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Sample records for race smoking status

  1. Lung cancer risk perception and distress: difference by smoking status, and role of physical activity and race among US population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Mathur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: cigarette smoking is the greatest known risk factor for lung cancer, and people with different smoking status may process risk information differently. While psychological distress has been linked with smoking status, little is known about the impact of distress on lung cancer perception or the moderating role of physical activity and race. This study explores the association of lung cancer perception and distress and investigates the effects of physical activity and race on that association.Methods: the study uses a national, biennial survey (the Health Information National Trends Survey that was designed to collect nationally representative data on the American public’s need for, access to, and use of cancer-related information using a cross-sectional, complex sample survey design. Out of 5 586 participants, 1 015 were current smokers, 1 599 were former smokers, 2 877 were never smokers. Of the sample, 1 765 participants answered the lung cancer risk perception question and had no personal history of lung cancer. Statistical analysis contrasts smokers, former smokers, and never smokers to examine the association of lung cancer perception and distress and the moderating role of physical activity and race.Results: distress and lung cancer risk perception were significantly positively associated (p value < 0.001. Respondents who were current smokers and were distressed had very high odds of agreeing that they have a somewhat high chance (odds ratio=900.8, CI: 94.23, 8 611.75; p value < 0.001 or a very high chance (odds ratio=500.44 CI: 56.53, 4 430.02, p value < 0.001 of developing lung cancer in the future as compared to not distressed never smokers. However, race and physical activity status did not significantly affect perception of risk. Perceptions of risk are important precursors of health change.Conclusions: elevated distress level and higher perceived risk, in addition to physical activity status and race, could potentially

  2. Perceived discrimination, psychological distress, and current smoking status: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q; Peppone, Luke J; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J; Carroll, Jennifer K; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R

    2012-05-01

    We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination-smoking association. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment.

  3. Perceived Discrimination, Psychological Distress, and Current Smoking Status: Results From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race Module, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J.; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J.; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. Methods. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Results. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination–smoking association. Conclusions. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment. PMID:22420821

  4. Effects of Patient-Provider Race Concordance and Smoking Status on Lung Cancer Risk Perception Accuracy among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Susan; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Allen, Vincent C.; Senay, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background Communication of lung cancer risk information between providers and African-American patients occurs in a context marked by race-based health disparities. Purpose A controlled experiment assessed whether perceived physician race influenced African-American patients’ (n=127) risk perception accuracy following the provision of objective lung cancer risk information. Methods Participants interacted with a virtual reality-based, simulated physician who provided personalized cancer risk information. Results Participants who interacted with a racially discordant virtual doctor were less accurate in their risk perceptions at post-test than those who interacted with a concordant virtual doctor, F(1,94)=4.02, p=.048. This effect was amplified among current smokers. Effects were not mediated by trust in the provider, engagement with the health care system, or attention during the encounter. Conclusions The current study demonstrates that African-American patients’ perceptions of a doctor’s race are sufficient to independently impact their processing of lung cancer risk information. PMID:23389688

  5. Effects of patient-provider race concordance and smoking status on lung cancer risk perception accuracy among African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Susan; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Allen, Vincent C; Senay, Ibrahim

    2013-06-01

    Communication of lung cancer risk information between providers and African-American patients occurs in a context marked by race-based health disparities. A controlled experiment assessed whether perceived physician race influenced African-American patients' (n = 127) risk perception accuracy following the provision of objective lung cancer risk information. Participants interacted with a virtual reality-based, simulated physician who provided personalized cancer risk information. Participants who interacted with a racially discordant virtual doctor were less accurate in their risk perceptions at post-test than those who interacted with a concordant virtual doctor, F(1,94) = 4.02, p = .048. This effect was amplified among current smokers. Effects were not mediated by trust in the provider, engagement with the health care system, or attention during the encounter. The current study demonstrates that African-American patients' perceptions of a doctor's race are sufficient to independently impact their processing of lung cancer risk information.

  6. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yutaka, E-mail: yaoki@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Yee, Jennifer [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Epidemiology Elective Program, MS E-92, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Family Medicine, 4000 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington D.C 20057 (United States); Mortensen, Mary E. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, MS F-20, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  7. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yee, Jennifer; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  8. Smoke-free homes among single-parent families: Differences associated with parental race/ethnicity and smoking behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Mai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18 based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010–11 (n=6474 and 2014–15 (n=6114. The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010–11 and 86% in 2014–15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH Asian (94% and Hispanic (92% parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010–11 and 82% in 2014–15 in both survey periods. However, 2014–15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR=0.46, 99% CI=0.32:0.66. The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010–11 and 2014–15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010–11 decreased by 2014–15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014–15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes. Keywords: Involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, Single mother, Single father, Healthy home environment

  9. Smoke-free homes among single-parent families: Differences associated with parental race/ethnicity and smoking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yujiao; Leonardo, Selena; Soulakova, Julia N

    2018-03-01

    We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18) based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010-11 ( n  = 6474) and 2014-15 ( n  = 6114). The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010-11 and 86% in 2014-15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH) Asian (94%) and Hispanic (92%) parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010-11 and 82% in 2014-15) in both survey periods. However, 2014-15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR = 0.46, 99% CI = 0.32:0.66). The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010-11 and 2014-15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010-11 decreased by 2014-15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014-15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes.

  10. Preoperative Smoking Status and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Grønkjær; Eliasen, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and summarize the evidence of an association between preoperative smoking status and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type.......To systematically review and summarize the evidence of an association between preoperative smoking status and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type....

  11. [Smoking and educational status in Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, B; Kpebo, O D; Horo, K; N'Gom, A; Godé, C; Ahui, B; Koffi, N; Aka-Danguy, E

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is a scourge that continues to increase in developing countries despite its known consequences. Is the population of the Ivory Coast sufficiently informed about the consequences of smoking? For this reason, we decided to evaluate the knowledge of the effects of smoking among the people of Abidjan. To evaluate the knowledge of the effects of smoking in the population of Abidjan. To relate this knowledge to the educational level and smoking status. We evaluated knowledge about smoking and its consequences as a function of educational level and smoking status in the population of Abidjan over the age of 15 years. This was undertaken in 3 months, from November 2005 to January 2006, in the two busiest communes in Abidjan. The minimum number of persons required was 1152 but, in fact, we interviewed 1409. The prevalence of smoking was 36.5% with a predominance of males (sex ratio = 3:11). They were mainly young with a mean age of 27.44 years. This population's main sources of information on the ill effects of smoking were the mass media. In general, the subjects did not have a good understanding of smoking and its consequences. With regard to the diseases related to smoking, bronchial carcinoma and cardiovascular disorders were the best known, in 53.1 and 18.1%, respectively. With regard to the components of tobacco, nicotine was the best known (92.6%). Knowledge was related to the level of education: the subjects of a higher educational level were the most knowledgeable about the consequences of smoking. As a result, these subjects were less attached to smoking than the less educated. The consequences of smoking are poorly understood by the general population. With regard to the level of education, the better educated had a better understanding of the effects of smoking and were also those who smoked the least. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Evaluation of Smoking Status among Diabetes Patients in the State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of smoking among diabetes patients ... of type 1 and 2 diabetes patients were reviewed to assess the prevalence of smoking. ... were the most prevalent race among smokers, compared with Malay and ...

  13. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.

  14. Seeing through Race, Gender and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundi, Kirmanj

    This paper discusses the history of discrimination in the United States and the length of time it took to abolish the legal support of racism. The paper then discusses the problems of diversity in the United States. Acknowledging and accepting U.S. diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religious background, and national origin would…

  15. Smoking status and self-reported race affect the frequency of clinically relevant oncogenic alterations in non-small-cell lung cancers at a United States-based academic medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Vanderlaan, Paul A; Folch, Erik; Boucher, David H; Canepa, Hannah M; Kent, Michael S; Gangadharan, Sidharta P; Majid, Adnan; Kocher, Olivier N; Goldstein, Michael A; Huberman, Mark S; Costa, Daniel B

    2013-10-01

    The identification of somatic genomic aberrations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is part of evidence-based practice guidelines for care of patients with NSCLC. We sought to establish the frequency and correlates with these changes in routine patient-tumor sample pairs. Clinicopathologic data and tumor genotype were retrospectively compiled and analyzed from an overall cohort of 381 patient-tumor samples. Of these patients, 75.9% self-reported White race, 13.1% Asian, 6.5% Black, 27.8% were never-smokers, 54.9% former-smokers and 17.3% current-smokers. The frequency of EGFR mutations was 23.9% (86/359), KRAS mutations 34.2% (71/207) and ALK FISH positivity 9.1% (23/252) in tumor samples, and almost all had mutually exclusive results for these oncogenes. In tumors from White, Black and Asian patients, the frequencies of EGFR mutations were 18.4%, 18.2% and 62%, respectively; of ALK FISH positivity 7.81%, 0% and 14.8%, respectively; and of KRAS mutations 41.6%, 20% and 0%. These patterns changed significant with increasing pack-year history of smoking. In White patients, the frequencies of EGFR mutations and ALK FISH positivity decreased with increasing pack-year cohorts; while the frequencies of KRAS mutations increased. Interestingly, in Asian patients the frequencies of EGFR mutations were similar in never smokers and in the cohorts with less than 45pack-year histories of smoking and only decreased in the 45pack-year plus cohort. The frequencies of somatic EGFR, KRAS, and ALK gene abnormalities using routine lung cancer tissue samples from our United States-based academic medical practice reflect the diverse ethnicity (with a higher frequency of EGFR mutations in Asian patients) and smoking patterns (with an inverse correlation between EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement) of our tested population. These results may help other medical practices appreciate the expected results from introduction of routine tumor genotyping techniques into their day-to-day care

  16. What's Your "Street Race"? Leveraging Multidimensional Measures of Race and Intersectionality for Examining Physical and Mental Health Status Among Latinxs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Nancy; Vargas, Edward D; Juarez, Melina; Cacari-Stone, Lisa; Bettez, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    Using the 2015 Latino National Health and Immigration Survey (N= 1,197) we examine the relationship between physical and mental health status and three multidimensional measures of race: 1) "street race," or how you believe other "Americans" perceive your race at the level of the street; 2) socially assigned race or what we call "ascribed race," which refers to how you believe others usually classify your race in the U.S.; and 3) "self-perceived race," or how you usually self-classify your race on questionnaires. We engage in intersectional inquiry by combining street race and gender. We find that only self-perceived race correlates with physical health and that street race is associated with mental health. We also find that men reporting their street race as Latinx 1 or Arab were associated with higher odds of reporting worse mental health outcomes. One surprising finding was that, for physical health, men reporting their street race as Latinx were associated with higher odds of reporting optimal physical health. Among women, those reporting their street race as Mexican were associated with lower odds of reporting optimal physical health when compared to all other women; for mental health status, however, we found no differences among women. We argue that "street race" is a promising multidimensional measure of race for exploring inequality among Latinxs.

  17. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (pinequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  18. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle A Mode

    Full Text Available Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675. At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03, with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001. Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04. While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  19. The Role of Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences and Race in Intergenerational High-Risk Smoking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pear, Veronica A; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    A history of adversity in childhood is associated with cigarette smoking in adulthood, but there is less evidence for prenatal and next-generation offspring smoking. We investigated the association between maternal history of childhood adversity, pregnancy smoking, and early initiation of smoking in offspring, overall and by maternal race/ethnicity. Data on maternal childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and household mental illness, prenatal smoking behaviors, and offspring age of smoking initiation were analyzed from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, n = 2999 mothers) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey (NLSYCYA, n = 6596 children). Adjusted risk ratios were estimated using log-linear regression models. We assessed multiplicative interaction by race/ethnicity for all associations and a three-way interaction by maternal exposure to adversity and race/ethnicity for the association between prenatal and child smoking. Maternal exposure to childhood physical abuse was significantly associated with 39% and 20% increased risks of prenatal smoking and child smoking, respectively. Household alcohol abuse was associated with significantly increased risks of 20% for prenatal smoking and 17% for child smoking. The prenatal smoking-child smoking relationship was modified by maternal exposure to household alcohol abuse and race. There were increased risks for Hispanic and white/other mothers as compared to the lowest risk group: black mothers who did not experience childhood household alcohol abuse. Mothers in this national sample who experienced adversity in childhood are more likely to smoke during pregnancy and their offspring are more likely to initiate smoking before age 18. Findings varied by type of adversity and race/ethnicity. These findings support the importance of a life-course approach to understanding prenatal and intergenerational smoking, and suggest that maternal early-life history is a potentially

  20. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Weight Status, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.

  1. E-cigarette use and disparities by race, citizenship status and language among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E; Albert, Stephanie L; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents is on the rise in the U.S. However, limited attention has been given to examining the role of race, citizenship status and language spoken at home in shaping e-cigarette use behavior. Data are from the 2014 Adolescent California Health Interview Survey, which interviewed 1052 adolescents ages 12-17. Lifetime e-cigarette use was examined by sociodemographic characteristics. Separate logistic regression models predicted odds of ever-smoking e-cigarettes from race, citizenship status and language spoken at home. Sociodemographic characteristics were then added to these models as control variables and a model with all three predictors and controls was run. Similar models were run with conventional smoking as an outcome. 10.3% of adolescents ever used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was higher among ever-smokers of conventional cigarettes, individuals above 200% of the Federal Poverty Level, US citizens and those who spoke English-only at home. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that citizenship status and language spoken at home were associated with lifetime e-cigarette use, after accounting for control variables. Only citizenship status was associated with e-cigarette use, when controls variables race and language spoken at home were all in the same model. Ever use of e-cigarettes in this study was higher than previously reported national estimates. Action is needed to curb the use of e-cigarettes among adolescents. Differences in lifetime e-cigarette use by citizenship status and language spoken at home suggest that less acculturated individuals use e-cigarettes at lower rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Working class matters: socioeconomic disadvantage, race/ethnicity, gender, and smoking in NHIS 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Krieger, Nancy; Soobader, Mah-Jabeen

    2004-02-01

    We sought to describe the burden of smoking on the US population, using diverse socioeconomic measures. We analyzed data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was greatest among persons in--and independently associated with--working class jobs, low educational level, and low income. Attempts to quit showed no socioeconomic gradient, while success in quitting was greatest among those with the most socioeconomic resources. These patterns held in most but not all race/ethnicity-gender groups. Finer resolution of smoking patterns was obtained using a relational UK occupational measure, compared to the skill-based measure commonly used in US studies. Reducing social disparities in smoking requires attention to the complexities of class along with race/ethnicity and gender.

  3. Physician smoking status, attitudes toward smoking, and cessation advice to patients: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipe, Andrew; Sorensen, Michelle; Reid, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The smoking status of physicians can impact interactions with patients about smoking. The 'Smoking: The Opinions of Physicians' (STOP) survey examined whether an association existed between physician smoking status and beliefs about smoking and cessation and a physician's clinical interactions with patients relevant to smoking cessation, and perceptions of barriers to assisting with quitting. General and family practitioners across 16 countries were surveyed via telephone or face-to-face interviews using a convenience-sample methodology. Physician smoking status was self-reported. Of 4473 physicians invited, 2836 (63%) participated in the survey, 1200 (42%) of whom were smokers. Significantly fewer smoking than non-smoking physicians volunteered that smoking was a harmful activity (64% vs 77%; Pnon-smoking physicians identified willpower (37% vs 32%; P<0.001) and lack of interest (28% vs 22%; P<0.001) as barriers to quitting, more smoking physicians saw stress as a barrier (16% vs 10%; P<0.001). Smoking physicians are less likely to initiate cessation interventions. There is a need for specific strategies to encourage smoking physicians to quit, and to motivate all practitioners to adopt systematic approaches to assisting with smoking cessation.

  4. The impact of smoking status on the health status of heart failure patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conard, Mark W

    2012-02-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Yet, little is known about smoking\\'s effects on the health status of established HF patients. HF patients were recruited from outpatient clinics across North America. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess disease-specific health status. Smoking behaviors were classified as never having smoked, prior smoker, and as having smoked within the past 30 days. Risk-adjusted multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with baseline and 1-year KCCQ overall summary scores. Smoking was not associated with baseline health status. However, a significant effect was observed on 1-year health status among outpatients with HF with current smokers reporting significantly lower KCCQ scores than never smokers or ex-smokers. These findings highlight an additional adverse consequence of smoking in HF patients not previously discussed.

  5. [Smoking status among urban family and the measures of smoking control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ciyin; Ma, Grace; Zhai, Chengkai; Cao, Pei

    2009-01-01

    To find out the smoking status among the families and their members, in order to hold their knowledge, attitude, practice on smoking and its influence and to put forward the countermeasure of smoking Control. A questionnaire surveys were conducted among 419 people which came from 419 families. 409 qualified questionnaire were obtained. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, test and logistic analysis. The family current smoking rates were 68.2%, the smoking rates of past family were 90.2%, the current smoking rates of individual were 31.5%, the individual past smoking rates were 39.9%. Those who attempted smoking under the age of 18 years accounted for 46.6%. Those who smoked their first cigarette from friends accounted for 48.1%. The comparisons of knowledge, attitude between smoking-ever family members and non-smoking family members had significant difference (P attitude between smoking family members and non-smoking family members had significant difference (P < 0.05). Those who were married women, and had career had high score of KAP. The contents of education of the decreases of smoking rates were on the following: (1) Smoking damages health. (2) Smoking should not be used as means of communication. (3) Feel offensive when someone smoking around. (4) Most persons still don't smoke. The key place of smoking control could be family. Smoking control could depend on married female. The key crowd of tobacco control could be children and youngsters. Not offering smoke and not advise others to smoking could be the key measures of smoking control.

  6. Race and vitamin D status and monitoring in male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Alan N; Bailey, Beth A; Peiris, Prith; Copeland, Rebecca J; Manning, Todd

    2011-06-01

    African Americans have lower vitamin D levels and reduced health outcomes compared to white Americans. Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to adverse health outcomes in African Americans. We hypothesized that race would be associated with vitamin D status and testing in African Americans veterans, and that vitamin D status is a major contributor to health care costs in African American veterans compared to white veterans. A retrospective analysis of the medical data in the Veterans Integrated Service Network 9 (southeastern United States) was performed, and 14148 male veterans were identified. Race was designated by the patient and its relationship to vitamin D levels/status and costs was assessed. Vitamin D levels were significantly lower and the percent of patients with vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in African American veterans. This difference was independent of latitude and seasonality. Vitamin D testing was done significantly more in white veterans compared to African American veterans (5.4% vs 3.8%). While follow-up testing was 42% more likely if a patient was found to be vitamin D deficient, white veterans were 34% more likely than African American veterans to have at least 1 follow-up 25-hydroxyvitamin D performed. African American veterans had significantly higher health care costs, which were linked to lower vitamin D levels; however, the cost differential persisted even after adjusting for vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in African American veterans and needs improved management within the Veteran Administration system. Vitamin D status appears not to be the sole contributor to increased health care costs in African American veterans.

