Sample records for race theory latcrit

  1. Latcrit Educational Leadership and Advocacy: Struggling over Whiteness as Property in Texas School Finance (United States)

    Aleman, Enrique, Jr.


    In this article, the author seeks to re-imagine the political and policy roles of educational leaders of color, offering an alternative method for educational leadership, advocacy, and policy analysis. The author uses critical race theory (CRT) and Latina/o critical (LatCrit) theory to problematize the way politically-active Mexican American…

  2. Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training (United States)

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese


    Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.

  3. The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL (United States)

    Liggett, Tonda


    In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…

  4. QuantCrit: Rectifying Quantitative Methods through Critical Race Theory (United States)

    Garcia, Nichole M.; López, Nancy; Vélez, Verónica N.


    Critical race theory (CRT) in education centers, examines, and seeks to transform the relationship that undergirds race, racism, and power. CRT scholars have applied a critical race framework to advance research methodologies, namely qualitative interventions. Informed by this work, and 15 years later, this article reconsiders the possibilities of…

  5. critical race theory and the question of safety in dialogues on race

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study seeks to combine research from critical race theory, as applied to ... Two recurring strands from this body of academic work that are of particular ..... that the above exemplars stem from an online debate in which students.

  6. Towards a Research Framework for Race in Education: Critical Race Theory and Judith Butler (United States)

    Chadderton, Charlotte


    There has been much debate around the extent to which post-structuralist theory can be applied to critical research. In this article, it is argued that aspects of the two approaches can be combined, resulting in productive tensions that point towards a possible new framework for researching race and racism in education in the UK. The article…

  7. Critical Race Theory in Education, Marxism and Abstract Racial Domination (United States)

    Cole, Mike


    In the context of the ongoing debate between critical race theory (CRT) and Marxism, I begin in this paper by examining the origins of CRT in Critical Legal Studies (CLS) in the United States. I go on to describe CRT's entry into education, first in that country, and then in the United Kingdom. I move on to a discussion of current debates between…

  8. Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories. (United States)


    Desegregated Classroom: The Effects of Cooperation on Prosocial Behavior and Academic Performance. Working Paper, Department of Psychology. Santa Cruz, CA... Behavior Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories Clayton P. .Alderfer Working Paper #66 DTIC ~ELECTE0 B DITRUTION STATEMENTA...unfavorable stereotypes of blacks, they have less reason to change. White stereotypes have long served as rationalizations for white dominance. In

  9. Utilizing Critical Race Theory to Examine Race/Ethnicity, Racism, and Power in Student Development Theory and Research (United States)

    Hernández, Ebelia


    Recognition of social forces (racism, privilege, power) to the extent that is required by critical race theory (CRT) results in a paradigm shift in the way that we theorize and research student development, specifically self-authorship. This paradigm shift moves the center of analysis from individual, to the individual in relation to her…

  10. Race, Class, and Cultural Reproduction: Critical Theories in Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Walker


    Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.

  11. Understanding Critical Race Theory as a Framework in Higher Educational Research (United States)

    Savas, Gokhan


    This paper reviews the existing literature to discuss how critical race theory has been applied as a theoretical framework to higher educational research in the United States and what its contributions are. To provide necessary context, I will discuss race and racism in the United States, the background of US higher education in relation to race,…

  12. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens (United States)

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann


    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  13. Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women. (United States)

    Quinn, Camille R; Grumbach, Giesela


    The authors present a conceptual framework for expanding the use of relational theory with African-American women. Relational theory (RT) informs practice with women but is inadequate in addressing all aspects of culture and identity. RT presumes that all women desire or are able to make therapeutic connections, yet race, gender, and cultural experiences influence their ability to do so. Successful practice with minority women must address racism and its impact. Critical race theory (CRT) that incorporates a solution-focused (SF) approach is well-suited to address the limits of RT. This overview of a CRT/SF approach describes treatment for diverse women that extends RT and enhances effective social work practice to provide culturally sensitive treatment to women.

  14. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture. (United States)

    No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi


    People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.

  15. "To Break Asunder along the Lesions of Race". The Critical Race Theory of W.E.B. Du Bois (United States)

    Rashid, Kamau


    In addition to its beginnings within legal scholarship, Critical Race Theory (CRT) is intimately aligned with the long tradition of African American social critique, which sought to interrogate the intractable nature of racism and White supremacy. Within this intellectual tradition, the works of W.E.B. Du Bois are of critical significance. Du…

  16. From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education. (United States)

    Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.


    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…

  17. Talk the Talk, Walk the Walk: Defining Critical Race Theory in Research (United States)

    Hylton, Kevin


    Over the last decade there has been a noticeable growth in published works citing Critical Race Theory (CRT). This has led to a growth in interest in the UK of practical research projects utilising CRT as their framework. It is clear that research on "race" is an emerging topic of study. What is less visible is a debate on how CRT is…

  18. Dynamic interracial/intercultural processes: the role of lay theories of race. (United States)

    Hong, Ying-yi; Chao, Melody Manchi; No, Sun


    This paper explores how the lay theory approach provides a framework beyond previous stereotype/prejudice research to understand dynamic personality processes in interracial/ethnic contexts. The authors conceptualize theory of race within the Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS), in which lay people's beliefs regarding the essential nature of race sets up a mind-set through which individuals construe and interpret their social experiences. The research findings illustrate that endorsement of the essentialist theory (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) versus the social constructionist theory (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) are associated with different encoding and representation of social information, which in turn affect feelings, motivation, and competence in navigating between racial and cultural boundaries. These findings shed light on dynamic interracial/intercultural processes. Relations of this approach to CAPS are discussed.

  19. Critical race theory and the question of safety in dialogues on race ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On this foundation, the article moves on to consider the recommendations adduced by Leonardo and Porter (2010:147) and Sue (2013:666-669) as to how dialogues around race and racism can be enhanced. The article begins by contextualising its argument, followed by an overview of the guiding principles of CRT, ...

  20. Race and TESOL: Introduction to Concepts and Theories (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko; Lin, Angel


    The field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) brings people from various racialized backgrounds together in teaching, learning, and research. The idea of race, racialization, and racism are inescapable topics that arise in the contact zones created by teaching English worldwide and thus are valid topics to explore in the…

  1. (Mixed) Race Matters: Racial Theory, Classification, and Campus Climate (United States)

    Wann, Chelsea Guillermo


    As the expanding post-civil rights multiracial population is likely to transform the demographics of American colleges and universities, its perceived growth is also misused to advance neo-conservative agendas and post-racial views about the declining significance of race. Politicized issues around multiraciality frame and impact the campus…

  2. Critical Race Theory in India: "Theory Translation" and the Analysis of Social Identities and Discrimination in Indian Schooling (United States)

    Goodnight, Melissa Rae


    This article examines ethical and philosophical considerations in "theory translation," i.e. translating a theoretical framework from its original place to another national context. Critical race theory (CRT) was developed in the United States through significant struggle in order to analyze everyday racism. Marginalized groups have…

  3. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform (United States)

    Gillborn, David


    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  4. The Australian Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale (RACES): item response theory findings. (United States)

    Grigg, Kaine; Manderson, Lenore


    Racism and associated discrimination are pervasive and persistent challenges with multiple cumulative deleterious effects contributing to inequities in various health outcomes. Globally, research over the past decade has shown consistent associations between racism and negative health concerns. Such research confirms that race endures as one of the strongest predictors of poor health. Due to the lack of validated Australian measures of racist attitudes, RACES (Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale) was developed. Here, we examine RACES' psychometric properties, including the latent structure, utilising Item Response Theory (IRT). Unidimensional and Multidimensional Rating Scale Model (RSM) Rasch analyses were utilised with 296 Victorian primary school students and 182 adolescents and 220 adults from the Australian community. RACES was demonstrated to be a robust 24-item three-dimensional scale of Accepting Attitudes (12 items), Racist Attitudes (8 items), and Ethnocentric Attitudes (4 items). RSM Rasch analyses provide strong support for the instrument as a robust measure of racist attitudes in the Australian context, and for the overall factorial and construct validity of RACES across primary school children, adolescents, and adults. RACES provides a reliable and valid measure that can be utilised across the lifespan to evaluate attitudes towards all racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups. A core function of RACES is to assess the effectiveness of interventions to reduce community levels of racism and in turn inequities in health outcomes within Australia.

  5. Critical Race Theory-Social Constructivist Bricolage: A Health-Promoting Schools Research Methodology (United States)

    Nyika, Lawrence; Murray-Orr, Anne


    While the current literature recognises the capacity of diverse methodologies to provide informative understandings of health-promoting schools (HPS), there is a paucity of examples to show how different research strategies can be used. We address this knowledge gap by examining the significance of a critical race theory-social constructivist…

  6. Critical Race Theory, Hip Hop, and "Huck Finn": Narrative Inquiry in a High School English Classroom (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.


    This study explores the impact of reading "Huckleberry Finn" through the lens of critical race theory for both teacher and students in a racially diverse urban high school environment. The teacher/researcher used narrative inquiry and creative non-fiction to examine student language usage, white privilege (including her own), and student…

  7. Making the Invisible Visible: Advancing Quantitative Methods in Higher Education Using Critical Race Theory and Intersectionality (United States)

    López, Nancy; Erwin, Christopher; Binder, Melissa; Chavez, Mario Javier


    We appeal to critical race theory and intersectionality to examine achievement gaps at a large public university in the American southwest from 2000 to 2015. Using white, high-income women as our reference group, we report linear combinations of marginal effects for six-year graduation rates and developmental course taking across 20 distinct…

  8. Educational Lynching: Critical Race Theory and the Suspension of Black Boys (United States)

    Payne, Macheo


    Looking at the disproportionate suspension of African American, Black male students through the lens of critical race theory, this presents arguments from a CRT how the disproportionate suspension of Black male students is rooted in white supremacy and racist policy in the United States. Local recommendations are offered for Oakland Unified School…

  9. Teach for America's Long Arc: A Critical Race Theory Textual Analysis of Wendy Kopp's Works (United States)

    Barnes, Michael C.; Germain, Emily K.; Valenzuela, Angela


    We read and analyzed 165,000 words and uncover a series of counter-stories buried within a textual corpus, authored by Teach For America (TFA) founder Wendy Kopp (Kopp, 1989, 2001; Kopp & Farr, 2011), that offers insight into the forms of racism endemic to Teach For America. All three counter-stories align with a critical race theory (CRT)…

  10. Where Are We? Critical Race Theory in Education 20 Years Later (United States)

    Dixson, Adrienne D.; Rousseau Anderson, Celia


    This article explores the territory that has been covered since the publication of Ladson-Billings and Tate's 1995 article, "Toward a Critical Race Theory in Education." We organize our review of the CRT literature around what we are calling CRT "boundaries." We identify six boundaries for CRT and education: 1) CRT in education…

  11. Critical Race Theory and Research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Behringer, Laurie B.; Grey, Emily A.; Parker, Tara L.


    In this article, the authors offer critical race theory (CRT) as an alternative theoretical perspective that permits the examination and transcendence of conceptual blockages, while simultaneously offering alternative perspectives on higher education policy and practice and the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) student population. The…

  12. Perception and motivation in face recognition: a critical review of theories of the Cross-Race Effect. (United States)

    Young, Steven G; Hugenberg, Kurt; Bernstein, Michael J; Sacco, Donald F


    Although humans possess well-developed face processing expertise, face processing is nevertheless subject to a variety of biases. Perhaps the best known of these biases is the Cross-Race Effect--the tendency to have more accurate recognition for same-race than cross-race faces. The current work reviews the evidence for and provides a critical review of theories of the Cross-Race Effect, including perceptual expertise and social cognitive accounts of the bias. The authors conclude that recent hybrid models of the Cross-Race Effect, which combine elements of both perceptual expertise and social cognitive frameworks, provide an opportunity for theoretical synthesis and advancement not afforded by independent expertise or social cognitive models. Finally, the authors suggest future research directions intended to further develop a comprehensive and integrative understanding of biases in face recognition.

  13. Applying Critical Race Theory to Group Model Building Methods to Address Community Violence. (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Funchess, Melanie; Burrell, Marcus; Cerulli, Catherine; Bedell, Precious; White, Ann Marie


    Group model building (GMB) is an approach to building qualitative and quantitative models with stakeholders to learn about the interrelationships among multilevel factors causing complex public health problems over time. Scant literature exists on adapting this method to address public health issues that involve racial dynamics. This study's objectives are to (1) introduce GMB methods, (2) present a framework for adapting GMB to enhance cultural responsiveness, and (3) describe outcomes of adapting GMB to incorporate differences in racial socialization during a community project seeking to understand key determinants of community violence transmission. An academic-community partnership planned a 1-day session with diverse stakeholders to explore the issue of violence using GMB. We documented key questions inspired by critical race theory (CRT) and adaptations to established GMB "scripts" (i.e., published facilitation instructions). The theory's emphasis on experiential knowledge led to a narrative-based facilitation guide from which participants created causal loop diagrams. These early diagrams depict how violence is transmitted and how communities respond, based on participants' lived experiences and mental models of causation that grew to include factors associated with race. Participants found these methods useful for advancing difficult discussion. The resulting diagrams can be tested and expanded in future research, and will form the foundation for collaborative identification of solutions to build community resilience. GMB is a promising strategy that community partnerships should consider when addressing complex health issues; our experience adapting methods based on CRT is promising in its acceptability and early system insights.

  14. On "White Supremacy" and Caricaturing, Misrepresenting and Dismissing Marx and Marxism: A Response to David Gillborn's "Who's Afraid of Critical Race Theory in Education". (United States)

    Cole, Mike


    In this journal in 2007, the author and Alpesh Maisuria critiqued two central tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT) from a Marxist perspective (Cole and Maisuria, 2007). These are its primacy of "race" over class, and its concept of "white supremacy". Part of the critique focused on the work of leading UK Critical Race Theorist,…

  15. Intersectionality, critical race theory, and American sporting oppression: examining black and gay male athletes. (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; McCormack, Mark


    This article examines the influence of the racial categories of White and Black and the sexual categories of gay and straight on sporting American men. The effect of the intersection of these cultural categories is discussed by investigating the exclusion of athletes who are both Black and gay, as well as highlighting the culturally perceived differences of (straight) Black and (White) gay men. However, the analysis accounts for more than just difference, examining the commonalities of oppression between these discrete identity groups. We use the research on Black athletes to call for further empirical study on gay athletes. It is argued that critical race theory and intersectionality offer complex and nuanced understandings of these oppressions, which, when theorizing is left solely to the realm of poststructuralism, can otherwise be missed.

  16. "What's Going On?": A Critical Race Theory Perspective on Black Lives Matter and Activism in Education (United States)

    Dixson, Adrienne D.


    This article explores activism, education, and the #BlackLivesMatter movement. Using critical race theory (CRT), I analyze what this emergence of primarily youth-led activism means in the context of decades of neoliberal education reform. I raise specific questions about how youth-led activism, which has its genesis in and is largely shaped by…

  17. Disability Critical Race Theory: Exploring the Intersectional Lineage, Emergence, and Potential Futures of DisCrit in Education (United States)

    Annamma, Subini Ancy; Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.


    In this review, we explore how intersectionality has been engaged with through the lens of disability critical race theory (DisCrit) to produce new knowledge. In this chapter, we (1) trace the intellectual lineage for developing DisCrit, (2) review the body of interdisciplinary scholarship incorporating DisCrit to date, and (3) propose the future…

  18. Through the Prism of Critical Race Theory: "Niceness" and Latina/o Leadership in the Politics of Education (United States)

    Aleman, Enrique, Jr.


    Utilizing a critical race theory (CRT) framework, I conduct a rhetorical and discursive analysis of data from a study of Utah Latino/a educational and political leaders. In analyzing how participants advocate closing the achievement gaps that affect Latina/o and Chicana/o students, I find that participants' political discourse is shaped by…

  19. Contextualizing Asian American Education through Critical Race Theory: An Example of U.S. Pilipino College Student Experiences (United States)

    Buenavista, Tracy Lachica; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly


    In this article, the authors offer a CRT (critical race theory) perspective of the prevailing representation of Asian Americans in higher education research and acknowledge the importance of recent studies that have begun to challenge notions of a monolithic Asian American educational experience through an examination of differences among Asian…

  20. The 20th-Year Anniversary of Critical Race Theory in Education: Implications for Leading to Eliminate Racism (United States)

    Capper, Colleen A.


    Purpose: Though the first published application of critical race theory (CRT) to education occurred 20 years ago, implications of CRT for educational leadership did not occur until López conducted a CRT analysis of the politics of education literature in 2003. No publications explicitly identify the implications of CRT for leadership practice.…

  1. Awakening a Dialogue: A Critical Race Theory Analysis of U.S. Nature of Science Research from 1967 to 2013 (United States)

    Walls, Leon


    As the nation's K-12 classrooms become increasingly more racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse, it is incumbent upon the science community to seize opportunities to attend to the rhetoric of reform, namely to enhance scientific literacy for all students. Using Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a framework, this study examined 112 nature of…

  2. (Re)defining "Good Teaching": Teacher Performance Assessments and Critical Race Theory in Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara


    Using three tenents of Critical Race Theory, this study examines the influence of edTPAs on diverse early childhood pre-service teachers in a graduate program. Findings suggest that (1) Color-blind admissions policy and practice were at odds with edTPA's perceived academic language demands; (2) A tension emerged between financial demands of edTPA…

  3. The Absence of 'Race' in German Discourses on "Bildung". Rethinking "Bildung" with Critical Race Theory (United States)

    Wischmann, Anke


    This paper investigates the impact of mostly implicit convictions about 'white supremacy' and racist ideas in traditional and recent theories of "Bildung" which is a central educational concept in Germany. Concepts of "Bildung" describe processes of individual self-formation. It will be argued that the notion of…

  4. Theory-based physical activity beliefs by race and activity levels among older adults. (United States)

    Kosma, Maria; Cardinal, Bradley J


    Given the benefits of physical activity and the high proportion of inactivity among older adults, the purpose was to elicit theory-based behavioral, normative, and control physical activity beliefs among 140 educationally and economically diverse older adults and compare their beliefs by race (Blacks vs. Whites) and physical activity levels (inactive/underactive vs. highly active individuals). This was an elicitation study that took place in eight, mostly rural community settings in a Southeastern US state, such as Council of Aging Offices, retirement centers, and churches. Participants' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were elicited via in person interviews. A valid and reliable questionnaire was also used to assess their physical activity levels. According to the content analysis, inactive/underactive participants reported fewer physical activity advantages than highly active participants. Common physical activity advantages between the two groups were overall health, emotional functioning, and physical functioning. Similar physical activity advantages were reported among Blacks and Whites with overall health being the most important advantage. The most common physical activity disadvantages and barriers for all four groups were falls, injuries, pain, and health issues. Inactive/underactive individuals and Blacks tended to report more disadvantages and barriers than their peers. Common physical activity supporters were family members, friends and peers, and health-care professionals. In their physical activity motivational programs, health promoters should reinforce physical activity benefits, social support, access to activity programs, and safety when intervening among older adults.

  5. Writing Critical Race Theory and Method: A Composite Counterstory on the Experiences of Black Teachers in New Orleans Post-Katrina (United States)

    Cook, Daniella Ann; Dixson, Adrienne D.


    Using a critical race theory lens, the authors propose a way of writing race research using composite counterstories. Drawing on data from a yearlong study of school rebuilding in the time period immediately after Hurricane Katrina devastated the City of New Orleans, the authors examine the experiences of African-American educators in the school…

  6. The Theory of Visual Attention without the race: a new model of visual selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren


    constrained by a limited processing capacity or rate, which is distributed among target and distractor objects with distractor objects receiving a smaller proportion of resources due to attentional filtering. Encoding into a limited visual short-term memory is implemented as a race model. Given its major...

  7. Color-Blind Leadership: A Critical Race Theory Analysis of the ISLLC and ELCC Standards (United States)

    Davis, Bradley W.; Gooden, Mark A.; Micheaux, Donna J.


    Purpose: Working from the driving research question--"is the explicit consideration of race present in the ISLLC and ELCC standards?"--this article explores the implications of a school leadership landscape reliant on a collection of color-blind leadership standards to guide the preparation and practice of school leaders. In doing so, we…

  8. Exploring Pan-Africanism's theories: from race-based solidarity to political unity and beyond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanda, Albert


    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2016), s. 179-195 ISSN 1369-6815 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : solidarity * unity * sovereignty * race * Africa * Afropolitanism * Pan-Africanism * colonization Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2016

  9. A Critical Co-Constructed Autoethnography of a Gendered Cross-Cultural Mentoring between Two Early Career Latin@ Scholars Working in the Deep South (United States)

    Suriel, Regina L.; Martinez, James; Evans-Winters, Venus


    Multicultural mentoring has been suggested to support Latin@ faculty success in their careers, yet current literature on effective mentorships of Latin@ faculty is limited. This critical co-constructed autoethnography draws on critical race theory (CRT) and latin@ critical race theory (LatCrit) frameworks to highlight the lived experiences and key…

  10. Race and General Strain Theory: Examining the Impact of Racial Discrimination and Fear on Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use. (United States)

    Steele, Jennifer L


    To extend our knowledge of general strain theory by exploring how under-researched strains such as racial discrimination, witnessing violence, physical victimization and verbal bullying affect adolescent substance use while considering differences according to racial identification. This research utilized data from wave three of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Statistical analysis was primarily composed of path analysis using full information maximum likelihood parameter estimates. The findings reveal that reporting fear decreased alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and that racial discrimination, witnessing violence, and being the victim of verbal bullying indirectly affected marijuana and alcohol use through fear. No support was found for depression as a mediating variable. Physical victimization was the only social strain that had a direct positive effect on marijuana and alcohol use but only for Hispanics and African Americans. The results suggest that strains may be operating differently and there may be differential levels of exposure to certain strains according to one's race.

  11. Using Critical Race Theory to Analyze How Disney Constructs Diversity: A Construct for the Baccalaureate Human Behavior in the Social Environment Curriculum (United States)

    Cappiccie, Amy; Chadha, Janice; Lin, Muh Bi; Snyder, Frank


    Utilizing the basic tenets of critical race theory, the authors draw upon the expertise of multicultural scholars to raise consciousness and facilitate BSW classroom dialogue about microagressions perpetrated in Disney animations. Microaggressions pervade our media partly because they typically operate outside the threshold of the dominant…

  12. Race, Family Structure, and Delinquency: A Test of Differential Association and Social Control Theories. (United States)

    Matsueda, Ross L.; Heimer, Karen


    Broken homes have a larger impact on delinquency among Blacks than non-Blacks. In both populations, the effects of broken homes and attachment to parents and peers are mediated by the learning of definitions of delinquency, a finding that supports differential association over social control theory. (Author/BJV)

  13. Receta del Testimonio Mole: A Value-Rich Recipe for Folklórico Resilience Testimonio (United States)

    Pérez, Manuel Alejandro


    This testimonio explores the story of three hermanas and their connections to comunidad, familia, and self-esteem through Mexican folklórico. Each testimonio is positioned within a Latin Critical Race Theory (LatCrit) framework and further explored through Yosso's (2005) community cultural wealth framework. The stories within this paper allow each…

  14. Critical race theory as a bridge in science training: the California State University, Northridge BUILD PODER program. (United States)

    Saetermoe, Carrie L; Chavira, Gabriela; Khachikian, Crist S; Boyns, David; Cabello, Beverly


    Unconscious bias and explicit forms of discrimination continue to pervade academic institutions. Multicultural and diversity training activities have not been sufficient in making structural and social changes leading to equity, therefore, a new form of critical consciousness is needed to train diverse scientists with new research questions, methods, and perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to describe Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD); Promoting Opportunities for Diversity in Education and Research (PODER), which is an undergraduate biomedical research training program based on transformative framework rooted in Critical Race Theory (CRT). By employing a CRT-informed curriculum and training in BUILD PODER, students are empowered not only to gain access but also to thrive in graduate programs and beyond. Poder means "power" or "to be able to" in Spanish. Essentially, we are "building power" using students' strengths and empowering them as learners. The new curriculum helps students understand institutional policies and practices that may prevent them from persisting in higher education, learn to become their own advocates, and successfully confront social barriers and instances of inequities and discrimination. To challenge these barriers and sustain campus changes in support of students, BUILD PODER works toward changing campus culture and research mentoring relationships. By joining with ongoing university structures such as the state university Graduation Initiative, we include CRT tenets into the campus dialogue and stimulate campus-wide discussions around institutional change. Strong ties with five community college partners also enrich BUILD PODER's student body and strengthen mentor diversity. Preliminary evaluation data suggest that BUILD PODER's program has enhanced the racial/ethnic consciousness of the campus community, is effective in encouraging more egalitarian and respectful faculty-student relationships, and is a rigorous

  15. Critical Race Theory Counterstory as Allegory: A Rhetorical Trope to Raise Awareness about Arizona's Ban on Ethnic Studies (United States)

    Martinez, Aja Y.


    he critical race counterstory in this essay takes on the form of allegory to raise awareness about Arizona's anti-immigrant/Mexican climate, and pays particular attention to legislation targeted at Tucson Unified School District's Mexican American studies (also RAZA studies) program.

  16. Intersectionality and Critical Race Parenting (United States)

    DePouw, Christin


    This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…

  17. Conceptualizing Color-Evasiveness: Using Dis/Ability Critical Race Theory to Expand a Color-Blind Racial Ideology in Education and Society (United States)

    Annamma, Subini Ancy; Jackson, Darrell D.; Morrison, Deb


    Color-blind racial ideology has historically been conceptualized as an ideology wherein race is immaterial. Efforts not to "see" race insinuate that recognizing race is problematic; therefore, scholars have identified and critiqued color-blindness ideology. In this paper, we first examine Gotanda's (1991) identification and critique of…

  18. Towards a New Theory of Feminist Coalition: Accounting for the Heterogeneity of Gender, Race, Class, and Sexuality through an Exploration of Power and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Jeanine Boux


    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel theory of feminist coalition that centers and redefines the concepts of power and responsibility. After outlining several key ways in which feminist coalition work has been addressed by both theorists and practitioners, it goes on to explore how accounting for the complex experiences of identity rooted in factors such as race, class, gender, and sexuality continues to complicate the process of coalition building and theorizing. From these foundations, the article develops a theory of feminist coalition that speaks to how such a movement—or organizations within such a movement—can drive the political will for transformation and turn this will into political action without glossing over vital differences in people’s daily experiences of gender as it intersects with other systems of domination and oppression. The key argument made herein is that an explicit focus on power and responsibility can help us develop more functional answers to critical and still pressing questions, such as: Who is included—explicitly or implicitly—in feminist coalitions? And what issues, or agendas, are we working towards changing through these coalitions?

  19. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here:

  20. Relay race

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here:

  1. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona


    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist...


    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  3. Cultural-Ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement Used to Explain a Story of Race, Culture and Education. (United States)

    Ogunyemi, Boluwaji


    Students of African ancestry often share an experience of being a racialized minority in the context of the educational institution. Late Professor of Anthropology John Ogbu's Cultural-ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement is employed to describe the negative responses encountered by peers in the name of academic achievement. The late Nigerian-American anthropologist John Ogbu described that it is often socially disadvantageous for black youth to prosper academically in formal education. Black students are often seen as betraying their cultural identities by aspiring to academic success and scholastic achievement and are met with repugnance by black peers. The notion of "acting white" is unnecessary, impertinent should be abandoned outright as achievement should have no color. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Technology and the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.


    This article makes a review of the book Innovation and the Arms Race: How the United States and the Soviet Union Develop New Military Technologies written by Matthew Evangelista. For at least the last two decades, scholars have struggled to come to grips with the role of technological change in the arms race. Possible relationships between theories on technology and politics are examined. The contrasts between U.S. and Soviet approaches are highlighted

  5. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  6. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  7. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  8. Beyond the Culture of Exclusion: Using Critical Race Theory to Examine the Perceptions of British "Minority Ethnic" and Eastern European "Immigrant" Young People in English Schools (United States)

    Thomas, Emel


    In England there are minority ethnic students with past family connections to the former British Empire, as well as recent Eastern European students, economic migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. One may wish to ask, do newly emerging racial identities conceptualise race and race relations in similar ways to existing minority ethnic communities?…

  9. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  10. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil


    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  11. Racial Differences in College Students' Assessments of Campus Race Relations (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.; McCallum, Debra M.; Hughes, Michael; Smith, Gabrielle P. A.; McKnight, Utz


    Guided by the principles of critical race theory, we sought to understand how race and racism help explain differences in White and Black students' assessments of race relations on a predominantly White college campus. The authors employed data from a campus-wide survey conducted in Spring 2013 at the University of Alabama; the sample numbered…

  12. Double-Checking the Race Box: Examining Inconsistency between Survey Measures of Observed and Self-Reported Race (United States)

    Saperstein, Aliya


    Social constructivist theories of race suggest no two measures of race will capture the same information, but the degree of "error" this creates for quantitative research on inequality is unclear. Using unique data from the General Social Survey, I find observed and self-reported measures of race yield substantively different results when used to…

  13. Critical race theory as a tool for understanding poor engagement along the HIV care continuum among African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV in the United States: a qualitative exploration. (United States)

    Freeman, Robert; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Silverman, Elizabeth; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Reed, Jennifer; Martinez, Belkis Y


    African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) in the U.S. evidence insufficient engagement in HIV care and low uptake of HIV antiretroviral therapy, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. The present qualitative study used critical race theory, and incorporated intersectionality theory, to understand AABH-PLWH's perspectives on the mechanisms by which structural racism; that is, the macro-level systems that reinforce inequities among racial/ethnic groups, influence health decisions and behaviors. Participants were adult AABH-PLWH in New York City who were not taking antiretroviral therapy nor well engaged in HIV care (N = 37). Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation from a larger study, and engaged in semi-structured in-depth interviews that were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a systematic content analysis approach. We found AABH-PLWH experienced HIV care and medication decisions through a historical and cultural lens incorporating knowledge of past and present structural racism. This contextual knowledge included awareness of past maltreatment of people of color in medical research. Further, these understandings were linked to the history of HIV antiretroviral therapy itself, including awareness of the first HIV antiretroviral regimen; namely, AZT (zidovudine) mono-therapy, which was initially prescribed in unacceptably high doses, causing serious side effects, but with only modest efficacy. In this historical/cultural context, aspects of structural racism negatively influenced health care decisions and behavior in four main ways: 1) via the extent to which healthcare settings were experienced as overly institutionalized and, therefore, dehumanizing; 2) distrust of medical institutions and healthcare providers, which led AABH-PLWH to feel pressured to take HIV antiretroviral therapy when it was offered; 3) perceptions that patients are excluded from the health

  14. Arms races between and within species. (United States)

    Dawkins, R; Krebs, J R


    An adaptation in one lineage (e.g. predators) may change the selection pressure on another lineage (e.g. prey), giving rise to a counter-adaptation. If this occurs reciprocally, an unstable runaway escalation or 'arms race' may result. We discuss various factors which might give one side an advantage in an arms race. For example, a lineage under strong selection may out-evolve a weakly selected one (' the life-dinner principle'). We then classify arms races in two independent ways. They may be symmetric or asymmetric, and they may be interspecific or intraspecific. Our example of an asymmetric interspecific arms race is that between brood parasites and their hosts. The arms race concept may help to reduce the mystery of why cuckoo hosts are so good at detecting cuckoo eggs, but so bad at detecting cuckoo nestlings. The evolutionary contest between queen and worker ants over relative parental investment is a good example of an intraspecific asymmetric arms race. Such cases raise special problems because the participants share the same gene pool. Interspecific symmetric arms races are unlikely to be important, because competitors tend to diverge rather than escalate competitive adaptations. Intraspecific symmetric arms races, exemplified by adaptations for male-male competition, may underlie Cope's Rule and even the extinction of lineages. Finally we consider ways in which arms races can end. One lineage may drive the other to extinction; one may reach an optimum, thereby preventing the other from doing so; a particularly interesting possibility, exemplified by flower-bee coevolution, is that both sides may reach a mutual local optimum; lastly, arms races may have no stable and but may cycle continuously. We do not wish necessarily to suggest that all, or even most, evolutionary change results from arms races, but we do suggest that the arms race concept may help to resolve three long-standing questions in evolutionary theory.

