WorldWideScience

Sample records for race theory perspective

  1. "What's Going On?": A Critical Race Theory Perspective on Black Lives Matter and Activism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Adrienne D.

    2018-01-01

    This article explores activism, education, and the #BlackLivesMatter movement. Using critical race theory (CRT), I analyze what this emergence of primarily youth-led activism means in the context of decades of neoliberal education reform. I raise specific questions about how youth-led activism, which has its genesis in and is largely shaped by…

  2. Race and Raceness: A Theoretical Perspective of the Black American Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jacqueline E.

    1987-01-01

    Gives a theoretical perspective of the multidimensional nature of Black-race/White-race consciousness. American perceptions of race are expressed in White race centeredness. Blacks face the dilemma of adhering to two sets of values: a positive valuation of their race and a necessity of passing in White society. (PS)

  3. Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese

    2015-01-01

    Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.

  4. Race, Class, and Cultural Reproduction: Critical Theories in Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Walker

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.

  5. The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…

  6. Critical Race Theory and Research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Behringer, Laurie B.; Grey, Emily A.; Parker, Tara L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer critical race theory (CRT) as an alternative theoretical perspective that permits the examination and transcendence of conceptual blockages, while simultaneously offering alternative perspectives on higher education policy and practice and the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) student population. The…

  7. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillborn, David

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  8. QuantCrit: Rectifying Quantitative Methods through Critical Race Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nichole M.; López, Nancy; Vélez, Verónica N.

    2018-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) in education centers, examines, and seeks to transform the relationship that undergirds race, racism, and power. CRT scholars have applied a critical race framework to advance research methodologies, namely qualitative interventions. Informed by this work, and 15 years later, this article reconsiders the possibilities of…

  9. critical race theory and the question of safety in dialogues on race

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study seeks to combine research from critical race theory, as applied to ... Two recurring strands from this body of academic work that are of particular ..... that the above exemplars stem from an online debate in which students.

  10. On "White Supremacy" and Caricaturing, Misrepresenting and Dismissing Marx and Marxism: A Response to David Gillborn's "Who's Afraid of Critical Race Theory in Education".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this journal in 2007, the author and Alpesh Maisuria critiqued two central tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT) from a Marxist perspective (Cole and Maisuria, 2007). These are its primacy of "race" over class, and its concept of "white supremacy". Part of the critique focused on the work of leading UK Critical Race Theorist,…

  11. Towards a Research Framework for Race in Education: Critical Race Theory and Judith Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    There has been much debate around the extent to which post-structuralist theory can be applied to critical research. In this article, it is argued that aspects of the two approaches can be combined, resulting in productive tensions that point towards a possible new framework for researching race and racism in education in the UK. The article…

  12. Gender and Race Matter: Global Perspectives on Being a Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Takhar, S

    2016-01-01

    Gender and Race Matter: Global Perspectives on Being a Woman is an edited collection. It is a timely addition to the literature available on gender, social justice and political agency. During the first decade of the twenty first century, the concepts of diversity, inclusion and equality attracted increasing attention. This has recently included the foregrounding of such issues in the work of the UN related to global gender inequality. The much publicised gang rape of a young woman in India i...

  13. Critical Race Theory in Education, Marxism and Abstract Racial Domination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing debate between critical race theory (CRT) and Marxism, I begin in this paper by examining the origins of CRT in Critical Legal Studies (CLS) in the United States. I go on to describe CRT's entry into education, first in that country, and then in the United Kingdom. I move on to a discussion of current debates between…

  14. Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Desegregated Classroom: The Effects of Cooperation on Prosocial Behavior and Academic Performance. Working Paper, Department of Psychology. Santa Cruz, CA... Behavior Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories Clayton P. .Alderfer Working Paper #66 DTIC ~ELECTE0 B DITRUTION STATEMENTA...unfavorable stereotypes of blacks, they have less reason to change. White stereotypes have long served as rationalizations for white dominance. In

  15. Utilizing Critical Race Theory to Examine Race/Ethnicity, Racism, and Power in Student Development Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of social forces (racism, privilege, power) to the extent that is required by critical race theory (CRT) results in a paradigm shift in the way that we theorize and research student development, specifically self-authorship. This paradigm shift moves the center of analysis from individual, to the individual in relation to her…

  16. Contextualizing Asian American Education through Critical Race Theory: An Example of U.S. Pilipino College Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenavista, Tracy Lachica; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a CRT (critical race theory) perspective of the prevailing representation of Asian Americans in higher education research and acknowledge the importance of recent studies that have begun to challenge notions of a monolithic Asian American educational experience through an examination of differences among Asian…

  17. Repositioning the Racial Gaze: Aboriginal Perspectives on Race, Race Relations and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Habibis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, public debate about recognition of the nation’s First Australians through constitutional change has highlighted the complexity and sensitivities surrounding Indigenous/state relations at even the most basic level of legal rights. But the unevenness of race relations has meant Aboriginal perspectives on race relations are not well known. This is an obstacle for reconciliation which, by definition, must be a reciprocal process. It is especially problematic in regions with substantial Aboriginal populations, where Indigenous visibility make race relations a matter of everyday experience and discussion. There has been considerable research on how settler Australians view Aboriginal people but little is known about how Aboriginal people view settler Australians or mainstream institutions. This paper presents the findings from an Australian Research Council project undertaken in partnership with Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a cross-section of Darwin’s Aboriginal residents and visitors, it aims to reverse the racial gaze by investigating how respondents view settler Australian politics, values, priorities and lifestyles. Through interviews with Aboriginal people this research provides a basis for settler Australians to discover how they are viewed from an Aboriginal perspective. It repositions the normativity of settler Australian culture, a prerequisite for a truly multicultural society. Our analysis argues the narratives of the participants produce a story of Aboriginal rejection of the White Australian neo-liberal deal of individual advancement through economic pathways of employment and hyper-consumption. The findings support Honneth’s arguments about the importance of intersubjective recognition by pointing to the way misrecognition creates and reinforces social exclusion.

  18. Perspectives in Lie theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carnovale, Giovanna; Caselli, Fabrizio; Concini, Corrado; Sole, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Lie theory is a mathematical framework for encoding the concept of symmetries of a problem, and was the central theme of an INdAM intensive research period at the Centro de Giorgi in Pisa, Italy, in the academic year 2014-2015. This book gathers the key outcomes of this period, addressing topics such as: structure and representation theory of vertex algebras, Lie algebras and superalgebras, as well as hyperplane arrangements with different approaches, ranging from geometry and topology to combinatorics.

  19. Understanding Critical Race Theory as a Framework in Higher Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature to discuss how critical race theory has been applied as a theoretical framework to higher educational research in the United States and what its contributions are. To provide necessary context, I will discuss race and racism in the United States, the background of US higher education in relation to race,…

  20. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  1. Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Camille R; Grumbach, Giesela

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a conceptual framework for expanding the use of relational theory with African-American women. Relational theory (RT) informs practice with women but is inadequate in addressing all aspects of culture and identity. RT presumes that all women desire or are able to make therapeutic connections, yet race, gender, and cultural experiences influence their ability to do so. Successful practice with minority women must address racism and its impact. Critical race theory (CRT) that incorporates a solution-focused (SF) approach is well-suited to address the limits of RT. This overview of a CRT/SF approach describes treatment for diverse women that extends RT and enhances effective social work practice to provide culturally sensitive treatment to women.

  2. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi

    2008-10-01

    People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.

  3. "To Break Asunder along the Lesions of Race". The Critical Race Theory of W.E.B. Du Bois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Kamau

    2011-01-01

    In addition to its beginnings within legal scholarship, Critical Race Theory (CRT) is intimately aligned with the long tradition of African American social critique, which sought to interrogate the intractable nature of racism and White supremacy. Within this intellectual tradition, the works of W.E.B. Du Bois are of critical significance. Du…

  4. From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…

  5. Talk the Talk, Walk the Walk: Defining Critical Race Theory in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a noticeable growth in published works citing Critical Race Theory (CRT). This has led to a growth in interest in the UK of practical research projects utilising CRT as their framework. It is clear that research on "race" is an emerging topic of study. What is less visible is a debate on how CRT is…

  6. Dynamic interracial/intercultural processes: the role of lay theories of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-yi; Chao, Melody Manchi; No, Sun

    2009-10-01

    This paper explores how the lay theory approach provides a framework beyond previous stereotype/prejudice research to understand dynamic personality processes in interracial/ethnic contexts. The authors conceptualize theory of race within the Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS), in which lay people's beliefs regarding the essential nature of race sets up a mind-set through which individuals construe and interpret their social experiences. The research findings illustrate that endorsement of the essentialist theory (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) versus the social constructionist theory (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) are associated with different encoding and representation of social information, which in turn affect feelings, motivation, and competence in navigating between racial and cultural boundaries. These findings shed light on dynamic interracial/intercultural processes. Relations of this approach to CAPS are discussed.

  7. Critical race theory and the question of safety in dialogues on race ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On this foundation, the article moves on to consider the recommendations adduced by Leonardo and Porter (2010:147) and Sue (2013:666-669) as to how dialogues around race and racism can be enhanced. The article begins by contextualising its argument, followed by an overview of the guiding principles of CRT, ...

  8. Demystifying Nursing Theory: A Christian Nursing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Sandau, Kristin; Missal, Bernita

    How does nursing theory apply to nursing practice? Nursing theory can explain the why and how of nursing practice, guide nursing interventions, and provide a framework for measuring outcomes. This article briefly explains nursing theory, provides examples for applying theory to nursing practice, and proposes questions for examining the consistency of nursing theories with Christian perspectives. A helpful table illustrating grand, middle-range, and situation-specific theories and their application to nursing practice and research, along with references, is provided online as supplemental digital content. Three caring theories are analyzed from biblical beliefs.

  9. Quantum Field Theory A Modern Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Parameswaran Nair, V

    2005-01-01

    Quantum field theory, which started with Paul Dirac’s work shortly after the discovery of quantum mechanics, has produced an impressive and important array of results. Quantum electrodynamics, with its extremely accurate and well-tested predictions, and the standard model of electroweak and chromodynamic (nuclear) forces are examples of successful theories. Field theory has also been applied to a variety of phenomena in condensed matter physics, including superconductivity, superfluidity and the quantum Hall effect. The concept of the renormalization group has given us a new perspective on field theory in general and on critical phenomena in particular. At this stage, a strong case can be made that quantum field theory is the mathematical and intellectual framework for describing and understanding all physical phenomena, except possibly for a quantum theory of gravity. Quantum Field Theory: A Modern Perspective presents Professor Nair’s view of certain topics in field theory loosely knit together as it gr...

  10. Race and TESOL: Introduction to Concepts and Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko; Lin, Angel

    2006-01-01

    The field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) brings people from various racialized backgrounds together in teaching, learning, and research. The idea of race, racialization, and racism are inescapable topics that arise in the contact zones created by teaching English worldwide and thus are valid topics to explore in the…

  11. (Mixed) Race Matters: Racial Theory, Classification, and Campus Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Chelsea Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    As the expanding post-civil rights multiracial population is likely to transform the demographics of American colleges and universities, its perceived growth is also misused to advance neo-conservative agendas and post-racial views about the declining significance of race. Politicized issues around multiraciality frame and impact the campus…

  12. Critical Race Theory in India: "Theory Translation" and the Analysis of Social Identities and Discrimination in Indian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Melissa Rae

    2017-01-01

    This article examines ethical and philosophical considerations in "theory translation," i.e. translating a theoretical framework from its original place to another national context. Critical race theory (CRT) was developed in the United States through significant struggle in order to analyze everyday racism. Marginalized groups have…

  13. Perspectives and Research on the Concept of Race within the Framework of Multiracial Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Frey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, according to U. S. Census reports, the number of people who classify themselves as “mixed race” is rapidly increasing. As a consequence, scholars have become increasingly interested in the nature of racial identity. Currently, scholars and laypersons tend to view the concept of race from a biological perspective, from a social-constructivist perspective, or from a mixture of the two. In this paper, we address several questions: How do political, religious, and legal experts classify various people (racially? How do men and women (especially those of mixed ancestry decide to what race they belong? Does one’s own identity, be it monoracial or multiracial, influence one’s perception of race as socially constructed or biologically determined? In order to understand how the concept of race is viewed in the U. S.—especially as the American landscape becomes increasingly complex—we reviewed 40 studies, conducted from 1986-2006, that explored the nature of racial and ethnic identity. This comprehensive review suggested that: 1. Americans often find it difficult to classify people of mixed ancestry. 2. Men and women (of mixed race generally possess a complex view of race. They generally agree that race is, at least in part, a social construct. Nonethess, they are well aware that (at least in society’s eyes ancestry, appearance, “blood,” and genetic make-up also play a part in one’s racial classification. 3. Multiracials appear to be more flexible in “choosing” a racial identity than are their peers. How they choose to present themselves depends on their physical appearance, how accepting their family and friends are of their claims, and how profitable they think it will be to identify with various aspects of their racial heritage.

  14. The Australian Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale (RACES): item response theory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Kaine; Manderson, Lenore

    2016-03-17

    Racism and associated discrimination are pervasive and persistent challenges with multiple cumulative deleterious effects contributing to inequities in various health outcomes. Globally, research over the past decade has shown consistent associations between racism and negative health concerns. Such research confirms that race endures as one of the strongest predictors of poor health. Due to the lack of validated Australian measures of racist attitudes, RACES (Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale) was developed. Here, we examine RACES' psychometric properties, including the latent structure, utilising Item Response Theory (IRT). Unidimensional and Multidimensional Rating Scale Model (RSM) Rasch analyses were utilised with 296 Victorian primary school students and 182 adolescents and 220 adults from the Australian community. RACES was demonstrated to be a robust 24-item three-dimensional scale of Accepting Attitudes (12 items), Racist Attitudes (8 items), and Ethnocentric Attitudes (4 items). RSM Rasch analyses provide strong support for the instrument as a robust measure of racist attitudes in the Australian context, and for the overall factorial and construct validity of RACES across primary school children, adolescents, and adults. RACES provides a reliable and valid measure that can be utilised across the lifespan to evaluate attitudes towards all racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups. A core function of RACES is to assess the effectiveness of interventions to reduce community levels of racism and in turn inequities in health outcomes within Australia.

  15. Gender profiling: a gendered race perspective on person-position fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erika V; Galinsky, Adam D; Phillips, Katherine W

    2015-06-01

    The current research integrates perspectives on gendered race and person-position fit to introduce the concept of a gender profile. We propose that both the "gender" of a person's biological sex and the "gender" of a person's race (Asians are perceived as feminine and Blacks as masculine) help comprise an individual's gender profile-the overall femininity or masculinity associated with their demographic characteristics. We also propose that occupational positions have gender profiles. Finally, we argue that the overall gender profile of one's demographics, rather than just one's biological sex, determines one's fit and hirability for feminine or masculine occupational roles. The current five studies establish the gender profiles of different races and sexes, and then demonstrate that individuals with feminine-typed and masculine-typed gender profiles are selected for feminine and masculine positions, respectively. These studies provide new insights on who gets ahead in different environments. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. "Fair Play": A Videogame Designed to Address Implicit Race Bias Through Active Perspective Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Belinda; Kaatz, Anna; Chu, Sarah; Ramirez, Dennis; Samson-Samuel, Clem; Carnes, Molly

    2014-12-01

    Having diverse faculty in academic health centers will help diversify the healthcare workforce and reduce health disparities. Implicit race bias is one factor that contributes to the underrepresentation of Black faculty. We designed the videogame "Fair Play" in which players assume the role of a Black graduate student named Jamal Davis. As Jamal, players experience subtle race bias while completing "quests" to obtain a science degree. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to play the game would have greater empathy for Jamal and lower implicit race bias than participants randomized to read narrative text describing Jamal's experience. University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate students were recruited via e-mail and randomly assigned to play "Fair Play" or read narrative text through an online link. Upon completion, participants took an Implicit Association Test to measure implicit bias and answered survey questions assessing empathy toward Jamal and awareness of bias. As hypothesized, gameplayers showed the least implicit bias but only when they also showed high empathy for Jamal (P=0.013). Gameplayers did not show greater empathy than text readers, and women in the text condition reported the greatest empathy for Jamal (P=0.008). However, high empathy only predicted lower levels of implicit bias among those who actively took Jamal's perspective through gameplay (P=0.014). A videogame in which players experience subtle race bias as a Black graduate student has the potential to reduce implicit bias, possibly because of a game's ability to foster empathy through active perspective taking.

  17. Critical Race Theory-Social Constructivist Bricolage: A Health-Promoting Schools Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Lawrence; Murray-Orr, Anne

    2017-01-01

    While the current literature recognises the capacity of diverse methodologies to provide informative understandings of health-promoting schools (HPS), there is a paucity of examples to show how different research strategies can be used. We address this knowledge gap by examining the significance of a critical race theory-social constructivist…

  18. Critical Race Theory, Hip Hop, and "Huck Finn": Narrative Inquiry in a High School English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the impact of reading "Huckleberry Finn" through the lens of critical race theory for both teacher and students in a racially diverse urban high school environment. The teacher/researcher used narrative inquiry and creative non-fiction to examine student language usage, white privilege (including her own), and student…

  19. Making the Invisible Visible: Advancing Quantitative Methods in Higher Education Using Critical Race Theory and Intersectionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Nancy; Erwin, Christopher; Binder, Melissa; Chavez, Mario Javier

    2018-01-01

    We appeal to critical race theory and intersectionality to examine achievement gaps at a large public university in the American southwest from 2000 to 2015. Using white, high-income women as our reference group, we report linear combinations of marginal effects for six-year graduation rates and developmental course taking across 20 distinct…

  20. Educational Lynching: Critical Race Theory and the Suspension of Black Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Macheo

    2010-01-01

    Looking at the disproportionate suspension of African American, Black male students through the lens of critical race theory, this presents arguments from a CRT how the disproportionate suspension of Black male students is rooted in white supremacy and racist policy in the United States. Local recommendations are offered for Oakland Unified School…

  1. Teach for America's Long Arc: A Critical Race Theory Textual Analysis of Wendy Kopp's Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael C.; Germain, Emily K.; Valenzuela, Angela

    2016-01-01

    We read and analyzed 165,000 words and uncover a series of counter-stories buried within a textual corpus, authored by Teach For America (TFA) founder Wendy Kopp (Kopp, 1989, 2001; Kopp & Farr, 2011), that offers insight into the forms of racism endemic to Teach For America. All three counter-stories align with a critical race theory (CRT)…

  2. Where Are We? Critical Race Theory in Education 20 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Adrienne D.; Rousseau Anderson, Celia

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the territory that has been covered since the publication of Ladson-Billings and Tate's 1995 article, "Toward a Critical Race Theory in Education." We organize our review of the CRT literature around what we are calling CRT "boundaries." We identify six boundaries for CRT and education: 1) CRT in education…

  3. Caught in the Middle: Understanding Asian Pacific American Perspectives on Affirmative Action through Blumer's Group Position Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2003-01-01

    This study examines Asian Pacific American undergraduates' views on affirmative action and their perspectives on U.S. race relations through Herbert Blumer's (1958) theory of group position. Results indicate that Asian Pacific American (APA) students may perceive other minority student applicants as inferior to APA applicants and feel threatened…

  4. Quantum field theory in a semiotic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Viewing physical theories as symbolic constructions came to the fore in the middle of the nineteenth century with the emancipation of the classical theory of the electromagnetic field from mechanics; most notably this happened through the work of Helmholtz, Hertz, Poincare, and later Weyl. The epistemological problems that nourished this development are today highlighted within quantum field theory. The present essay starts off with a concise and non-technical outline of the firmly based aspects of relativistic quantum field theory, i.e. the very successful description of subnuclear phenomena. The particular methods, by which these different aspects have to be accessed, then get described as distinct facets of quantum field theory. The authors show how these different facets vary with respect to the relation between quantum fields and associated particles. Thus, by emphasising the respective role of various basic concepts involved, the authors claim that only a very general epistemic approach can properly account for this diversity - an account they trace back to the philosophical writings of the aforementioned physicists and mathematicians. Finally, what they call their semiotic perspective on quantum field theory gets related to recent discussions within the philosophy of science and turns out to act as a counterbalance to, for instance, structural realism. (orig.)

  5. Quantum field theory in a semiotic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosch, H.G. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Mueller, V.F. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Sieroka, N. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Viewing physical theories as symbolic constructions came to the fore in the middle of the nineteenth century with the emancipation of the classical theory of the electromagnetic field from mechanics; most notably this happened through the work of Helmholtz, Hertz, Poincare, and later Weyl. The epistemological problems that nourished this development are today highlighted within quantum field theory. The present essay starts off with a concise and non-technical outline of the firmly based aspects of relativistic quantum field theory, i.e. the very successful description of subnuclear phenomena. The particular methods, by which these different aspects have to be accessed, then get described as distinct facets of quantum field theory. The authors show how these different facets vary with respect to the relation between quantum fields and associated particles. Thus, by emphasising the respective role of various basic concepts involved, the authors claim that only a very general epistemic approach can properly account for this diversity - an account they trace back to the philosophical writings of the aforementioned physicists and mathematicians. Finally, what they call their semiotic perspective on quantum field theory gets related to recent discussions within the philosophy of science and turns out to act as a counterbalance to, for instance, structural realism. (orig.)

  6. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  7. Perception and motivation in face recognition: a critical review of theories of the Cross-Race Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven G; Hugenberg, Kurt; Bernstein, Michael J; Sacco, Donald F

    2012-05-01

    Although humans possess well-developed face processing expertise, face processing is nevertheless subject to a variety of biases. Perhaps the best known of these biases is the Cross-Race Effect--the tendency to have more accurate recognition for same-race than cross-race faces. The current work reviews the evidence for and provides a critical review of theories of the Cross-Race Effect, including perceptual expertise and social cognitive accounts of the bias. The authors conclude that recent hybrid models of the Cross-Race Effect, which combine elements of both perceptual expertise and social cognitive frameworks, provide an opportunity for theoretical synthesis and advancement not afforded by independent expertise or social cognitive models. Finally, the authors suggest future research directions intended to further develop a comprehensive and integrative understanding of biases in face recognition.

  8. Reflections on social justice, race, ethnicity and identity from an ethical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atweh, Bill

    2011-03-01

    In these reflections, I identify complexities in few constructs that are often used in educational research, although not often critically, namely, social justice, race, ethnicity and identity. This paper suggests a non-ontological and non-epistemological approach to ethics as developed by Emmanuel Levinas as a normative means to deal with some of the complexities. In dealing with the construct of social justice, an ethical approach calls for productive research tools to not only understand exclusion but also to change situations of injustice to marginalised groups. Further, both constructs race and ethnicity can be used to identify groups of people based on their history, culture and/or lifestyles. As social constructions they have different historical origins and are open to alternative connotations, uses and abuses. An ethical perspective is useful to manage the dilemma of essentialism that group identification may lead into. Finally, the debate around the usefulness of the construct of identity raises some ethical questions about the role of research and the lived experience of its subjects. An ethical stance demands that constructs of analysis in social inquiry should not only demonstrate their utility for knowledge generation but also should demonstrate a responsibility for the construction and reconstruction of lifeworld in which academic endeavours are conducted.

  9. Placing Motivation and Future Time Perspective Theory in a Temporal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Joke; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Lacante, Marlies

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the conceptual development of future time perspective theory [Nuttin, J. R. (1984). "Motivation, Planning and Action: A Relational Theory of Behavior," Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ; Nuttin, J., and Lens, W. (1985). "Future Time Perspective and Motivation: Theory and Research Method," Leuven University Press and Erlbaum, Leuven, Belgium…

  10. Applying Critical Race Theory to Group Model Building Methods to Address Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Funchess, Melanie; Burrell, Marcus; Cerulli, Catherine; Bedell, Precious; White, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    Group model building (GMB) is an approach to building qualitative and quantitative models with stakeholders to learn about the interrelationships among multilevel factors causing complex public health problems over time. Scant literature exists on adapting this method to address public health issues that involve racial dynamics. This study's objectives are to (1) introduce GMB methods, (2) present a framework for adapting GMB to enhance cultural responsiveness, and (3) describe outcomes of adapting GMB to incorporate differences in racial socialization during a community project seeking to understand key determinants of community violence transmission. An academic-community partnership planned a 1-day session with diverse stakeholders to explore the issue of violence using GMB. We documented key questions inspired by critical race theory (CRT) and adaptations to established GMB "scripts" (i.e., published facilitation instructions). The theory's emphasis on experiential knowledge led to a narrative-based facilitation guide from which participants created causal loop diagrams. These early diagrams depict how violence is transmitted and how communities respond, based on participants' lived experiences and mental models of causation that grew to include factors associated with race. Participants found these methods useful for advancing difficult discussion. The resulting diagrams can be tested and expanded in future research, and will form the foundation for collaborative identification of solutions to build community resilience. GMB is a promising strategy that community partnerships should consider when addressing complex health issues; our experience adapting methods based on CRT is promising in its acceptability and early system insights.

  11. The relationship between theory of mind and relational frame theory : convergence of perspective-taking measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, A.; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McEnteggart, Ciara; de Mey, H.; Witteman, C.; Janssen, G.; Egger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual interpretation of perspective-taking, proposing that this ability can be studied in more detail by examining specific perspective-taking relations. To implement relational perspective-taking measures in clin...

  12. Gramscian Contributions about Race, Cultural Identity and Aging in the Perspective of Stuart Hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juceli Aparecida Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article contextualizes a profile of Gramscian contributions presented from the perspective of Stuart Hall. It uses the themes of racism and cultural identity, comparing them to the phenomenon of aging. It presents a dialog between theories, concepts and their contemporary importance. The study concludes that aging is not a homogeneous process and that its general characteristics are specifically defined by the historic moments in which it occurs.

  13. Therapeutic Theory and Social Context: A Social Constructionist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gordon

    1997-01-01

    Explores the foundation of therapeutic theory from the perspective of social constructionism. Proposes a theoretical description of the interaction between an individual and the social context in the formation of therapeutic theory. Then explores this description in relation to the early life and subsequent therapeutic theory of Carl Rogers. (RJM)

  14. Intersectionality, critical race theory, and American sporting oppression: examining black and gay male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; McCormack, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of the racial categories of White and Black and the sexual categories of gay and straight on sporting American men. The effect of the intersection of these cultural categories is discussed by investigating the exclusion of athletes who are both Black and gay, as well as highlighting the culturally perceived differences of (straight) Black and (White) gay men. However, the analysis accounts for more than just difference, examining the commonalities of oppression between these discrete identity groups. We use the research on Black athletes to call for further empirical study on gay athletes. It is argued that critical race theory and intersectionality offer complex and nuanced understandings of these oppressions, which, when theorizing is left solely to the realm of poststructuralism, can otherwise be missed.

  15. Perspective switching using theories and interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, W.M. [Mitre Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An important aspect of intelligence is the ability to switch perspectives. In the course of reasoning about a particular subject matter, it can be convenient to change from one perspective of the subject matter to another perspective, which is often at a different level of abstraction. For example, in some situations it may be advantageous to view a building as a collection of floors and in other situations as a collection of wings. If the arrangement of the rooms is not important for the task at hand, the building might be viewed as simply an unstructured collection of rooms. These are three perspectives on how a building can be decomposed. Utilizing multiple perspectives and freeing moving from one to another is a powerful method for both managing complexity and organizing knowledge. The key idea behind this method is to always employ the {open_quotes}right{close_quotes} perspective for each reasoning task. This talk will address the following two questions: (1) What logical machinery is needed to formalize perspective switching? (2) How can knowledge associated with one perspective be retrieved for use with another perspective?

  16. Disability Critical Race Theory: Exploring the Intersectional Lineage, Emergence, and Potential Futures of DisCrit in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamma, Subini Ancy; Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2018-01-01

    In this review, we explore how intersectionality has been engaged with through the lens of disability critical race theory (DisCrit) to produce new knowledge. In this chapter, we (1) trace the intellectual lineage for developing DisCrit, (2) review the body of interdisciplinary scholarship incorporating DisCrit to date, and (3) propose the future…

  17. Through the Prism of Critical Race Theory: "Niceness" and Latina/o Leadership in the Politics of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Enrique, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a critical race theory (CRT) framework, I conduct a rhetorical and discursive analysis of data from a study of Utah Latino/a educational and political leaders. In analyzing how participants advocate closing the achievement gaps that affect Latina/o and Chicana/o students, I find that participants' political discourse is shaped by…

  18. The 20th-Year Anniversary of Critical Race Theory in Education: Implications for Leading to Eliminate Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Though the first published application of critical race theory (CRT) to education occurred 20 years ago, implications of CRT for educational leadership did not occur until López conducted a CRT analysis of the politics of education literature in 2003. No publications explicitly identify the implications of CRT for leadership practice.…

  19. Awakening a Dialogue: A Critical Race Theory Analysis of U.S. Nature of Science Research from 1967 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Leon

    2016-01-01

    As the nation's K-12 classrooms become increasingly more racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse, it is incumbent upon the science community to seize opportunities to attend to the rhetoric of reform, namely to enhance scientific literacy for all students. Using Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a framework, this study examined 112 nature of…

  20. (Re)defining "Good Teaching": Teacher Performance Assessments and Critical Race Theory in Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Using three tenents of Critical Race Theory, this study examines the influence of edTPAs on diverse early childhood pre-service teachers in a graduate program. Findings suggest that (1) Color-blind admissions policy and practice were at odds with edTPA's perceived academic language demands; (2) A tension emerged between financial demands of edTPA…

  1. Problems and Perspectives of Life Management Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Michinori

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the problems of life management theory and shows the directions of researches in this field. I examine the directions of research in home management theory, which is antecedents of life management theory. There are three directions of research in home management theory. The first direction is to make clear the problems of people's family lives in terms of time use, money expenditure, family relations and so on. The second direction is to examine the home management itself....

  2. Continuing Bonds in Bereavement: An Attachment Theory Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P.; Gao, Beryl; Paderna, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    An attachment theory based perspective on the continuing bond to the deceased (CB) is proposed. The value of attachment theory in specifying the normative course of CB expression and in identifying adaptive versus maladaptive variants of CB expression based on their deviation from this normative course is outlined. The role of individual…

  3. The Psychology of Career Theory--A New Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodd, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    New perspectives on human behavior have invalidated some assumptions of career theories such as personality type, career stages, and life-cycle models. Other theories, such as Driver's Objective Career Patterns, Schein's Temporal Development Model, and Nicholson's Transition Cycle, are compatible with current psychological understanding. (SK)

  4. Theory of Science Perspectives on Strategic Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Arguments derived from the theory of science have been present in strategic management discourse since at least the beginning of the 1970s. The field's topjournal,the Strategic Management Journal, has printed several theory of sciencebased papers. Most positions in the theory of science...... (falsificationism, instrumentalism, realism, constructivism, etc.) have been present in the methodological discourse in the field. This chapter briefly reviews theory science applications to strategic management, before a distinctive perspective on the evolution of the strategic management field is developed....... According to this perspective, science progresses when deeper level mechanisms are identified and theorized. Theoretical reduction may therefore be an independent criterion of scientific progress. Application to the strategic management field of this perspective, which in the social sciences is closely...

  5. The Absence of 'Race' in German Discourses on "Bildung". Rethinking "Bildung" with Critical Race Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmann, Anke

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of mostly implicit convictions about 'white supremacy' and racist ideas in traditional and recent theories of "Bildung" which is a central educational concept in Germany. Concepts of "Bildung" describe processes of individual self-formation. It will be argued that the notion of…

  6. Constructing the Color-Blind Classroom: Teachers' Perspectives on Race and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore teachers' attitudes towards race and schooling, and the ways in which they "do" race in contemporary "color-blind" learning environments where social location is not believed to exert any meaningful influence on students' potential for success. Data for this study were gathered through…

  7. Toward a Multiple Perspective in Family Theory and Practice: The Case of Social Exchange Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Conflict Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Mark R.; LeCroy, Craig W.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the complementarity of three often-used theories in family research: social exchange theory, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory. Provides a case example in which a multiple perspective is applied to a problem of marital discord. Discusses implications for the clinician. (Author/WAS)

  8. Theory-based physical activity beliefs by race and activity levels among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Maria; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    Given the benefits of physical activity and the high proportion of inactivity among older adults, the purpose was to elicit theory-based behavioral, normative, and control physical activity beliefs among 140 educationally and economically diverse older adults and compare their beliefs by race (Blacks vs. Whites) and physical activity levels (inactive/underactive vs. highly active individuals). This was an elicitation study that took place in eight, mostly rural community settings in a Southeastern US state, such as Council of Aging Offices, retirement centers, and churches. Participants' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were elicited via in person interviews. A valid and reliable questionnaire was also used to assess their physical activity levels. According to the content analysis, inactive/underactive participants reported fewer physical activity advantages than highly active participants. Common physical activity advantages between the two groups were overall health, emotional functioning, and physical functioning. Similar physical activity advantages were reported among Blacks and Whites with overall health being the most important advantage. The most common physical activity disadvantages and barriers for all four groups were falls, injuries, pain, and health issues. Inactive/underactive individuals and Blacks tended to report more disadvantages and barriers than their peers. Common physical activity supporters were family members, friends and peers, and health-care professionals. In their physical activity motivational programs, health promoters should reinforce physical activity benefits, social support, access to activity programs, and safety when intervening among older adults.

  9. Exploring CRM effectiveness: an institutional theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Hillebrand (Bas); J.J. Nijholt (Jurriaan); E.J. Nijssen (Edwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study identifies the potential contribution that institutional theory can make to understanding the success of marketing practices. Based on institutional theory, we argue that the effectiveness of marketing practices decreases when firms are motivated to adopt such practices under

  10. Exploring CRM effectiveness : an institutional theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B.; Nijholt, J.J.; Nijssen, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the potential contribution that institutional theory can make to understanding the success of marketing practices. Based on institutional theory, we argue that the effectiveness of marketing practices decreases when firms are motivated to adopt such practices under the

  11. Perspectives on Rhetorical History: Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    The most important historical theory of persuasion is Aristotelian Rhetorical Theory. Aristotle's work, "The Rhetoric," is divided into three books, each of which discuss principles relevant to persuasion. Book One establishes the philosophical position of rhetoric to logic; establishes the purposes of rhetoric; discusses three types of…

  12. Quantum Field Theory in a Semiotic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Günter Dosch, Hans; Sieroka, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Viewing physical theories as symbolic constructions came to the fore in the middle of the nineteenth century with the emancipation of the classical theory of the electromagnetic field from mechanics; most notably this happened through the work of Helmholtz, Hertz, Poincaré, and later Weyl. The epistemological problems that nourished this development are today highlighted within quantum field theory. The present essay starts off with a concise and non-technical outline of the firmly based aspects of relativistic quantum field theory, i.e. the very successful description of subnuclear phenomena. The particular methods, by which these different aspects have to be accessed, then get described as distinct facets of quantum field theory. The authors show how these different facets vary with respect to the relation between quantum fields and associated particles. Thus, by emphasising the respective role of various basic concepts involved, the authors claim that only a very general epistemic approach can properly ac...

  13. Organizational Theories and Analysis: A Feminist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irefin, Peace; Ifah, S. S.; Bwala, M. H.

    2012-06-01

    This paper is a critique of organization theories and their failure to come to terms with the fact of the reproduction of labour power within a particular form of the division of labour. It examines feminist theory and its aims to understand the nature of inequality and focuses on gender, power relations and sexuality part of the task of feminists which organizational theories have neglected is to offer an account of how the different treatments of the sexes operate in our culture. The paper concludes that gender has been completely neglected within the organizational theory which result in a rhetorical reproduction of males as norms and women as others. It is recommended that only radical form of organization theory can account for the situation of women in organisational setting

  14. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yi Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race.

  15. Advantage management strategy in competition via technological race perspective: empirical evidence from the Taiwanese manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the "catch-up" strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race.

  16. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race. PMID:25295307

  17. Perspective: Ring-polymer instanton theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeremy O.

    2018-05-01

    Since the earliest explorations of quantum mechanics, it has been a topic of great interest that quantum tunneling allows particles to penetrate classically insurmountable barriers. Instanton theory provides a simple description of these processes in terms of dominant tunneling pathways. Using a ring-polymer discretization, an efficient computational method is obtained for applying this theory to compute reaction rates and tunneling splittings in molecular systems. Unlike other quantum-dynamics approaches, the method scales well with the number of degrees of freedom, and for many polyatomic systems, the method may provide the most accurate predictions which can be practically computed. Instanton theory thus has the capability to produce useful data for many fields of low-temperature chemistry including spectroscopy, atmospheric and astrochemistry, as well as surface science. There is however still room for improvement in the efficiency of the numerical algorithms, and new theories are under development for describing tunneling in nonadiabatic transitions.

  18. Contemporary perspectives on Lacanian theories of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Redmond, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:In contemporary Lacanian psychoanalysis, Verhaeghe’s theory of actualpathology / psychopathology in psychosis and the Millerian idea of ordinary psychosis provide diverging conceptual approaches to psychosis. In this paper, the two approaches to psychosis are examined with a particular emphasis on mild psychosis and compensatory mechanisms. Despite the shared focus on similar clinical phenomena, particularly body disturbances, these two theories provide different explanations of psyc...

  19. Writing Critical Race Theory and Method: A Composite Counterstory on the Experiences of Black Teachers in New Orleans Post-Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniella Ann; Dixson, Adrienne D.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race theory lens, the authors propose a way of writing race research using composite counterstories. Drawing on data from a yearlong study of school rebuilding in the time period immediately after Hurricane Katrina devastated the City of New Orleans, the authors examine the experiences of African-American educators in the school…

  20. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tsu-Yi Hung; Yu-Ju Hsiao; Shih-Wei Wu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The resu...