  7. Workplace and home smoking restrictions and racial/ethnic variation in the prevalence and intensity of current cigarette smoking among women by poverty status, TUS-CPS 1998-1999 and 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, Vickie L; Fagan, Pebbles; Alexander, Linda A Jouridine; Clayton, Richard; Doucet, Jennifer; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2006-09-01

    Recognition of the health consequences of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has led government agencies and many employers to establish policies that restrict cigarette smoking in public and workplaces. This cross sectional study examines the association of workplace smoking policies and home smoking restrictions with current smoking among women. Participants were employed US women ages 18-64 who were self respondents to the 1998-1999 or 2000-2001 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey supplements. Cross tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses examine the association of selected demographic characteristics, occupation, income, workplace and home smoking policies/restrictions with current smoking, consumption patterns, and quit attempts among women by poverty level for five race/ethnic groups. The prevalence of either having an official workplace or home smoking policy that completely banned smoking increased with increased distance from the poverty level threshold. A complete ban on home smoking was more frequently reported by African American and Hispanic women although Hispanic women less frequently reported an official workplace smoking policy. In general, policies that permitted smoking in the work area or at home were associated with a higher prevalence of current smoking but this varied by poverty level and race/ethnicity. Home smoking policies that permitted smoking were associated with lower adjusted odds of having a least one quit attempt for nearly all poverty level categories but there was no association between having one quit attempt and workplace policies. Home smoking policies were more consistently associated with a lower prevalence of current smoking irrespective of poverty status or race/ethnicity than workplace policies. These findings underscore the importance of examining tobacco control policies in multiple domains (work and home) as well as by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position.

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: race and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Clark, Trenette T; Kollins, Scott H; McClernon, F Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard F

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the influence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms severity and directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) on trajectories of the probability of current (past month) smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked from age 13 to 32. Racial and gender differences in the relationship of ADHD symptoms and smoking trajectories were also assessed. A subsample of 9719 youth (54.5% female) was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Cohort sequential design and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth modeling were used to estimate the relationship between ADHD directionality and severity on smoking development. ADHD severity's effect on the likelihood of ever smoking cigarettes at the intercept (age 13) had a greater impact on White males than other groups. ADHD severity also had a stronger influence on the initial number of cigarettes smoked at age 13 among Hispanic participants. The relationships between ADHD directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) and a higher number of cigarettes smoked at the intercept were stronger among Hispanic males than others. Gender differences manifested only among Whites. ADHD severity and directionality had unique effects on smoking trajectories. Our results also highlight that the risk of ADHD symptoms may differ by race and gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Health status of hostel dwellers: Part VI. Tobacco smoking, alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated with alcohol consumption were ...

  10. Smoking status, knowledge of health effects and attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population's smoking status, their knowledge of the health ... the highest smoking rates are the Northern Cape (55%), ... expense of tobacco products and because of a medical ... tobacco excise tax if the money is used for health .... Although not shown in ... (35%) and cost of tobacco products (17%). ..... International tourist.

  11. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, M.; Shikiar, R.; Rentz, A.; Khan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment.
SUBJECTS—Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective produc...

  12. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households.

  13. Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with smoke-free laws but not urban/rural status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Hahn, Ellen J; Bratset, Hilarie; Robertson, Heather; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with and without smoke-free laws in urban and rural communities. The research hypothesis was that SHS exposure in public places could be improved by smoke-free law regardless of urban and rural status. Indoor air quality in hospitality venues was assessed in 53 communities (16 urban and 37 rural) before smoke-free laws; 12 communities passed smoke-free laws during the study period. Real-time measurements of particulate matter with 2.5 µm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5) were taken 657 times from 586 distinct venues; about 71 venues had both pre- and post-law measurements. Predictors of log-transformed PM2.5 level were determined using multilevel modeling. With covariates of county-level percent minority population, percent with at least high school education, adult smoking rate, and venue-level smoker density, indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type and their interaction. The geometric means for restaurants, bars, and other public places in communities without smoke-free policies were 22, 63, and 25 times higher than in those with smoke-free laws, respectively. Indoor air quality was not associated with urban status of venue, and none of the interactions involving urban status were significant. SHS exposure in public places did not differ by urban/rural status. Indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free law status and venue type. This study analyzed 657 measurements of indoor PM2.5 level in 53 communities in Kentucky, USA. Although indoor air quality in public places was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type, it did not differ by urban and rural status. The finding supports the idea that population in rural communities can be protected with smoke-free policy. Therefore, it is critical to implement smoke-free policy in rural communities as well as urban areas.

  14. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks’ Diminished Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although higher socioeconomic status (SES indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. Aims: To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. Methods: This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2017 (n = 3217. HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites (n = 1868; 82% or Blacks (n = 409; 18%. The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Results: In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. Conclusions: In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  15. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks' Diminished Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Mistry, Ritesh

    2018-04-16

    Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 ( n = 3217). HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites ( n = 1868; 82%) or Blacks ( n = 409; 18%). The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day) smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender) were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  16. Validity of subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Bender,* Patrick Haubruck,* Sonja Boxriker, Sebastian Korff, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Arash Moghaddam Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: In this level 1 diagnostic study, we analyzed the validity of subjective smoking status and, as secondary research question, the smoking cessation adherence in orthopedic patients during a routine hospital stay of nonunion patients by measuring serum cotinine.  Methods: We included patients undergoing revision surgery due to nonunion of long bones. Patients were interviewed about their smoking status. Blood samples were taken from all the patients prior to surgery and for an additional 6 weeks following surgery. Serum levels of cotinine were measured, and coherence between subjective smoking status and objective cotinine analysis was evaluated.  Results: Between March 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 136 patients. Six of the 26 “previous smokers” (23% and four of the 65 “nonsmokers” (6% had serum cotinine above cutoff levels. In self-labeled smokers, serum cotinine levels averaged at 2,367.4±14,885.9 ng/mL (with a median of 100 ng/mL, whereas in previous smokers the levels averaged at 4,270±19,619.4 ng/mL (with a median of 0 ng/mL and in the nonsmokers group the levels averaged at 12±53.9 ng/mL (with a median of 0.03 ng/mL. Overall, the subjective smoking status matched serum cotinine testing in 88% of the cases. Sensitivity was 79.6% and specificity was 93.1%. Ninety-one percent of the patients with preoperative positive serum values were still positive at follow-up.  Conclusion: In this study, we could show that subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients is predominantly reliable as validated by objective cotinine measurements; however, patients who declare themselves as “previous smokers” are at elevated risk

  17. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  18. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking. PMID:27898019

  19. Antioxidant status of neonates exposed in utero to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Calaf, R; Simeoni, U; Millet, V

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of specific antioxidants were measured in cord and in maternal blood. A similar, significant increase in ceruloplasmin concentration was observed in neonates born to actively smoking mothers and in those born to ETS exposed mothers. Uric acid and TRAP concentrations were significantly increased in ETS-exposed newborns and their mothers, compared to newborns and mothers from the active smoking and no-exposure groups with a trend towards increased uric acid, TRAP and FRAP concentrations being observed in the active smokers group. Neonatal and maternal antioxidant concentrations correlated significantly, except for ceruloplasmin. Cord blood vitamin A, E and C concentrations were unaffected by smoke exposure. These results show that maternal active smoking as well as ETS exposure significantly affect neonatal and maternal antioxidant status. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Hormone-metabolic status in moderately smoking breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Tsyrlina, E V; Semiglazov, V F; Kovalenko, I G; Gamayunova, V B; Evtushenko, T P; Ivanova, O A

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen primary breast cancer (BC) patients, 35 of whom were smokers, in clinical stages I-II of the disease were examined. In order to investigate whether smoking changes endocrine function in BC patients, some indices of the hormone-metabolic status of smoking and non-smoking patients of reproductive and menopausal age were compared. It was found that in smokers with BC there was a decline in body weight and body fat content, a lack of lean body mass accumulation along with body mass increase, a tendency to hypotriglyceridemia and hypoinsulinemia, accelerated development of the upper type of body fat distribution with ageing, intensified gonadotropin secretion, shifts in steroidogenesis and SHBG level and elevated catecholamine execretion. It is suggested that a possible relation between hormone-mediated effects inherent to smoking and the mechanisms promoting genotoxic type of hormonal carcinogenesis and the factors of breast cancer prognosis cannot be excluded.

  1. Older Adults' Internet Use for Health Information: Digital Divide by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunwoo; Jang, Yuri; Vaughan, Phillip W; Garcia, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Building upon literature suggesting low Internet use among racial/ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, this study examined how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the Internet use for health information, addressing both independent and interactive effects. Using data from 17,704 older adults in the California Health Interview Survey, logistic regression models were estimated with race/ethnicity (Whites, African Americans, Latinos, and Asians), SES index, and the interaction between race/ethnicity and SES index. Overall, approximately 40% of participants were Internet-users for health information. Direct effects of race/ethnicity and SES-and their interactions-were all found to be significant. Minority status combined with the lowest levels of SES substantially reduced the odds of using Internet for health information. Findings suggest the combination of racial/ethnic minority status and low SES as a source of digital divide, and provide implications for Internet technology training for the target population.

  2. Income Inequality and US Children's Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Distinct Associations by Race-Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenassa, Edmond D; Rossen, Lauren M; Cohen, Jonathan; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Payne-Sturges, Devon C

    2017-11-01

    Prior studies have found considerable racial and ethnic disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Although a number of individual-level determinants of this disparity have been identified, contextual determinants of racial and ethnic disparities in SHS exposure remain unexamined. The objective of this study was to examine disparities in serum cotinine in relation to area-level income inequality among 14 649 children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We fit log-normal regression models to examine disparities in serum cotinine in relation to Metropolitan Statistical Areas level income inequality among 14 649 nonsmoking children aged 3-15 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2012). Non-Hispanic black children had significantly lower serum cotinine than non-Hispanic white children (-0.26; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.15) in low income inequality areas, but this difference was attenuated in areas with high income inequality (0.01; 95% CI: -0.16, 0.18). Serum cotinine declined for non-Hispanic white and Mexican American children with increasing income inequality. Serum cotinine did not change as a function of the level of income inequality among non-Hispanic black children. We have found evidence of differential associations between SHS exposure and income inequality by race and ethnicity. Further examination of environments which engender SHS exposure among children across various racial/ethnic subgroups can foster a better understanding of how area-level income inequality relates to health outcomes such as levels of SHS exposure and how those associations differ by race/ethnicity. In the United States, the association between children's risk of SHS exposure and income inequality is modified by race/ethnicity in a manner that is inconsistent with theories of income inequality. In overall analysis this association appears to be as predicted by theory. However, race-specific analyses reveal that higher levels of income

  3. Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ALS mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Johnson, Norman J; Chen, Jarvis T; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2016-11-29

    To determine whether race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality in the United States. The National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), a United States-representative, multistage sample, collected race/ethnicity and socioeconomic data prospectively. Mortality information was obtained by matching NLMS records to the National Death Index (1979-2011). More than 2 million persons (n = 1,145,368 women, n = 1,011,172 men) were included, with 33,024,881 person-years of follow-up (1,299 ALS deaths , response rate 96%). Race/ethnicity was by self-report in 4 categories. Hazard ratios (HRs) for ALS mortality were calculated for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status separately and in mutually adjusted models. Minority vs white race/ethnicity predicted lower ALS mortality in models adjusted for socioeconomic status, type of health insurance, and birthplace (non-Hispanic black, HR 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.78; Hispanic, HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.88; other races, non-Hispanic, HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.86). Higher educational attainment compared with socioeconomic status, birthplace, or type of health insurance. Higher rate of ALS among whites likely reflects actual higher risk of ALS rather than ascertainment bias or effects of socioeconomic status on ALS risk. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Understanding factors that impact overweight or obesity is an essential step towards formulating programs to prevent or control obesity in young adults. Thus, we aim to assess the prevalence of physical activity and smoking habits in relation to weight status among a sample of university students. Methods: A ...

  5. Associations between noncommunicable disease risk factors, race, education, and health insurance status among women of reproductive age in Brazil - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Jonetta Johnson; de Moura, Lenildo; Farr, Sherry L; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Moehlecke; Ivata Bernal, Regina Tomie; Robbins, Cheryl L; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors increase the risk of adverse reproductive health outcomes and are becoming increasingly common in Brazil. We analyzed VIGITEL 2011 telephone survey data for 13,745 Brazilian women aged 18-44 years in a probabilistic sample from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. We examined associations between NCD risk factors (fruit and vegetable intake, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status, BMI and hypertension status) and race, education, and insurance using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression models, estimating the average marginal effects to produce adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRs). Analyses were conducted using SAS 9.3 survey procedures and weighted to reflect population estimates. Women with less than a college education were more likely to report physical inactivity (adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence interval = 1.1 (1.1-1.2)), smoking (aRR = 1.7 (1.3-2.2)), and self-reported diagnoses of hypertension (aRR = 2.0 (1.6-2.5)) compared to women with a college education or greater. Similarly, women without health insurance were more likely to report physical inactivity (aRR = 1.1 (1.1-1.2)), smoking (aRR = 1.4 (1.1-1.8)), and self-reported diagnoses of hypertension aRR = 1.4 (1.1-1.7)) compared to women with health insurance. Less variation was found by race and NCD risk factors. Targeted public health strategies and policies are needed to increase healthcare access and decrease educational and racial disparities in NCD risk factors among women of reproductive age in Brazil.

  6. Motives to quit smoking and reasons to relapse differ by socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette; Toft, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status.......To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status....

  7. Predicting Smoking Status Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Frank

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking has been proven to negatively affect health in a multitude of ways. As of 2009, smoking has been considered the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, continuing to plague the country’s overall health. This study aims to investigate the viability and effectiveness of some machine learning algorithms for predicting the smoking status of patients based on their blood tests and vital readings results. The analysis of this study is divided into two parts: In part 1, we use One-way ANOVA analysis with SAS tool to show the statistically significant difference in blood test readings between smokers and non-smokers. The results show that the difference in INR, which measures the effectiveness of anticoagulants, was significant in favor of non-smokers which further confirms the health risks associated with smoking. In part 2, we use five machine learning algorithms: Naïve Bayes, MLP, Logistic regression classifier, J48 and Decision Table to predict the smoking status of patients. To compare the effectiveness of these algorithms we use: Precision, Recall, F-measure and Accuracy measures. The results show that the Logistic algorithm outperformed the four other algorithms with Precision, Recall, F-Measure, and Accuracy of 83%, 83.4%, 83.2%, 83.44%, respectively.

  8. Labor Market Effects on Dropping out of High School: Variation by Gender, Race, and Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from previous research that the likelihood of dropping out is affected by a number of individual traits, including, among others, socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, and employment status. It is also known that dropping out is contingent on a variety of school characteristics. What is less known about is how dropping…

  9. Effects of marital status on survival of hepatocellular carcinoma by race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenrui; Fang, Daiqiong; Shi, Ding; Bian, Xiaoyuan; Li, Lanjuan

    2018-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that being married is associated with a better prognosis in multiple types of cancer. However, whether the protective effect of marital status varied across race/ethnicity and gender in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the roles of race/ethnicity and gender in this relationship. We identified eligible patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database during 2004-2012. Overall and cancer-specific survival differences across marital status were compared by Kaplan-Meier curves. We also estimated crude hazard ratios (CHRs) and adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for marital status associated with survival by race/ethnicity and gender in Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 12,168 eligible patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma were included. We observed that married status was an independent protective prognostic factor for overall and cancer-specific survival. In stratified analyses by race/ethnicity, the AHR of overall mortality (unmarried vs married) was highest for Hispanic (AHR =1.25, 95% CI, 1.13-1.39; P married patients obtained better survival advantages. Race/ethnicity and gender could influence the magnitude of associations between marital status and risk of mortality.

  10. Distress, race/ethnicity and smoking cessation in treatment-seekers: implications for disparity elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2015-09-01

    Distress is a modifiable risk factor for smoking maintenance. This study aimed to assess racial/ethnic differences in distress pre- and post-cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, and relations with abstinence. Analyses of variance and logistic regressions were conducted. University-based smoking cessation laboratory in South Florida, USA. The sample comprised 234 treatment-seekers recruited from the community (18% white, 60% African American and 22% Hispanic). All participants received eight sessions of group CBT plus 8 weeks of transdermal nicotine patches (TNP). Demographics and smoking history [baseline], perceived stress and depressive symptoms [baseline and end of therapy (EOT)], carbon monoxide-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence (p.p.a.) at EOT, 3 months post-CBT (primary outcome) and 6 months (self-report). Compared with whites, African Americans reported greater baseline perceived stress (P = 0.03) and depressive symptoms (P = 0.06); no EOT differences were found. African Americans (P perceived stress reduction, and African Americans reported greater reductions in depressive symptoms (P perceived stress (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.93 (0.89-0.98)) and depressive symptoms [AOR = 0.96 (0.93-0.99)] were associated inversely with 7-day p.p.a. at 3 months. Reductions in perceived stress [AOR = 0.93 (0.89-0.98)] and depressive symptoms at the EOT [AOR = 0.96 (0.93-0.99)] were associated with cessation, such that reduced distress increased the odds of abstinence. The interactions between race/ethnicity and distress on 7-day p.p.a. were not significant at any assessment point. Among smokers in Florida, USA, racial/ethnic differences in distress before starting cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation were eliminated at the end of treatment, driven by improvements among African Americans and Hispanics. High levels of distress were associated with reduced odds of abstinence through 6

  11. 13 CFR 113.3-1 - Consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. 113.3-1 Section 113.3-1 Business Credit and... of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. (a) This regulation does not prohibit the consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national...