  15. Bridged Race Population Estimates (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  16. Yacht Race Monitoring (United States)


    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  17. ["Human races": history of a dangerous illusion]. (United States)

    Louryan, S


    The multiplication of offences prompted by racism and the increase of complaints for racism leads us to consider the illusory concept of "human races". This idea crossed the history, and was reinforced by the discovery of remote tribes and human fossils, and by the development of sociobiology and quantitative psychology. Deprived of scientific base, the theory of the "races" must bow before the notions of genetic variation and unicity of mankind.

  18. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  19. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club


    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  20. The Second Space Race (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  1. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  2. Race: Deflate or pop? (United States)

    Hochman, Adam


    Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism-the view that race is a valid biological category-in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies 'races' as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky's notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to 'race'-according to which all genetic difference between populations is 'racial' and 'the races' are simply the populations we choose to call races-survived its early critiques. As it is being mobilised to support racial naturalism once more, we need to continue the debate about whether we should weaken the concept of race to mean 'population', or abandon it as a failed biological category. I argue that Sesardic's case for racial naturalism is only supported by his continued mischaracterisation of anti-realism about biological race and his appeal to Dobzhansky's authority. Rather than deflating the meaning of 'race', it should be eliminated from our biological ontology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Race encounters in ITE : tutors' narratives on race equality and initial teacher education (ITE)


    Lander, Arvinder Kaur


    This study examines the racialised narratives of White tutors in initial teacher education (ITE) with specific reference to how well initial teacher education (ITE) prepares student teachers to teach in an ethnically diverse society. It draws on critical race theory as a framework to identify how the discourse of whiteness is embedded in the experience, knowledge and hegemonic understandings of these tutors and how it affects their approach to the topic of race equality and teaching in a mult...

  4. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.


    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...

  5. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.


    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Deliberating about race as a variable in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is it morally appropriate to regard the race of research subjects .... Habermas J. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. ... Rorty R. Objectivity, Relativism and Truth (Philosophical Papers, Vol. 1).

  7. “They think you’re lazy,” and Other Messages Black Parents Send Their Black Sons: An Exploration of Critical Race Theory in the Examination of Educational Outcomes for Black Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Reynolds


    Full Text Available Parents play an integral role in the social, emotional, physical, and intellectual development of their children. We know that school success has been associated with parents’ involvement and engagement1 practices. Studies have shown that despite socioeconomic disparities, children whose parents are involved perform markedly better than those whose parents are not. Little research has looked exclusively at parent involvement and its effects on the educational outcomes of Black males. A qualitative study conducted with Black parents and their involvement and engagement practices as the focus proved that this relationship warrants scholarly attention using Critical Race Theory as a tool for examination. Parents in this study were involved in their children’s educational processes in ways not always validated or valued by schools. Instead of engaging in conventional forms of involvement such as volunteering in the classroom, parents spent time and resources supplementing their children’s education at home. Subtle acts of racism manifested through microaggressions were detected by parents when interfacing with school officials2 and these exchanges prompted candid conversations with their sons. According to the parents in this study, deliberate messages about racism and educator expectations were often critical supplements for their Black sons in order to ensure educational success.

  8. The Relationship between Race and Students' Identified Career Role Models and Perceived Role Model Influence (United States)

    Karunanayake, Danesh; Nauta, Margaret M.


    The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the modal race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as…

  9. CERN Relay Race 2009

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 14th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. More details on how to register your team for the relay race

  10. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running Club


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20 May, starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the route, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at:

  11. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 17 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site.

  12. Race, money and medicines. (United States)

    Bloche, M Gregg


    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.

  13. The uncanny return of the race concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHeinz


    Full Text Available The aim of this Hypothesis & Theory is to question the recently increasing use of the race concept in contemporary genetic as well as social studies. We discuss race and related terms used to assign individuals to distinct groups and caution that also concepts such as ethnicity or culture unduly neglect diversity. We suggest that one factor contributing to the dangerous nature of the race concept is that it is based on a mixture of traditional stereotypes about physiognomy and unduly imbued by colonial traditions. Furthermore, the social impact on race classifications will be critically reflected. We then examine current ways to apply the term culture and caution that while originally derived from a fundamentally different background, culture is all too often used as a proxy for race, particularly when referring to the population of a certain national state or wider region. When used in such contexts, suggesting that all inhabitants of a geographical or political unit belong to a certain culture tends to ignore diversity and to suggest a homogeneity, which consciously or unconsciously appears to extend into the realm of biological similarities and differences. Finally, we discuss alternative approaches and their respective relevance to biological and cultural studies.

  14. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemo, J.


    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  15. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 5 June starting at 12:15 p.m. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at:

  16. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 23 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at:

  17. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  18. Teamwork in adventure racing


    Šavrňák, Ondřej


    Title: Teamwork in Adventure racing Goals: The main goal is to make up the chapter about an ideal teamwork in Adventure racing. And so, to help starting teams but also help experienced teams to learn about their lacks in cooperation and to shift teamwork level above. Method: We used the method of literature retrieval from books, articles and researches. Results: It is very hard task to define ideal teamwork, we would not find same two teams in the world and therefore each team suits something...

  19. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  20. Economies of Racism: Grounding Education Policy Research in the Complex Dialectic of Race, Class, and Capital (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.; De Lissovoy, Noah


    The intent of this paper is to interrogate the current theoretical discourse in education concerning issues of race and class. The authors maintain that in recent years educational theory and critical policy discourse have unintentionally become splintered in such a way that race and class theories are employed separately, without much analysis of…

  1. 47th Relay Race!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association


    On Thursday June 1st at 12.15, Fabiola Gianotti, our Director-General, will fire the starting shot for the 47th Relay Race. This Race is above all a festive CERN event, open for runners and walkers, as well as the people cheering them on throughout the race, and those who wish to participate in the various activities organised between 11.30 and 14.30 out on the lawn in front of Restaurant 1. In order to make this sports event accessible for everyone, our Director-General will allow for flexible lunch hours on the day, applicable for all the members of personnel. An alert for the closure of roads will be send out on the day of the event. The Staff Association and the CERN Running Club thank you in advance for your participation and your continued support throughout the years. This year the CERN Running Club has announced the participation of locally and internationally renowned runners, no less! A bit over a week from the Relay Race of 1st June, the number of teams is going up nicely (already almost 40). Am...

  2. Race Car Rally. (United States)

    Anthony, Joan L.


    Describes an activity where teams of parents and children work together to solve problems involving matchbox-sized race cars. The teams collect, record, and analyze data; measure distances in metric; and explore concepts related to mass, friction, and force. (PR)

  3. Aerodynamics of Race Cars (United States)

    Katz, Joseph


    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  4. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 19 May between 12.15 and 12.35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding

  5. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday May 21st between 12h15 and 12h35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding

  6. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 23 May between 12:20 and 12:35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 15 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please stop until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  7. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 22 May between 12h20 and 12h35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 15 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  8. Race, Ethnicity and Culture


    Ballard, Roger


    Prepared for a textbook in sociology, this paper offers a clear set of definitions for the three crucial but much contended concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and having done so explores how they can be used to make sense of the dynamics of pluralism in contemporary Britain.

  9. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.


    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  10. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.


    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  11. 2005 CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez


    The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.

  12. Race, Racism, and Darwinism (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.


    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  13. Race, Emotions, and Socialization. (United States)

    Smith, James E.


    Investigated the connection between emotion and behavior, examining the connection between the construct of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. Data collected from a group of men and women on probation from prison indicated that people received different socialization with regard to emotions based on gender and race. Results suggest that…

  14. Doença mental, raça e sexualidade nas teorias psiquiátricas de Juliano Moreira Mental disease, race, and sexuality in the psychiatric theories of Juliano Moreira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa A. Venancio


    Full Text Available Tomando como ponto de partida a representação erudita que situa Juliano Moreira como fundador da psiquiatria científica no Brasil, este trabalho analisa as concepções por ele veiculadas sobre doença mental, raça e sexualidade. Suas teorias constituíram uma transposição sui generis do pensamento do psiquiatra alemão Emil Kraepelin, ajudando na construção do ideário em prol do processo civilizatório brasileiro no início do século XX. Fundamentava-se em pressupostos organicistas, ao mesmo tempo em que se contrapunha à idéia corrente na época sobre as condições "naturais" brasileiras desfavoráveis como o clima e a raça. Analisando os trabalhos publicados por Juliano Moreira até 1920, relaciona-se aqui o modo como seu discurso científico discutia o tema da sexualidade, expressa sob a rubrica da "sífilis", da "reprodução" e do "casamento". Com relação a essa temática, Juliano Moreira não se valeu da idéia de uma natureza feminina degenerada, crescentemente difundida em meados do século XIX. Ainda que não desconsiderasse a idéia mais geral da degeneração, pertinente apenas ao nível das unidades orgânicas individuais, descartaria a correlação entre degeneração e natureza feminina, para se ater aos fundamentos médicos hegemônicos na primeira metade do século XIX, que articulavam as marcas diferenciais da mulher à sua fisiologia sexual, paradigmaticamente representada pela imagem do útero.Taking as the point of departure the academic image of Juliano Moreira as the founder of scientific psychiatry in Brazil, this study analyzes the concepts he expressed on mental disease, race, and sexuality. His theories constituted a sui generis transposition of the thinking of German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, aiding in the construction of the ideals in defense of the Brazilian civilizational process in the early 20th century. He based his concepts on organicist premises, while arguing against the then

  15. Race walking gait and its influence on race walking economy in world-class race walkers. (United States)

    Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Torres-Unda, Jon; Tam, Nicholas; Irazusta, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan


    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between biomechanical parameters of the gait cycle and race walking economy in world-class Olympic race walkers. Twenty-One world-class race walkers possessing the Olympic qualifying standard participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental race walking test starting at 10 km·h -1 , where race walking economy (ml·kg -1 ·km -1 ) and spatiotemporal gait variables were analysed at different speeds. 20-km race walking performance was related to race walking economy, being the fastest race walkers those displaying reduced oxygen cost at a given speed (R = 0.760, p < 0.001). Longer ground contact times, shorter flight times, longer midstance sub-phase and shorter propulsive sub-phase during stance were related to a better race walking economy (moderate effect, p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, the fastest race walkers were more economi cal than the lesser performers. Similarly, shorter flight times are associated with a more efficient race walking economy. Coaches and race walkers should avoid modifying their race walking style by increasing flight times, as it may not only impair economy, but also lead to disqualification.

  16. Addressing the Puzzle of Race (United States)

    Coleman, Samuel


    Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…

  17. Marriage and the homosexual body: it's about race. (United States)

    Keenan, Deirdre


    Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body.

  18. Editorial: Race/matter - materialism and the politics of racialization


    Papadopoulos, D; Sharma, S


    A materialist turn in the humanities and social sciences has revitalized work in feminism, science and technology studies, critical social theory and phenomenology. Nonetheless, we want to ask what’s at stake when ‘race’ is grasped from a materialist standpoint? Is the focus on materiality able to track and unravel the manifold neo-racisms of contemporary globalization? Does it supersede the limitations of social constructionist accounts of race? And could a materialist ontology of race trans...

  19. Catch shares slow the race to fish (United States)

    Birkenbach, Anna M.; Kaczan, David J.; Smith, Martin D.


    In fisheries, the tragedy of the commons manifests as a competitive race to fish that compresses fishing seasons, resulting in ecological damage, economic waste, and occupational hazards. Catch shares are hypothesized to halt the race by securing each individual’s right to a portion of the total catch, but there is evidence for this from selected examples only. Here we systematically analyse natural experiments to test whether catch shares reduce racing in 39 US fisheries. We compare each fishery treated with catch shares to an individually matched control before and after the policy change. We estimate an average policy treatment effect in a pooled model and in a meta-analysis that combines separate estimates for each treatment-control pair. Consistent with the theory that market-based management ends the race to fish, we find strong evidence that catch shares extend fishing seasons. This evidence informs the current debate over expanding the use of market-based regulation to other fisheries.

  20. Arms Races and Negotiations


    Sandeep Baliga; Tomas Sjostrom


    Two players simultaneously decide whether or not to acquire new weapons in an arms race game. Each player's type determines his propensity to arm. Types are private information, and are independently drawn from a continuous distribution. With probability close to one, the best outcome for each player is for neither to acquire new weapons (although each prefers to acquire new weapons if he thinks the opponent will). There is a small probability that a player is a dominant strategy type who alw...

  1. CERN Relay Race 2018

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running club


    The CERN running club, in collaboration with the Staff Association, is happy to announce the 2018 relay race edition. It will take place on Thursday, May 24th and will consist as every year in a round trip of the CERN Meyrin site in teams of 6 members. It is a fun event, and you do not have to run fast to enjoy it. Registrations will be open from May 1st to May 22nd on the running club web site. All information concerning the race and the registration are available there too: A video of the previous edition is also available here : As every year, there will be animations starting at noon on the lawn in front of restaurant 1, and information stands for many CERN associations and clubs will be available. The running club partners will also be participate in the event, namely Berthie Sport, Interfon and Uniqa.

  2. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club


    This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15.   For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.  

  3. The racing dragon

    CERN Multimedia


    Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...

  4. How malleable is categorization by race? Evidence for competitive category use in social categorization. (United States)

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Hölzenbein, Fabian; Calanchini, Jimmy; Sherman, Jeffrey W


    We contrast 3 theoretical viewpoints concerning the factors affecting social categorization by race: (a) the classical theory of social categorization highlighting the role of a priori accessibility and situational factors, (b) the classical theory augmented by a principle of competitive category use, and (c) competition between race (but not gender) and coalition with race (but not gender) encoded only as a proxy to coalition. Study 1 documents a confound that renders important portions of previous research difficult to interpret. In Studies 2 and 3, race categorization was stronger than categorization by more weakly accessible categories when situational support in terms of topic relevance was comparable across categories. A situational focus on race further increased race categorization. Race categorization was reduced in the presence of strongly cued cross-cutting coalitions. Race categorization also was depressed when situational factors promoted comparative processing of cross-cutting categories while cues to potential coalitional divisions were held constant (Study 4). Accessibility, topic relevance, and cuing cross-cutting coalitions had the same effects on gender categorization as found for race categorization (Study 5). Taken together, the results suggest that classical theories of social categorization have to be augmented by a principle of competitive category use that is not limited to a competition between race and coalition.

  5. Analysis of a model race car (United States)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Evans, Jonathan


    We analyze the motion of a gravity powered model race car on a downhill track of variable slope. Using a simple algebraic function to approximate the height of the track as a function of the distance along the track, and taking account of the rotational energy of the wheels, rolling friction, and air resistance, we obtain analytic expressions for the velocity and time of the car as functions of the distance traveled along the track. Photogates are used to measure the time at selected points along the track, and the measured values are in excellent agreement with the values predicted from theory. The design and analysis of model race cars provides a good application of principles of mechanics and suggests interesting projects for classes in introductory and intermediate mechanics.

  6. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul


    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  7. Logical empiricists on race. (United States)

    Bright, Liam Kofi


    The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Race By Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller


    In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...... on heart rate data sharing between users in real-time. Through an empirical study conducted in the gym, we show that sharing biometric data in real-time can strengthen so- cial relations between participants, increase motivation, and improve the en- joyment of the fitness activity. Nevertheless, we found...

  9. Food in the Metaphysical Orders: Gender, Race, and the Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Borghini


    Full Text Available By looking at human practices around food, the paper brings novel evidence linking the social constructionist and the naturalist theories of gender, race, and the family, evidence that is based on the analysis of developmental trajectories. The argument rests on two main theoretical claims: (i unlike evolutionary explanations, developmental trajectories can play a decisive role in exhibiting the biological underpinnings of kinds related to gender, race, and family; (ii food constitutes a point of convergence between constructionist and naturalist perspectives because it embeds practices of particular significance for establishing identities of gender, race, and family that, at the same time, are rooted on skills and habits acquired through specific developmental patterns. The paper illustrates (i and (ii via two case studies involving women hunters and the diet of the Obamas. The latter also suggests that kinds associated to gender, race, and family are entangled.

  10. Race, Rights and Rebels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Krabbe, Julia

    An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies......An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies...

  11. The Threat of Unexamined Secondary Data: A Critical Race Transformative Convergent Mixed Methods (United States)

    Garcia, Nichole M.; Mayorga, Oscar J.


    This article uses a critical race theory framework to conceptualize a Critical Race Transformative Convergent Mixed Methods (CRTCMM) in education. CRTCMM is a methodology that challenges normative educational research practices by acknowledging that racism permeates educational institutions and marginalizes Communities of Color. The focus of this…

  12. Learning to See: The Development of Race and Class Consciousness in White Teachers (United States)

    Ullucci, Kerri


    This is a study of White teachers and their identity development. Using a qualitative approach steeped in the tenants of critical race theory and storytelling, this study investigated how White teachers learn about race, class and diversity in meaningful ways, with a close eye on the role their own personal histories played in their development.…

  13. But Good Intentions Are Not Enough: Preparing Teachers to Center Race and Poverty (United States)

    Milner, H. Richard; Laughter, Judson C.


    Drawing from principles of critical race theory, the authors consider the curriculum of teacher education as a potential policy and practice site for centering the interconnections of race and poverty in the preparation of teachers. Several macro-level recommendations are advanced that might influence practices in teacher education and ultimately…

  14. What's in a Name … Or a Face? Student Perceptions of Faculty Race (United States)

    Mendez, Jeanette Morehouse; Mendez, Jesse Perez


    Utilizing Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a conceptual framework, this study examines student perception of faculty of color in academia from student professor preference. Using an experimental design to test the effect of race on selection of faculty with whom to take a course, we showed student participants two types of pairings of faculty: first,…

  15. Critical Race Parenting in the Trump Era: A Sisyphean Endeavor? A Parable (United States)

    Montoya, Roberto; Sarcedo, Geneva L.


    This article examines the complicated decisions parents make when they decide to raise critically conscious children. The article argues that critical parenting in US society is often analogous to the Greek myth of Sisyphus. Using Critical Race Parenting, Critical Race Theory, and Critical Whiteness Studies, this critically interpretive parable…

  16. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.


    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that…

  17. Race and Class on Campus (United States)

    Perez, Angel B.


    Colleges and universities have a significant role to play in shaping the future of race and class relations in America. As exhibited in this year's presidential election, race and class continue to divide. Black Lives Matter movements, campus protests, and police shootings are just a few examples of the proliferation of intolerance, and higher…

  18. Helping Students Discuss Race Openly (United States)

    Landsman, Julie


    One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…

  19. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  20. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  1. Means of Transportation to Work by Race (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — Except where noted, 'race' refers to people reporting only one race. 'Hispanic' refers to an ethnic category; Hispanics may be of any race. An entry of '+/-0' in...

  2. On the other side of the fence: effects of social categorization and spatial grouping on memory and attention for own-race and other-race faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Kloth

    Full Text Available The term "own-race bias" refers to the phenomenon that humans are typically better at recognizing faces from their own than a different race. The perceptual expertise account assumes that our face perception system has adapted to the faces we are typically exposed to, equipping it poorly for the processing of other-race faces. Sociocognitive theories assume that other-race faces are initially categorized as out-group, decreasing motivation to individuate them. Supporting sociocognitive accounts, a recent study has reported improved recognition for other-race faces when these were categorized as belonging to the participants' in-group on a second social dimension, i.e., their university affiliation. Faces were studied in groups, containing both own-race and other-race faces, half of each labeled as in-group and out-group, respectively. When study faces were spatially grouped by race, participants showed a clear own-race bias. When faces were grouped by university affiliation, recognition of other-race faces from the social in-group was indistinguishable from own-race face recognition. The present study aimed at extending this singular finding to other races of faces and participants. Forty Asian and 40 European Australian participants studied Asian and European faces for a recognition test. Faces were presented in groups, containing an equal number of own-university and other-university Asian and European faces. Between participants, faces were grouped either according to race or university affiliation. Eye tracking was used to study the distribution of spatial attention to individual faces in the display. The race of the study faces significantly affected participants' memory, with better recognition of own-race than other-race faces. However, memory was unaffected by the university affiliation of the faces and by the criterion for their spatial grouping on the display. Eye tracking revealed strong looking biases towards both own-race and own

  3. A Response to Rushton's "Race Differences in Behaviour." (United States)

    Mouat, Thomas W., IV


    Refutes Rushton's claims regarding heritable race differences in intelligence, criminal capacity, brain weight, and his racial ordering of human evolution. Cites major studies with opposite results. Analyses the causal chain governing explicit theory and unstated assumptions; documents inadequate, spurious, and misapplied data sources; and…

  4. Geographic Constructions of Race: The Midwest Asian American Students Union (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Poon, OiYan A.; Manzano, Lester J.; Sihite, Ester U.


    This case study was focused on the establishment of the Midwest Asian American Students Union (MAASU) as a racial project reflecting students' articulations of a regional, panethnic identity in response to racism. A critical race theory lens was used to analyze interviews with 13 MAASU founders. Findings highlight the role of social context (in…

  5. Race as a Durable "and" Shifting Idea: How Black Millennial Preservice Teachers Understand Race, Racism, and Teaching (United States)

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.


    The rapidly changing landscape of 21st-century education has sparked intense conversations around the need for a more racially and ethnically diverse PK-12 teacher population. Drawing from critical race theory and racial formation, I describe findings from a qualitative case study that examined how a group of black millennial preservice teachers…

  6. Who's Qualified? Seeing Race in Color-Blind Times: Lessons from Fisher v. University of Texas (United States)

    Donnor, Jamel K.


    Using Howard Winant's racial dualism theory, this chapter explains how race was discursively operationalized in the recent U.S. Supreme Court higher education antiracial diversity case Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin.

  7. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACE Groundfish Survey Photo Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Groundfish Assessment Program (GAP) is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and...

  8. Leadership perceptions as a function of race-occupation fit: the case of Asian Americans. (United States)

    Sy, Thomas; Shore, Lynn M; Strauss, Judy; Shore, Ted H; Tram, Susanna; Whiteley, Paul; Ikeda-Muromachi, Kristine


    On the basis of the connectionist model of leadership, we examined perceptions of leadership as a function of the contextual factors of race (Asian American, Caucasian American) and occupation (engineering, sales) in 3 experiments (1 student sample and 2 industry samples). Race and occupation exhibited differential effects for within- and between-race comparisons. With regard to within-race comparisons, leadership perceptions of Asian Americans were higher when race-occupation was a good fit (engineer position) than when race-occupation was a poor fit (sales position) for the two industry samples. With regard to between-race comparisons, leadership perceptions of Asian Americans were low relative to those of Caucasian Americans. Additionally, when race-occupation was a good fit for Asian Americans, such individuals were evaluated higher on perceptions of technical competence than were Caucasian Americans, whereas they were evaluated lower when race-occupation was a poor fit. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that race affects leadership perceptions through the activation of prototypic leadership attributes (i.e., implicit leadership theories). Implications for the findings are discussed in terms of the connectionist model of leadership and leadership opportunities for Asian Americans. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction. (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A


    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. The 2009 Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The 2009 CERN Relay Race was as popular as ever, with a record number of 88 teams competing. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://', 'false', 288, 216, '', '1178303', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Even the rain didn’t dampen the spirits, and it still managed to capture the ‘festival feeling’ with live music, beer and stalls from various CERN clubs set up outside Restaurant 1. The Powercuts on the podium after win...

  11. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  12. The Unhappy Marriage between Marxism and Race Critique: Political Economy and the Production of Racialized Knowledge (United States)

    Leonardo, Zeus


    In educational policy theory orthodox Marxism is known for its commitment to objectivism or the science of history. Race analysis is developed in its ability to explain the subjective dimension of racial oppression. The two theories are often at odds with each other. This article is an attempt to create a theory by integrating Marxist objectivism…

  13. Race and Raceness: A Theoretical Perspective of the Black American Experience. (United States)

    Wade, Jacqueline E.


    Gives a theoretical perspective of the multidimensional nature of Black-race/White-race consciousness. American perceptions of race are expressed in White race centeredness. Blacks face the dilemma of adhering to two sets of values: a positive valuation of their race and a necessity of passing in White society. (PS)

  14. Recognition of Own-Race and Other-Race Faces by Three-Month-Old Infants (United States)

    Sangrigoli, Sandy; De Schonen, Scania


    Background: People are better at recognizing faces of their own race than faces of another race. Such race specificity may be due to differential expertise in the two races. Method: In order to find out whether this other-race effect develops as early as face-recognition skills or whether it is a long-term effect of acquired expertise, we tested…

  15. Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies. (United States)

    Rushton, J P


    The international literature on racial differences is reviewed, novel data are reported, and a distinct pattern is found. People of east Asian ancestry and people of African ancestry average at opposite ends of a continuum, with people of European ancestry averaging intermediately, albeit with much variability within each major race. The racial matrix emerges from measures taken of reproductive behavior, sex hormones, twinning rate, speed of physical maturation, personality, family stability, brain size, intelligence, law abidingness, and social organization. An evolutionary theory of human reproduction is proposed, familiar to biologists as the r-K scale of reproductive strategies. At one end of this scale are r-strategies, which emphasize high reproductive rates; at the other end are K-strategies, which emphasize high levels of parental investment. This scale is generally used to compare the life histories of widely disparate species, but here it is used to describe the immensely smaller variations among human races. It is hypothesized that, again on average, Mongoloid people are more K-selected than Caucasoids, who are more K-selected than Negroids. The r-K scale of reproductive strategies is also mapped on to human evolution. Genetic distances indicate that Africans emerged from the ancestral hominid line about 200,000 years ago, with an African/non-African split about 110,000 years ago, and a Caucasoid/Mongoloid split about 41,000 years ago. Such an ordering fits with and explains how and why the variables cluster.

  16. Predictive Modeling in Race Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wiktorowicz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of linear and nonlinear multivariable models as tools to support training process of race walkers. These models are calculated using data collected from race walkers’ training events and they are used to predict the result over a 3 km race based on training loads. The material consists of 122 training plans for 21 athletes. In order to choose the best model leave-one-out cross-validation method is used. The main contribution of the paper is to propose the nonlinear modifications for linear models in order to achieve smaller prediction error. It is shown that the best model is a modified LASSO regression with quadratic terms in the nonlinear part. This model has the smallest prediction error and simplified structure by eliminating some of the predictors.

  17. Social Influence on Observed Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia Boda


    Full Text Available This article introduces a novel theoretical approach for understanding racial fluidity, emphasizing the social embeddedness of racial classifications. We propose that social ties affect racial perceptions through within-group micromechanisms, resulting in discrepancies between racial self-identifications and race as classified by others. We demonstrate this empirically on data from 12 Hungarian high school classes with one minority group (the Roma using stochastic actor-oriented models for the analysis of social network panel data. We find strong evidence for social influence: individuals tend to accept their peers' judgement about another student’s racial category; opinions of friends have a larger effect than those of nonfriends. Perceived social position also matters: those well-accepted among majority-race peers are likely to be classified as majority students themselves. We argue that similar analyses in other social contexts shall lead to a better understanding of race and interracial processes.

  18. When Claiming to Teach for Social Justice Is Not Enough: Majoritarian Stories of Race, Difference, and Meritocracy (United States)

    Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Torres, Aubrey Scheopner; Barnatt, Joan; Piazza, Peter


    To understand how dominant messages about race and effective pedagogy impact teacher beliefs and practice, this study employs critical race theory (CRT) in a case study analysis of Rebecca Rosenberg, a mid-career entrant into the teaching profession who was terminated from her first job before the end of her district's probationary period. Despite…

  19. Beyond the Face of Race: Emo-Cognitive Explorations of White Neurosis and Racial Cray-Cray (United States)

    Matias, Cheryl E.; DiAngelo, Robin


    In this article, the authors focus on the emotional and cognitive context that underlies whiteness. They employ interdisciplinary approaches of critical Whiteness studies and critical race theory to entertain how common White responses to racial material stem from the need for Whites to deny race, a traumatizing process that begins in childhood.…

  20. Race and Culture in the Secondary School Health and Physical Education Curriculum in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Reading (United States)

    Petherick, LeAnne


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore issues of race and culture in health education in the secondary school health and physical education (HPE) curriculum in Ontario, Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Using Ontario's secondary school curriculum as a point of analysis, this paper draws from critical race theory and a whiteness lens…

  1. On the Elephant in the Room: Toward a Generative Politics of Place on Race in Academic Discourse (United States)

    Ulysse, Baudelaire; Berry, Theodorea Regina; Jupp, James C.


    In our conceptual essay, we draw on an exchange between a White scholar and a group of panelists on Critical Race Theory at an international conference. Taking up this exchange as our point of departure, we work in dialectical and multidimensional ways between the essentialized politics of place on race and critical anti-essentializing foundations…

  2. Rethinking Race and Racism as "Technologies of Affect": Theorizing the Implications for Anti-Racist Politics and Practice in Education (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos


    This article draws on the concept of race and racism as "technologies of affect" to think with some of the interventions and arguments of critical affect studies. The author suggests that critical affect theories enable the theorization of race and racism as affective modes of being that recognize the historically specific assemblages…

  3. Nuclear Arms Race and Environment


    Li, Anpeng


    This paper introduces a new factor, environment, into nuclear arms race model. In this model, nuclear weapons produce larger defense power compared with conventional arms, but hurt the environment meanwhile. In the global welfare maximum level, both conventional and nuclear weapons budget are zero. However, the competitive equilibrium may not achieve the optimum. I give the condition to jump out of the prisoner's dilemma.

  4. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  5. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  6. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.


    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536

  7. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine


    Fofana, Mariam O.


    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on ...

  8. How Student Teachers (Don't) Talk about Race: An Intersectional Analysis (United States)

    Young, Kathryn S.


    This study explores how student teacher talk about their students illuminates the identities ascribed to these same students. It uses a hybrid intersectional framework based on Disability Studies, Critical Race Theory, and Latino Critical Theory and methodologies (like examining majoritarian stories, counter-storytelling, coded talk, and…

  9. Career Development: Issues of Gender, Race, and Class. Information Series No. 371. (United States)

    Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.

    The premise of this paper is that, although career choice implies options, issues of gender, race, and class may constrain the occupational choices an individual makes. Dominant career development theories are being reexamined for their appropriateness to diverse groups. This paper reviews the following theories: Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and…

  10. From Disconnection to Connection: "Race", Gender and the Politics of Therapy (United States)

    Chantler, Khatidja


    Person-centred therapy typically fails to address structural dimensions of inequality such as "race", gender and class. In this paper, I explore why this is, and what can be done about it ? at the levels of theory, practice and the organisation of services. Drawing on person-centred theory and practice, I discuss theoretical and…

  11. Children's Attitudes toward Race and Gender. (United States)

    Warner, Juliet L.

    An implicit assumption in the majority of literature looking at development of prejudice in children is that race prejudice and sex prejudice are equivalent across groups; that is, sex bias is not conditional on race, and likewise race bias is not conditional on sex bias of the child. However, Warner, Fishbein, Ritchey and Case (2001) found strong…

  12. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts (United States)

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.


    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  13. Students To Race Solar-Powered Vehicles (United States)

    4 1999 — Middle school students from across the state next week will race model solar cars designed Race Solar-Powered Vehicles For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., May 12 inches high. The 20-meter race is a double elimination competition with awards going to the five

  14. Simple model of the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zane, L.I.


    A simple model of a two-party arms race is developed based on the principle that the race will continue so long as either side can unleash an effective first strike against the other side. The model is used to examine how secrecy, the ABM, MIRV-ing, and an MX system affect the arms race

  15. Theorizing Race and Racism: Preliminary Reflections on the Medical Curriculum. (United States)

    Braun, Lundy


    The current political economic crisis in the United States places in sharp relief the tensions and contradictions of racial capitalism as it manifests materially in health care and in knowledge-producing practices. Despite nearly two decades of investment in research on racial inequality in disease, inequality persists. While the reasons for persistence of inequality are manifold, little attention has been directed to the role of medical education. Importantly, medical education has failed to foster critical theorizing on race and racism to illuminate the often-invisible ways in which race and racism shape biomedical knowledge and clinical practice. Medical students across the nation are advocating for more critical anti-racist education that centers the perspectives and knowledge of marginalized communities. This Article examines the contemporary resurgence in explicit forms of white supremacy in light of growing student activism and research that privileges notions of innate differences between races. It calls for a theoretical framework that draws on Critical Race Theory and the Black Radical Tradition to interrogate epistemological practices and advocacy initiatives in medical education.