  1. The relationship between Theory of Mind and Relational Frame Theory: Convergence of perspective-taking measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.L.; Barnes-Holmes, Y.; McEnteggart, C.; Mey, H.R.A. De; Witteman, C.L.M.; Janssen, G.T.L.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual

  2. Contemporary Perspectives on Lacanian Theories of Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Douglas Redmond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:In contemporary Lacanian psychoanalysis, Verhaeghe’s theory of actualpathology / psychopathology in psychosis and the Millerian idea of ordinary psychosis provide diverging conceptual approaches to psychosis. In this paper, the two approaches to psychosis are examined with a particular emphasis on mild psychosis and compensatory mechanisms. Despite the shared focus on similar clinical phenomena, particularly body disturbances, these two theories provide different explanations of psychosis. Verhaeghe’s theory of psychosis is a synthesis of Lacanian theory, Freud’s idea of actual neurosis and psychoanalytic attachment concepts. Moreover, these ideas are situated in the schizophrenia / paranoia dichotomy an important heuristic device utilised in clinical practice with psychosis. In contrast, the Millerian field of ordinary psychosis aims to broaden the idea of psychosis by reviving the idea of mild psychosis and the different forms of stabilisation possible in psychosis. Clinicians adapting the idea of ordinary psychosis aim to rethink pivotal Lacanian concepts - untriggered psychosis and stabilisation - beyond the scope of the schizophrenia / paranoia dichotomy. Although the idea of ordinary psychosis requires further development, it promise greater utility than Verhaeghe’s model, as it provides a broader and more nuanced approach to the complex vicissitudes of triggering and restitution in psychosis.

  3. Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review’s scope also includes feedback in class- rooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory

  4. The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-07-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature-scientific, religious, and lay-in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought-religion and science-are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. JEWISH FAITH PERCEIVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSE IN A DIFFERENT WAY: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new scientific

  5. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Steinberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and

  6. The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new

  7. Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the current status and new perspectives on the Structured Learning Theory (SLT), with special consideration given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering. Topics include theoretical constructs; content domains; structural analysis; cognition; assessing behavior potential; and teaching and learning issues,…

  8. Chaos theory perspective for industry clusters development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiying; Jiang, Minghui; Li, Chengzhang

    2016-03-01

    Industry clusters have outperformed in economic development in most developing countries. The contributions of industrial clusters have been recognized as promotion of regional business and the alleviation of economic and social costs. It is no doubt globalization is rendering clusters in accelerating the competitiveness of economic activities. In accordance, many ideas and concepts involve in illustrating evolution tendency, stimulating the clusters development, meanwhile, avoiding industrial clusters recession. The term chaos theory is introduced to explain inherent relationship of features within industry clusters. A preferred life cycle approach is proposed for industrial cluster recessive theory analysis. Lyapunov exponents and Wolf model are presented for chaotic identification and examination. A case study of Tianjin, China has verified the model effectiveness. The investigations indicate that the approaches outperform in explaining chaos properties in industrial clusters, which demonstrates industrial clusters evolution, solves empirical issues and generates corresponding strategies.

  9. Perspective: Fundamental aspects of time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitra, Neepa T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College and the Physics Program at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    In the thirty-two years since the birth of the foundational theorems, time-dependent density functional theory has had a tremendous impact on calculations of electronic spectra and dynamics in chemistry, biology, solid-state physics, and materials science. Alongside the wide-ranging applications, there has been much progress in understanding fundamental aspects of the functionals and the theory itself. This Perspective looks back to some of these developments, reports on some recent progress and current challenges for functionals, and speculates on future directions to improve the accuracy of approximations used in this relatively young theory.

  10. Critical race theory as a bridge in science training: the California State University, Northridge BUILD PODER program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetermoe, Carrie L; Chavira, Gabriela; Khachikian, Crist S; Boyns, David; Cabello, Beverly

    2017-01-01

    Unconscious bias and explicit forms of discrimination continue to pervade academic institutions. Multicultural and diversity training activities have not been sufficient in making structural and social changes leading to equity, therefore, a new form of critical consciousness is needed to train diverse scientists with new research questions, methods, and perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to describe Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD); Promoting Opportunities for Diversity in Education and Research (PODER), which is an undergraduate biomedical research training program based on transformative framework rooted in Critical Race Theory (CRT). By employing a CRT-informed curriculum and training in BUILD PODER, students are empowered not only to gain access but also to thrive in graduate programs and beyond. Poder means "power" or "to be able to" in Spanish. Essentially, we are "building power" using students' strengths and empowering them as learners. The new curriculum helps students understand institutional policies and practices that may prevent them from persisting in higher education, learn to become their own advocates, and successfully confront social barriers and instances of inequities and discrimination. To challenge these barriers and sustain campus changes in support of students, BUILD PODER works toward changing campus culture and research mentoring relationships. By joining with ongoing university structures such as the state university Graduation Initiative, we include CRT tenets into the campus dialogue and stimulate campus-wide discussions around institutional change. Strong ties with five community college partners also enrich BUILD PODER's student body and strengthen mentor diversity. Preliminary evaluation data suggest that BUILD PODER's program has enhanced the racial/ethnic consciousness of the campus community, is effective in encouraging more egalitarian and respectful faculty-student relationships, and is a rigorous

  11. Perspectives of Penrose theory in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.

    1976-09-01

    Existing results and some conjectures in the flat-space twistor approach to fundamental particles are reviewed. A consice introduction into the twistor description of dynamical systems with rest-mass is given (both classical and quantum). The Hamiltonian structure inherent to the angular momentum twistor is analyzed. The following discussion outlines the properties of n-twistor systems, the Penrose classification of particles, the Isup(10)SU(3) group and the problem of its twistor representations. Finally, speculative arguments are propounded as to the possible bearings of hadronic quark model to twistor theory. (Sz.N.Z.)

  12. A prospect theory perspective on terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cind Du Bois

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for the study of terrorist behaviour and argues that a framework based on Prospect Theory can provide novel, useful insights into the understanding of the terrorist mind-set. Such a framework allows different pathways to become a terrorist and although individual decisions are studied, the model also takes into account environmental factors. By changing these environmental factors and/or framing the choice differently, PT provides insights as to how the terrorist group and/or a charismatic leader can influence the individual’s whether or not to turn to terrorism.

  13. Information theory perspective on network robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, Tiago A.; Carpi, Laura; Frery, Alejandro C.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Ravetti, Martín G.

    2016-01-01

    A crucial challenge in network theory is the study of the robustness of a network when facing a sequence of failures. In this work, we propose a dynamical definition of network robustness based on Information Theory, that considers measurements of the structural changes caused by failures of the network's components. Failures are defined here as a temporal process defined in a sequence. Robustness is then evaluated by measuring dissimilarities between topologies after each time step of the sequence, providing a dynamical information about the topological damage. We thoroughly analyze the efficiency of the method in capturing small perturbations by considering different probability distributions on networks. In particular, we find that distributions based on distances are more consistent in capturing network structural deviations, as better reflect the consequences of the failures. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology. - Highlights: • A novel methodology to measure the robustness of a network to component failure or targeted attacks is proposed. • The use of the network's distance PDF allows a precise analysis. • The method provides a dynamic robustness profile showing the response of the topology to each failure event. • The measure is capable to detect network's critical elements.

  14. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M.; Bonanno, George A.; Masten, Ann S.; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  15. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Bonanno, George A; Masten, Ann S; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture).

  16. Women's Race-and Sex-Based Social Attitudes: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available How do individual differences in personality and sexuality relate to social attitudes? We contend that personality traits and sexual orientation are descriptions of underlying biases (e.g., perceptual that exert top-down influences into all of life's domains including social attitudes. The present study (N=200 women examined individual differences in sex-based and race-based social attitudes as a function of the Big Five traits, the Dark Triad traits, and sexual orientation. We found that affiliative-based motivations in the form of agreeableness, openness, and narcissism predicted the desire and tendency to affiliate with other women. We also found fear-based (i.e., neuroticism and entitlement-based (i.e., narcissism traits were associated with efforts towards political action for gender equality. We found a "go-along" disposition (i.e., agreeableness and openness was associated with greater endorsement of traditional gender roles. We replicated associations between the Big Five traits (i.e., openness and agreeableness and race-based social attitudes. Uniquely, Machiavellianism was associated with more race-based social attitudes but with diminished endorsement of traditional gender roles. And last, we suggest that experienced discrimination among bisexual women may lead them to be less likely to hold both undesirable race-based and sex-based social attitudes.

  17. A Chaos Theory Perspective on International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Tănasie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a different approach to international migration analysis, beyond classical models previously proposed by specialized literature. Chaos theory is getting more and more applied into macroeconomics once traditional linear models or even previous dynamic analysis become less suitable. Modern science sees chaos as unpredictable evolution, maybe even disorder. Still, chaos has got its own rules and can describe many dynamic phenomena within our world. Thus, we test whether international migration data falls under the rules of chaos and whether recent developments within the “European migration crisis” (the total daily migration inflows towards the coasts of Italy, by sea, from January 2014 to April 2017 could be described as chaotic.

  18. Cognition and biology: perspectives from information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2014-02-01

    The intimate relation between biology and cognition can be formally examined through statistical models constrained by the asymptotic limit theorems of communication theory, augmented by methods from statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Cognition, often involving submodules that act as information sources, is ubiquitous across the living state. Less metabolic free energy is consumed by permitting crosstalk between biological information sources than by isolating them, leading to evolutionary exaptations that assemble shifting, tunable cognitive arrays at multiple scales, and levels of organization to meet dynamic patterns of threat and opportunity. Cognition is thus necessary for life, but it is not sufficient: An organism represents a highly patterned outcome of path-dependent, blind, variation, selection, interaction, and chance extinction in the context of an adequate flow of free energy and an environment fit for development. Complex, interacting cognitive processes within an organism both record and instantiate those evolutionary and developmental trajectories.

  19. !Claro, se puede! Critical resilience: A critical race perspective on resilience in the baccalaureate achievement of Latino/a engineering and life science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gary Anthony

    An under representation of Latino/as in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) still persists. In Rising Above the Gathering Storm, the National Academies sounded an alarm in response to data indicating a "troubling decline" in the number of U.S. citizens trained to become scientists and engineers at a time when the number of technical jobs is outpacing the rate of the U.S. workforce. The shrinking technical talent pipeline threatens the country's future in technology innovation, energy alternatives, national security, and education. This study purported to contextualize resilience and discern the cultural capital and persistence behaviors of STEM Latino/a students succeeding in two adverse environments---higher education and science and engineering. Through a critical race perspective the student cuentos were thematically analyzed. Student narratives were then triangulated with the narrative of the researcher---a Mexican American, first-generation college student, who pursued a life science bachelor's degree through the two institutions in this study. The theoretical framework was guided by Critical Race Theory, Resiliency, Persistence Theory, and Social Construction of Technology. The study consisted of a pilot survey and narrative inquiry. The survey contained pilot questions on the use and perception of information technologies in STEM education. The narrative inquiry was guided by critical race that enabled both positionality and storytelling through narratives and counter-narratives. Twenty-two Latino/a graduating seniors majoring in the biological sciences or engineering/engineering technology at a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) and a Predominantly-White Institution (PWI) in Texas were recruited. The narratives of these students were collected through one-time, semi-structured interviews during the last semester of their studies. Results from the study indicate that these Latino/a STEM students are conscious of their ethnicity

  20. Nonlinear solar cycle forecasting: theory and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovski, A. L.; Clette, F.; Nollau, V.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we develop a modern approach to solar cycle forecasting, based on the mathematical theory of nonlinear dynamics. We start from the design of a static curve fitting model for the experimental yearly sunspot number series, over a time scale of 306 years, starting from year 1700 and we establish a least-squares optimal pulse shape of a solar cycle. The cycle-to-cycle evolution of the parameters of the cycle shape displays different patterns, such as a Gleissberg cycle and a strong anomaly in the cycle evolution during the Dalton minimum. In a second step, we extract a chaotic mapping for the successive values of one of the key model parameters - the rate of the exponential growth-decrease of the solar activity during the n-th cycle. We examine piece-wise linear techniques for the approximation of the derived mapping and we provide its probabilistic analysis: calculation of the invariant distribution and autocorrelation function. We find analytical relationships for the sunspot maxima and minima, as well as their occurrence times, as functions of chaotic values of the above parameter. Based on a Lyapunov spectrum analysis of the embedded mapping, we finally establish a horizon of predictability for the method, which allows us to give the most probable forecasting of the upcoming solar cycle 24, with an expected peak height of 93±21 occurring in 2011/2012.

  1. Nonlinear solar cycle forecasting: theory and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Baranovski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a modern approach to solar cycle forecasting, based on the mathematical theory of nonlinear dynamics. We start from the design of a static curve fitting model for the experimental yearly sunspot number series, over a time scale of 306 years, starting from year 1700 and we establish a least-squares optimal pulse shape of a solar cycle. The cycle-to-cycle evolution of the parameters of the cycle shape displays different patterns, such as a Gleissberg cycle and a strong anomaly in the cycle evolution during the Dalton minimum. In a second step, we extract a chaotic mapping for the successive values of one of the key model parameters – the rate of the exponential growth-decrease of the solar activity during the n-th cycle. We examine piece-wise linear techniques for the approximation of the derived mapping and we provide its probabilistic analysis: calculation of the invariant distribution and autocorrelation function. We find analytical relationships for the sunspot maxima and minima, as well as their occurrence times, as functions of chaotic values of the above parameter. Based on a Lyapunov spectrum analysis of the embedded mapping, we finally establish a horizon of predictability for the method, which allows us to give the most probable forecasting of the upcoming solar cycle 24, with an expected peak height of 93±21 occurring in 2011/2012.

  2. The Theory of Visual Attention without the race: a new model of visual selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2012-01-01

    constrained by a limited processing capacity or rate, which is distributed among target and distractor objects with distractor objects receiving a smaller proportion of resources due to attentional filtering. Encoding into a limited visual short-term memory is implemented as a race model. Given its major...

  3. Color-Blind Leadership: A Critical Race Theory Analysis of the ISLLC and ELCC Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bradley W.; Gooden, Mark A.; Micheaux, Donna J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Working from the driving research question--"is the explicit consideration of race present in the ISLLC and ELCC standards?"--this article explores the implications of a school leadership landscape reliant on a collection of color-blind leadership standards to guide the preparation and practice of school leaders. In doing so, we…

  4. Exploring Pan-Africanism's theories: from race-based solidarity to political unity and beyond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanda, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2016), s. 179-195 ISSN 1369-6815 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : solidarity * unity * sovereignty * race * Africa * Afropolitanism * Pan-Africanism * colonization Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2016

  5. Continuing bonds in bereavement: an attachment theory based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P; Gao, Beryl; Paderna, Lisa

    2005-05-01

    An attachment theory based perspective on the continuing bond to the deceased (CB) is proposed. The value of attachment theory in specifying the normative course of CB expression and in identifying adaptive versus maladaptive variants of CB expression based on their deviation from this normative course is outlined. The role of individual differences in attachment security on effective versus ineffective use of CB in coping with bereavement also is addressed. Finally, the moderating influence of type of loss (e.g., death of a spouse vs. child), culture, and religion on type of CB expression within an overarching attachment framework is discussed.

  6. A Three-Perspective Theory of Cyber Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Institute for Strategic Society and a senior advisor at the China Institute for Innovation and Development Strategy. A Three-Perspective Theory of Cyber...security and develop- ment. A state has to ensure its safety while seeking development, and likewise must manage cyberspace while making use of it. At this...should take the initiative to bridge the digital gap and actively transfer and share cyberspace resources and management experience, restraining

  7. Evidence Combination From an Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Han, Deqiang; Dezert, Jean; Deng, Yong; Shyr, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is a primary methodology for multisource information fusion because it is good at dealing with uncertain information. This theory provides a Dempster's rule of combination to synthesize multiple evidences from various information sources. However, in some cases, counter-intuitive results may be obtained based on that combination rule. Numerous new or improved methods have been proposed to suppress these counter-intuitive results based on perspectives, such as minimizing the information loss or deviation. Inspired by evolutionary game theory, this paper considers a biological and evolutionary perspective to study the combination of evidences. An evolutionary combination rule (ECR) is proposed to help find the most biologically supported proposition in a multievidence system. Within the proposed ECR, we develop a Jaccard matrix game to formalize the interaction between propositions in evidences, and utilize the replicator dynamics to mimick the evolution of propositions. Experimental results show that the proposed ECR can effectively suppress the counter-intuitive behaviors appeared in typical paradoxes of evidence theory, compared with many existing methods. Properties of the ECR, such as solution's stability and convergence, have been mathematically proved as well.

  8. Icelandic media firms viewed from the perspective of agency theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Hildur Kolbeins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been proposed that agency theory (principal-agent approach might be applied to media organizations to understand how media owners make sure that their companies are managed according to their wishes. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate: a whether agency theory is applicable to three Icelandic media companies, and b how the theory manifests itself in the management practices of these companies. The media companies that were examined were: the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RÚV ohf., 365 miðlar ehf. and Árvakur hf. Qualitative interviews were conducted with three editors-in-chief, two CEOs/publishers, the director general of RÚV and the news director of RÚV in May of 2012. Two of the interviewees were also part- owners of the media companies. The results indicated that it is, indeed, possible to analyze management practices of media organizations from the perspective of agency theory. However, it varies how much the companies are driven by profit maximization, for instance – on which agency theory places an optimum emphasis. The media house 365 miðlar ehf. turned out to be the best example of how the underlying constructs of agency theory are incorporated into the management practices of a media organization.

  9. Manager-physician relationships: an organizational theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissi, Amer

    2005-01-01

    Manager-physician relationships are a critical determinant of the success of health care organizations. As the health care industry is moving toward a situation characterized by higher scarcity of resources, fiercer competition, more corporitization, and strict cost-containment approaches, managers and physicians should, more than ever, work together under conjoint or shared authority. Thus, their relationship can be described as one of high rewards, but also of high risk because of the wide range of differences that exist between them: different socializations and trainings resulting in different worldviews, value orientation and expectations and different cultures. In brief, managers and physicians represent different "tribes," each with its language, values, culture, thought patterns, and rules of the game. This article's main objective is to determine the underlying factors in the manager-physician relationship and to suggest ways that make this relationship more effective. Four different organizational perspectives will be used. The occupational perspective will give insights on the internal characteristics of the occupational communities of managers and physicians. The theory of deprofessionalization of physicians will also be discussed. The structuring perspective will look at the manager-physician relationship as a structure in the organization and will determine the effects of contextual factors (size, task uncertainty, strategy, and environment) on this relationship and the resulting effect on performance and effectiveness of the organization. The culture and control perspective will help detect the cultural differences between managers and physicians and how these interact to affect control over the decision-making areas in the hospital. The power, conflict, and dialectics perspective will shed the light on the conflicting interests of managers and physicians and how these shape the "power game" in the organization. Consequently, a theoretical model of

  10. Play therapy in perspective theory of eco systemic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofwan Adiputra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Play therapy is a counseling approach for children applying toys, games, and other play media to communicate to the children "language." One of the Play therapy models that combine ecosystems as being formed by an inseparable reciprocal relationship between living things, and their environment is Eco systemic Play Therapy (EPT. Ecosystem Play Therapy as a hybrid model that integrates the concepts of science biology, several models of child psychotherapy, and developmental theories. This model is not eclectic. Rather, it is the integration of several models to create an independent model that is different from the sum of its parts. The focus of EPT is on the process of optimizing the implementation of the child's function as the context of the child's ecosystem or world. EPT is developed from a phenomenological philosophical perspective, in contrast to traditional perspectives.

  11. A Cohomological Perspective on Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Eli

    2018-05-01

    Algebraic quantum field theory is considered from the perspective of the Hochschild cohomology bicomplex. This is a framework for studying deformations and symmetries. Deformation is a possible approach to the fundamental challenge of constructing interacting QFT models. Symmetry is the primary tool for understanding the structure and properties of a QFT model. This perspective leads to a generalization of the algebraic quantum field theory framework, as well as a more general definition of symmetry. This means that some models may have symmetries that were not previously recognized or exploited. To first order, a deformation of a QFT model is described by a Hochschild cohomology class. A deformation could, for example, correspond to adding an interaction term to a Lagrangian. The cohomology class for such an interaction is computed here. However, the result is more general and does not require the undeformed model to be constructed from a Lagrangian. This computation leads to a more concrete version of the construction of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory.

  12. A Cohomological Perspective on Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Eli

    2018-02-01

    Algebraic quantum field theory is considered from the perspective of the Hochschild cohomology bicomplex. This is a framework for studying deformations and symmetries. Deformation is a possible approach to the fundamental challenge of constructing interacting QFT models. Symmetry is the primary tool for understanding the structure and properties of a QFT model. This perspective leads to a generalization of the algebraic quantum field theory framework, as well as a more general definition of symmetry. This means that some models may have symmetries that were not previously recognized or exploited. To first order, a deformation of a QFT model is described by a Hochschild cohomology class. A deformation could, for example, correspond to adding an interaction term to a Lagrangian. The cohomology class for such an interaction is computed here. However, the result is more general and does not require the undeformed model to be constructed from a Lagrangian. This computation leads to a more concrete version of the construction of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory.

  13. Ethics and Ethical Theories from an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-HASAN AL-AIDAROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of many organizations, many researchers are increasingly paying attention to such phenomenon. But ethical issues are not always clear cut; there are many grey areas that need to be threaded with care by organizations. To determine whether an action or decision is ethically carried out, ethical theories, developed mainly by Western scholars, are the current theoretical framework organizations have at their disposal. Theories such as relativism, utilitarianism, egoism, deontology, the divine command theory, and the virtue ethics, are all products of Western understanding of what ethics are and how they are applicable to help one’s decision making process. Despite their utility, this paper intends to argue that the Western concepts and understanding of what ethics are limited and incomprehensive in explaining what is right and what is wrong. In its place, this paper argues that to understand the concepts of ethics that can extend beyond time and space. It has to be analysed from an Islamic perspective. Toward this purpose, this paper will compare and contrast between Islamic and Western perspectives of ethics, and highlight the main weaknesses and limitations of the former. Then, an argument on why Islam can provide the best understanding of ethics will be made.

  14. ‘AN INCREDIBLY STEEP HILL:’ HOW GENDER, RACE, AND CLASS SHAPE PERSPECTIVES ON ACADEMIC CAREERS AMONG BEGINNING BIOMEDICAL PHD STUDENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christine V.; Campbell, Patricia B.; McGee, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes perspectives on academic careers among 60 beginning PhD students in the biomedical sciences. It presents seven perspectives on academic careers articulated by the students in the sample and explains the way that race/ethnicity, gender, and students’ family education backgrounds are tied to those perspectives. The findings show that traditionally underrepresented students find the academic career path less navigable than students from well-represented groups. Among underrepresented students, even those from higher family education backgrounds, experiences related to race/ethnicity and gender often inform perceptions of the academic career even before they start their graduate research training. As the composition of the graduate population changes to include more women and underrepresented racial and ethnic minority men, it is important to note that not all graduate students enter with the same perspectives and views of the academic career and that there are meaningful differences in perspectives across demographic lines. Graduate programs can play a critical role in providing information and support for graduate students as they navigate their career choices, particularly at the earliest stages of training. By becoming sensitive to students’ perspectives on career options, and understanding how differences in perspectives arise, mentors and others can align advising strategies with the experiences and views of students. PMID:28239250

  15. Accuracy, gender and race in tort trials : a (behavioral) law and economics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Dominioni (Goran)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis contributes to various streams of literature in the behavioral law and economics of tort law and judicial decisionmaking. Each chapter addresses a selected topic in this area from either a theoretical or an empirical perspective. The overarching theme of the thesis is the

  16. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli.

  17. India's nuclear command and control: perspectives from organisation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasikumar, Shanmugasundaram

    2010-01-01

    Command and control of nuclear weapons was the edifice upon which great power nuclear strategy was based. Empirical Cold War research later proved that this edifice was, in fact, only a power keg. Therefore, US non-proliferation-minded analysts propounded logical reasons for their claim that new nuclear nations will be unable to demonstrate prudence in nuclear weapons management. The unique Indian case, pronounced from the organisation theory perspective, proves to the contrary. India's nuclear organisation is not a static entity; its unique strategic culture together with a political standard operating procedure for nuclear weapons management reduces the exaggerated possibility of any catastrophe. (author)

  18. Pouring rights contracts and childhood overweight: a critical theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Andra

    2006-10-01

    To examine school environments, and in particular, pouring rights contracts and how they relate to childhood overweight from a critical theory perspective. Pouring rights contracts provide a profit to powerful mega-corporations at the expense of children's health. There is a need to move beyond a solely individual approach to addressing childhood overweight and involve a social ecology approach. This would involve a push for social change, including removal of soda machines from schools, and changing marketing practices targeted at children. Nurses are poised in community situations to actively effect social changes to improve health outcomes of our nation's most vulnerable people, but nurses must get involved.

  19. Theories and Management of Aging: Modern and Ayurveda Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Sharma Datta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex phenomenon, a sum total of changes that occur in a living organism with the passage of time and lead to decreasing ability to survive stress, increasing functional impairment and growing probability of death. There are many theories of aging and skin remains the largest organ of the study. Skin aging is described as a consequence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The most common amongst visible signs of skin aging are wrinkles and there are various therapies including antiaging cosmeceuticals, sunscreens, chemical peeling, injectable agents, such as botox, fibrel, autologous fat grafting as also few surgical procedures have been used. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional medicine, describes aging with great details. This review provides modern and Ayurvedic perspectives on theories and management of aging.

  20. Race and General Strain Theory: Examining the Impact of Racial Discrimination and Fear on Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jennifer L

    2016-10-14

    To extend our knowledge of general strain theory by exploring how under-researched strains such as racial discrimination, witnessing violence, physical victimization and verbal bullying affect adolescent substance use while considering differences according to racial identification. This research utilized data from wave three of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Statistical analysis was primarily composed of path analysis using full information maximum likelihood parameter estimates. The findings reveal that reporting fear decreased alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and that racial discrimination, witnessing violence, and being the victim of verbal bullying indirectly affected marijuana and alcohol use through fear. No support was found for depression as a mediating variable. Physical victimization was the only social strain that had a direct positive effect on marijuana and alcohol use but only for Hispanics and African Americans. The results suggest that strains may be operating differently and there may be differential levels of exposure to certain strains according to one's race.

  1. Managing in the interprofessional environment: a theory of action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tim

    2004-08-01

    Managers of multidisciplinary teams face difficult dilemmas in managing competing interests, diverse perspectives and interpersonal conflicts. This paper illustrates the potential of the theory of action methodology of Argyris and Schön (1974, 1996) to illuminate these problems and contribute to their resolution. An empirical example of a depth-investigation with one multidisciplinary community health care team leader in Australia demonstrates that the theory of action offers a more accurate account of the causal dimensions of her dilemmas and provides more scope for effective intervention than her lay explanation will allow. It also provides a more satisfactory analysis of her difficulties with two common problems identified in the literature: defining the appropriate level of autonomy for team members and developing constructive dialogue across perceived discipline-based differences of opinion. Consequently the theory of action appears to offer enormous promise to managers of multidisciplinary teams wanting to understand and resolve their problems and develop a rigorous reflective practice. Further research on the viability of the theory to facilitate a self-correcting system that can promote learning even under conditions of stress and conflict is suggested and implications for learning and teaching for the multidisciplinary environment are briefly discussed.

  2. An experiential perspective on persecutory paranoia: a grounded theory construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Tom; Gumley, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Recently there has been a large volume of research on persecutory paranoia. Evidence has emerged for the role of social factors in the development of paranoia. There have, however, been no studies that have collaborated with users to develop an experiential perspective on paranoia. This study used a social constructionist version of grounded theory to develop an experiential perspective on persecutory paranoia. Ten individuals who had experience of persecutory paranoia were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the grounded theory method. A core process of fear and vulnerability was constructed. Subcategories of confusion and uncertainty, and self under attack contributed to the core process. These processes led to an engaging of the safety systems. Subthemes of these categories were identified. Many of these factors interacted to create the complex and dynamic experience of paranoia. Participants were often responding to genuinely frightening experiences but were also attacking themselves. Paranoia evolved as a mechanism of keeping oneself safe in dangerous situations. The need to negotiate a shared meaning of paranoia with users is emphasized. Direction for future research was discussed.

  3. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Imaging Electron Dynamics with Ultrashort Light Pulses: A Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Popova-Gorelova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of ultrafast phenomena in various atomic, molecular and condense matter systems is governed by electron dynamics. Therefore, the ability to image electronic motion in real space and real time would provide a deeper understanding of such processes and guide developments of tools to control them. Ultrashort light pulses, which can provide unprecedented time resolution approaching subfemtosecond time scale, are perspective to achieve real-time imaging of electron dynamics. This task is challenging not only from an experimental view, but also from a theory perspective, since standard theories describing light-matter interaction in a stationary regime can provide erroneous results in an ultrafast case as demonstrated by several theoretical studies. We review the theoretical framework based on quantum electrodynamics, which has been shown to be necessary for an accurate description of time-resolved imaging of electron dynamics with ultrashort light pulses. We compare the results of theoretical studies of time-resolved nonresonant and resonant X-ray scattering, and time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and show that the corresponding time-resolved signals encode analogous information about electron dynamics. Thereby, the information about an electronic system provided by these time-resolved techniques is different from the information provided by their time-independent analogues.

  5. Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race:An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi N. Maglo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological status and biomedical significance of the concept of race as applied to humans continue to be contentious issues despite the use of advanced statistical and clustering methods to determine continental ancestry. It is thus imperative for researchers to understand the limitations as well as potential uses of the concept of race in biology and biomedicine. This paper deals with the theoretical assumptions behind cluster analysis in human population genomics. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it demonstrates that the hypothesis that attributes the clustering of human populations to frictional effects of landform barriers at continental boundaries is empirically incoherent. It then contrasts the scientific status of the cluster and cline constructs in human population genomics, and shows how cluster may be instrumentally produced. It also shows how statistical values of race vindicate Darwin’s argument that race is evolutionarily meaningless. Finally, the paper explains why, due to spatiotemporal parameters, evolutionary forces and socio-cultural factors influencing population structure, continental ancestry may be pragmatically relevant to global and public health genomics. Overall, this work demonstrates that, from a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response.

  6. Using Critical Race Theory to Analyze How Disney Constructs Diversity: A Construct for the Baccalaureate Human Behavior in the Social Environment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiccie, Amy; Chadha, Janice; Lin, Muh Bi; Snyder, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing the basic tenets of critical race theory, the authors draw upon the expertise of multicultural scholars to raise consciousness and facilitate BSW classroom dialogue about microagressions perpetrated in Disney animations. Microaggressions pervade our media partly because they typically operate outside the threshold of the dominant…

  7. Race and ethnicity in the workplace: spotlighting the perspectives of historically stigmatized groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Victoria C; Thomas, Kecia M; Hebl, Michelle R

    2014-10-01

    Racial and ethnic identity matter and are salient for people in the workplace--a place where people spend a substantial amount of their time. This special issue brings the workplace into the domain of racial and ethnic minority psychology. It also brings to the study of the workplace a relatively neglected perspective: that of people from historically stigmatized racial and ethnic groups. Though there is, of course, need for more work with different themes, outcomes, and populations, this special issue takes us an important step in the direction of understanding better and giving voice to the experiences of racial and ethnic minorities in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Perspective taking and theory of mind in hide and seek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Bischof, Walter F; Kingstone, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Does theory of mind play a significant role in where people choose to hide an item or where they search for an item that has been hidden? Adapting Anderson's "Hide-Find Paradigm" Anderson et al. (Action, Perception and Performance, 76, 907-913, 2014) participants viewed homogenous or popout visual arrays on a touchscreen table. Their task was to indicate where in the array they would hide an item, or to search for an item that had been hidden, by either a friend or a foe. Critically, participants believed that their sitting location at the touchtable was the same as-or opposite to-their partner's location. Replicating Anderson et al., participants tended to (1) select items nearer to themselves on homogenous displays, and this bias was stronger for a friend than foe; and (2) select popout items, and again, more for a friend than foe. These biases were observed only when participants believed that they shared the same physical perspective as their partner. Collectively, the data indicate that theory of mind plays a significant role in hiding and finding, and demonstrate that the hide-find paradigm is a powerful tool for investigating theory of mind in adults.

  9. Knowledge sharing in virtual communities: A social exchange theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The author tried to identify the knowledge sharing behaviors on the internet, using structural equation modeling methods, proposing a model based on social exchange theory in which share willingness, trust, reciprocity, altruism tended to have impact on people’s knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: We presented an empirical research which integrated social exchange theory and structural equation modeling methods to analyze several important factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Findings: We analyzed the knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. We found that members’ altruism can not predict knowledge sharing behaviors. We also found that members’ sharing willingness is the most important factor on virtual community knowledge sharing behaviors compared with trust, reciprocity and altruism. Originality/value: From the perspective of social exchange theory, we did empirical test and verified the proposed research model by using structural equation modeling methods. Our finding can help recognize people’s incentive about knowledge sharing.

  10. Race, Family Structure, and Delinquency: A Test of Differential Association and Social Control Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Ross L.; Heimer, Karen

    1987-01-01

    Broken homes have a larger impact on delinquency among Blacks than non-Blacks. In both populations, the effects of broken homes and attachment to parents and peers are mediated by the learning of definitions of delinquency, a finding that supports differential association over social control theory. (Author/BJV)

  11. Invited commentary: integrating a life-course perspective and social theory to advance research on residential segregation and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L

    2013-02-15

    Research on racial residential segregation and health typically uses multilevel, population-based, slice-in-time data. Although research using this approach, including that by Kershaw et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(4):299-309), has been valuable, I argue that to advance our understanding of how residential segregation influences health and health disparities, it is critical to incorporate a life-course perspective and integrate social theory. Applying a life-course perspective would entail modeling transitions, cumulative risk, and developmental and dynamic processes and mechanisms, as well as recognizing the contingency of contextual effects on different social groups. I discuss the need for analytic methods appropriate for modeling health effects of distal causes experienced across the life course, such as segregation, that operate through multiple levels and sequences of mediators, potentially across decades. Sociological theories of neighborhood attainment (e.g., segmented assimilation, ethnic resurgence, and place stratification theories) can guide effect-modification tests to help illuminate health effects resulting from intersections of residential processes, race/ethnicity, immigration, and other social determinants of health. For example, nativity and immigration history may crucially shape residential processes and exposures, but these have received limited attention in prior segregation-health literature.

  12. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  13. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, N.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Alford, M.G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T.D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J.L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H.W.; Llanes-Estrada, F.J.; Meyer, H.B.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W.M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Di Nezza, P.; Fodor, Z.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Hollwieser, R.; Janik, M.A.; Kalweit, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, J.W.; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C.A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N.G.; von Hippel, G.M.; Zakharov, V.I.

    2014-10-21

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly-coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.

  14. Critical race theory as a tool for understanding poor engagement along the HIV care continuum among African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV in the United States: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robert; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Silverman, Elizabeth; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Reed, Jennifer; Martinez, Belkis Y

    2017-03-24

    African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) in the U.S. evidence insufficient engagement in HIV care and low uptake of HIV antiretroviral therapy, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. The present qualitative study used critical race theory, and incorporated intersectionality theory, to understand AABH-PLWH's perspectives on the mechanisms by which structural racism; that is, the macro-level systems that reinforce inequities among racial/ethnic groups, influence health decisions and behaviors. Participants were adult AABH-PLWH in New York City who were not taking antiretroviral therapy nor well engaged in HIV care (N = 37). Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation from a larger study, and engaged in semi-structured in-depth interviews that were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a systematic content analysis approach. We found AABH-PLWH experienced HIV care and medication decisions through a historical and cultural lens incorporating knowledge of past and present structural racism. This contextual knowledge included awareness of past maltreatment of people of color in medical research. Further, these understandings were linked to the history of HIV antiretroviral therapy itself, including awareness of the first HIV antiretroviral regimen; namely, AZT (zidovudine) mono-therapy, which was initially prescribed in unacceptably high doses, causing serious side effects, but with only modest efficacy. In this historical/cultural context, aspects of structural racism negatively influenced health care decisions and behavior in four main ways: 1) via the extent to which healthcare settings were experienced as overly institutionalized and, therefore, dehumanizing; 2) distrust of medical institutions and healthcare providers, which led AABH-PLWH to feel pressured to take HIV antiretroviral therapy when it was offered; 3) perceptions that patients are excluded from the health

  15. African American Female Engineering Students' Persistence in Stereotype-threatening Environments: A Critical Race Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Stacie LeSure

    2015-01-01

    Due to the social context of engineering classrooms, stereotype threat (STT) may play an essential role in the dearth of African American females in engineering. Empirical studies have confirmed the deleterious effects STT has on students' performance. However, acceptance of STT as more than a laboratory phenomenon necessitates an in-depth understanding of how stigmatized groups experience being socially devalued and negatively stereotyped. In this qualitative investigation, Intersectionality...

  16. Issues Affecting U.S. Filipino Student Access to Postsecondary Education: A Critical Race Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenavista, Tracy Lachica

    2010-01-01

    There are 3.2 million Filipinos in the United States, arguably the largest Asian American ethnic group. Although 36.7% of Filipino adults have college degrees, which is much higher than their ethnic and racial counterparts, U.S. Filipino youth have fewer postsecondary opportunities. Filipino immigrant and second-generation youth exhibit high…

  17. Critical Race Life Course Perspective Theory: A Framework for Understanding Racism over the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiAquoi, Raygine C.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, Raygine DiAquoi examines the conversations Black families have with their sons to prepare them for racial bias and discrimination. Over the course of a year, DiAquoi conducted a qualitative exploration of the content of "the talk," as this conversation has come to be known, that 17 families have with their sons about…

  18. Towards a Comprehensive Socio-Psychological Perspective: A Critique of Social Dominance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tunçgenç, Bahar

    2010-01-01

    Psychology aims to understand human cognition and behavior, which necessitates making use of sociological-political theories. Social Dominance Theory (SDT) is one of the psychological theories that try to explain the individual-society relationship from a broad perspective. Yet, this theory has its shortcomings too. In an attempt to contribute to a well-grounded theory for psychological research, the paper at hand will discuss the shortcomings of SDT. The main discussion concerns following ap...