  12. [Midwives and smoking--attitudes, smoking status and counselling competence in the course of training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, K; Laux, M; Koch, F; Groneberg, D A; Kusma, B; Schwarz, C; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major public health threat. Midwives can contribute to the reduction of tobacco use among pregnant women and young families. It can be assumed that personal smoking behaviour and knowledge of harmful effects influences counselling activities. The aim of this study was to assess smoking status, nicotine dependency and the will to change of midwifery students in german-speaking countries. Broad data on this population is not available so far. In 2010, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian, German and Swiss midwifery schools. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits, personal attitudes towards smoking, knowledge of cessation strategies, perceived self-efficacy and competence to counsel pregnant women regarding their smoking habits of midwifery trainees were examined. 1 126 students and 38 teaching midwives answered this questionnaire (RR=61.8%). 22.7% are daily or occasional smokers. 6.8% have to be considered as medium and heavy smokers. 98.1% consider cessation counselling for pregnant and breast-feeding women as a midwife's task, while 76.5% feel competent enough to do so. 75.5% rate cessation counselling through midwives as effective stop-smoking procedures compared to blurry knowledge on related health risks and effective stop-smoking strategies. The self-reported smoking prevalence is considerably lower than in previous studies and other populations. Knowledge of harmful effects and of effective treatment options needs improvement. Counselling competence needs to be included in a broader way in midwifery curricula. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Nonnemaker

    Full Text Available Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1 assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2 determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS, a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706. The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional, on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for

  14. The Influence of Antismoking Television Advertisements on Cessation by Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Mental Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Davis, Kevin C.; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C.; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State’s antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with

  15. The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor

  16. Socioeconomic Status, Not Race, Is Associated With Reduced Survival in Esophagectomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhunmwunsee, Loretta; Gulack, Brian C; Rushing, Christel; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Berry, Mark F; Hartwig, Matthew G

    2017-07-01

    Black patients with esophageal cancer have worse survival than white patients. This study examines this racial disparity in conjunction with socioeconomic status (SES) and explores whether race-based outcome differences exist using a national database. The associations between race and SES with overall survival of patients treated with esophagectomy for stages I to III esophageal cancer between 2003 and 2011 in the National Cancer Data Base were investigated using the Kaplan-Meier method and proportional hazards analyses. Median income by zip code and proportion of the zip code residents without a high school diploma were grouped into income and education quartiles, respectively and used as surrogates for SES. The association between race and overall survival stratified by SES is explored. Of 11,599 esophagectomy patients who met study criteria, 3,503 (30.2%) were in the highest income quartile, 2,847 (24.5%) were in the highest education quartile, and 610 patients (5%) were black. Before adjustment for SES, black patients had worse overall survival than white patients (median survival 23.0 versus 34.7 months, log rank p race was not. Prior studies have suggested that survival of esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy is associated with race. Our study suggests that race is not significantly related to overall survival when adjusted for other prognostic variables. Socioeconomic status, however, remains significantly related to overall survival in our model. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Implicit Bias: Implications for Closing the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Elizabeth Auretta Cox

    This study accessed the relationship between race, socioeconomic status, age and the race implicit bias held by middle and high school science teachers in Mobile and Baldwin County Public School Systems. Seventy-nine participants were administered the race Implicit Association Test (race IAT), created by Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R., (2003) and a demographic survey. Quantitative analysis using analysis of variances, ANOVA and t-tests were used in this study. An ANOVA was performed comparing the race IAT scores of African American science teachers and their Caucasian counterparts. A statically significant difference was found (F = .4.56, p = .01). An ANOVA was also performed using the race IAT scores comparing the age of the participants; the analysis yielded no statistical difference based on age. A t-test was performed comparing the race IAT scores of African American teachers who taught at either Title I or non-Title I schools; no statistical difference was found between groups (t = -17.985, p .001). This research examines the implications of the achievement gap among African American and Caucasian students in science.

  18. Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Diurnal Cortisol Trajectories in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Laura J; Roth, David L; Schwartz, Brian S; Thorpe, Roland J; Glass, Thomas A

    2018-03-02

    Slow afternoon cortisol decline may be a marker of aging. We hypothesize that lower socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline. Six salivary cortisol samples, collected within a 24-hr period from 566 cohort participants aged 56-78 years, were examined in random-effects models. SES measures included socioeconomic vulnerability (household income and assets Accounting for African American race/ethnicity, socioeconomic vulnerability was associated with a 3% faster decline, and education was not associated with cortisol. African Americans had 26% lower average waking cortisol and 1% slower decline than others. African American race/ethnicity, but not lower SES, was associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline in middle-aged and older adults. This pattern is likely a marker of earlier biological aging in vulnerable groups. Race/ethnicity may compete with SES as a measure of cumulative vulnerability.

  19. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, M.; Shikiar, R.; Rentz, A.; Khan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment.
SUBJECTS—Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective productivity and absenteeism data were supplied by the employer. Subjective assessments of productivity were collected using a self report instrument, the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ).
RESULTS—Current smokers had significantly greater absenteeism than did never smokers, with former smokers having intermediate values; among former smokers, absenteeism showed a significant decline with years following cessation. Former smokers showed an increase in seven of 10 objective productivity measures as compared to current smokers, with a mean increase of 4.5%. While objective productivity measures for former smokers decreased compared to measures for current smokers during the first year following cessation, values for former smokers were greater than those for current smokers by 1-4 years following cessation. Subjective assessments of "productivity evaluation by others" and "personal life satisfaction" showed significant trends with highest values for never smokers, lowest for current smokers, and intermediate for former smokers.
CONCLUSIONS—Workplace productivity is increased and absenteeism is decreased among former smokers as compared to current smokers. Productivity among former smokers increases over time toward values seen among never smokers. Subjective measures of productivity provide indications of novel ways of productivity assessment that are sensitive to smoking status.


Keywords: smoking cessation; workplace; absenteeism; productivity

  20. Smoking-attributable medical expenditures by age, sex, and smoking status estimated using a relative risk approach☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciosek, Michael V.; Xu, Xin; Butani, Amy L.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To accurately assess the benefits of tobacco control interventions and to better inform decision makers, knowledge of medical expenditures by age, gender, and smoking status is essential. Method We propose an approach to distribute smoking-attributable expenditures by age, gender, and cigarette smoking status to reflect the known risks of smoking. We distribute hospitalization days for smoking-attributable diseases according to relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality, and use the method to determine national estimates of smoking-attributable expenditures by age, sex, and cigarette smoking status. Sensitivity analyses explored assumptions of the method. Results Both current and former smokers ages 75 and over have about 12 times the smoking-attributable expenditures of their current and former smoker counterparts 35–54 years of age. Within each age group, the expenditures of formers smokers are about 70% lower than current smokers. In sensitivity analysis, these results were not robust to large changes to the relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality which were used in the calculations. Conclusion Sex- and age-group-specific smoking expenditures reflect observed disease risk differences between current and former cigarette smokers and indicate that about 70% of current smokers’ excess medical care costs is preventable by quitting. PMID:26051203

  1. Collective Pedagogical Teacher Culture and Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing…

  2. Smoking initiation among youth: the role of cigarette excise taxes and prices by race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2011-05-01

    Existing evidence for the role of cigarette excise taxes and prices as significant determinants of youth smoking initiation is mixed. A few studies have considered the possibility that the impact of cigarette taxes and prices might differ by gender or race/ethnicity. In this paper, we address the role of cigarette taxes and prices on youth smoking initiation using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort and discrete-time survival methods. We present results overall and by gender, race/ethnicity, and gender by race/ethnicity. We examine initiation over the age range during which youth are most at risk of initiation and over a period in which substantial changes have occurred in tax and price. The result for cigarette excise taxes is small and mixed across alternative specifications, with the effect strongest for black youth. Cigarette prices are more consistently a significant determinant of youth smoking initiation, especially for black youth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age: Impulsivity, cigarette smoking status, and other risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Laura L; Hand, Dennis J; Priest, Jeff S; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    The study aim was to examine impulsivity and other risk factors for e-cigarette use among women of reproductive age comparing current daily cigarette smokers to never cigarette smokers. Women of reproductive age are of special interest because of the additional risk that tobacco and nicotine use represents should they become pregnant. Survey data were collected anonymously online using Amazon Mechanical Turk in 2014. Participants were 800 women ages 24-44years from the US. Half (n=400) reported current, daily smoking and half (n=400) reported smoking e-cigarette use were examined using logistic regression. Daily cigarette smoking was associated with greater impulsivity, lower education, past illegal drug use, and White race/ethnicity. E-cigarette use in the overall sample was associated with being a cigarette smoker and greater education. E-cigarette use among current smokers was associated with increased nicotine dependence and quitting smoking; among never smokers it was associated with greater impulsivity and illegal drug use. E-cigarette use was associated with hookah use, and for never smokers only with use of cigars and other nicotine products. E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age varies by smoking status, with use among current smokers reflecting attempts to quit smoking whereas among non-smokers use may be a marker of a more impulsive repertoire that includes greater use of alternative tobacco products and illegal drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Link between perceived smoking behaviour at school and students smoking status: a large survey among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, I; D'Egidio, V; Grassucci, D; Gelardini, M; Ardizzone, C; La Torre, G

    2017-10-01

    To investigate a possible link between sociodemographic factors, the perception of smoking habits at school and smoking status of Italian adolescents attending secondary school. The study was a cross-sectional study. An anonymous online survey was employed to gather information on age, gender, smoking status and to examine the perception of smoking behaviour on the school premises. Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed for the univariate analysis and logistic and multinomial regressions for the multivariate analysis. The statistical analyses included 1889 students. Univariate analysis showed significant differences concerning knowledge between smoker and non-smoker concerning the harmfulness of smoking (P smoking at school (odds ratio: 1.54 [95% confidence interval 1.26-1.89]). Students older than 19 years most often begin smoking because their friends smoke compared with younger students (adjusted odds ratio: 1.18 [95% confidence interval 0.48-2.89]). School environment and behaviour of role models play a crucial part in student smoking. To prevent and reduce youth tobacco smoking, not merely the presence of preventive measures is important but greater attention needs to be placed on the enforcement of smoking policies. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural processing of race during imitation: self-similarity versus social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Cross, Katy A.; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2017-01-01

    People preferentially imitate others who are similar to them or have high social status. Such imitative biases are thought to have evolved because they increase the efficiency of cultural acquisition. Here we focused on distinguishing between self-similarity and social status as two candidate mechanisms underlying neural responses to a person’s race during imitation. We used fMRI to measure neural responses when 20 African American (AA) and 20 European American (EA) young adults imitated AA, EA and Chinese American (CA) models and also passively observed their gestures and faces. We found that both AA and EA participants exhibited more activity in lateral fronto-parietal and visual regions when imitating AAs compared to EAs or CAs. These results suggest that racial self-similarity is not likely to modulate neural responses to race during imitation, in contrast with findings from previous neuroimaging studies of face perception and action observation. Furthermore, AA and EA participants associated AAs with lower social status than EAs or CAs, suggesting that the social status associated with different racial groups may instead modulate neural activity during imitation of individuals from those groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that neural responses to race during imitation are driven by socially-learned associations rather than self-similarity. This may reflect the adaptive role of imitation in social learning, where learning from higher-status models can be more beneficial. This study provides neural evidence consistent with evolutionary theories of cultural acquisition. PMID:23813738

  6. Assessment of maternal smoking status during pregnancy and the associations with neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rachel; Kruithof, Claudia; Steegers, Eric A P; Tiemeier, Henning; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-12-01

    Single assessment of smoking during pregnancy may lead to misclassification due to underreporting or failure of smoking cessation. We examined the percentage of mothers who were misclassified in smoking status based on single assessment, as compared with repeated assessment, and whether this misclassification leads to altered effect estimates for the associations between maternal smoking and neonatal complications. This study was performed in 5,389 mothers participating in a prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. Smoking status was assessed 3 times during pregnancy using questionnaires. Information on birth weight and neonatal complications was obtained from hospital records. For categorizing mothers per smoking status, Cohen's Kappa coefficient was .86 (p pregnancy, 1.7% (70 of 4,141) and 33.7% (217 of 643), respectively, were reclassified to continued smoking based on repeated assessment. Younger, shorter lower educated mothers who had non-European ethnicity experienced more stress, consumed more alcohol, and did not use folic acid supplements had higher risk of underreporting their smoking status or failure of smoking cessation. Marginal differences were found on the associations of maternal smoking with neonatal complications between single or repeated assessment. Our results suggest that single assessment of smoking during pregnancy leads to underestimation of the continued smoking prevalence, especially among mothers who reported quitting smoking in first trimester. However, this underestimation does not materially change the effect estimates for the associations between maternal smoking and neonatal outcomes.

  7. Social Determinants of Depression: The Intersections of Race, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wealth of literature on social determinants of mental health, less is known about the intersection of these determinants. Using a nationally representative sample, this study aimed to study separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race, gender, and SES on the risk of major depressive episode (MDE among American adults. Methods: National Survey of American Life (NSAL included 3570 African Americans and 891 Whites. Race, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, household income, education, employment, and marital status were independent variables. Twelve-month MDE was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. A series of logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: In the pooled sample, race and household income, but not gender, education, employment, and marital status were associated with 12-month MDE. Gender interacted with the effects of income on MDE, suggesting that the association between household income and MDE is larger for women than men. In race by gender specific models that controlled for other SES indicators, high income was protective for White women, education was protective for African American women, and high income became a risk factor for African American men. High income did not show a risk effect for African American men in the absence of other SES indicators. Conclusions: Findings suggest that race, gender, and class interact on how SES indicators, such as education or income, become a protective or a risk factor for MDE among American Adults. When the outcome is MDE, White women benefit more from income, African American women gain from education, however, the residual effect of high income (above and beyond education, employment, and marital status may become a risk factor for African American men.

  8. Tobacco use prevalence – disentangling associations between Alaska Native race, low socio-economic status and rural disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Dilley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product among the 3 populations of interest. Results . “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment.” For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48% and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%. Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion . While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be

  9. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    OpenAIRE

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand sm...

  10. Case Study: Physical Capacity and Nutritional Status Before and After a Single-Handed Yacht Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Giovanna; Magnani, Sara; Doneddu, Azzurra; Sainas, Gianmarco; Pinna, Virginia; Caboi, Marco; Palazzolo, Girolamo; Tocco, Filippo; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2017-12-18

    During solitary sailing the sailor is exposed to sleep deprivation and difficulties in consuming regular meals. Sailor weight loss is often reported. In the present case study we describe changes in the physical capacity and the nutritional status of an athlete attempting a single-handed yacht race around the globe. An Italian male ocean racer (GM) asked for our help to reach an optimum level of physical and nutritional preparation. We planned his diet after assessing his anthropometric parameters and body composition as well as his usual energy intake and nutritional expenditure. The diet consisted in 120 meals stored in sealed plastic bags. Before his departure, GM performed two incremental exercise tests (cycle- and arm crank- ergometry) to assess his physical capacity. Cardiac functions were also estimated by Doppler echocardiography. All measures and exercise tests were repeated 10 days after GM finished the race, which lasted 64 days. Anthropometric measures did not change significantly, with the exception of Arm Fat Area and Thigh Muscle area, which decreased. There were evident increments in maximum oxygen intake and maximum workload during arm cranking after the race. On the contrary, maximum oxygen uptake and maximum workload decreased during cycling. Finally, End Diastolic and Stroke Volume decreased after the race. It was concluded that nutritional counseling was useful to avoid excessive changes in the nutritional status and body composition due to 64 days of solitary navigation. However, a reduction in physical leg capacity and cardiovascular functions secondary to legs disuse were present.

  11. Effects of marital status on survival of hepatocellular carcinoma by race/ethnicity and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu W

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wenrui Wu,1,2 Daiqiong Fang,1,2 Ding Shi,1,2 Xiaoyuan Bian,1,2 Lanjuan Li1,2 1State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Purpose: It is well demonstrated that being married is associated with a better prognosis in multiple types of cancer. However, whether the protective effect of marital status varied across race/ethnicity and gender in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the roles of race/ethnicity and gender in this relationship.Patients and methods: We identified eligible patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database during 2004–2012. Overall and cancer-specific survival differences across marital status were compared by Kaplan–Meier curves. We also estimated crude hazard ratios (CHRs and adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for marital status associated with survival by race/ethnicity and gender in Cox proportional hazard models.Results: A total of 12,168 eligible patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma were included. We observed that married status was an independent protective prognostic factor for overall and cancer-specific survival. In stratified analyses by race/ethnicity, the AHR of overall mortality (unmarried vs married was highest for Hispanic (AHR =1.25, 95% CI, 1.13–1.39; P<0.001 and lowest for Asian or Pacific Islander (AHR =1.13; 95% CI, 1.00–1.28; P=0.042. Stratified by gender, the AHR was higher in males (AHR =1.27; 95% CI, 1.20–1.33; P<0.001.Conclusion: We demonstrated that married patients obtained better survival advantages. Race/ethnicity and gender could influence the magnitude of associations between marital status and risk of mortality. Keywords: primary hepatocellular

  12. Disparities in lymphoma on the basis of race, gender, HIV status, and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Melody; Flowers, Christopher R; Nastoupil, Loretta J

    2017-11-01

    Lymphoid malignancies account for the sixth leading cause of death in the US, and, although survival is improving overall, this trend is not applicable to all patients. In this review, we describe disparities in the initial presentation, treatment, and outcomes across a diverse group of lymphoma patients on the basis of gender, race, HIV status, and sexual orientation. Identifying these disparities will hopefully lead to improved outcomes in these groups of lymphoma patients in the future.

  13. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  14. A structural equation modeling approach to understanding pathways that connect socioeconomic status and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Sydney A; Beebe, Laura A; Thompson, David M; Wagener, Theodore L; Terrell, Deirdra R; Campbell, Janis E

    2018-01-01

    The inverse association between socioeconomic status and smoking is well established, yet the mechanisms that drive this relationship are unclear. We developed and tested four theoretical models of the pathways that link socioeconomic status to current smoking prevalence using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey, we selected four indicator variables (poverty ratio, personal earnings, educational attainment, and employment status) that we hypothesize underlie a latent variable, socioeconomic status. We measured direct, indirect, and total effects of socioeconomic status on smoking on four pathways through four latent variables representing social cohesion, financial strain, sleep disturbance, and psychological distress. Results of the model indicated that the probability of being a smoker decreased by 26% of a standard deviation for every one standard deviation increase in socioeconomic status. The direct effects of socioeconomic status on smoking accounted for the majority of the total effects, but the overall model also included significant indirect effects. Of the four mediators, sleep disturbance and psychological distress had the largest total effects on current smoking. We explored the use of structural equation modeling in epidemiology to quantify effects of socioeconomic status on smoking through four social and psychological factors to identify potential targets for interventions. A better understanding of the complex relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking is critical as we continue to reduce the burden of tobacco and eliminate health disparities related to smoking.

  15. The Importance of Partner Support and Psychological Status in Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Turan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The habit of smoking is more common in members of a family living in the same house. People with psychiatric symptoms smoke more cigarettes. We conducted a study to examine whether the psychological status of couples and partner support affects smoking cessation success. Methods: The outpatients who started taking a therapy for smoking cessation between July 2014 and January 2015 in our clinic were included in this prospective, single-center study. Each couple was assessed on the basis of the Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS and Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS. The smoking status of the participants was assessed after 6 months, and they filled out the Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ. Results: Of 141 volunteers, 55% joined the smoking cessation program as couples. A total of 55.3% of the participants managed to quit smoking. Further, 42.3% of couples quitted smoking. Nearly 96.2% of couples had the same result regarding smoking cessation. The smoking cessation rate was significantly lower in couples with high anxiety depression scores (participant: p=0.028 and 0.037; partner: p=0.003 and 0.007, smoker partners (p<0.01, and participants with low marital adjustments (p<0.01. Logistic regression analysis showed that the independent parameters affecting smoking cessation success were support and the smoking status of partners (p<0.001 and 0.021, respectively. Conclusion: Partner support and psychological status were important parameters associated with smoking cessation. The presence of non-smoker partners made quitting smoking easier. Reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms and support of partners may help in smoking cessation.