  16. Don't miss the 2016 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke for the CERN Running Club


    The 2016 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 28 September at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information and the online entry form can be found here.

  17. Chaotic evolution of arms races (United States)

    Tomochi, Masaki; Kono, Mitsuo


    A new set of model equations is proposed to describe the evolution of the arms race, by extending Richardson's model with special emphases that (1) power dependent defensive reaction or historical enmity could be a motive force to promote armaments, (2) a deterrent would suppress the growth of armaments, and (3) the defense reaction of one nation against the other nation depends nonlinearly on the difference in armaments between two. The set of equations is numerically solved to exhibit stationary, periodic, and chaotic behavior depending on the combinations of parameters involved. The chaotic evolution is realized when the economic situation of each country involved in the arms race is quite different, which is often observed in the real world.

  18. The spectre of race in American medicine. (United States)

    Fofana, Mariam O


    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race-the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful-has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalisation of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient's risk of certain conditions (eg, sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful, and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today's physicians will be better armed to discern-and correct-the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices.

  19. Race and Subprime Loan Pricing


    Hernandez, Ruben; Owyang, Michael; Ghent, Andra


    In this paper we investigate whether race and ethnicity influenced subprime loan pricing during 2005, the peak of the subprime mortgage expansion. We combine loan-level data on the performance of non-prime securitized mortgages with individual- and neighborhood-level data on racial and ethnic characteristics for metropolitan areas in California and Florida. Using a model of rate determination that accounts for predicted loan performance, we evaluate the presence of disparate impact and dispar...

  20. Explaining between-race differences in African-American and European-American women's responses to breast density notification. (United States)

    Manning, Mark; Albrecht, Terrance L; Yilmaz-Saab, Zeynep; Penner, Louis; Norman, Andria; Purrington, Kristen


    Prior research shows between-race differences in women's knowledge and emotions related to having dense breasts, thus suggesting that between-race differences in behavioral decision-making following receipt of breast density (BD) notifications are likely. Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this study examined differences in emotion-related responses (i.e., anxiety, worry, confusion) and behavioral cognition (e.g., intentions, behavioral attitudes) following receipt of BD notifications among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. This study also examined whether race-related perceptions (i.e., discrimination, group-based medical mistrust), relevant knowledge and socioeconomic status (SES) explained the between race differences. Michigan women (N = 457) who presented for routine screening mammogram and had dense breasts, no prior breast cancer diagnoses, and had screen-negative mammograms were recruited from July, 2015 to March 2016. MANOVA was used to examine between race differences in psychological responses (i.e., emotional responses and behavioral cognition), and a multi-group structural regression model was used to examine whether race-related constructs, knowledge and SES mediated the effect of race on emotional responses and behavioral cognition. Prior awareness of BD was accounted for in all analyses. AA women generally reported more negative psychological responses to receiving BD notifications regardless of prior BD awareness. AA women had more favorable perceptions related to talking to their physicians about the BD notifications. Generally, race-related perceptions, SES, and related knowledge partially accounted for the effect of race on psychological response. Race-related perceptions and SES partially accounted for the differences in behavioral intentions. Between-race differences in emotional responses to BD notifications did not explain differences in women's intentions to discuss BD notifications with their physicians

  1. Infectious episodes before and after a marathon race. (United States)

    Ekblom, B; Ekblom, O; Malm, C


    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of self-reported infectious episodes (IE) during 3 weeks before (pre-IE) and 3 weeks after (post-IE) a marathon race and relate these figures to training status, running time, socioeconomic and demographic factors. Two questionnaires, including questions about important factors for IE incidence, were given to a representative cohort of 1694 runners (17% of all finishers) in the Stockholm Marathon 2000. Pre-IE incidence in the cohort was 17% with no difference between women and men. Post-IE incidence in the whole cohort was 19% with no significant (P>0.05) difference between women and men. The post-IE incidence in runners without a pre-IE was 16% (P>0.05 to pre-IE incidence). In the group of runners with pre-IE, 33% experienced an IE after the race also (Ptraining volume 6 months before the race, finishing time and socioeconomic and demographic factors and pre-IE or post-IE. This study does not support the theory of increased infection rate after exhaustive long-distance running ("The Open Window Theory") in recreational runners, but suggests that the sometimes experienced increased rate of infections among athletes can be caused by strenuous exercise too soon after an infection.

  2. Relation Between Hertz Stress-Life Exponent, Ball-Race Conformity, and Ball Bearing Life (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.; Root, Lawrence E.


    ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards based on Lundberg-Palmgren bearing life theory are normalized for ball bearings having inner- and outerrace conformities of 52 percent (0.52) and made from pre-1940 bearing steel. The Lundberg-Palmgren theory incorporates an inverse 9th power relation between Hertz stress and fatigue life for ball bearings. The effect of race conformity on ball set life independent of race life is not incorporated into the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. In addition, post-1960 vacuum-processed bearing steel exhibits a 12th power relation between Hertz stress and life. The work reported extends the previous work of Zaretsky, Poplawski, and Root to calculate changes in bearing life--that includes the life of the ball set--caused by race conformity, Hertz stress-life exponent, ball bearing type and bearing series. The bearing fatigue life in actual application will usually be equal to or greater than that calculated using the ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards that incorporate the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. The relative fatigue life of an individual race is more sensitive to changes in race conformity for Hertz stress-life exponent n of 12 than where n = 9. However, when the effects are combined to predict actual bearing life for a specified set of conditions and bearing geometry, the predicted life of the bearing will be greater for a value of n = 12 than n = 9.

  3. Is gender more important and meaningful than race? An analysis of racial and gender identity among Black, White, and mixed-race children. (United States)

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Meltzoff, Andrew N


    Social categories shape children's lives in subtle and powerful ways. Although research has assessed children's knowledge of social groups, most prominently race and gender, few studies have examined children's understanding of their own multiple social identities and how they intersect. This paper explores how children evaluate the importance and meaning of their racial and gender identities, and variation in these evaluations based on the child's own age, gender, and race. Participants were 222 Black, White, and Mixed-Race children (girls: n = 136; Mage = 9.94 years). Data were gathered in schools via 1-on-1 semistructured interviews. Analyses focused on specific measures of the importance and meaning of racial and gender identity for children. We found that: (a) children rate gender as a more important identity than race; (b) the meanings children ascribe to gender identity emphasized inequality and group difference whereas the meaning of race emphasized physical appearance and humanism/equality; and (c) children's assessments of importance and meaning varied as a function of child race and gender, but not age. The findings extend research on young children's social identity development and the role of culture and context in children's emerging racial and gender identities. Implications for identity theory and development and intergroup relations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Exploring Race Based Differences in Patterns of Life-Course Criminality (United States)

    Markowitz, Michael W.; Salvatore, Christopher


    A persistent issue facing criminologists is the challenge of developing theoretical models that provide comprehensive explanations of the onset and persistence of criminality. One promising theory to develop over the last 30 years has been life-course theory. Using multivariate analysis of variance the main question posed in this research, do elements of social development shape the trajectory of persistent offending in a race-neutral fashion, or are the dynamics shaping life-course criminality unique for people of color, was examined. The results provide a number of useful insights into the relationship between race, life-course transition factors, and longitudinal patterns of criminality. PMID:23436952

  5. Ground effect aerodynamics of racing cars


    Zhang, Xin; Toet, Willem; Zerihan, Jonathan


    We review the progress made during the last thirty years on ground effect aerodynamics associated with race cars, in particular open wheel race cars. Ground effect aerodynamics of race cars is concerned with generating downforce, principally via low pressure on the surfaces nearest to the ground. The “ground effected” parts of an open wheeled car's aerodynamics are the most aerodynamically efficient and contribute less drag than that associated with, for example, an upper rear wing. Whilst dr...

  6. Ultracold fermion race is on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, R.


    At the quantum level, particles behave very differently depending on whether their spin angular momentum is an integer or a half-integer. Half-integer spin particles are known as fermions, and include all the constituents of atoms: electrons, protons and neutrons. Bosons, on the other hand, are particles with integer spin, such as photons. Atoms are fermions if they are composed of an odd number of particles, like helium-3 or lithium-6. If they have an even number of constituents, like hydrogen, helium-4 or lithium-7, they are known as bosons. Fermions and bosons behave in profoundly different ways under certain conditions, especially at low temperatures. Four years ago, physicists created a Bose condensate, a quantum degenerate gas of bosons. Now the race is on to do the same with fermions. Deborah Jin's group at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado has cooled a fermion gas to the lowest temperature yet (B DeMarco 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4208). And John Thomas and co-workers at Duke University have set a new record for the length of time that fermions can be trapped using lasers (K O'Hara 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4204). In this article the author describes the latest advances in the race to create a quantum degenerate gas of fermions. (UK)

  7. Elevating the Role of Race in Ethnographic Research: Navigating Race Relations in the Field (United States)

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.


    Little work in the social sciences or in the field of education has fully explored the methodological issues related to the study of race and racism, yet qualitative researchers acknowledge that race plays (and should play) a role in the research process. Indeed, race frames and informs the context, practices and perspectives of everyday lived…

  8. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vainionpää


    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  9. Thermographic imaging of the superficial temperature in racing greyhounds before and after the race. (United States)

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi


    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  10. Debate: Race, Labour and the Archbishop, or the Currency of Race. (United States)

    Stanford, Jacqui


    Explores how race is exploited to serve political agendas in Britain, examining the Labour Government's orientation to race. Argues that the Labour Government manipulates issues to suggest concern while actually removing race from the policy agenda in education. Reflects on the Archbishop of Canterbury's "Jesus 2000" to support the…

  11. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  12. W.E.B. Du Bois and Filipino/a American Exposure Programs to the Philippines: Race Class Analysis in an Epoch of "Global Apartheid" (United States)

    Viola, Michael Joseph


    The article highlights the ongoing relevance of W.E.B. Du Bois for the global analysis of race and class. Engaging scholarly debates that have ensued within the educational subfields of critical race theory (CRT) and (revolutionary) critical pedagogy, the article explores how a deeper engagement with Du Bois's ideas contributes theoretically and…

  13. The ploidy races of Atriplex confertifolia (chenopodiaceae) (United States)

    Stewart C. Sanderson


    Previous accounts of polyploidy in the North American salt desert shrub Atriplex confertifolia (shadscale) have dealt with the distribution of polyploidy and the morphological and secondary chemical differences between races. The present study amplifies these studies and reveals additional ploidy-flavonoid races, with ploidy levels known to extend from 2x to 12x, and...

  14. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges (United States)

    Auty, Geoff


    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  15. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: ...

  16. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia


    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  17. Darwin's explanation of races by means of sexual selection. (United States)

    Millstein, Roberta L


    In Darwin's Sacred Cause, Adrian Desmond and James Moore contend that "Darwin would put his utmost into sexual selection because the subject intrigued him, no doubt, but also for a deeper reason: the theory vindicated his lifelong commitment to human brotherhood" (2009: p. 360). Without questioning Desmond and Moore's evidence, I will raise some puzzles for their view. I will show that attention to the structure of Darwin's arguments in the Descent of Man shows that they are far from straightforward. As Desmond and Moore note, Darwin seems to have intended sexual selection in non-human animals to serve as evidence for sexual selection in humans. However, Darwin's account of sexual selection in humans was different from the canonical cases that Darwin described at great length. If explaining the origin of human races was the main reason for introducing sexual selection, and if sexual selection was a key piece of Darwin's anti-slavery arguments, then it is puzzling why Darwin would have spent so much time discussing cases that did not really support his argument for the origin of human races, and it is also puzzling that his argument for the origin of human races would be so (atypically) poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Race and social attitudes about sickle cell disease. (United States)

    Bediako, Shawn M; Moffitt, Kimberly R


    Sickle cell disease is perhaps the most racialized condition in the history of modern medicine, yet very little research has focused on how racial perceptions influence social attitudes about the disease. Subsequently, the implications of these perceptions for public health prevention efforts and the provision of clinical care are not well known. In this brief commentary, we posit that social cognitive and media framing theories provide useful approaches for assessing relations between race and social attitudes about sickle cell disease. Such inquiries might lead to more rigorous study of mechanisms that shape perceptions about sickle cell risk, interpersonal empathy toward patients, and public support for sickle cell-related policies.

  19. Summary the race to reinvent energy and stop global warming

    CERN Document Server


    Complete summary of Fred Krupp and Miriam Horn's book: ""Earth: The Sequel: The Race to Reinvent Energy and Stop Global Warming"". This summary of the ideas from Fred Krupp and Miriam Horn's book ""Earth: The Sequel"" explains how capitalism, as the most powerful economic force in the world, is the only engine of change that has the strength to stop global warming. In their book, the authors demonstrate how this can be achieved by installing a cap-and-trade initiative, providing genuine economic incentives for companies and reducing their carbon footprint. This summary explains their theory in

  20. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier


    Full Text Available In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011, but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac biomarkers: creatin kinase (CK, creating kinase midbrain (CK-MB, myoglobin (MYO, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. The population studied was a group of young trained cyclists participating in a 177-km cycling race. The group of individuals was selected for maximal homogeneity. Their annual training volume was between 10,000 and 16,000 kilometers. The rhythm of races is comparable and averages 35 km/h, depending on the race’s difficulty. The cardiac frequency was recorded via a heart rate monitor. Three blood tests were taken. The first blood test, T0, was taken approximately 2 hours before the start of the race and was intended to gather values which would act as references for the following tests. The second blood test, T1, was realized within 5 minutes of their arrival. The third and final blood test, T3, was taken 3 hours following their arrival. The CK, CK-MB, MYO, hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were measured on the Roche Diagnostic modular E (Manhein, Germany. For the statistical analysis, an ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffé were calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1. We noticed an important significant variation in the cardiac frequency between T0 and T1 (p < 0.0001, T0 and T3 (p < 0.0001, and T1 and T3 (p < 0.01. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different biomarkers. CK and CK-MB showed significant variation between T0-T1 and T0-T3 (p < 0.0001. Myoglobin increased significantly

  1. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine (United States)

    Fofana, Mariam O.


    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalization of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient’s risk of certain conditions (e.g., sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today’s physicians will be better armed to discern—and correct—the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices. PMID:23988563

  2. Deconstructing Disney: Chicano/a Children and Critical Race Theory. (United States)

    Gutierrez, Gabriel


    The Walt Disney Company's shift in ideology from conservatism to liberal multiculturalism is examined, focusing on corporate history, Disney's hegemonic dealings with Latin American and U.S. Hispanic communities, and Disney's role as cultural producer and facilitator of multiculturalism. Analysis of The Lion King points out its contributions to…

  3. RACE/A : An architectural account of the interactions between learning, task control, and retrieval dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Leendert; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels


    This article discusses how sequential sampling models can be integrated in a cognitive architecture. The new theory Retrieval by Accumulating Evidence in an Architecture (RACE/A) combines the level of detail typically provided by sequential sampling models with the level of task complexity typically

  4. Race, Difference, Meritocracy, and English: Majoritarian Stories in the Education of Secondary Multilingual Learners (United States)

    Mitchell, Kara


    In this study, empirical and conceptual scholarship (approximately 100 studies) regarding the education of secondary multilingual learners and their teachers are analyzed through the lens of critical race theory (CRT). Specifically, four common majoritarian stories are identified that are both challenged and endorsed in the research literature:…

  5. A Whitewashed Curriculum? The Construction of Race in Contemporary PE Curriculum Policy (United States)

    Dowling, Fiona; Flintoff, Anne


    Analyses of curricula in a range of countries show how they tend to reinforce, rather than challenge, popular theories of racism. To date, we know little about the contribution of physical education (PE) curriculum policy to the overall policy landscape. This paper examines the construction of race and racism in two national contexts (Norway and…

  6. Racism as Policy: A Critical Race Analysis of Education Reforms in the United States and England (United States)

    Gillborn, David


    Critical race theory (CRT) views education as one of the principal means by which white supremacy is maintained and presented as normal in society. The article applies CRT to two real-world case studies: changes to education statutes in the state of Arizona (USA) and the introduction of a new measure of educational success in England, the English…

  7. An Intersectional Framework for Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Art Therapy (United States)

    Talwar, Savneet


    This article calls for an examination of identity and difference from a sociocultural perspective in art therapy theory and practice. Identity markers such as race, class, gender, and sexuality have tended to be seen in isolation and in ways that hamper the ability to understand and theorize difference. In constructing knowledge and in advancing…

  8. Sounds of Silence: Race and Emergent Counter-Narratives of Art Teacher Identity (United States)

    Kraehe, Amelia M.


    This article presents case studies of two Black preservice art teachers and their racialized experiences in art teacher education. Drawing from a critical race theory perspective, their stories are conceptualized as emergent counternarratives of becoming an art teacher. The case studies are based on interviews from an ethnographic investigation of…

  9. Adventure Racing and Organizational Behavior: Using Eco Challenge Video Clips to Stimulate Learning (United States)

    Kenworthy-U'Ren, Amy; Erickson, Anthony


    In this article, the Eco Challenge race video is presented as a teaching tool for facilitating theory-based discussion and application in organizational behavior (OB) courses. Before discussing the intricacies of the video series itself, the authors present a pedagogically based rationale for using reality TV-based video segments in a classroom…

  10. African Americans: Race as a Self-Schema Affecting Physical Activity Choices. (United States)

    Harrison, Louis Jr.


    This paper examines theoretical and empirical contributions to racial differences in spot performance and describes a framework for viewing race as a movement self-schema. The roles of television, modeling, expectation theory, and sociological influences are discussed as possible activators of racial movement self-schemata. (JB)

  11. Critical Race Parenting: Understanding Scholarship/Activism in Parenting Our Children (United States)

    DePouw, Christin; Matias, Cheryl


    Parenting is often discussed in the field of education, but frequently in terms of family or community deficiency, rather than strengths (Bonilla Silva, 2006; Few, 2007), particularly when communities of color are being examined. In this conceptual article, we advocate for the use of critical race theory (CRT) in discussions of parenting and…

  12. Battling Inertia in Educational Leadership: CRT Praxis for Race Conscious Dialogue (United States)

    Agosto, Vonzell; Karanxha, Zorka; Bellara, Aarti


    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how institutional racism is mediated by faculty negotiating power and privilege in the selection of Black (African American) women into an educational leadership preparation program. Critical race theory (CRT) praxis is used to analyze the faculty dynamics in the candidate selection process situated in…

  13. White Racism/Black Signs: Censorship and Images of Race Relations. (United States)

    Patton, Cindy


    Discusses the simultaneous establishment of legal rights to censor film and proscriptions on particular racial representations. Describes several changes in the Hays Code that demonstrate a change in the censor's theory of the image. Suggests that these changes substituted the censorship of race-related images with a new prohibition on racial…

  14. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassin, E.L.


    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research.

  15. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassin, E.L.


    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research

  16. Circuit racing, track texture, temperature and rubber friction (United States)

    Sharp, R. S.; Gruber, P.; Fina, E.


    Some general observations relating to tyre shear forces and road surfaces are followed by more specific considerations from circuit racing. The discussion then focuses on the mechanics of rubber friction. The classical experiments of Grosch are outlined and the interpretations that can be put on them are discussed. The interpretations involve rubber viscoelasticity, so that the vibration properties of rubber need to be considered. Adhesion and deformation mechanisms for energy dissipation at the interface between rubber and road and in the rubber itself are highlighted. The enquiry is concentrated on energy loss by deformation or hysteresis subsequently. Persson's deformation theory is outlined and the material properties necessary to apply the theory to Grosch's experiments are discussed. Predictions of the friction coefficient relating to one particular rubber compound and a rough surface are made using the theory and these are compared with the appropriate results from Grosch. Predictions from Persson's theory of the influence of nominal contact pressure on the friction coefficient are also examined. The extent of the agreement between theory and experiment is discussed. It is concluded that there is value in the theory but that it is far from complete. There is considerable scope for further research on the mechanics of rubber friction.

  17. Reframing Race And Jewish/Christian Relations In The Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dorothy


    Full Text Available This article evaluates Jewish-Christian difference in the constantly shifting terrain of thirteenth-century medieval England. It reframes this difference in relation to theories of embodiment, feminist materialism, and entanglement theory. To conceptualize how Jews can be marked by race vis-à-vis the body, the article uses the example of Christian Hebraists discussing the Hebrew alphabet and its place in thirteenth-century English bilingual manuscripts.

  18. Race modulates neural activity during imitation (United States)

    Losin, Elizabeth A. Reynolds; Iacoboni, Marco; Martin, Alia; Cross, Katy A.; Dapretto, Mirella


    Imitation plays a central role in the acquisition of culture. People preferentially imitate others who are self-similar, prestigious or successful. Because race can indicate a person's self-similarity or status, race influences whom people imitate. Prior studies of the neural underpinnings of imitation have not considered the effects of race. Here we measured neural activity with fMRI while European American participants imitated meaningless gestures performed by actors of their own race, and two racial outgroups, African American, and Chinese American. Participants also passively observed the actions of these actors and their portraits. Frontal, parietal and occipital areas were differentially activated while participants imitated actors of different races. More activity was present when imitating African Americans than the other racial groups, perhaps reflecting participants' reported lack of experience with and negative attitudes towards this group, or the group's lower perceived social status. This pattern of neural activity was not found when participants passively observed the gestures of the actors or simply looked at their faces. Instead, during face-viewing neural responses were overall greater for own-race individuals, consistent with prior race perception studies not involving imitation. Our findings represent a first step in elucidating neural mechanisms involved in cultural learning, a process that influences almost every aspect of our lives but has thus far received little neuroscientific study. PMID:22062193

  19. Race in Supervision: Let's Talk About It. (United States)

    Schen, Cathy R; Greenlee, Alecia


    Addressing race and racial trauma within psychotherapy supervision is increasingly important in psychiatry training. A therapist's ability to discuss race and racial trauma in psychotherapy supervision increases the likelihood that these topics will be explored as they arise in the therapeutic setting. The authors discuss the contextual and sociocultural dynamics that contributed to their own avoidance of race and racial trauma within the supervisory relationship. The authors examine the features that eventually led to a robust discussion of race and culture within the supervisory setting and identify salient themes that occurred during three phases of the conversation about race: pre-dialogue, the conversation, and after the conversation. These themes include building an alliance, supercompetence, avoidance, shared vulnerability, "if I speak on this, I own it," closeness versus distance, and speaking up. This article reviews the key literature in the field of psychiatry and psychology that has shaped how we understand race and racial trauma and concludes with guidelines for supervisors on how to facilitate talking about race in supervision.

  20. An investigation of racing performance and whip use by jockeys in thoroughbred races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Evans

    Full Text Available Concerns have been expressed concerning animal-welfare issues associated with whip use during Thoroughbred races. However, there have been no studies of relationships between performance and use of whips in Thoroughbred racing. Our aim was to describe whip use and the horses' performance during races, and to investigate associations between whip use and racing performance. Under the Australian Racing Board (ARB rules, only horses that are in contention can be whipped, so we expected that whippings would be associated with superior performance, and those superior performances would be explained by an effect of whipping on horse velocities in the final 400 m of the race. We were also interested to determine whether performance in the latter sections of a race was associated with performance in the earlier sections of a race. Measurements of whip strikes and sectional times during each of the final three 200 metre (m sections of five races were analysed. Jockeys in more advanced placings at the final 400 and 200 m positions in the races whipped their horses more frequently. Horses, on average, achieved highest speeds in the 600 to 400 m section when there was no whip use, and the increased whip use was most frequent in the final two 200 m sections when horses were fatigued. This increased whip use was not associated with significant variation in velocity as a predictor of superior placing at the finish.

  1. Face-blind for other-race faces: Individual differences in other-race recognition impairments. (United States)

    Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Dawel, Amy; Pidcock, Madeleine; Hall, Ashleigh; McKone, Elinor


    We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i.e., even for own-race faces); but not applying less individuating effort to other-race than own-race faces. Findings provide a potential resolution of contradictory evidence concerning the importance of the other-race effect (ORE), by explaining how it is possible for the mean ORE to be modest in size (suggesting a genuine but minor problem), and simultaneously for individuals to suffer major functional consequences in the real world (e.g., eyewitness misidentification of other-race offenders leading to wrongful imprisonment). Findings imply that, in legal settings, evaluating an eyewitness's chance of having made an other-race misidentification requires information about the underlying face recognition abilities of the individual witness. Additionally, analogy with prosopagnosia (inability to recognize even own-race faces) suggests everyday social interactions with other-race people, such as those between colleagues in the workplace, will be seriously impacted by the ORE in some people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Race, history, and black British jazz


    Toynbee, Jason


    This article traces the history of black British jazz across five moments from 1920 to the present. It also makes a theoretical argument about the nature of race and its connection both with music and belonging to the nation. Race is indeed a musical-discursive construction, as has been argued in the literature about culture and ethnicity over the last thirty years or so. But it is a social structure too, and the contradictions that result are key to understanding the race-music relationship.

  3. The racing-game effect: why do video racing games increase risk-taking inclinations? (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg


    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on risk taking was partially mediated by changes in self-perceptions as a reckless driver. These effects were evident only when the individual played racing games that reward traffic violations rather than racing games that do not reward traffic violations (Study 3) and when the individual was an active player of such games rather than a passive observer (Study 4). In sum, the results underline the potential negative impact of racing games on traffic safety.

  4. Racing to be an indispensable utility

    CERN Multimedia


    "Every major IT supplier is rushing to be involved in the global computing grid, eager to take advantage of the developments and experience they will gain. Why? Because the race is on to become an IT utility" (1 page).

  5. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.


    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  6. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACEBASE Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Division is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and related ecological and...

  7. Poverty, Race, and Hospitalization for Childhood Asthma. (United States)

    Wissow, Lawrence S.; And Others


    Examination of Maryland hospital discharge data for 1979 to 1982 reveals that Black children are three times more likely to be hospitalized for asthma than are White children. This, however, is due to poverty, not race. (Author/BJV)

  8. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?


    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg


    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  9. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise G. Yull


    Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  10. Learning Race from Face: A Survey. (United States)

    Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Hou, Zeng-Guang


    Faces convey a wealth of social signals, including race, expression, identity, age and gender, all of which have attracted increasing attention from multi-disciplinary research, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science, to name a few. Gleaned from recent advances in computer vision, computer graphics, and machine learning, computational intelligence based racial face analysis has been particularly popular due to its significant potential and broader impacts in extensive real-world applications, such as security and defense, surveillance, human computer interface (HCI), biometric-based identification, among others. These studies raise an important question: How implicit, non-declarative racial category can be conceptually modeled and quantitatively inferred from the face? Nevertheless, race classification is challenging due to its ambiguity and complexity depending on context and criteria. To address this challenge, recently, significant efforts have been reported toward race detection and categorization in the community. This survey provides a comprehensive and critical review of the state-of-the-art advances in face-race perception, principles, algorithms, and applications. We first discuss race perception problem formulation and motivation, while highlighting the conceptual potentials of racial face processing. Next, taxonomy of feature representational models, algorithms, performance and racial databases are presented with systematic discussions within the unified learning scenario. Finally, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potentially important cross-cutting themes and research directions for the issue of learning race from face.

  11. From "Race-Consciousness" to "Colour-Consciousness" (United States)

    Le Grange, L.


    At the heart of the discussion in this special issue on race and affirmative action is the issue of whether race should be used as a category in admissions policies of South African universities. In my contribution I shall argue that there are no races. By race I mean the idea that skin colour (or other phenotypical features) associated with…

  12. From 'race-consciousness' to 'colour-consciousness' | Le Grange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the heart of the discussion in this special issue on race and affirmative action is the issue of whether race should be used as a category in admissions policies of South African universities. In my contribution I shall argue that there are no races. By race I mean the idea that skin colour (or other phenotypical features) ...

  13. Own-Race-Absent Racism | Martin | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    racepresent racism, the race of the racist figures as a term in her racist thinking; in own-race-absent racism it does not. While own-race-present racism might conform readily to commonsense understandings of racism, own-race-absent racism less clearly ...

  14. What's Your "Street Race"? Leveraging Multidimensional Measures of Race and Intersectionality for Examining Physical and Mental Health Status Among Latinxs. (United States)

    López, Nancy; Vargas, Edward D; Juarez, Melina; Cacari-Stone, Lisa; Bettez, Sonia


    Using the 2015 Latino National Health and Immigration Survey (N= 1,197) we examine the relationship between physical and mental health status and three multidimensional measures of race: 1) "street race," or how you believe other "Americans" perceive your race at the level of the street; 2) socially assigned race or what we call "ascribed race," which refers to how you believe others usually classify your race in the U.S.; and 3) "self-perceived race," or how you usually self-classify your race on questionnaires. We engage in intersectional inquiry by combining street race and gender. We find that only self-perceived race correlates with physical health and that street race is associated with mental health. We also find that men reporting their street race as Latinx 1 or Arab were associated with higher odds of reporting worse mental health outcomes. One surprising finding was that, for physical health, men reporting their street race as Latinx were associated with higher odds of reporting optimal physical health. Among women, those reporting their street race as Mexican were associated with lower odds of reporting optimal physical health when compared to all other women; for mental health status, however, we found no differences among women. We argue that "street race" is a promising multidimensional measure of race for exploring inequality among Latinxs.

  15. Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World (United States)

    Warmington, Paul


    Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has…

  16. Aerodynamic research of a racing car based on wind tunnel test and computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianfeng


    Full Text Available Wind tunnel test and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation are two main methods for the study of automotive aerodynamics. CFD simulation software solves the results in calculation by using the basic theory of aerodynamic. Calculation will inevitably lead to bias, and the wind tunnel test can effectively simulate the real driving condition, which is the most effective aerodynamics research method. This paper researches the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing of a racing car. Aerodynamic model of a racing car is established. Wind tunnel test is carried out and compared with the simulation results of computational fluid dynamics. The deviation of the two methods is small, and the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics simulation is verified. By means of CFD software simulation, the coefficients of six aerodynamic forces are fitted and the aerodynamic equations are obtained. Finally, the aerodynamic forces and torques of the racing car travel in bend are calculated.

  17. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.


    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  18. Let's Talk about Race: Evaluating a College Interracial Discussion Group on Race (United States)

    Ashby, Kimberly M.; Collins, Dana L.; Helms, Janet E.; Manlove, Joshua


    The authors evaluate Dialogues on Race, an interracial group intervention in which undergraduate student facilitators led conversations about race with their peers. The evaluation process is described, including developing collaborative relationships, identifying program goals, selecting measures, and analyzing and presenting results. The authors…

  19. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making. (United States)

    Coleman, Renita


    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  20. Discovering Race in a "Post-Racial" World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television (United States)

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.


    Teaching students about race remains a challenging task for instructors, made even more difficult in the context of a growing "post-racial" discourse. Given this challenge, it is important for instructors to find engaging ways to help students understand the continuing significance of race and racial/ethnic inequality. In this article,…

  1. Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.


    Kanazawa (2008), Templer (2008), and Templer and Arikawa (2006) claimed to have found empirical support for evolutionary theories of race differences in intelligence by correlating estimates of national IQ with indicators of reproductive strategies, temperature, and geographic distance from Africa.

  2. CERN Relay Race: a great success!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Thursday 1st June marked the traditional Relay Race at CERN, organised jointly by the Running Club and the CERN Staff Association. Once again, the Race lived up to the expectations and the number of participants came close to last year’s all-time high with no less than 715 entries across different categories! In total 116 teams of 6 runners and 19 walkers completed the course at the Meyrin site in bright sunshine. Congratulations to all of them! Our Director-General gave the starting signal for the Race, demonstrating the interest in this event at the highest level of the Organization. Thank you for this much appreciated commitment! Moreover, a number of very high-level runners came to spice up this 2017 edition. The 1000-meter race was a tight one between Alexandre Roche (top 5 in the “Tour du canton”) and Baptiste Fieux who tore up the race at 2’36 and 2’42 respectively. Baptiste passed the baton to Pierre Baqué, the winner of the 2015 Saint&a...

