and risky sex cognitions and behaviors, which are risk factors for negative health outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current study investigated the causal impact of racial discrimination on alcohol and sexual-risk cognitions while exploring potential mediators that might help explain this relation: negative affect, perceived control, and meaningful existence. We also examined if past discrimination impacts the strength of (moderates) these effects. Participants were 287 Black/African American young adults aged 18-25. They were randomly assigned to be excluded or included by White peers via the game Cyberball. Racial exclusion (vs. inclusion) predicted greater: perceived racial discrimination, negative affect, alcohol use willingness, and reduced perceived control and meaningful existence. Furthermore, excluded participants who experienced more past racial discrimination reported the lowest perceived control, and greatest negative affect and alcohol-risk cognitions. The findings suggest that past racial discrimination exacerbates the harmful health effects of immediate experiences of discrimination.
Sawyer, Jeremy; Gampa, Anup
Lab-based interventions have been ineffective in changing individuals' implicit racial attitudes for more than brief durations, and exposure to high-status Black exemplars like Obama has proven ineffective in shifting societal-level racial attitudes. Antiracist social movements, however, offer a potential societal-level alternative for reducing racial bias. Racial attitudes were examined before and during Black Lives Matter (BLM) and its high points of struggle with 1,369,204 participants from 2009 to 2016. After controlling for changes in participant demographics, overall implicit attitudes were less pro-White during BLM than pre-BLM, became increasingly less pro-White across BLM, and were less pro-White during most periods of high BLM struggle. Considering changes in implicit attitudes by participant race, Whites became less implicitly pro-White during BLM, whereas Blacks showed little change. Regarding explicit attitudes, Whites became less pro-White and Blacks became less pro-Black during BLM, each moving toward an egalitarian "no preference" position.
Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.
Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…
Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N
African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.
Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, US Department of Education, 2016
Diversity is inherently valuable. Research shows that diversity in schools, including racial diversity among teachers, can provide significant benefits to students. While students of color are expected to make up 56 percent of the student population by 2024, the elementary and secondary educator workforce is still overwhelmingly white. The most…
LeSure-Lester, G. Evelyn; King, Nancy
The present study investigated racial-ethnic differences in social anxiety among college students in two-year colleges. The sample consisted of 189 Asian American, African American, White American, and Hispanic American students from two colleges in the Southeast. Participants completed a questionnaire measure of social anxiety. The results…
Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; James, Carl E.; Kobayashi, Audrey; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.
The university is often regarded as a bastion of liberal democracy where equity and diversity are promoted and racism does not exist. In reality, the university still excludes many people and is a site of racialization that is subtle, complex, and sophisticated. While some studies do point to the persistence of systemic barriers to equity and…
Shim, Jenna Min
This study is to empirically investigate both residual and emergent factors that undergird one teacher's understanding of race, racism, and racialization as he responds to two fictional stories and one film. Informed by an assemblage of Bourdieu's concept of habitus and his sociological theory of practice, Gee's concept of primary Discourses, and…
Paul H. Gobster
A major planning effort for Chicago's largest park provided an opprotunity yto examine outdoor recreation use patterns and preferences among a racially and ethnically diverse clientele. Results from on-site surveys of 898 park users (217 Black, 210 Latino, 182 Asian, and 289 White) showed that park users shared a core set of interests, preferences, and concerns...
Wann, Chelsea Guillermo
As the expanding post-civil rights multiracial population is likely to transform the demographics of American colleges and universities, its perceived growth is also misused to advance neo-conservative agendas and post-racial views about the declining significance of race. Politicized issues around multiraciality frame and impact the campus…
Sue, Derald Wing; Nadal, Kevin L.; Capodilupo, Christina M.; Lin, Annie I.; Torino, Gina C.; Rivera, David P.
Racial microaggression themes were identified using a focus-group analysis of self-identified Black participants. Six categories of demeaning and invalidating messages reflected beliefs of White supremacy that were unintentionally conveyed by perpetrators. Implications for counselors and the counseling process are discussed.
Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…
Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.
Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…
Croteau, James M.
Understanding the collective versus individualistic viewpoint is important to understanding racism in America. The author applies lessons learned in dealing with homophobia to the matter of racism. Forming for oneself a white version of racial identity is the key to white's active personal involvement and identification with being anti-racist.…
With Barack Obama ensconced as the nation's first Black president, plenty of voices in the national conversation are trumpeting America as a post-racial society--that race matters much less than it used to, that the boundaries of race have been overcome, that racism is no longer a big problem. In this article, longtime scholars whose life's work…
Gagnon, Douglas J.; Mattingly, Marybeth J.
Research is just beginning to describe with precision determinants of racial and ethnic achievement gaps. Work by Reardon, Kalogrides, and Shores found that factors such as parental income, parental education, and segregation are the strongest predictors of achievement gaps. In this study we expand this line of inquiry to examine the role of…
Conclusions: We found that EoE occurs more frequently in Caucasian EGID patients than Asian EGID patients, while the reverse is true for EGE. Also, racial disparities in symptoms and eosinophil-infiltrated tissues were observed. Our findings suggest further genetic and environmental studies to elucidate the etiology of EGID.