  16. The effect of smoking status on burn inhalation injury mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlin, Laquanda; Stanford, Lindsay; Cairns, Bruce; Charles, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Three factors that effect burn mortality are age, total body surface of burn (TBSA), and inhalation injury. Of the three, inhalation injury is the strongest predictor of mortality thus its inclusion in the revised Baux score (age+TBSA+17* (inhalation injury, 1=yes, 0=no)). However, the weighted contribution of specific comorbidities such as smoker status on mortality has traditionally not been accounted for nor studied in this subset of burn patients. We therefore sought to examine the impact of current tobacco and/or marijuana smoking in patients with inhalation injury. A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to a regional burn center from 2002 to 2012. Independent variables analyzed included basic demographics, burn mechanism, presence of inhalation injury, TBSA, pre-existing comorbidities, and smoker status. Bivariate analysis was performed and logistic regression modeling using significant variables was utilized to estimate odds of mortality. There were a total of 7640 patients over the study period. 7% (n=580) of the burn cohort with inhalation injury were included in this study. In-hospital burn mortality for inhalation injury patients was 23%. Current smokers (20%) included cigarette smokers and marijuana users, 19% and 3%, respectively. Preexisting respiratory disease (17%) was present in 36% of smokers compared to 13% of non-smokers (psmoke inhalation injury. Future prospective studies in human and/or animal models are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva versus the status of cigarette smoking, considering duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2017-09-21

    A large number of colonies of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) cariogenic bacteria in the saliva show a high risk of dental caries development. Cotinine is a biomarker of exposure to the tobacco smoke. The aim of the study was assessment of the number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in the saliva of non-smokers and smokers considering the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. The number of SM and LB was analysed in relation to the frequency of oral health check-ups. The investigated group comprised 124 people aged 20-54. 58 (46.8%) reported cigarette smoking; 66 (53.2%) reported they had never smoked cigarettes and had never attempted to smoke. Cotinine concentration in the saliva was assayed using the Cotinine test (Calbiotech), and the number of SM and LB with the use of the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi2 and Mann-Whitney tests. Test values of pSM and LB and the status of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of cigarette smoking. Smokers who reported having dental check-ups at least once a year significantly more frequently had a small number of LB stated in relation to people who had dental check-ups to control their oral health less frequently than once a year. The number of SM and LB in saliva does not depend on the smoking status, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of smoking.

  18. Associations between Race and Dementia Status and the Quality of End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luth, Elizabeth A; Prigerson, Holly G

    2018-04-05

    Non-Hispanic black and dementia patients receive more invasive and futile treatment at end of life (EOL) relative to others. Little is known about the relationship between race/ethnicity, dementia, and EOL care quality. Identify the relationship between race/ethnicity, dementia, and proxy reporters' evaluation of EOL care quality in older adults. Latent class analysis (LCA) of national survey data. 1588 deceased Medicare beneficiaries age 65 and older from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (2011-2016). LCA identified three types of quality EOL care using nine measures of symptom management, quality of healthcare encounters, and dignified treatment. Race and dementia were primary predictors of EOL care quality type. Adjusted models controlled for decedent education, sex, marital status, age, number of illnesses, number of hospitalizations, self-rated health, place of death, hospice involvement, and proxy relationship to decedent and familiarity with care. Over 20% of proxies report that dying individuals experienced suboptimal EOL care quality, characterized by pain, sadness, poor communication, and inattention to personal care needs. In adjusted analyses, proxies for non-Hispanic black decedents were less likely to provide negative care assessments than proxies for non-Hispanic white decedents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.86). Proxies for decedents with dementia were less likely to provide negative assessments than proxies for decedents without dementia (AOR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.97). Efforts to improve EOL care quality are needed. More positive EOL care quality assessments for non-Hispanic Black and dementia decedents appear counterintuitive given research demonstrating that these groups of individuals are likely to have received suboptimal EOL care. Because caregiver expectations for care may differ by decedent race and dementia status, research is needed to explore the role of caregiver expectations for EOL care

  19. [Teenage and adult pregnancy: different correlations between socio-economic status and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Brigitta; Bácskai, Erika; Gerevich, József; Czobor, Pál

    2013-03-10

    Smoking occurs frequently during pregnancy, thereby putting mother and child at health risks. Low socio-economic status is a risk factor for smoking. To investigate the relationship between smoking and low income in teenage and adult pregnancy, which is an important measure of poor socioeconomic status. The authors used subject-level data from the US NSDUH database, which contains information on pregnancies and smoking. Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher, whereas adult pregnancy with lower prevalence of smoking, compared to the age-matched female population. The association between income and smoking is age-dependent. Among adults there is an inverse relationship (high income -- low-risk of smoking), while in teenage pregnancy smoking increases with income. To investigate in teenage and adult pregnancy the relationship between smoking and low income, which is an important measure of poor socio-economic status. Higher socioeconomic status may be associated with risky behaviour, thereby increasing both the risk of smoking and early pregnancy.

  20. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

  1. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazier Richard H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Results Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8 and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3. Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Conclusions Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  2. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-03-03

    Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8) and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3). Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  3. Smoking status and associated factors among male Chinese restaurant workers in metropolitan Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Leung, Brenda; Tam, Nancy; Xu, Huilan; Gleeson, Suzanne; Wen, Li Ming

    2017-03-01

    Issue addressed The smoking rate among male Chinese migrants in Australia is higher than among the general population. This study investigated the smoking rate of male Chinese restaurant workers in metropolitan Sydney, and explored factors associated with smoking and quitting. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by Chinese workers in selected Chinese restaurants in metropolitan Sydney from October-December 2012. Eighty-nine Chinese restaurants were approached and 54 (61%) took part in the study. The questionnaire asked participants about their smoking status, knowledge of and attitudes to smoking and quitting as well as socio-demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was built to assess the associated factors. Results Of the 382 participants who completed the survey, 171 (45%) were current smokers and 50% of current smokers wanted to quit smoking. Participants who spoke Mandarin, had lower English proficiency, did not realise environmental smoke harms children, did not prefer a smoke-free environment or had more than 50% of relatives or friends who smoked were more likely to be current smokers. Participants who were aged 18-29 years, did not understand the benefits of quitting smoking or did not prefer a smoke-free environment were less likely to want to quit. Conclusions Nearly 50% of male Chinese restaurant workers surveyed in this study were current smokers. Key factors associated with the participants' smoking or quitting status are: aged 18-29 years; speaking Mandarin; lower English literacy; and not knowing the dangers of smoking. So what? Tobacco control programs targetted at male Chinese restaurant workers that raise awareness of the harm caused by smoking and the benefits of quitting smoking are required to enhance intention to quit smoking within this population.

  4. Examining the Association Between Different Aspects of Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Disability in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Jason; Davis, James; Taira, Deborah Ann

    2018-02-20

    Socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity are known to be associated with health disparities. This study used data (2010-2014) from the American Community Survey. Respondents over age 30 from Hawaii were included (n = 44,921). Outcome variables were self-reported disability in vision, hearing, ambulatory function, self-care, independent living, or cognitive function. Four measures of socioeconomic status were personal income, average income for the area, income inequality for area, and education. This study used multivariable logistic regression to predict disability by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, controlling for age and gender. All four measures of socioeconomic status were significant predictors of at least one type of disability after adjustment for age, gender, and other measures of socioeconomic status. Higher education was significantly related to having every type of disability. Similarly, people with high personal income were less likely to have each type of disability than those with middle income, and those with low income were more likely to have all disabilities except hearing. Income inequality was significantly associated with half the disabilities. Low area income was significantly associated with increased vision-related disability, while high income was associated with less likelihood of hearing-related disability. Native Hawaiians were significantly more likely to report having a disability than Filipinos and Chinese for all six types of disability, Japanese for four, and whites for two, after adjustment. These results suggest that in order to reduce health disparities for Native Hawaiians, as well as other ethnic groups, a range of socioeconomic factors need to be addressed.

  5. Smoking, depression, and hospital costs of respiratory cancers: Examining race and sex variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baqar A. Husaini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of smoking and depression on hospital costs for lung cancer (LC. Methods: We extracted data on depression, smoking history, demographics, and hospital charges for patients with respiratory cancers (ICD-9 codes 161–163, 165 from the 2008 Tennessee Hospital Discharge Data System. The sample (n=6665 was mostly white (86% and male (57%. Age-adjusted rates were developed in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention methods, and hospital costs were compared for patients with LC with versus without depression and a smoking history. Results: Three findings (P<0.001 emerged: (1 the LC rate was higher among blacks than among whites, and higher among men than among women; (2 while 66% of LC patients smoked (more men than women without racial variation, 24% had depression (more females and whites were depressed; (3 the LC hospital cost was 54% higher than the non-LC hospital cost, and this cost doubled for patients with LC with depression and smoking versus those without such characteristics. Conclusion: While LC is more prevalent among blacks and men, depression is higher among female and white patients. Since depression with higher costs existed among LC patients, our findings point to (1 the possibility of cost savings by diagnosing and treating depression among LC patients, and (2 implementation of proven smoking cessation programs to reduce LC morbidity and hospital costs.

  6. Determinants of smoking status : cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.J.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Surtees, P.G.; Ormel, J.

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and

  7. Adolescent romantic relationships and change in smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S; Pollard, Michael S; Go, Myong-Hyun; Green, Harold D

    2011-04-01

    Although smoking rates have decreased, smoking among adolescents continues to be a problem. Previous research has shown the importance of peer influences on adolescent smoking behavior but has mostly neglected the impact of adolescent romantic relationships. This study examines the influence of romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers on smoking initiation and cessation over a one-year period using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). For initial non-smokers, we examined whether the total length of time in romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers at Wave I, as well as amount of exposure to smoking through romantic partners, predicted smoking initiation at Wave II. Among initial regular smokers, we examined whether these same relationship characteristics predicted smoking cessation at Wave II. These analyses were conducted separately for respondents in any type of romantic relationship, as well as just those respondents in close romantic relationships. Results indicated that, for close romantic relationships, cessation was more likely among smokers with more time in relationships with non-smoking partners. Greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly decreased the likelihood of cessation among initial smokers and increased the likelihood of initiation among initial non-smokers. For all relationships, greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly reduced the likelihood of cessation. These associations held when controlling for best friend smoking, as well as demographic factors and school-level smoking, suggesting that peer-based smoking programs aimed at adolescents should incorporate a focus on romantic relationships. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  9. Prognostic factors in advanced breast cancer: Race and receptor status are significant after development of metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhiyong; Li, Yufeng; Shen, Tiansheng; Hameed, Omar; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic factors are well established in early-stage breast cancer (BC), but less well-defined in advanced disease. We analyzed 323 BC patients who had distant relapse during follow-up from 1997 to 2010 to determine the significant clinicopathologic factors predicting survival outcomes. By univariate analysis, race, tumor grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and HER2 status were significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and post-metastasis survival (PMS). Applying a Cox regression model revealed that all these factors remained significant for PMS, while race, tumor grade and HER2 were independent factors for OS. Tumor grade was the only significant factor for metastasis-free survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. Our findings demonstrated that being Caucasian, hormonal receptor positive (HR+) and HER2 positive (HER2+) were all associated with a decreased hazard of death and that patients with HR+/HER2+ tumors had superior outcomes to those with HR+/HER2- disease. Further, PR status held a prognostic value over ER, thus reflecting the biologic mechanism of the importance of the functional ER pathway and the heterogeneity in the response to endocrine therapy. These observations indicate that the patients' genetic makeup and the intrinsic nature of the tumor principally govern BC progression and prognosticate the long-term outcomes in advanced disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect Of Smoking On Thyroid Status In Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Jalaj Saxena; P N Singh; Uma Srivastavaq; A Q Siddiqui

    1997-01-01

    Research Problem: Whal is Ihe impact of smoking cigarettes on thyroid functions in depression patients. Objective: To estimate T3, T4 and TSH in depressed smokers. Study Design:   Hospital   based clinical  study. Setting: Psychiatry out - door patients. Participants: Depression patients with or without history of smoking. Sample Size:     Twenty five  patients  of depression. Study Variables: Smoking, Non - smoking, T3 , T4 , TSH Statistical Analysis: Student t- test. Result: The patients of...

  11. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup. Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition. Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  12. What’s Your “Street Race”? Leveraging Multidimensional Measures of Race and Intersectionality for Examining Physical and Mental Health Status Among Latinxs

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Nancy; Vargas, Edward D.; Juarez, Melina; Cacari-Stone, Lisa; Bettez, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Using the 2015 Latino National Health and Immigration Survey (N= 1,197) we examine the relationship between physical and mental health status and three multidimensional measures of race: 1) “street race,” or how you believe other “Americans” perceive your race at the level of the street; 2) socially assigned race or what we call “ascribed race,” which refers to how you believe others usually classify your race in the U.S.; and 3) “self-perceived race,” or how you usually self-classify your race on questionnaires. We engage in intersectional inquiry by combining street race and gender. We find that only self-perceived race correlates with physical health and that street race is associated with mental health. We also find that men reporting their street race as Latinx1 or Arab were associated with higher odds of reporting worse mental health outcomes. One surprising finding was that, for physical health, men reporting their street race as Latinx were associated with higher odds of reporting optimal physical health. Among women, those reporting their street race as Mexican were associated with lower odds of reporting optimal physical health when compared to all other women; for mental health status, however, we found no differences among women. We argue that “street race” is a promising multidimensional measure of race for exploring inequality among Latinxs. PMID:29423428

  13. Smoking status in relation to serum folate and dietary vitamin intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardavas, C.I.; Linardakis, M.K.; Hatzis, C.M.; Malliaraki, N.; Saris, W.H.; Kafatos, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoke itself is an abundant source of free radicals and a major cause of oxidative stress, to which plasma antioxidants function as a vital protective and counterbalancing mechanism. The objective of this study was to investigate into the relationship between smoking status and

  14. [Relation of the blood pressure, lipids and body mass index by smoking status among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Young Soon; Lee, Hea Shoon

    2007-10-01

    This study was to investigate the relationship between blood pressure, lipids and body mass index by smoking status among adolescents. This study was designed as a descriptive correlational study. General and smoking characteristics were collected using a questionnaire. The smoking group consisted of 42 (33%) students and the non smoking group 85 (67%) students. Blood pressure, lipids, height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated to kg/m2. The collected data was analyzed by the n(%), chi2-test, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient (SPSS 12.0). 1. The smoking level was different between grade, smoking status among the family, the contentment of their relationship with their parents, school life and teachers. 2. The smoking group's systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and body mass index were higher than those of the non smoking group. 3. The smoking amount had a significant positive correlation between total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The result of this study offered basic data to develop intervention programs to prevent hypertension and hyperlipidemia in smoking adolescents.

  15. Smoking status predicts cancer patients' quality of life over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Martinez

    2018-03-01

    These results extend previous findings showing that QOL improves in cancer patients who quit smoking. Specifically, patients who quit smoking experience a greater reduction in depression and pain levels at all time points, and the reduction increases over time. In the case of fatigue, the results suggest that patients experience the greatest improvement with longer (≥ 4 months abstinence.

  16. Smoking status, knowledge of health effects and attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of the respondents (87%) acknowledged the harmful effects of direct smoking. ... for local authorities to regulate smoking in public places (78%), for government assistance to fanners for tobacco crop replacement (53%) and for an increase in tobacco excise tax if the money is used for health purposes (50%).

  17. Parental education and family status--association with children's cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloudíková, Iva; Hrubá, Drahoslava; Samara, Ibrahim

    2012-03-01

    Social influences are among the most important factors associated with children's and adolescents' smoking. Social norms in families, peer groups, professional and municipal communities influence the individuals ones by the process of socialization obtained mainly by interactions and observations. Especially social context of the home environment expressed by household smoking restriction serves as a socialization mechanism that dissuades from the using of tobacco. Parental anti-smoking socialization practices (their attitudes and knowledge about children smoking, discussion about smoking in appropriate quality and frequency, smoking environment in homes) are influenced by their education and family status. Markers of social environment (the level of mothers' and fathers' education, family status) were investigated during interview with 5th graders included in the cohort participating in the programme "Non-smoking Is Normal". Data about the self-reported exposure to passive smoking at homes and cars were taken into consideration. Information about discussions with parents about smoking, opinions about adults smoking, experimentation with smoking, and concurrent decision about smoking in the future were obtained from 766 children aged 11 years. Those who did not know parental education or family status were excluded from the evaluation. Differences were evaluated using the chi-square, Mantel-Haenszel, Fisher and Yates corrected tests in the statistic software Epi Info, version 6. The level of mothers' and fathers' education significantly influenced the exposure of children to passive smoking. Compared to families of higher educated parents, children living in families with middle and low levels of parents' education were significantly more exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home and in car (RR 1.38; 95% CI 1.04-1.83) and fewer of them live in non-smoking environments. In the whole cohort, 67.5% children have not smoked even one puff yet, 17.2% reported one

  18. Socioeconomic status and smoking among thai adults: results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2011-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.

  19. Evaluation of Smoking Status among Diabetes Patients in the State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of smoking among diabetes patients attending Diabetes. Outpatient Clinic at Penang .... (2,547) medical records of type 1 and 2 diabetes patients were .... American Diabetes Association. Standards of ...

  20. Maternal factors influencing late entry into prenatal care: a stratified analysis by race or ethnicity and insurance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Rebecca J; Altman, Molly R; Oltman, Scott P; Ryckman, Kelli K; Chambers, Christina D; Rand, Larry; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L

    2018-04-09

    Examine factors influencing late (> sixth month of gestation) entry into prenatal care by race/ethnicity and insurance payer. The study population was drawn from singleton live births in California from 2007-2012 in the birth cohort file maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, which includes linked birth certificate and mother and infant hospital discharge records. The sample was restricted to infants delivered between 20 and 44 weeks gestation. Logistic regression was used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for factors influencing late entry into prenatal care. Maternal age, education, smoking, drug or alcohol abuse/dependence, mental illness, participation in the Women, Infants and Children's program and rural residence were evaluated for women entering prenatal care > sixth month of gestation compared with women entering prenatal care entry for each race or ethnicity and insurance payer. The sample included 2 963 888 women. The percent of women with late entry into prenatal care was consistently higher among women with public versus private insurance. Less than 1% of white non-Hispanic and Asian women with private insurance entered prenatal care late versus more than 4% of white non-Hispanic and black women with public insurance. After stratifying by race or ethnicity and insurance status, women less than 18 years of age were more likely to enter prenatal care late, with young Asian women with private insurance at the highest risk (15.6%; adjusted RR 7.4, 95% CI 5.3-10.5). Among all women with private insurance, > 12-year education or age > 34 years at term reduced the likelihood of late prenatal care entry (adjusted RRs 0.5-0.7). Drugs and alcohol abuse/dependence and residing in a rural county were associated with increased risk of late prenatal care across all subgroups (adjusted RRs 1.3-3.8). Participation in the Women, Infants and Children's program was associated with decreased

  1. Effect Of Smoking On Thyroid Status In Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaj Saxena

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: Whal is Ihe impact of smoking cigarettes on thyroid functions in depression patients. Objective: To estimate T3, T4 and TSH in depressed smokers. Study Design:   Hospital   based clinical  study. Setting: Psychiatry out - door patients. Participants: Depression patients with or without history of smoking. Sample Size:     Twenty five  patients  of depression. Study Variables: Smoking, Non - smoking, T3 , T4 , TSH Statistical Analysis: Student t- test. Result: The patients of both the study group and control group had subnormal T3 but in smokers it was significantly lower than in non - smoker patients. T4 was within the normal range in both the groups, but it was significantly higher in smokers. TSH levels were normal in both the groups of patients and there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: A low T3 state exists in depression with further worsening of the condition in depressed patients who smoke, which might have an impact on therapeutic outcome. Therefore, avoidance of smoking in depression patients is suggested

  2. Friends Like Me: Associations in Overweight/Obese Status among Adolescent Friends by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Friendship Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E; Kim, Sunkyung; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how interpersonal friend relationships are associated with obesity in young people, particularly with regard to how race/ethnicity, type of friendship, and sex affect the association between friends' and adolescents' weight status. This study examined associations in weight status among adolescents and their friends, exploring magnitudes of associations across friendship type, sex, and race/ethnicity. As part of EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), friend nominations and anthropometrics were obtained from adolescents (n = 2099: 54% female; 80% nonwhite; mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 years). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to test associations between adolescents' overweight/obese status and friends' (i.e., friend group, female friends, male friends, female best friends, and male best friends) overweight/obese status. Interactions by adolescent race/ethnicity were examined. The majority of significant associations were observed among white female adolescents' who had a 22-40% higher prevalence of overweight/obesity if their friends were overweight compared to white females whose friends were not overweight. In contrast, there were few significant differences for other adolescent female and male racial/ethnic groups for girls and boys. Results for friend groups and best friends were generally similar to one another. The association between friend and adolescent overweight/obese status depended on adolescents' sex, race/ethnicity, and friendship type. Given the similarities among friends, obesity interventions targeting youth, especially white females, should consider involving friends.