  3. Race, punishment, and the Michael Vick experience. (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Gertz, Marc; Baker, Thomas; Batton, Jason; Barnes, J C


    Objective. The relationship between race and crime has been contentious, focusing primarily on offending and incarceration patterns among minorities. There has been some limited work on public perceptions of criminal punishment, and findings show that while minorities believe in the role and rule of law, they simultaneously perceive the justice system as acting in a biased and/or unfair manner. Two limitations have stalled this literature. First, research has focused mainly on criminal punishments to the neglect of noncriminal punishments. Second, most studies have not examined whether race remains salient after considering other demographic variables or discrimination and legitimacy attitudes.Methods. Using data from 400 adults, we examine how race affects perceptions of criminal punishment and subsequent reinstatement into the National Football League in the case of Michael Vick, a star professional quarterback who pled guilty to charges of operating an illegal dog-fighting ring.Results. Findings show that whites are more likely to view Vick's punishment as too soft and that he should not be reinstated, while nonwhites had the opposite views. Race remained significant after controlling for other variables believed to be related to punishment perceptions.Conclusion. Attitudes toward both criminal punishment and NFL reinstatement vary across race such that there exists important divides in how individuals perceive the system meting out punishment and subsequently reintegrating offenders back into society. These results underscore that white and nonwhites perceive the law and its administration differently.

  4. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image. (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah


    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Locomotion evaluation for racing in thoroughbreds. (United States)

    Barrey, E; Evans, S E; Evans, D L; Curtis, R A; Quinton, R; Rose, R J


    The potential racing and locomotory profile of a Thoroughbred yearling should be taken into account for its training programme and racing career. A gait test has been designed to assist the trainer in this task. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal and kinetic locomotory variables of Thoroughbreds at the gallop, in relationship to their racing ability. Thirty Thoroughbred horses in race training were tested at maximal speed during a training session. The training exercise consisted of a warming-up session at trot and canter for 10 min followed by a gallop session at increasing speed on a dirt track 1942 m long. The maximal speed was measured for the last 800 m before the finishing post. An acclerometric device attached to the girth provided quantitative information about the kinetic and temporal variables of the gallop such as: stride length (SL), stride frequency (SF), times elapsed between each hoof midstance phase (HIND, DIAGO, FORE), regularity of the strides (REG), mean vector of propulsion (VPROP), energy of propulsion (EPROP) and energy of loading (ELOAD). The performance records (number of wins, placings and average earning/start [PERF]) were used to analyse the relationship with the gait measurements. The mean maximum speed was 15.26 m/s. Several locomotory variables were significantly (P gait variables: REG (0.79), DIAGO (0.43), SF (0.42), SL (-0.32) and ELOAD (-0.40). The horses that won short distance races (gait test was easy to perform and provided useful locomotory variables that may be used to evaluate the racing ability of the Thoroughbreds in training.

  6. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul


    important being race models and coactivation models. Redundancy gains consistent with the race model have an upper limit, however, which is given by the well-known race model inequality (Miller, 1982). A number of statistical tests have been proposed for testing the race model inequality in single...... participants and groups of participants. All of these tests use the race model as the null hypothesis, and rejection of the null hypothesis is considered evidence in favor of coactivation. We introduce a statistical test in which the race model prediction is the alternative hypothesis. This test controls...

  7. Stock-car racing makes intuitive physicists (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter


    Formula One races involve cars festooned with gadgets and complex electronic devices, in which millions of dollars are spent refining a vehicle's aerodynamics and reducing its weight. But in events run by America's National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), cars hurtle round an oval track at speeds of about 300 km h-1 without the help of the complex sensors that are employed in Formula One cars. To avoid crashing, drivers must make their own adjustments to track conditions, engine problems and the traffic around them.

  8. CERN Relay Race: information for drivers

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday, 24 May starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. In addition, there will be a Nordic Walking event which will finish around 12.50. This should not block the roads, but please drive carefully during this time. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race can be found here.

  9. The 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian


    In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium....... The organizers provide short summaries of the other competitors. Finally, we summarize the championship results, followed by a discussion about what the organizers learned about 1) the development of high-performing car racing controllers and 2) the organization of scientific competitions....

  10. Race, Racism, and Access to Renal Transplantation among African Americans. (United States)

    Arriola, Kimberly Jacob


    There are clear and compelling racial disparities in access to renal transplant, which is the therapy of choice for many patients with end stage renal disease. This paper conceptualizes the role of racism (i.e., internalized, personally-mediated, and institutionalized) in creating and perpetuating these disparities at multiple levels of the social ecology by integrating two often-cited theories in the literature. Internalized racism is manifested at the intrapersonal level when, for example, African American patients devalue their self-worth, thereby not pursuing the most aggressive treatment available. Personally-mediated racism is manifested at the interpersonal level when, for example, physicians exhibit unconscious race bias that impacts their treatment decisions. One example of institutionalized racism being manifested at the institutional, community, and public policy levels is the longstanding existence of racial residential segregation and empirically established links between neighborhood racial composition and dialysis facility-level transplantation rates. This paper concludes with clinical, research, and policy recommendations.

  11. An empirical study of race times in recreational endurance runners. (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Vertosick, Emily A


    Studies of endurance running have typically involved elite athletes, small sample sizes and measures that require special expertise or equipment. We examined factors associated with race performance and explored methods for race time prediction using information routinely available to a recreational runner. An Internet survey was used to collect data from recreational endurance runners (N = 2303). The cohort was split 2:1 into a training set and validation set to create models to predict race time. Sex, age, BMI and race training were associated with mean race velocity for all race distances. The difference in velocity between males and females decreased with increasing distance. Tempo runs were more strongly associated with velocity for shorter distances, while typical weekly training mileage and interval training had similar associations with velocity for all race distances. The commonly used Riegel formula for race time prediction was well-calibrated for races up to a half-marathon, but dramatically underestimated marathon time, giving times at least 10 min too fast for half of runners. We built two models to predict marathon time. The mean squared error for Riegel was 381 compared to 228 (model based on one prior race) and 208 (model based on two prior races). Our findings can be used to inform race training and to provide more accurate race time predictions for better pacing.

  12. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler


    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  13. Race Relations Training with Correctional Officers (United States)

    Wittmer, Joe; And Others


    The model presented in this article is intended to assist correctional counselors and others in facilitating communication among prison guards of a different race from inmates and, further, to illustrate how to train guards in the fundamentals of developing a helping relationship with inmates. (Author)

  14. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters. (United States)

    Thomas, David A.


    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  15. Collaboration, Race, and the Rhetoric of Evasion. (United States)

    Leverenz, Carrie Shively


    Shares a participant-observer's close look at small group experiences in a course called "American Experience" taught at an urban university. Considers the issue of how race can be discussed in the classroom when even collaborative approaches with emphasis on student contributions can be undone by the power of the dominant discourse. (TB)

  16. Microcomputers, Model Rockets, and Race Cars. (United States)

    Mirus, Edward A., Jr.


    The industrial education orientation program at Wisconsin School for the Deaf (WSD) presents problem-solving situations to all seventh- and eighth-grade hearing-impaired students. WSD developed user-friendly microcomputer software to guide students individually through complex computations involving model race cars and rockets while freeing…

  17. CERN Relay Race: a great success!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    On Thursday May 19, the traditional relay race was held at CERN, organised jointly by the Running Club and the CERN Staff Association. In spite of the less than optimal weather, the 127 registered teams were not discouraged. Warmed by their efforts on the roads of CERN, the participants were able to withstand the chilly May weather. The start signal for the race was given by our Director General, demonstrating the interest in this event at the highest level of the Organization. Thank you for this much appreciated commitment! Can we hope for next year to see a team from the Directorate in the race? The many spectators who had come to cheer on the runners could also visit the stalls staffed by a few clubs and some of Interfon’s commercial partners. Refreshment and food stands contributed to the friendly atmosphere. The organisation of such an event requires however a substantial investment in order to cover all aspects of logistics, from preparation before the race, to the actual establishment ...

  18. Ovotestes and Sexual Reversal in Racing Pigeons


    Chalmers, G. A.


    The occurrence of ovotestes associated with male behavioral characteristics in two mature female racing pigeons (Columba livia) is recorded. An ovotestis developed in the area of the vestigial right gonad of one bird and within the functional left ovary of the second bird.

  19. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  20. Race, class, gender, and American environmentalism. (United States)

    Dorceta E. Taylor


    This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people's...

  1. Race Discourse and the US Confederate Flag (United States)

    Holyfield, Lori; Moltz, Matthew Ryan; Bradley, Mindy S.


    Research reveals that racial hierarchies and "color-blind" racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from…

  2. Seeing through Race, Gender and Socioeconomic Status. (United States)

    Gundi, Kirmanj

    This paper discusses the history of discrimination in the United States and the length of time it took to abolish the legal support of racism. The paper then discusses the problems of diversity in the United States. Acknowledging and accepting U.S. diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religious background, and national origin would…

  3. Beam instabilities in race track microtrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euteneuer, H.; Herminghaus, H.; Klein, R.


    Several limitations of the benefits of the race track microtron (RTM) as an economic cw electron accelerator are discussed. For beam blowup some final results of our investigations for the Mainz Microtron are given. The other two effects presented more generally are beam diffusion by imperfections of the optical elements of a RTM and the deterioration of transverse phase space by synchrotron radiation

  4. CDC WONDER: Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates online databases report bridged-race population estimates of the July 1st resident population of the United States,...

  5. Greeley's Maplewood Middle School Stellar in Solar Car Race (United States)

    Colorado entered the 20-meter race, which gave students the opportunity to show off their engineering and design skills by building and racing model solar-powered vehicles. Trophies for the fastest cars were

  6. The correspondence between interracial births and multiple-race reporting. (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer D; Madans, Jennifer H


    Race-specific health statistics are routinely reported in scientific publications; most describe health disparities across groups. Census 2000 showed that 2.4% of the US population identifies with more than 1 race group. We examined the hypothesis that multiple-race reporting is associated with interracial births by comparing parental race reported on birth certificates with reported race in a national health survey. US natality data from 1968 through 1998 and National Health Interview Survey data from 1990 through 1998 were compared, by year of birth. Overall multiple-race survey responses correspond to expectations from interracial births. However, there are discrepancies for specific multiple-race combinations. Projected estimates of the multiple-race population can be only partially informed by vital records.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of street racing among Ontario high school students. (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M


    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of street racing among adolescents derived from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), an epidemiological survey of students in Ontario, Canada. The key response variable, self-reported street racing in past year, was examined in relation to grade level, rural/urban, school marks, cannabis use, drinking and driving, cannabis use and driving, and property, physical, drugs, and weapons delinquencies. All survey estimates were weighted, and variance and statistical tests were corrected for the complex sampling design. Of the 3053 9th- to 12th-graders (66% response rate), 5.6 percent of high-schoolers (an estimated 42,000 in the province) and (20.4% of grade 11 and 12 students with an advanced-level or full license) reported driving a car, truck, or sport utility vehicle (SUV) in a street race in the 12 months before the survey. Logistic regression analysis of the advanced-level or fully licensed students in grades 11 and 12 found that males compared to females and students in grade 11 compared to students in grade 12 had significantly higher adjusted odds of street racing. Supportive of problem behavior theory, students who reported property and drug delinquencies compared to students not engaging in these delinquencies also had significantly higher adjusted odds of street racing. This first population-based study in North America suggested that the prevalence of street racing at 1 in 5 of advanced or fully licensed high-schoolers in grades 11 and 12 poses significant public health concerns, especially related to the potential for unintentional injury.

  8. The Social Comparison Choices of Elementary and Secondary School Students: The Influence of Gender, Race, and Friendship. (United States)

    Meisel, C. Julius; Blumberg, Carol Joyce


    Two studies involving 63 second through fourth graders and 43 ninth graders investigated the influence of gender, race, and friendship on social comparison choices. Implications of the results for social comparison theory and social policy and education practice are discussed. (TJH)

  9. Play of the Unconscious in Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Reflection around Race and Racism (United States)

    Shim, Jenna Min


    Reading psychoanalytic theory of the unconscious desire for wholeness in the light of the notion of white racial supremacy, this study explores a constituted difficulty that self-reflection around the issues of race and racism confronts by exploring three white male pre-service teachers' emotional experiences inscribed in their responses to the…

  10. The Militarisation of English Schools: Troops to Teaching and the Implications for Initial Teacher Education and Race Equality (United States)

    Chadderton, Charlotte


    This article considers the implications of the Troops to Teaching (TtT) programme, to be introduced in England in autumn 2013, for Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and race equality. TtT will fast-track ex-armed service members to teach in schools, without necessarily the requirement of a university degree. Employing theories of white supremacy,…

  11. An Analysis of How the Gender and Race of School Principals Influences Their Perceptions of Multicultural Education (United States)

    McCray, Carlos R.; Beachum, Floyd D.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary school principals' perceptions of multicultural education in a rural southeastern state. The researchers wanted to ascertain whether or not the race or gender of school principals have a role in how those principals view multicultural education in theory (its theoretical value). For the…

  12. Interest-Divergence and the Colour of Cutbacks: Race, Recession and the Undeclared War on Black Children (United States)

    Gillborn, David


    Drawing on Critical Race Theory (CRT) and illustrating with examples from the English system, the paper addresses the hidden racist dimension to contemporary education reforms and argues that this is a predictable and recurrent theme at times of economic crisis. Derrick Bell's concept of "interest-convergence" argues that moments of…

  13. Interest Convergence or Divergence? A Critical Race Analysis of Asian Americans, Meritocracy, and Critical Mass in the Affirmative Action Debate (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Liu, Amy


    We use the Critical Race Theory frameworks of interest convergence and divergence to critique the anti-affirmative action movement's co-option of Asian Americans. Past discussions of affirmative action and Asian Americans mainly concentrate on how Asian Americans are affected by affirmative action, whether positively or negatively. We demonstrate…

  14. Race and the Greek System in the 21st Century: Centering the Voices of Asian American Women (United States)

    Park, Julie


    Analyzing interviews with 18 Asian American female undergraduates, this study seeks to understand how participants viewed the sorority system at a predominantly White institution in the Southeastern United States. Drawing from critical race theory, I argue that the ways in which women perceived and experienced both acceptance and marginalization…

  15. Ability Beliefs, Task Value, and Performance as a Function of Race in a Dart-Throwing Task (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Kosma, Maria; Harrison, Louis, Jr.


    This study examines differences in self-efficacy, expectancy-related beliefs, task value, and performance in a dart-throwing task as a function of race among diverse college students using the expectancy-value model and self-efficacy theory. It also examines the predictive contributions of these beliefs on task performance within each racial…

  16. America's Churning Races: Race and Ethnicity Response Changes Between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census. (United States)

    Liebler, Carolyn A; Porter, Sonya R; Fernandez, Leticia E; Noon, James M; Ennis, Sharon R


    A person's racial or ethnic self-identification can change over time and across contexts, which is a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the United States and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). Approximately 9.8 million people (6.1 %) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic-origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3 %, 6 %, and 9 % of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13 % and 1 %, respectively, changed). We found a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, we see population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across racial/ethnic categories. Researchers should address the implications of race and Hispanic-origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results.

  17. Variability in energy cost and walking gait during race walking in competitive race walkers. (United States)

    Brisswalter, J; Fougeron, B; Legros, P


    The aim of this study was to examine the variability of energy cost (Cw) and race walking gait after a 3-h walk at the competition pace in race walkers of the same performance level. Nine competitive race walkers were studied. In the same week, after a first test of VO2max determination, each subject completed two submaximal treadmill walks (6 min length, 0% grade, 12 km X h(-1) speed) before and after a 3-h overground test completed at the individual competition speed of the race walker. During the two submaximal tests, subjects were filmed between the 2nd and the 4th min, and physiological parameters were recorded between the 4th and the 6th min. Results showed two trends. On the one hand, we observed a significant and systematic increase in energy cost of walking (mean deltaCw = 8.4%), whereas no variation in the gait kinematics prescribed by the rules of race walking was recorded. On the other hand, this increase in metabolic energy demand was accompanied by variations of different magnitude and direction of stride length, of the excursion of the heel and of the maximal ankle flexion at toe-off among the race walkers. These results indicated that competitive race walkers are able to maintain their walking gait with exercise duration apart from a systematic increase in energy cost. Moreover, in this form of locomotion the effect of fatigue on the gait variability seems to be an individual function of the race walk constraints and the constraints of the performer.

  18. The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: Excavating Race and the Enduring Racisms in U.S. Curriculum (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.; Brown, Keffrelyn D.


    Drawing from the theories of racial formation theory and race marking, this chapter explores the durability of racial discourses in school curriculum over time in the United States. The authors' inquiry focuses on racial discourses located in two sources of curricula knowledge: children's literature and U.S. history textbooks.

  19. America's Cup yacht racing: race analysis and physical characteristics of the athletes. (United States)

    Neville, Vernon; Calefato, Julian; Pérez-Encinas, Cristina; Rodilla-Sala, Enrique; Rada-Ruiz, Sergio; Dorochenko, Paul; Folland, Jonathan P


    The America's Cup is the oldest competing trophy in sport, yet little is known of the nature and intensity of racing or the physical characteristics of the athletes. In this study, aspects of the physical demands of America's Cup yacht racing were analysed, including the intensity of exercise and activity pattern of "grinding". Anthropometric data were collected from 92 professional male America's Cup sailors, and fitness data from a top-4 and a lower-7 ranking team during the 32nd America's Cup. Over the 135 races, mean race duration was 82 min (s = 9), with 20 tacks (s = 10) and 8 gybes (s = 3) per race. Grinding bouts were 5.5 s (s = 5.4; range: 2.2-66.3) long, with 143 exercise bouts per race and an exercise-to-rest ratio of 1:6. Mean and peak heart rate was 64% and 92% of maximum for all positions, with bowmen highest (71% and 96%). Grinders were taller, heavier, and stronger than all other positions. Body fat was similar between positions (13%, s = 4). The higher-standard team was stronger and had greater strength endurance, which probably contributed to their quicker manoeuvres. Intensity of exercise was dependent on the similarity of competing boats and the role of the athlete. The short duration and intermittent nature of grinding is indicative of predominantly anaerobic energy provision.

  20. Deliberating about race as a variable in biomedical research | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Race as a variable in research ethics is investigated: to what extent is it morally appropriate to regard the race of research subjects as pivotal for research outcomes? The challenges it poses to deliberation in research ethics committees are considered, and it is concluded that race sometimes must be considered, subject to ...

  1. Students To Compete in Model Solar Car Race (United States)

    cars in the 1998 Junior Solar Sprint. The race will be held at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE Compete in Model Solar Car Race For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo ., May 8, 1998 — Middle school students from across Colorado will design, build and race model solar

  2. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm in...

  3. Teacher-Principal Race and Teacher Satisfaction over Time, Region (United States)

    Viano, Samantha L.; Hunter, Seth B.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to replicate prior findings on teacher-principal race congruence and teacher job satisfaction and extend the literature by investigating trends over time and if the relationship between race congruence and teacher job satisfaction differs by principal race and region. Design/methodology/approach: The study…

  4. The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.


    This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…

  5. Introduction: Re-Igniting Critical Race In Canadian Legal Spaces: Introduction To The Special Symposium Issue Of Contemporary Accounts Of Racialization In Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Senthe


    Full Text Available Osgoode Hall Law School, York University’s Challenging Conventions! Speaker Series organized Re-Igniting Critical Race: A Symposium on Contemporary Accounts of Racialization in Canada on November 2, 2012.  The symposium sought to explore critical race theory and its praxis within the Canadian legal academy by inviting emerging scholars and practitioners to engage with the scholarship of Professor Patricia Williams.

  6. Contributions of Racial and Sociobehavioral Homophily to Friendship Stability and Quality among Same-Race and Cross-Race Friends (United States)

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Dashiell-Aje, Ebony; Menzer, Melissa M.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.


    The current study examined how racial and sociobehavioral similarities were associated with friendship stability and friendship quality. Cross-race friends were not significantly similar to each other in peer-nominated shyness/withdrawal, victimization, exclusion, and popularity/sociability. Relative to same-race friends, cross-race friends were…

  7. An arms race between producers and scroungers can drive the evolution of social cognition (United States)


    The “social intelligence hypothesis” states that the need to cope with complexities of social life has driven the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities. It is usually invoked in the context of challenges arising from complex intragroup structures, hierarchies, and alliances. However, a fundamental aspect of group living remains largely unexplored as a driving force in cognitive evolution: the competition between individuals searching for resources (producers) and conspecifics that parasitize their findings (scroungers). In populations of social foragers, abilities that enable scroungers to steal by outsmarting producers, and those allowing producers to prevent theft by outsmarting scroungers, are likely to be beneficial and may fuel a cognitive arms race. Using analytical theory and agent-based simulations, we present a general model for such a race that is driven by the producer–scrounger game and show that the race’s plausibility is dramatically affected by the nature of the evolving abilities. If scrounging and scrounging avoidance rely on separate, strategy-specific cognitive abilities, arms races are short-lived and have a limited effect on cognition. However, general cognitive abilities that facilitate both scrounging and scrounging avoidance undergo stable, long-lasting arms races. Thus, ubiquitous foraging interactions may lead to the evolution of general cognitive abilities in social animals, without the requirement of complex intragroup structures. PMID:24822021

  8. Black client, white therapist: working with race in psychoanalytic psychotherapy in South Africa. (United States)

    Knight, Zelda Gillian


    In post-apartheid South Africa we speak about race extensively. It permeates our workplace, weaves a thread through the fabric of our professional and personal lives, as well as our private conversations and public interactions with others. From within psychoanalytic theory, the thread weaves through the unknown content of our racialized unconscious. When there is a focus on race in the South African psychoanalytic context it largely takes the form of the struggle to articulate the complexities of working with difference, as Swartz notes, or the struggle to map out issues of race. Such struggles are not localized in South Africa, but strongly reflect a much broader struggle within the global psychoanalytic community, as mirrored in the expanding focus on race. Although the consulting rooms seem far removed from the ongoing political tensions that have recently emerged in South Africa, psychoanalytic psychotherapy remains a space of meaningful engagement with the other, and where the therapeutic dyad is one of racial difference it permits an encounter with our racialized unconscious. This article seeks to document the experience of my black client and my white response to her racial pain and struggle; in doing so, I describe the racial 'contact' between us and within us that triggers a racialized transference and countertransference dynamic, which contains the space for racial healing for both of us. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Race and gender matter: a multidimensional approach to conceptualizing and measuring stress in African American women. (United States)

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L; Lobel, Marci


    Based on prior research and theory, the authors constructed a multidimensional model of stress in African American women comprised of race-related, gender-related, and generic stress. Exposure to and appraisal of these three types of stress were combined into a higher-order global stress factor. Using structural equation modeling, the fit of this stress factor and its ability to predict distress symptoms were examined in 189 socioeconomically diverse African American women aged 21 to 78. Results support the multidimensional conceptualization and operationalization of stress. Race-related, gender-related, and generic stress contributed equally to the global stress factor, and global stress predicted a significant amount of variance in distress symptoms and intensity. This model exhibited better fit than a model without a global stress factor, in which each stress component predicted distress directly. Furthermore, race-related, gender-related, and generic stress did not contribute to distress beyond their representation in the global stress factor. These findings illustrate that stress related to central elements of identity, namely race and gender, cohere with generic stress to define the stress experience of African American women. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. CERN Relay Race | 5 June | Get ready!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service


    In anticipation of the CERN relay race, the Medical Service would like to remind all participants that preparing for this sporting activity is essential - even though it is a short event.   Progressive and regular training. Adequate nutrition and hydration. Advice and information is available at the infirmary in Building 57. Everyone should adapt their physical activity to match their fitness levels, bearing in mind that the aim of this race is not necessarily to achieve great success but to participate in a collective sporting event. In the framework of the "Move! Eat better" campaign and for the third successive year, a 2.4 km route is open to walkers, both beginners and experts. Before, during and after this event, test yourself with a pedometer, available from the CERN infirmary! 

  11. The Blindside Flick: Race and Rugby League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Cottle


    Full Text Available The issue of race was virtually beyond the touchline in Australian rugby league before the 1960s. It was a white man’s game. Institutionalised racism meant that few Aboriginal men played rugby league at the highest professional level. It is now presumed that race and racism has no place in a game where these questions have been historically ‘out of bounds’. The dearth of critical writing in rugby league history indicates that racism in the sport has been subject to a form of social blindness and deemed unworthy of study. Rugby league’s white exclusionist past and the denial of racism in the present era indicate habits of mind which may be described in league argot as the ‘blindside flick’.


    Ginther, Donna K.; Schaffer, Walter T.; Schnell, Joshua; Masimore, Beth; Liu, Faye; Haak, Laurel L.; Kington, Raynard


    We investigated the association between a U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 applicant’s self-identified race or ethnicity and the probability of receiving an award by using data from the NIH IMPAC II grant database, the Thomson Reuters Web of Science, and other sources. Although proposals with strong priority scores were equally likely to be funded regardless of race, we find that Asians are 4 percentage points and black or African-American applicants are 13 percentage points less likely to receive NIH investigator-initiated research funding compared with whites. After controlling for the applicant’s educational background, country of origin, training, previous research awards, publication record, and employer characteristics, we find that black or African-American applicants remain 10 percentage points less likely than whites to be awarded NIH research funding. Our results suggest some leverage points for policy intervention. PMID:21852498

  13. Philosophy of race meets population genetics. (United States)

    Spencer, Quayshawn


    In this paper, I respond to four common semantic and metaphysical objections that philosophers of race have launched at scholars who interpret recent human genetic clustering results in population genetics as evidence for biological racial realism. I call these objections 'the discreteness objection', 'the visibility objection', 'the very important objection', and 'the objectively real objection.' After motivating each objection, I show that each one stems from implausible philosophical assumptions about the relevant meaning of 'race' or the nature of biological racial realism. In order to be constructive, I end by offering some advice for how we can productively critique attempts to defend biological racial realism based on recent human genetic clustering results. I also offer a clarification of the relevant human-population genetic research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear Iran: the race against the clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese; )


    The recent election of an ultra-conservative during the Iranian presidential race seems to further distance the idea of a positive conclusion to negotiations with Tehran. Confronted with a dangerous Iranian agenda, the Europeans have been leading negotiations that have had some positive effect so far, but which also pose the risk of a useless prolongation of discussion. A race against the clock has started in August 2005 when Iran resumed a suspended uranium conversion activity in Isfahan. Time has come for the Security Council to take over - what it should have already done in 2003 - in a way that will make Moscow and, even more Beijing, step out of their somewhat ambiguous stances

  15. Catastrophic biaxial proximal sesamoid bone fractures in UK Thoroughbred races (1999-2004): horse characteristics and racing history. (United States)

    Kristoffersen, M; Parkin, T D H; Singer, E R


    Catastrophic biaxial proximal sesamoid bone fractures (PSBF) have not yet been described in detail in the UK racing population. To determine the incidence and relative risk (RR) of PSBF in different types of racing in the UK; and to describe horse-level characteristics and racing histories of horses sustaining these injuries. Distal limbs were collected from all racehorses suffering catastrophic fractures during racing at all 59 racecourses in the UK, in a prospective study from February 1999 to December 2004. Post mortem investigation identified the anatomical location and type of fracture. Horse, racing history, race and racecourse details were obtained. Characteristics of the horses that sustained PSBF were described. The incidence and RR of PSBF in the different types of racing in the UK were calculated. Thirty-one horses suffered PSBF during the study period. The incidence of PSBF in all types of race was 0.63 per 10,000 starts (31/494,744). The incidence was highest in flat races on all weather surfaces (1.63 per 10,000 starts: 12/73,467; RR = 4.4 when compared to turf flat racing). Affected horses had an average age of 5.6 years and had started a mean of 28 races at the time of fracture. There is a strong association between type of racing surface and PSBF. Horses competing in flat races on all weather surfaces have an increased risk of PSBF. These fractures appear to happen in experienced horses with several starts, with few fractures occurring within the first season of racing. Further research should focus on identification of underlying pathology of these fractures. Epidemiological studies aimed at the identification of risk factors for PSBF in the UK racing population would require a large number of cases acquired over many years given the relatively low incidence of PSBF.

  16. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes


    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.


    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  17. Innovation Races with the Possibility of Failure


    Subhasish M. Chowdhury; Stephen Martin


    The standard innovation race specification assumes a memoryless exponential distribution for the time to success of an R&D project. This specification implies that a project succeeds, eventually, with probability one. We introduce a positive probability that an R&D project fails. With this modified specification, we compare the non-cooperative and cooperative R&D in terms of innovation effort, consumer surplus, and net social welfare.

  18. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote


    Susan B. Hansen


    Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have...

  19. Uncertainty quantification and race car aerodynamics


    Bradford, J; Montomoli, F; D'Ammaro, A


    28.04.15 KB. Ok to add accepted version to spiral, embargo expired Car aerodynamics are subjected to a number of random variables which introduce uncertainty into the downforce performance. These can include, but are not limited to, pitch variations and ride height variations. Studying the effect of the random variations in these parameters is important to predict accurately the car performance during the race. Despite their importance the assessment of these variations is difficult and it...

  20. Intake acoustics of naturally aspirated racing engines


    Dolinar, A


    The intake system is one of the components on the internal combustion engine most linked with the achievement of the high volumetric efficiency required of naturally aspirated engines. High performance racing engine intake systems have unusual geometry with separate intake pipes (often known as intake trumpets) housed in a common airbox. These intake trumpets are short pipes that are sometimes cylindrical but often conical. The flow within the intake system is ve...

  1. Energy requirements for racing endurance sled dogs*


    Loftus, John P.; Yazwinski, Molly; Milizio, Justin G.; Wakshlag, Joseph J.


    Endurance sled dogs have unique dietary energy requirements. At present, there is disparity in the literature regarding energy expenditure and thus energy requirements of these dogs. We sought to further elucidate energy requirements for endurance sled dogs under field conditions. Three sled dog teams completing the 2011 Yukon Quest volunteered to provide diet history. Nutritional content was evaluated and a mock meal was analysed for each team. Race data were obtained from

  2. The CERN Relay Race: A Runaway Success!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    24th May saw the traditional Relay Race take place at CERN, organised jointly by the Running Club and the CERN Staff Association. In 2018, the Relay Race lived up to expectations with a record number of participants, with no fewer than 848 entries across different categories! In total 135 teams of 6 runners and 38 walkers completed the course on the Meyrin site in beautiful sunshine. Congratulations to all those who took part! Ghislain Roy, President of the Staff Association, fired the starting pistol for the first batch of runners, which included a team from the Directorate, with the Director General also taking part. Demonstrating interest in this event at the highest level of the Organization. Thank you for this much-appreciated commitment! Also a number of very high-level runners brought added excitement to the 2018 edition. The 1000-meter men’s race was won by Marcin Patecki from the CERN Running Club in 2’40, just in front of Baptiste Fieux from the Berthie Sport team who came in at...

  3. Race and gender discrimination in the Marines. (United States)

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C; Harrington, Ellen F


    Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships.

  4. Race and nation in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud


    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. DAVID HOWARD. Oxford: Signal; Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001. x + 227 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii + 161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Peasants and Religion: A Socioeconomic Study of Dios Olivorio and the Palma Sola Movement in the Dominican Republic. JAN LUNDIUS & MATS LUNDAHL. London: Routledge, 2000. xxvi + 774 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 The social and political relations between the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and especially their racial and ethnic contents, are extremely difficult to approach in an even- handed and unbiased way. Much ink has been spilled over the conflictive relations between these two countries, and on race relations in the Dominican Republic. Much of what has been said must be considered unfounded or biased, not to mention sensationalist. The books under review try to pro vide new insights into the issue and at the same time to steer clear of these problems.