This article is a report of a critical constructivist study of racial identity and performance among 13 Black, traditional-age students enrolled at three different colleges, two historically Black and one predominantly White. The study's approach understood identity to be socially constructed and reliant upon community affirmation and validation.…
The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore, Allison B.; MacGregor, Cynthia; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the relationship between student achievement and racial congruence of school personnel and students to help educators and policy makers narrow the achievement gap. Design/methodology/approach: This quasi-experimental, correlational study used publicly available data from 158 elementary schools in the Houston…
Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle
In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…
Davis, Tomeka M.
Three arguments regarding racial equity have arisen in the school choice debate. Choice advocates charge that choice will improve access to quality schools for disadvantaged minority students (Chubb & Moe 1990; Coons & Sugarman, 1978; Godwin & Kemerer, 2002; Viteritti, 1999). Critics argue that choice is unlikely to benefit minority…
Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.
Educational success among Asian American students has often been misunderstood as an occupational development separate from any experience of racism. However, several theorists have suggested that racial barriers in occupational mobility correlate with educational pursuits. Therefore, this research aims to examine the direct effect of perceived…
Intrieri, Robert C.; Kurth, Maria L.
The present study assessed knowledge of aging, attitudes toward aging, ageism, and contact with older adults in a sample of 271 Non-Hispanic White and African-American undergraduates. Research examining racial differences in knowledge of aging, attitudes toward aging, ageism, and contact with older adults has been sparse. Results for the current…
Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.
Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…
The aim of this article is to give a descriptive-empirical description of the relationship between the DRC and race by using the Church Mirror surveys. An altered social distance scale is used to measure church acceptance. In the discourse on race, acceptance and unity in the DRC with regard to racial prejudice and attitudes ...
Tuch, Steven A.
Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…
Hoang, Haivan V.
If college writing faculty wish to prepare students to engage in civic forums, then how might we prepare students to write and speak amid racial politics on our campuses? This article explores the college student discourse that shaped an interracial conflict at a public California university in 2002 and questions the "rhetoric of injury"…
Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda
Knowledge about how race governs partner selection has been predominantly studied in the United States, yet it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to nations with different racial and immigration patterns. Using a large-scale sample of online daters in nine European countries, we
Parker, Priya Narayan
Across American campuses, racial tension and other issues of diversity remain a major challenge. The majority of this country's institutions demonstrate that they value and promote diversity through efforts in affirmative action, minority student and faculty recruitment, minority retention, administration of special scholarships, diversity Web…
relationship between income and racial segregation in certain areas. ... living spaces of the Black, Coloured and Indian race groups, apartheid policies ..... middle class and affluent) as determined in relation to the poverty line. .... areas will attract economic growth and developments due to their higher spending power.
Gordon, Thomas F.; Surlin, Stuart H.
Random telephone surveys in a northern and a southern city were initiated to determine attitudes toward "informative" and "direct reference" mass media political advertisements. Responses were organized in regional, social, and racial categories. The results quantified reactions to the two types of political messages of blacks…
Kirk, David S
This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.
Chen, Jie; Rizzo, John A
Little is known about racial and ethnic disparities in health care utilization, expenditures and drug choice in the antidepressant market. This study investigates factors associated with the racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use. We seek to determine the extent to which disparities reflect differences in observable population characteristics versus heterogeneity across racial and ethnic groups. Among the population characteristics, we are interested in identifying which factors are most important in accounting for racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use. Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 1996-2003, we have an available sample of 10,416 Caucasian, 1,089 African American and 1,539 Hispanic antidepressant drug users aged 18 to 64 years. We estimate individual out-of-pocket payments, total prescription drug expenditures, drug utilization, the probability of taking generic versus brand name antidepressants, and the share of drugs that are older types of antidepressants (e.g., TCAs and MAOIs) for these individuals during a calendar year. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition techniques are employed to determine the extent to which disparities reflect differences in observable population characteristics versus unobserved heterogeneity across racial and ethnic groups. Caucasians have the highest antidepressant drug expenditures and utilization. African-Americans have the lowest drug expenditures and Hispanics have the lowest drug utilization. Relative to Caucasians and Hispanics, African-Americans are more likely to purchase generics and use a higher share of older drugs (e.g., TCAs and MAOIs). Differences in observable characteristics explain most of the racial/ethnic differences in these outcomes, with the exception of drug utilization. Differences in health insurance and education levels are particularly important factors in explaining disparities. In contrast, differences in drug utilization largely reflect unobserved
Full Text Available In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after
Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy
In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services and in
Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy
In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia’s most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia’s racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations’ existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services
Luis Sebastian Contreras-Huerta
Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that perceiving the pain of others activates brain regions in the observer associated with both somatosensory and affective-motivational aspects of pain, principally involving regions of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex. The degree of these empathic neural responses is modulated by racial bias, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by observing pain in people of the same racial group compared with people of another racial group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a more general social group category, other than race, could similarly modulate neural empathic responses and perhaps account for the apparent racial bias reported in previous studies. Using a minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We use the term race to refer to the Chinese or Caucasian appearance of faces and whether the ethnic group represented was the same or different from the appearance of the participant' own face. Using fMRI, we measured neural empathic responses as participants observed members of their own group or other group, and members of their own race or other race, receiving either painful or non-painful touch. Participants showed clear group biases, with no significant effect of race, on behavioral measures of implicit (affective priming and explicit group identification. Neural responses to observed pain in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and somatosensory areas showed significantly greater activation when observing pain in own-race compared with other-race individuals, with no significant effect of minimal groups. These results suggest that racial bias in neural empathic responses is not influenced by minimal forms of group categorization, despite the clear association participants showed with in-group more than out-group members. We suggest that race may be an automatic and unconscious mechanism that drives the initial neural responses to
Contreras-Huerta, Luis Sebastian; Baker, Katharine S.; Reynolds, Katherine J.; Batalha, Luisa; Cunnington, Ross
Recent studies have shown that perceiving the pain of others activates brain regions in the observer associated with both somatosensory and affective-motivational aspects of pain, principally involving regions of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex. The degree of these empathic neural responses is modulated by racial bias, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by observing pain in people of the same racial group compared with people of another racial group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a more general social group category, other than race, could similarly modulate neural empathic responses and perhaps account for the apparent racial bias reported in previous studies. Using a minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We use the term race to refer to the Chinese or Caucasian appearance of faces and whether the ethnic group represented was the same or different from the appearance of the participant' own face. Using fMRI, we measured neural empathic responses as participants observed members of their own group or other group, and members of their own race or other race, receiving either painful or non-painful touch. Participants showed clear group biases, with no significant effect of race, on behavioral measures of implicit (affective priming) and explicit group identification. Neural responses to observed pain in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and somatosensory areas showed significantly greater activation when observing pain in own-race compared with other-race individuals, with no significant effect of minimal groups. These results suggest that racial bias in neural empathic responses is not influenced by minimal forms of group categorization, despite the clear association participants showed with in-group more than out-group members. We suggest that race may be an automatic and unconscious mechanism that drives the initial neural responses to observed pain in
Clark, Khaya D; Yovanoff, Paul; Tate, Charlotte Ursula
The Racial Attitudes Index (RAI) measures a child's racial attitudes. Designed for children aged 5-9 years, the RAI is delivered over the Internet using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI). Unlike traditional binary forced-choice instruments, the RAI uses an expanded response format permitting a more nuanced understanding of patterns of children's racial attitudes. In addition to establishing psychometric evidence of the RAI technical adequacy, hypotheses about RAI item response patterns were tested. The racial attitudes of 336 Black and White children in grades K-3 were assessed using a forced-choice instrument (Preschool Racial Attitudes Measure II) and the RAI. Findings from this study indicate measures obtained with the RAI are technically adequate, and the measure functions invariantly across racial groups. Also, patterns of children's racial attitudes measured with the RAI are more nuanced than those obtained using the forced-choice response format.
Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy
Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.
Neville, Helen A; Awad, Germine H; Brooks, James E; Flores, Michelle P; Bluemel, Jamie
Synthesizing the interdisciplinary literature, we characterize color-blind racial ideology (CBRI) as consisting of two interrelated domains: color-evasion (i.e., denial of racial differences by emphasizing sameness) and power-evasion (i.e., denial of racism by emphasizing equal opportunities). Mounting empirical data suggest that the color-evasion dimension is ineffective and in fact promotes interracial tension and potential inequality. CBRI may be conceived as an ultramodern or contemporary form of racism and a legitimizing ideology used to justify the racial status quo. Four types of CBRI are described: denial of (a) race, (b) blatant racial issues, (c) institutional racism, and (d) White privilege. We discuss empirical findings suggesting a relationship between CBRI and increased racial prejudice, racial anger, and racial fear. Implications for education, training, and research are provided. © 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney
The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
Smith, William L.; Brown, Anthony L.
Drawing from the work of "cultural memory" and "racial formation theory" (Omi and Winant 1994) we explore the ascension of Barack Obama as an illustration of how "race" is understood and remembered. This article focuses on the public media discourse of the 2012 Obama re-election to illustrate how the narrative morphed…
This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of Mpumalanga. Most of the data presented are drawn fr...
This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of Gauteng. Most of the data presented are drawn from ...
This study applied individual growth trajectory analyses and person-oriented analysis to identify common profiles of out-of-school activity engagement trajectories among racially and ethnically diverse inner city teens (N = 1,430). On average, teens exhibited declining trajectories of participation in school-based and team sports activities and…
This study aimed to establish a comprehensive profile of the motor proficiency of Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa, taking into account gender and racial differences and strengths and weaknesses. A stratified randomised sample of 816 Grade 1 learners (419 boys, 397 girls, mean age 6.84 years ...