  3. Smoke-Free Policies Among Asian-American Women: Comparisons by Education Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S.

    2009-01-01

    Background California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. Methods The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (≤ high school graduate) or higher education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Results Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. Conclusions The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments. PMID:19591754

  4. Smoke-free policies among Asian-American women: comparisons by education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S

    2009-08-01

    California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments.

  5. Connecting Gender, Race, Class, and Immigration Status to Disease Management at the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Chronic disease management occurs within all aspects of an individual's life, including the workplace. Though the social constructs of gender, race, class, and immigration status within the workplace have been considered, their connection to disease management among workers has been less explicitly explored. Using a sample of immigrant hotel housekeepers, we explored the connections between these four social constructs and hypertension management. Methods This qualitative research study was guided by critical ethnography methodology. Twenty-seven hotel room cleaners and four housemen were recruited (N = 31) and invited to discuss their experiences with hypertension and hypertension management within the context of their work environments. Results Being a woman worker within the hotel industry was perceived to negatively influence participants’ experience with hypertension and hypertension management. In contrast, being a woman played a protective role outside the workplace. Being an immigrant played both a positive and a negative role in hypertension and its management. Being black and from a low socioeconomic class had only adverse influences on participants’ experience with hypertension and its management. Conclusion Being a woman, black, lower class, and an immigrant simultaneously contribute to immigrant hotel housekeepers’ health and their ability to effectively manage their hypertension. The connection between these four constructs (gender, race, class, and immigration status) and disease management must be considered during care provision. Hotel employers and policy stakeholders need to consider those constructs and how they impact workers’ well-being. More studies are needed to identify what mitigates the associations between the intersectionality of these constructs and immigrant workers’ health and disease management within their work environment. PMID:27695659

  6. Connecting Gender, Race, Class, and Immigration Status to Disease Management at the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Chronic disease management occurs within all aspects of an individual's life, including the workplace. Though the social constructs of gender, race, class, and immigration status within the workplace have been considered, their connection to disease management among workers has been less explicitly explored. Using a sample of immigrant hotel housekeepers, we explored the connections between these four social constructs and hypertension management. This qualitative research study was guided by critical ethnography methodology. Twenty-seven hotel room cleaners and four housemen were recruited ( N = 31) and invited to discuss their experiences with hypertension and hypertension management within the context of their work environments. Being a woman worker within the hotel industry was perceived to negatively influence participants' experience with hypertension and hypertension management. In contrast, being a woman played a protective role outside the workplace. Being an immigrant played both a positive and a negative role in hypertension and its management. Being black and from a low socioeconomic class had only adverse influences on participants' experience with hypertension and its management. Being a woman, black, lower class, and an immigrant simultaneously contribute to immigrant hotel housekeepers' health and their ability to effectively manage their hypertension. The connection between these four constructs (gender, race, class, and immigration status) and disease management must be considered during care provision. Hotel employers and policy stakeholders need to consider those constructs and how they impact workers' well-being. More studies are needed to identify what mitigates the associations between the intersectionality of these constructs and immigrant workers' health and disease management within their work environment.

  7. Massachusetts Medicaid members that smoked in 2008: Characteristics associated with smoking status in 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis D Henry

    Full Text Available The smoking rate among non-elderly Medicaid enrollees is more than double the rate for those privately insured; smoking-related conditions account for 15% of Medicaid expenditures. Under state health reform, Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth made tobacco cessation treatment available beginning in 2006. We used surveys conducted in 2008 and 2014 to examine changes in smoking abstinence rates among MassHealth members identified as smokers and to identify factors associated with being a former smoker. Members previously identified as smokers were surveyed by mail or phone; 2008 and 2014 samples included 3,116 and 2,971 members, respectively. Surveys collected demographic and health information, asked members whether they smoked cigarettes "every day, some days or not at all', and asked questions to assess smoking intensity among current smokers. The 2014 survey included an open ended-question asking members "what helped the most" in quitting or quit attempts. We observed a significant decrease in members reporting smoking "every/some days" of 15.5 percentage points (p < .0001 from 2008 to 2014, and a significant decrease in smokers reporting smoking "more than 10 cigarettes on days smoked" of 16.7 percentage points (p < .0001. Compared to smokers, former smokers more frequently reported health concerns, the influence of family members, and the use of e-cigarettes as helping the most in quitting. Expanded access to tobacco cessation treatment under the Affordable Care Act may have help to reduce the high smoking rates among Medicaid enrollees. Additionally, smokers' concerns about health and the influence of family and friends provide opportunities for targeted intervention and messaging about quitting.

  8. Disparities in cigarette tax exposure by race, ethnicity, poverty status and sexual orientation, 2006-2014, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Kong, Amanda Y; Lee, Joseph G L; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2018-03-01

    Cigarette excise taxes are an effective tobacco control strategy but they vary geographically due to differences in state and local taxation. There are also pronounced sociodemographic differences in community composition, suggesting that different population groups might face vastly different cigarette excise tax rates. In this study, we examine how cigarette excise tax rates differ for population groups defined by race, ethnicity, poverty status, and sexual orientation, and how these differences have evolved over time. We constructed annual cigarette tax rates in 109 mutually exclusive jurisdictions within the United States (U.S.) between 2006 and 2014. After merging with Census sociodemographic data, we calculated annual cigarette excise tax exposures for each population group as the average of each place-based tax, weighted by the proportion of the group living there. In 2014, the average U.S. resident was required to pay $2.68 in cigarette taxes, more than 60% of which was due to state and local taxation. On average, Asian/Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander populations faced the highest average tax ($2.95), which was $0.44 more than American Indian populations. Local taxes disproportionately augmented state and federal taxes for non-White populations, same-sex couples, and people living in poverty. Geographic variation in cigarette excise taxes produces sociodemographic variation in cigarette tax exposure. Raising cigarette taxes specifically in those places where groups at risk for tobacco-related disease are more likely to live, or otherwise creating geographically uniform tax levels, could reduce important disparities in cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Differences in marital status and mortality by race/ethnicity and nativity among California cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Elena; Anderson, Kristin; Murphy, James D; Hurley, Susan; Canchola, Alison J; Keegan, Theresa H M; Cheng, Iona; Clarke, Christina A; Glaser, Sally L; Gomez, Scarlett L

    2016-05-15

    It has been observed that married cancer patients have lower mortality rates than unmarried patients, but data for different racial/ethnic groups are scarce. The authors examined the risk of overall mortality associated with marital status across racial/ethnic groups and sex in data from the California Cancer Registry. California Cancer Registry data for all first primary invasive cancers diagnosed from 2000 through 2009 for the 10 most common sites of cancer-related death for non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders (APIs), and Hispanics were used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for marital status in relation to overall mortality by race/ethnicity and sex. The study cohort included 393,470 male and 389,697 female cancer patients and 204,007 and 182,600 deaths from all causes, respectively, through December 31, 2012. All-cause mortality was higher in unmarried patients than in married patients, but there was significant variation by race/ethnicity. Adjusted HRs (95% CIs) ranged from 1.24 (95% CI, 1.23-1.26) in NHWs to 1.11 (95% CI, 1.07-1.15) in APIs among males and from 1.17 (95% CI, 1.15-1.18) in NHWs to 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04-1.11) in APIs among females. All-cause mortality associated with unmarried status compared with married status was higher in US-born API and Hispanic men and women relative to their foreign-born counterparts. For patients who have the cancers that contribute most to mortality, being unmarried is associated with worse overall survival compared with being married, with up to 24% higher mortality among NHW males but only 6% higher mortality among foreign-born Hispanic and API females. Future research should pursue the identification of factors underlying these associations to inform targeted interventions for unmarried cancer patients. Cancer 2016;122:1570-8. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  10. Impact of Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status on Risk-Adjusted Hospital Readmission Rates Following Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, Grant R; Barrett, Marguerite L; Weiss, Audrey J; Kandrack, Ryan; Washington, Raynard; Steiner, Claudia A; Mehrotra, Ateev; SooHoo, Nelson F; Coffey, Rosanna

    2016-08-17

    Readmission rates following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are increasingly used to measure hospital performance. Readmission rates that are not adjusted for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, patient risk factors beyond a hospital's control, may not accurately reflect a hospital's performance. In this study, we examined the extent to which risk-adjusting for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status affected hospital performance in terms of readmission rates following THA and TKA. We calculated 2 sets of risk-adjusted readmission rates by (1) using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services standard risk-adjustment algorithm that incorporates patient age, sex, comorbidities, and hospital effects and (2) adding race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status to the model. Using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 2011 State Inpatient Databases, we compared the relative performances of 1,194 hospitals across the 2 methods. Addition of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status to the risk-adjustment algorithm resulted in (1) little or no change in the risk-adjusted readmission rates at nearly all hospitals; (2) no change in the designation of the readmission rate as better, worse, or not different from the population mean at >99% of the hospitals; and (3) no change in the excess readmission ratio at >97% of the hospitals. Inclusion of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status in the risk-adjustment algorithm led to a relative-performance change in readmission rates following THA and TKA at socioeconomic status in risk-adjusted THA and TKA readmission rates used for hospital accountability, payment, and public reporting. Prognostic Level III. See instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  11. Status update: is smoke on your mind? Using social media to assess smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ford

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to wildland fire smoke is associated with negative effects on human health. However, these effects are poorly quantified. Accurately attributing health endpoints to wildland fire smoke requires determining the locations, concentrations, and durations of smoke events. Most current methods for assessing these smoke events (ground-based measurements, satellite observations, and chemical transport modeling are limited temporally, spatially, and/or by their level of accuracy. In this work, we explore using daily social media posts from Facebook regarding smoke, haze, and air quality to assess population-level exposure for the summer of 2015 in the western US. We compare this de-identified, aggregated Facebook dataset to several other datasets that are commonly used for estimating exposure, such as satellite observations (MODIS aerosol optical depth and Hazard Mapping System smoke plumes, daily (24 h average surface particulate matter measurements, and model-simulated (WRF-Chem surface concentrations. After adding population-weighted spatial smoothing to the Facebook data, this dataset is well correlated (R2 generally above 0.5 with the other methods in smoke-impacted regions. The Facebook dataset is better correlated with surface measurements of PM2. 5 at a majority of monitoring sites (163 of 293 sites than the satellite observations and our model simulation. We also present an example case for Washington state in 2015, for which we combine this Facebook dataset with MODIS observations and WRF-Chem-simulated PM2. 5 in a regression model. We show that the addition of the Facebook data improves the regression model's ability to predict surface concentrations. This high correlation of the Facebook data with surface monitors and our Washington state example suggests that this social-media-based proxy can be used to estimate smoke exposure in locations without direct ground-based particulate matter measurements.

  12. Status update: is smoke on your mind? Using social media to assess smoke exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Bonne; Burke, Moira; Lassman, William; Pfister, Gabriele; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to wildland fire smoke is associated with negative effects on human health. However, these effects are poorly quantified. Accurately attributing health endpoints to wildland fire smoke requires determining the locations, concentrations, and durations of smoke events. Most current methods for assessing these smoke events (ground-based measurements, satellite observations, and chemical transport modeling) are limited temporally, spatially, and/or by their level of accuracy. In this work, we explore using daily social media posts from Facebook regarding smoke, haze, and air quality to assess population-level exposure for the summer of 2015 in the western US. We compare this de-identified, aggregated Facebook dataset to several other datasets that are commonly used for estimating exposure, such as satellite observations (MODIS aerosol optical depth and Hazard Mapping System smoke plumes), daily (24 h) average surface particulate matter measurements, and model-simulated (WRF-Chem) surface concentrations. After adding population-weighted spatial smoothing to the Facebook data, this dataset is well correlated (R2 generally above 0.5) with the other methods in smoke-impacted regions. The Facebook dataset is better correlated with surface measurements of PM2. 5 at a majority of monitoring sites (163 of 293 sites) than the satellite observations and our model simulation. We also present an example case for Washington state in 2015, for which we combine this Facebook dataset with MODIS observations and WRF-Chem-simulated PM2. 5 in a regression model. We show that the addition of the Facebook data improves the regression model's ability to predict surface concentrations. This high correlation of the Facebook data with surface monitors and our Washington state example suggests that this social-media-based proxy can be used to estimate smoke exposure in locations without direct ground-based particulate matter measurements.

  13. The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2005-01-01

    The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

  14. Concurrent Social Disadvantages and Chronic Inflammation: The Intersection of Race and Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Aliza D

    2017-08-28

    Disadvantaged social statuses, such as being female, poor, or a minority, are associated with increased psychosocial stress and elevated circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, a biomarker of chronic inflammation and indicator of cardiovascular health. Individuals' experience of embodying psychosocial stress revolves around the multiplicative effects of concurrent gender, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic identities. This study expands on prior research by examining chronic inflammation at the intersection of race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age group to understand which demographic subgroups in society are most vulnerable to the cumulative effects of social disadvantage. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, the findings reveal inflammation disparities between non-poor whites and the following demographic subgroups, net of sociodemographic and biological factors: young poor Hispanic women, young poor white men, young poor and non-poor Hispanic men, middle-aged poor and non-poor black women, middle-aged poor and non-poor black men, and middle-aged poor Hispanic men. Disparities in inflammation on account of social disadvantage are most evident among those aged 45-64 years and diminish for those 65 and older in both men and women.

  15. Evaluation of Smoking Status among Diabetes Patients in the State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    specific groups in Malaysia [7-9]. The current study was aimed at determining the prevalence of smoking among type 2 diabetes patients in. Penang Island, Malaysia. METHODS. Study design. Penang General Hospital is the largest tertiary public hospital in the state of Penang. It provides health care, emergency treatment ...

  16. Structural Discrimination is Associated With Smoking Status Among a National Sample of Transgender Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shires, Deirdre A; Jaffee, Kim D

    2016-06-01

    Limited evidence suggests that transgender individuals smoke at significantly higher rates than the general population. We aimed to determine whether structural or everyday discrimination experiences predict smoking behavior among transgender individuals when sociodemographic, health, and gender-specific factors were controlled. Data from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (N = 4781), a cross-sectional online and paper survey distributed to organizations serving the transgender community, were analyzed in order to determine the association between current smoking and discrimination experiences and other potential predictors. Logistic regression models were used to establish factors that predict smoking. Participants reported experiencing both structural (80.4%) and everyday (65.9%) discrimination. Multivariate analyses showed that participants who reported attending some college, graduating college, or having a graduate degree were less likely to smoke compared to those with a high school degree or less. Uninsured participants were more likely to report smoking compared to those with private insurance. Those who used alcohol or drugs for coping were also more likely to smoke. Participants whose IDs and records listed their preferred gender were less likely to smoke (OR = 0.84); those who had experienced structural discrimination were more like to report smoking (OR = 1.65). Further research is needed in order to explore the relationship between smoking and legal transition among transgender individuals. Strategies to prevent smoking and encourage cessation among this vulnerable population are also needed. In addition, comprehensive collection of gender identity data in the context of national surveys, tobacco-related research, and clinical settings is sorely needed. This study establishes a link between experiences of structural discrimination among transgender individuals and smoking status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  17. Long-Term Athletic Development in Youth Alpine Ski Racing: The Effect of Physical Fitness, Ski Racing Technique, Anthropometrics and Biological Maturity Status on Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Erich; Fink, Christian; Raschner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alpine ski racing is known to be a sport with a high risk of injuries. Because most studies have focused mainly on top-level athletes and on traumatic injuries, limited research exists about injury risk factors among youth ski racers. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic risk factors (anthropometrics, biological maturity, physical fitness, racing technique) for injury among youth alpine ski racers. Study participants were 81 youth ski racers attending a ski boarding school (50 males, 31 females; 9–14 years). A prospective longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor sports-related risk factors over two seasons and traumatic (TI) and overuse injuries (OI). At the beginning of the study, anthropometric characteristics (body height, body weight, sitting height, body mass index); biological maturity [status age at peak height velocity (APHV)]; physical performance parameters related to jump coordination, maximal leg and core strength, explosive and reactive strength, balance and endurance; and ski racing technique were assessed. Z score transformations normalized the age groups. Multivariate binary logistic regression (dependent variable: injury yes/no) and multivariate linear regression analyses (dependent variable: injury severity in total days of absence from training) were calculated. T-tests and multivariate analyses of variance were used to reveal differences between injured and non-injured athletes and between injury severity groups. The level of significance was set to p jump contact time; and higher drop jump reactive strength index were at a lower injury risk or more vulnerable for fewer days of absence from training. However, significant differences between injured and non-injured athletes were only observed with respect to the drop jump reactive strength index. Regular documentation of anthropometric characteristics, biological maturity and physical fitness parameters is crucial to help to prevent injury in youth ski racing. The present

  18. Long-Term Athletic Development in Youth Alpine Ski Racing: The Effect of Physical Fitness, Ski Racing Technique, Anthropometrics and Biological Maturity Status on Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Erich; Fink, Christian; Raschner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alpine ski racing is known to be a sport with a high risk of injuries. Because most studies have focused mainly on top-level athletes and on traumatic injuries, limited research exists about injury risk factors among youth ski racers. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic risk factors (anthropometrics, biological maturity, physical fitness, racing technique) for injury among youth alpine ski racers. Study participants were 81 youth ski racers attending a ski boarding school (50 males, 31 females; 9-14 years). A prospective longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor sports-related risk factors over two seasons and traumatic (TI) and overuse injuries (OI). At the beginning of the study, anthropometric characteristics (body height, body weight, sitting height, body mass index); biological maturity [status age at peak height velocity (APHV)]; physical performance parameters related to jump coordination, maximal leg and core strength, explosive and reactive strength, balance and endurance; and ski racing technique were assessed. Z score transformations normalized the age groups. Multivariate binary logistic regression (dependent variable: injury yes/no) and multivariate linear regression analyses (dependent variable: injury severity in total days of absence from training) were calculated. T -tests and multivariate analyses of variance were used to reveal differences between injured and non-injured athletes and between injury severity groups. The level of significance was set to p core flexion strength; smaller core flexion:extension strength ratio; shorter drop jump contact time; and higher drop jump reactive strength index were at a lower injury risk or more vulnerable for fewer days of absence from training. However, significant differences between injured and non-injured athletes were only observed with respect to the drop jump reactive strength index. Regular documentation of anthropometric characteristics, biological maturity and physical fitness