  19. Colloquium: Perspectives on core-collapse supernova theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Core-collapse theory brings together many facets of high-energy and nuclear astrophysics and the numerical arts to present theorists with one of the most important, yet frustrating, astronomical questions: “What is the mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions?” A review of all the physics and the 50-year history involved would soon bury the reader in minutiae that could easily obscure the essential elements of the phenomenon, as we understand it today. Moreover, much remains to be discovered and explained, and a complicated review of an unresolved subject in flux could grow stale fast. Therefore, this paper describes various important facts and perspectives that may have escaped the attention of those interested in this puzzle. Furthermore, an attempt to describe the modern theory’s physical underpinnings and a brief summary of the current state of play are given. In the process, a few myths that have crept into modern discourse are identified. However, there is much more to do and humility in the face of this age-old challenge is clearly the most prudent stance as its eventual resolution is sought.

  20. Food in the Metaphysical Orders: Gender, Race, and the Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Borghini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By looking at human practices around food, the paper brings novel evidence linking the social constructionist and the naturalist theories of gender, race, and the family, evidence that is based on the analysis of developmental trajectories. The argument rests on two main theoretical claims: (i unlike evolutionary explanations, developmental trajectories can play a decisive role in exhibiting the biological underpinnings of kinds related to gender, race, and family; (ii food constitutes a point of convergence between constructionist and naturalist perspectives because it embeds practices of particular significance for establishing identities of gender, race, and family that, at the same time, are rooted on skills and habits acquired through specific developmental patterns. The paper illustrates (i and (ii via two case studies involving women hunters and the diet of the Obamas. The latter also suggests that kinds associated to gender, race, and family are entangled.

  1. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijne, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Schwab, A.L.; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Rowlands, David R.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Thiel, David V.

    2018-01-01

    Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with

  2. Enact, Discard, and Transform: A Critical Race Feminist Perspective on Professional Socialization among Tenured Black Female Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulé, Venice Thandi

    2014-01-01

    Through an analysis informed by critical race feminism, this paper examines the intersection of professional socialization and agency among tenured Black female faculty at Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Professional socialization entails the transmission and reproduction of professional norms. However, within PWIs, professional…

  3. Theory and practice of clinical ethics support services: narrative and hermeneutical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porz, R.; Landeweer, E.G.M.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce narrative and hermeneutical perspectives to clinical ethics support services (CESS). We propose a threefold consideration of 'theory' and show how it is interwoven with 'practice' as we go along. First, we look at theory in its foundational role: in our case 'narrative

  4. Cognitive Load Theory: New Conceptualizations, Specifications, and Integrated Research Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paas, Fred; van Gog, Tamara; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, cognitive load theory has progressed and advanced rapidly. The articles in this special issue, which document those advances, are based on contributions to the 3rd International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (2009), Heerlen, The Netherlands. The articles of this special issue on cognitive load theory discuss new…

  5. Towards quantum gravity via quantum field theory. Problems and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenhagen, Klaus [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    General Relativity is a classical field theory; the standard methods for constructing a corresponding quantum field theory, however, meet severe difficulties, in particular perturbative non-renormalizability and the problem of background independence. Nevertheless, modern approaches to quantum field theory have significantly lowered these obstacles. On the side of non-renormalizability, this is the concept of effective theories, together with indications for better non-perturbative features of the renormalization group flow. On the side of background independence the main progress comes from an improved understanding of quantum field theories on generic curved spacetimes. Combining these informations, a promising approach to quantum gravity is an expansion around a classical solution which then is a quantum field theory on a given background, augmented by an identity which expresses independence against infinitesimal shifts of the background. The arising theory is expected to describe small corrections to classical general relativity. Inflationary cosmology is expected to arise as a lowest order approximation.

  6. Critical Race Theory Counterstory as Allegory: A Rhetorical Trope to Raise Awareness about Arizona's Ban on Ethnic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Aja Y.

    2013-01-01

    he critical race counterstory in this essay takes on the form of allegory to raise awareness about Arizona's anti-immigrant/Mexican climate, and pays particular attention to legislation targeted at Tucson Unified School District's Mexican American studies (also RAZA studies) program.

  7. Inflation from field theory and string theory perspectives. Matter inflation and slow-walking inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with aspects of inflation both from a field theory and a string theory perspective. It aims at exploring new approaches to address the problem of moduli destabilization and the η-problem and to realize inflation in the matter sector. The first part is devoted to studying models of inflation in the framework of four-dimensional N=1 supergravity. We begin with investigating a new proposal to solve the problem of moduli destabilization, which seems to force us to choose between low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. This new approach is based on a particular way to couple the modulus to the F-term driving inflation. Using chaotic inflation with a shift symmetry as an example, we show that we can successfully combine low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. We construct a class of inflation models in N=1 supergravity where the inflaton resides in gauge non-singlet matter fields. These are extensions of a special class of hybrid inflation models, so-called tribrid inflation, where the η-problem can be solved by a Heisenberg symmetry. Compared to previously studied models, we have generalized our models with some inspiration from string theory. We investigate moduli stabilization during inflation and identify situations in which the inflaton slope is dominated by radiative corrections. We outline under which conditions this class of matter inflation models could be embedded into heterotic orbifold compactifications. In doing so, we suggest a new mechanism to stabilize some Kaehler moduli by F-terms for matter fields. In the second part, we consider models of warped D-brane inflation on a family of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We consider inflation along the radial direction near the tip of the warped throat and show that generically an inflection point arises for the inflaton potential, which is related to an inflection point of the dilaton profile. A universal scaling behaviour with the parameters of the

  8. Inflation from field theory and string theory perspectives. Matter inflation and slow-walking inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halter, Sebastian

    2012-07-09

    This thesis is concerned with aspects of inflation both from a field theory and a string theory perspective. It aims at exploring new approaches to address the problem of moduli destabilization and the η-problem and to realize inflation in the matter sector. The first part is devoted to studying models of inflation in the framework of four-dimensional N=1 supergravity. We begin with investigating a new proposal to solve the problem of moduli destabilization, which seems to force us to choose between low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. This new approach is based on a particular way to couple the modulus to the F-term driving inflation. Using chaotic inflation with a shift symmetry as an example, we show that we can successfully combine low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. We construct a class of inflation models in N=1 supergravity where the inflaton resides in gauge non-singlet matter fields. These are extensions of a special class of hybrid inflation models, so-called tribrid inflation, where the η-problem can be solved by a Heisenberg symmetry. Compared to previously studied models, we have generalized our models with some inspiration from string theory. We investigate moduli stabilization during inflation and identify situations in which the inflaton slope is dominated by radiative corrections. We outline under which conditions this class of matter inflation models could be embedded into heterotic orbifold compactifications. In doing so, we suggest a new mechanism to stabilize some Kaehler moduli by F-terms for matter fields. In the second part, we consider models of warped D-brane inflation on a family of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We consider inflation along the radial direction near the tip of the warped throat and show that generically an inflection point arises for the inflaton potential, which is related to an inflection point of the dilaton profile. A universal scaling behaviour with the parameters of the

  9. Donald Trump: A Critical Theory-Perspective on Authoritarian Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses economic power, state power and ideological power in the age of Donald Trump with the help of critical theory. It applies the critical theory approaches of thinkers such as Franz Neumann, Theodor W. Adorno and Erich Fromm. It analyses changes of US capitalism that have together with political anxiety and demagoguery brought about the rise of Donald Trump. This article draws attention to the importance of state theory for understanding Trump and the changes of politics that...

  10. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Reijne, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Schwab, A.L.; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Rowlands, David R.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Thiel, David V.

    2018-01-01

    Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with the fastest descender amongst them. The obtained data gives us guidelines for rider specific feedback in order to improve his performance. The bicycles were equipped with a system that could measur...

  11. The Framing of Women and Health Disparities: A Critical Look at Race, Gender, and Class from the Perspectives of Grassroots Health Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeman-Winter, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    As women's health has received significant political and media attention recently, I proposed an expanded structural theory of women's communication about health. Women's health communication and critical race and systemic racism research framed this study. I interviewed 15 communicators and community health workers from grass-roots organizations focused on women's health to learn of their challenges of communicating with women from communities experiencing health disparities. Findings suggest that communicators face difficulties in developing meaningful messaging for publics because of disjunctures between medical and community frames, issues in searching for health among women's many priorities, Whiteness discourses imposed on publics' experiences, and practices of correcting for power differentials. A structural theory of women's health communication, then, consists of tenets around geographic, research/funding, academic/industry, and social hierarchies. Six frames suggesting racial biases about women and health disparities are also defined. This study also includes practical solutions in education, publishing, and policy change for addressing structural challenges.

  12. An Intersectional Framework for Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Savneet

    2010-01-01

    This article calls for an examination of identity and difference from a sociocultural perspective in art therapy theory and practice. Identity markers such as race, class, gender, and sexuality have tended to be seen in isolation and in ways that hamper the ability to understand and theorize difference. In constructing knowledge and in advancing…

  13. Sounds of Silence: Race and Emergent Counter-Narratives of Art Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehe, Amelia M.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two Black preservice art teachers and their racialized experiences in art teacher education. Drawing from a critical race theory perspective, their stories are conceptualized as emergent counternarratives of becoming an art teacher. The case studies are based on interviews from an ethnographic investigation of…

  14. A Developmental Perspective for Promoting Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol; Robinson, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Social neuroscience research has resulted in changing views of the theory of mind (ToM) construct. Theory of mind is no longer viewed as a unitary construct, but rather as a multidimensional construct comprising cognitive and affective ToM and interpersonal and intrapersonal ToM, each of which has differing neurophysiological/neuroanatomical…

  15. Client-Controlled Case Information: A General System Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Dale

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes a model for client control of case information via the World Wide Web built on principles of general system theory. It incorporates the client into the design, resulting in an information structure that differs from traditional human services information-sharing practices. Referencing general system theory, the concepts of…

  16. Motivation to Speak English: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas

    2017-01-01

    Based on a modern motivation theory of learning, self-determination theory (SDT), this study aimed to investigate the relationships between English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' motivation to speak, autonomous regulation, autonomy support from teachers, and classroom engagement, with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The…

  17. Cognitive load theory: New conceptualizations, specifications, and integrated research perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.C. Paas (Fred); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); J. Sweller (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOver the last few years, cognitive load theory has progressed and advanced rapidly. The articles in this special issue, which document those advances, are based on contributions to the 3rd International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (2009), Heerlen, The Netherlands. The articles of

  18. Bringing Curriculum Theory and Didactics Together: A Deweyan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi

    2016-01-01

    Using Dewey's method of resolution for resolving a dualism exemplified in "The Child and the Curriculum," this article reconciles and brings together two rival schools of thought--curriculum theory and didactics--in China. The central thesis is that the rapprochement requires a reconceptualisation of curriculum theory and didactics in…

  19. Moral Contract Theory and Social Cognition : An Empirical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary work draws on research from psychology and behavioral economics to evaluate the plausibility of moral contract theory. In a compelling manner with implications for moral theory more broadly, the author’s novel approach resolves a number of key contingencies in contractarianism

  20. The network perspective: an integration of attachment and family systems theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Hanney, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    In this article we discuss the network paradigm as a useful base from which to integrate attachment and family systems theories. The network perspective refers to the application of general systems theory to living systems, and provides a framework that conceptualizes the dyadic and family systems as simultaneously distinct and interconnected. Network thinking requires that the clinician holds multiple perspectives in mind, considers each system level as both a part and a whole, and shifts the focus of attention between levels as required. Key epistemological issues that have hindered the integration of the theories are discussed. These include inconsistencies within attachment theory itself and confusion surrounding the theoretical conceptualizations of the relationship between attachment and family systems theories. Detailed information about attachment categories is provided using the Dynamic Maturational model. Case vignettes illustrating work with young children and their families explore the clinical implications of integrating attachment data into family therapy practice.

  1. Spiritual leadership at the workplace: Perspectives and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yishuang

    2016-10-01

    Leadership has always been an area of interest since time immemorial. Nevertheless, scientific theories regarding leadership started to appear only from the beginning of the 20th century. Modern theories of leadership such as strategic leadership theory emerged as early as the 1980s when outdated theories of behavioral contingency were questioned, resulting in the beginning of a shift in focus leading to the emergence of modern theories hypothesizing the importance of vision, motivation and value-based control of clan and culture. Value-driven clan control emphasizes the importance of the role played by employees in a rapidly changing work environment. Therefore, the 21st century marked the rise of the need to establish a culture driven by values, inspiring the workforce to struggle and strongly seek a shared vision. This can be accomplished by an effective and motivating leadership.

  2. The gender of science: reflections on the actor-network theory and the feminist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pugliese Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the principles that guide the descriptive forms of the actor-network theory (ANT of Bruno Latour and feminist standpoint theory formulated by Sandra Harding and Evelyn Fox Keller, through my research on the "Marie Curie Case". As a singular case between gender and science, the goal of thispaper is to play with ANT certainties against feminist perspective uncertainties. In the other hand, the certainties of feminist perspective are put against the uncertainties of ANT. With this counterpoint we intend to promote a reaction - in the chemical sense of the word – to the descriptive forms of the actor-network theory and feminist perspective taking away the obviousness of some of their assumptions. Doing that, we explore the moves of those reactions and their effects to the description which we do about science.

  3. Effective medium theories of inhomogeneous media from modern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    In the study of disordered alloys, theorists have stated the physics of the problem in terms of an integral equation and analyzed this equation by techniques developed in the quantum mechanical theory of scattering. The application of the scattering theory approach to the computation of the effective dielectric constant of a polycrystal is discussed. The problem is framed in the form of an integral equation. Several well-known intuitive approximations are recovered, and the connection of the approximations to perturbation theory is indicated

  4. Client-controlled case information: a general system theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Dale

    2004-07-01

    The author proposes a model for client control of case information via the World Wide Web built on principles of general system theory. It incorporates the client into the design, resulting in an information structure that differs from traditional human services information-sharing practices. Referencing general system theory, the concepts of controller and controlled system, as well as entropy and negentropy, are applied to the information flow and autopoietic behavior as they relate to the boundary-maintaining functions of today's organizations. The author's conclusions synthesize general system theory and human services values to lay the foundation for an information-sharing framework for human services in the 21st century.

  5. Developing perspectives on Korean nursing theory: the influences of Taoism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K R

    2001-10-01

    Nursing theory provides a systematic explanation and description of nursing phenomena. Western nursing theories have widely influenced Korean nursing. And yet, although nursing theory has universal aspects, the differences in philosophy and culture that are unique to each country need to be considered. This inquiry seeks to investigate the Korean cultural heritage, which integrates Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and how it provides a unique worldview of human beings, the universe, health, and nursing. Essential principles and therapies consistent with Taoist philosophy are also identified. This framework is proffered as the basis for establishing understanding between Korean nurses and patients.

  6. Mate Selection in Contemporary America: An Exchange Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Margaret H.

    1989-01-01

    The use of exchange theory as it applies to human relations has escalated dramatically in the past 20 years. The present study applies exchange theory as the basis of mate selection in contemporary society. Whereas an actual barter system was used in the past and families played a major role in choosing prospective mates, participants in the mate selection process are not virtually on their own and must rely upon their own bargaining skills to present their assets on the marriage market. A...

  7. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: putting theory X and theory Y into action in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen

    2008-12-01

    Theory X and Theory Y are terms coined by Douglas McGregor to express the belief that managers' behaviors are shaped by their assumptions about the motivation of their subordinates. The theories were applied to dental education in a Perspectives article published in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Dental Education. This article explains how those seemingly contradictory theories can be reconciled using the concept of the "emotional bank account" introduced by Stephen Covey in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Understanding the underlying concept of an emotional bank account helps dental educators to bridge the generation gap between instructors, born during the baby boom period of 1946-63, and dental students, born after 1980, who are referred to as "Generation Y" or "millennials."

  8. Correcting Improper Uses of Perspectives, Pronouns, and Dualities in Wilberian Integral Theory: An Application of Holarchical Field Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Bowman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses my pre-existing extension of Wilberian metatheory, holarchical field theory, to diagnose and work towards overcoming the confusion within attempts to analyze action, events, and communication using Ken Wilber’s AQAL model. In holarchical field theory, holarchical fields become the fundamental component of reality. These fields comprise 1 holons in relation to one another and to their potential, and 2 their interpenetrating forces engaged by their interactions. In light of the theory, problems in the Wilberian literature have included inconsistent uses of certain dualities (subject-object, interior-exterior, and inside-outside as well as person perspectives and pronouns. Previous attempts to overcome these issues without precise diagnoses suffer from a conflation of the dual definitions of the subjective-objective duality, one a philosophical definition, the other grammatical. State versus action language is classified within the dualities of holarchical field theory.

  9. Physics of cancer propagation: A game theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cleveland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical paper which examines at a game theoretical perspective the dynamics of cooperators and cheater cells under metabolic stress conditions and high spatial heterogeneity. Although the ultimate aim of this work is to understand the dynamics of cancer tumor evolution under stress, we use a simple bacterial model to gain fundamental insights into the progression of resistance to drugs under high competition and stress conditions.

  10. New perspectives on approximation and sampling theory Festschrift in honor of Paul Butzer's 85th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Schmeisser, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Paul Butzer, who is considered the academic father and grandfather of many prominent mathematicians, has established one of the best schools in approximation and sampling theory in the world. He is one of the leading figures in approximation, sampling theory, and harmonic analysis. Although on April 15, 2013, Paul Butzer turned 85 years old, remarkably, he is still an active research mathematician. In celebration of Paul Butzer’s 85th birthday, New Perspectives on Approximation and Sampling Theory is a collection of invited chapters on approximation, sampling, and harmonic analysis written by students, friends, colleagues, and prominent active mathematicians. Topics covered include approximation methods using wavelets, multi-scale analysis, frames, and special functions. New Perspectives on Approximation and Sampling Theory requires basic knowledge of mathematical analysis, but efforts were made to keep the exposition clear and the chapters self-contained. This volume will appeal to researchers and graduate...

  11. Accounting Theory: An Ethical Perspective of Real Life Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivneil Kumar Raj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Decisions are made daily in businesses and individuals do encounter situations where they are faced with ethical issues. The subject is how one evaluates whether an act is ethical or unethical. This research article discusses real life ethical dilemmas that could be faced in accounting or business environment and applicability of various theories of ethics that were taught in accounting theory course in the undergraduate accounting program. The researcher employs a number of case studies highlighting the stories related to ethics that have been experienced in the past working life. Teleological and deontological theories are being used to explain how one could identify that a particular act is ethical or unethical. The work of accountants requires them to maintain high level of ethics to ensure integrity of the profession.

  12. Analysis on stability of strategic alliance: A game theory perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei-qiong; FAN Liang-cong

    2006-01-01

    Strategic alliance has suffered much instabilities since its first implementation. Scholars have carried out many embedded, precise and comprehensive researches from both theory and empiricism. Here we try to find certain stable solutions by employing game theory, in an attempt to construct theoretical bases for strategic alliance, which people called "one of the most important organizational innovation in the end of the 20th century" (Shi, 2001), to exploit its advantages in the process of globalization. Finally, this article puts forward some advices for its success.

  13. Intersectionality and Critical Race Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePouw, Christin

    2018-01-01

    This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…

  14. Learning Organisation Review--A "Good" Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Mijalce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to perform integrative literature review of the learning organisation (LO) concept, on the basis of the results of the literature review to assess the concept on the principles of "good" theory, and provide future avenues for LO concept clarification and development. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  15. Putting Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of Motivation in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Charles R.; Decker, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Explores challenges to Frederick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of Motivation--a required concept in many administrator preparation programs. Herzberg used modified critical incident (or self-reporting) techniques to illustrate that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction occupied different continua and were not opposed to each other. Criticisms, study…

  16. Interdisciplinarity in Vocational Guidance: An Action Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, Ladislav; Young, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    In addressing the issue of interdisciplinary research in vocational guidance, twelve propositions important for understanding the vocational guidance process as joint, goal-directed action are presented. They address the encounter between client and counsellor leading to relational ethics, the relevance of everyday action theory and methods for…

  17. Perspective of Game Theory in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, A.; Zascerinska, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sustainable development of society has attracted a lot of research efforts. A strategic aspect to the society's evolution is introduced by the game theory (Fernandez, 2011, p. 1). The research question is as follows: how to organize the process of teaching and learning in education for sustainable development? The aim of the research is to…

  18. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  19. New perspective of real options theory for policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In deze Reflectie geeft Sadowski een alternatief, of eigenlijk een aanvulling op de KBA, vanuit de real options theory, zoals die ook in de financiële sector gebruikt wordt. Het idee is dat er in dynamische markten veel ontwikkelingen zijn: technologisch, een markt in beweging of industriële

  20. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Alford, M. G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T. D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J. L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H. W.; Llanes-Estrada, F. J.; Meyer, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M. I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W. M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Nezza, P. Di; Fodor, Z.; Tormo, X. Garcia i; Höllwieser, R.; Kalwait, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C. A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N. G.; Hippel, G. M. von; Zakharov, V. I .

    2014-01-01

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly-coupled, complex

  1. Learning and Emotion: Perspectives for Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascher, Tina

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in and knowledge about the interplay of learning and emotion. However, the different approaches and empirical studies correspond to each other only to a low extent. To prevent this research field from increasing fragmentation, a shared basis of theory and research is needed. The presentation aims at giving an overview of…

  2. Analyzing Digital Library Initiatives: 5S Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Abdulmumin; Mutshewa, Athulang; Serema, Batlang; Kenosi, Lekoko

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of Digital Libraries (DLs), examines some DL initiatives in developed and developing countries and uses 5S Theory as a lens for analyzing the focused DLs. The analysis shows that present-day systems, in both developed and developing nations, are essentially content and user centric, with low level…

  3. Cyberbullying among Adolescents: A General Strain Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Gabriel R.

    2018-01-01

    Cyber bullying has become more pervasive as a result of advances in communication technology such as email, text messaging, chat rooms, and social media sites. Despite the growth in research on correlates associated with engagement in cyber bullying, few studies test the applicability of criminological theories to explain engagement in cyber…

  4. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukerman, Igor, E-mail: igor@uakron.edu

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  5. Motivational Classroom Climate for Learning Mathematics: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a case is made that affect is central in determining students' experience of learning or not learning mathematics. I show how reversal theory (Apter, 2001), and particularly its taxonomy of motivations and emotions, provides a basis for a thick description of students' experiences of learning in a mathematics classroom. Using data…

  6. An Agency Theory Perspective on Student Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E.; Zsidisin, George A.; Adams, Laural L.

    2005-01-01

    The emphasis in recent research on the responsibility of college and university business instructors to prepare students for future employment underscores a need to refine the evaluation of student performance. In this article, an agency theory framework is used to understand the trade-offs that may be involved in the selection of various…

  7. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  8. The Impact of Comparative Education Research on Institutional Theory. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society explores how educational research from a comparative perspective has been instrumental in broadening and testing hypotheses from institutional theory. Institutional theory has also played an increasingly influential role in developing an understanding of education in society. This…

  9. Theories and Practices of Development: An Anthropological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Pokharel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Development is a contested ideology and concept. There is a long anthropological tradition that looks at development actions and events from different perspectives. Each perspective has its own explanation, methodology, epistemology, interest articulation, imagination and policy agenda. It seems that development policy and practice has been periodically regenerated and reformulated with new ideas and thinking. In recent years, anthropologists have increasingly been involved in the ethnographic study of development projects, such as strategies, policies, practices and organizations. Despite the growing number of development literatures in Nepal, few studies have examined interfaces between development projects and local politics. Broadly, there are two traditions of looking at the community development in Nepal. The first category of literature is basically concerned with social transformations through development intervention. The second type is more interpretive and focuses on discourse analysis.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10435 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 1-30

  10. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Reijne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with the fastest descender amongst them. The obtained data gives us guidelines for rider specific feedback in order to improve his performance. The bicycles were equipped with a system that could measure: velocity, cadence, pedal power, position, steer angle, 3D orientation, rotational speeds and linear accelerations of the rear frame and brake force front and rear. From our observation study, the brake point and apex position turned out to be distinctive indicators of a fast cornering technique in a descent for a tight, hairpin corner. These two indicators can be used as feedback for a slower rider to improve his descend performance.

  11. A perspective of leaf rust race fhprn and its impact on leaf rust resistance in pakistani wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust infected leaves of a widely growing variety Seher-06 were collected in wheat season of 2011-12. The leaf rust isolates were assessed on Thatcher derived Lr isogenic lines and a race FHPRN was identified. Seventy six wheat varieties/lines besides Lr isogenic lines were screened against this race for seedling in glass house and for adult plant resistance at Bahawalpur and Faisalabad during 2012-13. Lr1, Lr2a, Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr10+27+31 (Gatcher) and Lr28 were found completely resistant at both stages against FHPRN. Molecular screening of the wheat varieties/lines indicated the presence of leaf rust resistance genes Lr9 (0%), Lr13 (43%), Lr19 (1%), Lr20 (0%), Lr24 (4%), Lr26 (23%), Lr28 (0%), Lr34 (38%), Lr37 (1%) and Lr47 (1%) in them. Field data suggested that As-02 (Lr10+26+34), Bhakar-02 (Lr13) and Shafaq-06 (Lr10+13+27) were resistant; Pasban-90 (Lr10+13+26+27), Chenab-2000 (Lr10+13+26+27+31+34), Fbd-08 (Lr10), Millat-11 (unknown) and Punjab-11 (unknown) were found moderately resistant; Blue silver (Lr13+14a), Pak-81 (Lr10+23+26+31), Bahawalpur-97 (Lr13+26) and Lasani-08 (Lr13+27+31) were susceptible while Sh-88 (unknown), Auqab-2000 (Lr10+23+26+27+31), Iqbal-2000 (Lr3+10+13+26+27+31), Bahawalpur-2000 (Lr34) and Seher-06 (Lr10+27+31) were found highly susceptible against FHPRN. Present and previous studies revealed the presence of Lr3, 10, 13, 14a, 23, 26, 27, 31 and 34 in the Pakistani wheat varieties yet lacking Lr9, 19, 24 and 28. Therefore, the latter genes and their effective combinations should be incorporated in Pakistani varieties to combat leaf rust effectively. (author)

  12. Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory (combined PDF of all articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Combined pdf of all articles published in the special issue "Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory", edited by Christian Fuchs and Lara Monticelli, tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique 16 (2, 2018, pp. 406-741.

  13. Understanding Frame-of-Reference Training Success: A Social Learning Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulsky, Lorne M.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Employing the social learning theory (SLT) perspective on training, we analysed the effects of alternative frame-of-reference (FOR) training protocols on various criteria of training effectiveness. Undergraduate participants (N = 65) were randomly assigned to one of four FOR training conditions and a control condition. Training effectiveness was…

  14. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  15. Screening for word reading and spelling problems in elementary school: An item response theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore whether the Item Response Theory (IRT) provides a suitable framework to screen for word reading and spelling problems during the elementary school period. The following issues were addressed from an IRT perspective: (a) the dimensionality of word

  16. Functional lateralization of temporoparietal junction - imitation inhibition, visual perspective-taking and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiesteban, Idalmis; Banissy, Michael J; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-10-01

    Although neuroimaging studies have consistently identified the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) as a key brain region involved in social cognition, the literature is far from consistent with respect to lateralization of function. For example, during theory-of-mind tasks bilateral TPJ activation is found in some studies but only right hemisphere activation in others. Visual perspective-taking and imitation inhibition, which have been argued to recruit the same socio-cognitive processes as theory of mind, are associated with unilateral activation of either left TPJ (perspective taking) or right TPJ (imitation inhibition). The present study investigated the functional lateralization of TPJ involvement in the above three socio-cognitive abilities using transcranial direct current stimulation. Three groups of healthy adults received anodal stimulation over right TPJ, left TPJ or the occipital cortex prior to performing three tasks (imitation inhibition, visual perspective-taking and theory of mind). In contrast to the extant neuroimaging literature, our results suggest bilateral TPJ involvement in imitation inhibition and visual perspective-taking, while no effect of anodal stimulation was observed on theory of mind. The discrepancy between these findings and those obtained using neuroimaging highlight the efficacy of neurostimulation as a complementary methodological tool in cognitive neuroscience. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Enhancing Student Motivation: A Longitudinal Intervention Study Based on Future Time Perspective Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitema, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van der Veen, 2008, 2009). The authors extend the…

  18. Psychological Analysis of "Humboldt's Gift" from the Perspective of Lacan's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Two protagonists Humboldt and Citrine in "Humboldt's gift" are characterized as restless even lunatic, for they are constantly or madly seeking something such as honor, power or intimate relationship something or other. This thesis intends to analyze Humboldt and Citrine's psychological troubles from the perspective of Lacan's theory and…

  19. Theorizing Teachers' Perspectives on an EFL Textbook for Public High Schools of Iran: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namaghi, Seyyed Ali Ostovar; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Saboor; Tajzad, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore language teachers' perspectives on Iranian third grade senior high school EFL textbook, which is prescribed by the Ministry of Education. In data collection and analysis, the researchers used theoretical sampling and the coding schemes presented in grounded theory. Final analysis yielded "Negative…

  20. COIN Goes GLOCAL: Traditional COIN With a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-17

    COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles? A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global P ti D th C t US St t R fl t COIN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perspective: Does...Monograph: COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

  1. Elevating the Role of Race in Ethnographic Research: Navigating Race Relations in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.

    2011-01-01

    Little work in the social sciences or in the field of education has fully explored the methodological issues related to the study of race and racism, yet qualitative researchers acknowledge that race plays (and should play) a role in the research process. Indeed, race frames and informs the context, practices and perspectives of everyday lived…

  2. Perspectives on depressive realism: implications for cognitive theory of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaga, D A; Beck, A T

    1995-01-01

    Beck's cognitive theory of depression has provided a successful description of depressive thinking, with one major exception. The hypothesis that depressed people show biased negative thinking seems contradicted by research indicating that Ss scoring 9 or above on the Beck Depression Inventory were more accurate than their nondepressed counterparts in judging contingencies between their responses and outcomes, seemingly showing "depressive realism". Depressive realism research has attracted attention in numerous areas of psychology, along with critical commentary focused on such issues as whether realism is limited to mild depressive states, whether laboratory tasks are sufficient to document realism, and whether realism is a general characteristic of either depressed or nondepressed people. We analyze the main critiques and show how debates about depressive realism can be heuristic for refinement of cognitive theory of depression.

  3. Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: an attachment theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Philip J

    2010-10-01

    This article selectively highlights relevant areas of neuroscience research which have direct application for attachment theory and group psychotherapy. Emerging evidence from the neurosciences is revealing that the developing brain of the infant, sculpted by the earliest attachment relationships, continues to be malleable in adulthood and can be profoundly influenced by ongoing relationships throughout one's lifespan. Advances in the neurosciences are also supporting the idea that strong attachment bonds and external interpersonal interactions that arise within the context of these attachments are registered as a person's neurophysiology and neurobiology. Attachment theory in particular provides a common language and conceptual framework from which the contributions from the neurosciences can be made applicable to group psychotherapy.

  4. Sequential Progressions in a Theory of Mind Scale: Longitudinal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Fuxi, Fang; Peterson, Candida C.

    2011-01-01

    Consecutive re-testings of 92 U.S. preschoolers (n = 30), Chinese preschoolers (n = 31), and deaf children (n = 31) examined whether the sequences of development apparent in cross-sectional results with a theory-of-mind scale also appeared in longitudinal assessment. Longitudinal data confirmed that theory-of-mind progressions apparent in cross-sectional scaling data also characterized longitudinal sequences of understanding for individual children. The match between cross-sectional and longitudinal sequences appeared for children who exhibit different progressions across cultures (U.S. vs. China) and for children with substantial delays (deaf children of hearing parents). Moreover, greater scale distances reflected larger longitudinal age differences. PMID:21428982

  5. Noncommutative U(1) gauge theory from a worldline perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadiniaz, Naser [Facultad de Ciencias en Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas,Ciudad Universitaria, Tuxtla Gutiérrez 29050 (Mexico); Corradini, Olindo [Facultad de Ciencias en Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas,Ciudad Universitaria, Tuxtla Gutiérrez 29050 (Mexico); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche,Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia,Via Campi 213/A, I-41125 Modena (Italy); D’Ascanio, Daniela [Instituto de Física La Plata - CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata,CC 67 (1900), La Plata (Argentina); Estrada-Jiménez, Sendic [Facultad de Ciencias en Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas,Ciudad Universitaria, Tuxtla Gutiérrez 29050 (Mexico); Pisani, Pablo [Instituto de Física La Plata - CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata,CC 67 (1900), La Plata (Argentina)

    2015-11-10

    We study pure noncommutative U(1) gauge theory representing its one-loop effective action in terms of a phase space worldline path integral. We write the quadratic action using the background field method to keep explicit gauge invariance, and then employ the worldline formalism to write the one-loop effective action, singling out UV-divergent parts and finite (planar and non-planar) parts, and study renormalization properties of the theory. This amounts to employ worldline Feynman rules for the phase space path integral, that nicely incorporate the Fadeev-Popov ghost contribution and efficiently separate planar and non-planar contributions. We also show that the effective action calculation is independent of the choice of the worldline Green’s function, that corresponds to a particular way of factoring out a particle zero-mode. This allows to employ homogeneous string-inspired Feynman rules that greatly simplify the computation.

  6. Reception theory and the Christian reader: A preliminary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Comhrink

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant shift in emphasis from text- centred criticism in literature to reader-centred criticism. This new field of criticism, called Reception Theory or Reader Response Criticism, denies the immutable nature of the "text” and regards as its object of study the work of literature that is created through the co-constituent creative and interpre­tive acts o f both writer and reader.

  7. A Perspective on Helmberger and Hoos' Theory of Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Richard J.

    1995-01-01

    Helmberger and Hoos' (HH) 1962 paper is a landmark in the economic theory of agricultural cooperatives, Along with the related work by Helmberger (1964), it represented the definitive treatment of marketing cooperative behavior and standard reading for graduate students in agricultural marketing for more than two decades, To understand fully HH's paper, appreciate its many strengths, and also recognize its weaknesses: one must interpret it both in the context of the work on cooperatives that ...

  8. Comparison of Predictive Contract Mechanisms from an Information Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Ward, Tomas; McLoone, Seamus

    2012-01-01

    Inconsistency arises across a Distributed Virtual Environment due to network latency induced by state changes communications. Predictive Contract Mechanisms (PCMs) combat this problem through reducing the amount of messages transmitted in return for perceptually tolerable inconsistency. To date there are no methods to quantify the efficiency of PCMs in communicating this reduced state information. This article presents an approach derived from concepts in information theory for a dee...

  9. Historical perspectives on theories of periodontal disease etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hujoel, Philippe; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the causes of periodontal disease have changed greatly over time. The aim of this review is to provide a critical and historical perspective, dating back over more than a century, on two competing paradigms. While we understand that this stark dichotomization may be viewed...... as extreme, and is legitimately open to challenge, it is our hope that this didactic approach will serve to stimulate debate. The distinction made focuses on whether the primary etiology involves local causes, such as dental plaque, or involves remote causes, such as nutrition, tobacco use or other systemic...... factors. We provide a brief historical overview of the local and remote cause hypotheses and discuss some key reasons why the local cause hypothesis has become dominant....

  10. Nanostructured Soft Matter Experiment, Theory, Simulation and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Zvelindovsky, Andrei V

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an interdisciplinary overview of a new and broad class of materials under the unifying name Nanostructured Soft Matter. It covers materials ranging from short amphiphilic molecules to block copolymers, proteins, colloids and their composites, microemulsions and bio-inspired systems such as vesicles. The book considers several fundamental questions, including: how self-assembly of various soft materials with internal structure at the nanoscale can be understood, controlled and in future used in the newly emerging field of soft nanotechnology. The book offers readers a view on the subject from different perspectives, combining modern experimental approaches from physical chemistry and physics with various theoretical techniques from physics, mathematics and the most advanced computer modelling. It is the first book of this sort in the field. All chapters are written by leading international experts, bringing together experience from Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, the Netherlands, Russ...

  11. Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning: A Critical Perspective. Critical Perspectives on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Porter, Jill, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning" focuses on how education is understood in different cultures, the theories and related assumptions we make about learners and students and how we think about them, and how we can understand the principle actors in education--learners and teachers. Within this volume, internationally renowned…

  12. A Mental Value Perspective in Risk Decision Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Trifu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on Prospect theory, which was developed by D. Kahneman and A. Tversky in 1979. This is one the most quoted and best-documented point of view in economic psychology. First of all, it replaces, once again, the notion of utility with value. But value is defined in terms of gains and losses and this, according with an irrational human tendency to be less willing to gamble with profits than with losses. So, we discover the great importance of these assumptions in the field of risk decision-making, especially for firms’ activity in the marketplace.

  13. Provider integration and local market conditions: a contingency theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G J; Parker, V A; Charns, M P

    2001-01-01

    In recent years we have witnessed an expanding array of organizational arrangements for providing health care services in the U.S. These arrangements integrate previously independent providers at one or more points on the continuum of care. The presence of so many of these arrangements raises the question of whether certain types are more effective than are others to help providers adapt to their environment. This article discusses contingency theory as a conceptual lens for guiding empirical studies of the effectiveness of different types of arrangements.

  14. Surrogate Marker Evaluation from an Information Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Abad, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2006-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen lots of work in the area of surrogate marker validation, partly devoted to frame the evaluation in a multitrial framework, leading to definitions in terms of the quality of trial- and individual-level association between a potential surrogate and a true endpoint (Buyse et al., 2000, Biostatistics 1, 49–67). A drawback is that different settings have led to different measures at the individual level. Here, we use information theory to create a unified framework, lea...