Smith, Emilie Phillips; Atkins, Jacqueline; Connell, Christian M
This study examined family, school, and community factors and the relationships to racial-ethnic attitudes and academic achievement among 98 African American fourth-grade children. It has been posited that young people who feel better about their racial-ethnic background have better behavioral and academic outcomes, yet there is a need for more empirical tests of this premise. Psychometric information is reported on measures of parent, teacher, and child racial-ethnic attitudes. Path analysis was used to investigate ecological variables potentially related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and achievement. Parental education and level of racial-ethnic pride were correlated and both were related to children's achievement though in the final path model, only the path from parental education level was statistically significant. Children whose teachers exhibited higher levels of racial-ethnic trust and perceived fewer barriers due to race and ethnicity evidenced more trust and optimism as well. Children living in communities with higher proportions of college-educated residents also exhibited more positive racial-ethnic attitudes. For children, higher racial-ethnic pride was related to higher achievement measured by grades and standardized test scores, while racial distrust and perception of barriers due to race were related to reduced performance. This study suggests that family, school, and community are all important factors related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and also to their academic achievement.
People of Color experience acute or chronic stress from discriminatory treatment and racial microaggressions, decreasing their biopsychosocial health. Racial microaggressions include but are not limited to merciless and mundane exclusionary messages, being treated as less than fully human, and civil and human rights violations. Racial microaggressions are key to understanding increases in Racial Battle Fatigue (Smith, 2004) resulting from the psychological and physiological stress that racially marginalized individuals/groups experience in response to specific race-related interactions between them and the surrounding dominant environment. Race-related stress taxes and exceeds available resilient coping resources for People of Color, while many Whites easily build sociocultural and economic environments and resources that shield them from race-based stress and threats to their racial entitlements.What is at stake, here, is the quest for equilibrium versus disequilibrium in a society that marginalizes human beings into substandard racial groups. Identifying and counteracting the biopsychosocial and behavioral consequences of actual or perceived racism, gendered-racism, and Racial Battle Fatigue is a premier challenge of the 21st Century. The term "racial microaggressions" was introduced in the 1970's to help psychiatrists and psychologists understand the enormity and complications of the subtle but constant racial blows faced by People of Color. Today, racial microaggressions continue to contribute to the negative workplace experiences of women, people of color, and other marginalized groups in astronomy and planetary science (Clancy et al. 2017). This presentation will focus on the definition, identification, and long-term effects of racial microaggressions and the resultant racial battle fatigue in STEM work environments.
Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian
In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....
Chapman, P L; Mullis, R L
Racial differences in coping strategies and self-esteem were examined for 361 male and female adolescents in Grades 7-12. Coping strategies were assessed with the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (J. M. Patterson & H. I. McCubbin, 1986). Self-esteem was assessed by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (S. Coopersmith, 1987). Multivariate analysis revealed racial differences in adolescent coping strategies of ventilating feelings, seeking diversions, developing self-reliance, avoiding problems, seeking spiritual support, investing in close friends, engaging in demanding activities, solving family problems, and relaxing. In particular, African American adolescents reported using diversions, self-reliance, spiritual support, close friends, demanding activities, family problems, and relaxation more frequently than Caucasian adolescents did. Implications for professionals and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin
Current practices of using "race" in pharmacogenomics research demands consideration of the ethical and social implications for understandings of group difference and for efforts to eliminate health disparities. This discussion focuses on an "infrastructure of racialization" created by current trajectories of research on genetic differences among racially identified groups, the use of race as a proxy for risk in clinical practice, and increasing interest in new market niches by the pharmaceutical industry. The confluence of these factors has resulted in the conflation of genes, disease, and race. I argue that public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of current inequities in health status and social and ethical concerns over reifying race and issues of distributive justice.
Full Text Available This article demonstrates that the science fiction’s visions of the future are not exempt from problems of rasism even when openly opposed it. Film and TV Star Trek production is commonly regarded as a significant example of courageous and effective intervention of mass culture on the widespread racial prejudices legitimized by the public policy. Subsequent interpretations, however, in its ‘emancipatory text’ finds smuggled recurrences of the same racial discourse against which it acted, whether it concerns other ‘races’ on Earth or space aliens. A fair interpretation would have to conclude that the white male norm requires effort of its ‘deconstruction’ that would be more extensive then involvement in the program the non-white characters - if we do not want to extend his exclusive and discriminatory rule, in mitigated or disguised form, to the galaxy.
Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.
The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3–10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply stereotypes to the out-group starting around 6 years of age. Controlling for a number of factors, two predictors contributed significantly towards uniquely explaining the use of these stereotypes: race salience (i.e., seeing and organizing by race) and essentialist thinking (i.e., believing that race cannot change). These results provide insight into how and when real-world interventions aimed at altering the acquisition of racial stereotypes may be implemented. PMID:21077865
Berik, Günseli; Bilginsoy, Cihan; Williams, Larry S.
This paper uses micro data from Oregon to measure the gender and minority training gaps in apprenticeship training. Its methodological innovation is the use of on-the-job training credit hours of exiting workers as the measure of the quantity of training. Apprentices who started training between 1991 and 2002 are followed through 2007. Controlling for individual and program attributes, women and racial/ethnic minorities on average receive less training than men and whites, respectively. Union...
Hamilton, John C.