  5. Genetic parameters of racing merit of Thoroughbred horses in steeplechase races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Stefler


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of racing ability in Thoroughbreds involved in steeplechase races. Race results were collected from steeplechase races in France (n=9041, in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n=8314 and contained the results of overall 106 020 runs from 1998 to 2003. Performance was measured by two criteria: earnings and ranks after mathematical transformation. The effects of year, sex, age, and race were considered as fixed, animal, permanent environment and maternal as random. Maternal environmental component for ranks were 0.021 in France and 0.000 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Estimated heritabilities for the ranking criteria were 0.18 (repeatability 0.33 in France and 0.06 (repeatability 0.19 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The high genetic correlation between the two traits (0.94 and 0.97 gives the opportunity to find out the most suitable criteria for breeding value estimation.

  6. Human sex differences in emotional processing of own-race and other-race faces. (United States)

    Ran, Guangming; Chen, Xu; Pan, Yangu


    There is evidence that women and men show differences in the perception of affective facial expressions. However, none of the previous studies directly investigated sex differences in emotional processing of own-race and other-race faces. The current study addressed this issue using high time resolution event-related potential techniques. In total, data from 25 participants (13 women and 12 men) were analyzed. It was found that women showed increased N170 amplitudes to negative White faces compared with negative Chinese faces over the right hemisphere electrodes. This result suggests that women show enhanced sensitivity to other-race faces showing negative emotions (fear or disgust), which may contribute toward evolution. However, the current data showed that men had increased N170 amplitudes to happy Chinese versus happy White faces over the left hemisphere electrodes, indicating that men show enhanced sensitivity to own-race faces showing positive emotions (happiness). In this respect, men might use past pleasant emotional experiences to boost recognition of own-race faces.

  7. Gendered race: are infants’ face preferences guided by intersectionality of sex and race? (United States)

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Kerri L.; Johnson, Scott P.


    People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female), and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each) that differed according to sex (Female or Male) or race (Asian, Black, or White). All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants’ social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants’ preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure. PMID:26388823

  8. Gendered race: are infants' face preferences guided by intersectionality of sex and race? (United States)

    Kim, Hojin I; Johnson, Kerri L; Johnson, Scott P


    People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female), and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each) that differed according to sex (Female or Male) or race (Asian, Black, or White). All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants' social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants' preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.

  9. Gendered Race: Are Infants’ Face Preferences Guided by Intersectionality of Sex and Race?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin I Kim


    Full Text Available People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female, and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each that differed according to sex (F or M or race (Asian, Black, or White. All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants’ social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants’ preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.

  10. Does race still matter in nursing? The narratives of African-American nursing faculty members. (United States)

    Beard, Kenya V; Julion, Wrenetha A

    The rise in undergraduate enrollment of African-American students has not translated into more African-American faculty members, although they could mentor minority students and promote an ethos that encourages their academic success. Discrimination against African-American faculty members continues, which could lessen their presence. This study explored the narratives of 23 African-American faculty members to determine if race still matters in nursing. A narrative approach grounded in social constructionism and critical race theory was used to illustrate the journey of African-American faculty into and throughout academia and to reveal factors related to decisions to enter and remain in academia. Most of the participants stated that they faced racial discrimination that tested their resilience and reinforced their commitment to the academy. Intentional actions and open discourse could strengthen institutional commitments to racial diversity and facilitate the recruitment and retention of racially diverse nursing faculties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Disparate vantage points: Race, gender, county context, and attitudes about harsh punishments in the US. (United States)

    Carll, Erin


    In this paper, I use data from the General Social Survey, FBI Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics, and other sources to consider differences in attitudes about punishment among four groups-Black men, Black women, White men, and White women-as well as how these differences vary according to county crime rates. Centering my expectations about group-specific attitudes within conflict theory and prior empirical findings, I am guided by the presumption that race and gender are cultural categories that shape attitudes about punishment by influencing our interactions with the criminal justice system, and that the meaning of these cultural categories varies by context. Analyses provide some evidence that race, gender, and context interact to shape attitudes about punishment. Overall, this research improves our understanding of group differences in punitive attitudes and of the cultural context in which the US system of incarceration operates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological Discourses on Human Races and Scientific Racism in Brazil (1832-1911). (United States)

    Arteaga, Juanma Sánchez


    This paper analyzes biological and scientific discourses about the racial composition of the Brazilian population, between 1832 and 1911. The first of these dates represents Darwin's first arrival in the South-American country during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. The study ends in 1911, with the celebration of the First universal Races congress in London, where the Brazilian physical anthropologist J.B. Lacerda predicted the complete extinction of black Brazilians by the year 2012. Contemporary European and North-American racial theories had a profound influence in Brazilian scientific debates on race and miscegenation. These debates also reflected a wider political and cultural concern, shared by most Brazilian scholars, about the future of the Nation. With few known exceptions, Brazilian evolutionists, medical doctors, physical anthropologists, and naturalists, considered that the racial composition of the population was a handicap to the commonly shared nationalistic goal of creating a modern and progressive Brazilian Republic.

  13. Implications of Racial Identity Theory for Vocational Psychology. (United States)

    Helms, Janet E.; Piper, Ralph E.


    Although racial identity theory has the potential to explain some aspects of career development, its value would be increased by conceptualizing race as a dependent variable in research and theory. Examples involving career salience, satisfaction, and satisfactoriness demonstrate the limitations of racial comparison studies. (SK)

  14. Race, populations, and genomics: Africa as laboratory. (United States)

    Braun, Lundy; Hammonds, Evelynn


    Much of the recent debate over race, genetics, and health has focused on the extent to which typological notions of race have biological meaning. Less attention, however, has been paid to the assumptions about the nature of "populations" that both inform contemporary biological and medical research and that underlie the concept of race. Focusing specifically on Africa in the 1930s and 1940s, this paper explores the history of how fluid societies were transformed into bounded units amenable to scientific analysis. In the so-called "Golden Age of Ethnography," university-trained social anthropologists, primarily from Britain and South Africa, took to the field to systematically study, organize, and order the world's diverse peoples. Intent on creating a scientific methodology of neutral observation, they replaced amateur travelers, traders, colonial administrators, and missionaries as authoritative knowledge producers about the customs, beliefs, and languages of indigenous peoples. At the same time, linguists were engaged in unifying African languages and mapping language onto primordial "tribal" territories. We argue that the notion of populations or "tribes" as discrete units suitable for scientific sampling and classification emerged in the 1930s and 1940s with the ethnographic turn in social anthropology and the professionalization and institutionalization of linguistics in Western and South African universities. Once named and entered into international atlases and databases by anthropologists in the U.S., the existence of populations as bounded entities became self-evident, thus setting the stage for their use in large-scale population genetic studies and the contemporary reinvigoration of broad claims of difference based on population identification.

  15. [Medical coverage of a road bicycle race]. (United States)

    Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Harding, Ulf; Schüler, Christine; Thoms, Jürgen; Püschel, Klaus; Kappus, Stefan


    Major sport events require adequate expertise and experience concerning medical coverage and support. Medical and ambulance services need to cover both participants and spectators. Likewise, residents at the venue need to be provided for. Concepts have to include the possibility of major incidents related to the event. Using the example of the Hamburg Cyclassics, a road bicycle race and major event for professional and amateur cyclists, this article describes the medical coverage, number of patients, types of injuries and emergencies. Objectives regarding the planning of future events and essential medical coverage are consequently discussed. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart-New York.

  16. Professional Mulatas: Race, Gender and Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Giacomini


    Full Text Available Based on a research carried out with a group of black women enrolled in the II Course for Professional Formation of Mulatas, the article recovers and analyses the categories through which the students represent their condition of mulatta and their passing to the condition of professional mulata. The mulata, who represents and mediates a Brazilian way of being a woman, sensual and race-mixed, the professional mulata debates herself, permanently, between two poles which are both professional and moral: on the one hand, there is a positive pole, of being a dancer, on the other, there is a threatening and negative one, of being a prostitute.

  17. Protection of carniolan bee - preserve breed or race of honeybee?


    Božič, Janko


    Slovenia protects authentic breed of carniolan bee based on zootechnical legislation. Different varieties of honeybee around the Earth are usually described with the term races and not breeds. Foundations for such nomenclature are in evolution of bee races with natural selection without considerable influence of the men. Acceptance of carniolan bee as a race determines environmental-protection approach in preservation of authentic carniolan bee population. Slovenia is locus typicus of the rac...

  18. Predictor Variables for Marathon Race Time in Recreational Female Runners


    Schmid, Wiebke; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald


    Purpose We intended to determine predictor variables of anthropometry and training for marathon race time in recreational female runners in order to predict marathon race time for future novice female runners. Methods Anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, body mass index, circumferences of limbs, thicknesses of skin-folds and body fat as well as training variables such as volume and speed in running training were related to marathon race time using bi- and multi-varia...

  19. Cautious NMPC with Gaussian Process Dynamics for Miniature Race Cars


    Hewing, Lukas; Liniger, Alexander; Zeilinger, Melanie N.


    This paper presents an adaptive high performance control method for autonomous miniature race cars. Racing dynamics are notoriously hard to model from first principles, which is addressed by means of a cautious nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) approach that learns to improve its dynamics model from data and safely increases racing performance. The approach makes use of a Gaussian Process (GP) and takes residual model uncertainty into account through a chance constrained formulation. ...

  20. Race-ing Class Ladies: Lineages of Privilege in an Elite South African School (United States)

    Epstein, Debbie


    This paper draws on fieldwork done in Greystone School in South Africa, a single sex girls' school. I explore how the legacy of coloniser and colonised is reconfigured through the history of the school and the particular racialised politics of South Africa, where race and class have always been imbricated in differently nuanced ways before, during…

  1. Development, Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Racing Car Industry (United States)

    Yang, J. J.


    In recent years, motor car racing has developed rapidly in China. However, under the background of maximum vehicle production and car ownership in China, the racing car industry has a long way compared with that of the developed countries. The paper analyzes the current situation and summarizes the problems of Chinese racing car industry with supporting documentation and review of the literature. The future trend of the development of car industry in China is discussed. On the basis of the analysis and prediction, the strategies to respond to the future racing car industry in China are presented.

  2. Culture or No Culture? A Latino Critical Research Analysis of Latino Persistence Research (United States)

    Gonzalez, Roger Geertz; Morrison, Jeaná


    The recent literature on Latino persistence does not take into account these students' distinct cultural backgrounds. Most researchers of Latino persistence use the self-designation "Latino" as a proxy variable representing Latino culture. A Latino Critical Theory (LatCrit) lens is applied to the persistence literature to demonstrate the…

  3. Constructing "Deservingness": DREAMers and Central American Unaccompanied Children in the National Immigration Debate (United States)

    Pérez Huber, Lindsay


    Utilizing a Latina/o Critical Theory framework (LatCrit), I examine the narratives that emerged within national newsprint media coverage of DREAMers and Central American unaccompanied children. Data included 268 newspaper articles published during periods of heightened national media attention about DREAMers (96 articles) and Central American…

  4. Jocks, gender, race, and adolescent problem drinking. (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E; Hoffman, Joseph H; Barnes, Grace M; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Don; Melnick, Merrill J


    Alcohol remains the drug of choice for many adolescents; however, the nature of the relationship between athletic involvement and alcohol misuse remains ambiguous. In this article, we used a longitudinal sample of over 600 Western New York adolescents and their families to explore the gender-specific and race-specific relationships between identification with the "jock" label and adolescent alcohol consumption, specifically problem drinking. Operationalization of problem drinking included frequency measures of heavy drinking, binge drinking, and social problems related to alcohol (e.g., trouble with family, friends, school officials over drinking). Self-identified adolescent "jocks" were more likely to engage in problem drinking than their non-jock counterparts, even after controlling for gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, physical maturity, social maturity, and frequency of athletic activity. Jock identity was strongly associated with higher binge drinking frequency in Black adolescent girls. This study underscores the need to distinguish between objective and subjective meanings of athletic involvement when assessing the relationship between sport and adolescent health-risk behavior.

  5. Record Participation in the Relay Race!

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN has a more sporting spirit than ever before. This is not the result of any survey, but the impression you got as soon as you saw the 62 teams of six runners each speeding around the laboratory in the 32nd annual relay race. This year 11 more teams competed than in 2001.   First changeover: Hervé Cornet takes over from Camille Ruiz Llamas for The Shabbys, and Sebastian Dorthe from Daniel Matteazzi for Charmilles Technologies. Jérôme Bendotti (EP/TA1) just holding off the team from the WHO at the finish. A total of 372 people ran together last Wednesday in this year's relay race, making for a record participation. It also seems that women are becoming more and more attracted by this competition, since this year there were eight ladies teams, also a new record. The first team were The Shabbys in a time of 10 minutes 45 seconds, finishing almost before the second team had started its last 300 metre leg. The 6 runners in each team cover distances of 1000, 800, 800,...

  6. Marked assisted selection for horses racing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi


    Full Text Available Although equines have participated in the forming and development of several civilizations around the world since their domestication 6,000 years ago in comparison to other species that have zootechnical interest, few researches have been done related to animal breeding area, especially in Brazil. Some reasons for that are difficulties associated with the species as well as operational aspects. However, developments in genetics in the last decades contributed to a better understanding of the traits related to reproduction, heath, behavior and performance of domestic animals, including equines. Recent technologies as next generation sequencing methods and the high density chips of SNPs for genotyping allowed some advances in the researches already done. These researches used basically the candidate gene strategy, and identified genomic regions related to diseases and syndromes and, more recently, the performance in sport competition and specific abilities. Using these genomic analysis tools, some regions related to race performance have been identified and based on this information; genetic tests to select superior animals for racing performance have started to be available in the market.

  7. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole


    -empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory......, shows the power of a dominant philosophy of science in US IR, and thus the challenge facing any ambitious theorising. The article suggests a possible movement of fronts away from the ‘fourth debate' between rationalism and reflectivism towards one of theory against empiricism. To help this new agenda...

  8. Does perceived race affect discrimination and recognition of ambiguous-race faces? A test of the sociocognitive hypothesis. (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Lie, Hanne C; Ewing, Louise; Evangelista, Emma; Tanaka, James W


    Discrimination and recognition are often poorer for other-race than own-race faces. These other-race effects (OREs) have traditionally been attributed to reduced perceptual expertise, resulting from more limited experience, with other-race faces. However, recent findings suggest that sociocognitive factors, such as reduced motivation to individuate other-race faces, may also contribute. If the sociocognitive hypothesis is correct, then it should be possible to alter discrimination and memory performance for identical faces by altering their perceived race. We made identical ambiguous-race morphed faces look either Asian or Caucasian by presenting them in Caucasian or Asian face contexts, respectively. However, this perceived-race manipulation had no effect on either discrimination (Experiment 1) or memory (Experiment 2) for the ambiguous-race faces, despite the presence of the usual OREs in discrimination and recognition of unambiguous Asian and Caucasian faces in our participant population. These results provide no support for the sociocognitive hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Race, intelligence and political efficacy among school children. (United States)

    Carmines, E G; Baxter, D J


    This paper focuses on the difference in political efficacy found between black and white pre-adults, and assesses a specific explanation of this racial difference, one that combines elements of the intelligence explanation with aspects of the social-deprivation explanation as outlined by Paul Abramson. The explanation suggests that the racial difference in feelings of political effectiveness is due to intelligence which, in turn, is basically a function of the social and economic environment. Focusing on a study of 421 black and white students, it is shown that the predictions from the theory are empirically valid. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that once intelligence is controlled for, there is little or no relationship between race and political efficacy--that is, the black and white students are approximately equal in their levels of political effectiveness. Thus the study lends empirical support to this particular explanation of the racial difference in political efficacy, and suggests, more generally, that intelligence may play a significant role in the political socialization process.

  10. Race of source effects in the elaboration likelihood model. (United States)

    White, P H; Harkins, S G


    In a series of experiments, we investigated the effect of race of source on persuasive communications in the Elaboration Likelihood Model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1981, 1986). In Experiment 1, we found no evidence that White participants responded to a Black source as a simple negative cue. Experiment 2 suggested the possibility that exposure to a Black source led to low-involvement message processing. In Experiments 3 and 4, a distraction paradigm was used to test this possibility, and it was found that participants under low involvement were highly motivated to process a message presented by a Black source. In Experiment 5, we found that attitudes toward the source's ethnic group, rather than violations of expectancies, accounted for this processing effect. Taken together, the results of these experiments are consistent with S.L. Gaertner and J.F. Dovidio's (1986) theory of aversive racism, which suggests that Whites, because of a combination of egalitarian values and underlying negative racial attitudes, are very concerned about not appearing unfavorable toward Blacks, leading them to be highly motivated to process messages presented by a source from this group.

  11. The Relationship between Trail Running Withdrawals and Race Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Philippe Roberta


    Full Text Available Context: A growing amount of recent research in sport psychology has focused on trying to understand withdrawals from ultra-races. However, according to the Four E approach, the studies underestimated the embedded components of these experiences and particularly how they were linked to the specific environmental conditions in which the experiences occurred. Objective: This study aimed to characterize trail running withdrawals in relationship to race topography. Design: Qualitative design, involving self-confrontation interviews and use of a race map. Setting: Use of the race map for description of the race activity and self-confrontation interviews took place 1–3 days after the races. Participants: Ten runners who withdrew during an ultra-trail race. Data Collection and Analysis: Data on past activity traces and experiences were elicited from self-confrontation interviews. Data were coded and compared to identify common sequences and then each type of sequence was counted with regard to race topography. Results: Results showed that each sequence was related to runners’ particular possibilities for acting, feeling, and thinking, which were in turn embedded in the race topography. These sequences allowed the unfolding of the activity and increased its overall effectiveness in relation to the constraints of this specific sport. Conclusion: This study allowed us to highlight important information on how ultra-trail runners manage their races in relationship to the race environment and more specifically to its topography. The result will also help us to recommend potential adjustments to ultra-trail runners’ performance-oriented training and preparation.

  12. Do blind people see race? Social, legal, and theoretical considerations. (United States)

    Obasogie, Osagie K


    Although the meaning, significance, and definition of race have been debated for centuries, one thread of thought unifies almost all of the many diverging perspectives: a largely unquestioned belief that race is self-evident and visually obvious, defined largely by skin color, facial features, and other visual cues. This suggests that “seeing race” is an experience largely unmediated by broader social forces; we simply know it when we see it. It also suggests that those who cannot see are likely to have a diminished understanding of race. But is this empirically accurate?I examine these questions by interviewing people who have been totally blind since birth about race and compare their responses to sighted individuals. I not only find that blind people have as significant an understanding of race as anyone else and that they understand race visually, but that this visual understanding of race stems from interpersonal and institutional socializations that profoundly shape their racial perceptions. These findings highlight how race and racial thinking are encoded into individuals through iterative social practices that train people to think a certain way about the world around them. In short, these practices are so strong that even blind people, in a conceptual sense, “see” race. Rather than being self-evident, these interviews draw attention to how race becomes visually salient through constitutive social practices that give rise to visual understandings of racial difference for blind and sighted people alike. This article concludes with a discussion of these findings' significance for understanding the role of race in law and society.

  13. Relationships among race, education, criminal thinking, and recidivism: moderator and mediator effects. (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D


    Moderator and mediator relationships linking variables from three different theoretical traditions-race (subcultural theory), education (life-course theory), and criminal thinking (social learning theory)-and recidivism were examined in 1,101 released male federal prison inmates. Preliminary regression analyses indicated that racial status (White, Black, Hispanic) moderated the relationship between criminal thinking, as measured by the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) score of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), and recidivism. Further analysis, however, revealed that it was not racial status, per se, that moderated the relationship between the PICTS and recidivism, but educational attainment. Whereas the PICTS was largely effective in predicting recidivism in inmates with 12 or more years of education, it was largely ineffective in predicting recidivism in inmates with fewer than 12 years of education. When education and the GCT score were compared as possible mediators of the race-recidivism relationship only the GCT successfully mediated this relationship. Sensitivity testing showed that the GCT mediating effect was moderately robust to violations of the sequential ignorability assumption on which causal mediation analysis rests. Moderator and mediator analyses are potentially important avenues through which theoretical constructs can be integrated and assessment strategies devised.

  14. Circuit-Adaptive Challenge Balancing in Racing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, A.; Bakkes, S.; Roijers, D.


    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to challenge balancing in racing games: circuit-adaptive challenge balancing. We propose to automatically adapt the actual racing circuit - while it is being played - such that the performed circuit adaptations intelligently balance the challenge for all

  15. Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex (United States)

    ... Skin Uterine Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of ...

  16. Details from the Dashboard: Charter School Race/Ethnicity Demographics (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012


    This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…

  17. Evolution in action : host race formation in Galerucella nymphaeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappers, Stephanie Maria


    A host race is a population which is partially reproductively isolated as a direct consequence of adaptation to a certain host. For host race formation to occur five conditions should be met. First of all, the populations should occur in sympatry, which means that they co-occur within the normal

  18. Development Cost Capitalization During R&D Races

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.; Sansing, R.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.


    We investigate the economic effects of capitalizing development costs during a race between two firms to discover and develop a new technology. Winning the race requires success in the research stage and success in the development stage. Development costs are expensed in some settings, but

  19. Development cost capitalization during R&D races

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waegenaere, Anja M.B.; Sansing, R.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    We investigate the economic effects of capitalizing development costs during a race between two firms to discover and develop a new technology. Winning the race requires success in the research stage and success in the development stage. Development costs are expensed in some settings, but

  20. Students to Race Solar-Powered Model Cars (United States)

    race model solar cars on Saturday, May 12. The cars, designed to tap into energy from the sun, are than 12 inches wide, 24 inches long and 12 inches high. The 20-meter race is a double elimination competition with awards going to the five fastest cars. Five design awards also will be given out for

  1. Pay Equity: An Issue of Race, Ethnicity, and Sex. (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    While the continuing wage gap between men and women, Whites and non-Whites has been well documented, the purpose of this study was to examine the role which discrimination on the basis of race/ethnicity as well as sex plays in the setting of wages. Whether pay equity is an effective means of remedying race-based wage discrimination was also…

  2. Race of Examiner Effects and the Validity of Intelligence Tests. (United States)

    Graziano, William G.; And Others


    Recent empirical evidence for the influence of examiner's race on examinee's performance on intelligence tests is reviewed. The current literature, 1966 through 1980, offers little support for the hypothesis that examiner's race has a systematic effect on examinee's performance on intelligence tests. Conceptual and methodological issues are…

  3. Best Friends Forever? Race and the Stability of Adolescent Friendships (United States)

    Rude, Jesse; Herda, Daniel


    Our research uses two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to analyze the stability of same- and cross-race friendships. We find the following: First, interracial friendships are less stable than same-race friendships, even after controlling for a variety of contextual and dyadic characteristics, such as school…

  4. The Bubbling Cauldron. Race, Ethnicity, and the Urban Crisis. (United States)

    Smith, Michael Peter, Ed.; Feagin, Joe R., Ed.

    The essays in this collection provide a background for discussions about multiculturalism, cultural politics, and urban crises by illustrating the ways in which race is still a central source of meaning, identity, and power and why it is intensifying as a category, rather than diminishing. Selections include: (1) "Putting 'Race' in Its…

  5. A new player in race-specific resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Keller, Beat; Krattinger, Simon G.


    Race-specific resistance genes represent essential genetic sources in crop breeding. Map-based cloning of the wheat Stb6 gene against Zymoseptoria tritici identified a wall-associated receptor kinase-like protein as a novel player in race

  6. Om jazz og race i dansk jazzkritik: nogle eksempler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christen Kold


    'Race' bliver i dansk jazzkritik, især fra 50erne og frem, ignoreret som et ydre 'sociologisk' faktum, i modsætning til kulturradiklisternes idealisering før 2. verdenskrig af musikernes 'race' . Men faktisk fortsætter begrebet med at spille en uerkendt rolle, ofte som kvalitets- og stilmarkør i ...

  7. A new player in race-specific resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Keller, Beat


    Race-specific resistance genes represent essential genetic sources in crop breeding. Map-based cloning of the wheat Stb6 gene against Zymoseptoria tritici identified a wall-associated receptor kinase-like protein as a novel player in race-specific disease resistance.

  8. Living the future now: `Race' and challenges of transformation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Living the future now: `Race' and challenges of transformation in higher education. ZE Erasmus. Abstract. Drawing on research among medical students at the University of Cape Town's Faculty of Health Sciences, this article explores two questions: How do students and staff work with `race' in their relations to one another?

  9. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences (United States)

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy


    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  10. Assessment of non-genetic parameters of the racing performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1995 to 2007, flat racing data was collected for Thoroughbred and Arabian horses in Algeria. Non-genetic factors affecting racing performances have been identified and quantified using linear models. Performances are represented through the earnings and the rankings. Three traits were used: two earnings traits [the ...

  11. Gender, Race, and Risk: Intersectional Risk Management in the Sale of Sex Online. (United States)

    Moorman, Jessica D; Harrison, Kristen


    Sex worker experience of risk (e.g., physical violence or rape) is shaped by race, gender, and context. For web-based sex workers, experience of risk is comparatively minimal; what is unclear is how web-based sex workers manage risk and if online advertising plays a role in risk management. Building on intersectionality theory and research exploring risk management in sex work, we content-analyzed 600 escort advertisements from ( ) to explore risk management in web-based sex work. To guide our research we asked: Do advertisements contain risk management messages? Does the use of risk management messaging differ by sex worker race or gender? Which groups have the highest overall use of risk management messages? Through a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) we found that advertisements contained risk management messages and that uses of these phrases varied by race and gender. Blacks, women, and transgender women drove the use of risk management messages. Black and White transgender women had the highest overall use of these phrases. We conclude that risk management is an intersectional practice and that the use of risk management messages is a venue-specific manifestation of broader risk management priorities found in all venues where sex is sold.

  12. Neural processing of race during imitation: self-similarity versus social status (United States)

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Cross, Katy A.; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella


    People preferentially imitate others who are similar to them or have high social status. Such imitative biases are thought to have evolved because they increase the efficiency of cultural acquisition. Here we focused on distinguishing between self-similarity and social status as two candidate mechanisms underlying neural responses to a person’s race during imitation. We used fMRI to measure neural responses when 20 African American (AA) and 20 European American (EA) young adults imitated AA, EA and Chinese American (CA) models and also passively observed their gestures and faces. We found that both AA and EA participants exhibited more activity in lateral fronto-parietal and visual regions when imitating AAs compared to EAs or CAs. These results suggest that racial self-similarity is not likely to modulate neural responses to race during imitation, in contrast with findings from previous neuroimaging studies of face perception and action observation. Furthermore, AA and EA participants associated AAs with lower social status than EAs or CAs, suggesting that the social status associated with different racial groups may instead modulate neural activity during imitation of individuals from those groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that neural responses to race during imitation are driven by socially-learned associations rather than self-similarity. This may reflect the adaptive role of imitation in social learning, where learning from higher-status models can be more beneficial. This study provides neural evidence consistent with evolutionary theories of cultural acquisition. PMID:23813738

  13. Patterns of horse-rider coordination during endurance race: a dynamical system approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Viry

    Full Text Available In riding, most biomechanical studies have focused on the description of the horse locomotion in unridden condition. In this study, we draw the prospect of how the basic principles established in inter-personal coordination by the theory of Coordination Dynamics may provide a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the horse-rider coupling. The recent development of mobile technologies allows combined horse and rider recordings during long lasting natural events such as endurance races. Six international horse-rider dyads were thus recorded during a 120 km race by using two tri-axial accelerometers placed on the horses and riders, respectively. The analysis concentrated on their combined vertical displacements. The obtained shapes and angles of Lissajous plots together with values of relative phase between horse and rider displacements at lower reversal point allowed us to characterize four coordination patterns, reflecting the use of two riding techniques per horse's gait (trot and canter. The present study shows that the concepts, methods and tools of self-organizing dynamic system approach offer new directions for understanding horse-rider coordination. The identification of the horse-rider coupling patterns constitutes a firm basis to further study the coalition of multiple constraints that determine their emergence and their dynamics in endurance race.

  14. Using the centre of percussion to design a steering controller for an autonomous race car (United States)

    Kritayakirana, Krisada; Gerdes, J. Christian


    Understanding how a race car driver controls a vehicle at its friction limits can provide insights into the development of vehicle safety systems. In this paper, a race car driver's behaviour inspires the design of an autonomous racing controller. The resulting controller uses the vehicle's centre of percussion (COP) to design feedforward and feedback steering. At the COP, the effects of rotation and translation from the rear tire force cancel each other out; consequently, the feedforward steering command is robust to the disturbances from the rear tire force. Using the COP also simplifies the equations of motion, as the vehicle's lateral motion is decoupled from the vehicle's yaw motion and highlights the challenge of controlling a vehicle when the rear tires are highly saturated. The resulting dynamics can be controlled with a linear state feedback based on a lane-keeping system with additional yaw damping. Utilising Lyapunov theory, the closed-loop system is shown to remain stable even when the rear tires are highly saturated. The experimental results demonstrate that an autonomous vehicle can operate at its limits while maintaining a minimal lateral error.

  15. Contemporary Issues of Social Justice: A Focus on Race and Physical Education in the United States. (United States)

    Harrison, Louis; Clark, Langston


    Ongoing events in the United States show the continual need to address issues of social justice in every social context. Of particular note in this article, the contemporary national focus on race has thrust social justice issues into the forefront of the country's conscious. Although legal segregation has ran its course, schools and many neighborhoods remain, to a large degree, culturally, ethnically, linguistically, economically, and racially segregated and unequal (Orfield & Lee, 2005). Even though an African American president presently occupies the White House, the idea of a postracial America remains an unrealized ideal. Though social justice and racial discussions are firmly entrenched in educational research, investigations that focus on race are scant in physical education literature. Here, we attempt to develop an understanding of social justice in physical education with a focus on racial concerns. We purposely confine the examination to the U.S. context to avoid the dilution of the importance of these issues, while recognizing other international landscapes may differ significantly. To accomplish this goal, we hope to explicate the undergirding theoretical tenants of critical race theory and culturally relevant pedagogy in relation to social justice in physical education. Finally, we make observations of social justice in the physical education and physical education teacher education realms to address and illuminate areas of concern.

  16. Considering the significance of ancestry through the prism of mixed-race identity. (United States)

    Tashiro, Cathy J


    People of mixed ancestry promise to be a significant percentage of the population of the United States in the 21st century. This article describes a qualitative study of 20 older mixed-race adults of African-American-white and Asian-American-white ancestries and focuses on how the participants construct identity. Using grounded theory methodology, racial identity did not emerge as a singular, distinct entity in this study, and five dimensions of racial identity were observed. Significant differences in patterns of identity dimensions were noted for the two mixed groups. Implications for nursing practice are discussed.

  17. Structural debris experiments at operation MILL RACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempel, J.R.; Beck, J.E.; McKee, R.G.


    Structural debris patterns as determined by the mechanisms of building collapse under airblast loading have been studied experimentally at MILL RACE, White Sands, NM. Three near full-size buildings were instrumented to observe deflections, accelerations and air pressures and exposed to two different regimes of incident blast pressure produced by HE simulating 1 kt, viz., 10 and 3 psi; after the shot enough wall debris was located and identified to provide estimates of debris movement. Two of the test buildings were unreinforced, load-bearing masonry, one located at each of the two incident overpressures. The third building was made of reinforced concrete panels and was exposed to approximately 25 psi. Preliminary estimates of the effect of arching on debris energy and distribution are presented

  18. Race Making in a Penal Institution. (United States)

    Walker, Michael L


    This article provides a ground-level investigation into the lives of penal inmates, linking the literature on race making and penal management to provide an understanding of racial formation processes in a modern penal institution. Drawing on 135 days of ethnographic data collected as an inmate in a Southern California county jail system, the author argues that inmates are subjected to two mutually constitutive racial projects--one institutional and the other microinteractional. Operating in symbiosis within a narrative of risk management, these racial projects increase (rather than decrease) incidents of intraracial violence and the potential for interracial violence. These findings have implications for understanding the process of racialization and evaluating the effectiveness of penal management strategies.

  19. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Otten

    Full Text Available It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female. Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear.