  15. A Mental Value Perspective in Risk Decision Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Davidescu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on Prospect theory, which was developed by D. Kahneman and A. Tversky in 1979. This is one the most quoted and best-documented point of view in economic psychology. First of all, it replaces, once again, the notion of utility with value. But value is defined in terms of gains and losses and this, according with an irrational human tendency to be less willing to gamble with profits than with losses. So, we discover the great importance of these assumptions in the field of risk decision-making, especially for firms’ activity in the marketplace.

  16. Temperament and Personality Theory: The Perspective of Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Epstein, Seymour

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates the applicability of temperamental constructs to personality theory by mapping key temperament constructs onto Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory (CEST). Examines the role of temperament in shaping experiences, and looks at the implications for education and socialization that stem from the synthesis of temperament constructs and…

  17. Perspective: Sloppiness and emergent theories in physics, biology, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transtrum, Mark K; Machta, Benjamin B; Brown, Kevin S; Daniels, Bryan C; Myers, Christopher R; Sethna, James P

    2015-07-07

    Large scale models of physical phenomena demand the development of new statistical and computational tools in order to be effective. Many such models are "sloppy," i.e., exhibit behavior controlled by a relatively small number of parameter combinations. We review an information theoretic framework for analyzing sloppy models. This formalism is based on the Fisher information matrix, which is interpreted as a Riemannian metric on a parameterized space of models. Distance in this space is a measure of how distinguishable two models are based on their predictions. Sloppy model manifolds are bounded with a hierarchy of widths and extrinsic curvatures. The manifold boundary approximation can extract the simple, hidden theory from complicated sloppy models. We attribute the success of simple effective models in physics as likewise emerging from complicated processes exhibiting a low effective dimensionality. We discuss the ramifications and consequences of sloppy models for biochemistry and science more generally. We suggest that the reason our complex world is understandable is due to the same fundamental reason: simple theories of macroscopic behavior are hidden inside complicated microscopic processes.

  18. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.

  19. Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooteboom, Sibout

    2007-01-01

    The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness

  20. Empathy from the client's perspective: A grounded theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Peter; Anderson, Timothy; McClintock, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    Although empathy is one of most robust predictors of client outcome, there is little consensus about how best to conceptualize this construct. The aim of the present research was to investigate clients' perceptions and in-session experiences of empathy. Semi-structured, video-assisted interpersonal process recall interviews were used to collect data from nine clients receiving individual psychotherapy at a university psychology clinic. Grounded theory analysis yielded a model consisting of three clusters: (1) relational context of empathy (i.e., personal relationship and professional relationship), (2) types of empathy (i.e., psychotherapists' cognitive empathy, psychotherapists' emotional empathy, and client attunement to psychotherapist), and (3) utility of empathy (i.e., process-related benefits and client-related benefits). These results suggest that empathy is a multi-dimensional, interactional process that affects-and is affected by-the broader relationship between client and psychotherapist.

  1. Perspectives on theory at the interface of physics and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialek, William

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical physics is the search for simple and universal mathematical descriptions of the natural world. In contrast, much of modern biology is an exploration of the complexity and diversity of life. For many, this contrast is prima facie evidence that theory, in the sense that physicists use the word, is impossible in a biological context. For others, this contrast serves to highlight a grand challenge. I am an optimist, and believe (along with many colleagues) that the time is ripe for the emergence of a more unified theoretical physics of biological systems, building on successes in thinking about particular phenomena. In this essay I try to explain the reasons for my optimism, through a combination of historical and modern examples.

  2. [Mourning and depression, from the attachment theory perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfberg, Elsa; Ekboir, Alberto; Faiman, Graciela; Finzi, Josefina; Freedman, Margarita; Heath, Adela; Martínez de Cipolatti, María C

    2011-01-01

    Since depression, according to OMS, is such a worldwide condition, it is necessary to be able to distinguish a normal mourning from a pathological mourning and a depression, so as to qualify patients and health professionals to be able to support a normal mourning without medicating it nor hurrying (hasting) it, as well as being able to treat a depression adequately when it appears as a complication. Attachment theory focuses on mourning after loss with notions such as 1- acceptance of search for the lost person as a normal fact; 2- that mourning in children may have non-pathological outcomes; 3- that a non-processed mourning may be transmitted in an intergenerational way, and 4- also defines which elements may determine a pathological mourning or a depression. A clinical case is presented with an analysis of these notions.

  3. Surrogate marker evaluation from an information theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-03-01

    The last 20 years have seen lots of work in the area of surrogate marker validation, partly devoted to frame the evaluation in a multitrial framework, leading to definitions in terms of the quality of trial- and individual-level association between a potential surrogate and a true endpoint (Buyse et al., 2000, Biostatistics 1, 49-67). A drawback is that different settings have led to different measures at the individual level. Here, we use information theory to create a unified framework, leading to a definition of surrogacy with an intuitive interpretation, offering interpretational advantages, and applicable in a wide range of situations. Our method provides a better insight into the chances of finding a good surrogate endpoint in a given situation. We further show that some of the previous proposals follow as special cases of our method. We illustrate our methodology using data from a clinical study in psychiatry.

  4. Conceptualizing Color-Evasiveness: Using Dis/Ability Critical Race Theory to Expand a Color-Blind Racial Ideology in Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamma, Subini Ancy; Jackson, Darrell D.; Morrison, Deb

    2017-01-01

    Color-blind racial ideology has historically been conceptualized as an ideology wherein race is immaterial. Efforts not to "see" race insinuate that recognizing race is problematic; therefore, scholars have identified and critiqued color-blindness ideology. In this paper, we first examine Gotanda's (1991) identification and critique of…

  5. Educational Theory as Theory of Culture: A Vichian Perspective on the Educational Theories of John Dewey and Kieran Egan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Theodora

    2005-01-01

    At the center of every well-constructed theory of education is a philosophical anthropology-reasoned speculation as to the origins on man's conditions in the history of culture, especially the particular phenomenon of consciousness that underlies historical periods. Using the lens of one of the most significant theories of culture produced, we…

  6. Facilitating internalization: the self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, E L; Eghrari, H; Patrick, B C; Leone, D R

    1994-03-01

    Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) posits that (a) people are inherently motivated to internalize the regulation of uninteresting though important activities; (b) there are two different processes through which such internalization can occur, resulting in qualitatively different styles of self-regulation; and (c) the social context influences which internalization process and regulatory style occur. The two types of internalization are introjection, which entails taking in a value or regulatory process but not accepting it as one's own, and integration, through which the regulation is assimilated with one's core sense of self. Introjection results in internally controlling regulation, whereas integration results in self-determination. An experiment supported our hypothesis that three facilitating contextual factors--namely, providing a meaningful rationale, acknowledging the behaver's feelings, and conveying choice--promote internalization, as evidenced by the subsequent self-regulation of behavior. This experiment also supported our expectation that when the social context supports self-determination, integration tends to occur, whereas when the context does not support self-determination, introjection tends to occur.

  7. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  8. Adolescent Perspectives Following Ostomy Surgery: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Lynn D; Hamilton, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical account of how adolescents aged 13 to 18 years process the experience of having an ostomy. Qualitative study using grounded theory design. The sample comprised of 12 English-speaking adolescents aged 13-18 years: 10 with an ostomy and 2 with medical management of their disease. Respondents completed audio-recorded interviews that were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred. Dedoose, a Web-based qualitative methods management tool, was used to capture major themes arising from the data. Study results indicate that for adolescents between 13 and 18 years of age, processing the experience of having an ostomy includes concepts of the "physical self" and "social self" with the goal of "normalizing." Subcategories of physical self include (a) changing reality, (b) learning, and (c) adapting. Subcategories of social self include (a) reentering and (b) disclosing. This study sheds light on how adolescents process the experience of having an ostomy and how health care providers can assist adolescents to move through the process to get back to their desired "normal" state. Health care providers can facilitate the adolescent through the ostomy experience by being proactive in conversations not only about care issues but also about school and family concerns and spirituality. Further research is needed in understanding how parents process their adolescents' ostomy surgery experience and how spirituality assists adolescents in coping and adjustment with body-altering events.

  9. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Incompatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La

    2011-01-01

    Some theories have posited that African American youth are academic underachievers because of sociocultural factors. We label this point of view the cultural incompatibility perspective. Ogbu's oppositional culture theory and Steele's stereotype threat theory are selected as popular examples of this viewpoint. A critical review of the literature…

  10. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Compatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Several theories suggest that African American culture facilitates academic achievement, but others suggest that identifying with Black culture contributes to the achievement gap by undermining the academic performance among youth. These opposing perspectives are labeled "cultural compatibility theories" and "cultural incompatibility theories,"…

  11. The ecology of cancer from an evolutionary game theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Jorge M; Santos, Francisco C; Dingli, David

    2014-08-06

    The accumulation of somatic mutations, to which the cellular genome is permanently exposed, often leads to cancer. Analysis of any tumour shows that, besides the malignant cells, one finds other 'supporting' cells such as fibroblasts, immune cells of various types and even blood vessels. Together, these cells generate the microenvironment that enables the malignant cell population to grow and ultimately lead to disease. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of tumour growth and response to therapy is incomplete unless the interactions between the malignant cells and normal cells are investigated in the environment in which they take place. The complex interactions between cells in such an ecosystem result from the exchange of information in the form of cytokines- and adhesion-dependent interactions. Such processes impose costs and benefits to the participating cells that may be conveniently recast in the form of a game pay-off matrix. As a result, tumour progression and dynamics can be described in terms of evolutionary game theory (EGT), which provides a convenient framework in which to capture the frequency-dependent nature of ecosystem dynamics. Here, we provide a tutorial review of the central aspects of EGT, establishing a relation with the problem of cancer. Along the way, we also digress on fitness and of ways to compute it. Subsequently, we show how EGT can be applied to the study of the various manifestations and dynamics of multiple myeloma bone disease and its preceding condition known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We translate the complex biochemical signals into costs and benefits of different cell types, thus defining a game pay-off matrix. Then we use the well-known properties of the EGT equations to reduce the number of core parameters that characterize disease evolution. Finally, we provide an interpretation of these core parameters in terms of what their function is in the ecosystem we are describing and generate

  12. Towards a New Theory of Feminist Coalition: Accounting for the Heterogeneity of Gender, Race, Class, and Sexuality through an Exploration of Power and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Jeanine Boux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel theory of feminist coalition that centers and redefines the concepts of power and responsibility. After outlining several key ways in which feminist coalition work has been addressed by both theorists and practitioners, it goes on to explore how accounting for the complex experiences of identity rooted in factors such as race, class, gender, and sexuality continues to complicate the process of coalition building and theorizing. From these foundations, the article develops a theory of feminist coalition that speaks to how such a movement—or organizations within such a movement—can drive the political will for transformation and turn this will into political action without glossing over vital differences in people’s daily experiences of gender as it intersects with other systems of domination and oppression. The key argument made herein is that an explicit focus on power and responsibility can help us develop more functional answers to critical and still pressing questions, such as: Who is included—explicitly or implicitly—in feminist coalitions? And what issues, or agendas, are we working towards changing through these coalitions?

  13. Using behavioural activation in the treatment of depression: a control theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, P; Law, A; Bates, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural activation is an intervention that can be used to counteract the typical patterns of withdrawal, avoidance and inactivity that characterize depression. This paper examines the processes of change that may occur during behavioural activation from the perspective of control theory. Some of the key concepts that are associated with control theory are introduced and the process of change that may occur during behavioural activation is illustrated using two case studies. The case studies provide anecdotal evidence which supports the hypothesis that the effective implementation of behavioural activation may depend upon clients being able to retain or regain the sense of control that they value. The differences between a control-theory-based approach and more orthodox behavioural and cognitive approaches are highlighted and the implications of these differences are discussed. Flexible approaches that are informed by control theory, may offer a useful alternative to the more established behavioural and cognitive approaches towards behavioural activation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Perioperative thirst: an analysis from the perspective of the Symptom Management Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Ferrari Conchon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study aimed to analyze the existing knowledge in the literature on the perioperative thirst symptom from the perspective of Symptom Management Theory, and supplemented with the experience of the study group and thirst research. Thirst is described as a very intense symptom occurring in the perioperative period, and for this reason it cannot be ignored. The Symptom Management Theory is adequate for understanding the thirst symptom and is a deductive theory, focused on the domains of the Person, Environment and Health / Illness Status, as well as on the dimensions of Experience, Management Strategies and Symptom Outcomes. Using the theory leads us to consider perioperative thirst in its multifactorial aspects, analyzing the interrelation of its domains and dimensions in order to draw attention to this symptom that has been insufficiently valued, recorded and treated in clinical practice.

  15. Too good to be true? Ideomotor Theory from a computational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eHerbort

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Ideomotor Theory has regained widespread attention and sparked the development of a number of theories on goal-directed behavior and learning. However, there are two issues with previous studies’ use of Ideomotor Theory. Although Ideomotor Theory is seen as very general, it is often studied in settings that are considerably more simplistic than most natural situations. Moreover, Ideomotor Theory’s claim that effect anticipations directly trigger actions and that action-effect learning is based on the formation of direct action-effect associations is hard to address empirically. We address these points from a computational perspective. A simple computational model of Ideomotor Theory was tested in tasks with different degrees of complexity. The model evaluation showed that Ideomotor Theory is a computationally feasible approach for understanding efficient action-effect learning for goal-directed behavior if the following preconditions are met: 1 The range of potential actions and effects has to be restricted. 2 Effects have to follow actions within a short time window. 3 Actions have to be simple and may not require sequencing. The first two preconditions also limit human performance and thus support Ideomotor Theory. The last precondition can be circumvented by extending the model with more complex, indirect action generation processes. In conclusion, we suggest that Ideomotor Theory offers a comprehensive framework to understand action-effect learning. However, we also suggest that additional processes may mediate the conversion of effect anticipations into actions in many situations.

  16. A Review of Three Major Sociological Theories and an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAYATULLAH LALUDDIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines critically the three major sociological theories namely, Structural Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism and Conflict theory. These theories are formulated on the pattern of science where scientific method is strictly adhered to. Considering the nature and the essence of the social phenomenon and its component parts the author argues that the application of pure scientific method in the study or analysis of the social phenomenon fail to present an accurate understanding of the social phenomenon. Thus, an alternative method which is capable of taking into consideration both physical and metaphysical aspects of the social phenomenon is required. Toward this end this article attempts to delineate the three major theories of sociology, their shortcoming and loophole, then attempt to highlight the constituent elements of the social phenomenon and their significance in formulation of comprehensive sociological theories. An Islamic perspective on sociological theories is also provided in the last part of this article where the discrepancy of the sociological theories are disclosed and a proposal for a more dynamic method for the formulation of sociological theories of comprehensive nature is made.

  17. Transnational Corporations in a Global Monetary Theory of Production: A World-Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Pilkington

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue that it is possible to enrich world-systems analysis with a heterodox Keynesian monetary theory of production known as the Theory of Money Emissions, based on the views put forward by the French economist Bernard Schmitt. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, I aim to rehabilitate and adapt the old Keynesian proposal of an international clearing union to the modern world-system by providing a rationale behind a common world currency and a renewed perspective on money and transnational production.

  18. Theory and practice of clinical ethics support services: narrative and hermeneutical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porz, Rouven; Landeweer, Elleke; Widdershoven, Guy

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we introduce narrative and hermeneutical perspectives to clinical ethics support services (CESS). We propose a threefold consideration of 'theory' and show how it is interwoven with 'practice' as we go along. First, we look at theory in its foundational role: in our case 'narrative ethics' and 'philosophical hermeneutics' provide a theoretical base for clinical ethics by focusing on human identities entangled in stories and on moral understanding as a dialogical process. Second, we consider the role of theoretical notions in helping practitioners to understand their situation in clinical ethics practice, by using notions like 'story', 'responsibility', or 'vulnerability' to make explicit and explain their practical experience. Such theoretical notions help us to interpret clinical situations from an ethical perspective and to foster moral awareness of practitioners. And, thirdly, we examine how new theoretical concepts are developed by interpreting practice, using practice to form and improve our ethical theory. In this paper, we discuss this threefold use of theory in clinical ethics support services by reflecting on our own theoretical assumptions, methodological steps and practical experiences as ethicists, and by providing examples from our daily work. In doing so, we illustrate that theory and practice are interwoven, as theoretical understanding is dependent upon practical experience, and vice-versa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. What is "the patient perspective" in patient engagement programs? Implicit logics and parallels to feminist theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Paula; McMillan, Sarah; McGillicuddy, Patti; Richards, Joy

    2017-01-01

    Public and patient involvement (PPI) in health care may refer to many different processes, ranging from participating in decision-making about one's own care to participating in health services research, health policy development, or organizational reforms. Across these many forms of public and patient involvement, the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings remain poorly articulated. Instead, most public and patient involvement programs rely on policy initiatives as their conceptual frameworks. This lack of conceptual clarity participates in dilemmas of program design, implementation, and evaluation. This study contributes to the development of theoretical understandings of public and patient involvement. In particular, we focus on the deployment of patient engagement programs within health service organizations. To develop a deeper understanding of the conceptual underpinnings of these programs, we examined the concept of "the patient perspective" as used by patient engagement practitioners and participants. Specifically, we focused on the way this phrase was used in the singular: "the" patient perspective or "the" patient voice. From qualitative analysis of interviews with 20 patient advisers and 6 staff members within a large urban health network in Canada, we argue that "the patient perspective" is referred to as a particular kind of situated knowledge, specifically an embodied knowledge of vulnerability. We draw parallels between this logic of patient perspective and the logic of early feminist theory, including the concepts of standpoint theory and strong objectivity. We suggest that champions of patient engagement may learn much from the way feminist theorists have constructed their arguments and addressed critique.

  20. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING:A BRAIN-BASED PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Arnold

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory is presented as a cognitive perspective on intelligence which has profound implications for education in general. More specifically, it has led to the application of eight of these frames to language teaching and learning. In this chapter, we will argue in favour of the application of MIT to the EFL classroom, using as support some of the major insights for language teaching from brain science.

  1. What can governance theory learn from complexity theory? Mirroring two perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Recently the New Public Governance (NPG) has been suggested as an alternative paradigm to the traditional Public Administration Model (PAM) and New Public Management (NPM). NPG strongly builds upon Governance Network Theory (GNT). This suggestion assumes that the

  2. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  3. Relay race

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  4. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist...

  5. RELAY RACE

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  6. First-person perspective effects on theory of mind without self-reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Otsuka

    Full Text Available This study examined dissociations between brain networks involved in theory of mind, which is needed for guessing others' mental states, and the self, which might constitute the basis for theory of mind's development. We used event-related fMRI to compare a condition that required participants to guess the mental state of a subject featured in first-person perspective sentences (1stPP condition with a third-person perspective sentence condition (3rdPP condition. The caudate nucleus was marginally more activated in the 1stPP than in the 3rdPP condition, while the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC was significantly more activated in the 3rdPP condition as compared to the 1stPP condition. Furthermore, we examined the correlation between activation (signal intensity of the caudate nucleus and left DLPFC with that of the right DLPFC, which is thought to be closely connected with sense of self. We found a significant correlation between caudate nucleus and right DLPFC activation in the 1stPP condition, and between left and right DLPFC activation in the 3rdPP condition. Although theory of mind and the self both appear to recruit the right DLPFC, this region seems to be accessed through the left DLPFC during theory of mind tasks, but through the caudate nucleus when tasks require self reference.

  7. Cultural-Ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement Used to Explain a Story of Race, Culture and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyemi, Boluwaji

    2017-01-01

    Students of African ancestry often share an experience of being a racialized minority in the context of the educational institution. Late Professor of Anthropology John Ogbu's Cultural-ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement is employed to describe the negative responses encountered by peers in the name of academic achievement. The late Nigerian-American anthropologist John Ogbu described that it is often socially disadvantageous for black youth to prosper academically in formal education. Black students are often seen as betraying their cultural identities by aspiring to academic success and scholastic achievement and are met with repugnance by black peers. The notion of "acting white" is unnecessary, impertinent should be abandoned outright as achievement should have no color. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conducting meta-analyses of HIV prevention literatures from a theory-testing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, K L; Johnson, B T; Carey, M P

    2001-09-01

    Using illustrations from HIV prevention research, the current article advocates approaching meta-analysis as a theory-testing scientific method rather than as merely a set of rules for quantitative analysis. Like other scientific methods, meta-analysis has central concerns with internal, external, and construct validity. The focus of a meta-analysis should only rarely be merely describing the effects of health promotion, but rather should be on understanding and explaining phenomena and the processes underlying them. The methodological decisions meta-analysts make in conducting reviews should be guided by a consideration of the underlying goals of the review (e.g., simply effect size estimation or, preferably theory testing). From the advocated perspective that a health behavior meta-analyst should test theory, the authors present a number of issues to be considered during the conduct of meta-analyses.

  9. Preventive health psychology from a developmental perspective: an extension of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, J W; Rogers, R W

    1996-05-01

    Theories of health psychology developed to explain adults' rational decision making were applied to 10-year-old children (n = 112), who had not reached the stage of formal operational thought; 15-year-olds (n = 67); and 20-year-olds (n = 93), extending the protection motivation theory developed by R. W. Rogers (1983). Among the adolescents and young adults, the threat appeals worked only if people believed they could cope effectively with the danger; if they believed they could not cope, higher levels of the threat resulted in decreased intentions to refrain from tobacco use. Although children elaborated and integrated the information about threat severity, personal vulnerability, and response efficacy, the fragility and malleability of the children's beliefs in self-efficacy demonstrated the importance of adding a developmental perspective to theories of preventive health psychology.

  10. Technology and the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.

    1988-01-01

    This article makes a review of the book Innovation and the Arms Race: How the United States and the Soviet Union Develop New Military Technologies written by Matthew Evangelista. For at least the last two decades, scholars have struggled to come to grips with the role of technological change in the arms race. Possible relationships between theories on technology and politics are examined. The contrasts between U.S. and Soviet approaches are highlighted

  11. Perspectives for understanding the relationship between the theory and the practice in teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen ÁLVAREZ ÁLVAREZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the main theoretical proposals about the relations between theory and practice that are have been formulated in the field of teacher training. The problem that is at the bottom of the theory-practice relationship: professional alienation of teachers in education. To overcome this mostly two responses have been: focus on the theory: convert to the teacher in an intellectual, and the proposal focus on the practice: assess the importance of the personal practical knowledge of teachers. Halfway between both perspectives it is possible to raise three current and relevant lines of research for studies to illuminate the relations between theory-practice in teacher training: (1 teacher’s thought and implicit theories, (2 the reflective teacher and (3 the formulation of principles of procedure and action research and theories experienced. This review haves the objective of reveal the complexity of linked thought, research and teaching action; but it also allows us move forward in building a comprehensive framework covering various forms of approach to a subject which lies at the base of any discussion on the teaching profession and advance in the challenge of achieving a practical domain and a critical awareness in the teaching.

  12. Toward a Theory of Industrial Supply Networks: A Multi-Level Perspective via Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zuo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In most supply chains (SCs, transaction relationships between suppliers and customers are commonly considered to be an extrapolation from a linear perspective. However, this traditional linear concept of an SC is egotistic and oversimplified and does not sufficiently reflect the complex and cyclical structure of supplier-customer relationships in current economic and industrial situations. The interactional relationships and topological characteristics between suppliers and customers should be analyzed using supply networks (SNs rather than traditional linear SCs. Therefore, this paper reconceptualizes SCs as SNs in complex adaptive systems (CAS, and presents three main contributions. First, we propose an integrated framework of CAS network by synthesizing multi-level network analysis from the network-, community- and vertex-perspective. The CAS perspective enables us to understand the advances of SN properties. Second, in order to emphasize the CAS properties of SNs, we conducted a real-world SN based on the Japanese industry and describe an advanced investigation of SN theory. The CAS properties help in enriching the SN theory, which can benefit SN management, community economics and industrial resilience. Third, we propose a quantitative metric of entropy to measure the complexity and robustness of SNs. The results not only support a specific understanding of the structural outcomes relevant to SNs, but also deliver efficient and effective support to the management and design of SNs.

  13. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  14. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  15. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  16. Beyond the Culture of Exclusion: Using Critical Race Theory to Examine the Perceptions of British "Minority Ethnic" and Eastern European "Immigrant" Young People in English Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emel

    2012-01-01

    In England there are minority ethnic students with past family connections to the former British Empire, as well as recent Eastern European students, economic migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. One may wish to ask, do newly emerging racial identities conceptualise race and race relations in similar ways to existing minority ethnic communities?…

  17. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassin, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research.

  18. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassin, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research

  19. Learning "in" or "with" Games? Quality Criteria for Digital Learning Games from the Perspectives of Learning, Emotion, and Motivation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hense, Jan; Mandl, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual paper aims to clarify the theoretical underpinnings of game based learning (GBL) and learning with digital learning games (DLGs). To do so, it analyses learning of game related skills and contents, which occurs constantly during playing conventional entertainment games, from three perspectives: learning theory, emotion theory, and…

  20. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Gender bias in leader evaluations: merging implicit theories and role congruity perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L; Burnette, Jeni L

    2013-10-01

    This research extends our understanding of gender bias in leader evaluations by merging role congruity and implicit theory perspectives. We tested and found support for the prediction that the link between people's attitudes regarding women in authority and their subsequent gender-biased leader evaluations is significantly stronger for entity theorists (those who believe attributes are fixed) relative to incremental theorists (those who believe attributes are malleable). In Study 1, 147 participants evaluated male and female gubernatorial candidates. Results supported predictions, demonstrating that traditional attitudes toward women in authority significantly predicted a pro-male gender bias in leader evaluations (and progressive attitudes predicted a pro-female gender bias) with an especially strong effect for those with more entity-oriented, relative to incrementally oriented person theories. Study 2 (119 participants) replicated these findings and demonstrated the mediating role of these attitudes in linking gender stereotypes and leader role expectations to biased evaluations.

  2. Collaborative Knowledge Building and Integral Theory:On Perspectives,Uncertainty, and Mutual Regard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Murray

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in knowing and communicating affect all aspects of modern life. Ubiquitous and inevitable uncertainty, including ambiguity and paradox, is particularly salient and important in knowledge building communities. Because knowledge building communities represent and evolve knowledge explicitly, the causes, effects, and approaches to this “epistemological indeterminacy” can be directly addressed in knowledge building practices. Integral theory's approach (including “methodological pluralism” involves accepting and integrating diverse perspectives in ways that transcend and include them. This approach accentuates the problems of epistemological indeterminacy and highlights the general need to deal creatively with it. This article begins with a cursory analysis of textual dialogs among integral theorists, showing that, while integral theory itself points to leading-edge ways of dealing with epistemological indeterminacy, the knowledge building practices of integral theorists, by and large, exhibit the same limitations as traditional intellectual discourses. Yet, due to its values and core methods, the integral theory community is in a unique position to develop novel and more adequate modes of inquiry and dialog. This text explores how epistemological indeterminacy impacts the activities and products of groups engaged in collaborative knowledge building. Approaching the issue from three perspectives—mutual understanding, mutual agreement, and mutual regard—I show the interdependence of those perspectives and ground them in relation to integral theory’s concerns. This article proposes three phases of developing constructive alternatives drawn from the knowledge building field: awareness of the phenomena, understanding the phenomena, and offering some tools (and some hope for dealing with it. Though here I focus on the integral theory community (or communities, the conclusions of the article are meant to be applicable to any

  3. Theorizing Race and Racism: Preliminary Reflections on the Medical Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lundy

    2017-05-01

    The current political economic crisis in the United States places in sharp relief the tensions and contradictions of racial capitalism as it manifests materially in health care and in knowledge-producing practices. Despite nearly two decades of investment in research on racial inequality in disease, inequality persists. While the reasons for persistence of inequality are manifold, little attention has been directed to the role of medical education. Importantly, medical education has failed to foster critical theorizing on race and racism to illuminate the often-invisible ways in which race and racism shape biomedical knowledge and clinical practice. Medical students across the nation are advocating for more critical anti-racist education that centers the perspectives and knowledge of marginalized communities. This Article examines the contemporary resurgence in explicit forms of white supremacy in light of growing student activism and research that privileges notions of innate differences between races. It calls for a theoretical framework that draws on Critical Race Theory and the Black Radical Tradition to interrogate epistemological practices and advocacy initiatives in medical education.

  4. A CO-EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Luciane Scherer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article pointed out the reasons and possibilities of co-evolutionary studies, requirements and problems to develop such studies, as well as discuss some of the central theoretical frameworks to the theory of organizations, from the perspective of coevolution (lewin and volberda , 1999. From this, we identify the possible links that can be established between different lenses of study, when integrated into a co-evolutionary study. Such links are drawn by taking the analysis of institutional theory (dimaggio and powell, 1991; meyer and rowan, 1991; scott, 1995, the transaction costs theory (williamson, 1981 and the theory of social relations in economic action (granovetter, 1992. Thus, it is expected to contribute to the discussion about the possibilities for greater integration in organizational studies, when calling attention to the importance of moving toward a more inclusive, taking into account the macro economic and social dynamics and their impact on the level the firm (in terms of effect size, identity, culture and learning processes and its inverse relationships - from the firm to the macro environment.

  5. Links Among Cognitive Empathy, Theory of Mind, and Affective Perspective Taking by Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Leïla; Caillies, Stéphanie; Anduze, Marion

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the development of the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of empathy in preschoolers, specifically examining how cognitive empathy is linked to theory of mind and affective perspective taking. Participants were 158 children aged 4-6 years. They listened to narratives and then answered questions about the protagonists' emotions. The affective component was probed with the question, "How do you feel seeing the little girl/boy?"; the cognitive component with the question, "Why do you feel [emotion shared with the character]?"; and the behavioral one with the question, "What would you do if you were next to the little boy/girl [experiencing an emotional scenario]?" Results revealed a developmental sequence in the self-focused attribution of cognitive empathy, and a trend toward a developmental sequence for behavioral empathy, which underwent a slight linear increase between 4 and 6 years old. Affective empathy remained stable. More interestingly, they showed that cognitive empathy is linked to both theory of mind and affective perspective taking.

  6. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  7. Collaborative Knowledge Building and Integral Theory: On Perspectives, Uncertainty, and Mutual Regard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Murray

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in knowing and communicating affect all aspects of modern life. Ubiquitous and inevitable uncertainty, including ambiguity and paradox, is particularly salient and important in knowledge building communities. Because knowledge building communities represent and evolve knowledge explicitly, the causes, effects, and approaches to this “epistemological indeterminacy” can be directly addressed in knowledge building practices. Integral theory’s approach (including “methodological pluralism” involves accepting and integrating diverse perspectives in ways that transcend and include them. This approach accentuates the problems of epistemological indeterminacy and highlights the general need to deal creatively with it. This article begins with a cursory analysis of textual dialogs among integral theorists, showing that, while integral theory itself points to leading-edge ways of dealing with epistemological indeterminacy, the knowledge building practices of integral theorists, by and large, exhibit the same limitations as traditional intellectual discourses. Yet, due to its values and core methods, the integral theory community is in a unique position to develop novel and more adequate modes of inquiry and dialog. This text explores how epistemological indeterminacy impacts the activities and products of groups engaged in collaborative knowledge building. Approaching the issue from three perspectives–mutual understanding, mutual agreement, and mutual regard—I show the interdependence of those perspectives and ground them in relation to integral theory’s concerns. This article proposes three phases of developing constructive alternatives drawn from the knowledge building field: awareness of the phenomena, understanding the phenomena, and offering some tools (and some hope for dealing with it. Though here I focus on the integral theory community (or communities, the conclusions of the article are meant to be applicable to any

  8. Quality charters or quality members? A control theory perspective on team charters and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Stephen H; McCormick, Brian W; Mistry, Sal; Wang, Jiexin

    2017-10-01

    Though prevalent in practice, team charters have only recently received scholarly attention. However, most of this work has been relatively devoid of theory, and consequently, key questions about why and under what conditions team charter quality affects team performance remain unanswered. To address these gaps, we draw on macro organizational control theory to propose that team charter quality serves as a team-level "behavior" control mechanism that builds task cohesion through a structured exercise. We then juxtapose team charter quality with an "input" team control mechanism that influences the emergence of task cohesion more organically: team conscientiousness. Given their redundant effects on task cohesion, we propose that the effects of team charter quality and team conscientiousness on team performance (through task cohesion) are substitutive such that team charter quality primarily impacts team performance for teams that are low (vs. high) on conscientiousness. We test and find support for our hypotheses in a sample of 239 undergraduate self-managing project teams. Our study contributes to the groups and teams literature in the following ways: first, relative to previous studies, we take a more theory-driven approach toward understanding team charters, and in doing so, uncover when and why team charter quality impacts team performance; second, we integrate two normally disparate perspectives on team effectiveness (team development and team selection) to offer a broader perspective on how teams are "built"; and third, we introduce team charter quality as a performance-enhancing mechanism for teams lower on conscientiousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Towards a regional ontology of management education in Africa: A complexity leadership theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon M. Ochara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The title of this critique, ‘Towards a regional ontology of management education in Africa: A complexity leadership theory perspective’, sought to capture a paradox in the prescriptive nature and universalistic leaning of current leadership theories; yet local realities may call for being cognisant of (possible extant regional ontologies. Motivation for the study: The argumentation and analysis developed in this article were based on a synthesis of ideas from literature to evolve a preliminary regional ontology for reorienting business and management education relevant for Africa. Research design, approach and method: The critique was structured on insights from complexity leadership theory. The outcome was a proposition for an Afrocentric regional ontology for strengthening business and management education anchored on four themes: ethical and moral engagement, entrepreneurial leadership, Ubuntu and local National Systems of Innovation (NSI. These emerging ideas were considered to be tentative and should be considered as a foundation to inform further inquiry into how business and management education in Africa can be better interpreted and legitimised in the behavioural sciences. Practical/managerial implications: From an Afrocentric perspective, conceptualising and maintaining the logic of leadership was considered to be desirable and imperative in evolving a regional ontology of leadership that takes into account local realities. Of course, we recognised that these defining rationalities are not unique to Africa, but that said; a regional perspective that is unique cannot continue to be ignored but should find their place in discourses about leadership in the 21st century. Contribution/value-add: The synthesis and narrative presented in this paper concisely summarises and provides traction on how to advance business and management education in Africa.

  10. Theory of mind and wisdom: The development of different forms of perspective-taking in late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Wandt, Raphaela; Thomas, Stefanie; Nowak, Jana; Kunzmann, Ute

    2018-02-01

    How does perspective-taking develop over the lifespan? This question has been investigated in two separate research traditions, dealing with theory of mind (ToM) and wisdom, respectively. Operating in almost complete isolation from each other, and using rather different conceptual approaches, these two traditions have produced seemingly contradictory results: While perspective-taking has been consistently found to decline in old age in ToM research, studies on wisdom have mostly found that perspective-taking remains constant or sometimes even increases in later adulthood. This study sought to integrate these two lines of research and clarify the seemingly contradictory patterns of findings by systematically testing for both forms of perspective-taking and their potential cognitive foundations. The results revealed (1) the dissociation in developmental patterns between ToM perspective-taking (declining with age) and wisdom-related perspective-taking (no decline with age) also held - documented here for the first time - in one and the same sample of younger versus older adults; (2) this dissociation was of limited generality: It did not (or only partly) hold once the material of the two types of tasks was more closely matched; and (3) the divergent developmental patterns of ToM perspective-taking versus wisdom-related perspective-taking could be accounted for to some degree by the fact that only TOM perspective-taking was related to developmental changes in fluid intelligence. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  12. Understanding schizophrenia as a disorder of consciousness: biological correlates and translational implications from quantum theory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-04-30

    From neurophenomenological perspectives, schizophrenia has been conceptualized as "a disorder with heterogeneous manifestations that can be integrally understood to involve fundamental perturbations in consciousness". While these theoretical constructs based on consciousness facilitate understanding the 'gestalt' of schizophrenia, systematic research to unravel translational implications of these models is warranted. To address this, one needs to begin with exploration of plausible biological underpinnings of "perturbed consciousness" in schizophrenia. In this context, an attractive proposition to understand the biology of consciousness is "the orchestrated object reduction (Orch-OR) theory" which invokes quantum processes in the microtubules of neurons. The Orch-OR model is particularly important for understanding schizophrenia especially due to the shared 'scaffold' of microtubules. The initial sections of this review focus on the compelling evidence to support the view that "schizophrenia is a disorder of consciousness" through critical summary of the studies that have demonstrated self-abnormalities, aberrant time perception as well as dysfunctional intentional binding in this disorder. Subsequently, these findings are linked with 'Orch-OR theory' through the research evidence for aberrant neural oscillations as well as microtubule abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. Further sections emphasize the applicability and translational implications of Orch-OR theory in the context of schizophrenia and elucidate the relevance of quantum biology to understand the origins of this puzzling disorder as "fundamental disturbances in consciousness".

  13. Perspective: Fifty years of density-functional theory in chemical physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becke, Axel D., E-mail: axel.becke@dal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, 6274 Coburg Rd., P.O. Box 15000, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2014-05-14

    Since its formal inception in 1964–1965, Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) has become the most popular electronic structure method in computational physics and chemistry. Its popularity stems from its beautifully simple conceptual framework and computational elegance. The rise of KS-DFT in chemical physics began in earnest in the mid 1980s, when crucial developments in its exchange-correlation term gave the theory predictive power competitive with well-developed wave-function methods. Today KS-DFT finds itself under increasing pressure to deliver higher and higher accuracy and to adapt to ever more challenging problems. If we are not mindful, however, these pressures may submerge the theory in the wave-function sea. KS-DFT might be lost. I am hopeful the Kohn-Sham philosophical, theoretical, and computational framework can be preserved. This Perspective outlines the history, basic concepts, and present status of KS-DFT in chemical physics, and offers suggestions for its future development.