This dissertation explores the interplay of popular music and racial thought in the 1960s, and asks how, when, and why rock and roll music "became white." By Jimi Hendrix's death in 1970 the idea of a black man playing electric lead guitar was considered literally remarkable in ways it had not been for Chuck Berry only ten years earlier: employing an interdisciplinary combination of archival research, musical analysis, and critical race theory, this project explains how this happened, and in ...
Al-Naamani, Nadine; Paulus, Jessica K.; Roberts, Kari E.; Pauciulo, Michael W.; Lutz, Katie; Nichols, William C.; Kawut, Steven M.
This study explores the racial and ethnic differences in presentation, severity, and treatment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a large multicenter registry. African American and Hispanic patients are more likely to present with associated PAH compared to non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic patients with PAH were less likely to be treated with PAH-specific medications compared to non-Hispanic whites.
Full Text Available Cities today are trying to reinvent themselves using buzzwords like the New Urbanism. New Urbanist policies have generated more positive economic outcomes for cities than past gentrification policies have ever been able to accomplish by focusing on the "best and highest use." However, the consequences of this policy on the resident (and frequently minority populations have barely received attention. This inattention is not accidental since the conservative vocabulary hides racial issues behind new terminology.
Alexander, G R; Tompkins, M E; Allen, M C; Hulsey, T C
In the past two decades, infant mortality rates in the United States declined in African-American and White populations. Despite this, racial disparities in infant mortality rates have increased and rates of low birth weight deliveries have shown little change. In this study, we examine temporal changes in birth weight distributions, birth weight specific neonatal mortality, and the birth weight threshold for an adverse risk of survival within both racial groups in order to explore the mechanisms for the disparities in infant mortality rates. Single live births born to South Carolina resident mothers between 1975 and 1994 and considered White or African-American based on the mother's report of maternal race on the birth certificate were selected for investigation. We define the birth weight threshold for adverse survival odds as the birth weight at which 50% or more of infants in the population died within the first month of life. Despite significant increases in very low birth weight percentages, neonatal mortality rates markedly declined. Birth weight specific neonatal mortality decreased for both races, although greater reductions accrued to White low birth weight infants. By the end of the study period, the birth weight at which over 50% of newborns died within the first month of life was 696 g for Whites and 673 g for African-Americans. The ongoing decline in neonatal mortality is mainly due to reductions in birth weight specific neonatal mortality, probably related to high-risk obstetric and neonatal care. Technological developments in these areas may have differentially benefited Whites, resulting in an increasing racial disparity in mortality rates. Moreover, the relatively greater and increasing mortality risk from postmaturity and macrosomia in infants of African-America mothers may further exacerbate the racial gap in infant mortality.
Roberson, N L
Racial/ethnic groups' participation in clinical trials is a relatively new area of research that warrants attention. Although racial/ethnic groups have been included in experimental studies since the 1940s, they were not included in significant numbers in clinical trials for cancer. Clinical trials play a dominant role in clinical oncology. Despite this state-of-the-art cancer treatment, however, there is mounting concern that this scientific progress is not being shared equitably by all segments of the U.S. population. There is underrepresentation of members of racial/ethnic groups in cancer clinical trials, which suggests that participation may be a critical issue. Unfortunately, little is known or documented about these groups' participation in clinical trials. This paper discusses racial/ethnic groups' views and opinions about clinical trial participation. Diagnostic research was conducted as a beginning phase to investigate this new area of research. African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans in three Buffalo, New York, communities were selected as study subjects. Data were collected via telephone surveys. Qualitative methods were employed for data analysis and reporting. Findings showed that study subjects knew little about cancer clinical trials and basically had no opportunity to participate. They believed that participation in clinical trials could be beneficial. In each of the three groups, however, there were cultural factors believed to influence participation. A primary concern was "mistrust of white people" and the feeling of being treated like "guinea pigs." Based on study findings, it was evident that recruitment for improving participation requires strategic planning that involves participants representative of the study population. To yield results, the plan should be tailored to the target group, presented as a credible study, designed to reflect trust in the medical care team, and implemented through a continuous educational process.
Potârcă, Gina; Mills, Melinda
Knowledge about how race governs partner selection has been predominantly studied in the United States, yet it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to nations with different racial and immigration patterns. Using a large-scale sample of online daters in nine European countries, we engage in the first cross-national analysis of race-related partner preferences and examine the link between contextual factors and ethnic selectivity. We provide a unique test of contact, conflict, a...
Schaa, Kendra L; Roter, Debra L; Biesecker, Barbara B; Cooper, Lisa A; Erby, Lori H
Objective Implicit racial attitudes are thought to shape interpersonal interactions and may contribute to health care disparities. This study explored the relationship between genetic counselors’ implicit racial attitudes and their communication during simulated genetic counseling sessions. Methods A nationally representative sample of genetic counselors completed a web-based survey that included the Race Implicit Association Test (IAT). A subset of these counselors (n=67) had participated in an earlier study in which they were video recorded counseling Black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White simulated clients (SC) about their prenatal or cancer risks. The counselors’ IAT scores were related to their session communication through robust regression modeling. Results Genetic counselors showed a moderate to strong pro-White bias on the Race IAT (M=0.41, SD=0.35). Counselors with stronger pro-White bias were rated as displaying lower levels of positive affect (pcommunication (pcommunication in minority client sessions and may contribute to racial disparities in processes of care related to genetic services. PMID:25622081
Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu
Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon
National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena.