  20. Gender, race, and meritocracy in organizational careers. (United States)

    Castilla, Emilio J


    This study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and inequality by investigating the central role of merit-based reward systems in shaping gender and racial disparities in wages and promotions. The author develops and tests a set of propositions isolating processes of performance-reward bias, whereby women and minorities receive less compensation than white men with equal scores on performance evaluations. Using personnel data from a large service organization, the author empirically establishes the existence of this bias and shows that gender, race, and nationality differences continue to affect salary growth after performance ratings are taken into account, ceteris paribus. This finding demonstrates a critical challenge faced by the many contemporary employers who adopt merit-based practices and policies. Although these policies are often adopted in the hope of motivating employees and ensuring meritocracy, policies with limited transparency and accountability can actually increase ascriptive bias and reduce equity in the workplace.

  1. Researching "race" in lesbian space: a critical reflection. (United States)

    Held, Nina


    Feminist researchers have acknowledged that racial differences between researcher and researched impact on the research process; however, there has been little concern with how "race" is actually made in/through the research process. If we think "race" as performative and as always in the process of being made then this theoretical claim has crucial implications for research encounters. In this article the author draws on her own research, which focuses on processes of racialization. This ethnographic study was conducted in two lesbian bars in the North West of England. The article illustrates different ways of how "race," in particular Whiteness, operated during the research process. The author critically reflects on her role in "race making" during this process and highlights the importance of acknowledging that researchers are also complicit in this making when doing research where "race" is not the central focus.

  2. The physical demands of Olympic yacht racing. (United States)

    Mackie, H; Sanders, R; Legg, S


    The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the up wards forces of the feet on the hiking strap and the forces in the mainsheet of four Olympic classes of racing dinghies (Europe, Laser. Finn and 470) during realistic on-water sailing in varying wind conditions. The secondary aim of the study was to measure the joint angles adopted by the sailors and boat heel angles. The tertiary aim was to identify events and sailing conditions associated with large or patterned force production. Forces in the hiking strap and mainsheet of four classes of Olympic sailing dinghies were measured on eleven New Zealand sailors during simulated on-water racing in a range of wind conditions. Up-wind hiking strap forces reached an average of 73-87% of predicted maximal voluntary contraction (pred MVC), with peak forces exceeding 100% pred MVC. Mainsheet forces reached 25-35% pred MVC, with peak forces reaching 40-50% pred MVC. Off-wind hiking strap and mainsheet forces were considerably lower than up-wind forces. Ankle and hip joint angles increased and knee joint angles decreased with increasing wind speed during up-wind sailing. Large forces occurred in the hiking strap and mainsheet when boats reached the tops of wave during up-wind sailing in high wind speeds and when a gust of wind hit the boat. During off-wind sailing large forces were observed in the mainsheet when surfing down waves. It is recommended that the intensities and joint angles found in this study be used as a basis for the development of class specific off-water physical conditioning programmes.

  3. RIDDLE: Race and ethnicity Imputation from Disease history with Deep LEarning

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Ji-Sung; Gao, Xin; Rzhetsky, Andrey


    are predictive of race and ethnicity. We used these characterizations of informative features to perform a systematic comparison of differential disease patterns by race and ethnicity. The fact that clinical histories are informative for imputing race

  4. Preferences for Emotional Dependence and Togetherness in Romantic Relationships: The Impact of Cohort, Race, Gender, and Gender Ideology


    Rowell, Kacie Lynn


    This study investigates variation in preferences for mutual emotional dependence and togetherness in heterosexual romantic relationships among adults in the United States specifically considering the impact of race, gender, gender ideology, and cohort on preferences. A social structure and personality framework and concepts from exchange theory are used to interpret and predict relationship preference patterns found using binary hierarchical logistic regression analysis of data from the 199...

  5. The Influence of Race on Employment Status and Earnings of African Immigrant Men in the United States


    Djamba, Yanyi K.; Kimuna, Sitawa R.


    This paper uses the labor queue theory to examine the changing influence of race on the employment status and earnings of African immigrant men in the United States between 1980 and 2008. The results show that the white advantage echoed in previous research has diminished. Black African immigrant men's chance of being employed is now greater than that of their white counterparts when their sociodemographic characteristics are...

  6. Pareto-Optimal Model Selection via SPRINT-Race. (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Georgiopoulos, Michael; Anagnostopoulos, Georgios C


    In machine learning, the notion of multi-objective model selection (MOMS) refers to the problem of identifying the set of Pareto-optimal models that optimize by compromising more than one predefined objectives simultaneously. This paper introduces SPRINT-Race, the first multi-objective racing algorithm in a fixed-confidence setting, which is based on the sequential probability ratio with indifference zone test. SPRINT-Race addresses the problem of MOMS with multiple stochastic optimization objectives in the proper Pareto-optimality sense. In SPRINT-Race, a pairwise dominance or non-dominance relationship is statistically inferred via a non-parametric, ternary-decision, dual-sequential probability ratio test. The overall probability of falsely eliminating any Pareto-optimal models or mistakenly returning any clearly dominated models is strictly controlled by a sequential Holm's step-down family-wise error rate control method. As a fixed-confidence model selection algorithm, the objective of SPRINT-Race is to minimize the computational effort required to achieve a prescribed confidence level about the quality of the returned models. The performance of SPRINT-Race is first examined via an artificially constructed MOMS problem with known ground truth. Subsequently, SPRINT-Race is applied on two real-world applications: 1) hybrid recommender system design and 2) multi-criteria stock selection. The experimental results verify that SPRINT-Race is an effective and efficient tool for such MOMS problems. code of SPRINT-Race is available at

  7. Study of intake manifold for Universiti Malaysia Perlis automotive racing team formula student race car (United States)

    Norizan, A.; Rahman, M. T. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Basha, M. H.; Ismail, M. H. N.; Hamid, A. F. A.


    This paper describes the design differences between the intake manifold and restrictor used in racing cars that participate in the Formula Student (FSAE) competition. To fulfil the criteria of rules and regulation of the race, each race car must have a restriction device that has a maximum diameter of 20 mm installed between the throttle body and intake manifold. To overcome these problems, a restrictor has been designed and analysed using the steady state analysis, to reduce the loss of pressure in the restrictor. Design of the restrictor has a fixed parameter of the maximum diameter of 20mm. There are some differences that have been taken to make the comparison between the design of the restrictor, the diameter of the inlet and outlet, the curvature of the surface, convergence and divergence angle and length of the restrictor. Intake manifold was designed based on the design of the chassis, which shall not exceed the envelope defined by the FSAE competition. A good intake manifold design will affect the performance of the engine. Each design have made an analysis designed to ensure that each cylinder engine gets its air evenly. To verify the design, steady state analysis was made for a total mass flow rate and the velocity of air leaving a runner in each engine. Data such as the engine MAP reading was recorded by using Haltech ECU Management Software as reference purposes.

  8. Race to improve student understanding of uncertainty: Using LEGO race cars in the physics lab (United States)

    Parappilly, Maria; Hassam, Christopher; Woodman, Richard J.


    Laboratories using LEGO race cars were developed for students in an introductory physics topic with a high early drop-out rate. In a 2014 pilot study, the labs were offered to improve students' confidence with experiments and laboratory skills, especially uncertainty propagation. This intervention was extended into the intro level physics topic the next year, for comparison and evaluation. Considering the pilot study, we subsequently adapted the delivery of the LEGO labs for a large Engineering Mechanics cohort. A qualitative survey of the students was taken to gain insight into their perception of the incorporation of LEGO race cars into physics labs. For Engineering, the findings show that LEGO physics was instrumental in teaching students the measurement and uncertainty, improving their lab reporting skills, and was a key factor in reducing the early attrition rate. This paper briefly recalls the results of the pilot study, and how variations in the delivery yielded better learning outcomes. A novel method is proposed for how LEGO race cars in a physics lab can help students increase their understanding of uncertainty and motivate them towards physics practicals.

  9. Negotiating Race-Related Tensions: How White Educational Leaders Recognize, Confront, and Dialogue about Race and Racism (United States)

    Samuels, Amy J.


    Despite exposure of educational disparities for students of color, as well as the notion that educational training rarely discusses race and racism, there continues to be a lack of discourse on race, racism, and anti-racism in educational leadership. Subsequently, it is important to challenge deficit thinking and encourage further examination of…

  10. Understanding how race/ethnicity and gender define age-trajectories of disability: an intersectionality approach. (United States)

    Warner, David F; Brown, Tyson H


    A number of studies have demonstrated wide disparities in health among racial/ethnic groups and by gender, yet few have examined how race/ethnicity and gender intersect or combine to affect the health of older adults. The tendency of prior research to treat race/ethnicity and gender separately has potentially obscured important differences in how health is produced and maintained, undermining efforts to eliminate health disparities. The current study extends previous research by taking an intersectionality approach (Mullings & Schulz, 2006), grounded in life course theory, conceptualizing and modeling trajectories of functional limitations as dynamic life course processes that are jointly and simultaneously defined by race/ethnicity and gender. Data from the nationally representative 1994-2006 US Health and Retirement Study and growth curve models are utilized to examine racial/ethnic/gender differences in intra-individual change in functional limitations among White, Black and Mexican American Men and Women, and the extent to which differences in life course capital account for group disparities in initial health status and rates of change with age. Results support an intersectionality approach, with all demographic groups exhibiting worse functional limitation trajectories than White Men. Whereas White Men had the lowest disability levels at baseline, White Women and racial/ethnic minority Men had intermediate disability levels and Black and Hispanic Women had the highest disability levels. These health disparities remained stable with age-except among Black Women who experience a trajectory of accelerated disablement. Dissimilar early life social origins, adult socioeconomic status, marital status, and health behaviors explain the racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among Men but only partially explain the disparities among Women. Net of controls for life course capital, Women of all racial/ethnic groups have higher levels of functional

  11. Individual Differences in Holistic Processing Predict the Own-Race Advantage in Recognition Memory


    DeGutis, Joseph; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Wilmer, Jeremy; Rosenblatt, Andrew


    Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing tha...

  12. Resisting Official Knowledge: The Incorporation and Abjection of Race and Poverty in High School American History Textbooks, 1960s-2000s (United States)

    Kearl, Benjamin Kelsey


    Through an interpretive analysis of how high school American history textbooks depict the urban-riots of the late-1960s, in this article the author discusses how textbooks incorporate and abject official knowledge related to the intersections of race and poverty. Incorporation is related with Raymond Williams' theory of the selective tradition and…

  13. FCJ-194 From #RaceFail to #Ferguson: The Digital Intimacies of Race-Activist Hashtag Publics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Rambukanna


    Full Text Available This paper explores the rough, emergent and partial public culture of race-activist hashtags through the discourses of #RaceFail, a critical race quarrel that started in the sci-fi and fantasy blogosphere, and expanded from there into a broader, sustained discussion over social media; and #Ferguson, a recent race-activist hashtag raising issues around censorship, filtering and ‘gated discourse’. It ends with a discussion of how the frictions between the neoliberal desire to reduce hashtag publics to product publicity, and the activist desire to use hashtags to further public sphere awareness of political issues, is exemplified in the controversy over Facebook’s ‘algorithmic filtering’ of #Ferguson, and how, nevertheless, critical race hashtags are tapping into a developing tradition of vocal social media–supported dissent.

  14. The Role of Spatial Frequency Information in Face Classification by Race


    Zhang, Guoping; Wang, Zeyao; Wu, Jie; Zhao, Lun


    It was found that face classification by race is more quickly for other-race than own-race faces (other-race classification advantage, ORCA). Controlling the spatial frequencies of face images, the current study investigated the perceptual processing differences based on spatial frequencies between own-race and other-race faces that might account for the ORCA. Regardless of the races of the observers, the own-race faces were classified faster and more accurately for broad-band faces than for ...

  15. America’s Churning Races: Race and Ethnic Response Changes between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census (United States)

    Liebler, Carolyn A.; Porter, Sonya R.; Fernandez, Leticia E.; Noon, James M.; Ennis, Sharon R.


    Race and ethnicity responses can change over time and across contexts – a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the U.S. and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). About 9.8 million people (6.1 percent) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3%, 6% and 9% of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13% and 1% changed). There were a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, there is population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across race/ethnic categories. Researchers should think through and discuss the implications of race and Hispanic origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results. PMID:28105578

  16. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas


    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  17. Game theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  18. Race structure of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. GAMBA


    Full Text Available The virulence of 135 single-spore isolates of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, collected from durum wheat fields representing most of the major agro-ecological zones of Morocco from 2013 to 2015, was assessed on six international differential wheat genotypes under controlled conditions. Races 1, 5, 6 and 7 were identified with races 5 and 6 being most frequent, representing 47% and 44% of isolates tested, respectively. Only eight isolates (6% collected at two research stations and a farm field near a station in 2014 and 2015 were race 1, while three isolates collected in 2014 in a farm field in north-eastern Morocco were race 7. The uniform race structure in farm fields may be due to overreliance on a limited and narrow genetic base for durum wheat crops in Morocco. However, the identification of four races is significant since P. tritici-repentis can generate new combinations of virulence, thereby increasing race diversity. Combined with the low wheat diversity this may lead to future severe disease epidemics.

  19. Neural correlates of memory encoding and recognition for own-race and other-race faces in an associative-memory task. (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit; Minor, Greta; Adkins, Makenzie


    The ability to recognize faces of family members, friends, and acquaintances plays an important role in our daily interactions. The other-race effect is the reduced ability to recognize other-race faces as compared to own-race faces. Previous studies showed different patterns of event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with recollection and familiarity during memory encoding (i.e., Dm) and recognition (i.e., parietal old/new effect) for own-race and other-race faces in a subjective-recollection task (remember-know judgments). The present study investigated the same neural correlates of the other-race effect in an associative-memory task, in which Caucasian and East Asian participants learned and recognized own-race and other-race faces along with background colors. Participants made more false alarms for other-race faces indicating lower memory performance. During the study phase, subsequently recognized other-race faces (with and without correct background information) elicited more positive mean amplitudes than own-race faces, suggesting increased neural activation during encoding of other-race faces. During the test phase, recollection-related old/new effects dissociated between own-race and other-race faces. Old/new effects were significant only for own-race but not for other-race faces, indicating that recognition only of own-race faces was supported by recollection and led to more detailed memory retrieval. Most of these results replicated previous studies that used a subjective-recollection task. Our study also showed that the increased demand on memory encoding during an associative-memory task led to Dm patterns that indicated similarly deep memory encoding for own-race and other-race faces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac


    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  1. Variability, Predictability, and Race Factors Affecting Performance in Elite Biathlon. (United States)

    Skattebo, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas


    To investigate variability, predictability, and smallest worthwhile performance enhancement in elite biathlon sprint events. In addition, the effects of race factors on performance were assessed. Data from 2005 to 2015 including >10,000 and >1000 observations for each sex for all athletes and annual top-10 athletes, respectively, were included. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed based on total race time, skiing time, shooting time, and proportions of targets hit. Within-athlete race-to-race variability was expressed as coefficient of variation of performance times and standard deviation (SD) in proportion units (%) of targets hit. The models were adjusted for random and fixed effects of subject identity, season, event identity, and race factors. The within-athlete variability was independent of sex and performance standard of athletes: 2.5-3.2% for total race time, 1.5-1.8% for skiing time, and 11-15% for shooting times. The SD of the proportion of hits was ∼10% in both shootings combined (meaning ±1 hit in 10 shots). The predictability in total race time was very high to extremely high for all athletes (ICC .78-.84) but trivial for top-10 athletes (ICC .05). Race times during World Championships and Olympics were ∼2-3% faster than in World Cups. Moreover, race time increased by ∼2% per 1000 m of altitude, by ∼5% per 1% of gradient, by 1-2% per 1 m/s of wind speed, and by ∼2-4% on soft vs hard tracks. Researchers and practitioners should focus on strategies that improve biathletes' performance by at least 0.8-0.9%, corresponding to the smallest worthwhile enhancement (0.3 × within-athlete variability).

  2. String theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo.


    The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)

  3. The general theory of quantized fields in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wightman, A.S.


    This review describes developments in theoretical particle physics in the 1950s which were important in the race to develop a putative general theory of quantized fields, especially ideas that offered a mathematically rigorous theory. Basic theoretical concepts then available included the Hamiltonian formulation of quantum dynamics, canonical quantization, perturbative renormalization theory and the theory of distributions. Following a description of various important theoretical contributions of this era, the review ends with a summary of the most important contributions of axiomatic field theory to concrete physics applications. (UK)

  4. Cognitive control, attention, and the other race effect in memory. (United States)

    Brown, Thackery I; Uncapher, Melina R; Chow, Tiffany E; Eberhardt, Jennifer L; Wagner, Anthony D


    People are better at remembering faces from their own race than other races-a phenomenon with significant societal implications. This Other Race Effect (ORE) in memory could arise from different attentional allocation to, and cognitive control over, same- and other-race faces during encoding. Deeper or more differentiated processing of same-race faces could yield more robust representations of same- vs. other-race faces that could support better recognition memory. Conversely, to the extent that other-race faces may be characterized by lower perceptual expertise, attention and cognitive control may be more important for successful encoding of robust, distinct representations of these stimuli. We tested a mechanistic model in which successful encoding of same- and other-race faces, indexed by subsequent memory performance, is differentially predicted by (a) engagement of frontoparietal networks subserving top-down attention and cognitive control, and (b) interactions between frontoparietal networks and fusiform cortex face processing. European American (EA) and African American (AA) participants underwent fMRI while intentionally encoding EA and AA faces, and ~24 hrs later performed an "old/new" recognition memory task. Univariate analyses revealed greater engagement of frontoparietal top-down attention and cognitive control networks during encoding for same- vs. other-race faces, stemming particularly from a failure to engage the cognitive control network during processing of other-race faces that were subsequently forgotten. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses further revealed that OREs were characterized by greater functional interaction between medial intraparietal sulcus, a component of the top-down attention network, and fusiform cortex during same- than other-race face encoding. Together, these results suggest that group-based face memory biases at least partially stem from differential allocation of cognitive control and top-down attention during

  5. Porosity in Ocean Racing Yacht Composites: a Review (United States)

    Baley, Christophe; Lan, Marine; Davies, Peter; Cartié, Denis


    Ocean racing yachts are mainly manufactured from carbon/epoxy composites similar to those used by the aeronautical industry but, with some exceptions such as masts, these structures are not produced in autoclaves. This leads to the presence of higher porosity levels. This paper will first present the different types of porosity found in traditional racing yacht structures. Difficulties in evaluating defect levels will then be discussed and published work characterizing the influence of defects will be reviewed. Current developments to improve racing yacht composite quality such as thin ply technology, out-of-autoclave processing and automated fibre placement will then be described, and their implications for porosity will be discussed.

  6. Race, gender, class, and sexual orientation: intersecting axes of inequality and self-rated health in Canada (United States)


    Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310) provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be capable of accommodating axis

  7. Race, gender, class, and sexual orientation: intersecting axes of inequality and self-rated health in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Gerry


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310 provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be

  8. String theory or field theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshakov, A.V.


    The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments, which are our concern in this review [ru

  9. CERN Relay Race: sporty and colourful

    CERN Multimedia

    Andy Butterworth, CERN Running Club


    On Thursday 23 May, the 43rd CERN Relay Race took place, with 108 teams on the starting line, the largest participation ever!       The DG was present at the start and said a few words to encourage the runners. At 12:15, the Solar Club and handbike racers, led by Jean-Yves Le Meur, were the first to set off. And as last year, the relay runners were accompanied by an enthusiastic group of Nordic walkers. The first team across the finish line was "Velo City", in a very fast time of 10'31". New this year was a prize category for the best fancy dress, which was won by Les Schtroumpfs from the BE Department. The challenge for the best represented department was won for the third year in a row by FP, but second and third were HR and IT, up from 6th and 9th places last year. To see all the pictures of the event, click here.

  10. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Hansen


    Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.

  11. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization. (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob


    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency.

  12. Next Space Race is in IT (United States)

    Alger, George; Santiago, S. Scott (Technical Monitor)


    The next Space Race will be in the economic applications from space and science technology. As NASA science and technology has global application; IT is global, economics is global; surely there are great untapped potentials in finding the IT links of commonality among these three. The Economics of IT will continue to depend upon solution providers creating new methods that capitalize on linking information and information centers with the applications community for business and economic functions.. New and innovative IT vendors whose increased efforts to apply evolving technologies and principles that power the e-business revolution are now seeing the business of government being transformed in a similar fashion. NASA will be a prime example of IT transformation. Potential benefits of e-government are identical to the benefits of e-commerce, which start from value derived from capabilities and assets. The capability and asset wealth of NASA technology and data mass scattered through hundreds of archives will one day provide incredible economic benefit across international and corporate boundaries. Yet the ability to economically benefit from bridging the gap between capability to billable service has yet to find it's first major market. Ultimately the role of government, science, and technology linking to the business world will find greater dependence from this increasingly common ground of IT solutions and technologies. Therefore the future role of the IT industry may be as much administrative as technical, ultimately of critical importance furthering the role of science into application.

  13. Viewing Race in the Comfort Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Hughes


    Full Text Available Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their place.’”. Using a data set constructed from television ratings and shares, this study examines “black-centeredness” within the context of program success and failure. The comfort zone concept argues Black-centered television series are only successful in a comedic genre because White audiences, who have the majority of the ratings power, will only watch Black-centered series with which they are comfortable. The findings suggest that, in general, race, that is Black-centeredness, did not negatively influence program ratings or shares.

  14. Race predictors and hemodynamic alteration after an ultra-trail marathon race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taksaudom N


    Full Text Available Noppon Taksaudom,1 Natee Tongsiri,2 Amarit Potikul,1 Chawakorn Leampriboon,1 Apichat Tantraworasin,1 Anong Chaiyasri,1 1Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University Hospital, 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Objective: Unique rough-terrain ultra-trail running races have increased in popularity. Concerns regarding the suitability of the candidates make it difficult for organizers to manage safety regulations. The purpose of this study was to identify possible race predictors and assess hemodynamic change after long endurance races.Methods: We studied 228 runners who competed in a 66 km-trail running race. A questionnaire and noninvasive hemodynamic flow assessment including blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, stroke volume variation, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, and oxygen saturation were used to determine physiologic alterations and to identify finish predictors. One hundred and thirty volunteers completed the questionnaire, 126 participants had a prerace hemodynamic assessment, and 33 of these participants completed a postrace assessment after crossing the finish line. The participants were divided into a finisher group and a nonfinisher group.Results: The average age of all runners was 37 years (range of 24–56 years. Of the 228 ­runners, 163 (71.5% were male. There were 189 (82.9% finishers. Univariable analysis indicated that the finish predictors included male gender, longest distance ever run, faster running records, and lower diastolic pressure. Only a lower diastolic pressure was a significant predictor of race finishing (diastolic blood pressure 74–84 mmHg: adjusted odd ratio 3.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]  =1.09–13.27 and diastolic blood pressure <74 mmHg: adjusted odd ratio 7.74; 95% CI =1.57–38.21 using the figure from the multivariable analysis. Among the finisher group, hemodynamic parameters

  15. Science Experiences among Female Athletes: Race Makes a Difference (United States)

    Kraus, Rebecca S.; Hanson, Sandra L.

    Sport participation is increasingly seen as a resource with considerable physical, social, and academic benefits. As a new millennium begins with girls more visible in sport, an important question is whether all girls reap these benefits. Although general academic benefits of sport have been shown, the authors' earlier work showed that experience in the male sport domain benefits young women in the elite (often male) science curriculum. Competition, self-esteem, and other individual resources gained through sport are potential sources of success in the similarly competitive male realm of science. In this research, the authors used critical feminist theory to guide their examination of racial and ethnic variations in the relation between sport participation and science experiences for young women. Data from the nationally representative National Education Longitudinal Study were used to explore the impact of sport participation in the 8th and 10th grades on 10th grade science achievement (measured by science grades and standardized test scores) and course taking for African American, Hispanic, and White women. The findings revealed that sport participation has some positive consequences for the science experiences of each of the groups of women. It also has some negative consequences, although the positive consequences outnumber the negative consequences for Hispanic and White, but not African American, women. Sport in 10th grade, especially competitive varsity sport, is most likely to have positive consequences. The findings revealed that each of the groups experiences different routes to success in science, and sport participation is present at some level in each of these routes. A consideration of multiple areas of science experience is important for understanding the connections between race and ethnicity, sport, and science for young women. Unique sociocultural contexts are used to attempt to understand these findings, and implications are discussed.

  16. Repositioning the Racial Gaze: Aboriginal Perspectives on Race, Race Relations and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Habibis


    Full Text Available In Australia, public debate about recognition of the nation’s First Australians through constitutional change has highlighted the complexity and sensitivities surrounding Indigenous/state relations at even the most basic level of legal rights. But the unevenness of race relations has meant Aboriginal perspectives on race relations are not well known. This is an obstacle for reconciliation which, by definition, must be a reciprocal process. It is especially problematic in regions with substantial Aboriginal populations, where Indigenous visibility make race relations a matter of everyday experience and discussion. There has been considerable research on how settler Australians view Aboriginal people but little is known about how Aboriginal people view settler Australians or mainstream institutions. This paper presents the findings from an Australian Research Council project undertaken in partnership with Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a cross-section of Darwin’s Aboriginal residents and visitors, it aims to reverse the racial gaze by investigating how respondents view settler Australian politics, values, priorities and lifestyles. Through interviews with Aboriginal people this research provides a basis for settler Australians to discover how they are viewed from an Aboriginal perspective. It repositions the normativity of settler Australian culture, a prerequisite for a truly multicultural society. Our analysis argues the narratives of the participants produce a story of Aboriginal rejection of the White Australian neo-liberal deal of individual advancement through economic pathways of employment and hyper-consumption. The findings support Honneth’s arguments about the importance of intersubjective recognition by pointing to the way misrecognition creates and reinforces social exclusion.

  17. Einstein's Jury The Race to Test Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Crelinsten, Jeffrey


    Einstein's Jury is the dramatic story of how astronomers in Germany, England, and America competed to test Einstein's developing theory of relativity. Weaving a rich narrative based on extensive archival research, Jeffrey Crelinsten shows how these early scientific debates shaped cultural attitudes we hold today. The book examines Einstein's theory of general relativity through the eyes of astronomers, many of whom were not convinced of the legitimacy of Einstein's startling breakthrough. These were individuals with international reputations to uphold and benefactors and shareholders to p

  18. Race, Religion, and Spirituality for Asian American Students (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Dizon, Jude Paul Matias


    This chapter describes how race, ethnicity, religion, and spirituality uniquely interact for Asian American college students, including a discussion of the diverse religious and spiritual backgrounds of this population.

  19. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP


    Full Text Available -1 Chapter Title: Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa Bosilong, KP: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria Mbecke, P: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria ABSTRACT: This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics...

  20. Race in an epigenetic time: thinking biology in the plural. (United States)

    Meloni, Maurizio


    The notion that biological memories of environmental experiences can be embedded in the human genome and even transmitted transgenerationally is increasingly relevant in the postgenomic world, particularly in molecular epigenetics, where the genome is conceptualized as porous to environmental signals. In this article I discuss the current rethinking of race in epigenetic rather than genetic terms, emphasizing some of its paradoxical implications, especially for public policy. I claim in particular that: (i) if sociologists want to investigate race in a postgenomic world they should pay more attention to this novel plastic and biosocial view of race; and (ii) there are no reasons to believe that an epigenetic view will extinguish race, or that soft-inheritance claims will produce a less exclusionary discourse than genetics (hard heredity). Quite the opposite, the ground for a re-racialization of social debates and the reinforcement of biological boundaries between groups are highlighted in the article. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  1. The Car Race Challenge: An Intragroup and Intergroup Exercise. (United States)

    Dresdow, Sally; Benson, Joy


    Describes the Race Challenge, an exercise requiring business students to participate on cross-functional teams and compare collaborative and competitive behavior. Presents issues addressed, materials required, variations, discussion questions, and debriefing instructions. (SK)

  2. Genes, race, and psychology in the genome era: an introduction. (United States)

    Anderson, Norman B; Nickerson, Kim J


    The mapping of the human genome has reawakened interest in the topic of race and genetics, especially the use of genetic technology to examine racial differences in complex outcomes such as health and intelligence. Advances in genomic research challenge psychology to address the myriad conceptual, methodological, and analytical issues associated with research on genetics and race. In addition, the field needs to understand the numerous social, ethical, legal, clinical, and policy implications of research in this arena. Addressing these issues should not only benefit psychology but could also serve to guide such thought in other fields, including molecular biology. The purpose of this special issue is to begin a discussion of this issue of race and genetics within the field of psychology. Several scholars who work in the fields of genetics, race, or related areas were invited to write (or had previously submitted) articles sharing their perspectives. (c) 2005 APA

  3. Racing prognosis of horses following surgically repaired olecranon fractures (United States)

    Rodgerson, Dwayne H.; Hunt, Robert J.; Spirito, Michael A.; Thorpe, Paul E.; Tessman, Ron K.


    Abstract Olecranon fracture is a common orthopedic problem in juvenile horses. Prognosis for complete fracture healing when various methods of internal fixation are used is good; however, the impact of olecranon fracture stabilization on the likelihood that foals will start on a racecourse is unknown. Medical records of foals undergoing internal fixation for an olecranon fracture were reviewed. The dam’s foaling records were obtained and lifetime racing records were then retrieved for both the affected foals and 1 of their siblings. Twenty-two of 24 repaired fractures healed completely, subsequently, 16 of the foals started in at least 1 race. Statistical calculations suggest that when compared with their siblings, the occurrence of olecranon factures requiring internal fixation in juvenile racehorses will not significantly reduce the likelihood that they will race; however, the siblings had significantly more lifetime race starts and higher career earnings. PMID:16604980

  4. New York Racing Association (NYRA) Clean Water Act Settlement (United States)

    The New York Racing Association (NYRA) is a not-for-profit corporation that operates the Aqueduct Racetrack in Ozone Park, New York, pursuant to a franchise agreement with the State of New York, who owns the facility.

  5. A tutorial on testing the race model inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Minakata, Katsumi


    , to faster responses to redundant signals. In contrast, coactivation models assume integrated processing of the combined stimuli. To distinguish between these two accounts, Miller (1982) derived the well-known race model inequality, which has become a routine test for behavioral data in experiments...... with redundant signals. In this tutorial, we review the basic properties of redundant signals experiments and current statistical procedures used to test the race model inequality during the period between 2011 and 2014. We highlight and discuss several issues concerning study design and the test of the race...... model inequality, such as inappropriate control of Type I error, insufficient statistical power, wrong treatment of omitted responses or anticipations and the interpretation of violations of the race model inequality. We make detailed recommendations on the design of redundant signals experiments...

  6. Worship Discourse and White Race-based Policy Attitudes (United States)

    Brown, R. Khari; Kaiser, Angela; Jackson, James S.


    The current study relies upon the 2004 National Politics Study to examine the association between exposure to race-based messages within places of worship and White race-based policy attitudes. The present study challenges the notion that, for White Americans, religiosity inevitably leads to racial prejudice. Rather, we argue, as others have, that religion exists on a continuum that spans from reinforcing to challenging the status quo of social inequality. Our findings suggests that the extent to which Whites discuss race along with the potential need for public policy solutions to address racial inequality within worship spaces, worship attendance contributes to support for public policies aimed at reducing racial inequality. On the other hand, apolitical and non-structural racial discussions within worship settings do seemingly little to move many Whites to challenge dominant idealistic perceptions of race that eschews public policy interventions as solutions to racial inequality. PMID:25324579

  7. Race as Technology: From Posthuman Cyborg to Human Industry


    Jones, Holly; Jones, Nicholaos

    2017-01-01 Cyborg and prosthetic technologies frame prominent posthumanist approaches to understanding the nature of race. But these frameworks struggle to accommodate the phenomena of racial passing and racial travel, and their posthumanist orientation blurs useful distinctions between racialized humans and their social contexts. We advocate, instead, a humanist approach to race, understanding racial hierarchy as an industrial technology. Our approac...