  14. Perspective: Fifty years of density-functional theory in chemical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becke, Axel D.

    2014-01-01

    Since its formal inception in 1964–1965, Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) has become the most popular electronic structure method in computational physics and chemistry. Its popularity stems from its beautifully simple conceptual framework and computational elegance. The rise of KS-DFT in chemical physics began in earnest in the mid 1980s, when crucial developments in its exchange-correlation term gave the theory predictive power competitive with well-developed wave-function methods. Today KS-DFT finds itself under increasing pressure to deliver higher and higher accuracy and to adapt to ever more challenging problems. If we are not mindful, however, these pressures may submerge the theory in the wave-function sea. KS-DFT might be lost. I am hopeful the Kohn-Sham philosophical, theoretical, and computational framework can be preserved. This Perspective outlines the history, basic concepts, and present status of KS-DFT in chemical physics, and offers suggestions for its future development

  15. Building bridges to observational perspectives: a grounded theory of therapy processes in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilks, Sarah; Tasker, Fiona; Wren, Bernadette

    2008-06-01

    This study set out to explore therapy processes in psychosis with an initial focus on reflexivity and how this might be expressed in therapy conversations. Leiman's (2000) definition of reflexivity was used as a starting-point for an exploratory investigation of the use of language as reflective activity. Grounded theory was chosen as an appropriate methodology to distil an explanatory account across the qualitative data collected. Six psychologist-client pairs supplied three tapes of therapy sessions spread out across the course of therapy. Each participant was separately interviewed on two occasions to ascertain their views of therapy and of the emerging grounded theory. A grounded theory was developed conceptualizing the processes and activities in psychological therapy in psychosis. Building bridges to observational perspectives summarizes the core process in psychological therapy in psychosis. Therapy in psychosis is understood as intimately linking the social and internal world in a dialogical process aimed at enhancing the client's functioning in the social world rather than at specifically developing the private mental experience of reflexivity or mentalizing.

  16. Designing a curriculum for communication skills training from a theory and evidence-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Richard L; De Haes, Hanneke C J M

    2013-10-01

    Because quality health care delivery requires effective clinician-patient communication, successful training of health professionals requires communication skill curricula of the highest quality. Two approaches for developing medical communication curricula are a consensus approach and a theory driven approach. We propose a theory-driven, communication function framework for identifying important communication skills, one that is focused on the key goals and outcomes that need to be accomplished in clinical encounters. We discuss 7 communication functions important to medical encounters and the types of skills needed to accomplish each. The functional approach has important pedagogical implications including the importance of distinguishing the performance of a behavior (capacity) from the outcome of that behavior in context (effectiveness) and the recognition that what counts as effective communication depends on perspective (e.g., observer, patient). Consensus and theory-driven approaches to medical communication curricula are not necessarily contradictory and can be integrated to further enhance ongoing development and improvements in medical communication education. A functional approach should resonate with practicing clinicians and continuing education initiatives in that it is embraces the notion that competent communication is situation-specific as clinicians creatively use communicative skills to accomplish the key goals of the encounter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating m-Health Acceptance from a Protection Motivation Theory Perspective: Gender and Age Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xitong; Han, Xiaocui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Dang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly important and widely accepted. However, empirical studies on potential users' m-health acceptance behavior remain underexplored. Indeed, m-health adoption is not only a technology acceptance behavior, but also a health-related behavior. Based on the Protection Motivation Theory, this article explores users' m-health adoption behavior from the perspectives of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and also examines the moderating role of gender and age through a survey of potential users. The survey was conducted among 500 potential m-health service participants. Our results show that threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors influence adoption intention through attitude. It is also found that gender and age play different moderating roles with threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors. Gender and age play different roles between threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors in the acceptance of m-health. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  18. Economic activity in agriculture in the perspective of embeddedness theory: The case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of embeddedness of economic activity in relation to agriculture. In this perspective, economic activity can be considered dependent on cognitive structures, structures of social relations, culture, and political institutions. It has been concluded that the idea of embeddedness can be an interesting and useful analytical tool for the analysis of economic activity undertaken by farmers. The article presents an analysis of the state of the art, as well uses selected information and data on the methodology of panel surveys carried out by the Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute. Based on the analysis of the embeddedness theory, it is argued that embeddedness is not a coherent theoretical concept but rather a potential framework for investigating various economic issues. One of these issues is agricultural activity. Embeddedness framework constitutes a scheme which could organize an alternative approach to economic actions to mainstream agriculture economics.

  19. Theory, simulations and the design of functionalized nanoparticles for biomedical applications: A Soft Matter Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    Functionalised nanoparticles for biomedical applications represents an incredibly exciting and rapidly growing field of research. Considering the complexity of the nano-bio interface, an important question is to what extent can theory and simulations be used to study these systems in a realistic, meaningful way. In this review, we will argue for a positive answer to this question. Approaching the issue from a "Soft Matter" perspective, we will consider those properties of functionalised nanoparticles that can be captured within a classical description. We will thus not concentrate on optical and electronic properties, but rather on the way nanoparticles' interactions with the biological environment can be tuned by functionalising their surface and exploited in different contexts relevant to applications. In particular, we wish to provide a critical overview of theoretical and computational coarse-grained models, developed to describe these interactions and present to the readers some of the latest results in this fascinating area of research.

  20. Reading the Freudian theory of sexual drives from a functional neuroimaging perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge eStoléru

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential tasks of neuropsychoanalysis is to investigate the neural correlates of sexual drives. Here, we consider the four defining characteristics of sexual drives as delineated by Freud: their pressure, aim, object, and source. We systematically examine the relations between these characteristics and the four-component neurophenomenological model that we have proposed based on functional neuroimaging studies, which comprises a cognitive, a motivational, an emotional and an autonomic/neuroendocrine component. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal have thrown a new light on the four fundamental characteristics of sexual drives by identifying their potential neural correlates. While these studies are essentally consistent with the Freudian model of drives, the main difference emerging between the functional neuroimaging perspective on sexual drives and the Freudian theory relates to the source of drives. From a functional neuroimaging perspective sources of sexual drives, conceived by psychoanalysis as processes of excitation occurring in a peripheral organ, do not seem, at least in adult subjects, to be an essential part of the determinants of sexual arousal. It is rather the central processing of visual or genital stimuli that gives to these stimuli their sexually arousing and sexually pleasurable character.

  1. New perspectives on the theory of justice: implications for physical therapy ethics and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian; Delany, Clare M; Townsend, Anne F; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2011-11-01

    Recent revisions of physical therapy codes of ethics have included a new emphasis concerning health inequities and social injustice. This emphasis reflects the growing evidence regarding the importance of social determinants of health, epidemiological trends for health service delivery, and the enhanced participation of physical therapists in shaping health care reform in a number of international contexts. This perspective article suggests that there is a "disconnect" between the societal obligations and aspirations expressed in the revised codes and the individualist ethical frameworks that predominantly underpin them. Primary health care is an approach to health care arising from an understanding of the nexus between health and social disadvantage that considers the health needs of patients as expressive of the health needs of the communities of which they are members. It is proposed that re-thinking ethical frameworks expressed in codes of ethics can both inform and underpin practical strategies for working in primary health care. This perspective article provides a new focus on the ethical principle of justice: the ethical principle that arguably remains the least consensually understood and developed in the ethics literature of physical therapy. A relatively recent theory of justice known as the "capability approach to justice" is discussed, along with its potential to assist physical therapy practitioners to further develop moral agency in order to address situations of health inequity and social injustice in clinical practice.

  2. Racial Differences in College Students' Assessments of Campus Race Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.; McCallum, Debra M.; Hughes, Michael; Smith, Gabrielle P. A.; McKnight, Utz

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the principles of critical race theory, we sought to understand how race and racism help explain differences in White and Black students' assessments of race relations on a predominantly White college campus. The authors employed data from a campus-wide survey conducted in Spring 2013 at the University of Alabama; the sample numbered…

  3. The Relative Effect of Team-Based Learning on Motivation and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeno, Lucas M.; Raaheim, Arild; Kristensen, Sara Madeleine; Kristensen, Kjell Daniel; Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Haugland, Mildrid J.; Mæland, Silje

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest-posttest design. The results show that…

  4. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  5. Understanding the Association between Future Time Perspective and Self-Regulated Learning through the Lens of Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy

    2011-01-01

    The present cross-sectional research examined a process underlying the positive association between holding an extended future time perspective (FTP) and learning outcomes through the lens of self-determination theory. High school students and university students (N = 275) participated in the study. It was found that students with an extended FTP…

  6. A Latent Class Growth Analysis of School Bullying and Its Social Context: The Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Chan, Chi-Keung; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%),…

  7. The Disillusionment of Students Denied Admission to a Preferred Major Viewed from the Perspective of a Psychological Theory of Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Clifton E.

    2014-01-01

    Why students respond differently when they are denied admission to a preferred academic major may be explained using a psychological theory of alienation. Using this theoretical perspective, three trajectories producing feelings of alienation are presented. The most intense of these trajectories, the process of disillusionment, is examined using a…

  8. Understanding Students' Motivation in Sport and Physical Education: From the Expectancy-Value Model and Self-Efficacy Theory Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the roles of individuals' expectancy beliefs and incentives (i.e., task value, outcome expectancy) in sport and physical education are examined from expectancy-value model and self-efficacy theory perspectives. Overviews of the two theoretical frameworks and the conceptual and measurement issues are provided, followed by a review…

  9. Strategic Human Resource Metrics: A Perspective of the General Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and quantifying strategic human resource outcomes in relation to key performance criteria is essential to developing value-adding metrics. Objectives This paper posits (using a general systems lens that strategic human resource metrics should interpret the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance criteria such as profitability, quality or customer service. Approach Using the general systems model as underpinning theory, the study assesses the variation in response to a Likert type questionnaire with twenty-four (24 items measuring the major attitudinal dispositions of HRM outcomes (employee commitment, satisfaction, engagement and embeddedness. Results A Chi-square test (Chi-square test statistic = 54.898, p=0.173 showed that variation in responses to the attitudinal statements occurred due to chance. This was interpreted to mean that attitudinal human resource outcomes influence performance as a unit of system components. The neutral response was found to be associated with the ‘reject’ response than the ‘acceptance’ response. Value The study offers suggestion on the determination of strategic HR metrics and recommends the use of systems theory in HRM related studies. Implications This study provides another dimension to human resource metrics by arguing that strategic human resource metrics should measure the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance using a systems perspective.

  10. Neutral theory and the species abundance distribution: recent developments and prospects for unifying niche and neutral perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas J; Whittaker, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Published in 2001, The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (UNTB) emphasizes the importance of stochastic processes in ecological community structure, and has challenged the traditional niche-based view of ecology. While neutral models have since been applied to a broad range of ecological and macroecological phenomena, the majority of research relating to neutral theory has focused exclusively on the species abundance distribution (SAD). Here, we synthesize the large body of work on neutral theory in the context of the species abundance distribution, with a particular focus on integrating ideas from neutral theory with traditional niche theory. First, we summarize the basic tenets of neutral theory; both in general and in the context of SADs. Second, we explore the issues associated with neutral theory and the SAD, such as complications with fitting and model comparison, the underlying assumptions of neutral models, and the difficultly of linking pattern to process. Third, we highlight the advances in understanding of SADs that have resulted from neutral theory and models. Finally, we focus consideration on recent developments aimed at unifying neutral- and niche-based approaches to ecology, with a particular emphasis on what this means for SAD theory, embracing, for instance, ideas of emergent neutrality and stochastic niche theory. We put forward the argument that the prospect of the unification of niche and neutral perspectives represents one of the most promising future avenues of neutral theory research. PMID:25360266

  11. Neutral theory and the species abundance distribution: recent developments and prospects for unifying niche and neutral perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas J; Whittaker, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Published in 2001, The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (UNTB) emphasizes the importance of stochastic processes in ecological community structure, and has challenged the traditional niche-based view of ecology. While neutral models have since been applied to a broad range of ecological and macroecological phenomena, the majority of research relating to neutral theory has focused exclusively on the species abundance distribution (SAD). Here, we synthesize the large body of work on neutral theory in the context of the species abundance distribution, with a particular focus on integrating ideas from neutral theory with traditional niche theory. First, we summarize the basic tenets of neutral theory; both in general and in the context of SADs. Second, we explore the issues associated with neutral theory and the SAD, such as complications with fitting and model comparison, the underlying assumptions of neutral models, and the difficultly of linking pattern to process. Third, we highlight the advances in understanding of SADs that have resulted from neutral theory and models. Finally, we focus consideration on recent developments aimed at unifying neutral- and niche-based approaches to ecology, with a particular emphasis on what this means for SAD theory, embracing, for instance, ideas of emergent neutrality and stochastic niche theory. We put forward the argument that the prospect of the unification of niche and neutral perspectives represents one of the most promising future avenues of neutral theory research.

  12. Double-Checking the Race Box: Examining Inconsistency between Survey Measures of Observed and Self-Reported Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Aliya

    2006-01-01

    Social constructivist theories of race suggest no two measures of race will capture the same information, but the degree of "error" this creates for quantitative research on inequality is unclear. Using unique data from the General Social Survey, I find observed and self-reported measures of race yield substantively different results when used to…

  13. Protocol: A grounded theory of 'recovery'-perspectives of adolescent users of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Lucianne; Patterson, Sue; O'Donovan, Analise; Bradley, Graham

    2017-07-20

    Policies internationally endorse the recovery paradigm as the appropriate foundation for youth mental health services. However, given that this paradigm is grounded in the views of adults with severe mental illness, applicability to youth services and relevance to young people is uncertain, particularly as little is known about young people's views. A comprehensive understanding of the experiences and expectations of young people is critical to developing youth mental health services that are acceptable, accessible, effective and relevant. To inform development of policy and youth services, the study described in this protocol aims to develop a comprehensive account of the experiences and expectations of 12-17 year olds as they encounter mental disorders and transition through specialist mental health services. Data will be analysed to model recovery from the adolescents' perspective. This grounded theory study will use quantitative and qualitative data collected in interviews with 12-17 year olds engaged with specialist Child/Youth Mental Health Service in Queensland, Australia. Interviews will explore adolescents' expectations and experiences of mental disorder, and of services, as they transition through specialist mental health services, including the meaning of their experiences and ideas of 'recovery' and how their experiences and expectations are shaped. Data collection and analysis will use grounded theory methods. Adolescents' experiences will be presented as a mid-range theory. The research will provide tangible recommendations for youth-focused mental health policy and practice. Findings will be disseminated within academic literature and beyond to participants, health professionals, mental health advocacy groups and policy and decision makers via publications, research summaries, conferences and workshops targeting different audiences. Ethical and research governance approvals have been obtained from relevant Human Research Ethics committees and all

  14. Theories of reproduction and resistance: a review of the educational debate from the materialist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Hirsch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether school is a place for social transformation or not is a central issue to modern educational thought, particularly in the last decades of the twentieth century. «Theories of resistance» of the 80’s and 90’s aimed to show the transformative potential of schooling through the development of a critical pedagogy, in clear response to the so called «theories of reproduction», which in the 70›had denounced the role played by school in capitalism. This article aims to make a review of this discussion and, particularly, the antagonistic form in which it has been developed, from a materialist perspective. To that end, main classics of both group of theories will be analyzed identifying that, although they seem antagonist, they coincide on one central point: the belief that capitalist social relations are imposed externally to the subject, to a supposal free subjectivity. While «theories of reproduction» argue that such domination can only be faced through class struggle, which can only be given outside school, «theories of resistance» argue that struggle may be developedin the ideological sphere within schooling. The premise of this article is that such external imposition is an appearance product of the alienated character of our consciousness, and does not allow to analyze that social relations, far from being imposed to our free will, are developed by us to organize social work. To transcend these appearances, a process of recognition of the general determinations of education in capitalism will be developed, in order to enable us to overcome a binary logic between reproduction and transformation, and think social transformation as part of the process of social organization itself.How to reference this articleHirsch, D., Rio, V. (2015. Teorías de la reproducción y teorías de la resistencia: una revisión del debate pedagógico desde la perspectiva materialista. Foro de Educación, 13(18, pp. 69-91. doi: http

  15. Seeking empowerment to comfort patients in severe pain: a grounded theory study of the nurse's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatyer, Susan; Williams, Anne M; Michael, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Hospital patients experience significant pain, which can delay healing and increase the risk of developing chronic pain. Nurses are affected by patients' ongoing pain and may cope with consequent anxiety and helplessness by distancing themselves from such patients. Understanding nurses' responses to patients in severe pain will inform strategies to support their coping, their patients and, ultimately, their retention in the nursing workforce. The aim of the study was to develop a substantive theory explaining the hospital nurse's perspective of caring for patients in severe pain. The study used grounded theory method. Data were collected on four acute care wards in a 610 bed Australian hospital. The sample included 33 nurse participants and 11 patient participants. Selection criteria for nurse participants were those who worked in the four study wards, cared for patients who experienced severe pain, and consented to be included. Selection criteria for patient participants were those who self-reported pain at intensity of seven or more on a scale of 0-10, were aged 18 years or older, could speak and read English, and consented to be included. Theoretical sampling directed the collection of data using semi-structured interviews with nurses and participant observation, including structured observations of nurses who cared for patients in pain. Data were analysed using constant comparison method. Nurse participants encountered a basic psychosocial problem of feelings of disempowerment when their patients experienced persisting severe pain. In response, they used a basic psychosocial process of seeking empowerment to provide comfort in order to resolve distress and exhaustion associated with disempowerment. This coping process comprised three stages: building connections; finding alternative ways to comfort; and quelling emotional turmoil. The substantive theory proposed a link between the stress of nurses' disempowerment and a coping response that provides direction to

  16. Schrödinger Theory of Electrons in Electromagnetic Fields: New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraht Sahni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Schrödinger theory of electrons in an external electromagnetic field is described from the new perspective of the individual electron. The perspective is arrived at via the time-dependent “Quantal Newtonian” law (or differential virial theorem. (The time-independent law, a special case, provides a similar description of stationary-state theory. These laws are in terms of “classical” fields whose sources are quantal expectations of Hermitian operators taken with respect to the wave function. The laws reveal the following physics: (a in addition to the external field, each electron experiences an internal field whose components are representative of a specific property of the system such as the correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb repulsion, the electron density, kinetic effects, and an internal magnetic field component. The response of the electron is described by the current density field; (b the scalar potential energy of an electron is the work done in a conservative field. It is thus path-independent. The conservative field is the sum of the internal and Lorentz fields. Hence, the potential is inherently related to the properties of the system, and its constituent property-related components known. As the sources of the fields are functionals of the wave function, so are the respective fields, and, therefore, the scalar potential is a known functional of the wave function; (c as such, the system Hamiltonian is a known functional of the wave function. This reveals the intrinsic self-consistent nature of the Schrödinger equation, thereby providing a path for the determination of the exact wave functions and energies of the system; (d with the Schrödinger equation written in self-consistent form, the Hamiltonian now admits via the Lorentz field a new term that explicitly involves the external magnetic field. The new understandings are explicated for the stationary state case by application to two quantum

  17. Eight myths on motivating social services workers: theory-based perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latting, J K

    1991-01-01

    A combination of factors has made formal motivational and reward systems rare in human service organizations generally and virtually non-existent in social service agencies. The author reviews eight of these myths by reference to eight motivational theories which refute them: need theory, expectancy theory, feedback theory, equity theory, reinforcement theory, cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, and social influence theory. Although most of these theories have been developed and applied in the private sector, relevant research has also been conducted in social service agencies. The author concludes with a summary of guidelines suggested by the eight theories for motivating human service workers.

  18. Arms races between and within species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, R; Krebs, J R

    1979-09-21

    An adaptation in one lineage (e.g. predators) may change the selection pressure on another lineage (e.g. prey), giving rise to a counter-adaptation. If this occurs reciprocally, an unstable runaway escalation or 'arms race' may result. We discuss various factors which might give one side an advantage in an arms race. For example, a lineage under strong selection may out-evolve a weakly selected one (' the life-dinner principle'). We then classify arms races in two independent ways. They may be symmetric or asymmetric, and they may be interspecific or intraspecific. Our example of an asymmetric interspecific arms race is that between brood parasites and their hosts. The arms race concept may help to reduce the mystery of why cuckoo hosts are so good at detecting cuckoo eggs, but so bad at detecting cuckoo nestlings. The evolutionary contest between queen and worker ants over relative parental investment is a good example of an intraspecific asymmetric arms race. Such cases raise special problems because the participants share the same gene pool. Interspecific symmetric arms races are unlikely to be important, because competitors tend to diverge rather than escalate competitive adaptations. Intraspecific symmetric arms races, exemplified by adaptations for male-male competition, may underlie Cope's Rule and even the extinction of lineages. Finally we consider ways in which arms races can end. One lineage may drive the other to extinction; one may reach an optimum, thereby preventing the other from doing so; a particularly interesting possibility, exemplified by flower-bee coevolution, is that both sides may reach a mutual local optimum; lastly, arms races may have no stable and but may cycle continuously. We do not wish necessarily to suggest that all, or even most, evolutionary change results from arms races, but we do suggest that the arms race concept may help to resolve three long-standing questions in evolutionary theory.

  19. Cyber Dating Abuse Victimization Among Secondary School Students From a Lifestyle-Routine Activities Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel

    2016-02-12

    Controlling one's romantic partner through digital media is a form of cyber dating abuse. To design effective educational campaigns, a deeper understanding of how some young people become victim of this type of abuse within their romantic relationships is warranted. This study is the first to adopt a lifestyle-routine activities theory perspective toward online romantic partner monitoring, by looking at whether secondary school students' risky digital lifestyle and their digital media use are linked to a higher chance of being controlled by a romantic partner, taking into account gender, age, and the length of the romantic relationship. The data of 466 secondary school students (71.0% girls, n = 331) between 16 and 22 years old (M = 17.99 years; SD = 0.92) who were in a romantic relationship are analyzed. Linear regression analysis suggests that engagement in online risk behavior, the length of the romantic relationship, engagement in sexting with the romantic partner, and the amount of social networking site use were significantly linked to victimization of digital controlling behavior. The results are important to practitioners, as they indicate that messages about safe Internet use should be incorporated in prevention and educational campaigns with regard to cyber dating abuse. Suggestions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Looking into the Fighting Against Terrorism from the System Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Günbeyi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the war methods that has been used individuals, groups, and even by some states for centuries. Those who used terrorism as a method might get some short term results, but in the long term they certainly harm themselves, their nations and sometimes the whole world. The PKK, which is a brutal and an international terrorist organization, has started its activities in the southeast of Turkey 35 years ago, and today it became a well-known terrorist organization around the world. Policies and strategies applied by Turkey against the PKK for years did not help to finish the PKK and its activities. Today, experts, researchers and politicians believe that it is time to find different but more effective counterterrorism policies. Systems theory offers efficient, comprehensive and unique counterterrorism methods against the PKK terrorism. In order to unearth PKK’s recruitment tactics, some conferences for high school students were organized and conducted during the last two years in Diyarbakir. The conference series made it clear that there are some different ways such as enlightening young people to fight against the PKK in the lights of systems perspective. This research shows that security agencies which are responsible of dealing with terrorist organizations need to pay attention to youth and students in the region

  1. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF JUSTICE THEORY BY JOHN RAWLS

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    Ari Hernawan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Conflict of interest between employee and employer has a complexity since its biopsychology and sosioeconomic in nature. As its implication, it is difficult to create a consensus between two different interest within a legal perspective. Justice theory by John Rawls has answered the respective problem by giving legal priority upon the group of people who have less capacity in sosial and economic. According to John Rawls, law shall give orientation toward marginalized group. In industrial relations, law shall take side upon the employee who are in subordinate position.   Pertentangan kepentingan antara pekerja dan pengusaha memiliki kompleksitas karena bersifat biopsikologis dan sosio-ekonomi. Sebagai implikasinya, sulit mempertemukan dua kepentingan yang berbeda tersebut dalam satu rumusan hukum. Teori keadilan dari John Rawls telah menjawab persoalan tersebut dengan memberi prioritas hukum kepada orang-orang yang secara sosial ekonomi kurang beruntung. Hukum menurut John Rawls harus berorientasi kepada kelompok marjinal. Dalam hubungan industrial, hukum harus berpihak kepada pekerja yang berada dalam posisi subordinat.

  2. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF JUSTICE THEORY BY JOHN RAWLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Hernawan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Conflict of interest between employee and employer has a complexity since its biopsychology and sosioeconomic in nature. As its implication, it is difficult to create a consensus between two different interest within a legal perspective. Justice theory by John Rawls has answered the respective problem by giving legal priority upon the group of people who have less capacity in sosial and economic. According to John Rawls, law shall give orientation toward marginalized group. In industrial relations, law shall take side upon the employee who are in subordinate position. Pertentangan kepentingan antara pekerja dan pengusaha memiliki kompleksitas karena bersifat biopsikologis dan sosio-ekonomi. Sebagai implikasinya, sulit mempertemukan dua kepentingan yang berbeda tersebut dalam satu rumusan hukum. Teori keadilan dari John Rawls telah menjawab persoalan tersebut dengan memberi prioritas hukum kepada orang-orang yang secara sosial ekonomi kurang beruntung. Hukum menurut John Rawls harus berorientasi kepada kelompok marjinal. Dalam hubungan industrial, hukum harus berpihak kepada pekerja yang berada dalam posisi subordinat.

  3. QUALITY OF FINANCIAL CONGLOMERATES’ PERFORMANCE IN EMERGING ECONOMY: THE INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwiek Rabiatul Adawiyah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial conglomerates are financial institutions that provide all forms of financial services on the top of ordinary banking service. The quality of financial conglomerates’ performance depends on number of factors namely ownership structure, internal capital market and resources sharing. Research on the performance of financial conglomerates are still lacking in Indonesia. This study, therefore, is among the first attempt to assess the influence of ownership structure, internal capital market and resources sharing on the performance financial conglomerate firms in Indonesia, from the industrial organizational theory perspectives. The methodology employed is the ex-post facto research design, using secondary data. The population of the study is all the conglomerates firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange between 2010 until 2015 persistently. The study used regression as a tool of analysis. Findings supported three out of the five hypotheses proposed. Efficient subsidy and managerial ownership had no significant influence on firms’ performance. Efficient transfer segment had positive influence on firms’ performance. Similarly, result supported the proposition that intangible and tangible resources had positive effect on firms’ performance.

  4. Lexical Complexity Development from Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective: Lexical Density, Diversity, and Sophistication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kalantari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case study explored Iranian EFL learners’ lexical complexity (LC through the lenses of Dynamic Systems Theory (DST. Fifty independent essays written by five intermediate to advanced female EFL learners in a TOEFL iBT preparation course over six months constituted the corpus of this study. Three Coh-Metrix indices (Graesser, McNamara, Louwerse, & Cai, 2004; McNamara & Graesser, 2012, three Lexical Complexity Analyzer indices (Lu, 2010, 2012; Lu & Ai, 2011, and four Vocabprofile indices (Cobb, 2000 were selected to measure different dimensions of LC. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA indicated an improvement with regard to only lexical sophistication. Positive and significant relationships were found between time and mean values in Academic Word List and Beyond-2000 as indicators of lexical sophistication. The remaining seven indices of LC, falling short of significance, tended to flatten over the course of this writing program. Correlation analyses among LC indices indicated that lexical density enjoyed positive correlations with lexical sophistication. However, lexical diversity revealed no significant correlations with both lexical density and lexical sophistication. This study suggests that DST perspective specifies a viable foundation for analyzing lexical complexity

  5. Integrating transition theory and bioecological theory: a theoretical perspective for nurses supporting the transition to adulthood for young people with medical complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    To present a discussion of a theoretical perspective developed through integrating Meleis' Transition Theory and Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Theory of Human Development to inform nursing and advanced nursing practice supporting the transition to adulthood for young people with medical complexity. Theoretical perspectives to inform nursing practice in supporting successful transition are limited, yet nurses frequently encounter young people with medical complexity during the transition to adulthood. Discussion paper. A literature search of CINAHL and Medline was conducted in 2014 and included articles from 2003-2014; informal discussions with families; the author's experiences in a transition program. The integrated theoretical perspective described in this paper can inform nurses and advanced practice nurses on contextual influences, program and intervention development across spheres of influence and outcomes for the transition to adulthood for young people with medical complexity. Young people and their families require effective reciprocal interactions with individuals and services across sectors to successfully transition to adulthood and become situated in the adult world. Intervention must also extend beyond the young person to include providers, services and health and social policy. Nurses can take a leadership role in supporting the transition to adulthood for young people with medical complexity through direct care, case management, education and research. It is integral that nurses holistically consider developmental processes, complexity and contextual conditions that promote positive outcomes during and beyond the transition to adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Scrutinizing impacts of conspiracy theories on readers' political views: a rational choice perspective on anti-semitic rhetoric in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefes, Turkay Salim

    2015-09-01

    Although conspiracy theories have been politically significant throughout history, only a few empirical studies have been about their influence on readers' views. Combining a rational choice approach with a content analysis of an anti-Semitic best-selling conspiracy theory book series in Turkey - the Efendi series - and semi-structured interviews with its readers, this paper reveals the effects of the conspiracy theories on readers' political perspectives. The findings suggest that whereas the rightists are reactive to the Jewish origins of the Dönmes, the leftists oppose the Dönmes as dominant bourgeois figures. This paper concludes that left- and right-wing adherents use the conspiratorial accounts in line with their political views and ontological insecurities. It expands the existing academic literature, which conceptualizes conspiracy theories either as paranoid delusions or as neutral, rational narratives, by showing that they can be both. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  7. Achieving compliance with environmental health-related land use planning conditions in Hong Kong: perspectives from traditional motivation theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Rita Li Yi

    2009-11-01

    Environmental health-related land use planning conditions can enhance the environment in Hong Kong. Previous research by others has shown, however, that a lack of compliance with planning conditions often occurs. And as no direct enforcement of planning conditions exists in Hong Kong, it is of interest to understand possible ways in which to increase the motivation of land developers and property owners to comply with planning conditions. The author looked at motivation from the perspective of three traditional motivation theories: Theory X, Theory Y, and incentive theory. While the majority of this article focuses on the enforcement and the legal tests in land use planning conditions, it also presents the results of the first study of the motivations behind Hong Kong land developers to comply with land use planning conditions.

  8. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  9. Caring for adolescent students: a grounded theory study of teachers' perspectives on their relationships with students in secondary schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullingworth, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This grounded theory study explored secondary teachers’ perspectives on their relationships with their adolescent students: the kinds of relationships they want to create, why they believe such relationships are important, and what obstacles they perceive to their construction. Teachers who felt they were able to create positive, effective relationships with their students tended to work in mini-school programs, to practice a kind of “authoritative” teaching similar to Baumrind’s (1978; 1991...

  10. A study on the critical factors which influence habitual entrepreneurs' success in networking from the perspective of social captial theory

    OpenAIRE

    Li, SiQi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research is to provide an insight on the critical factors which influence habitual entrepreneurs’ success in networking through which effective networking strategies may lead to increased business performance. The perspective of explaining the factors adopts social capital theory and social dimensions of entrepreneurs’ network. The key findings suggest that social capital is in a form of non-linear pattern that the interactions are complex. Network configuration influences effe...

  11. Academic Training Lectures | Theories of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: A Post LHC Run-I Perspective | 26, 27 and 29 May

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that our next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on the 26, 27 and 29 May 2015.   Theories of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: A Post LHC Run-I Perspective, by James Daniel Wells (University of Michigan (US)) from 11.00 a.m. to 12.00 p.m. in the Council Chamber (503-1-001) https://indico.cern.ch/event/383514/

  12. Yacht Race Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  13. ["Human races": history of a dangerous illusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louryan, S

    2014-01-01

    The multiplication of offences prompted by racism and the increase of complaints for racism leads us to consider the illusory concept of "human races". This idea crossed the history, and was reinforced by the discovery of remote tribes and human fossils, and by the development of sociobiology and quantitative psychology. Deprived of scientific base, the theory of the "races" must bow before the notions of genetic variation and unicity of mankind.

  14. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: theory X, theory Y, and situational leadership applied to dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen

    2007-08-01

    This article applies two well-known management and leadership models-Theory X and Theory Y, and Situational Leadership-to dental education. Theory X and Theory Y explain how assumptions may shape the behaviors of dental educators and lead to the development of "cop" and "coach" teaching styles. The Situational Leadership Model helps the educator to identify the teaching behaviors that are appropriate in a given situation to assist students as they move from beginner to advanced status. Together, these models provide a conceptual reference to assist in the understanding of the behaviors of both students and faculty and remind us to apply discretion in the education of our students. The implications of these models for assessing and enhancing the educational environment in dental school are discussed.

  15. Gender perspective on the factors predicting recycling behavior: Implications from the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ceren; Teksöz, Gaye; Pamuk, Savas; Sahin, Elvan; Kilic, Dilek Sultan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of some socio-psychological attributes in explaining recycling behavior of Turkish university community from a gender perspective within the context of the theory of planned behavior with an additional variable (past experience). The recycling behavior of whole sample, females and males, has been examined in 3 sessions -depending on the arguments that explain gendered pattern of private and public environmental behavior and sticking to the fact why females' stronger environmental values, beliefs, and attitudes do not translate consistently into greater engagement in public behavior. As a result of model runs, different variables shaping intention for behavior have been found, namely perceived behavior control for females and past behavior for males. Due to the low percent of the variance in explaining recycling behavior of females, they have been identified as the ones who do not carry out intentions (non-recyclers). Since intentions alone are capable of identifying recyclers accurately but not non-recyclers, there may be other factors to be considered to understand the reason for females not carrying out the intentions. The results of descriptive statistics supported the identification by attitudes toward recycling. Female attitudes were innate (recycling is good, necessary, useful and sensitive), whereas those of males were learnt (recycling is healthy, valuable and correct). Thus, it has been concluded that males' intention for recycling is shaped by their past behavior and the conclusion is supported by males having learnt attitude toward recycling whereas females' lack of intention for recycling is shaped by their perceived behavior control and is supported by their innate attitude for recycling. All in all, the results of the present study provide further support for the utility of the TPB as a model of behavioral prediction and concur with other studies examining the utility of the TPB in the context of recycling

  16. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  17. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  18. Theories of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking : A Post LHC Run-I Perspective (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Lecture 1 : The Brout-Englert-Higgs Theory of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking The goal of this lecture is to put the discovery of the Higgs boson in historical context and qualitatively discuss the importance and meaning of its discovery. Claims that the BEH theory has its roots in the theory developments of superconductivity will be considered. Viability of the theory from several points of view will be assessed. First, has the theory been established yet as correct? Second, is the theory stable to vacuum fluctuations? And finally, is the theory natural?

  19. The paradoxes of gerotranscendence: The theory of gerotranscendence in a cultural gerontological and post-modernist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Thorsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTThis article presents a theoretical analysis and discussion of the theory of gerotranscendence, formulatedby Lars Tornstam (University of Uppsala, Sweden. The theory is presented as a meta-theory ofageing, as a theory of universal and general ageing processes. Ageing is seen as an urge (a drivetowards a less engaged posititon in the wordly life, moving towards a higher degree of transcendence,with a more cosmic outlook and another definition of reality. In this article the theory is discussed fromanother theoretical position; Ageing seen in a cultural gerontological perspective, as a varied culturallyand historically situated phenomenon – differing in different times and different cultures. The theoreticalperspective underlines that ageing is complex dialectical processes, an intertwined interplay betweenindividual development and cultural change. The varied individual ageing processes are not seenas the result of «drives». In Western post-modern cultures the ageing processes are becoming manifold,often contradictory. Elderly present versions of the selves that are becoming complex, multiplied (multipleselves, acting at different scenes, stamped by varied cultural values, presenting mixed versions ofactivity and passivity, engagement and retractment, wordliness and transcendence.Key words:  Ageing theories; gerotranscendence; cultural gerontology; postmodernism

  20. Rational decision perspectives on alcohol consumption by youth. Revising the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuther, Tara L

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.

  1. The Importance of Emotion in Theories of Motivation: Empirical, Methodological, and Theoretical Considerations from a Goal Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Julianne C.; Meyer, Debra K.; Schweinle, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Despite its importance to educational psychology, prominent theories of motivation have mostly ignored emotion. In this paper, we review theoretical conceptions of the relation between motivation and emotion and discuss the role of emotion in understanding student motivation in classrooms. We demonstrate that emotion is one of the best indicators…

  2. Adopting the perspective of another in belief attribution: contribution of Relational Frame Theory to the understanding of impairments in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatte, Matthieu; Monestès, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baqué, Esteve; Loas, Gwenolé

    2010-06-01

    Impaired ability of identifying mental states is a characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In particular, people suffering from this illness tend to fail at attributing a belief to another, which has been linked to difficulties in changing interpersonal perspective. Following the view of Relational Frame Theory on perspective-taking skills, the current study aimed at examining the involvement of social anhedonia, one of the frequent features of schizophrenia, in the development of deficits in reversing the I-YOU relation (i.e., adopting the perspective of another). A task consisting of attributing a belief to another or to the self was employed with 30 non-clinical participants with a high level of social anhedonia and with 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In comparison to two control groups, both experimental groups showed significant poorer performance when adopting the perspective of another. These results constitute important indications to target specific relational repertoires when attempting to remediate impairments in mental states attribution linked to schizophrenia.