  19. Dietary supplement use and smoking are important correlates of biomarkers of water-soluble vitamin status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in a representative sample of US adults1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Rybak, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical indicators of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) status have been measured in a nationally representative sample of the US population in NHANES 2003–2006. To examine whether demographic differentials in nutritional status were related to and confounded by certain variables, we assessed the association of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle variables (dietary supplement use, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity) with biomarkers of WSV status in adults (≥20 y): serum and RBC folate, serum pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP), serum 4-pyridoxic acid, serum total cobalamin (B-12), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA), and serum ascorbic acid. Age (except for PLP) and smoking (except for MMA) were generally the strongest significant correlates of these biomarkers (|r| ≤0.43) and together with supplement use explained more of the variability as compared to the other covariates in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained from 7% (B-12) to 29% (tHcy) of the biomarker variability. We observed significant associations for most biomarkers (≥6 out of 8) with age, sex, race-ethnicity, supplement use, smoking, and BMI; and for some biomarkers with PIR (5/8), education (1/8), alcohol consumption (4/8), and physical activity (5/8). We noted large estimated percent changes in biomarker concentrations between race-ethnic groups (from −24% to 20%), between supplement users and nonusers (from −12% to 104%), and between smokers and nonsmokers (from −28% to 8%). In summary, age, sex, and race-ethnic differentials in biomarker concentrations remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. Supplement use and smoking were important correlates of biomarkers of WSV status. PMID:23576641

  20. Dietary supplement use and smoking are important correlates of biomarkers of water-soluble vitamin status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Rybak, Michael E

    2013-06-01

    Biochemical indicators of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) status were measured in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population in NHANES 2003-2006. To examine whether demographic differentials in nutritional status were related to and confounded by certain variables, we assessed the association of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle (dietary supplement use, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity) variables with biomarkers of WSV status in adults (aged ≥ 20 y): serum and RBC folate, serum pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), serum 4-pyridoxic acid, serum total cobalamin (vitamin B-12), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA), and serum ascorbic acid. Age (except for PLP) and smoking (except for MMA) were generally the strongest significant correlates of these biomarkers (|r| ≤ 0.43) and together with supplement use explained more of the variability compared with the other covariates in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained from 7 (vitamin B-12) to 29% (tHcy) of the biomarker variability. We observed significant associations for most biomarkers (≥ 6 of 8) with age, sex, race-ethnicity, supplement use, smoking, and BMI and for some biomarkers with PIR (5 of 8), education (1 of 8), alcohol consumption (4 of 8), and physical activity (5 of 8). We noted large estimated percentage changes in biomarker concentrations between race-ethnic groups (from -24 to 20%), between supplement users and nonusers (from -12 to 104%), and between smokers and nonsmokers (from -28 to 8%). In summary, age, sex, and race-ethnic differentials in biomarker concentrations remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. Supplement use and smoking were important correlates of biomarkers of WSV status.

  1. Prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery and actual delivery mode: Variation by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura B; Hardeman, Rachel R; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Kjerulff, Kristen H

    2017-12-01

    Researchers documenting persistent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status disparities in chances of cesarean delivery have speculated that women's birth attitudes and preferences may partially explain these differences, but no studies have directly tested this hypothesis. We examined whether women's prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery differed by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status, and whether attitudes were differently related to delivery mode depending on race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Data were from the First Baby Study, a cohort of 3006 women who gave birth to a first baby in Pennsylvania between 2009 and 2011. We used regression models to examine (1) predictors of prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery, and (2) the association between prenatal attitudes and actual delivery mode. To assess moderation, we estimated models adding interaction terms. Prenatal attitudes toward vaginal delivery were not associated with race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Positive attitudes toward vaginal delivery were associated with lower odds of cesarean delivery (AOR=0.60, P socioeconomic status women may be more able to realize their preferences in childbirth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A national mass media smoking cessation campaign: effects by race/ethnicity and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna M; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Richardson, Amanda Kalaydjian; Patwardhan, Pallavi; Niaura, Raymond; Cullen, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a large-scale, national smoking cessation media campaign, the EX campaign, across racial/ethnic and educational subgroups. A longitudinal random-digit-dial panel study conducted prior to and 6 months following the national launch of the campaign. The sample was drawn from eight designated media markets in the United States. The baseline survey was conducted on 5616 current smokers, aged 18 to 49 years, and 4067 (73% follow-up response rate) were resurveyed at the 6-month follow-up. The primary independent variable is confirmed awareness of the campaign advertising, and the outcome variables are follow-up cessation-related cognitions index score and quit attempts. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted within racial/ethnic and educational strata to assess the strength of association between confirmed awareness of campaign advertising and cessation-related outcomes. Confirmed awareness of campaign advertising increased favorable cessation-related cognitions among Hispanics and quit attempts among non-Hispanic blacks, and increased favorable cessation-related cognitions and quit attempts among smokers with less than a high school education. These results suggest that the EX campaign may be effective in promoting cessation-related cognitions and behaviors among minority and disadvantaged smokers who experience a disproportionate burden of tobacco-related illness and mortality.

  3. [The current status of passive smoking in Chinese families and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Xu, Xue-Fang; Ma, Shao-Jun; Mei, Cui-Zhu; Wang, Jun-Fang; Chen, Ai-Ping; Yang, Gong-Huan

    2008-03-01

    To understand the prevalence of passive smoking in Chinese families and discuss its associated factors, as to providing scientific evidence for establishing tobacco control measures in China. Cross-sectional survey: from June to September, 2004, we randomly selected six counties in three different provinces ( Mianzhu and Xichong of Sichuan Province; Anyi and Hukou of Jiangxi Province; Xinan and Yanshi of Henan Province) and performed face-to-face questionnaire survey on citizens between 18 and 69 years old. All the data were double independently input by professional data entry company to ensure data accuracy. The prevalence of home passive smoking exposure in families with different demographic characteristics was described by using prevalence, and the possible correlated factors of home passive smoking exposure as independent variables, multiple factors were analyzed using Logistic Stepwise Regression Analysis method. The analysis on 8142 nonsmokers revealed that the rate of passive smoking was 28.42%, with 27.38% of male and 28.93% of female suffering from passive smoking. All 87.19% of the smokers would smoke in front of their families. As many as 42.14% of the nonsmokers would offer cigarettes to their guests, while about 46.82% of the nonsmokers would suggest smokers to smoke outdoor. Home restriction on tobacco was extremely rare and only 6.33% of all the families completely forbade smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of non-conditions revealed that, there was a lower level of involuntary tobacco smoke exposure in female, older age group, lower education level, divorced, or widowed families. There was no difference in involuntary tobacco smoke exposure between town dwellers and county dwellers, but such difference did exist in different districts. The three provinces under investigation should have severe involuntary tobacco smoking exposure. Gender, age, literacy level, occupation and region should be all factors that influence the status of

  4. The global smoking epidemic: a history and status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert N

    2004-05-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that tobacco causes approximately 5 million deaths annually worldwide, a number expected to double by 2025. Cigarette consumption grew from only a few billion per year in 1900 to present values of approximately 5.5 trillion worldwide. Historical causes for the rise of smoking include the invention of flue curing, safety matches, and cigarette rolling machines, but also the distribution of cigarettes to soldiers during World War I, mass marketing, the failure of governments to limit consumption, and the duplicitous denial of hazards by manufacturers. Cancers of the lip, throat, and tongue were linked to tobacco as early as the 18th century, but a lung cancer hazard from smoking was not suspected until the first decade of the 20th century. Epidemiologic evidence began to emerge in the 1920s, and by the 1950s, the causal link with cigarette smoking was well established. Epidemiologic studies, animal experiments, and studies demonstrating pathologic changes in lung tissues at autopsy were 3 pivotal sources of evidence. However, the tobacco industry refused to concede the reality of tobacco hazards until the late 1990s. Instead, the industry sought to target physicians and others with its message of "no proof," using subtle techniques of deception, including the funding of spurious research, duplicitous press releases, propaganda efforts directed at physicians, and the employment of historians to construct exculpatory narratives. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control promises to standardize global tobacco control measures, including policies to limit smuggling. Effective means of reducing tobacco use include counter-advertising, increased taxation, smoke-free workplace legislation, and litigation against the industry.

  5. Smoking status and psychosocial factors in binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    To examine eating-disorder psychopathology and depressive symptoms by smoking status (never, former, or current smoker) in persons with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Participants were 575 adult volunteers from the community (mean age=36.0±12years and BMI=32.9±9.5kg/m(2); 80% white; 88% female) who were classified with BED (n=410) or BN (n=165). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including items about current and historical cigarette smoking, the Eating Disorder Examination -Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Among those with BED, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in current smokers than former or never smokers (p=.001). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms by smoking status in participants with BN and no differences in eating-disorder psychopathology by smoking status in either the BED or BN groups. In this non-clinical group of community volunteers, we found that smoking history or status was not associated with eating disorder psychopathology in participants classified with BED and BN but was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in participants with BED. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Smoking Status and Psychosocial Factors in Binge Eating Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine eating disorder psychopathology and depressive symptoms by smoking status (never, former, or current smoker) in persons with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Methods Participants were 575 adult volunteers from the community (mean age=36.0±12 years and BMI=32.9±9.5 kg/m2; 80% white; 88% female) who were classified with BED (n=410) or BN (n=165). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including items about current and historical cigarette smoking, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among those with BED, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in current smokers than former or never smokers (p=.001). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms by smoking status in participants with BN and no differences in eating disorder psychopathology by smoking status in either the BED or BN groups. Discussion In this non-clinical group of community volunteers, we found that smoking history or status was not associated with eating disorder psychopathology in participants classified with BED and BN but was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in participants with BED. PMID:26741260

  7. Factors associated with different smoking status in European adolescents: results of the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzer, Raphaela; Haring, C; Buchheim, A; Oehler, S; Carli, V; Wasserman, C; Kaess, M; Apter, A; Balazs, J; Bobes, J; Brunner, R; Corcoran, P; Cosman, D; Hoven, C W; Kahn, J P; Keeley, H S; Postuvan, V; Podlogar, T; Sisask, M; Värnik, A; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D

    2017-11-01

    Early onset and long-term smoking are associated with physical and psychological health problems. The aim of the presented analysis was to investigate risk and influencing factors for different smoking status in a big sample of European adolescents. In the context of the "saving and empowering young lives in Europe" (SEYLE) study we surveyed 12,328 adolescents at the age of 13-17 from 11 countries. The survey took place in a school-based context using a questionnaire. Overall 58% reported the onset of ever-smoking under the age of 14 and 30.9% smoke on a daily basis. Multinomial logistic regression model showed significant positive associations between adolescent smoking and internalizing problems (suicidal behavior, direct self-injurious behavior, anxiety), externalizing problems (conduct problems, hyperactivity, substance consumption) and family problems (parental substance consumption, broken home). Our data show that smoking among adolescents is still a major public health problem and adolescents who smoke are at higher risk for mental problems. Further, adolescent smoking is associated with broken home families and parental behaviors. Therefore, early preventive measures are necessary not only for adolescents, but also for their parents.

  8. The link between smoking status and co-morbid conditions in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Pamela; Flick, Louise; Salter, Amber; Dixon, David; Jensen, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    In individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) comorbidities and quality of life (QOL) may be affected by tobacco use. To evaluate the associations between smoking status, in particular quit attempts, and comorbidities among individuals with MS. We used a web-based survey to obtain cross-sectional data from 335 individuals with MS who were members of the Gateway Chapter of the National MS Society email registry. We then examined the associations between smoking variables (current use, frequency, and quit attempts) and comorbidities. The prevalence of participants who ever smoked was 50%, which is greater than that reported for the general population; 20% were current smokers. Migraine headaches were associated with current use and everyday smoking, and those with recent failed quit attempts had a higher prevalence of depression than those who were current smokers but who did not attempt to quit or had successfully quit in the past year. Given the associations between smoking and comorbidities in individuals with MS, health care providers should both (1) assess smoking history and quit attempts, and (2) encourage individuals with MS who smoke to become non-smokers and refer for treatment, as indicated. In order to increase the chances that individuals will be successful in becoming non-smokers, clinicians would do well to also assess and treat depression in their patients who smoke and are also depressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mammography dose in relation to body mass index, race, and menopausal status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Frey, G.D.; Baron, L.; Hoel, D.G

    2002-07-01

    Mammography dose increases with compressed breast thickness (CBT), but few studies have examined other correlates of dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between factors such as race, age, body mass index (BMI), CBT, and menopausal status and mammography screening dose, measured for 509 women in a US population. A multiple linear regression model was developed for dose, based on consideration of these factors as well as examination characteristics. BMI and number of films during examination were positively related to dose. After adjusting for these factors, high CBT also leads to higher dose. Whites receive lower doses than black women, but differences are slight after controlling for the effects of CBT and BMI, which were significantly higher among black women. Pre-menopausal women receive higher doses, after adjusting for all other factors, than post-menopausal women. Jointly, these factors account for approximately 75% to 80% of the variability in dose among this study population. Because rates of overweight are increasing in the US, average doses from mammography may be increasing as well. (author)

  10. Mammography dose in relation to body mass index, race, and menopausal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Frey, G.D.; Baron, L.; Hoel, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Mammography dose increases with compressed breast thickness (CBT), but few studies have examined other correlates of dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between factors such as race, age, body mass index (BMI), CBT, and menopausal status and mammography screening dose, measured for 509 women in a US population. A multiple linear regression model was developed for dose, based on consideration of these factors as well as examination characteristics. BMI and number of films during examination were positively related to dose. After adjusting for these factors, high CBT also leads to higher dose. Whites receive lower doses than black women, but differences are slight after controlling for the effects of CBT and BMI, which were significantly higher among black women. Pre-menopausal women receive higher doses, after adjusting for all other factors, than post-menopausal women. Jointly, these factors account for approximately 75% to 80% of the variability in dose among this study population. Because rates of overweight are increasing in the US, average doses from mammography may be increasing as well. (author)

  11. Alcohol advertising at Boston subway stations: an assessment of exposure by race and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Elisabeth; Poirier, Katie; Wilkinson, Tiana; Nhean, Siphannay; Nyborn, Justin; Siegel, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the frequency of alcohol ads at all 113 subway and streetcar stations in Boston and the patterns of community exposure stratified by race, socioeconomic status, and age. We assessed the extent of alcohol advertising at each station in May 2009. We measured gross impressions and gross rating points (GRPs) for the entire Greater Boston population and for Boston public school student commuters. We compared the frequency of alcohol advertising between neighborhoods with differing demographics. For the Greater Boston population, alcohol advertising at subway stations generated 109 GRPs on a typical day. For Boston public school students in grades 5 to 12, alcohol advertising at stations generated 134 GRPs. Advertising at stations in low-poverty neighborhoods generated 14.1 GRPs and at stations in high-poverty areas, 63.6 GRPs. Alcohol ads reach the equivalent of every adult in the Greater Boston region and the equivalent of every 5th- to 12th-grade public school student each day. More alcohol ads were displayed in stations in neighborhoods with high poverty rates than in stations in neighborhoods with low poverty rates.

  12. The relationship between ART adherence and smoking status among HIV+ individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose L; Catley, Delwyn; Lee, Hyoung S; Goggin, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent among HIV+ individuals and studies indicate that it may be associated with poor ART adherence, though the relationship is poorly understood. In addition little is known about interest in quitting among HIV+ smokers who are having adherence difficulties. We examined smoking and ART adherence among 203 HIV+ individuals enrolled in a randomized trial of interventions to increase ART adherence. Prior analyses indicated there were no overall treatment group effects. Smoking status and motivation to quit was assessed at baseline and ART adherence was assessed at week 12, 24, 36, and 48. Longitudinal generalized estimating equation analysis that controlled for treatment group revealed that smoking status was not significantly related to adherence over time. Motivation to quit was high with 58 % intending to quit in the next 6 months and 25 % intending to quit in the next 30 days. Findings suggest that smoking is not associated with adherence among those with adherence difficulties. However it does not diminish importance of addressing both behaviors especially given HIV+ smokers substantial interest in changing smoking behavior.

  13. Smoking and Early COPD as Independent Predictors of Body Composition, Exercise Capacity, and Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, Laura Miranda de Oliveira; Ferrari, Renata; Bertani, André Luís; Garcia, Thaís; Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Knaut, Caroline; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Godoy, Irma

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tobacco smoke, mild/moderate COPD disease and their combined effect on health status (HS), body composition (BC), and exercise capacity (EC) impairment are still unclear. We hypothesized that smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on these outcomes. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack/years), 32 mild/moderate COPD (current smokers or former smokers), and 32 never smokers. All individuals underwent medical and smoking status evaluations, pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry, BC [fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM index (FFMI)], EC [six-minute walk distance (6MWD)] and HS [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)]. FFM (p = 0.02) and FFMI (p = 0.008) were lower in COPD than never smokers. 6MWT, as a percentage of reference values for the Brazilian population, was lower in COPD and smokers than never smokers (p = 0.01). Smokers showed worse SF-36 score for functional capacity than never smokers (psmoking were inversely associated with FFMI, 6MWD and HS. Smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on body composition, exercise capacity and health status.

  14. Racial and nonracial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults ten years after apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. Methods This analysis examined chronic (day to day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and nonracial (e.g., age, gender, or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH). Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Results Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.14–1.85) and chronic nonracial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.37–2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and nonracial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.20–1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.01–1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Conclusions Racial and nonracial discrimination may be related to South African adults’ smoking behavior, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalizability, and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. PMID:24789604

  15. Weight status, gender, and race/ethnicity: are there differences in meeting recommended health behavior guidelines for adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minges, Karl E; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-04-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The Influence of Race on Employment Status and Earnings of African Immigrant Men in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Djamba, Yanyi K.; Kimuna, Sitawa R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the labor queue theory to examine the changing influence of race on the employment status and earnings of African immigrant men in the United States between 1980 and 2008. The results show that the white advantage echoed in previous research has diminished. Black African immigrant men's chance of being employed is now greater than that of their white counterparts when their sociodemographic characteristics are...

  17. Adolescent Work Intensity, School Performance, and Substance Use: Links Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Bachman, Jerald G.; Patrick, Jeremy Staff; O’Malley, M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    High school students who spend long hours in paid employment during the school year are at increased risk of lower grades and higher substance use, although questions remain about whether these linkages reflect causation or prior differences (selection effects). Questions also remain about whether such associations vary by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. This study examines those questions using nationally representative data from two decades (1991–2010) of annual Monitoring th...