  8. Race, racism, and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes. (United States)

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker


    While the biologic authenticity of race remains a contentious issue, the social significance of race is indisputable. The chronic stress of racism and the social inequality it engenders may be underlying social determinants of persistent racial disparities in health, including infant mortality, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. This article describes the problem of racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes; outlines the multidimensional nature of racism and the pathways by which it may adversely affect health; and discusses the implications for clinical practice.

  9. Description of color/race in Brazilian biomedical research. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Teresa Veronica Catonho; Ferreira, Luzitano Brandão


    Over recent years, the terms race and ethnicity have been used to ascertain inequities in public health. However, this use depends on the quality of the data available. This study aimed to investigate the description of color/race in Brazilian scientific journals within the field of biomedicine. Descriptive study with systematic search for scientific articles in the SciELO Brazil database. A wide-ranging systematic search for original articles involving humans, published in 32 Brazilian biomedical scientific journals in the SciELO Brazil database between January and December 2008, was performed. Articles in which the race/ethnicity of the participants was identified were analyzed. In total, 1,180 articles were analyzed. The terms for describing race or ethnicity were often ambiguous and vague. Descriptions of race or ethnicity occurred in 159 articles (13.4%), but only in 42 (26.4%) was there a description of how individuals were identified. In these, race and ethnicity were used almost interchangeably and definition was according to skin color (71.4%), ancestry (19.0%) and self-definition (9.6%). Twenty-two races or ethnicities were cited, and the most common were white (37.3%), black (19.7%), mixed (12.9%), nonwhite (8.1%) and yellow (8.1%). The absence of descriptions of parameters for defining race, as well as the use of vague and ambiguous terms, may hamper and even prevent comparisons between human groups and the use of these data to ascertain inequities in healthcare.

  10. Race/Ethnic Difference in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications


    Spanakis, Elias K.; Golden, Sherita Hill


    Health disparities in diabetes and its complications and co-morbidities exist globally. A recent Endocrine Society Scientific Statement described the Health Disparities in several endocrine disorders, including type 2 diabetes. In this review we summarize that statement and provide novel updates on race/ethnic differences in children and adults with type 1 diabetes, children with type 2 diabetes and in Latino subpopulations. We also review race/ethnic differences in the epidemiology of diabet...

  11. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature


    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko


    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  12. Supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.


    Of all supergravity theories, the maximal, i.e., N = 8 in 4-dimension or N = 1 in 11-dimension, theory should perform the unification since it owns the highest degree of symmetry. As to the N = 1 in d = 11 theory, it has been investigated how to compactify to the d = 4 theories. From the phenomenological point of view, local SUSY GUTs, i.e., N = 1 SUSY GUTs with soft breaking terms, have been studied from various angles. The structures of extended supergravity theories are less understood than those of N = 1 supergravity theories, and matter couplings in N = 2 extended supergravity theories are under investigation. The harmonic superspace was recently proposed which may be useful to investigate the quantum effects of extended supersymmetry and supergravity theories. As to the so-called Kaluza-Klein supergravity, there is another possibility. (Mori, K.)

  13. Topos theory

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, PT


    Focusing on topos theory's integration of geometric and logical ideas into the foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science, this volume explores internal category theory, topologies and sheaves, geometric morphisms, other subjects. 1977 edition.

  14. CERN runners on the podium for the Escalade race

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc


    For the last race of the season, CERN runners distinguished themselves by notching up third place in the inter-entreprises category of the Escalade, Geneva’s famous running race across the city.   Some of the runners from the CERN team. On Friday 30 November and Saturday 1 December, 35 runners from CERN braved the chilly Geneva weather to take part in the 35th Escalade race. With 81 teams competing in the race, the group representing the Laboratory took third place in the inter-entreprises category, behind the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève and the Panards Migros teams.   CERN’s Helenka Przysiezniak, Steffen Doebert and Camille Ruiz Llamas also distinguished themselves individually by finishing eighth, sixth and fourth in their respective categories and Patrick Villeton achieved a very good ranking in the DUC race on Friday evening and in the classic race on Saturday. Congratulations to everyone who participated and see you next ...

  15. Convection-diffusion effects in marathon race dynamics (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.


    In the face of the recent terrorist attack event on the 2013 Boston Marathon, the increasing participation of recreational runners in large marathon races has imposed important logistical and safety issues for organizers and city authorities. An accurate understanding of the dynamics of the marathon pack along the race course can provide important insights for improving safety and performance of these events. On the other hand, marathon races can be seen as a model of pedestrian movement under confined conditions. This work used data of the 2011 Chicago Marathon event for modeling the dynamics of the marathon pack from the corral zone to the finish line. By considering the marathon pack as a set of particles moving along the race course, the dynamics are modeled as a convection-diffusion partial differential equation with position-dependent mean velocity and diffusion coefficient. A least-squares problem is posed and solved with optimization techniques for fitting field data from the 2011 Chicago Marathon. It was obtained that the mean pack velocity decreases while the diffusion coefficient increases with distance. This means that the dispersion rate of the initially compact marathon pack increases as the marathon race evolves along the race course.

  16. Breaking the Silence: Time to Talk About Race and Racism. (United States)

    Acosta, David; Ackerman-Barger, Kupiri


    Recent events in the United States have catalyzed the need for all educators to begin paying attention to and discovering ways to dialogue about race. No longer can health professions (HP) educators ignore or avoid these difficult conversations. HP students are now demanding them. Cultural sensitivity and unconscious bias training are not enough. Good will and good intentions are not enough. Current faculty development paradigms are no longer sufficient to meet the educational challenges of delving into issues of race, power, privilege, identity, and social justice.Engaging in such conversations, however, can be overwhelmingly stressful for untrained faculty. The authors argue that before any curriculum on race and racism can be developed for HP students, and before faculty members can begin facilitating conversations about race and racism, faculty must receive proper training through intense and introspective faculty development. Training should cover how best to engage in, sustain, and deepen interracial dialogue on difficult topics such as race and racism within academic health centers (AHCs). If such faculty development training-in how to conduct interracial dialogues on race, racism, oppression, and the invisibility of privilege-is made standard at all AHCs, HP educators might be poised to actualize the real benefits of open dialogue and change.

  17. Genetics of the partial resistance against race 2 of Verticillium dahliae in lettuce (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production on the Coastal California is threatened by Verticillium wilt, a soil borne fungal disease caused by Verticillium dahliae that diminishes yield and quality. Two races of V. dahliae were identified on lettuce, race 1 and race 2. Complete resistance to race 1 is c...

  18. Race for a Better Fuel Begins with NREL Researchers | News | NREL (United States)

    produced at NREL registers an estimated octane rating of 107. NREL's fuel is better suited for race cars by Dennis Schroeder Look! Up in the Sky! In addition to race cars, the 85% triptane could find a use Race for a Better Fuel Begins with NREL Researchers Race for a Better Fuel Begins with NREL

  19. First report of race 2 of Colletotrichum trifolii causing anthracnose on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in Wisconsin (United States)

    Anthracnose of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), caused by Colletotrichum trifolii, is widespread in the United States. Three physiological races have been described. Race 1 is reported to be the dominant race that is present wherever alfalfa is grown, while race 2 was reported in a limited area in the Mid...

  20. NCHS - Infant Mortality Rates, by Race: United States, 1915-2013 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — All birth data by race before 1980 are based on race of the child; starting in 1980, birth data by race are based on race of the mother. Birth data are used to...

  1. Minimizing Skin Color Differences Does Not Eliminate the Own-Race Recognition Advantage in Infants (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang


    An abundance of experience with own-race faces and limited to no experience with other-race faces has been associated with better recognition memory for own-race faces in infants, children, and adults. This study investigated the developmental origins of this other-race effect (ORE) by examining the role of a salient perceptual property of…

  2. 76 FR 43893 - Special Local Regulations; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race (United States)


    ... Local Regulations; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race. This action is necessary to safely control vessel movements in... Mackinac boat race (officially titled the ``Bell's Beer Bayview Mackinac Race'') will set sail on Saturday...

  3. Probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dorogovtsev, A Ya; Skorokhod, A V; Silvestrov, D S; Skorokhod, A V


    This book of problems is intended for students in pure and applied mathematics. There are problems in traditional areas of probability theory and problems in the theory of stochastic processes, which has wide applications in the theory of automatic control, queuing and reliability theories, and in many other modern science and engineering fields. Answers to most of the problems are given, and the book provides hints and solutions for more complicated problems.

  4. Gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.


    Some introductory remarks to Yang-Mills fields are given and the problem of the Coulomb gauge is considered. The perturbation expansion for quantized gauge theories is discussed and a survey of renormalization schemes is made. The role of Ward-Takahashi identities in gauge theories is discussed. The author then discusses the renormalization of pure gauge theories and theories with spontaneously broken symmetry. (B.R.H.)

  5. Hidden markers, open secrets: on naming, race-marking, and race-making in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske


    Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.

  6. At the Expense of a Life: Race, Class, and the Meaning of Buprenorphine in Pharmaceuticalized “Care” (United States)

    Hatcher, Alexandrea E.; Mendoza, Sonia; Hansen, Helena


    Background/Objective Office-based buprenorphine maintenance has been legalized and promoted as a treatment approach that not only expands access to care, but also reduces the stigma of addiction treatment by placing it in a mainstream clinical setting. At the same time, there are differences in buprenorphine treatment utilization by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Methods This article draws on qualitative data from interviews with 77 diverse patients receiving buprenorphine in a primary care clinic and two outpatient substance dependence clinics to examine differences in patients’ experiences of stigma in relation their need for psychosocial supports and services. Results Management of stigma and perception of social needs varied significantly by ethnicity, race and SES, with white educated patients best able to capitalize on the medical focus and confidentiality of office-based buprenorphine, given that they have other sources of support outside of the clinic, and Black or Latino/a low income patients experiencing office-based buprenorphine treatment as isolating. Conclusion Drawing on Agamben’s theory of “bare life,” and on the theory of intersectionality, the article argues that without attention to the multiple oppressions and survival needs of addiction patients who are further stigmatized by race and class, buprenorphine treatment can become a form of clinical abandonment. PMID:29161171

  7. Nuclear arms race gearing for speedup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heylin, M.


    To probe the rationale behind the big buildup in US strategic arms that is presaged by the current enhanced R and D effort - and to explore the broader, more long-term role of science and technology in the nuclear arms race - C and EN in recent months spoke with a host of experts both within and outside the defense establishment. It is a topic of incredible complexity, high controversy, and of the highest stakes imaginable - the survival of civilization. This buildup will include over the next decade, apart from the MX, a new, highly accurate, submarine-launched ballistic missile and a fleet of very large submarines to carry it; an air-launched cruise missile; a new long-range bomber; a new intermediate-range missile and a new ground-launched cruise missile, both capable of hitting targets in the Soviet Union from proposed bases in Western Europe; and a new sea-launched cruise missile that can be fired from conventional submarines or other naval vessels. To spokesmen for, and members of, the defense establishment the US buildup is prudent, even minimal. According to them, it is needed to keep the US at least on a par with the growth of Soviet strategic might which was very substantial in the 1970's and which will carry over into the 1980's with further major gains. It also is needed to keep the lid on Soviet expansionism; and it is the best way to prevent a nuclear war. To critics, the proposed buildup is the height of lunacy. According to them, the US strategic arsenal is more than adequate today. And it can continue to serve its only legitimate purpose - to deter nuclear war, no matter how much the Soviets may choose to build up their nuclear forces - with a much-more-modest modernization program

  8. Income Inequality and US Children's Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Distinct Associations by Race-Ethnicity. (United States)

    Shenassa, Edmond D; Rossen, Lauren M; Cohen, Jonathan; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Payne-Sturges, Devon C


    Prior studies have found considerable racial and ethnic disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Although a number of individual-level determinants of this disparity have been identified, contextual determinants of racial and ethnic disparities in SHS exposure remain unexamined. The objective of this study was to examine disparities in serum cotinine in relation to area-level income inequality among 14 649 children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We fit log-normal regression models to examine disparities in serum cotinine in relation to Metropolitan Statistical Areas level income inequality among 14 649 nonsmoking children aged 3-15 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2012). Non-Hispanic black children had significantly lower serum cotinine than non-Hispanic white children (-0.26; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.15) in low income inequality areas, but this difference was attenuated in areas with high income inequality (0.01; 95% CI: -0.16, 0.18). Serum cotinine declined for non-Hispanic white and Mexican American children with increasing income inequality. Serum cotinine did not change as a function of the level of income inequality among non-Hispanic black children. We have found evidence of differential associations between SHS exposure and income inequality by race and ethnicity. Further examination of environments which engender SHS exposure among children across various racial/ethnic subgroups can foster a better understanding of how area-level income inequality relates to health outcomes such as levels of SHS exposure and how those associations differ by race/ethnicity. In the United States, the association between children's risk of SHS exposure and income inequality is modified by race/ethnicity in a manner that is inconsistent with theories of income inequality. In overall analysis this association appears to be as predicted by theory. However, race-specific analyses reveal that higher levels of income

  9. Falls in Swedish hurdle and steeplechase racing and the condition of the track surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb-Vedi, M.; Pipper, Christian Bressen


    Falls in National Hunt races is a tragic part of the sport. The present study focuses on the relation between racing track conditions and the number of falls in Swedish jump racing. The assumption was that more horses fell on heavy or soft going than on good or firm going. Results from all jump...... races at Täby Racecourse (1992-2001) were recorded. Parameters registered were: type and number of races, racing surface and condition, total time to finish the race, number of starting horses and number of falls. In this period 212 races, corresponding to 1,556 horse starts, were registered. Falls were...... registered in 42 races and in total 61 horses fell. The fall frequency on horse level was significantly higher in steeplechases than in hurdle races (odds ratio =3.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.99-6.85). For the steeplechases recorded in this study, significantly more falls were seen in long distance...

  10. Predictor variables for marathon race time in recreational female runners. (United States)

    Schmid, Wiebke; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald


    We intended to determine predictor variables of anthropometry and training for marathon race time in recreational female runners in order to predict marathon race time for future novice female runners. Anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, body mass index, circumferences of limbs, thicknesses of skin-folds and body fat as well as training variables such as volume and speed in running training were related to marathon race time using bi- and multi-variate analysis in 29 female runners. The marathoners completed the marathon distance within 251 (26) min, running at a speed of 10.2 (1.1) km/h. Body mass (r=0.37), body mass index (r=0.46), the circumferences of thigh (r=0.51) and calf (r=0.41), the skin-fold thicknesses of front thigh (r=0.38) and of medial calf (r=0.40), the sum of eight skin-folds (r=0.44) and body fat percentage (r=0.41) were related to marathon race time. For the variables of training, maximal distance ran per week (r=- 0.38), number of running training sessions per week (r=- 0.46) and the speed of the training sessions (r= - 0.60) were related to marathon race time. In the multi-variate analysis, the circumference of calf (P=0.02) and the speed of the training sessions (P=0.0014) were related to marathon race time. Marathon race time might be partially (r(2)=0.50) predicted by the following equation: Race time (min)=184.4 + 5.0 x (circumference calf, cm) -11.9 x (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational female marathoners. Variables of both anthropometry and training were related to marathon race time in recreational female marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable. For practical applications, a low circumference of calf and a high running speed in training are associated with a fast marathon race time in recreational female runners.

  11. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds. (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J


    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  12. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH


    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  13. Grounded theory. (United States)

    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  14. The Effect of Post-Racial Theory on Education (United States)

    Warren, Christopher A.


    The proliferation of post-racial theory (PRT) in both social and political spheres of dominant American hegemony has illustrated a desire among academic circles to move past race and racial categories in social analysis. However, absent within post-racial rhetoric is critical language on how to abolish racism and racial inequality. (Samad 2009) It…

  15. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline


    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…

  16. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  17. Objectifying Tactics: Athlete and Race Variability in Elite Short-Track Speed Skating. (United States)

    Konings, Marco J; Hettinga, Florentina J


    To objectively capture and understand tactical considerations in a race, the authors explored whether race-to-race variation of an athlete and the variation of competitors within a race could provide insight into how and when athletes modify their pacing decisions in response to other competitors. Lap times of elite 500-, 1000-, and 1500-m short-track speed-skating competitions from 2011 to 2016 (N = 6965 races) were collected. Log-transformed lap and finishing times were analyzed with mixed linear models. To determine within-athlete race-to-race variability, athlete identity (between-athletes differences) and the residual (within-athlete race-to-race variation) were added as random effects. To determine race variability, race identity (between-races differences) and the residual (within-race variation) were added as random effects. Separate analyses were performed for each event. Within-athlete race-to-race variability of the finishing times increased with prolonged distance of the event (500-m, CV = 1.6%; 1000-m, CV = 2.8%; 1500-m, CV = 4.1%), mainly due to higher within-athlete race-to-race variability in the initial phase of 1000-m (3.3-6.9%) and 1500-m competitions (8.7-12.2%). During these early stages, within-race variability is relatively low in 1000-m (1.1-1.4%) and 1500-m (1.3-2.8%) competitions. The present study demonstrated how analyses of athlete and race variability could provide insight into tactical pacing decisions in sports where finishing position is emphasized over finishing time. The high variability of short-track skaters is a result of the decision to alter initial pacing behavior based on the behavior of other competitors in their race, emphasizing the importance of athlete-environment interactions in the context of pacing.

  18. Superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, J.H.


    Dual string theories, initially developed as phenomenological models of hadrons, now appear more promising as candidates for a unified theory of fundamental interactions. Type I superstring theory (SST I), is a ten-dimensional theory of interacting open and closed strings, with one supersymmetry, that is free from ghosts and tachyons. It requires that an SO(eta) or Sp(2eta) gauge group be used. A light-cone-gauge string action with space-time supersymmetry automatically incorporates the superstring restrictions and leads to the discovery of type II superstring theory (SST II). SST II is an interacting theory of closed strings only, with two D=10 supersymmetries, that is also free from ghosts and tachyons. By taking six of the spatial dimensions to form a compact space, it becomes possible to reconcile the models with our four-dimensional perception of spacetime and to define low-energy limits in which SST I reduces to N=4, D=4 super Yang-Mills theory and SST II reduces to N=8, D=4 supergravity theory. The superstring theories can be described by a light-cone-gauge action principle based on fields that are functionals of string coordinates. With this formalism any physical quantity should be calculable. There is some evidence that, unlike any conventional field theory, the superstring theories provide perturbatively renormalizable (SST I) or finite (SST II) unifications of gravity with other interactions

  19. Tropic and race. Miguel Jiménez López and the Japanese Immigration in Colombia, 1920-1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Fernando Martínez Martín


    Full Text Available This article discusses the debate on immigration in Colombia, specifically focusing on Japanese immigration, an problem, by being so far from the desired European immigration. Likewise, the important role played by the psychiatrist and conservative Colombian politician Miguel Jiménez Lopez and his theory of degeneration of the Colombian race. Jiménez Lopez is the author of "The yellow immigration in the America", a publication of the National Academy of Medicine, written in response to the Ministry of Industries about the question for the possible impact of a Japanese immigration in the eastern plains. Jiménez Lopez maintains the problem from medicalization and biology, using more arguments from geographical determinism and racism that from eugenics, to justify that a Japanese immigration to Colombia was not advisable, because it jeopardizes the progressive bleaching managed —with the passage of time— by the Colombian race.

  20. Modelling and simulating decision processes of linked lives: An approach based on concurrent processes and stochastic race. (United States)

    Warnke, Tom; Reinhardt, Oliver; Klabunde, Anna; Willekens, Frans; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M


    Individuals' decision processes play a central role in understanding modern migration phenomena and other demographic processes. Their integration into agent-based computational demography depends largely on suitable support by a modelling language. We are developing the Modelling Language for Linked Lives (ML3) to describe the diverse decision processes of linked lives succinctly in continuous time. The context of individuals is modelled by networks the individual is part of, such as family ties and other social networks. Central concepts, such as behaviour conditional on agent attributes, age-dependent behaviour, and stochastic waiting times, are tightly integrated in the language. Thereby, alternative decisions are modelled by concurrent processes that compete by stochastic race. Using a migration model, we demonstrate how this allows for compact description of complex decisions, here based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We describe the challenges for the simulation algorithm posed by stochastic race between multiple concurrent complex decisions.

  1. String theory or field theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshakov, Andrei V


    The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of string theory in the modern picture of the physical world. Even though quantum field theory describes a wide range of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments which are our concern in this review. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Dependence theory via game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossi, D.; Turrini, P.


    In the multi-agent systems community, dependence theory and game theory are often presented as two alternative perspectives on the analysis of social interaction. Up till now no research has been done relating these two approaches. The unification presented provides dependence theory with the sort

  3. Race, class and gender in engineering education: A quantitative investigation of first year enrollment (United States)

    Phillips, Canek Moises Luna

    public school segregation levels increased nationally, underrepresentation of Black and Hispanics and overrepresentation of White and Asian students has moved further toward the extremes in first year engineering programs compared to these groups’ shares of high school enrollment. I conclude that the study of public school segregation and its effect on racial disparity needs greater attention, as well as that the investigation I conducted serves as a beginning towards pushing back on deficit model explanations of race and gender disparity in engineering. In the third study, I return to the investigation of odds ratios and institutional characteristics, constructing odds ratios using ASEE and NCES data based on the odds of enrollment in first year engineering programs between Asian, Black, and Hispanic students compared to White students. I again quantify the relationships between odds ratios and institutional characteristics using linear regression models and discuss results using theory based in the perspective of occupational segregation. In this case, results were inconclusive leading me to conclude that other variables that I did not consider, such as the segregation levels of schools that students come from before enrollment, should be considered as I develop my own future study into the topic.

  4. 人种及其演变%Race and its development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴新智; 崔娅铭


    人类最初在非洲生存时以及从非洲扩展到亚洲和欧洲后由于遗传漂变、基因突变和对不同自然环境的适应而形成了差异.18世纪起在一些差异的基础上人类被划分为5个人种,后来加上社会文化等因素又区分出许多小人种.一般将人类区分为3大人种,即黑种、黄种和白种,也有学者主张从黑种中再分出棕种,主要包含澳大利亚土著.各大人种本来分别具有一些不同的主要特征,但是从16世纪开始,欧洲白人向美洲、非洲和澳大利亚大举扩张并产生越来越多混血个体,从而改变了人种的地理分布并导致人种界线的模糊,终于使得生物学上人种概念不复存在.但是在日常生活、社会调查、医学和法医学实践中目前还不能完全离开基于人种的区分.此外,本文还讨论了关于种族主义和反种族主义的一些问题.%This article is composed of several parts including a brief history for differentiating the races,geographical distribution and physical characteristics of races,ways through which the characteristics of races were formed,the blurring of boundaries between races,queries on the biological concept of race,race in actual life,anti-racism and concluding remarks.French philosopher and physician F.Bernier proposed the concept of race to describe the diversity of humans for the first time in 1684.Linnaeus divided Homo sapiens into Europeans,Asians,Americans and Africans.Blumenbach divided human beings into yellow,red,white,brown and black races and recognized that there were transitional human populations between neighboring races.Different races previously occupied different territories and possessed different physical characteristics which were clearly observable in the period earlier than 300 years before present.For a long time,the Mongoloid or Yellow race was distributed in the eastern and central parts of Asia,Southeast Asia and the Americas;the Caucasian or European or White

  5. Self-pacing study of faces of different races: metacognitive control over study does not eliminate the cross-race recognition effect. (United States)

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Benjamin, Aaron S; Liu, Xiping


    People often recognize same-race faces better than other-race faces. This cross-race effect (CRE) has been proposed to arise in part because learners devote fewer cognitive resources to encode faces of social out-groups. In three experiments, we evaluated whether learners' other-race mnemonic deficits are due to "cognitive disregard" during study and whether this disregard is under metacognitive control. Learners studied each face either for as long as they wanted (the self-paced condition) or for the average time taken by a self-paced learner (the fixed-rate condition). Self-paced learners allocated equal amounts of study time to same-race and other-race faces, and having control over study time did not change the size of the CRE. In the second and third experiments, both self-paced and fixed-rate learners were given instructions to "individuate" other-race faces. Individuation instructions caused self-paced learners to allocate more study time to other-race faces, but this did not significantly reduce the size of the CRE, even for learners who reported extensive contact with other races. We propose that the differential processing that people apply to faces of different races and the subsequent other-race mnemonic deficit are not due to learners' strategic cognitive disregard of other-race faces.

  6. Success in Undergraduate Engineering Programs: A Comparative Analysis by Race and Gender (United States)

    Lord, Susan


    Interest in increasing the number of engineering graduates in the United States and promoting gender equality and diversification of the profession has encouraged considerable research on women and minorities in engineering programs. Drawing on a framework of intersectionality theory, this work recognizes that women of different ethnic backgrounds warrant disaggregated analysis because they do not necessarily share a common experience in engineering education. Using a longitudinal, comprehensive data set of more than 79,000 students who matriculated in engineering at nine universities in the Southeastern United States, this research examines how the six-year graduation rates of engineering students vary by disaggregated combinations of gender and race/ethnicity. Contrary to the popular opinion that women drop out of engineering at higher rates, our results show that Asian, Black, Hispanic, Native American, and White women who matriculate in engineering are as likely as men to graduate in engineering in six years. In fact, Asian, Black, Hispanic, and Native American women engineering matriculants graduate at higher rates than men and there is a small difference for white students. 54 percent of White women engineering matriculants graduate in six-years compared with 53 percent of white men. For male and female engineering matriculants of all races, the most likely destination six years after entering college is graduation within engineering. This work underscores the importance of research disaggregated by race and gender and points to the critical need for more recruitment of women into engineering as the low representation of women in engineering education is primarily a reflection of their low representation at matriculation.

  7. Design optimization of rear uprights for UniMAP Automotive Racing Team Formula SAE racing car (United States)

    Azmeer, M.; Basha, M. H.; Hamid, M. F.; Rahman, M. T. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.


    In an automobile, the rear upright are used to provide a physical mounting and links the suspension arms to the hub and wheel assembly. In this work, static structural and shape optimization analysis for rear upright for UniMAP’s Formula SAE racing car had been done using ANSYS software with the objective to reduce weight while maintaining the structural strength of the vehicle upright. During the shape optimization process, the component undergoes 25%, 50% and 75 % weight reduction in order to find the best optimal shape of the upright. The final design of the upright is developed considering the weight reduction, structural integrity and the manufacturability. The final design achieved 21 % weight reduction and is able to withstand several loads.

  8. Ground reaction forces of Olympic and World Championship race walkers. (United States)

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios


    Race walking is an Olympic event where no visible loss of contact should occur and the knee must be straightened until midstance. The purpose of this study was to analyse ground reaction forces of world-class race walkers and associate them with key spatiotemporal variables. Nineteen athletes race walked along an indoor track and made contact with two force plates (1000 Hz) while being filmed using high-speed videography (100 Hz). Race walking speed was correlated with flight time (r = .46, p = .049) and flight distance (r = .69, p = .001). The knee's movement from hyperextension to flexion during late stance meant the vertical push-off force that followed midstance was smaller than the earlier loading peak (p push-off forces (r = .60, p = .011). Lower fluctuations in speed during stance were associated with higher stride frequencies (r = .69, p = .001), and highlighted the importance of avoiding too much braking in early stance. The flattened trajectory and consequential decrease in vertical propulsion might help the race walker avoid visible loss of contact (although non-visible flight times were useful in increasing stride length), while a narrow stride width was important in reducing peak forces in all three directions and could improve movement efficiency.

  9. Gene expression profiling gut microbiota in different races of humans (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong


    The gut microbiome is shaped and modified by the polymorphisms of microorganisms in the intestinal tract. Its composition shows strong individual specificity and may play a crucial role in the human digestive system and metabolism. Several factors can affect the composition of the gut microbiome, such as eating habits, living environment, and antibiotic usage. Thus, various races are characterized by different gut microbiome characteristics. In this present study, we studied the gut microbiomes of three different races, including individuals of Asian, European and American races. The gut microbiome and the expression levels of gut microbiome genes were analyzed in these individuals. Advanced feature selection methods (minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection) and four machine-learning algorithms (random forest, nearest neighbor algorithm, sequential minimal optimization, Dagging) were employed to capture key differentially expressed genes. As a result, sequential minimal optimization was found to yield the best performance using the 454 genes, which could effectively distinguish the gut microbiomes of different races. Our analyses of extracted genes support the widely accepted hypotheses that eating habits, living environments and metabolic levels in different races can influence the characteristics of the gut microbiome.

  10. The irace package: Iterated racing for automatic algorithm configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel López-Ibáñez


    Full Text Available Modern optimization algorithms typically require the setting of a large number of parameters to optimize their performance. The immediate goal of automatic algorithm configuration is to find, automatically, the best parameter settings of an optimizer. Ultimately, automatic algorithm configuration has the potential to lead to new design paradigms for optimization software. The irace package is a software package that implements a number of automatic configuration procedures. In particular, it offers iterated racing procedures, which have been used successfully to automatically configure various state-of-the-art algorithms. The iterated racing procedures implemented in irace include the iterated F-race algorithm and several extensions and improvements over it. In this paper, we describe the rationale underlying the iterated racing procedures and introduce a number of recent extensions. Among these, we introduce a restart mechanism to avoid premature convergence, the use of truncated sampling distributions to handle correctly parameter bounds, and an elitist racing procedure for ensuring that the best configurations returned are also those evaluated in the highest number of training instances. We experimentally evaluate the most recent version of irace and demonstrate with a number of example applications the use and potential of irace, in particular, and automatic algorithm configuration, in general.

  11. ATLAS participation to the 36th Annual CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P.

    On May 17, the Annual CERN relay race took place for the 36th time. This is a fun relay race where a team of six runners runs around the CERN site in Meyrin, up and down many hills, to cover the following distances: the first runner runs 1000 m, the second and third runners cover 800 m each, the fourth and fifth runners each have 500 m and finally, the sixth runner covers the last 300 m all the way to the finish line. Each year, serious and occasionnal runners who take this opportunity to make it their only running moment of the year, give it their best to run the 3.9 km loop in times ranging from a mere 10:39.9 for the best team this year to 18:14.3 for the last of the 65 teams that completed the race. Nobody was wasting time at the starting line of the CERN Annual Relay Race. ATLAS was better represented than ever with a record of eight ATLAS teams participating in this race organized by the CERN running club. The names of the ATLAS participants, as well as the team official times are given in the t...

  12. CERN Relay Race: No records broken in a bumper year

    CERN Document Server


    Tribute is paid to David Dallman, 20 times the organiser of the CERN Relay Race, who is now retiring.Solve the following mathematical problem for athletes: take the first and third-placed teams in the 2006 CERN Relay Race, randomly mix the runners to form two new teams, and what is the result? Answer: first place and fifth place. In short, the team which has reigned supreme in first place since 2001, the "Shabbys", decided to spice up the race this year by merging with their arch rivals, the "Latinos Volantes", themselves no strangers to the podium. And at the winning line, it was the hybrid formation, "Shabbys Volantes", which took the honours (no surprises there!). Sadly, they were unable to beat the Shabbys’ previous record nor get anywhere near the all-time race record of 10 minutes and 13 seconds for the 3.9-km course, held for a quarter of a century by the "UA1 Strollers". One of the members of that legendary team and race organiser 20 times, David Dallman, mar...

  13. Impact of race on male predisposition to birth asphyxia. (United States)

    Mohamed, M A; Aly, H


    To examine the associations of: (a) neonatal sex with mild-to-moderate and severe birth asphyxia, (b) fetal sex with mortality due to birth asphyxia and (c) neonatal race with severe birth asphyxia. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database including the years 1993 to 2008 or its pediatric sub portion Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) for the years 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. NIS database is collected annually from more than 1000 hospitals across the United States for millions of inpatient discharge summaries. We included newborns older than 36 weeks gestational age or more than 2500 g at birth. We excluded newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital anomalies and chromosomal disorders. We compared birth asphyxia in males to females, and in each race compared with whites, and examined effect of sex in association with birth asphyxia within each race/ethnicity. There were 9 708 251 term infants (51.8% males) included in the study. There were 15 569 newborns diagnosed with severe birth asphyxia (1.6 in 1000); of them 56.1% were males. Odds ratio (OR)to have severe birth asphyxia in male newborns was 1.16 (confidence interval (CI): 1.12 to 1.20, Psex was associated with increased birth asphyxia in all races but Native American. Male sex and African-American race were associated with increased prevalence of birth asphyxia.