  3. Student Interactions in Online Discussion Forum: Empirical Research from "Media Richness Theory" Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, M. S.; Chakrabarti, Diganta

    2010-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of the effectiveness of online discussion forum in student learning. A conceptual model based on "theory of online learning" and "media richness theory" was proposed and empirically tested. We extend the current understanding of media richness theory to suggest that use of…

  4. The Value of Failing in Career Development: A Chaos Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, James E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Failing is a neglected topic in career development theory and counselling practice. Most theories see failing as simply the opposite of success and something to be avoided. It is contended that the Chaos Theory of Careers with its emphasis on complexity, uncertainty and consequent human imitations, provides a conceptually coherent account of…

  5. The Second Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  6. Rebels with a cause? Adolescent defiance from the perspective of reactance theory and self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Beyers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation focused on adolescents' defiance against parents by drawing upon psychological reactance theory (Brehm, 1966) and self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Psychological reactance would be elicited when freedom is taken away, thereby motivating individuals to engage in oppositional behavior. Throughout four studies (total N = 1,472, age ranging between 12 and 21 years), it was examined whether a controlling parenting style related to adolescents' experiences of autonomy need frustration (i.e., pressure) and reactance. Reactance, in turn, would relate to more externalizing and internalizing problems. Support was obtained for these associations in community and clinical samples, making use of different informants, and controlling for responsiveness and rule setting. A vignette-based study provided further support. The discussion highlights theoretical and clinical implications. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Knowledge Sharing Behavior in E-Communities: from the Perspective of Transaction Cost Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa L. Ju; Szu-Yuan Sun; Pei-Ju Chao; Chang-Yao Wu

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to examine the factors affecting knowledge sharing behavior in knowledge-based electronic communities (e-communities) because quantity and quality of knowledge shared among the members play a critical role in the community-s sustainability. Past research has suggested three perspectives that may affect the quantity and quality of knowledge shared: economics, social psychology, and social ecology. In this study, we strongly believe that an economic perspective ma...

  8. Keldysh theory of strong field ionization: history, applications, difficulties and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V Popruzhenko, S

    2014-01-01

    The history and current status of the Keldysh theory of strong field ionization are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamentals of the theory, its most important applications and those aspects which still raise difficulties and remain under discussion. The Keldysh theory is compared with other nonperturbative analytic methods of strong field atomic physics and its important generalizations are discussed. Among the difficulties, the gauge invariance problem, the tunneling time concept, the conditions of applicability and the application of the theory to ionization of systems more complex than atoms, including molecules and dielectrics, are considered. Possible prospects for the future development of the theory are also discussed. (review article)

  9. Race: Deflate or pop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism-the view that race is a valid biological category-in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies 'races' as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky's notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to 'race'-according to which all genetic difference between populations is 'racial' and 'the races' are simply the populations we choose to call races-survived its early critiques. As it is being mobilised to support racial naturalism once more, we need to continue the debate about whether we should weaken the concept of race to mean 'population', or abandon it as a failed biological category. I argue that Sesardic's case for racial naturalism is only supported by his continued mischaracterisation of anti-realism about biological race and his appeal to Dobzhansky's authority. Rather than deflating the meaning of 'race', it should be eliminated from our biological ontology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the role of experiential avoidance from the perspective of attachment theory and the dual process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, M Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Avoidance can be adaptive and facilitate the healing process of acute grief or it can be maladaptive and hinder this same process. Maladaptive cognitive or behavioral avoidance comprises the central feature of the condition of complicated grief. This article explores the concept of experiential avoidance as it applies to bereavement, including when it is adaptive when it is problematic. Adaptive avoidance is framed using an attachment theory perspective and incorporates insights from the dual process model (DPM). An approach to clinical management of experiential avoidance in the syndrome of complicated grief is included.

  11. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David

    2017-11-01

    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  12. Situativity theory: a perspective on how participants and the environment can interact: AMEE Guide no. 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R

    2011-01-01

    Situativity theory refers to theoretical frameworks which argue that knowledge, thinking, and learning are situated (or located) in experience. The importance of context to these theories is paramount, including the unique contribution of the environment to knowledge, thinking, and learning; indeed, they argue that knowledge, thinking, and learning cannot be separated from (they are dependent upon) context. Situativity theory includes situated cognition, situated learning, ecological psychology, and distributed cognition. In this Guide, we first outline key tenets of situativity theory and then compare situativity theory to information processing theory; we suspect that the reader may be quite familiar with the latter, which has prevailed in medical education research. Contrasting situativity theory with information processing theory also serves to highlight some unique potential contributions of situativity theory to work in medical education. Further, we discuss each of these situativity theories and then relate the theories to the clinical context. Examples and illustrations for each of the theories are used throughout. We will conclude with some potential considerations for future exploration. Some implications of situativity theory include: a new way of approaching knowledge and how experience and the environment impact knowledge, thinking, and learning; recognizing that the situativity framework can be a useful tool to "diagnose" the teaching or clinical event; the notion that increasing individual responsibility and participation in a community (i.e., increasing "belonging") is essential to learning; understanding that the teaching and clinical environment can be complex (i.e., non-linear and multi-level); recognizing that explicit attention to how participants in a group interact with each other (not only with the teacher) and how the associated learning artifacts, such as computers, can meaningfully impact learning.

  13. Race encounters in ITE : tutors' narratives on race equality and initial teacher education (ITE)

    OpenAIRE

    Lander, Arvinder Kaur

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the racialised narratives of White tutors in initial teacher education (ITE) with specific reference to how well initial teacher education (ITE) prepares student teachers to teach in an ethnically diverse society. It draws on critical race theory as a framework to identify how the discourse of whiteness is embedded in the experience, knowledge and hegemonic understandings of these tutors and how it affects their approach to the topic of race equality and teaching in a mult...

  14. Leadership theory and research in the new millennium : current theoretical trends and changing perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, J.; Lord, R.; Garnder, W.; Meuser, J.; Liden, R.C.; Hu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly research on the topic of leadership has witnessed a dramatic increase over the last decade, resulting in the development of diverse leadership theories. To take stock of established and developing theories since the beginning of the new millennium, we conducted an extensive qualitative review of leadership theory across 10 top-tier academic publishing outlets that included The Leadership Quarterly, Administrative Science Quarterly, American Psychologist, Journal of Management, Acade...

  15. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...

  16. A self-regulation perspective on avoidance and persistence behavior in chronic pain: new theories, new challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Kindermans, Hanne

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral factors such as avoidance and persistence have received massive theoretical and empirical attention in the attempts to explain chronic pain and disability. The determinants of these pain behaviors remain, however, poorly understood. We propose a self-regulation perspective to increase our understanding of pain-related avoidance and persistence. A narrative review. We identified several theoretical views that may help explaining avoidance and persistence behavior, and organized these views around 4 concepts central in self-regulation theories: (1) identity, (2) affective-motivational orientation, (3) goal cognitions, and (4) coping. The review shows that each of these self-regulation perspectives allows for a broadened view in which pain behaviors are not simply considered passive consequences of fear, but proactive strategies to regulate the self when challenged by pain. Several implications and challenges arising from this review are discussed. In particular, a self-regulation perspective does not consider avoidance and persistence behavior to be intrinsically adaptive or maladaptive, but argues that their effects on disability and well-being rather depend on the goals underlying these behaviors. Such view would require a shift in how avoidance and persistence behavior are assessed and approached in clinical interventions.

  17. Time perspective and the theory of planned behavior: moderate predictors of physical activity among central Appalachian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Tauna; Boggs, Dusta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how well time perspective and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predicted physical activity among adolescents residing in the central Appalachian region of the United States. A descriptive, correlational design was used. The setting was a rural high school in central Appalachia. The sample included 185 students in grades 9 through 12. Data were collected in school. Variables included components of the TPB, time perspective, and various levels of exercise. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The TPB was a moderate predictor of exercise frequency among central Appalachian adolescents, accounting for 42% of the variance. Time perspective did not add to the predictive ability of the TPB to predict exercise frequency in this sample. This study provides support for the TPB for predicting frequency of exercise among central Appalachian adolescents. By understanding the role of the TPB in predicting physical activity among adolescents, nurse practitioners will be able to adapt intervention strategies to improve the physical activity behaviors of this population. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Integration of Parent and Nurse Perspectives of Communication to Plan Care for Technology Dependent Children: The Theory of Shared Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambra, Barbara K; Broome, Marion E; Sabourin, Teresa; Buelow, Janice; Stiffler, Deborah

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to expand our understanding of the process of communication between parents of hospitalized technology dependent children and their nurses originally detailed in the Theory of Shared Communication (TSC). This grounded theory study was conducted with five parents of technology dependent children hospitalized in a large Midwestern children's hospital and nine nurses who care for technology dependent children admitted to the same hospital during July and August 2013. Semi-structured interviews and journals (parents only), field notes and a demographic survey were used to collect data which was analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Parents verified the concepts of the TSC and relationships among them. Nurses' perceptions of communication with parents reflected the same parent identified and verified concepts upon which the TSC was originally grounded including respect for own and other's expertise, asking, listening, explaining, advocating, verifying understanding and negotiating roles to achieve mutual understanding of the child's plan of care. The nurses' perceptions differed stylistically but not categorically from those of the parents. The addition of the nurse's perspectives to the verified TSC expands our understanding of this process of communication. With the integration of nurse and parent perspectives, the TSC can be used to enhance communication and care for hospitalized technology dependent children and their families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Using the realist perspective to link theory from qualitative evidence synthesis to quantitative studies: Broadening the matrix approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grootel, Leonie; van Wesel, Floryt; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; Hox, Joop; Boeije, Hennie

    2017-09-01

    This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the qualitative evidence synthesis against interventions in primary quantitative studies. However, types of qualitative evidence syntheses that are associated with theory building generate theoretical models instead of recommendations. Therefore, the output from these types of qualitative evidence syntheses cannot directly be used for the matrix approach but requires transformation. This approach allows for the transformation of these types of output. The approach enables the inference of moderation effects instead of direct effects from the theoretical model developed in a qualitative evidence synthesis. Recommendations for practice are formulated on the basis of interactional relations inferred from the qualitative evidence synthesis. In doing so, we apply the realist perspective to model variables from the qualitative evidence synthesis according to the context-mechanism-outcome configuration. A worked example shows that it is possible to identify recommendations from a theory-building qualitative evidence synthesis using the realist perspective. We created subsets of the interventions from primary quantitative studies based on whether they matched the recommendations or not and compared the weighted mean effect sizes of the subsets. The comparison shows a slight difference in effect sizes between the groups of studies. The study concludes that the approach enhances the applicability of the matrix approach. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A Listener's Perspective: Using Communication Theory and Practice to Reframe Persuasion in the Communication Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Kellie L.; Wright, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    Social influence is presented throughout the communication curriculum, from the introductory public speaking course to upper-level courses devoted to communication theory and advanced study of persuasion. Within the progression of these courses, there is often a shift in emphasis from practice to theory. For example, the public speaking course is…

  1. Anthropological theory of the didactic: A new research perspective on didactic mathematics in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Zetra Hainul; Witri, Gustimal

    2017-01-01

    Théorie Anthropologique du Didactique/Anthropological Theory of the Didactic (ATD) is a new theory on didactic mathematics that was introduced by a French mathematician, Chevellard, in 1991. The ATD is an epistemological model of mathematical knowledge that can be applied to investigate human mat...

  2. Is it play? Towards a reconceptualisation of role-play from an activity theory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a reconceptualisation of role play on the basis of the Cultural-Historical theory (Vygotskij -Leont'ev - El'konin). The theory conceives of play as a specific mode of activity defined by a format that includes three basic parameters (rules, degrees of freedom and involvement).

  3. Sequential Progressions in a Theory-of-Mind Scale: Longitudinal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Fang, Fuxi; Peterson, Candida C.

    2011-01-01

    Consecutive retestings of 92 U.S. preschoolers (n = 30), Chinese preschoolers (n = 31), and deaf children (n = 31) examined whether the sequences of development apparent in cross-sectional results with a theory-of-mind scale also appeared in longitudinal assessment. Longitudinal data confirmed that theory-of-mind progressions apparent in…

  4. Complexity, Chaos, and Nonlinear Dynamics: A New Perspective on Career Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Deborah P.

    2005-01-01

    The author presents a theory of career development drawing on nonlinear dynamics and chaos and complexity theories. Career is presented as a complex adaptive entity, a fractal of the human entity. Characteristics of complex adaptive entities, including (a) autopiesis, or self-regeneration; (b) open exchange; (c) participation in networks; (d)…

  5. Making Decisions about an Educational Game, Simulation or Workshop: A 'Game Theory' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Uses game theory to help practitioners make decisions about educational games, simulations, or workshops whose outcomes depend to some extent on chance. Highlights include principles for making decisions involving risk; elementary laws of probability; utility theory; and principles for making decisions involving uncertainty. (eight references)…

  6. Toward a Theory of Legal Impact: Some Perspectives on Compliance. Discussion Papers #389-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosin, Michael

    An important question to both social theory and policy is the impact of law on behavior. This question has received considerable empirical attention, but the need for a consistent theoretical approach is evident. In this paper a preliminary theory of legal impact is suggested, and one specific aspect of it is detailed. The paper points out that a…

  7. Overcoming the Problem of Embedding Change in Educational Organizations: A Perspective from Normalization Process Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Phil

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I begin by outlining some of the barriers which constrain sustainable organizational change in schools and universities. I then go on to introduce a theory which has already started to help explain complex change and innovation processes in health and care contexts, Normalization Process Theory. Finally, I consider what this…

  8. Computing black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity from a conformal field theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agulló, Iván; Borja, Enrique F.; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the analogy proposed by Witten between Chern-Simons and conformal field theories, we explore an alternative way of computing the entropy of a black hole starting from the isolated horizon framework in loop quantum gravity. The consistency of the result opens a window for the interplay between conformal field theory and the description of black holes in loop quantum gravity

  9. The Government-Higher Education Institution Relationship: Theoretical Considerations from the Perspective of Agency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Jussi

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the agency theory to the field of higher education research. By applying agency theory to the inter-organisational relationship between government and higher education institutions, it is possible to illustrate general problems facing control and governance in a more theoretical and analytical way. The conceptual arsenal…

  10. Understanding the coping process from a self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Edmunds, Jemma; Duda, Joan L

    2009-05-01

    To explore conceptual links between the cognitive-motivational-relational theory (CMRT) of coping (Lazarus, 1991) and self-determination theory (SDT) of motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985). We present a very brief overview of the two theories. We also discuss how components from the two theories can be examined together to facilitate research in the health/exercise domain. To this effect, we offer a preliminary integrated model of stress, coping, and motivation, based on the two aforementioned theories, in an attempt to illustrate and instigate research on how motivational factors are implicated in the coping process. We believe that the proposed model can serve as a platform for generating new research ideas which, besides their theoretical relevance, may have important applied implications.

  11. Theory analysis for Pender's health promotion model (HPM) by Barnum's criteria: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, Zohreh; Rayyani, Masoud; Tirgari, Batool

    2018-01-13

    Background Analysis of nursing theoretical works and its role in knowledge development is presented as an essential process of critical reflection. Health promotion model (HPM) focuses on helping people achieve higher levels of well-being and identifies background factors that influence health behaviors. Objectives This paper aims to evaluate, and critique HPM by Barnum's criteria. Methods The present study reviewed books and articles derived from Proquest, PubMed, Blackwell Databases. The method of evaluation for this model is based on Barnum's criteria for analysis, application and evaluation of nursing theories. The criteria selected by Barnum embrace both internal and external criticism. Internal criticism deals with how theory components fit with each other (internal construction of theory) and external criticism deals with the way in which theory relates to the extended world (which considers theory in its relationships to human beings, nursing, and health). Results The electronic database search yielded over 27,717 titles and abstracts. Following removal of duplicates, 18,963 titles and abstracts were screened using the inclusion criteria and 1278 manuscripts were retrieved. Of these, 80 were specific to HPM and 23 to analysis of any theory in nursing relating to the aim of this article. After final selection using the inclusion criteria for this review, 28 manuscripts were identified as examining the factors contributing to theory analysis. Evaluation of health promotion theory showed that the philosophical claims and their content are consistent and clear. HPM has a logical structure and was applied to diverse age groups from differing cultures with varying health concerns. Conclusion In conclusion, among the strategies for theory critique, the Barnum approach is structured and accurate, considers theory in its relationship to human beings, community psychiatric nursing, and health. While according to Pender, nursing assessment, diagnosis and interventions

  12. Pedagogical perspectives and implicit theories of teaching: First year science teachers emerging from a constructivist science education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Michael James

    Traditional, teacher-centered pedagogies dominate current teaching practice in science education despite numerous research-based assertions that promote more progressive, student-centered teaching methods. Best-practice research emerging from science education reform efforts promotes experiential, collaborative learning environments in line with the constructivist referent. Thus there is a need to identify specific teacher education program designs that will promote the utilization of constructivist theory among new teachers. This study explored the learning-to-teach process of four first-year high school teachers, all graduates of a constructivist-based science education program known as Teacher Education Environments in Mathematics and Science (TEEMS). Pedagogical perspectives and implicit theories were explored to identify common themes and their relation to the pre-service program and the teaching context. Qualitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. In depth, semi-structured interviews (Seidman, 1998) formed the primary data for probing the context and details of the teachers' experience as well as the personal meaning derived from first year practice. Teacher journals and teaching artifacts were utilized to validate and challenge the primary data. Through an open-coding technique (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) codes, and themes were generated from which assertions were made. The pedagogical perspectives apparent among the participants in this study emerged as six patterns in teaching method: (1) utilization of grouping strategies, (2) utilization of techniques that allow the students to help teach, (3) similar format of daily instructional strategy, (4) utilization of techniques intended to promote engagement, (5) utilization of review strategies, (6) assessment by daily monitoring and traditional tests, (7) restructuring content knowledge. Assertions from implicit theory data include: (1) Time constraints and lack of teaching experience made

  13. The dyadic nature of bullying and victimization : Testing a dual-perspective theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, R.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Zijlstra, B.J H; De Winter, A.F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.

    2007-01-01

    For this study, information on Who Bullies Who was collected from 54 school classes with 918 children (M age = 11) and 13,606 dyadic relations. Bullying and victimization were viewed separately from the point of view of the bully and the victim. The two perspectives were highly complementary. The

  14. Theories of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking : A Post LHC Run-I Perspective (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Lecture 3 : Precision Higgs Analysis The Higgs boson era requires the development of a precision analysis effort analogous to that of the Z pole studies of the previous era. The work in this direction will be reviewed. Current and future challenges will be described, both from the experimental and theoretical perspectives.

  15. Learner Perspectives of Online Problem-Based Learning and Applications from Cognitive Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) courses have historically been situated in physical classrooms involving in-person interactions. As online learning is embraced in higher education, programs that use PBL can integrate online platforms to support curriculum delivery and facilitate student engagement. This report describes student perspectives of the…

  16. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...

  17. Asian Americans in American History: An AsianCrit Perspective on Asian American Inclusion in State U.S. History Curriculum Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sohyun

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other groups of color, Asian Americans and their perspectives have rarely been given attention in curriculum studies. This article seeks to address the gap in the literature. It uses AsianCrit, a branch of critical race theory, as a theoretical lens to analyze and explicate common patterns across various states' scripting of Asian…

  18. [AN EVALUATION OF JUSTICE AND RIGHT TO HEALTH CONCEPTS IN THE PERSPECTIVES OF ETHICAL THEORIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    Right to health is considered as a fundamental human right. However the realization of right to health is facing obstacles due to the scarce resources which are needed for the provision of health services. Besides the vast technological improvements in medical area leads to the development of diagnosis and treatment possibilities each and every day. Thus, the provision of health services becomes a subject of distributive justice. To define the concept of justice, first one should identify the conditions of demanding right to have something and then determine how and who is obliged to give the deserved. Ethical theories form their own paradigms of acting right regarding their anchor points and priority values. The basic concepts such as justice or right to health are considered and conceptualized within the paradigms of the ethical theories. Thus some ethical theories consider right to health as a natural constituent of human being, while some may consider it contextual and others may reject it completely. In a similar vein, justice and related concepts of justice such as formal and material principles of justice differ regarding the paradigm of the ethical theory in which we position ourselves. The paradigms of ethical theories demand different approaches from each other both in defining the concepts and implementations in practical life. This paper sets forth how justice and right to health is conceptualized in the virtue ethics, deontological ethics, liberal ethical theory and communitarian ethical theories. To this end first the general frame of each ethical theory and how justice is conceptualized within this frame is defined. Following that a discussion of the possibility of justification of the right to health within the context of ethical theory is perused.

  19. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  20. Rational pharmacotherapy and clinical practice guidelines - Theories and perspectives on implementing pharmacotherapeutic treatment guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn, R; Brouwers, JRBJ; Timmer, JW; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    Several theories behind implementing clinical guidelines have been described within the literature. At first sight, these may seem different. However, there are similarities and eventually they are rather complementary than mutually exclusive. This article integrates several theoretical views on

  1. Designing a curriculum for communication skills training from a theory and evidence-based perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Street, Richard L.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Because quality health care delivery requires effective clinician-patient communication, successful training of health professionals requires communication skill curricula of the highest quality. Two approaches for developing medical communication curricula are a consensus approach and a theory

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Deliberating about race as a variable in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is it morally appropriate to regard the race of research subjects .... Habermas J. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. ... Rorty R. Objectivity, Relativism and Truth (Philosophical Papers, Vol. 1).

  3. Lexicons, contexts, events, and images: commentary on Elman (2009) from the perspective of dual coding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Allan; Sadoski, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Elman (2009) proposed that the traditional role of the mental lexicon in language processing can largely be replaced by a theoretical model of schematic event knowledge founded on dynamic context-dependent variables. We evaluate Elman's approach and propose an alternative view, based on dual coding theory and evidence that modality-specific cognitive representations contribute strongly to word meaning and language performance across diverse contexts which also have effects predictable from dual coding theory. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Global instability of currencies: reasons and perspectives according to the state-corporation hegemonic stability theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ ELIGIUSZ STASZCZAK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses reasons of the instability of the world monetary system. The author considers this problem from historical and contemporary perspectives. According to presented point of view banknotes and electronic money which replaced gold and silver coins in popular circulation are the most important reason of the instability. There are also proven positive and negative consequences of money instability. Reforms of the world monetary system need agreement within the global collective hegemony of state-powers and transnational corporations.

  5. “They think you’re lazy,” and Other Messages Black Parents Send Their Black Sons: An Exploration of Critical Race Theory in the Examination of Educational Outcomes for Black Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Reynolds

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parents play an integral role in the social, emotional, physical, and intellectual development of their children. We know that school success has been associated with parents’ involvement and engagement1 practices. Studies have shown that despite socioeconomic disparities, children whose parents are involved perform markedly better than those whose parents are not. Little research has looked exclusively at parent involvement and its effects on the educational outcomes of Black males. A qualitative study conducted with Black parents and their involvement and engagement practices as the focus proved that this relationship warrants scholarly attention using Critical Race Theory as a tool for examination. Parents in this study were involved in their children’s educational processes in ways not always validated or valued by schools. Instead of engaging in conventional forms of involvement such as volunteering in the classroom, parents spent time and resources supplementing their children’s education at home. Subtle acts of racism manifested through microaggressions were detected by parents when interfacing with school officials2 and these exchanges prompted candid conversations with their sons. According to the parents in this study, deliberate messages about racism and educator expectations were often critical supplements for their Black sons in order to ensure educational success.

  6. The Relationship between Race and Students' Identified Career Role Models and Perceived Role Model Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, Danesh; Nauta, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the modal race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as…

  7. Perspectives of Light-Front Quantized Field Theory: Some New Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1999-08-13

    A review of some basic topics in the light-front (LF) quantization of relativistic field theory is made. It is argued that the LF quantization is equally appropriate as the conventional one and that they lead, assuming the microcausality principle, to the same physical content. This is confirmed in the studies on the LF of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), of the degenerate vacua in Schwinger model (SM) and Chiral SM (CSM), of the chiral boson theory, and of the QCD in covariant gauges among others. The discussion on the LF is more economical and more transparent than that found in the conventional equal-time quantized theory. The removal of the constraints on the LF phase space by following the Dirac method, in fact, results in a substantially reduced number of independent dynamical variables. Consequently, the descriptions of the physical Hilbert space and the vacuum structure, for example, become more tractable. In the context of the Dyson-Wick perturbation theory the relevant propagators in the front form theory are causal. The Wick rotation can then be performed to employ the Euclidean space integrals in momentum space. The lack of manifest covariance becomes tractable, and still more so if we employ, as discussed in the text, the Fourier transform of the fermionic field based on a special construction of the LF spinor. The fact that the hyperplanes x{sup {+-}} = 0 constitute characteristic surfaces of the hyperbolic partial differential equation is found irrelevant in the quantized theory; it seems sufficient to quantize the theory on one of the characteristic hyperplanes.

  8. Schmitt’s Theory of Großraum: A Post-Statal Perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Scalone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses some aspects of Schmitt’s theories on international law, in particular the notion of Großraum. The assumption is that with this notion Schmitt tries to re-think politics and international relations beyond the classical categories of the State. From this point of view, there is an essential affinity between the concept of politics (Begriff des Politischen explained in the homonymous essay published in 1927 and the concept of Großraum. After the Second World War, Schmitt distances himself from the notion of Großraum, too close to the nazi theories, and focuses on that of nomos, explained in Der Nomos der Erde (1950, and on the crisis of the Jus publicum europaeum. However, Schmitt fails to define which system of international relations should follow the Jus publicum europaeum and the same notion of nomos remains rather undefined. In the last part of the paper the author compares Schmitt’s theories about international law and some theories of Kelsen, with particular reference to the theory of bellum justum.

  9. The importance of theory in cognitive behavior therapy: a perspective of contextual behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, James D; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Forman, Evan M

    2013-12-01

    For the past 30 years, generations of scholars of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have expressed concern that clinical practice has abandoned the close links with theory that characterized the earliest days of the field. There is also a widespread assumption that a greater working knowledge of theory will lead to better clinical outcomes, although there is currently very little hard evidence to support this claim. We suggest that the rise of so-called "third generation" models of CBT over the past decade, along with the dissemination of statistical innovations among psychotherapy researchers, have given new life to this old issue. We argue that theory likely does matter to clinical outcomes, and we outline the future research that would be needed to address this conjecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Attachment within life history theory: an evolutionary perspective on individual differences in attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepsenwol, Ohad; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2018-03-15

    In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individual differences in adult attachment mediate the adaptive calibration of reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation. We first present an integration of attachment theory and life history theory. Then, we discuss how early harsh and/or unpredictable environments may promote insecure attachment by hampering parents' ability to provide sensitive and reliable care to their children. Finally, we discuss how, in the context of harsh and/or unpredictable environments, different types of insecure attachment (i.e. anxiety and avoidance) may promote evolutionary adaptive reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CERN Relay Race 2009

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 14th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. More details on how to register your team for the relay race

  12. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20 May, starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the route, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay

  13. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 17 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site.

  14. Justification and Rationality from the perspective of the Dual System Theory of Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan García-Campos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption in epistemology is that there is an important connection between the notions of justification and rationality. However, this connection is unclear since there is no consensus about what rationality is or what a “correct” notion of justification would be. The purpose of this paper is to explain how the dual system theory of reasoning can build a “bridge” between justification and rationality. We argue that the dual system theory of reasoning supports, to a certainextent, an externalist notion of justification and a consequentialist view of rationality.

  15. Theory of the Whole and the Part – Ontological Perspective (E. Husserl, R. Ingarden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barska Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is demonstrate the thesis that Ingarden's ontological system allows a better understanding of the “part-whole” problem then previous theories. Especially, if we take into account the existential ontology of Ingarden, which refers to Husserl “part-whole” theory, we can see that development of terms made by Ingarden sheds new light on old problems. In this context, particularly important is to distinguish between two existential moments: contingancy/inseparatness, because thanks to them we can talk about many different types of relationships and hence many types of objects.

  16. ACCOUNTABILITY OF CORPORATE MANAGER: TO SYNTHESIZE OF THE DIFFERENT THEORIES BY ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazeia Qussay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the high profile financial scandals of 2007-2008, corporate management has been faced with strong pressures resulting from more regulatory requirements, as well as the increasing expectations of various groups of stakeholders. The responsibility acquired a big importance in front of this financial crisis. This responsibility requires more transparency and communication, inside the company with the collaborators and outside of the company with the society, while companies try to improve the degree of control and to authorize managers to realize the objectives of the company. The objective of this paper is to present the concept of the responsibility generally and the various types of manager’s responsibility in private individual within the company, as well as the explanatory theories of this responsibility through the various perspectives such as: economic, political, social and behavioral. This study should have academic and practical contributions particularly for regulators seeking to improve the companies’ practices and organizational functioning within capital market economy.

  17. Race, money and medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.

  18. The Speaker Behind The Voice: Therapeutic Practice from the Perspective of Pragmatic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity eDeamer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts at understanding auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs have tried to explain why there is an auditory experience in the absence of an appropriate stimulus. We suggest that many instance of voice-hearing should be approached differently. More specifically, they could be viewed primarily as hallucinated acts of communication, rather than hallucinated sounds. We suggest that this change of perspective is reflected in, and helps to explain, the successes of two recent therapeutic techniques. These two techniques are: Relating Therapy for Voices and Avatar Therapy.

  19. A quantum-mechanical perspective on linear response theory within polarizable embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Norman, Patrick; Kongsted, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We present a derivation of linear response theory within polarizable embedding starting from a rigorous quantum-mechanical treatment of a composite system. To this aim, two different subsystem decompositions (symmetric and nonsymmetric) of the linear response function are introduced and the pole...

  20. A Social Role Theory Perspective on Gender Gaps in Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B.; Schneider, Monica C.

    2010-01-01

    Men and women tend to espouse different political attitudes, as widely noted by both journalists and social scientists. A deeper understanding of why and when gender gaps exist is necessary because at least some gender differences in the political realm are both pervasive and impactful. In this article, we apply a social role theory framework to…

  1. Factors of Attrition in Cohort Doctoral Education: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Linda Ann

    2013-01-01

    Attrition rates, completion rates, and time to degree are the key areas researchers have sought to examine influencing factors and patterns of behavior that describe the departure process of students in doctoral study. Through the lens of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was…

  2. Educational Program Evaluation Model, From the Perspective of the New Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Ahmady

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study is focused on common theories that influenced the history of program evaluation and introduce the educational program evaluation proposal format based on the updated theory. Methods: Literature searches were carried out in March-December 2010 with a combination of key words, MeSH terms and other free text terms as suitable for the purpose. A comprehensive search strategy was developed to search Medline by the PubMed interface, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center and the main journal of medical education regarding current evaluation models and theories. We included all study designs in our study. We found 810 articles related to our topic, and finally 63 with the full text article included. We compared documents and used expert consensus for selection the best model. Results: We found that the complexity theory using logic model suggests compatible evaluation proposal formats, especially with new medical education programs. Common components of a logic model are: situation, inputs, outputs, and outcomes that our proposal format is based on. Its contents are: title page, cover letter, situation and background, introduction and rationale, project description, evaluation design, evaluation methodology, reporting, program evaluation management, timeline, evaluation budget based on the best evidences, and supporting documents. Conclusion: We found that the logic model is used for evaluation program planning in many places, but more research is needed to see if it is suitable for our context.

  3. Sex Differences in Technical Communication: A Perspective from Social Role Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    This article interprets technical communication research about sex differences according to social role theory, which argues that sex differences are enculturated through experiences associated with social positions in the family and the workplace. It reevaluates technical communication research about sex differences in communicative and…

  4. Autonomy, Competence, and Intrinsic Motivation in Science Education: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a proposed motivational model of science achievement based on self-determination theory. The study relied on U.S. eighth-grade science data from the 2007 Third International Mathematics and Science Study to examine a structural model that hypothesized how perceived autonomy support, perceived competence in…

  5. Fostering Personal Meaning and Self-Relevance: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Aelterman, Nathalie; De Muynck, Gert-Jan; Haerens, Leen; Patall, Erika; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2018-01-01

    Central to self-determination theory (SDT) is the notion that autonomously motivated learning relates to greater learning benefits. While learners' intrinsic motivation has received substantial attention, learners also display volitional learning when they come to endorse the personal meaning or self-relevance of the learning task. In Part I of…

  6. A social network perspective on teacher collaboration in schools: Theory, methodology, and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, Nienke

    2012-01-01

    An emerging trend in educational research is the use of social network theory and methodology to understand how teacher collaboration can support or constrain teaching, learning, and educational change. This article provides a critical synthesis of educational literature on school social networks

  7. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  8. Digital movie piracy: A perspective on downloading behavior through social cognitive theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Ruud; Heuvelman, A.; Tan, Maurice; Peters, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study refined and specified a model based on the application (e.g. LaRose & Kim, 2007) of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) to analyze and compare the behavior and attitudes exhibited by movie downloaders and to compare the number of movies they consume. The model is tested against data

  9. Person-Environment Fit Theory and Organizations: Commensurate Dimensions, Time Perspectives, and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes person-environment (PE) theory, pertinent studies and experiments in improving PE fit, advocating research on role of past, present, and anticipated PE fit on well-being and employee behavior; outcomes when PE fit is changed by altering P, E, or some combination; and considering the agent of change. Emphasizes systemic properties of…

  10. Farmers' Motivational Orientation toward Participation in Competence Development Projects: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Lioutas, Evagelos D.; Koutsouris, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we use a self-determination theory (SDT) approach to understand farmers' attitudes toward, and intentions for, participation in competence development projects (CDP). Design/methodology/approach: By applying SDT, we developed two measures. The first one assessed the degree to which the three basic human psychological needs…

  11. Play and Theory of Mind in Early Childhood: A Hong Kong Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Wong, Richard Kwok Shing; Wong, Paul Yau Ho; Ho, Fuk Chuen; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah

    2017-01-01

    The study seeks to understand the relation between preschool children's mode of participation and negotiation strategies during play and their theory of mind (ToM) development in the Hong Kong context. Forty-two 5-year-old children were recruited. Their emotional and cognitive ToMs were assessed along with expressive language ability. Children's…

  12. A conceptual perspective for investigating motive in cultural-historical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief discussion of the other chapters in this edited volume, and then presents a brief introduction to the concept of motive within cultural-historical theory. This discussion includes a discussion of why the concept is needed, the ontological shift in the explanatory log...

  13. Socialization by Way of Symbolic Interactionism and Culture Theory: A Communication Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Karen C.

    While not presuming to present a model of organizational socialization that is complete and totally accurate, this paper examines organizational socialization in a new way through the lenses of symbolic interactionism and culture theory. The first section of the paper describes the basic tenets of symbolic interactionism and how these have been…

  14. Parental Experiences of the "Time Together" Home Visiting Intervention: An Attachment Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca L.; Gersch, Irvine S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of research into parental experiences of the Somerset (UK) "Time Together" home visiting intervention, with regards to its impact on the parent-child relationship. The research was carried out using an Attachment Theory lens in order to understand the qualitative experiences of seven parents of children in…

  15. Performance grading and motivational functioning and fear in physical education: A self-determination theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, C.A.; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; van Tartwijk, J.W.F.; Maes, Jolien; Borghouts, Lars; Cardon, Greet; Mainhard, M.T.; Haerens, Leen

    2017-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory, the present study examines the explanatory role of students' perceived need satisfaction and need frustration in the relationship between performance grading (versus non-grading) and students' motivation and fear in a real-life educational physical education

  16. Situational State Balances and Participation Motivation in Youth Sport: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Cindy H. P.; Lindner, Koenraad J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Reversal theory (Apter, 1982, 1989, ) is one of the motivational frameworks which attempts to examine human subjective experiences and behaviours. There are four dyads of metamotivational states (telic-paratelic, conformist-negativistic, autic-alloic, and mastery-sympathy) and individuals may prefer to be in one rather than the other…

  17. Predicting Social Support for Grieving Persons: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently reported that social support from family, friends, and colleagues is an important factor in the bereaved person's ability to cope after the loss of a loved one. This study used a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to identify those factors that predict a person's intention to interact with, and support, a grieving…

  18. Parental Influences on the Academic Motivation of Gifted Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The home environment that parents provide their gifted children can have a significant impact on academic motivation, yet limited research has focused on this topic. Self-determination theory, a comprehensive framework of motivation, was used in the current study to explore two research questions: (a) What attitudes do parents of gifted students…

  19. Strategies of Euphemism in Writing Business Complaint Letter:From the Perspective of Register Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅婷

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the strategies of euphemism in writing business complaint let er based on Hal iday’s Register Theory. It categorizes the discussed euphemistic strategies into three levels of lexicon, grammar and syntax by relating them to the situational parameters of field, tenor and mode.

  20. Actor-network-theory perspective on a forestry decision support system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, L.G.J.; Ferritti, V.

    2014-01-01

    Use of decision support systems (DSS) has thus far been framed as a social process of adoption or technical process of usability. We analyze the development of a DSS as a process of institutionalization of new as well as drift of existing practices. We write an Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) account,

  1. What Motivates Students to Provide Feedback to Teachers about Teaching and Learning? An Expectancy Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory, specifically Vroom's Model, was used as the conceptual framework for the study.…

  2. The Debate Begins: The Rise of Alternate Perspectives in Academic Advising Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Shannon Lynn

    2016-01-01

    With the addition of history to the title of the Theory, Philosophy, and History of Advising Commission of NACADA: The Global Community for Academic Advising, the time has come to reflect on this growing commission as a means to track and record the growth and development of the theoretical debates and questions regarding the field of academic…

  3. Educational Policy and Practice from the Perspective of Institutional Theory: Crafting a Wider Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Institutional analyses of public education have increased in number in recent years. However, studies in education drawing on institutional analyses have not fully incorporated recent contributions from institutional theory, particularly relative to other domains such as law and health policy. The author sketches a framework that integrates recent…

  4. Organizational Change at the Edge of Chaos: A Complexity Theory Perspective of Autopoietic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susini, Domenico, III.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study includes explorations of organizational change phenomena from the vantage point of complexity theory as experienced through the lived experiences of eight senior level managers and executives based in Northern N.J. who have experienced crisis situations in their organizations. Concepts from the natural…

  5. Changing Resistant Audience Attitudes Using Social Judgment Theory's "Anchor" Point Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Salazar, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Public Speaking, Business and Professional Communication, Persuasion, or any other skill-based oral communication course. Objectives: Students will practice the development and demonstration of persuasive arguments in this single-class social judgment theory activity to improve their ability to change resistant audience attitudes.