Weber, Amanda; Collins, Shelly-Ann; Robinson-Wood, Tracy; Zeko-Underwood, Elda; Poindexter, Bianca
In recent years, understanding prejudice and discrimination toward minorities has developed to include the investigation of microaggressions. Microaggressions are brief and commonplace verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities. They are intentional or unintentional and communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights toward racial and sexual minorities. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to chronicle the prevalence and type of microaggressions experienced among a sample of 18 highly educated and racially diverse sexual minorities, 24-65 years of age. The impact of microaggressions on physical and psychological health is central to our investigation. Thematic data analysis was used to analyze 14 interviews and one focus group, which resulted in the following themes of microaggressions: (a) discomfort/disapproval with LGBT experience, (b) assumption of universal experience, (c) traditional gender role stereotyping, (d) denial of personal privacy, (e) exoticization, (f) ascription of intelligence, (g) policing bodies, and (h) assumption of criminality. Research findings may have implications for the development of interventions that can serve clinicians in their therapeutic work with microaggressed sexual minorities across racial diversity.
Richmond, Tracy K; Field, Alison E; Rich, Michael
To determine if neighborhoods and their attributes contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 17,007), a nationally representative school-based study in the United States. Stratifying by gender, we used multivariate linear regression and multi-level modeling to determine whether neighborhood of residence may partially explain racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical inactivity, defined as hours viewing television or videos/DVDs and/or playing computer/video games each week. Participants lived in largely segregated communities. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported higher levels of inactivity than White adolescent girls (21 vs. 15 vs. 13 hours/week, respectively, p violent crime in the neighborhood was associated with inactivity, despite the individual's perception of his/her neighborhood as safe not being predictive. Although inactivity varies by race/ethnicity and gender, only in Hispanic adolescent girls does neighborhood fully explain the differential use. Our findings suggest that approaches other than changing neighborhood characteristics are needed to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity.
Gillenwalters, Elizabeth; Martinez, Nicole
The rapidly changing demographics of the United States workforce include a large number of women and members of minority groups that are currently underrepresented in science and engineering-related education and careers. Recent research indicates that while singular incidents of sexism do exist, gender bias more often affects women in various subtle ways. The effects of stereotype threat and the lack of appropriate mentoring and female role models are samples of the possible factors contributing to performance and longevity for women in math-intensive fields. To address how this issue affects those in radiation protection, the current status of women in the field is reviewed as a progression through the scientific pipeline, from education and employment to positions in scientific bodies and professional recognition, with primary focus on American women and institutions. Racial diversity demographics are reviewed where available. Findings indicate women and minority racial groups are underrepresented in multiple aspects of education, research, and leadership. While gender diversity across the field has not yet reached gender parity, trending indicates that the percentage of women earning degrees in radiation protection has consistently increased over the last four decades. Diversity of racial groups, however, has remained fairly consistent and is well below national averages. Diverse perspectives have been documented in collective problem-solving to lead to more innovative solutions.
Ray, Rashawn; Sewell, Abigail A; Gilbert, Keon L; Roberts, Jennifer D
Blacks and Latinos are less likely than whites to access health insurance and utilize health care. One way to overcome some of these racial barriers to health equity may be through advances in technology that allow people to access and utilize health care in innovative ways. Yet, little research has focused on whether the racial gap that exists for health care utilization also exists for accessing health information online and through mobile technologies. Using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), we examine racial differences in obtaining health information online via mobile devices. We find that blacks and Latinos are more likely to trust online newspapers to get health information than whites. Minorities who have access to a mobile device are more likely to rely on the Internet for health information in a time of strong need. Federally insured individuals who are connected to mobile devices have the highest probability of reliance on the Internet as a go-to source of health information. We conclude by discussing the importance of mobile technologies for health policy, particularly related to developing health literacy, improving health outcomes, and contributing to reducing health disparities by race and health insurance status. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.