  14. Racing chemistry: A century of challenges and progress. (United States)

    Kremmer, Christopher


    Horseracing has been called 'one of the first quintessentially modern sports'. Its urge towards standardization, its mathematically set odds, its concern with weights, and its pioneering embrace of drug-testing reflect an empirical temperament crucial to its transformation from a gentleman's pastime to a global industry funded by wagering. Ironically, in the late nineteenth century, it was modern science itself, and in particular the purification and synthesis of the drugs of nature, that turned the doping of racing animals - a practice recorded in antiquity - into an organized criminal enterprise. This paper presents original research into the history of racing chemistry in Australia in the context of developments in the field worldwide. Using a case-study approach based on extensive archival materials, it reveals unpublished diaries kept by an analyst working at Sydney Racing Laboratory in the 1950s that document conflicts between scientists over identification of performance drugs in racing animals. The author presents evidence that augments and revises earlier narratives concerning the history of the establishment of laboratory control at Australian racetracks and the removal of the country's first official analyst for racing, Miss Jean Kimble. The Kimble case illustrates the inevitable political, professional, and personal pressures that bear upon drug-testing in sports, and also conflicts between scientists over standards and priorities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. DNA methylation levels associated with race and childhood asthma severity. (United States)

    Chan, Marcia A; Ciaccio, Christina E; Gigliotti, Nicole M; Rezaiekhaligh, Mo; Siedlik, Jacob A; Kennedy, Kevin; Barnes, Charles S


    Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to its incidence and severity. A disproportionate number of children with asthma are economically disadvantaged and live in substandard housing with potential indoor environmental exposures such as cockroaches, dust mites, rodents and molds. These exposures may manifest through epigenetic mechanisms that can lead to changes in relevant gene expression. We examined the association of global DNA methylation levels with socioeconomic status, asthma severity and race/ethnicity. We measured global DNA methylation in peripheral blood of children with asthma enrolled in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program. Inclusion criteria included residing in the same home for a minimum of 4 days per week and total family income of less than 80% of the Kansas City median family income. DNA methylation levels were quantified by an immunoassay that assessed the percentage of 5-methylcytosine. Our results indicate that overall, African American children had higher levels of global DNA methylation than children of other races/ethnicities (p = 0.029). This difference was more pronounced when socioeconomic status and asthma severity were coupled with race/ethnicity (p = 0.042) where low-income, African American children with persistent asthma had significantly elevated methylation levels relative to other races/ethnicities in the same context (p = 0.006, Hedges g = 1.14). Our study demonstrates a significant interaction effect among global DNA methylation levels, asthma severity, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

  16. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC


    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  17. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick


    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  18. Galois Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, David A


    Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo

  19. Game theory. (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin


    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi


    This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..

  1. Gender, Race, Mobility and Performance in James McBride’s The Good Lord Bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chin Chang


    Full Text Available In The Good Lord Bird, Onion’s gender passing and performance can be seen as fluid and transparent. Performance, mobility, fluid and constant change are themes and currents throughout the novel. The dramatic narrative feeds off tensions arising from race and gender and the ways in which related identities are experienced and performed. The current paper examines factors relating to performativity and identity in terms of race; in the case of Onion’s narrative these inform a specific kind of understanding of a social and geographical situation that requires subversion. Through humor and satire, McBride creastes a powerful work with contemporary resonances. The drama of the novel is based on concepts of performativity and identity, and the understanding represented by the symbol of the “Good Lord” bird in the novel. McBride wrote the novel for a contemporary audience, knowing that they would be attuned to such issues surrounding racial performance and racial identity. In a way, the unusual literary depiction of a self-identified male who inhabits a female performed identity throughout the novel can be seen as McBride’s comment on the ridiculousness of a binary system of racial categorization as used since the slavery era. Using theories from Lacan, Butler and Bhabha, the current work examines the plurality and hybridity of performed identities in The Good Lord Bird as they relate to understanding.

  2. Healthcare Providers' Formative Experiences with Race and Black Male Patients in Urban Hospital Environments. (United States)

    Plaisime, Marie V; Malebranche, David J; Davis, Andrea L; Taylor, Jennifer A


    We explored health providers' formative personal and professional experiences with race and Black men as a way to assess their potential influence on interactions with Black male patients. Utilizing convenience sampling with snowballing techniques, we identified healthcare providers in two urban university hospitals. We compared Black and White providers' experiences based on race and level of training. We used the Gardener's Tale to conceptualize how racism may lead to racial health disparities. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct in-person interviews (n = 16). Using the grounded theory approach, we conducted three types of coding to examine data patterns. We found two themes reflective of personally mediated racism: (1) perception of Black males accompanied by two subthemes (a) biased care and (b) fear and discomfort and (2) cognitive dissonance. While this latter theme is more reflective of Jones's internalized racism level, we present its results because its novelty is compelling. Perception of Black males and cognitive dissonance appear to influence providers' approaches with Black male patients. This study suggests the need to develop initiatives and curricula in health professional schools that address provider racial bias. Understanding the dynamics operating in the patient-provider encounter enhances the ability to address and reduce health disparities.

  3. Institutional marginalisation and student resistance: barriers to learning about culture, race and ethnicity. (United States)

    Roberts, Jane H; Sanders, Tom; Mann, Karen; Wass, Val


    Although education about culture, race and ethnicity has increasingly been viewed as an important addition to the medical undergraduate curriculum, internationally the evidence of its effectiveness is mixed. Research to date fails to show why. We chose to explore how contrasting approaches to learning about cultural diversity impacted on medical students. The views of second year students towards teaching about cultural diversity at two UK medical schools, with differently structured curricula, were explored using a series of focus groups (7). The findings, using a methodology based on a combination of grounded theory and thematic analysis identified two potentially competing views espoused by the students at both sites. First, they claimed that although cultural diversity was important, their medical schools marginalised and failed to adequately support effective teaching. Second, in contrast, they claimed that the medical school was an 'inappropriate' setting for successful teaching about cultural diversity. Students did not consider the subject matter to be of central relevance to biomedicine. They felt it should be learnt experientially in the workplace and socially among peers. These narratives represent two potentially conflicting standpoints, which might be understood through the sociological concept of 'habitus', where students conform to the institution's dominant values in order to succeed. The tensions identified in this study cannot be ignored if effective learning about race, ethnicity and culture is to be achieved. Early introduction to understanding the delivery of health care to diverse populations is needed. This should be accompanied by more open collaborative debate between tutors and students on the issues raised.

  4. The limits of intensive feeding: maternal foodwork at the intersections of race, class, and gender. (United States)

    Brenton, Joslyn


    Despite experiencing numerous barriers, mothers today confront increasing social pressure to embody perfection through their foodwork. A growing body of social science research identifies how gender and class inequality shape women's perceptions of food and their feeding strategies, but this research is thus far limited in its understanding of the roles that race and ethnic identity play in a mother's food landscape. Drawing on 60 in-depth interviews with a racially and economically diverse group of mothers, this paper examines how feeding young children is intertwined with contemporary ideas about child health as well as women's efforts to negotiate race, class, and gender hierarchies. Extending Hays' concept of intensive mothering, rich descriptions of feeding children reveal how mothers in this study are discursively engaged with what I call an 'intensive feeding ideology' - the widespread belief that good mothering is synonymous with intensive food labour. Drawing on intersectional theory, this article discusses the limits of an intensive feeding ideology, particularly for poor and middle-class mothers of colour. The findings contribute to an understanding of how power relations are embedded within food ideologies and how mothers of young children attempt to negotiate them. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  5. General experiences + race + racism = Work lives of Black faculty in postsecondary science education (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen R. C.; Bulls, Domonique L.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Atwater, Mary M.


    Existent research indicates that postsecondary Black faculty members, who are sorely underrepresented in the academy especially in STEM fields, assume essential roles; chief among these roles is diversifying higher education. Their recruitment and retention become more challenging in light of research findings on work life for postsecondary faculty. Research has shown that postsecondary faculty members in general have become increasingly stressed and job satisfaction has declined with dissatisfaction with endeavors and work overload cited as major stressors. In addition to the stresses managed by higher education faculty at large, Black faculty must navigate diversity-related challenges. Illuminating and understanding their experiences can be instrumental in lessening stress and job dissatisfaction, outcomes that facilitate recruitment and retention. This study featured the experiences and perceptions of Black faculty in science education. This study, framed by critical race theory, examines two questions: What characterizes the work life of some Black faculty members who teach, research, and serve in science education? How are race and racism present in the experiences of these postsecondary Black faculty members? A phenomenological approach to the study situates the experiences of the Black participants as valid phenomena worthy of investigation, illuminates their experiences, and seeks to retain the authenticity of their voices.

  6. Monte-Carlo Tree Search for Simulated Car Racing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Jacob; Falsted, Nikolaj; Vielwerth, Mathias


    Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) has recently seen considerable success in playing certain types of games, most of which are discrete, fully observable zero-sum games. Consequently there is currently considerable interest within the research community in investigating what other games this algorithm...... might play well, and how it can be modified to achieve this. In this paper, we investigate the application of MCTS to simulated car racing, in particular the open-source racing game TORCS. The presented approach is based on the development of an efficient forward model and the discretization...... of the action space. This combination allows the controller to effectively search the tree of potential future states. Results show that it is indeed possible to implement a competent MCTS-based racing controller. The controller generalizes to most road tracks as long as a warm-up period is provided....

  7. Race, ethnicity, and racism in medical anthropology, 1977-2002. (United States)

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Sweet, Elizabeth


    Researchers across the health sciences are engaged in a vigorous debate over the role that the concepts of "race" and "ethnicity" play in health research and clinical practice. Here we contribute to that debate by examining how the concepts of race, ethnicity, and racism are used in medical-anthropological research. We present a content analysis of Medical Anthropology and Medical Anthropology Quarterly, based on a systematic random sample of empirical research articles (n = 283) published in these journals from 1977 to 2002. We identify both differences and similarities in the use of race, ethnicity, and racism concepts in medical anthropology and neighboring disciplines, and we offer recommendations for ways that medical anthropologists can contribute to the broader debate over racial and ethnic inequalities in health.

  8. Abraham Lincoln’s Attitudes on Slavery and Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Nagler


    Full Text Available The life of Abraham Lincoln coincided with dramatic societal transformations that shaped the future of the United States. In the center of these developments stood the question whether that nation could continue to grow with the system of slavery or not. Inherently linked to that issue—that almost dissolved the nation—was the problem of racism and the future of race relations after emancipation. To examine Lincoln’s attitudes on slavery and race opens a window for us to look at his own struggles concerning these issues, but at the same time at the political and cultural contentions at large of a nation that he helped to save as President during the American Civil War. His legacy as the "Great Emancipator,” liberating over four millions slaves, has generated a controversial debate on Lincoln’s position towards race and racism.

  9. Race Salience and Essentialist Thinking in Racial Stereotype Development (United States)

    Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.


    The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3–10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply stereotypes to the out-group starting around 6 years of age. Controlling for a number of factors, two predictors contributed significantly towards uniquely explaining the use of these stereotypes: race salience (i.e., seeing and organizing by race) and essentialist thinking (i.e., believing that race cannot change). These results provide insight into how and when real-world interventions aimed at altering the acquisition of racial stereotypes may be implemented. PMID:21077865

  10. Why I Write So Many Books About Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Zack


    Full Text Available I relate how my life has intersected with my work in philosophy, both before and after a twenty-year absence from academia. Motivations for engaging in Philosophy of Race may be different from other projects because the subject itself is urgent and the philosopher may be a person of color. I describe the development of my own writing in this subfield, from ontological issues in the philosophy of science to moral issues in political philosophy and cultural criticism. The first addressed the biological reality of human racial taxonomy and the second has been about the inadequacy of treatments of race in the history of philosophy and injustice in contemporary social constructions of race.

  11. Getting acquainted in interracial interactions: avoiding intimacy but approaching race. (United States)

    Johnson, Camille S; Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H


    It is important to understand the content dimensions that influence the quality of intergroup interactions. The present research organized potential conversation content according to theoretically relevant underlying dimensions and investigated Whites' willingness to discuss topics of varying content with a Black partner. Specifically, it investigated Whites' willingness to engage in intimate self-disclosure and their willingness to discuss controversial and race-related topics with White versus Black interaction partners. Results across two experiments indicated an unwillingness among Whites to discuss both intimate and race-related topics with a Black partner. In addition, this research examined the role played by participants in the interaction (i.e., asking vs. answering) and found that although Whites were unwilling to ask Black relative to White partners about race-related topics, they were more willing to answer Black relative to White partners about such topics.

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter


    and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases...... were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers) were found to be at high risk for knee injuries...... injuries in development-level skiers, there was limited scientific data on ACL injury risk factors among elite skiers. Based on expert opinion, research on injury risk factors should focus on equipment design, course settings/speed, and athlete factors (eg, fitness). While skiers seem to make a successful...

  13. Genetics against race: Science, politics and affirmative action in Brazil. (United States)

    Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter


    This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Vishnu


    Full Text Available Background. We examined the association between insufficient rest/sleep and cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus separately among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanic Americans, and other races in a contemporary sample of US adults. Methods. Multiethnic, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (2008 BRFSS participants who were >20 years of age (n=369, 217; 50% women. Self-reported insufficient rest/sleep in the previous month was categorized into: zero, 1–13, 14–29, and all 30 days. Outcomes were: (1 any CVD, (2 coronary artery disease (CHD, (3 stroke, and (4 diabetes mellitus. Results. Insufficient rest/sleep was found to be positively associated with (1 any CVD, (2 CHD, and (3 stroke among all race-ethnicities. In contrast, insufficient rest/sleep was positively associated with diabetes mellitus in all race-ethnicities except non-Hispanic blacks. The odds ratio of diabetes association with insufficient rest/sleep for all 30 days was 1.37 (1.26–1.48 among non-Hispanic whites, 1.11 (0.90–1.36 among non-Hispanic blacks, 1.88 (1.46–2.42 among Hispanic Americans, and 1.48 (1.10–2.00 among other race/ethnicities. Conclusion. In a multiethnic sample of US adults, perceived insufficient rest/sleep was associated with CVD, among all race-ethnicities. However, the association between insufficient rest/sleep and diabetes mellitus was present among all race-ethnicities except non-Hispanic blacks.

  15. A comparison of ultra-endurance cyclists in a qualifying ultra-cycling race for Paris-Brest-Paris and Race Across America-Swiss cycling marathon. (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas


    Ultra-endurance events test the adaptation of human physiology to extreme physical and mental demands, high levels of training, motivation, and physical conditioning among participants. To understand basic differences among participants according to the severity of the race, participants in qualifying events for two ultra-endurance cycling races, differing in length and intensity, were compared on measures of anthropometry, training, and support. One race was four times longer, required supporting teams, and racers typically had little sleep, which should lead to the qualifiers being substantially more highly trained than those from the shorter race. The qualifiers in the longer race had greater intensity in training while the qualifiers in the shorter race relied more on training volume. Different strategies and types of training reflected the different demands of the races. Future studies should evaluate personality and motivational differences in ultra-endurance events and between these athletes and athletes in other sports.

  16. Perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.; Kirtman, B.; Davidson, E.R.


    After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references

  17. Need theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Need theory of happiness is linked to affect theory, which holds that happiness is a reflection of how well we feel generally. In this view, we do not "calculate" happiness but rather "infer" it, the typical heuristic being "I feel good most of the time, hence

  18. Diffraction theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, C.J.


    A critical review is presented of recent progress in classical diffraction theory. Both scalar and electromagnetic problems are discussed. The report may serve as an introduction to general diffraction theory although the main emphasis is on diffraction by plane obstacles. Various modifications of

  19. Individual differences in holistic processing predict the own-race advantage in recognition memory. (United States)

    Degutis, Joseph; Mercado, Rogelio J; Wilmer, Jeremy; Rosenblatt, Andrew


    Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task) from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task). We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance) and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance). First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces, particularly the eye region. Notably, using regression, we showed a significant association between the own-race advantage in recognition memory and the own-race advantage in holistic processing and that these associations were weaker when examining the other-race decrement. We also demonstrated that performance on own- and other-race faces across all of our tasks was highly correlated, suggesting that the differences we found between own- and other-race faces are quantitative rather than qualitative. Together, this suggests that own- and other-race faces recruit largely similar mechanisms, that own-race faces more thoroughly engage holistic processing, and that this greater engagement of holistic

  20. Individual Differences in Holistic Processing Predict the Own-Race Advantage in Recognition Memory (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Wilmer, Jeremy; Rosenblatt, Andrew


    Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task) from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task). We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance) and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance). First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces, particularly the eye region. Notably, using regression, we showed a significant association between the own-race advantage in recognition memory and the own-race advantage in holistic processing and that these associations were weaker when examining the other-race decrement. We also demonstrated that performance on own- and other-race faces across all of our tasks was highly correlated, suggesting that the differences we found between own- and other-race faces are quantitative rather than qualitative. Together, this suggests that own- and other-race faces recruit largely similar mechanisms, that own-race faces more thoroughly engage holistic processing, and that this greater engagement of holistic

  1. Socially-assigned race, healthcare discrimination and preventive healthcare services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Macintosh

    Full Text Available Race and ethnicity, typically defined as how individuals self-identify, are complex social constructs. Self-identified racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to receive preventive care and more likely to report healthcare discrimination than self-identified non-Hispanic whites. However, beyond self-identification, these outcomes may vary depending on whether racial/ethnic minorities are perceived by others as being minority or white; this perception is referred to as socially-assigned race.To examine the associations between socially-assigned race and healthcare discrimination and receipt of selected preventive services.Cross-sectional analysis of the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System "Reactions to Race" module. Respondents from seven states and the District of Columbia were categorized into 3 groups, defined by a composite of self-identified race/socially-assigned race: Minority/Minority (M/M, n = 6,837, Minority/White (M/W, n = 929, and White/White (W/W, n = 25,913. Respondents were 18 years or older, with 61.7% under age 60; 51.8% of respondents were female. Measures included reported healthcare discrimination and receipt of vaccinations and cancer screenings.Racial/ethnic minorities who reported being socially-assigned as minority (M/M were more likely to report healthcare discrimination compared with those who reported being socially-assigned as white (M/W (8.9% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.002. Those reporting being socially-assigned as white (M/W and W/W had similar rates for past-year influenza (73.1% vs. 74.3% and pneumococcal (69.3% vs. 58.6% vaccinations; however, rates were significantly lower among M/M respondents (56.2% and 47.6%, respectively, p-values<0.05. There were no significant differences between the M/M and M/W groups in the receipt of cancer screenings.Racial/ethnic minorities who reported being socially-assigned as white are more likely to receive preventive vaccinations and less likely to report

  2. Race as technology: from posthuman cyborg to human industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholaos Jones


    Full Text Available Cyborg and prosthetic technologies frame prominent posthumanist approaches to understanding the nature of race. But these frameworks struggle to accommodate the phenomena of racial passing and racial travel, and their posthumanist orientation blurs useful distinctions between racialized humans and their social contexts. We advocate, instead, a humanist approach to race, understanding racial hierarchy as an industrial technology. Our approach accommodates racial passing and travel. It integrates a wide array of research across disciplines. It also helpfully distinguishes among grounds of racialization and conditions facilitating impacts of such racialization.

  3. The Global Development Race and Samaritan's Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase


    Why has ‘development aid' been donated by so-called developed to under-developed populations since the Second World War? Using discourse analysis, this article provides partial answers to this riddle. First, we suggest that donor motives may be rooted in an ideology of ‘being good', which......, paradoxically, motivates recipients to be helpless - that is, a Samaritan's dilemma. Second, drawing on journal articles published in 1960-70, we test this theory by tracing a global development discourse and ‘goodness ideology' in a Western country such as Denmark - a process that was strongly influenced...... by the agricultural co-operative movement, which sought to export the ‘Danish co-operative model'....

  4. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří


    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  5. Conspiracy Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas


    The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...

  6. Field theory

    CERN Multimedia


    In these lectures I will build up the concept of field theory using the language of Feynman diagrams. As a starting point, field theory in zero spacetime dimensions is used as a vehicle to develop all the necessary techniques: path integral, Feynman diagrams, Schwinger-Dyson equations, asymptotic series, effective action, renormalization etc. The theory is then extended to more dimensions, with emphasis on the combinatorial aspects of the diagrams rather than their particular mathematical structure. The concept of unitarity is used to, finally, arrive at the various Feynman rules in an actual, four-dimensional theory. The concept of gauge-invariance is developed, and the structure of a non-abelian gauge theory is discussed, again on the level of Feynman diagrams and Feynman rules.

  7. Uncertainty theory

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Baoding


    When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...

  8. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger


      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  9. Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, Race, and Gender in Middle School Science (United States)

    Britner, Shari L.; Pajares, Frank

    The purpose of this study was to discover whether the science motivation beliefs of middle school students (N = 262) vary as a function of their gender or race/ethnicity and to determine whether science self-efficacy beliefs predict science achievement when motivation variables shown to predict achievement in other academic areas are controlled. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and self-efficacy for self-regulation, and they received higher grades in science. Boys had stronger performance-approach goals. White students had stronger self-efficacy and achievement, and African American students reported stronger task goals. Self-efficacy was the only motivation variable to predict the science achievement of girls, boys, and White students. Self-efficacy and self-concept predicted the science achievement of African American students. Results are interpreted from the perspective of Bandura's social cognitive theory.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study comes as a sequel to other two papers published in this journal in 2010 and 2012 being part of a larger research that approaches business communication from the perspective of Goffman’s theory of the relational dimension of meaning. The paper starts from the premise that meaning is generated within the context of each specific interaction, as a result of a culturally determined process of framing, during which inherited patterns of thought and behavior establish well defined positions from which the interlocutors perceive and respond to one another. It also aims at further analyzing the process of keying by identifying the paradigm shifts that individualize business encounters according to gender, age, and race cues, as well as the communication malfunctions induced by keying errors (misunderstandings, conflict and discrimination.

  11. Race, gender and the econophysics of income distribution in the USA (United States)

    Shaikh, Anwar; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Wiener, Noe


    The econophysics “two-class” theory of Yakovenko and his co-authors shows that the distribution of labor incomes is roughly exponential. This paper extends this result to US subgroups categorized by gender and race. It is well known that Males have higher average incomes than Females, and Whites have higher average incomes than African-Americans. It is also evident that social policies can affect these income gaps. Our surprising finding is that nonetheless intra-group distributions of pre-tax labor incomes are remarkably similar and remain close to exponential. This suggests that income inequality can be usefully addressed by taxation policies, and overall income inequality can be modified by also shifting the balance between labor and property incomes.

  12. The context of discrimination: workplace conditions, institutional environments, and sex and race discrimination charges. (United States)

    Hirsh, C Elizabeth; Kornrich, Sabino


    This article explores the organizational conditions under which discrimination charges occur. Drawing on structural and organizational theories of the workplace, the authors demonstrate how organizational conditions affect workers' and regulatory agents' understandings of unlawful discrimination. Using a national sample of work establishments, matched to discrimination-charge data obtained from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the authors examine how characteristics of the workplace and institutional environment affect variation in the incidence of workers' charges of sex and race discrimination and in the subset of discrimination claims that are verified by EEOC investigators. The findings indicate that workplace conditions, including size, composition, and minority management, affect workers' charges as well as verified claims; the latter are also affected by institutional factors, such as affirmative action requirements, subsidiary status, and industrial sector. These results suggest that internal workplace conditions affect both workers' and regulatory agents' interpretations of potentially discriminatory experiences, while institutional conditions matter only for regulatory agents' interpretations of those events.

  13. The beginnings of human palaeontology: prehistory, craniometry and the 'fossil human races'. (United States)

    Goodrum, Matthew R


    Since the nineteenth century, hominid palaeontology has offered critical information about prehistoric humans and evidence for human evolution. Human fossils discovered at a time when there was growing agreement that humans existed during the Ice Age became especially significant but also controversial. This paper argues that the techniques used to study human fossils from the 1850s to the 1870s and the way that these specimens were interpreted owed much to the anthropological examination of Stone, Bronze, and Iron Age skeletons retrieved by archaeologists from prehistoric tombs throughout Europe. What emerged was the idea that a succession of distinct human races, which were identified using techniques such as craniometry, had occupied and migrated into Europe beginning in the Ice Age and continuing into the historic period. This marks a phase in the history of human palaeontology that gradually gave way to a science of palaeoanthropology that viewed hominid fossils more from the perspective of evolutionary theory and hominid phylogeny.

  14. Race, Apology, and Public Memory at Maryland's Hospital for the 'Negro' Insane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zosha Stuckey


    Full Text Available To respond to a recent demand of the ACLU of Maryland, and to augment theories from Disability Incarcerated (2014 about the convergence of race, disability, and due process (or lack thereof, this essay analyzes the extent to which racism informed the creation of Maryland's Hospital for the 'Negro' Insane (Crownsville Hospital. In order to understand the extent of racism in Crownsville's earlier years, I will take into account 14 categories within conditions of confinement from 1921-1928 and compare them to the nearby, white asylum. Ultimately, the hospital joins the ranks of separate and unequal (Plessy vs. Ferguson institutions founded alongside a rhetoric of fear that the Baltimore Sun daily paper deemed "a Black invasion" of the city of Baltimore. Even more, I add to public memory of this racialized space invoking the rhetorical frame, as Kendall Phillips advises, of responsibility and apology (versus absolution within the context of present-day racial justice movements.

  15. Mere Exposure and Racial Prejudice: Exposure to Other-Race Faces Increases Liking for Strangers of That Race. (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; White, Benjamin; Wieneke, Kristin


    White participants were exposed to other-race or own-race faces to test the generalized mere exposure hypothesis in the domain of face perception, namely that exposure to a set of faces yields increased liking for similar faces that have never been seen. In Experiment 1, rapid supraliminal exposures to Asian faces increased White participants' subsequent liking for a different set of Asian faces. In Experiment 2, subliminal exposures to Black faces increased White participants' subsequent liking for a different set of Black faces. The findings are consistent with prominent explanations for mere exposure effects as well as with the familiar face overgeneralization hypothesis that prejudice derives in part from negative reactions to faces that deviate from the familiar own-race prototype.

  16. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989–2005 (United States)



    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  17. Association of tracheal mucus or blood and airway neutrophilia with racing performance in Thoroughbred horses in an Australian racing yard. (United States)

    Salz, R O; Ahern, B J; Boston, R; Begg, L M


    To determine the variation of tracheal mucus scores, tracheal blood scores and transendoscopic tracheal wash (TW) cytology in a population of Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses and assess their association with racing performance. A total of 220 endoscopic examinations were performed and TWs obtained from 155 TB racehorses. Samples were collected 60-120 min following gallop work. Tracheal mucus score, tracheal blood score and TW cytology were analysed and their association with racing performance assessed. Of the total examinations and samples, 194 from 135 horses fitted the criteria for inclusion. The overall prevalence of visible tracheal mucus was 2.5% (5/194) and of increased tracheal mucus was 0%. The prevalence of visible tracheal blood was 8.8% (17/194) and of increased tracheal blood was 4.6% (9/194). A total of 36% (70/194) of TWs contained elevated percentages of neutrophils and of these, 96% (67/70) occurred in the absence of any visible tracheal mucus. There was no significant association between tracheal mucus score or TW cytology and subsequent racing performance. There was a statistically significant association (P = 0.004) between increased tracheal blood scores and poor racing performance. Visible tracheal blood seen after strenuous exercise in clinically normal TB racehorses was a risk factor for poor racing performance, but the presence of airway neutrophilia was not. No horses in this study were found to have increased tracheal mucus, so the association of increased tracheal mucus with racing performance could not be assessed. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Analysis of Failure to Finish a Race in a Cohort of Thoroughbred Racehorses in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Tanner


    Full Text Available The objective was to describe the incidence of failure to finish a race in flat-racing Thoroughbreds in New Zealand as these are summary indicators of falls, injuries and poor performance. Retrospective data on six complete flat racing seasons (n = 188,615 race starts of all Thoroughbred flat race starts from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2011 were obtained. The incidence of failure to finish events and binomial exact 95% confidence intervals were calculated per 1000 horse starts. The association between horse-, rider- and race-level variables with the outcomes failure to finish, pulled-up/fell and lost rider were examined with a mixed effects Poisson regression model. A total of 544 horses failed to finish in 188,615 race starts with an overall incidence of 2.88 per 1000 horse starts (95% CI 2.64–3.12. The incidence of failure to finish horses across each race year showed little variability. In the univariable analysis race distance, larger field size, season, and ratings bands showed association with failing to finish a race. The overall failure to finish outcome was associated with season, race distance and ratings bands (horse experience and success ranking criteria. In the multivariable analysis, race distance and ratings bands were associated with horses that pulled-up/fell; season, apprentice allowances and ratings bands were associated with the outcome lost rider. The failure to finish rate was lower than international figures for race day catastrophic injury. Racing and environmental variables were associated with failure to finish a race highlighting the multifactorial nature of race-day events. Further investigation of risk factors for failure to finish is required to better understand the reasons for a low failure to finish rate in Thoroughbred flat races in New Zealand.

  19. A New Race (X12) of Soybean Cyst Nematode in China. (United States)

    Lian, Yun; Guo, Jianqiu; Li, Haichao; Wu, Yongkang; Wei, He; Wang, Jinshe; Li, Jinying; Lu, Weiguo


    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines , is a serious economic threat to soybean-producing regions worldwide. A new SCN population (called race X12) was detected in Shanxi province, China. Race X12 could reproduce on all the indicator lines of both race and Heterodera glycines (HG) type tests. The average number of females on Lee68 (susceptible control) was 171.40 with the lowest Female Index (FI) 61.31 on PI88788 and the highest FI 117.32 on Pickett in the race test. The average number of females on Lee68 was 323.17 with the lowest FI 44.18 on PI88788 and the highest FI 97.83 on PI548316 in the HG type test. ZDD2315 and ZDD24656 are elite resistant germplasms in China. ZDD2315 is highly resistant to race 4, the strongest infection race in the 16 races with FI 1.51 while being highly sensitive to race X12 with FI 64.32. ZDD24656, a variety derived from PI437654 and ZDD2315, is highly resistant to race 1 and race 2. ZDD24656 is highly sensitive to race X12 with FI 99.12. Morphological and molecular studies of J2 and cysts confirmed the population as the SCN H. glycines . This is a new SCN race with stronger virulence than that of race 4 and is a potential threat to soybean production in China.

  20. A Psicologia racial no Brasil (1918-1929 The race Psychology in Brazil (1918-1929

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    André Luís Masiero


    Full Text Available As teorias raciais chegaram ao Brasil por volta de 1869. Neste artigo procuramos demonstrar como estas teorias entraram no âmbito das ciências psicológicas e direcionaram conceitos e práticas. Foram analisados os anais da Sociedade Eugênica de São Paulo (1919 e os trabalhos apresentados no 1º Congresso Brasileiro de Eugenia (1929, que tiveram como meta "melhorar a raça nacional". Tanto aquela instituição quanto este evento científico contaram com a participação de psicólogos, psiquiatras e antropólogos que se aproximaram do racismo científico, muito difundido pelo mundo no início do século XX. Esta aproximação gerou uma "Psicologia Racial" no Brasil, a qual pretendia reduzir os saberes psicológicos a uma suposta problemática racial.The arrival of racist theories in Brazil happened around 1869. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how those theories got into the psychological sciences and conducted their concepts and practices. Documents from Sao Paulo Eugenic Society's archives (1919 and from the 1st Brazilian Eugenics Conference (1929 have been analyzed, both proving to be committed with the "national race improvement". Many psychologists, psychiatrists and anthropologists related to scientific racism - spread around the world in early 20th century - took part of the institution as well as the conference. This fact brought about the "race psychology" in Brazil, which intended to reduce the psychological knowledge to a hypothetic racial problem.