  6. On the Nature of Applied Linguistics: Theory and Practice Relationships from a Critical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, William

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the relationships between Applied Linguistics and other related disciplines concerning language use and language teaching issues. It seeks to trace the changes in the view of the relationship between theory and practice in Applied Linguistics, to explain the reason for those changes, and to discuss the implications for…

  7. Practitioners' Perspectives on the Application of Integration Theory in the Saudi EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Mansoor S.; Soomro, Abdul Fattah

    2017-01-01

    There is a close connection between reading and writing. Several studies suggest integrating reading in the instruction of teaching writing skills to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner. This study seeks to determine the extent Saudi EFL teachers support, apply and understand the theory of integration between reading and writing. To…

  8. Mentorship of Black Student-Athletes at a Predominately White American University: Critical Race Theory Perspective on Student-Athlete Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Mentoring programs are evolving as common practice in athletic departments across national collegiate athletic association member institutions in the USA as means to address sociocultural issues faced by their student-athletes and to enhance their holistic development. There is a dearth of research exploring mentoring in the contexts of…

  9. A critical look at 50 years particle theory from the perspective of the crossing property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2010-02-01

    The crossing property, which originated more than 5 decades ago in the aftermath of dispersion relations, was the central new concept which opened an S-matrix based line of research in particle theory. Many constructive ideas in particle theory outside perturbative QFT, among them the S-matrix bootstrap program, the dual resonance model and the various stages of string theory have their historical roots in this property. The crossing property is perhaps the most subtle aspect of the particle-field relation. Although it is not difficult to state its content in terms of certain analytic properties relating different matrix elements of the S-matrix or form factors, its relation to the localization- and positive energy spectral principles requires a level of insight into the inner workings of QFT which goes beyond anything which can be found in typical textbooks on QFT. This paper presents a recent account based on new ideas derived from 'modular localization' including a mathematic appendix on this subject. The main content is an in-depth criticism of the dual model and its string theoretic extension. The conceptual flaws of these models are closely related to misunderstandings of the true meaning of crossing. The correct interpretation of string theory is that of a dynamic infinite component wave function or pointlike field i.e. a theory which under irreducible Poincare decomposition into an infinite mass/spin tower but which also contains operators which do not commute with the generators of the Poincare group but rather intertwine between different mass/spin levels. (author)

  10. A critical look at 50 years particle theory from the perspective of the crossing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-02-15

    The crossing property, which originated more than 5 decades ago in the aftermath of dispersion relations, was the central new concept which opened an S-matrix based line of research in particle theory. Many constructive ideas in particle theory outside perturbative QFT, among them the S-matrix bootstrap program, the dual resonance model and the various stages of string theory have their historical roots in this property. The crossing property is perhaps the most subtle aspect of the particle-field relation. Although it is not difficult to state its content in terms of certain analytic properties relating different matrix elements of the S-matrix or form factors, its relation to the localization- and positive energy spectral principles requires a level of insight into the inner workings of QFT which goes beyond anything which can be found in typical textbooks on QFT. This paper presents a recent account based on new ideas derived from 'modular localization' including a mathematic appendix on this subject. The main content is an in-depth criticism of the dual model and its string theoretic extension. The conceptual flaws of these models are closely related to misunderstandings of the true meaning of crossing. The correct interpretation of string theory is that of a dynamic infinite component wave function or pointlike field i.e. a theory which under irreducible Poincare decomposition into an infinite mass/spin tower but which also contains operators which do not commute with the generators of the Poincare group but rather intertwine between different mass/spin levels. (author)

  11. Throw the bathwater out but save the baby: new perspectives in Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo PEZZANO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the status of critical theory and thinking, claiming that we should not throw the baby out with the bathwater: if a certain way of conceiving and practicing it has nowadays become partial and unfit, then it’s not true that it is qua tale useless, old-fashioned, or dead. I start stressing that, in general, Critical Theory highlights that there is a problematic relation between individuals and social structure, which has to be pointed out, to indicate actual and possible transformations. Then, I propose a heuristic distinction between two main paradigms of Critical Theory and thinking (the modern Critical Theory and the postmodern Critical Theory, discussing three main aspects, separated but intertwined. The first is more strictly philosophical, involving the problem of the transcendent or immanent position of the critique: on the one hand, we have the external condemnation of the society, in the name of some kind of superior truth; on the other hand, we have the inner problematization of a given social field, according to criteria that have been posited by itself or that are implicit in it (§ 1. The second is more strictly anthropological, dealing with the problem of human nature and alienation: on the one hand, we have the hope for the restoration of a lost state of originary plenitude; on the other hand, we have the effort of learning the better way to deal with human openness and relationality (§ 2. The third is more strictly sociological, posing the question of ways and forms of life: on the one hand, we have an ironical attitude, aiming to elaborate a true counter-society that should take the place of the false present one; on the other hand, we have a humoristic attitude, that attempts to make the problem that a society both poses and tries to answer a problem that reemerges, so that it can be again for the first time seen as a problem (§ 3.

  12. Teacher Perspectives of Interdisciplinary Coteaching Relationships in a Clinical Skills Course: A Relational Coordination Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michelle M; Ross, Paula; Stalmeijer, Renée E; de Grave, Willem

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenon: Interdisciplinary coteaching has become a popular pedagogic model in medical education, yet there is insufficient research to guide effective practices in this context. Coteaching relationships are not always effective, which has the potential to affect the student experience. The purpose of this study was to explore interdisciplinary coteaching relationships between a physician (MD) and social behavioral scientist (SBS) in an undergraduate clinical skills course. We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of what teachers perceive as influencing the quality of relationships to begin to construct a framework for collaborative teaching in medical education. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of 12 semistructured interviews (6 MD and 6 SBS) and 2 monodisciplinary focus groups. Sampling was purposive and aimed at maximal variation from among 64 possible faculty. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method to develop a grounded theory. Five major themes resulted from the analysis that outline a framework for interdisciplinary coteaching: respect, shared goals, shared knowledge and understanding, communication, and complementary pairings. Insights: The first 4 themes align with elements of relational coordination theory, an organizational theory of collaborative practice that describes how work roles interact. The complementary pairings extend this theory from work roles to individuals, with unique identities and personal beliefs and values about teaching. Prior studies on coteaching have not provided a clear linkage to theory. The conceptual framework helps suggest future directions for coteaching research and has practical implications for administrative practices and faculty development. These findings contribute to the sparse research in medical education on interdisciplinary coteaching relationships.

  13. Exploring Perspectives of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Challenging Behaviors about Family Relationships: An Emergent Topic in a Grounded Theory Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    2016-01-01

    The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…

  14. Promoting Supportive Relationships in Youth Programs: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat D. Duerden

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although research suggests that positive contact with non-parental adults is developmentally beneficial for youth; many adolescents do not have access to such relationships. It is important that adults structure existing relationships to optimize positive youth development. Relationships with adults, who support youth’s needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence, provide youth with scaffolding as they navigate their way through adolescence. Self-Determination Theory offers a straight-forward approach to understanding the elements of contexts that best promote the development of supportive relationships. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature concerning youth-adult relationships, including their associated prevalence and developmental benefits across multiple contexts. These findings are then integrated into a framework of best practices for developing and supporting positive youth relationships with adults within youth program settings. Several theory-based recommendations are offered for youth program administrators and staff who wish to improve youth-adult relationships in their programs.

  15. Hidden Fermi liquid, scattering rate saturation, and Nernst effect: a dynamical mean-field theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhu; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2013-07-19

    We investigate the transport properties of a correlated metal within dynamical mean-field theory. Canonical Fermi liquid behavior emerges only below a very low temperature scale T(FL). Surprisingly the quasiparticle scattering rate follows a quadratic temperature dependence up to much higher temperatures and crosses over to saturated behavior around a temperature scale T(sat). We identify these quasiparticles as constituents of the hidden Fermi liquid. The non-Fermi-liquid transport above T(FL), in particular the linear-in-T resistivity, is shown to be a result of a strongly temperature dependent band dispersion. We derive simple expressions for the resistivity, Hall angle, thermoelectric power and Nernst coefficient in terms of a temperature dependent renormalized band structure and the quasiparticle scattering rate. We discuss possible tests of the dynamical mean-field theory picture of transport using ac measurements.

  16. Theoretical perspectives for the Environmental Education in high school. Theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Haydé Gutiérrez Sabogal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the background and conclusions of an Environmental Education purpose —EE— supported by theoretical models able to frame processes of teaching and learning applied to EE in the high school. All of this come from strict revision and analysis of complemented educational didactics, through the professional teaching experience. To reveal this conceptual framework, the activities are posed and developed within the Environmental School Project —ESP— of the District Education Institute —DEI— Ignacio Pescador as a mode to put into practice the analyzed theory. Thus, the results obtained validate the referential framework proposed to produce knowledge about the instructive theory — which is aimed to professional teachers who will be added to the teaching process of EE into the high school institutes— and the process of knowledge creation in the student body.

  17. Gender differences in ethical perceptions of business practices: a social role theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, G R; Crown, D F; Spake, D F

    1997-12-01

    This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction.

  18. Lexical Complexity Development from Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective: Lexical Density, Diversity, and Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Kalantari; Javad Gholami

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal case study explored Iranian EFL learners’ lexical complexity (LC) through the lenses of Dynamic Systems Theory (DST). Fifty independent essays written by five intermediate to advanced female EFL learners in a TOEFL iBT preparation course over six months constituted the corpus of this study. Three Coh-Metrix indices (Graesser, McNamara, Louwerse, & Cai, 2004; McNamara & Graesser, 2012), three Lexical Complexity Analyzer indices (Lu, 2010, 2012; Lu & Ai, 2011...

  19. When is identity congruent with the self? A self-determination theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    Within the identity literature, self and identity are often used as interchangeable terms. By contrast, in Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2003) both terms have a differentiated meaning and it is maintained that identities may vary in the extent to which they are congruent with the basic growth tendencies of the self that are fueled by the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Specifically, the level of congruence between identities and the self is ...

  20. Supply risk management from a transaction cost and social exchange theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Petra; Schiele, Holger; Song, Michael; Krabbendam, Johannes Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    Supply risk management gained prominence over the last decade, both in the academic discourse and in practical application. This research examines the influence of Transaction Cost characteristics -behavioral uncertainty, environmental uncertainty and asset specificity on supply risk management performance. We also identify two antecedents of the transaction cost constructs based on social exchange theory: dependency and preferred customer status. We used survey data to discover a positive in...

  1. RELATIONS BETWEEN TEACHERS’ MOTIVATION AND STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION: A SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Inok

    2014-01-01

    There is little research that examines impact teachers' motivation on students' motivation due to sparse attention to teachers' motivation. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between teachers' motivation and students' motivation using self-determination theory. Participants were 697 5th and 6th students and 35 of their teachers in Seoul, South Korea. Students completed the questionnaires for motivation, basic psychological needs, and perceptions of teacher's in...

  2. Using Contact Theory to Assess Staff Perspectives on Training Initiatives of an Intergenerational Programming Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Raven H; Naar, Jill J; Jarrott, Shannon E

    2017-12-25

    Project TRIP (Transforming Relationships through Intergenerational Programs) was developed as a sustainable intergenerational community project involving child care participants and elders attending an elder care program or volunteering at the children's program. The project focused on staff development of evidence-based intergenerational practices. To enhance available intervention research, contact theory provided a theoretical framework to explore how staff members' and administrators' perceptions of the intervention influenced their ability to implement programming in social care settings. We used a directed content analysis approach to analyze small group and individual interviews with 32 participants from 6 program sites over 5 years. Participants highlighted inherent challenges and subsequent benefits of academic-community partnerships. Greater on-site presence, open communication, and relationship-building proved critical to improve community partnerships, project fidelity, and program sustainability. When interactions reflected contact theory tenets, collaborators reported positive attitudes toward and interactions with research partners. Contact theory provided a useful framework to understand the researcher-practitioner partnership. Researchers should plan for partnerships that: (a) are supported by authority figures, including staff and participants, (b) utilize a shared expertise approach where partners have equal group status, (c) involve close cooperation; (d) align research and program goals, and (e) foster positive communication through frequent contact using practitioners' preferred methods and including in-person contact. We recommend future intergenerational programming interventions build on a foundation of both theory and practice. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Individuals’ Motivation to Participate in Sport Tourism: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Aicher; Jessica Brenner

    2015-01-01

    Using self-determination theory (SDT) as a conceptual framework, we utilized previous research to develop a conceptual model to better understand individuals’ motivation to participate in sport tourism and events. The model represents the six propositions we put forward that depict the relationships between motivational factors associated with sport tourism and event participation and individuals’ controlled or autonomous motivation. Specifically, organizational motivations are proposed to en...

  4. Evaluating time to cancer recurrence as a surrogate marker for survival from an information theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Abad, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2008-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a lot of development in the area of surrogate marker validation. One of these approaches places the evaluation in a meta-analytic framework, leading to definitions in terms of trial- and individual-level association. A drawback of this methodology is that different settings have led to different measures at the individual level. Using information theory, Alonso et al. proposed a unified framework, leading to a new definition of surrogacy, which offers interpreta...

  5. Modular localization and the holistic structure of causal quantum theory, a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Recent insights into the conceptual structure of localization in QFT ('modular localization') led to clarifications of old unsolved problems. The oldest one is the Einstein-Jordan conundrum which led Jordan in 1925 to the discovery of quantum field theory. This comparison of fluctuations in subsystems of heat bath systems (Einstein) with those resulting from the restriction of the QFT vacuum state to an open subvolume (Jordan) leads to a perfect analogy; the globally pure vacuum state becomes upon local restriction a strongly impure KMS state. This phenomenon of localization-caused thermal behavior as well as the vacuum-polarization clouds at the causal boundary of the localization region places localization in QFT into a sharp contrast with quantum mechanics and justifies the attribute 'holstic'. In fact it positions the E-J Gedankenexperiment into the same conceptual category as the cosmological constant problem and the Unruh Gedankenexperiment. The holistic structure of QFT resulting from 'modular localization' also leads to a revision of the conceptual origin of the crucial crossing property which entered particle theory at the time of the bootstrap S-matrix approach but suffered from incorrect use in the S-matrix settings of the dual model and string theory. The new holistic point of view, which strengthens the autonomous aspect of QFT, also comes with new messages for gauge theory by exposing the clash between Hilbert space structure and localization and presenting alternative solutions based on the use of string local fields in Hilbert space. Among other things this leads to a radical reformulation of the Englert-Higgs symmetry breaking mechanism. (author)

  6. The Valency Theory: The Human Bond From A New Psychoanalytic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Med Hafsi

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses some psychoanalytical conceptions concerning what links people to each other, or the human bond. Psychoanalysis, can be regarded as a science dealing basically with, although not directly, the human bond or link linking the person with his external and internal objects. The fact that this bond is in perpetualtransformation, and therefore can be apprehended from different angles has led to various psychoanalytical conceptions or theories which are more complementary...

  7. A latent class growth analysis of school bullying and its social context: the self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Chan, Chi-Keung; Wong, Bernard P H; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%), victims (3.0%), bully-victims (9.4%), and typical students (77.8%). There was a significant association between academic tracking and group membership. Students from the school with the lowest academic performance had a greater chance of being victims and bully-victims. Longitudinal data showed that all 4 groups tended to report less victimization over the years. The victims and the typical students also had a tendency to report less bullying over the years, but this tendency was reversed for bullies and bully-victims. Perceived support from teachers for relatedness significantly predicted membership of the groups of bullies and victims. Students with higher perceived support for relatedness from their teachers had a significantly lower likelihood of being bullies or victims. The findings have implications for the theory and practice of preventive interventions in school bullying.

  8. Consumer Intention toward Bringing Your Own Shopping Bags in Taiwan: An Application of Ethics Perspective and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsiung Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Chan and coworkers’ (2008 research, the current study integrated Hunt and Vitell’s (1986 ethics perspective and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB to present a model that explains consumers’ intention to “Bring Your Own Shopping Bags” (BYOB with grocery shopping. The proposed model is empirically validated in Taiwan. Based on a survey of 601 respondents, the findings suggest that consumers’ deontological evaluation is positively related to their attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, while teleological evaluation is positively related to perceived behavioral control only. In addition, the results also indicate that consumers’ attitude and perceived behavioral control has a positive relationship with BYOB intention, while subjective norm does not have a signification relationship with BYOB intention. In sum, this study contributes to the literature by providing insights for applying general ethics and theory of planned behavior to explain consumers’ BYOB behavior. The results also provide policy makers guidelines regarding BYOB. Managerial implications and research limitations are discussed at the end of this paper.

  9. The uncanny return of the race concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHeinz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this Hypothesis & Theory is to question the recently increasing use of the race concept in contemporary genetic as well as social studies. We discuss race and related terms used to assign individuals to distinct groups and caution that also concepts such as ethnicity or culture unduly neglect diversity. We suggest that one factor contributing to the dangerous nature of the race concept is that it is based on a mixture of traditional stereotypes about physiognomy and unduly imbued by colonial traditions. Furthermore, the social impact on race classifications will be critically reflected. We then examine current ways to apply the term culture and caution that while originally derived from a fundamentally different background, culture is all too often used as a proxy for race, particularly when referring to the population of a certain national state or wider region. When used in such contexts, suggesting that all inhabitants of a geographical or political unit belong to a certain culture tends to ignore diversity and to suggest a homogeneity, which consciously or unconsciously appears to extend into the realm of biological similarities and differences. Finally, we discuss alternative approaches and their respective relevance to biological and cultural studies.

  10. Theory of imprevision from the economic and legal perspective of contract analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ştefan PĂTRU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The new realities of the 21st century ask for a revitalization of the economic and legal systems so as to overcome the effects of the economic crisis. The current economic crisis is at the same time a challenge for the scientific milieu which is called to find the best solutions for the reversal and adaptation of the main scientific institutions. For the legal system, the contract represents an essential factor both theoretically and practically so that the new legislative decisions appear to be as highly important. As a particular case study, we intend to analyse the theory of imprevision both from the theoretical viewpoint and the one of practical consequences that the regulation of this institution might generate in the domestic legislative environment through the provisions of the New Civil Code. Far from our affiliation to the opinions that vividly sustain or reject the regulation of this theory, this article intends to be an objective analysis of the theory of imprevision representing one of the greatest challenges for the New Civil Code.

  11. Health region development from the perspective of system theory - an empirical cross-regional case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Just War Theory v/s Unconventional Weapon. An Analysis from Ethical Moral and Legal Perspective

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    Sindhu Vijaya Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Just war theory deals withthe justification of how and why wars are fought. Thejustification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethicallyjustifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. The historical aspect, or the “just wartradition,” deals with the historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various warsacross the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and Hague conventions arehistorical rules aimed at limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to in prosecutingtransgressors, but it is the role of ethics to examine these institutional agreements for theirphilosophical coherence as well as to inquire into whether aspects of the conventions ought to bechanged. The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of various philosophers and lawyersthrough the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of war’s ethical limits (or absence ofand whether their thoughts have contributed to the body of conventions that have evolved to guidewar, especially nuclear warfare which is an unconventional weapon. The seriousness of suchprohibited weapon was a debatable issue not only in the contemporary law of armed conflict but, alsoin the ancient law of war. This paper shall try to evaluate the essence of just war theory in a newdimension interlinking it with ethics and moral value to judge the use of unconventional weapon andcondemn it as inhuman and against the theory of just war.

  13. Grounded Theory Study of Conflicts in Norwegian Agile Software Projects: The Project Managers’ Perspective

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    Lubna Siddique

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the process of conflicts in agile software projects. The purpose was to investigate the causes and consequences of these conflicts. For this purpose, we conducted a qualitative study involving agile software projects in Norway. Grounded theory was used to analyze the data and the interview findings are presented using Glaser´s Six C model (context, condition, causes, consequences, contingencies, and covariance. The research findings suggest that there are several causes of conflicts. These include: the role of the product owner, an inexperienced project manager, the customer’s lack of knowledge about methodology organizational hierarchy in public companies, contracting, personal egos, financial issues, not getting the right team. Consequences of conflicts include: decreased productivity, wastage of time and resources, diverted attention from project objectives loss of motivation, poor decision making, loss of communication. Based on interview data, different conflict strategies are suggested and these include appropriately skilled project manager, communication and negotiation, defining clear roles, stakeholder analysis, managing stakeholder´s expectations, discussion, finding the root cause of conflict. Project managers are using these strategies to avoid or resolve conflicts. The competencies required to handle these kind of conflicts are also discussed in the paper, while the implications of theory and practice of conflict management theory are also presented.

  14. Contemporary perspectives in aesthetic theory: Steven Connor, Sianne Ngai and the edible world

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    Tom Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article interprets the work of cultural theorists Steven Connor and Sianne Ngai in terms of their efforts to reevaluate certain key presumptions of aesthetic theory that inherits the surprisingly resilient biases of the 18th century, in particular the work of Immanuel Kant and Edmund Burke. Focusing on the work of Ngai and Connor, I think through the implications this recent theory has for the previously peripheral position occupied by gustatory taste and the cultural objects and experiences it implicates. I discuss the possibility that ideas and examples drawn from the work of Connor and Ngai might form the basis for an alternative area of analysis that is better adapted to the peculiarities of gustatory taste and the culinary. In particular, I argue that the visceral element, which tends to accompany gustatory taste, ought to be interpreted in terms of its generative contribution to the creation of concepts through metaphor, rather than as a muddying influence that prevents clarity of discrimination. Similarly, the close relationship between the edible and the domestic is deserving of a more generous reading than is commonly found in aesthetic theory underwritten by the categories of the sublime and the beautiful.

  15. Can achievement goal theory provide a useful motivational perspective for explaining psychosocial attributes of medical students?

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    Madjar Nir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations, for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation. Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT, is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS, psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT. Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90 and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S (β = .16, p Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.

  16. Can achievement goal theory provide a useful motivational perspective for explaining psychosocial attributes of medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Bachner, Yaacov G; Kushnir, Talma

    2012-01-12

    Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations), for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation). Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT), is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS), psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S) and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT). All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90) and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S) (β = .16, p frustration tolerance (β = -.22, p frustration tolerance (β = .36, p < .001). The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.

  17. The compatibility approach in the classical theory of thermoelectricity seen from the perspective of variational calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, Wolfgang [Institute of Physics, Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Zabrocki, Knud; Mueller, Eckhard [Institute of Materials Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), 51170 Koeln (Germany); Snyder, G.J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The compatibility approach introduced by Snyder and Ursell opens a new pathway for the improvement of thermoelectric (TE) device performance. It has been shown that sufficient compatibility is - besides an increase of the averaged figure of merit Z - essential for efficient operation of a TE device, and that compatibility will facilitate rational materials selection, device design, and the engineering of functionally graded materials (FGMs). In this paper, the authors give an overview of the fundamental results and present a new approach from the perspective of variational calculus. A particular focus is on the role of ideal self-compatibility, i.e., adjusting compatibility locally at any position along a TE leg. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Exploring themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chains – A complexity theory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Maisam

    identify, classify, and tackle the challenges that can hinder the execution of such strategies. To develop innovative strategies, the patterns of current trends and themes need to be learned and the missing ones need to be identified. The purpose of this research was to explore themes and challenges......To develop sustainable supply chains in a way that their negative environmental and social effects are minimized, shortand long-term targets should be set. The transformation of supply chains towards these targets calls for the development of innovative strategies and the need to continuously...... in developing sustainable supply chain activities from theoretical and empirical perspectives. Six research studies (RS) were designed and carried out. Two explored the patterns of the themes and challenges in making supply chains environmentally and socially sustainable in general (RS1, RS2). One explored...

  19. A Critical Perspective on Relations between Staff Nurses and their Nurse Manager: Advancing Nurse Empowerment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, Sonia; Racine, Louise

    2014-12-01

    This study considers empowerment in nurse-manager relations by examining how conflict is handled on both sides and how the critical social perspective has influenced these relations. The authors use inductive analysis of empirical data to explain how (1) nursing work is organized, structured, and circumscribed by centrally determined policies and practices that downplay nurses' professional judgement about patient care; (2) power is held over nurses in their relationship with their manager; and (3) nurses' response to power is to engage in strategies of resistance. The authors illustrate how power influences relations between staff nurses and managers and provide a critical analysis of the strategies of resistance that result in personal, relational, and critical empowerment among staff nurses. Through resistance, staff nurses engage in alternative discourses to counteract the prevailing neoliberal organizational and managerial discourses of efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.

  20. Do blind people see race? Social, legal, and theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasogie, Osagie K

    2010-01-01

    Although the meaning, significance, and definition of race have been debated for centuries, one thread of thought unifies almost all of the many diverging perspectives: a largely unquestioned belief that race is self-evident and visually obvious, defined largely by skin color, facial features, and other visual cues. This suggests that “seeing race” is an experience largely unmediated by broader social forces; we simply know it when we see it. It also suggests that those who cannot see are likely to have a diminished understanding of race. But is this empirically accurate?I examine these questions by interviewing people who have been totally blind since birth about race and compare their responses to sighted individuals. I not only find that blind people have as significant an understanding of race as anyone else and that they understand race visually, but that this visual understanding of race stems from interpersonal and institutional socializations that profoundly shape their racial perceptions. These findings highlight how race and racial thinking are encoded into individuals through iterative social practices that train people to think a certain way about the world around them. In short, these practices are so strong that even blind people, in a conceptual sense, “see” race. Rather than being self-evident, these interviews draw attention to how race becomes visually salient through constitutive social practices that give rise to visual understandings of racial difference for blind and sighted people alike. This article concludes with a discussion of these findings' significance for understanding the role of race in law and society.

  1. Internally-directed cognition and mindfulness:An integrative perspective derived from reactive versus predictive control systems theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattie eTops

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we will apply the Predictive And Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory as a framework that integrates competing theories of neural substrates of awareness by describing the default mode network (DMN and anterior insula (AI as parts of two different behavioral and homeostatic control systems. The DMN, a network that becomes active at rest when there is no external stimulation or task to perform, has been implicated in self-reflective awareness and prospection. By contrast, the AI is associated with awareness and task-related attention. This has led to competing theories stressing the role of the DMN in self-awareness versus the role of interoceptive and emotional information integration in the AI in awareness of the emotional moment. In PARCS, the respective functions of the DMN and AI in a specific control system explains their association with different qualities of awareness, and how mental states can shift from one state (e.g., prospective self-reflection to the other (e.g., awareness of the emotional moment depending on the relative dominance of control systems. These shifts between reactive and predictive control are part of processes that enable the intake of novel information, integration of this novel information within existing knowledge structures, and the creation of a continuous personal context in which novel information can be integrated and understood. As such, PARCS can explain key characteristics of mental states, such as their temporal and spatial focus (e.g., a focus on the here and now vs. the future; a 1st person vs. a 3rd person perspective. PARCS further relates mental states to brain states and functions, such as activation of the DMN or hemispheric asymmetry in frontal cortical functions. Together, PARCS deepens the understanding of a broad range of mental states, including mindfulness, mind wandering, rumination, autobiographical memory, imagery, and the experience of self.

  2. Protocol: A grounded theory of ‘recovery’—perspectives of adolescent users of mental health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Lucianne; Patterson, Sue; O'Donovan, Analise; Bradley, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Policies internationally endorse the recovery paradigm as the appropriate foundation for youth mental health services. However, given that this paradigm is grounded in the views of adults with severe mental illness, applicability to youth services and relevance to young people is uncertain, particularly as little is known about young people’s views. A comprehensive understanding of the experiences and expectations of young people is critical to developing youth mental health services that are acceptable, accessible, effective and relevant. Aim To inform development of policy and youth services, the study described in this protocol aims to develop a comprehensive account of the experiences and expectations of 12–17 year olds as they encounter mental disorders and transition through specialist mental health services. Data will be analysed to model recovery from the adolescents’ perspective. Method and analysis This grounded theory study will use quantitative and qualitative data collected in interviews with 12–17 year olds engaged with specialist Child/Youth Mental Health Service in Queensland, Australia. Interviews will explore adolescents’ expectations and experiences of mental disorder, and of services, as they transition through specialist mental health services, including the meaning of their experiences and ideas of ‘recovery’ and how their experiences and expectations are shaped. Data collection and analysis will use grounded theory methods. Ethics and dissemination Adolescents’ experiences will be presented as a mid-range theory. The research will provide tangible recommendations for youth-focused mental health policy and practice. Findings will be disseminated within academic literature and beyond to participants, health professionals, mental health advocacy groups and policy and decision makers via publications, research summaries, conferences and workshops targeting different audiences. Ethical and research governance approvals

  3. Unauthorised Biographies: An Analysis Under the Perspective of Robert Alexy's External Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Inomata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paperwork aimed to analyse whether or not the publication of a biography should require the prior authorisation from the subject  or their family. As there is, in this case, a collision between personality rights and freedom of speech, the proportionality test was used to solve such conflict. The first step was to define biography as a non-ficctional genre. The paperwork then aimed to define the theory of the principles, the external theory of the restriction of fundamental rights and the proportionality test developed by jurist Robert Alexy, which are largely used in Brazil by authors like Virgílio Afonso da Silva, Ingo Wolfgang Sarlet and Daniel Sarmento. It was observed that when fundamental rights collide, the proportionality must be verified and as a result there is a conditional precedence relation between the rights. In such case, the ceding right will be restricted by the preciding one. The external theory is a recognised manner of verifying whether the restriction of a fundamental right is legit or if it is a violation. The need for prior authorisation, based on the personality protection, restricts freedom of speech, on the other hand, its exemption is based on the right to freedom of speech. By applying the aforementioned method, a particular rule was developed and the conditions for it to be applicable: freedom of speech prevails over personality rights in given conditions (public figure, over suitable means, no expectation for privacy in the publication, diligence in the verification of truth or social and journalistic interest over the information

  4. A self-determination theory perspective on the role of autonomy in solitary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Sook Ning; Koestner, Richard

    2008-10-01

    People are often seen as social creatures and, consequently, solitary behaviors are often cast in a negative light. However, the authors hypothesized that the act of spending time alone is not necessarily related to negative outcomes; rather, individuals' motivation for doing so plays a key role. On the basis of self-determination theory (E. L Deci & R. M. Ryan, 2000; R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000), the authors predicted and found that when individuals spend time alone in a volitional and autonomous manner, they counterintuitively report lower levels of loneliness and higher levels of well-being.

  5. Modelling the Intention to Adopt Cloud Computing Services: A Transaction Cost Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogan Yigitbasioglu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses transaction cost theory to study cloud computing adoption. A model is developed and tested with data from an Australian survey. According to the results, perceived vendor opportunism and perceived legislative uncertainty around cloud computing were significantly associated with perceived cloud computing security risk. There was also a significant negative relationship between perceived cloud computing security risk and the intention to adopt cloud services. This study also reports on adoption rates of cloud computing in terms of applications, as well as the types of services used.

  6. Semantic modeling for theory clarification: The realist vs liberal international relations perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Political Science Dept.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a natural language based, semantic information modeling methodology and explores its use and value in clarifying and comparing political science theories and frameworks. As an example, the paper uses this methodology to clarify and compare some of the basic concepts and relationships in the realist (e.g. Waltz) and the liberal (e.g. Rosenau) paradigms for international relations. The methodology can provide three types of benefits: (1) it can clarify and make explicit exactly what is meant by a concept; (2) it can often identify unanticipated implications and consequence of concepts and relationships; and (3) it can help in identifying and operationalizing testable hypotheses.

  7. Ebola salience, death-thought accessibility, and worldview defense: A terror management theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrowood, Robert B; Cox, Cathy R; Kersten, Michael; Routledge, Clay; Shelton, Jill Talley; Hood, Ralph W

    2017-10-01

    According to terror management theory, individuals defend their cultural beliefs following mortality salience. The current research examined whether naturally occurring instances of death (i.e., Ebola) correspond to results found in laboratory studies. The results of two experiments demonstrated that participants experienced a greater accessibility of death-related thoughts in response to an Ebola prime during a regional outbreak. Study 2 also showed that increased mortality awareness following an Ebola manipulation was associated with greater worldview defense (i.e., religious fundamentalism). Together, these results suggest that reminders of death in the form of a disease threat operate similarly to a mortality salience manipulation.

  8. Quantum cybernetics: a new perspective for Nelson's stochastic theory, nonlocality, and the Klein-Gordon equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grössing, Gerhard

    2002-04-01

    The Klein-Gordon equation is shown to be equivalent to coupled partial differential equations for a sub-quantum Brownian movement of a “particle”, which is both passively affected by, and actively affecting, a diffusion process of its generally nonlocal environment. This indicates circularly causal, or “cybernetic”, relationships between “particles” and their surroundings. Moreover, in the relativistic domain, the original stochastic theory of Nelson is shown to hold as a limiting case only, i.e., for a vanishing quantum potential.

  9. European cooperation in the field of security and defence. International Relation theories perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czaputowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various theoretical explanations of the European cooperation in the field of security and defence. According to realist explanations this cooperation was a response to external evolutions in the international system, i.e. changes in polarity and distribution of power. Liberals say that it was rather due to internal factors. Constructivists argue that it was a result of elites’ socialisation, while according to Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, it was caused by civil servants and military staff at the policy implementation level. The paper argues that external factors underlined by realists were decisive, i.e. America’s decreasing involvement in European security.

  10. Social change at the end of the Middle Jomon: a perspective from resilience theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamune Kawashima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that social change occurred in the end of the Middle Jōmon, which can be seen in archaeological evidence such as settlements, pottery types, and so on. Most archaeologists have recognised this change as a result of climate change. It is said that a cooling trend in this period had a great influence on food acquisition and caused low chestnut harvests, which was a staple. However, the notion that climate was the critical factor is not sufficient to explain the social change that occurred at the end of the Middle Jōmon, because similar types of society existed after this cooling trend, although the population numbers decreased. It is also important to consider human adaptation to the environment, especially in the case of hunter-gatherer societies. In this paper, I will describe the outline of the arguments supporting the environment theory among Japanese archaeologists, and explore how Jōmon people overcame this period and constructed a new society, based on resilience theory.

  11. Student autonomy in classroom context: A critical perspective of the self-determination theory

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    Tadić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses that in the field of pedagogic theory it is necessary to develop an interpretational framework for analysing basic pedagogic processes based on the assumptions of critical pedagogy and the theory of self-determination. Analyzed were the definitions of the idea of autonomy and control in the works of Michael Apple, John Dewey, Richard Ryan, Edward Deci, and Alfie Kohn. The starting standpoints that control, limitations and requirements are constitutive elements of education and that autonomy is the result of internalized control are argued. The student's autonomy is not linked exclusively with their engagement in the activities accompanied with pleasant feelings. Even an extrinsically motivated student feels that he is behaving autonomously in the cases of internalization and integration of the value of such behaviour when he internalizes classroom rules and teaching requirements as his own values and regulators of his own behaviour. Among the conclusions it is stated that the teacher expecting a certain behaviour and participation in the activities which his students do not perceive as helpful or important, will tend to support the feeling of autonomous acting in the students by making an effort to explain to them the value of such behaviour or potentional personal benefit it can bring them.

  12. Understanding the electron-phonon interaction in polar crystals: Perspective presented by the vibronic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishtshev, A.; Kristoffel, N.

    2017-05-01

    We outline our novel results relating to the physics of the electron-TO-phonon (el-TO-ph) interaction in a polar crystal. We explained why the el-TO-ph interaction becomes effectively strong in a ferroelectric, and showed how the electron density redistribution establishes favorable conditions for soft-behavior of the long-wavelength branch of the active TO vibration. In the context of the vibronic theory it has been demonstrated that at the macroscopic level the interaction of electrons with the polar zone-centre TO phonons can be associated with the internal long-range dipole forces. Also we elucidated a methodological issue of how local field effects are incorporated within the vibronic theory. These result provided not only substantial support for the vibronic mechanism of ferroelectricity but also presented direct evidence of equivalence between vibronic and the other lattice dynamics models. The corresponding comparison allowed us to introduce the original parametrization for constants of the vibronic interaction in terms of key material constants. The applicability of the suggested formula has been tested for a wide class of polar materials.

  13. String theory and fundamental interactions. Gabriele Veneziano and theoretical physics - Historical and contemporary perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperini, M. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Maharana, J. (eds.) [Institute of Physics, Orissa (India)

    2008-07-01

    This volume, dedicated to Prof. Gabriele Veneziano on the occasion of his retirement from CERN, starts as a broad historico-scientific study on the work on string theory and nonperturbative QCD that has been pioneered by Prof. Veneziano in the late 60s and early 70s. It goes on to examine the many ramifications this and similar early work has spawned over the past decades and the reader will find state-of-the art tutorial reviews on string cosmology, string dualities and symmetries, and much more. The book includes a concise updated scientific biography of, and an interview with, Prof. Veneziano, in which he relates his personal views about the present and future of fundamental physics. This is followed by the commented draft of an unpublished paper of 1973 of his, anticipating interesting results which were rediscovered and published more than a decade later. Overall, this volume is a vast and unique canvas where the re-examination of older and the presentation of newer results and insights are skillfully mixed with personal recollections of the contributing authors, most of them involved in the early days of string and quantum field theory, about Prof. Veneziano and the many interrelated topics considered. (orig.)

  14. Nordic perspectives on safety management in high reliability organizations: Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenson, Ola; Salo, I.; Sjerve, A.B.; Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.