  18. A longitudinal study on determinants of the intention to start smoking among Non-smoking boys and girls of high and low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Mercken, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke

    2015-07-13

    This study identifies differences in socio-cognitive factors as they relate to the intention to smoke among boys and girls living in high socioeconomic status (HSES) and low socioeconomic status (LSES) neighborhoods. A total of 1,643 children (aged 10-12 years) completed a web-based questionnaire assessing their intention, attitude, social influences, and self-efficacy toward smoking at baseline and at one year follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relations between intention and predictor variables (i.e. attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy). Three-way interaction terms were added to the first analysis to examine potential interactions of gender, socioeconomic status and predictor variables. A 3-way interaction effect was present, and therefore subgroup analyses for HSES and LSES boys and girls were warranted. The results indicated that positive attitudes toward smoking were related to the intention to smoke among HSES boys, whereas HSES girls had higher intentions to smoke if they perceived fewer disadvantages of smoking (OR: 0.42; 95 % CI: 0.22-0.82). The intention to smoke among LSES boys was predicted by perceived social norms (OR: 0.49; 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93); in LSES girls, the smoking behavior of people in their environment was most strongly related to their smoking intention (OR: 5.55; 95 % CI: 2.81-10.93). To prevent youth smoking, HSES boys and girls may benefit from interventions that address attitudes. Boys from an LSES neighborhood may profit from smoking prevention interventions that target social norms, while LSES girls may benefit from strategies aimed at resisting the influence of smokers in their environment. The 'Fun without Smokes' study is approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Atrium-Orbis-Zuyd Hospital (NL32093.096.11/MEC 11-T-25) and registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR3116 ).

  19. Antioxidant status and smoking habits: relationship with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Agrawal, B K; Varma, M; Jadhav, A A

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the association between smoking, dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in male smokers (cigarette and bidi smokers). The study sample consisted of 100 healthy men, including 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers, who were subclassified into 25 cigarette smokers and 25 bidi smokers, aged 18-55 years. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma ascorbic acid were measured as antioxidants and erythrocyte malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress index, by colorimetric methods. Smokers ate less fruits and vegetables than non-smokers, leading to them having a lower antioxidant level. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in cigarette smokers (0.193 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.05) and bidi smokers (0.169 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (0.231 U/mgP). Plasma ascorbic acid was also significantly lower in cigarette smokers (1.45 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (1.38 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (1.73 mg/100 ml). There was a significant increase in erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration levels in cigarette smokers (171.47 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (231.04 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (127.30 micromol/gHb). These results provide enough evidence of increased oxidative stress and a compromised antioxidant defence system in smokers, and they are more profound in bidi smokers than in those smoking cigarettes. This study also revealed that the diet and nutrient intake of smokers are different from that of non-smokers.

  20. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  1. Sensitivity of Claims-Based Algorithms to Ascertain Smoking Status More Than Doubled with Meaningful Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jinhai; Yang, Ming; Tina Shih, Ya-Chen

    2018-03-01

    The "meaningful use of certified electronic health record" policy requires eligible professionals to record smoking status for more than 50% of all individuals aged 13 years or older in 2011 to 2012. To explore whether the coding to document smoking behavior has increased over time and to assess the accuracy of smoking-related diagnosis and procedure codes in identifying previous and current smokers. We conducted an observational study with 5,423,880 enrollees from the year 2009 to 2014 in the Truven Health Analytics database. Temporal trends of smoking coding, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were measured. The rate of coding of smoking behavior improved significantly by the end of the study period. The proportion of patients in the claims data recorded as current smokers increased 2.3-fold and the proportion of patients recorded as previous smokers increased 4-fold during the 6-year period. The sensitivity of each International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code was generally less than 10%. The diagnosis code of tobacco use disorder (305.1X) was the most sensitive code (9.3%) for identifying smokers. The specificities of these codes and the Current Procedural Terminology codes were all more than 98%. A large improvement in the coding of current and previous smoking behavior has occurred since the inception of the meaningful use policy. Nevertheless, the use of diagnosis and procedure codes to identify smoking behavior in administrative data is still unreliable. This suggests that quality improvements toward medical coding on smoking behavior are needed to enhance the capability of claims data for smoking-related outcomes research. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-Term Athletic Development in Youth Alpine Ski Racing: The Effect of Physical Fitness, Ski Racing Technique, Anthropometrics and Biological Maturity Status on Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpine ski racing is known to be a sport with a high risk of injuries. Because most studies have focused mainly on top-level athletes and on traumatic injuries, limited research exists about injury risk factors among youth ski racers. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic risk factors (anthropometrics, biological maturity, physical fitness, racing technique for injury among youth alpine ski racers. Study participants were 81 youth ski racers attending a ski boarding school (50 males, 31 females; 9–14 years. A prospective longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor sports-related risk factors over two seasons and traumatic (TI and overuse injuries (OI. At the beginning of the study, anthropometric characteristics (body height, body weight, sitting height, body mass index; biological maturity [status age at peak height velocity (APHV]; physical performance parameters related to jump coordination, maximal leg and core strength, explosive and reactive strength, balance and endurance; and ski racing technique were assessed. Z score transformations normalized the age groups. Multivariate binary logistic regression (dependent variable: injury yes/no and multivariate linear regression analyses (dependent variable: injury severity in total days of absence from training were calculated. T-tests and multivariate analyses of variance were used to reveal differences between injured and non-injured athletes and between injury severity groups. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Relatively low rates of injuries were reported for both traumatic (0.63 TI/athlete and overuse injuries (0.21 OI/athlete. Athletes with higher body weight, body height, and sitting height; lower APHV values; better core flexion strength; smaller core flexion:extension strength ratio; shorter drop jump contact time; and higher drop jump reactive strength index were at a lower injury risk or more vulnerable for fewer days of absence from training. However

  3. Perceived Discrimination and Privilege in Health Care: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Oates, Gabriela R

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how perceived racial privilege and perceived racial discrimination in health care varied with race and socioeconomic status (SES). The sample consisted of white, black, and Native American respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2005-2013) who had sought health care in the past 12 months. Multiple logistic regression models of perceived racial privilege and perceived discrimination were estimated. Analyses were performed in 2016. Perceptions of racial privilege were less common among blacks and Native Americans compared with whites, while perceptions of racial discrimination were more common among these minorities. In whites, higher income and education contributed to increased perceptions of privileged treatment and decreased perceptions of discrimination. The pattern was reversed in blacks, who reported more discrimination and less privilege at higher income and education levels. Across racial groups, respondents who reported foregone medical care due to cost had higher risk of perceived racial discrimination. Health insurance contributed to less perceived racial discrimination and more perceived privilege only among whites. SES is an important social determinant of perceived privilege and perceived discrimination in health care, but its role varies by indicator and racial group. Whites with low education or no health insurance, well-educated blacks, and individuals who face cost-related barriers to care are at increased risk of perceived discrimination. Policies and interventions to reduce these perceptions should target structural and systemic factors, including society-wide inequalities in income, education, and healthcare access, and should be tailored to account for racially specific healthcare experiences. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Socioeconomic characteristics of patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma according to tumor HPV status, patient smoking status, and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Bell, Diana; Hanby, Duncan; Li, Guojun; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Williams, Michelle D; Sturgis, Erich M

    2015-09-01

    Patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have distinct risk factor profiles reflected in the human papillomavirus (HPV) status of their tumor, and these profiles may also be influenced by factors related to socioeconomic status (SES). The goal of this study was to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of a large cohort of patients with OPC according to HPV status, smoking status, and sexual behavior. Patients with OPC prospectively provided information about their smoking and alcohol use, socioeconomic characteristics, and sexual behaviors. HPV status was determined by a composite of immunohistochemistry for p16 expression, HPV in situ hybridization, and PCR assay in 356 patients. Standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to compare socioeconomic characteristics between patient subgroups. Patients with HPV-positive OPC had higher levels of education, income, and overall SES. Among patients with HPV-positive OPC, never/light smokers had more than 5 times the odds of having at least a bachelor's degree and being in the highest level of SES compared with smokers. Patients with HPV-positive OPC and those with higher levels of education and SES had higher numbers of lifetime any and oral sex partners, although not all of these differences were significant. Socioeconomic differences among subgroups of OPC patients have implications for OPC prevention efforts, including tobacco cessation, behavior modification, and vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The interplay of race, socioeconomic status and neighborhood residence upon birth outcomes in a high black infant mortality community

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    Catherine L. Kothari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the interrelationship of race and socioeconomic status (SES upon infant birthweight at the individual and neighborhood levels within a Midwestern US county marked by high Black infant mortality. The study conducted a multi-level analysis utilizing individual birth records and census tract datasets from 2010, linked through a spatial join with ArcGIS 10.0. The maternal population of 2861 Black and White women delivering infants in 2010, residing in 57 census tracts within the county, constituted the study samples. The main outcome was infant birthweight. The predictors, race and SES were dichotomized into Black and White, low-SES and higher-SES, at both the individual and census tract levels. A two-part Bayesian model demonstrated that individual-level race and SES were more influential birthweight predictors than community-level factors. Specifically, Black women had 1.6 higher odds of delivering a low birthweight (LBW infant than White women, and low-SES women had 1.7 higher odds of delivering a LBW infant than higher-SES women. Moderate support was found for a three-way interaction between individual-level race, SES and community-level race, such that Black women achieved equity with White women (4.0% Black LBW and 4.1% White LBW when they each had higher-SES and lived in a racially congruous neighborhood (e.g., Black women lived in disproportionately Black neighborhood and White women lived in disproportionately White neighborhood. In sharp contrast, Black women with higher-SES who lived in a racially incongruous neighborhood (e.g., disproportionately White had the worst outcomes (14.5% LBW. Demonstrating the layered influence of personal and community circumstances upon health, in a community with substantial racial disparities, personal race and SES independently contribute to birth outcomes, while environmental context, specifically neighborhood racial congruity, is associated with mitigated health risk. Keywords: Birth

  7. Smoking status in parents of children hospitalized with a diagnosis of respiratory system disorders

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    Nursan Cinar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the statuses of hospitalized children with diagnosis of respiratory tract disease with cigarette use in the parents. This descriptive study was conducted in a Gowerment Hospital in the Sakarya city center in Turkey between June 2007 and June 2008. The inclusion criterion was willingness of families with children hospitalized due to diagnosis of respiratory disease to particípate in the study. Data were collected from 345 parents using the questionnaire prepared by researchers. In our study parental smoking was observed in 42.3% of fathers, 7.8% mothers and for 20.9% both parents were smoking. It was found that the hospitalization rates were more than two times higher in children diagnosed with pneumonia and bronchitis and three times higher in children hospitalized for asthma whose parents smoke at home compared to those whose parents are non-smokers. Health care professionals who take care of children need to discuss the harmful effects of smoking and the importance of reducing childhood exposure to secondhand smoke; parents should be educated and encouraged not to smoke.

  8. Assessing smoking status in disadvantaged populations: is computer administered self report an accurate and acceptable measure?

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    Bryant Jamie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self report of smoking status is potentially unreliable in certain situations and in high-risk populations. This study aimed to determine the accuracy and acceptability of computer administered self-report of smoking status among a low socioeconomic (SES population. Methods Clients attending a community service organisation for welfare support were invited to complete a cross-sectional touch screen computer health survey. Following survey completion, participants were invited to provide a breath sample to measure exposure to tobacco smoke in expired air. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Results Three hundred and eighty three participants completed the health survey, and 330 (86% provided a breath sample. Of participants included in the validation analysis, 59% reported being a daily or occasional smoker. Sensitivity was 94.4% and specificity 92.8%. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.9% and 92.0% respectively. The majority of participants reported that the touch screen survey was both enjoyable (79% and easy (88% to complete. Conclusions Computer administered self report is both acceptable and accurate as a method of assessing smoking status among low SES smokers in a community setting. Routine collection of health information using touch-screen computer has the potential to identify smokers and increase provision of support and referral in the community setting.

  9. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  10. Inferring Smoking Status from User Generated Content in an Online Cessation Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael S; Papandonatos, George D; Cha, Sarah; Wang, Xi; Zhao, Kang; Cohn, Amy M; Pearson, Jennifer L; Graham, Amanda L

    2018-01-22

    User generated content (UGC) is a valuable but underutilized source of information about individuals who participate in online cessation interventions. This study represents a first effort to passively detect smoking status among members of an online cessation program using UGC. Secondary data analysis was performed on data from 826 participants in a web-based smoking cessation randomized trial that included an online community. Domain experts from the online community reviewed each post and comment written by participants and attempted to infer the author's smoking status at the time it was written. Inferences from UGC were validated by comparison with self-reported 30-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA). Following validation, the impact of this method was evaluated across all individuals and timepoints in the study period. Of the 826 participants in the analytic sample, 719 had written at least one post from which content inference was possible. Among participants for whom unambiguous smoking status was inferred during the 30 days preceding their 3-month follow-up survey, concordance with self-report was almost perfect (kappa = 0.94). Posts indicating abstinence tended to be written shortly after enrollment (median = 14 days). Passive inference of smoking status from UGC in online cessation communities is possible and highly reliable for smokers who actively produce content. These results lay the groundwork for further development of observational research tools and intervention innovations. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The intersection of gender and race/ethnicity in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubbin, Catherine; Soobader, Mah-Jabeen; LeClere, Felicia B

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether menthol is related to initiation, quantity or quitting, we examined differences in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity, and adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. Cross-sectional, using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and Cancer Control Supplement. United States. Black, Hispanic and white women and men aged 25-64 years. For each group, we examined (i) proportion of menthol smokers (comparing current and former smokers); (ii) age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempt in the past year (comparing menthol and non-menthol current smokers); and (iii) time since quitting (comparing menthol and non-menthol former smokers). We calculated predicted values for each demographic group, adjusting for age, income and educational attainment. After adjusting for age, income and education, black (compared with Hispanic and white) and female (compared with male) smokers were more likely to choose menthol cigarettes. There was only one statistically significant difference in age of initiation, cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts or time since quitting between menthol and non-menthol smokers: white women who smoked menthol cigarettes reported longer cessation compared with those who smoked non-menthol cigarettes. The results do not support the hypothesis that menthol smokers initiate earlier, smoke more or have a harder time quitting compared with non-menthol smokers. A menthol additive and the marketing of it, given the clear demographic preferences demonstrated here, however, may be responsible for enticing the groups least likely to smoke into this addictive behavior. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women.

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    Loreta Strumylaite

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28-90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.72-1.41 in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38-2.55 in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84-4.25 in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97-1.66 and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87-3.74 times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend 0.05. There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02 and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P < 0.05. In Caucasian women, lifetime exposure to passive smoking is associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of tumor hormone receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women.

  13. Socioeconomic Status and Race Outperform Concussion History and Sport Participation in Predicting Collegiate Athlete Baseline Neurocognitive Scores.

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    Houck, Zac; Asken, Breton; Clugston, James; Perlstein, William; Bauer, Russell

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of socioeconomic status (SES) and other multivariate predictors to baseline neurocognitive functioning in collegiate athletes. Data were obtained from the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments for 403 University of Florida student-athletes (202 males; age range: 18-23) from the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 seasons were analyzed. ImPACT composite scores were consolidated into one memory and one speed composite score. Hierarchical linear regressions were used for analyses. In the overall sample, history of learning disability (β=-0.164; p=.001) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (β=-0.102; p=.038) significantly predicted worse memory and speed performance, respectively. Older age predicted better speed performance (β=.176; pAmerican race predicted worse memory (β=-0.113; p=.026) and speed performance (β=-.242; pfootball players, higher maternal SES predicted better memory performance (β=0.308; p=.007); older age predicted better speed performance (β=0.346; p=.001); while Black/African American race predicted worse speed performance (β=-0.397; phistory of neurodevelopmental disorder, age, and race. In football players, specifically, maternal SES independently predicted baseline memory scores, but concussion history and years exposed to sport were not predictive. SES, race, and medical history beyond exposure to brain injury or subclinical brain trauma are important factors when interpreting variability in cognitive scores among collegiate athletes. Additionally, sport-specific differences in the proportional representation of various demographic variables (e.g., SES and race) may also be an important consideration within the broader biopsychosocial attributional model. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1-10).

  14. Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Marrone, Gina F.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Singleton, Edward G.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Oral fluid collection is non-invasive and easily observed making it an attractive matrix for objectively determining smoking status. Despite large inter-subject variability, cotinine oral fluid concentrations correlate with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Few studies, however, assessed nicotine markers in oral fluid other than cotinine; other markers might improve smoking status assessment and/or time of last cigarette. Materials and Methods Smoking histories and oral fluid specimens were collected from non-treatment-seeking light (1–10 CPD) and heavy smokers (>10 CPD), and from environmentally exposed and nonexposed nonsmokers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) and norcotinine oral fluid concentrations were quantified via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Comparison of 1, 3 and 10ng/mL oral fluid LCMSMS cutoffs demonstrated that 10ng/mL cutoffs performed optimally for cotinine, OH-cotinine, nicotine and norcotinine identifying 98, 97, 88 and 15% of self-reported smokers; 1% nonsmokers had >10ng/mL cotinine. No self-reported nonsmoker had >10ng/mL OH-cotinine, nicotine or norcotinine. Norcotinine was only identified in smokers’ oral fluid. Oral fluid nicotine, cotinine and nicotine/cotinine ratios were negatively correlated with time of last smoking (r=−0.53, −0.23, and −0.51; pnicotine, cotinine and nicotine/cotinine ratios may be useful for determining smoking recency in “spot samples” collected during nicotine cessation treatment. PMID:21860341

  15. STRESS LEVEL AND SMOKING STATUS IN CENTRAL IRAN: ISFAHAN HEALTHY HEART PROGRAM

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    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals are faced with numerous stressful life events which can negatively influence mental health. Many individuals use smoking as a means of confronting stress. Given the relatively high prevalence of smoking in central Iran, the present study was conducted to compare stress levels in smokers, non-smokers and those who had quit smoking.    METHODS: This study was conducted as part of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Program on 9752 individuals in the cities of Isfahan, Arak, and Najafabad in 2008. Sampling was performed using multi-stage cluster randomization method. Data on age, sex, demographic characteristics, and smoking status was collected through interviews. Stress level detected by General Health questionnaire.Logistic regression and chi- squere test was used for data analyzing.    RESULTS: In the present study, 30% of non-smokers, 32.1% ex- smoker and 36.9% of smokers had GHQ of 4 and higher (P = 0.01. In regression analysis, the final model which was controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic statues (including place of residence, marital status and education level showed that the odds ratio of stress in smokers and ex- smoker was significantly higher than in non-smokers (OR = 1.66 and OR = 1.12, respectively.    CONCLUSION: Since in conducted studies, mental problems and stresses have had an important role in people’s smoking, it seems suitable to use the results of this study to present intervention for correct methods of coping with stress towards reducing the prevalence of smoking in the community.Keywords: Cigarette, Stress, Community-based Program.