Full Text Available In this paper, I focus on the story of Omar Khadr, a Canadian minor who was held captive in Guantanamo Bay for a decade, to demonstrate that, at times, neither citizenship nor human rights offer any protection to those who, like Khadr, are citizens of a country and are certainly human beings, yet have been deprived of the rights associated with those statuses. By drawing on Hannah Arendt’s argument in The Origins of Totalitarianism, as well as some of her subsequent work, I critically assess the debate regarding whether the rights conferred upon citizens are the only true barriers against abuse, or whether human rights have become a more effective protection. I suggest that this debate is sterile as it fails to recognize that the issue is not which set of rights offers a better guarantee of protection, but how the discourse around citizenship and human rights remains racialized, to the point where certain individuals are considered neither citizens nor humans, and therefore are potentially subject to abuse. Focusing on Canada’s treatment of Khadr, I argue that racialization is the root cause of his denial of rights. My analysis aims to contribute to existing literature by refocusing the “rights debate” to demonstrate that any discussion around abstract rights fails to address the experiences of those racialized subjects whose rights have been denied.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon
National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523
Robin D. Barnes, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos
Full Text Available Abstract: This article question the underlying assumptions and, therefore, potential effectiveness of Anthony Alfieri's recent essay, "Defending Racial Violence. Alfieri's proposal, in the form of an enforceable rule, would likely wind up on a collision course with principles underlying the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The article demonstrates the level of confusion that develops from rules that too easily or arbitrarily frustrate the legitimate interests of attorneys and clients in pursuing the best criminal defense. It also recommends providing carefully constructed, simulated exercises for classroom dialogue in ethics courses as a viable, alternative method for introducing a race - conscious ethic to young lawyers that does not run afoul of basic constitutional freedoms. The article disagrees with Alfieri's conclusion that "defense lawyers find scarce opportunity to contest the dominant narratives embedded in laws, institutional practices, and legal relations, even when those narratives inscribe negative racial stereotypes." The article concludes that the history and evolution of the entire system of criminal justice in this country dictates greater reliance upon mainstream prescriptions of neutrality rather than race-conscious rules and affirm that on questions concerning injury to black America's social identity, critics like Alfieri usually fail to consider just how broad the range of race-based assumptions are that ground representations of moral agency. Keywords: Racialized narratives. Criminal justice system. Race relations in the United States.
Seamans, Marissa J; Robinson, Whitney R; Thorpe, Roland J; Cole, Stephen R; LaVeist, Thomas A
To investigate whether the gender gap in obesity prevalence is greater among U.S. blacks than whites in a study designed to account for racial differences in socioeconomic and environmental conditions. We estimated age-adjusted, race-stratified gender gaps in obesity (% female obese - % male obese, defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) in the National Health Interview Survey 2003 and the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore 2003 study (EHDIC-SWB). EHDIC-SWB is a population-based survey of 1381 adults living in two urban, low-income, racially integrated census tracts with no race difference in income. In the National Health Interview Survey, the obesity gender gap was larger in blacks than whites as follows: 7.7 percentage points (ppts; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-11.9) in blacks versus -1.5 ppts (95% CI: -2.8 to -0.2) in whites. In EHDIC-SWB, the gender gap was similarly large for blacks and whites as follows: 15.3 ppts (95% CI: 8.6-22.0) in blacks versus 14.0 ppts (95% CI: 7.1-20.9) in whites. In a racially integrated, low-income urban community, gender gaps in obesity prevalence were similar for blacks and whites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lincoln, Karen; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert J; Jackson, James S
Latent profile analysis was used to summarize profiles of depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of U.S.-born and Caribbean-born Blacks. Analyses are based on the responses of 4,915 African Americans and Caribbean Blacks from the National Survey of American Life. A high symptoms and a low symptoms class were identified. Age, gender, negative social interaction within the individual's social network (e.g., conflict demands, criticism) and racial discrimination were associ...
Ryon J. Cobb
Full Text Available Research suggests that congregational characteristics are associated with the racial attitudes of American churchgoers. This study examines the relationship between congregational size and beliefs about the Black/White socioeconomic gap among religious adherents. Method. Drawing upon data from the General Social Survey and the National Congregations Study, we fit binary logistic regression models to estimate the association between congregational size and Americans’ explanations of Black/White economic inequality. Results. Findings reveal that attendees of larger congregations are less likely than attendees of smaller congregations to explain racial inequality as the result of the racial discrimination. The likelihood of explaining racial inequality in terms of personal motivation does not vary by congregation size. Conclusion. Despite the growing diversity in larger congregations in America, such congregations may steer attendees’ views about racial inequality away from systemic/structural factors, which may attenuate the ability of such congregations to bridge racial divisions.
Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán
Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.
Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe
A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Sprout, Gregory T.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Krendl, Anne C.