    2006-04-01

    The chapters in this volume are written on a stand-alone basis meaning that the chapters can be read in any order. The first 4 chapters focus on theory and method in general with some applied examples illustrating the methods and theories. Chapters 5 and 6 are about safety management in the aviation industry with some additional information about incident reporting in the aviation industry and the health care sector. Chapters 7 through 9 cover safety management with applied examples from the nuclear power industry and with considerable validity for safety management in any industry. Chapters 10 through 12 cover generic safety issues with examples from the oil industry and chapter 13 presents issues related to organizations with different internal organizational structures. Although the many of the chapters use a specific industry to illustrate safety management, the messages in all the chapters are of importance for safety management in any high reliability industry or risky activity. The interested reader is also referred to, e.g., a document by an international NEA group (SEGHOF), who is about to publish a state of the art report on Systematic Approaches to Safety Management (cf., CSNI/NEA/SEGHOF, home page: www.nea.fr). (au)

  15. Nordic perspectives on safety management in high reliability organizations: Theory and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Ola; Salo, I; Sjerve, A B; Reiman, T; Oedewald, P [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The chapters in this volume are written on a stand-alone basis meaning that the chapters can be read in any order. The first 4 chapters focus on theory and method in general with some applied examples illustrating the methods and theories. Chapters 5 and 6 are about safety management in the aviation industry with some additional information about incident reporting in the aviation industry and the health care sector. Chapters 7 through 9 cover safety management with applied examples from the nuclear power industry and with considerable validity for safety management in any industry. Chapters 10 through 12 cover generic safety issues with examples from the oil industry and chapter 13 presents issues related to organizations with different internal organizational structures. Although the many of the chapters use a specific industry to illustrate safety management, the messages in all the chapters are of importance for safety management in any high reliability industry or risky activity. The interested reader is also referred to, e.g., a document by an international NEA group (SEGHOF), who is about to publish a state of the art report on Systematic Approaches to Safety Management (cf., CSNI/NEA/SEGHOF, home page: www.nea.fr). (au)

  16. Using of Protectionism Policy Tools in the context of WTO from the Perspective of Dependency Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel KARAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, when neoliberal policies have been intensively implemented, the distribution of income between developed and less developed countries in the world has begun to increase inequality. There are discourses that the neoliberal view suggests that today's wealthy countries are successful with free market economics, so that all countries in the world must move to a free market economy system and that neoliberal policies are the only way for development. According to the neoliberal policy which advocates the state neutrality in the economy, the role of the state in the economy should be reduced. As a result, weakening the effectiveness of government policy-setting and implementation in the economy is intended. Thus, developed countries direct the underdeveloped or developing countries in the direction of their own interests. The result of these discourses, the theory of dependence which states that there is a relationship between developed and underdeveloped countries based on power and control, that underdevelopment of underdeveloped countries should be sought in the development process of developed countries has come out. The aim of the study is to assess the results of the use of defense measures in the trade policy implemented under the World Trade Organization (WTO, based on the assumptions of the dependency theory. When the use of defense instruments in trade policy is examined, it appears that these instruments have been effectively used by developed countries that advocate and enforce the free market economy in the world.

  17. String theory and fundamental interactions. Gabriele Veneziano and theoretical physics - Historical and contemporary perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasperini, M.

    2008-01-01

    This volume, dedicated to Prof. Gabriele Veneziano on the occasion of his retirement from CERN, starts as a broad historico-scientific study on the work on string theory and nonperturbative QCD that has been pioneered by Prof. Veneziano in the late 60s and early 70s. It goes on to examine the many ramifications this and similar early work has spawned over the past decades and the reader will find state-of-the art tutorial reviews on string cosmology, string dualities and symmetries, and much more. The book includes a concise updated scientific biography of, and an interview with, Prof. Veneziano, in which he relates his personal views about the present and future of fundamental physics. This is followed by the commented draft of an unpublished paper of 1973 of his, anticipating interesting results which were rediscovered and published more than a decade later. Overall, this volume is a vast and unique canvas where the re-examination of older and the presentation of newer results and insights are skillfully mixed with personal recollections of the contributing authors, most of them involved in the early days of string and quantum field theory, about Prof. Veneziano and the many interrelated topics considered. (orig.)

  18. There is no Theory of Everything a physics perspective on emergence

    CERN Document Server

    English, Lars Q

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to introduce a broader audience to emergence by illustrating how discoveries in the physical sciences have informed the ways we think about it.  In a nutshell, emergence asserts that non-reductive behavior arises at higher levels of organization and complexity. As physicist Philip Anderson put it, “more is different.”  Along the text's conversational tour through the terrain of quantum physics, phase transitions, nonlinear and statistical physics, networks and complexity, the author highlights the various philosophical nuances that arise in encounters with emergence. The final part of the book zooms out to reflect on some larger lessons that emergence affords us. One of those larger lessons is the realization that the great diversity of theories and models, and the great variety of independent explanatory frameworks, will always be with us in the sciences and beyond. There is no “Theory of Everything” just around the corner waiting to be discovered. One of the main b...

  19. Application of environmental sensitivity theories in personalized prevention for youth substance abuse: a transdisciplinary translational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L; August, Gerald J; Cicchetti, Dante; Symons, Frank J

    2016-03-01

    Preventive interventions that target high-risk youth, via one-size-fits-all approaches, have demonstrated modest effects in reducing rates of substance use. Recently, substance use researchers have recommended personalized intervention strategies. Central to these approaches is matching preventatives to characteristics of an individual that have been shown to predict outcomes. One compelling body of literature on person × environment interactions is that of environmental sensitivity theories, including differential susceptibility theory and vantage sensitivity. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that environmental sensitivity (ES) factors moderate substance abuse outcomes. We propose that ES factors may augment current personalization strategies such as matching based on risk factors/severity of problem behaviors (risk severity (RS)). Specifically, individuals most sensitive to environmental influence may be those most responsive to intervention in general and thus need only a brief-type or lower-intensity program to show gains, while those least sensitive may require more comprehensive or intensive programming for optimal responsiveness. We provide an example from ongoing research to illustrate how ES factors can be incorporated into prevention trials aimed at high-risk adolescents.

  20. Perspectives of classical theories of communication against the 'forgotten' references present in the Spanish sitcom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Puebla Martínez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts with the influence of television by a review of some of the most relevant theories of communication in recent decades as the Agenda setting or the Spiral of silence. This review allowed a better understanding of the role of the news and information television consumption in the definition of our perceptions of the world and examine the limitations presented in the research that support these theories –limitations arising from their lack of attention to other genres, but news–. Ultimately, this communication aims to demonstrate how the sitcoms include references to matters and public figures that are current at the time of issue showing different positions on the matter and therefore highlights that we can not only find information on media intended to introduce this, but also we can also speak of the television infofiction, in wicht we found it can become raw material suitable for a plot, or, at least, for some mention, depending on the nature of the event today.

  1. Self-Regulation and Mechanisms of Action in Psychotherapy: A Theory-Based Translational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauman, Timothy J.; Goetz, Elena L.; Detloff, Allison M.; MacDuffie, Katherine E.; Zaunmüller, Luisa; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a complex, multi-layered process with the potential to bring about changes at multiple levels of functioning, from the neurobiology of the brain to the individual’s role in the social world. Although studies of the mechanisms by which psychotherapy leads to change continue to appear, there remains much to be learned about how psychological interventions work. To guide explorations of how and for whom particular treatment approaches lead to change, researchers can rely on theory to identify potential loci for change and on translational research methods to integrate basic behavioral science and neuroscience with clinical science. In this article, we describe research linking individual differences in the self-regulation of personal goal pursuit with the etiology and treatment of mood disorders. The research draws upon regulatory focus theory as a model of self-regulation and on microintervention designs – controlled laboratory investigations of a specific therapeutic technique – to generate and test hypotheses about how psychological interventions can help to reverse maladaptive self-regulatory processes. PMID:23072383

  2. The Impact of Polyvictimization on Delinquency Among Latino Adolescents: A General Strain Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Rebecca M; Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara

    2015-07-24

    Although criminological research has provided support for general strain theory (GST), there is still little known about the relationship between victimization and delinquency among Latino adolescents. This study seeks to fill the gap in the literature by examining the association between a broader measure of victimization (i.e., polyvictimization) and delinquent behavior using data from the Dating Violence Among Latino Adolescents (DAVILA) Study, a national sample of Latino youth. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine two issues: (a) whether polyvictimization is associated with self-reported delinquent behavior and (b) whether anger mediates the relationship between polyvictimization and delinquency. Our findings provided partial support for GST among Latino youth. Specifically, the effect of polyvictimization on delinquency was explained in part by its effect on anger. Contrary to the theory's hypothesis, the effect of polyvictimization was not conditional on the effect of social support. Overall, findings suggested that GST is a promising framework for understanding the relationship between polyvictimization and delinquency among Latino youth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A personal perspective: 100-year history of the humoral theory of transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Paul I

    2012-04-27

    The humoral theory states that antibodies cause the rejection of allografts. From 1917 to 1929, extensive efforts were made to produce antibodies against tumors. It was finally realized that the antibodies were produced against the transplant antigens present on transplantable tumors, not against the tumor-specific antigens. To get around this problem, inbred mouse strains were developed, leading to identification of the transplant antigens determined by the H-2 locus of mice. The antibodies were hemagglutinating and cytotoxic antibodies. The analogous human leukocyte antigen system was established by analysis of lymphocytotoxic alloantibodies that were made by pregnant women, directed against mismatched antigens of the fetus. The human leukocyte antigen antibodies were then found to cause hyperacute rejection, acute rejection, and chronic rejection of kidneys. Antibodies appeared in almost all patients after rejection of kidneys. With Luminex single antigen bead technology, donor-specific antibodies could be identified before rise in serum creatinine and graft failure. Antibodies were shown to be predictive of subsequent graft failure in kidney, heart, and lung transplants: patients without antibodies had superior 4-year graft survival compared with those who did have antibodies. New evidence that antibodies are also associated with chronic failure has appeared for liver and islet transplants. Four studies have now shown that removal or reduction of antibodies result in higher graft survival. If removal of antibodies prevents chronic graft failure, final validation of the humoral theory can be achieved.

  4. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  5. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 5 June starting at 12:15 p.m. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at: http://cern.ch/club-running-relay/form.html

  6. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 23 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at: http://cern.ch/club-running-relay/form.html

  7. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  8. Teamwork in adventure racing

    OpenAIRE

    Šavrňák, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Title: Teamwork in Adventure racing Goals: The main goal is to make up the chapter about an ideal teamwork in Adventure racing. And so, to help starting teams but also help experienced teams to learn about their lacks in cooperation and to shift teamwork level above. Method: We used the method of literature retrieval from books, articles and researches. Results: It is very hard task to define ideal teamwork, we would not find same two teams in the world and therefore each team suits something...

  9. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  10. Positive affect, meaning in life, and future time perspective: an application of socioemotional selectivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; Trent, Jason; Davis, William E; King, Laura A

    2012-03-01

    Four studies tested the prediction that positive affect (PA) would relate more strongly to meaning in life (MIL) as a function of perceived time limitations. In Study 1 (N = 360), adults completed measures of PA and MIL. As predicted, PA related more strongly to MIL for older, compared to younger, participants. In Studies 2 and 3, adults (N = 514) indicated their current position in their life span, and rated their MIL. PA, whether naturally occurring (Study 2) or induced (Study 3), was a stronger predictor of MIL for individuals who perceived themselves as having a limited amount of time left to live. Finally, in Study 4 (N = 98) students completed a measure of PA, MIL, and future time perspective (FTP). Results showed that PA was more strongly linked to MIL for those who believed they had fewer opportunities left to pursue their goals. Overall, these findings suggest that the experience of PA becomes increasingly associated with the experience of MIL as the perception of future time becomes limited. The contribution of age related processes to judgments of well-being are discussed.

  11. Examining Self-Disclosure on Social Networking Sites: A Flow Theory and Privacy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Oppong Appiagyei Ampong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Social media and other web 2.0 tools have provided users with the platform to interact with and also disclose personal information to not only their friends and acquaintances but also relative strangers with unprecedented ease. This has enhanced the ability of people to share more about themselves, their families, and their friends through a variety of media including text, photo, and video, thus developing and sustaining social and business relationships. The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that predict self-disclosure on social networking sites from the perspective of privacy and flow. Data was collected from 452 students in three leading universities in Ghana and analyzed with Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling. Results from the study revealed that privacy risk was the most significant predictor. We also found privacy awareness, privacy concerns, and privacy invasion experience to be significant predictors of self-disclosure. Interaction and perceived control were found to have significant effect on self-disclosure. In all, the model accounted for 54.6 percent of the variance in self-disclosure. The implications and limitations of the current study are discussed, and directions for future research proposed.

  12. Examining Self-Disclosure on Social Networking Sites: A Flow Theory and Privacy Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampong, George Oppong Appiagyei; Mensah, Aseda; Adu, Adolph Sedem Yaw; Addae, John Agyekum; Omoregie, Osaretin Kayode; Ofori, Kwame Simpe

    2018-06-06

    Social media and other web 2.0 tools have provided users with the platform to interact with and also disclose personal information to not only their friends and acquaintances but also relative strangers with unprecedented ease. This has enhanced the ability of people to share more about themselves, their families, and their friends through a variety of media including text, photo, and video, thus developing and sustaining social and business relationships. The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that predict self-disclosure on social networking sites from the perspective of privacy and flow. Data was collected from 452 students in three leading universities in Ghana and analyzed with Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling. Results from the study revealed that privacy risk was the most significant predictor. We also found privacy awareness, privacy concerns, and privacy invasion experience to be significant predictors of self-disclosure. Interaction and perceived control were found to have significant effect on self-disclosure. In all, the model accounted for 54.6 percent of the variance in self-disclosure. The implications and limitations of the current study are discussed, and directions for future research proposed.

  13. Rethinking the theory of evolution: New perspectives on human evolution and why it matters for Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wentzel Van Huyssteen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of human imagination from the perspective of ‘niche construction’ in the wider discussion about ‘what makes us human’ and what it means to be a ‘self’, specifically for the Christian faith and for theology. In the article, a brief review of human origins and human evolution demonstrates the path and substantive impact of changes in behaviour, life histories and bodies in our human ancestors and us as humans ourselves. In the interactive process of niche construction, potentially changeable natural environments were, and are, acting continuously on variation in the gene pools of populations, and in this way gene pools were modified over generations. It is argued that a distinctively human imagination is part of the explanation for human evolutionary success and can be seen as one of the structurally significant aspects of the transition from earlier members of the genus Homo to ourselves as we are today. There is thus a naturalness to human imagination, even to religious imagination, that facilitates engagement with the world that is truly distinct. This provides fruitful addition to the toolkit of inquiry for both evolutionary scientists and interdisciplinary theologians interested in reconstructing the long, winding historical path to humanity.

  14. Employee Safety Motivation: perspectives and measures on the basis of the Self-Determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, M G; Soldà, Bianca Lara; Curcuruto, M

    2015-09-09

    There is a growing body of literature demonstrating that employee's safety behaviour is largely influenced by their motivation to work safely. The Self-Determination Theory, which proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of motivation, is now established in various domains of the academic field (Healthcare, Education, Psychopathology, Organizations, Sport etc.). However, there are few publications concerning its use in the analysis of motivation in a safety context, where it constitutes a new topic of study. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Italian version of the Self-Determined Safety Motivation Scale and analyze the psychometric properties of the scale in terms of construct validity. The research involved 387 Italian employees from three companies, who occupied medium-low levels in the organizational hierarchy. A good level of psychometric properties was shown. The Italian version of the Self-Determined Safety Motivation Scale is a reliable and valid instrument to assess safety motivation.

  15. [Emotional competence in the multiple intelligences theory from the perspective of laypersons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yuki; Koyasu, Masuo

    2016-02-01

    Emotional competence has recently, become a widespread concern in schools and workplaces, both which deeplyinvolve laypersons. While academic researchers have discussed the status of emotional competence comparedto the traditional intelligence, it is very important to elucidate how laypersons regard emotional competencecompared to traditional intelligence as well. The present study investigated the position of emotional competencein the multiple intelligences theory by assessing laypersons' self-estimates of their abilities and their rating ofthe importance of emotional competence for thriving in society. Participants (N = 584) answered a questionnaireonline. Results showed that laypersons regarded emotional competence as a distinct construct, and most stronglyrelated it to personal intelligence. Moreover, their ratings of the importance of emotional competence and personalintelligence for thriving in society were higher than that of traditional intelligence.

  16. Autonomy, Competence, and Intrinsic Motivation in Science Education: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jason

    The purpose of this study was to examine a proposed motivational model of science achievement based on self-determination theory. The study relied on U.S. eighth-grade science data from the 2007 Third International Mathematics and Science Study to examine a structural model that hypothesized how perceived autonomy support, perceived competence in science, intrinsic motivation, and science achievement related to each other. Mother's education and student gender were used as controls. Findings showed that the hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data. The strongest direct effect on science achievement was students' perceived competence in science. Student intrinsic motivation was shown to have a surprisingly negative effect on science achievement. Autonomy support had positive direct effects on students' perceived competence in science and intrinsic motivation and had indirect positive effects to science achievement. Results and implications for science education are discussed.

  17. Parental support and adolescent motivation for dieting: the Self-Determination Theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Idit; Madjar, Nir; Harari, Adi

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on parents' role in overweight adolescents' motivation to diet and successful weight loss. The study employed Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as the theoretical framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2011). Ninety-nine participants (ages 20-30) who had been overweight during adolescence according to their Body Mass Index (BMI mean = 25, SD = 1.6), completed retrospective questionnaires about their motivation to diet and their parents' behavior in the context of dieting. Findings from a structural equation modeling analysis suggested that participants who viewed their parents' as more need-supportive demonstrated more autonomous motivation to diet, which, in turn, contributed to their successful weight loss. The findings highlight the importance of parental support of adolescents' psychological needs in the quality of their motivation to diet. This is an important insight for parents and professionals who aim to encourage more constructive parent involvement in adolescents' dieting and well-being.

  18. Intangible Knowledge. The Culture of Knowledge within Organisations from the Perspective of the Sociological Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilia Stingl de Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge can get lost when workers leave the company, or it may be missed when new challenges emerge. Specific knowledge may be important for the value-added chain of an organization, and its inaccessibility could be a problem. The work on this paper seeks to juxtapose this problem with the concept of intangible knowledge. This concept is developed as an observation model for particular situations within organisations, in which specific, useful, knowledge is no longer available and is being missed. This paper considers a potentially useful way to deal with absence of such knowledge by using the social science approach. In addition to social systems theory, the communication and cultural science view was selected here to propose a new understanding of the function of knowledge as a communicational or cultural parameter within structures and meanings of a social system. This should facilitate a better perception of the actions and dynamics inside organizations regarding knowledge or the lack thereof.

  19. A Review of Perspectives on Frameworks for Ethical Theories in Public Service Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoram Sing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the dynamic and changing interwoven and intertwined internal and external environments impacting on public service life, establishing and promoting a proper ethical foundation in public service life, has in itself emerged as a profound and daunting challenge, a worldwide phenomenon. The role of frameworks for ethical theories  –  such as teleological, deontological, virtue-based, and learning and growth, is crucial to dealing with this challenge. It is the view of the author that a keen grasp and application of the various frameworks, as well as their various components, could project their viewing and that of their components, not in isolation, but in an interconnected and intertwined manner. This could enhance the clarification of ethical and moral alternatives, as well as facilitate the spreading and diffusion of techniques for ethical reasoning and moral awareness, throughout public service life.

  20. Hydrodynamic perspective on memory in time-dependent density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, M.; Kuemmel, S.

    2009-01-01

    The adiabatic approximation of time-dependent density-functional theory is studied in the context of nonlinear excitations of two-electron singlet systems. We compare the exact time evolution of these systems to the adiabatically exact one obtained from time-dependent Kohn-Sham calculations relying on the exact ground-state exchange-correlation potential. Thus, we can show under which conditions the adiabatic approximation breaks down and memory effects become important. The hydrodynamic formulation of quantum mechanics allows us to interpret these results and relate them to dissipative effects in the Kohn-Sham system. We show how the breakdown of the adiabatic approximation can be inferred from the rate of change of the ground-state noninteracting kinetic energy.

  1. Physical activity adoption to adherence, lapse, and dropout: a self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Duda, Joan L

    2014-05-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, we aimed to explore and identify key motivational processes involved in the transition from a physically inactive to an active lifestyle, and the processes involved in lapse and dropout behavior within a walking program. We implemented a qualitative, longitudinal case study method, using semistructured interviews and theoretical thematic analyses. Fifteen women were interviewed over 10 months and three profiles were generated: (a) nonadherence, (b) lapse/readoption of physical activity, and (c) adherence. Internalization of walking behavior was key to adherence. Satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness were central for participation during exercise at the adoption stages, and autonomy was particularly pertinent in facilitating adherence. Those who lapsed and restarted physical activity experienced feelings of autonomy at the point of readoption. Sources of support were driving forces in the adoption and adherence phases.

  2. Overcoming barriers to exercise among parents: A social cognitive theory perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailey, Emily L.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Conroy, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Parents face numerous barriers to exercise and exhibit high levels of inactivity. Examining theory-based determinants of exercise among parents may inform interventions for this population. The purpose of this study was to test a social-cognitive model of parental exercise participation over a 12-month period. Mothers (n=226) and fathers (n=70) of children exercise, barriers self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and exercise planning at baseline and one year later. Panel analyses were used to test the hypothesized relationships. Barriers self-efficacy was related to exercise directly and indirectly through perceived barriers and prioritization/planning. Prioritization and planning also mediated the relationship between perceived barriers and exercise. These paths remained significant at 12 months. These results suggest efforts to increase exercise in parents should focus on improving confidence to overcome exercise barriers, reducing perceptions of barriers, and helping parents make specific plans for prioritizing and engaging in exercise. PMID:27108160

  3. The relation between majorization theory and quantum information from entanglement monotones perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, V. [Department of Computer Engineering, Institute of Science, Okan University, Istanbul (Turkey); Netas Telecommunication Inc., Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-04-21

    Entanglement has been studied extensively for understanding the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known monotones for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. The study on these monotones has been a hot topic in quantum information [1-7] in order to understand the role of entanglement in this discipline. It can be observed that from any arbitrary quantum pure state a mixed state can obtained. A natural generalization of this observation would be to consider local operations classical communication (LOCC) transformations between general pure states of two parties. Although this question is a little more difficult, a complete solution has been developed using the mathematical framework of the majorization theory [8]. In this work, we analyze the relation between entanglement monotones concurrence and negativity with respect to majorization for general two-level quantum systems of two particles.

  4. Inspirations from the theories of Bohr and Mottelson: a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D; Waddington, J C; Svensson, C E

    2016-01-01

    The theories developed by Bohr and Mottelson have inspired much of the world-wide experimental investigation into the structure of the atomic nucleus. On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the awarding of their Nobel prize, we reflect on some of the experimental developments made in understanding the structure of nuclei. We have chosen to focus on experiments performed in Canada, or having strong ties to Canada, and the work included here spans virtually the whole of the second half of the 20th century. The 8π Spectrometer, which figures prominently in this story, was a novel departure for funding science in Canada that involved an intimate collaboration between a Crown Corporation (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd) and University research, and enabled many of the insights discussed here. (invited comment)

  5. Contradictions of Designing with Building Information Modelling - A Case Study with an Activity Theory Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Peter; Gade, Anne Nørkjær; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    Building information modelling (BIM) offers a great potential for increasing efficiency in the building industry. However, this potential remains largely unfulfilled; substantiating the need for a sound understanding of the existing practices involved in the building design process, to implement...... BIM efficiently. The aim of this article is to discuss the unfolding activity of a building design process and the role of BIM as a mediating tool. A case study was carried out to investigate contradictions related to the use of BIM in an inter-organizational design process of a naval rescue station...... in Denmark. Aspects of the design activity and the development of practices during the project were explored through the lens of Activity Theory. We were able to examine how BIM-mediated the production of the building design, how BIM use evolved. The article presents and discusses four main contradictions...

  6. Quantum theory from a nonlinear perspective Riccati equations in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schuch, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a unique survey displaying the power of Riccati equations to describe reversible and irreversible processes in physics and, in particular, quantum physics. Quantum mechanics is supposedly linear, invariant under time-reversal, conserving energy and, in contrast to classical theories, essentially based on the use of complex quantities. However, on a macroscopic level, processes apparently obey nonlinear irreversible evolution equations and dissipate energy. The Riccati equation, a nonlinear equation that can be linearized, has the potential to link these two worlds when applied to complex quantities. The nonlinearity can provide information about the phase-amplitude correlations of the complex quantities that cannot be obtained from the linearized form. As revealed in this wide ranging treatment, Riccati equations can also be found in many diverse fields of physics from Bose-Einstein-condensates to cosmology. The book will appeal to graduate students and theoretical physicists interested in ...

  7. Health Care Reform Bureaucracy In The District Merauke In Perspective Agency Theory

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    Samel W. Ririhena

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reforms are demands to improve services especially health services to the community in Merauke. The purpose of writing is to analyze the theory of agency in order to verify the health care bureaucracy reformas Merauke district which includes reform of the bureaucracy adverse selection and moral hazard. This study used a qualitative approach and data collection is done by using interviews and intervieuw based on interactive model of Milles and Huberman. The results showed that the reform of health care bureaucracy in Merauke not running optimally and the problem of adverse selection and moral hazard is still happening in the agency relationship between the Department of Health and the Health Center.

  8. Evaluating time to cancer recurrence as a surrogate marker for survival from an information theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2008-10-01

    The last two decades have seen a lot of development in the area of surrogate marker validation. One of these approaches places the evaluation in a meta-analytic framework, leading to definitions in terms of trial- and individual-level association. A drawback of this methodology is that different settings have led to different measures at the individual level. Using information theory, Alonso et al. proposed a unified framework, leading to a new definition of surrogacy, which offers interpretational advantages and is applicable in a wide range of situations. In this work, we illustrate how this information-theoretic approach can be used to evaluate surrogacy when both endpoints are of a time-to-event type. Two meta-analyses, in early and advanced colon cancer, respectively, are then used to evaluate the performance of time to cancer recurrence as a surrogate for overall survival.

  9. Stroop-like effects in a new-code learning task: A cognitive load theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan-Liran, Batel; Miller, Paul

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether and how learning is biased by competing task-irrelevant information that creates extraneous cognitive load, we assessed the efficiency of university students with a learning paradigm in two experiments. The paradigm asked participants to learn associations between eight words and eight digits. We manipulated congruity of the digits' ink colour with the words' semantics. In Experiment 1 word stimuli were colour words (e.g., blue, yellow) and in Experiment 2 colour-related word concepts (e.g., sky, banana). Marked benefits and costs on learning due to variation in extraneous cognitive load originating from processing task-irrelevant information were evident. Implications for cognitive load theory and schooling are discussed.

  10. Phantom sensations in people with complete spinal cord lesions: a grounded theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Daren G; Shem, Kazuko; Walbom, Agnes; Miner, Maureen D; Maclachlan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Phantom sensations are somatic phenomena arising from denervated parts of the body. There is very little research, and much diagnostic confusion, regarding such experiences in people with spinal cord injuries. In the case of 'complete' spinal cord lesions, phantom experiences may challenge, and indeed, contradict, the understanding that both clinicians and patients have of such injuries. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of such 'phantom' sensations in spinal cord injury. We used grounded theory methods to explore 'phantom' sensations as experienced by individuals with complete (ASIA A) spinal lesions. Eight people with complete lesions, who were selected through theoretical sampling, participated in a semi-structured interview. Emergent themes included injury context, sensations experienced, the meaning of sensations, body connectivity, attitude and communication about sensations. Our results provide an enhanced understanding of the embodied experience of phantom sensations, and important insights regarding self-construction and rehabilitative processes in people with spinal cord injury who experience such anomalous sensations.

  11. A self-categorization theory perspective on adolescent boys' sexual bullying of girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Elysia; Shute, Rosalyn; McLachlan, Angus

    2015-02-01

    This preliminary study applied Self-Categorization Theory (SCT) to the sexual bullying of high school girls by boys. Seventy-five Year 9 boys responded to vignettes portraying sexual bullying in which gender was a more or a less salient feature of the social context described. As predicted, boys were more likely to engage in sexual bullying when gender was more salient. Masculine sex role was not correlated with engagement in sexual bullying. Controlling for social desirability, pro-bullying attitude was predictive of such engagement, but only when the social context rendered gender less salient. This suggests the power of the perceived social context for determining which individual characteristics will gain expression. It is concluded that SCT is a promising avenue for advancing understanding of bullying, a field of research that has previously largely lacked a theoretical focus. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Explaining IT Outsourcing Satisfaction using Domberger’s Theory: An SME Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Seng Yap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available IT outsourcing has emerged as an important tool for enabling organizations to gain access to specific skills and services, focus on their core competencies, and reduce the cost of IT service provision. With the increasing number of IT outsourcing failures, it is timely to identify the determinants of IT outsourcing satisfaction. This study investigates the types of IT function outsourced and examines the factors influencing customer satisfaction in IT outsourcing in Malaysian small- and medium-enterprises. Using an email questionnaire survey, data are collected from 100 firms listed on the Directory of Small and Medium Enterprises in Malaysia. Drawing from Domberger’s Theory of the Contracting Organization, four hypotheses are developed and tested in this study. Using the PLS path modelling technique, the findings show that focus on core competency, cost reduction, access to IT expertise and skills, and flexibility are positively related to customer satisfaction in IT outsourcing. The paper includes implications and recommendations for future studies.

  13. Between-individual comparisons in performance evaluation: a perspective from prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Kwong, Jessica Y Y

    2005-03-01

    This article examines how between-individual comparisons influence performance evaluations in rating tasks. The authors demonstrated a systematic change in the perceived difference across ratees as a result of changing the way performance information is expressed. Study 1 found that perceived performance difference between 2 individuals was greater when their objective performance levels were presented with small numbers (e.g., absence rates of 2% vs. 5%) than when they were presented with large numbers (e.g., attendance rates of 98% vs. 95%). Extending this finding to situations involving trade-offs between multiple performance attributes across ratees, Study 2 showed that the relative preference for 1 ratee over another actually reversed when the presentation format of the performance information changed. The authors draw upon prospect theory to offer a theoretical framework describing the between-individual comparison aspect of performance evaluation.

  14. Antecedents of emotions in elite athletes: a cognitive motivational relational theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphill, Mark A; Jones, Marc V

    2007-03-01

    Cognitive motivational relational theory suggests that cognitive appraisals or core relational themes (a composite summary of appraisal components) represent the proximal determinants of athletes' emotions. Semistructured interviews with 12 current international athletes (1 woman and 11 men) ages 19 to 37 years (M age = 27 years, SD = 6.03), representing a range of sports (badminton, golf rugby union, athletics, archery, sailing, and snooker) explored the association between athletes' appraisals and emotions. Concurrent inductive and deductive content analyses suggested that primary and secondary appraisal components (goal relevance, goal congruence, ego-involvement, blame/credit, coping potential, future expectations) were associated with a range of emotions: anger anxiety, guilt, happiness, pride, relief sadness, and shame. A hierarchical content analysis provided some support for Lazarus' (1991) core relational themes. Limitations and applications of this study are discussed.

  15. Overcoming barriers to exercise among parents: a social cognitive theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailey, Emily L; Phillips, Siobhan M; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Conroy, David E

    2016-08-01

    Parents face numerous barriers to exercise and exhibit high levels of inactivity. Examining theory-based determinants of exercise among parents may inform interventions for this population. The purpose of this study was to test a social-cognitive model of parental exercise participation over a 12-month period. Mothers (n = 226) and fathers (n = 70) of children self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and exercise planning at baseline and 1 year later. Panel analyses were used to test the hypothesized relationships. Barriers self-efficacy was related to exercise directly and indirectly through perceived barriers and prioritization/planning. Prioritization and planning also mediated the relationship between perceived barriers and exercise. These paths remained significant at 12 months. These results suggest efforts to increase exercise in parents should focus on improving confidence to overcome exercise barriers, reducing perceptions of barriers, and helping parents make specific plans for prioritizing and engaging in exercise.

  16. Encouraging intrinsic motivation in the clinical setting: teachers' perspectives from the self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, C; Evans, P; Binnie, V; Ledezma, P; Fuentes, F

    2016-05-01

    Self-determination theory postulates that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness have to be satisfied for students to achieve intrinsic motivation and internalisation of autonomous self-regulation towards academic activities. Consequently, the influence of the clinical teaching environment becomes crucial when satisfying these needs, particularly when promoting or diminishing students' intrinsic motivation. The aim of this study was to describe and understand how clinical teachers encourage intrinsic motivation in undergraduate dental students based on the three basic psychological needs described by the self-determination theory. A qualitative case study approach was adopted, and data were collected through semistructured interviews with nine experienced undergraduate clinical teachers of one dental school in Santiago, Chile. Interview transcripts were analysed by two independent reviewers using a general inductive approach. Several themes emerged outlining teaching strategies and behaviours. These themes included the control of external motivators; gradual transference of responsibility; identification and encouragement of personal interests; timely and constructive feedback; delivery of a vicarious learning experience; teamwork, team discussion, and presence of a safe environment, amongst others. Overall, teachers stressed the relevance of empowering, supporting and building a horizontal relationship with students. Our findings regarding dental education expand on the research outcomes from other health professions about how teachers may support students to internalise behaviours. An autonomy-supportive environment may lead students to value and engage in academic activities and eventually foster the use of an autonomy-supportive style to motivate their patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Amygdala and the Relevance Detection Theory of Autism: An Evolutionary Perspective

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    Tiziana eZalla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, there has been increasing interest in the role of the amygdala in psychiatric disorders and in particular its contribution to the socio-emotional impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Given that the amygdala is a component structure of the social brain, several theoretical explanations compatible with amygdala dysfunction have been proposed to account for socio-emotional impairments in ASDs, including abnormal eye contact, gaze monitoring, face processing, mental state understanding and empathy. Nevertheless, many theoretical accounts, based on the Amygdala Theory of Autism, fail to elucidate the complex pattern of impairments observed in this population, which extends beyond the social domain. As posited by the Relevance Detector theory (Sander, Grafman and Zalla, 2003, the human amygdala is a critical component of a brain circuit involved in the appraisal of self-relevant events that include, but are not restricted to, social stimuli. Here, we propose that the behavioral and social-emotional features of ASDs may be better understood in terms of a disruption in a ‘Relevance Detector Network’ affecting the processing of stimuli that are relevant for the organism’s self-regulating functions. In the present review, we will first summarize the main literature supporting the involvement of the amygdala in socio-emotional disturbances in ASDs. Next, we will present a revised version of the amygdala Relevance Detector hypothesis and we will show that this theoretical framework can provide a better understanding of the heterogeneity of the impairments and symptomatology of ASDs. Finally, we will discuss some predictions of our model, and suggest new directions in the investigation of the role of the amygdala within the more generally disrupted cortical connectivity framework as a model of neural organization of the autistic brain.

  18. Discourse Functions of Kama in Arabic Journalistic Discourse from the Perspective of Rhetorical Structure Theory

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    Asem Ayed Al-Khawaldeh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at examining the functions of the discourse marker Kama in the Arabic journalistic discourse in the light of Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST proposed by Mann and Thompson (1987. To this end, the study compiled a small-scale corpus of journalistic discourse taken from two prominent Arabic news websites:  Aljazeera.net and Alarabia.net. The corpus covers three distinct sub-genres of journalistic discourse: opinion articles, news reports, and sport reports. The journalistic discourse is chosen on the basis that it is considered as the best representative of the contemporary written Arabic and it receives a wide readership in the Arabic-speaking countries. The motivation for the study is that although it is frequently used in the written form of Arabic (particularly in the language of Arabic media, the discourse marker kama is largely neglected and very few has been said about it in the present literature on Arabic discourse markers. The current findings show that kama is found to achieve 290 occurrences in the corpus under investigation. This obviously indicates that kama is commonly used in the language of Arabic journalistic discourse, which calls for paying attention to its usage in such a type of discourse. In the light of Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST proposed by Mann and Thompson (1987, kama was found to serve four common functions: elaboration (around 50 %, similarity (around 19 %, evidence (16 %, and exemplification (13 %. Two functions of kama (similarity and   exemplification are listed in RST while the other two are incorporated.

  19. Enhancing board oversight on quality of hospital care: an agency theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H Joanna; Lockee, Carlin; Fraser, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Community hospitals in the United States are almost all governed by a governing board that is legally accountable for the quality of care provided. Increasing pressures for better quality and safety are prompting boards to strengthen their oversight function on quality. In this study, we aimed to provide an update to prior research by exploring the role and practices of governing boards in quality oversight through the lens of agency theory and comparing hospital quality performance in relation to the adoption of those practices. Data on board practices from a survey conducted by The Governance Institute in 2007 were merged with data on hospital quality drawn from two federal sources that measured processes of care and mortality. The study sample includes 445 public and private not-for-profit hospitals. We used factor analysis to explore the underlying dimensions of board practices. We further compared hospital quality performance by the adoption of each individual board practice. Consistent with the agency theory, the 13 board practices included in the survey appear to center around enhancing accountability of the board, management, and the medical staff. Reviewing the hospital's quality performance on a regular basis was the most common practice. A number of board practices, not examined in prior research, showed significant association with better performance on process of care and/or risk-adjusted mortality: requiring major new clinical programs to meet quality-related criteria, setting some quality goals at the "theoretical ideal" level, requiring both the board and the medical staff to be as involved as management in setting the agenda for discussion on quality, and requiring the hospital to report its quality/safety performance to the general public. Hospital governing boards should examine their current practices and consider adopting those that would enhance the accountability of the board itself, management, and the medical staff.

  20. Economies of Racism: Grounding Education Policy Research in the Complex Dialectic of Race, Class, and Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.; De Lissovoy, Noah

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to interrogate the current theoretical discourse in education concerning issues of race and class. The authors maintain that in recent years educational theory and critical policy discourse have unintentionally become splintered in such a way that race and class theories are employed separately, without much analysis of…