Abstract Less racially prototypic faces elicit more category competition during race categorization. Top-down factors (e.g. stereotypes), however, affect categorizations, suggesting racial prototypicality may enhance category competition in certain perceivers. Here, we examined how prejudice affects race category competition and stabilization when perceiving faces varying in racial prototypicality. Prototypically low vs high Black relative to White faces elicited more category competition and slower response latencies during categorization (Experiment 1), suggesting a pronounced racial prototypicality effect on minority race categorization. However, prejudice predicted the extent of category competition between prototypically low vs high Black faces. Suggesting more response conflict toward less prototypic Black vs White faces, anterior cingulate cortex activity increased toward Black vs White faces as they decreased in racial prototypicality, with prejudice positively predicting this difference (Experiment 2). These findings extend the literature on racial prototypicality and categorization by showing that relative prejudice tempers the extent of category competition and response conflict engaged when initially perceiving faces. PMID:28077728
Bandera, Elisa V; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Romieu, Isabelle; John, Esther M
Obesity is a global concern, affecting both developed and developing countries. Although there are large variations in obesity and breast cancer rates worldwide and across racial/ethnic groups, most studies evaluating the impact of obesity on breast cancer risk and survival have been conducted in non-Hispanic white women in the United States or Europe. Given the known racial/ethnic differences in tumor hormone receptor subtype distribution, obesity prevalence, and risk factor profiles, we reviewed published data for women of African, Hispanic, and Asian ancestry in the United States and their countries of origin. Although the data are limited, current evidence suggests a stronger adverse effect of obesity on breast cancer risk and survival in women of Asian ancestry. For African Americans and Hispanics, the strength of the associations appears to be more comparable to that of non-Hispanic whites, particularly when accounting for subtype and menopausal status. Central obesity seems to have a stronger impact in African-American women than general adiposity as measured by body mass index. International data from countries undergoing economic transition offer a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of rapid weight gain on breast cancer. Such studies should take into account genetic ancestry, which may help elucidate differences in associations between ethnically admixed populations. Overall, additional large studies that use a variety of adiposity measures are needed, because the current evidence is based on few studies, most with limited statistical power. Future investigations of obesity biomarkers will be useful to understand possible racial/ethnic biological differences underlying the complex association between obesity and breast cancer development and progression. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Richmond, Tracy K; Hayward, Rodney A; Gahagan, Sheila; Field, Alison E; Heisler, Michele
Our goal was to determine if racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent boys' and girls' physical activity participation exist and persist once the school attended is considered. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 17,007 teens in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Using multivariate linear regression, we examined the association between adolescent self-reported physical activity and individual race/ethnicity stratified by gender, controlling for a wide range of sociodemographic, attitudinal, behavioral, and health factors. We used multilevel analyses to determine if the relationship between race/ethnicity and physical activity varied by the school attended. Participants attended racially segregated schools; approximately 80% of Hispanic and black adolescent boys and girls attended schools with student populations that were schools that were >94% white. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported lower levels of physical activity than white adolescent girls. There were more similar levels of physical activity reported in adolescent boys, with black boys reporting slightly more activities. Although black and Hispanic adolescent girls were more likely to attend poorer schools with overall lower levels of physical activity in girls; there was no difference within schools between black, white, and Hispanic adolescent girls' physical activity levels. Within the same schools, both black and Hispanic adolescent boys had higher rates of physical activity when compared with white adolescent boys. In this nationally representative sample, lower physical activity levels in Hispanic and black adolescent girls were largely attributable to the schools they attended. In contrast, black and Hispanic males had higher activity levels than white males when attending the same schools. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which school environments contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical activity and will need to
Smith, Timothy B.
The study and measurement of attitudes toward racial and ethnic groups are important parts of the field of cross-cultural psychology. The present study examined a theory of racial attitudes, that of symbolic racism, and several demographic variables. The sample population consisted of 575 Caucasians and 122 Far-East Asian college students. Results indicated that Symbolic Racism is a unique theoretical construct, that Caucasian students were less racially biased than their Asian peers, and tha...
Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.
Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albe...
Cassidy, Brittany S.; Sprout, Gregory T.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Krendl, Anne C.
Less racially prototypic faces elicit more category competition during race categorization. Top-down factors (e.g. stereotypes), however, affect categorizations, suggesting racial prototypicality may enhance category competition in certain perceivers. Here, we examined how prejudice affects race category competition and stabilization when perceiving faces varying in racial prototypicality. Prototypically low vs high Black relative to White faces elicited more category competition and slower r...
Tobler, Amy L; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Staras, Stephanie A S; O'Mara, Ryan J; Livingston, Melvin D; Komro, Kelli A
We examined perceived frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and associations with high-risk behaviors/conditions among adolescents. With surveys from 2490 racial/ethnic minority adolescents primarily with low socioeconomic status, we used regression analysis to examine associations between racial/ethnic discrimination and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol use, marijuana use, physical aggression, delinquency, victimization, depression, suicidal ideation, and sexual behaviors). Most adolescents (73%) experienced racial/ethnic discrimination and 42% of experiences were 'somewhat-' or 'very disturbing.' Adolescents reporting frequent and disturbing racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk of all measured behaviors, except alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who experienced any racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk for victimization and depression. Regardless of intensity, adolescents who experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at least occasionally were more likely to report greater physical aggression, delinquency, suicidal ideation, younger age at first oral sex, unprotected sex during last intercourse, and more lifetime sexual partners. Most adolescents had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination due to their race/ethnicity. Even occasional experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination likely contribute to maladaptive behavioral and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Prevention and coping strategies are important targets for intervention.
This study investigates the association between body weight and the likelihood that people perceive that they have been the victims of racial discrimination in the workplace among the unemployed. I find that unemployed obese men and women are 8.4 percentage points and 7.7 percentage points, respectively, more likely to have experienced racial discrimination before becoming unemployed than their non-obese counterparts. For unemployed men, the relationship between body weight and perceived racial discrimination does not seem to be associated with race. For unemployed women, being black and obese significantly increases the likelihood of perceiving racial discrimination.