  16. Smoking status and abdominal obesity among normal- and overweight/obese adults: Population-based FINRISK study

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    Eeva-Liisa Tuovinen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported direct associations of smoking with body mass index (BMI and abdominal obesity. However, the interplay between them is poorly understood. Our first aim was to investigate the interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC. Our second aim was to examine how the association of smoking status with WC varies among normal and overweight/obese men and women. We examined 5833 participants from the National FINRISK 2007 Study. The interactions between smoking and BMI on WC were analyzed. Participants were categorized into eight groups according to BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese and smoking status (never smoker, ex-smoker, occasional/light/moderate daily smoker, heavy daily smoker. The associations between each BMI/smoking status -group and WC were analyzed by multiple regressions, the normal-weight never smokers as the reference group. The smoking status by BMI-interaction on WC was significant for women, but not for men. Among the overweight/obese women, ex-smokers (β = 2.73; 1.99, 3.46 and heavy daily smokers (β = 4.90; 3.35, 6.44 had the highest estimates for WC when adjusted for age, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity. In comparison to never smoking overweight/obese women, the β-coefficients of ex-smokers and heavy daily smokers were significantly higher. Among men and normal weight women the β -coefficients did not significantly differ by smoking status. An interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity was observed in women: overweight/obese heavy daily smokers were particularly vulnerable for abdominal obesity. This risk group should be targeted for cardiovascular disease prevention.

  17. Is There an Association Between Smoking Status and Prosthetic Joint Infection After Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Amanda I; Luime, Jolanda J; Uçkay, Ilker; Hannouche, Didier; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Lübbeke, Anne

    2018-02-23

    Recent reports highlighted the association between smoking and higher risk of postsurgical infections. The aim was to compare the incidence of prosthetic joint infection after primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) according to smoking status. A prospective hospital registry-based cohort study was performed including all primary knee and hip TJAs performed between March 1996 and December 2013. Smoking status preoperatively was classified into never, former, and current smoker. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for prosthetic joint infection according to smoking status were assessed within the first year and beyond. We included 8559 primary TJAs (mean age 69.5 years), and median follow-up was 67 months. There were 5722 never, 1315 former, and 1522 current smokers. Incidence rates of infection within the first year for never, former, and current smokers were, respectively, 4.7, 10.1, and 10.9 cases/1000 person-years, comparing ever vs never smokers, crude and adjusted HRs were 2.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.98) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.04-3.2). Beyond the first year, crude and adjusted HRs were 1.37 (95% CI 0.78-2.39) and 1.12 (95% CI 0.61-2.04). Smoking increased the infection risk about 1.8 times after primary hip or knee TJA in both current and former smokers. Beyond the first year, the infection risk was similar to never smokers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis

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    Leyland Alastair H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

  19. Smoking status and sex as indicators of differences in 2582 obese patients presenting for weight management

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    Abunassar MJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Abunassar1, George A Wells2, Robert R Dent31Faculty of Medicine, 2Heart Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3The Ottawa Hospital Weight Management Clinic, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Smoking remains the most common preventable cause of death. Very little tobacco exposure can increase cardiovascular disease risk. The relationship between smoking, sex, and weight remains unclear.Methods: Between September 1992 and June 2007, 2582 consenting patients starting the Ottawa Hospital Weight Management program were grouped by sex and smoking status. “Former smokers” (771 females, 312 males had quit for at least 1 year. “Smokers” (135 females, 54 males smoked >9 cigarettes daily. There were 979 females and 331 males who never smoked. Using SAS 9.2 statistical software, the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, major depressive disorder (MDD, and medication use among the groups was compared (Chi-square [χ2]. Anthropometric measurements, lipid, glucose and thyroid levels were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Interactions were assessed using 2-way ANOVA analysis for continuous data, and logistic regression for discrete data.Results: Smokers were more likely to have MDD (χ2, lower high-density lipoprotein levels and higher triglyceride levels than other groups. Former smokers had a greater prevalence of CAD, T2DM on pharmacotherapy, and impaired fasting glucose than other groups. They were also more likely to be taking lipid-lowering agents and antihypertensives (χ2. Never smokers had less MDD, CAD, and were less likely to be on antidepressants than the other groups. Males were more likely to have CAD and T2DM than females. Females were more likely to have MDD than males. Interactions between smoking status and sex were found for age, weight, fasting glucose and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.Conclusion: Obese never smokers suffer from the fewest chronic diseases

  20. The Impact of Smoking Status on the Efficacy of Erlotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Yilong WU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Erlotinib is a targeted treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Smoking status may be one of influencing factors of the efficacy of erlotinib. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of smoking status on the efficacy of erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Methods Patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer who had been previously treated with at least one course of platinum based chemotherapy received 150 mg oral doses of erlotinib once daily until disease progression. Response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival were analyzed in the different smoking status groups. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the survival rate. Results Fortyeight patients were enrolled into the study from December 2005 to September 2006. We followed up these patients until 28th December, 2008. Median follow up time was 30 months. The compliance rate was 100%. The response rate was 32.1% in the smoking group and 35% in the never smoking group (P=0.836; The median progression-free survival was 3 months and 9 months, respectively (P=0.033. The median overall survival was 5 months and 17 months, respectively (P=0.162. Conclusion Erlotinib is an effective drug for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with different smoking status. Progressionfree survival is better in the never smoking patients than the smoking patients.

  1. Guilt, censure, and concealment of active smoking status among cancer patients and family members after diagnosis: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Wook; Park, Jong Hyock; Kim, So Young; Park, Eal Whan; Yang, Hyung Kook; Ahn, Eunmi; Park, Seon Mee; Lee, Young Joon; Lim, Myong Cheol; Seo, Hong Gwan

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to identify the prevalence of feelings of guilt, censure, and concealment of smoking status among cancer patients and their family members who continued to smoke after the patient's diagnosis. Among 990 patient-family member dyads, 45 patients and 173 family members who continued to smoke for at least 1 month after the patients' diagnoses were administered questions examining feelings of guilt, censure, and smoking concealment. Most patients who continued to smoke reported experiencing feelings of guilt toward their families (75.6%) and censure from their family members (77.8%), and many concealed their smoking from their family members (44.4%) or healthcare professionals (46.7%). Family members who continued to smoke also reported feelings of guilt with respect to the patient (63.6%) and that the patient was critical of them (68.9%), and many concealed their smoking from the patient (28.5%) or healthcare professionals (9.3%). Patients' feeling of guilt was associated with concealment of smoking from family members (55.9% vs. 10.0%) or health care professionals (55.9% vs. 20.0%). Family members who reported feeling guilty (36.5% vs. 16.3%) or censured (34.5% vs. 16.7%) were more likely to conceal smoking from patients. Many patients and family members continue to smoke following cancer diagnosis, and the majority of them experience feelings of guilt and censure, which can lead to the concealment of smoking status from families or health care professionals. Feelings of guilt, censure, and concealment of smoking should be considered in the development and implementation of smoking cessation programs for cancer patients and family members. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Do Mothers' Educational Expectations Differ by Race and Ethnicity, or Socioeconomic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…

  3. Temporary Employment and Social Inequality in Canada: Exploring Intersections of Gender, Race and Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sylvia; Vosko, Leah F.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2002-2004 waves of Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this article investigates the consequences of different types of temporary employment--fixed-term or contract, casual, agency and seasonal employment--for differently situated workers in Canada. Attention to intersecting social locations of gender, race and immigrant…

  4. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  5. Smoking status and cognitive performance among vocational school students in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengjuan; Huang, Lili; Zhou, Shuang; Shi, Qiang; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Chen

    2018-02-01

    In countries where smoking is associated with lower socioeconomic status, smokers tend to perform worse on cognitive tasks than non-smokers. China is now undergoing a similar process with a recent study showing that there is a reduced cognitive performance in middle aged but not in elderly smokers. We examined the links between smoking status and cognitive functioning among vocational school students in Beijing, China. A total of 213 students aged 16-20 (98 smokers and 115 non-smokers) were recruited from three vocational schools in Beijing. Participants completed three subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (information, arithmetic, digit span) and Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Smokers also completed a cigarette smoking questionnaire and Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Smokers performed worse than non-smokers in tests of arithmetic and digit span forward (t = 4.25, 2.05, both P < .05). Scores on digit span backward did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but among smokers, the performance on this subtest was related to the age of starting smoking (r = 0.26, p < .001). Cognitive performance in smokers was not related to tobacco dependence or intensity of smoking. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had a higher total DEX score and higher scores on three of its five subscales (Inhibition, Knowing-doing dissociation and Social regulation, all p < .05). Another subscale, In-resistance, did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but differentiated smokers with lower and higher levels of nicotine dependence (t = -2.12, p < .05). Smokers performed worse on some cognitive tasks than non-smokers and scored higher on a questionnaire assessing executive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The link between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents: similarities across gender, age, weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Patricia A; Mond, Jonathan; Eisenberg, Marla; Ackard, Diann; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined whether the cross-sectional association between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem varies across gender, age, body weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). We also examined the association longitudinally. A school-based survey of eating, weight, and related attitudes was conducted with a diverse sample of adolescents aged 11-18 years (N = 4,746). Height and weight were measured in the schools at Time 1. Participants were resurveyed through mails 5 years later (Time, 2; N = 2,516). The relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was strong and significant in both boys and girls (all p values p = .16), or between the middle school and high school cohorts in either boys (p = .79) or girls (p = .80). Among girls, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was strong, but did vary across weight status, race/ethnicity, and SES (all p values = .0001-.03). The relationship was nonsignificant in underweight girls (p = .36), and weaker but still significant among black, Asian, and low SES group girls (all p values p values = .18-.79). In longitudinal analyses, the strength of the association did not change significantly as adolescents grew older. Findings indicate that body dissatisfaction and self-esteem are strongly related among nearly all groups of adolescents. This suggests the importance of addressing body image concerns with adolescents of all backgrounds and ages.

  7. Nativity status and access to care in Canada and the U.S.: factoring in the roles of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Lydie A; Shi, Leiyu

    2011-08-01

    We conducted cross-country comparisons of Canada and the U.S., and assessed the extent to which access to care varies by nativity status overall, as well as in conjunction with race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Data came from the Joint Canada-U.S. Survey of Health (n=6,620 non-elderly adults). Access measures included having a regular medical doctor, consultation with a health professional in the past year, dentist visit in the past year, Pap test in the past three years, and any unmet health care needs in the past year. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the relative odds of access to care, adjusting for potential confounders. Disparities in access to care based on nativity status overall, as well as nativity-by-race joint effects, were found in both countries. There was also a dose-response effect of education on access to care among the native-born but not among the foreign-born; there were few nativity-by-income joint effects.

  8. Five-way Smoking Status Classification Using Text Hot-Spot Identification and Error-correcting Output Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Aaron M.

    2008-01-01

    We participated in the i2b2 smoking status classification challenge task. The purpose of this task was to evaluate the ability of systems to automatically identify patient smoking status from discharge summaries. Our submission included several techniques that we compared and studied, including hot-spot identification, zero-vector filtering, inverse class frequency weighting, error-correcting output codes, and post-processing rules. We evaluated our approaches using the same methods as the i2...

  9. Smoking status is inversely associated with overall diet quality: Findings from the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Baydarlioglu, Burcu; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Stranges, Saverio; Lemmens, Paul; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2017-10-01

    Relationships between food consumption/nutrient intake and tobacco smoking have been described in the literature. However, little is known about the association between smoking and overall diet quality. This study examined the associations between eight diet quality indices, namely, the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, Energy Density Score (EDS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), Recommended Food Score (RFS), non-Recommended Food Score (non-RFS), and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and smoking status with a focus on smoking intensity. Analyses were based on a sample of 1352 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) survey, a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18-69 years. Nutritional data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to compute selected diet quality indices. Participants were classified as never smoker, former smoker (≥12 months cessation period), occasional or light smokers (≤1 cig/d), moderate smokers (≤20 cig/d) and heavy smokers (>20 cig/d). Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed, after adjustment for several potential covariates. Compared to the other groups, heavy smokers had significantly higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (83%), obesity (34%), and elevated glycemic biomarkers. About 50% of former smokers had hypertension. Diet quality of heavy smokers was significantly poorer than those who never smoked independent of several socioeconomic, lifestyle, and biologic confounding factors (all p diet, as expressed by higher DII scores (P diet quality. The implication is that efforts aimed at tobacco control should target heavy smokers and intervention on smoking cessation should take into account diet quality of smokers and their nutritional habits, to increase effectiveness and relevance of public health messages. Copyright © 2016

  10. Differences in mathematics and science performance by economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race: A multiyear Texas statewide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela Bennett

    Purpose. The purpose of the first study was to ascertain the extent to which differences were present in the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by Grade 5 and Grade 8 student economic status. The purpose of the second study was to examine differences in Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science test performance by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Finally, with respect to the third study in this journal-ready dissertation, the purpose was to investigate the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores of Grade 8 students by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Method. For this journal-ready dissertation, a non-experimental, causal-comparative research design (Creswell, 2009) was used in all three studies. Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test data were analyzed for the 2011-2012 through the 2014-2015 school years. The dependent variables were the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores for Grade 5 and Grade 8. The independent variables analyzed in these studies were student economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race. Findings. Regarding the first study, statistically significant differences were present in Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by student economic status for each year. Moderate effect sizes (Cohen's d) were present for each year of the study for the Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science exams, Grade 8 Science exams, and the 2014-2015 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. However, a small effect size was present for the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. Regarding the second and third study, statistically significant differences were revealed for Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores based on gender, with trivial effect sizes. Furthermore, statistically significant differences were present in these test scores by ethnicity/race, with moderate effects for each year of the study. With regard to

  11. Maturity status influences the relative age effect in national top level youth alpine ski racing and soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Gonaus, Christoph; Perner, Christoph; Müller, Erich; Raschner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Since the relative age effect (RAE) characterizes a problem in all age categories of alpine ski racing and soccer and the fact that, yet, to date the underlying factors have not been well investigated, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE among youth alpine ski racers (YSR) and soccer players (SP). In total, 183 male and female YSR selected for national final races and 423 male SP selected for Elite Youth Development Centres were investigated. Additionally, a comparison group of 413 non-athletes was evaluated. The birth months were split into four relative age quarters. The biological maturity status was assessed by the age at peak height velocity (APHV) method; according to the M±SD of the comparison group, the athletes were divided into normal, early and late maturing. Chi2-tests indicated a significant RAE among YSR (χ2(3,N = 183) = 18.0; psports are effectively based on early biological development and relatively older age, both of which should be considered in future in the talent selection process. In this context, the easy feasible method of assessing the APHV can be used. PMID:28759890

  12. The effect of statins on cardiovascular outcomes by smoking status: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursoniu, Sorin; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.; Serban, Maria-Corina; Penson, Peter; Toth, Peter P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ray, Kausik K.; Kees Hovingh, G.; Kastelein, John J.; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rysz, Jacek; Banach, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. The impact of statin therapy on CVD risk by smoking status has not been fully investigated. Therefore we assessed the impact of statin therapy on CVD outcomes by smoking status through a systematic review

  13. Sleep Differences by Race in Preschool Children: The Roles of Parenting Behaviors and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kristina E; Millet, Genevieve; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether socioeconomic variables (SES) and parenting behaviors mediate differences in sleep problems between Black and White preschool-aged children. Parents of 191 preschool-aged children (53% male; 77% White) completed questionnaires regarding SES and sleep behaviors. Parenting behaviors and SES were analyzed as mediators of differences in sleep problems between Black and White children. Parent behaviors related to bedtime routine and independence mediated the relationship between race and parent-reported bedtime difficulty, parent confidence managing sleep, and sleep onset latency. SES mediated the relationship between race and sleep onset latency. Sleep differences between Black and White preschool children were primarily mediated by parent behaviors rather than socioeconomic variables. Results may reflect differences in cultural practices and provide important information for treatment and parent-directed intervention regarding improving sleep in young children.

  14. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170 from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02, and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002. Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004. Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States.

  15. Correlates of smoking with socioeconomic status, leisure time physical activity and alcohol consumption among Polish adults from randomly selected regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitas-Slubowska, Donata; Hurnik, Elzbieta; Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Anna

    2010-12-01

    To determine the association between smoking status and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) among Polish adults. 466 randomly selected men and women (aged 18-66 years) responded to an anonymous questionnaire regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, LTPA, and SES. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of smoking status with six socioeconomic measures, level of LTPA, and frequency and type of alcohol consumed. Smokers were defined as individuals smoking occasionally or daily. The odds of being smoker were 9 times (men) and 27 times (women) higher among respondents who drink alcohol several times/ week or everyday in comparison to non-drinkers (p times higher compared to those with the high educational attainment (p = 0.007). Among women we observed that students were the most frequent smokers. Female students were almost three times more likely to smoke than non-professional women, and two times more likely than physical workers (p = 0.018). The findings of this study indicated that among randomly selected Polish man and women aged 18-66 smoking and alcohol consumption tended to cluster. These results imply that intervention strategies need to target multiple risk factors simultaneously. The highest risk of smoking was observed among low educated men, female students, and both men and women drinking alcohol several times a week or every day. Information on subgroups with the high risk of smoking will help in planning future preventive strategies.

  16. Smoking status of parents, siblings and friends: Predictors of regular smoking? Findings from a longitudinal twin-family study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between regular smoking behavior and the smoking behavior of parents, siblings and friends was investigated using data from the Netherlands Twin Register. Cross-sectional analyses of data of 3906 twins showed significant associations between smoking behavior of the participant and

  17. Health care expenses in relation to obesity and smoking among U.S. adults by gender, race/ethnicity, and age group: 1998-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and smoking are two leading health risk factors and consume substantial health care resources. This study estimates and tracks annual per-capita health care expenses associated with obesity and smoking among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older from 1998 to 2011. Retrospective data analysis. Individual-level data came from the National Health Interview Survey 1996-2010 waves and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 1998-2011 waves. Annual per-capita health care expenses associated with obesity and smoking were estimated in two-part models, accounting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Obesity and smoking were associated with an increase in annual per-capita total health care expenses (2011 US$) by $1360 (95% confidence interval: $1134-$1587) and $1046 ($846-$1247), out-of-pocket expenses by $143 ($110-$176) and $70 ($37-$104), hospital inpatient expenses by $406 ($283-$529) and $405 ($291-$519), hospital outpatient expenses by $164 ($119-$210) and $95 ($52-$138), office-based medical provider service expenses by $219 ($157-$280) and $117 ($62-$172), emergency room service expenses by $45 ($28-$63) and $57 ($44-$71), and prescription expenses by $439 ($382-$496) and $251 ($199-$302), respectively. From 1998 to 2011, the estimated per-capita expenses associated with obesity and smoking increased by 25% and 30% for total health care, 41% and 48% for office-based medical provider services, 59% and 66% for emergency room services, and 62% and 70% for prescriptions but decreased by 16% and 15% for out-of-pocket health care expenses, 3% and 0.3% for inpatient care, and 6% and 2% for outpatient care, respectively. Health care expenses associated with obesity and smoking were considerably larger among women, Non-Hispanic whites, and older adults compared with their male, racial/ethnic minority, and younger counterparts. Health care costs associated with obesity and smoking are substantial and increased noticeably during 1998-2011. They also vary

  18. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Franco, Christine A; Hoff, Rani A; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Analyses utilized survey data from 1591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  20. Results from a community-based program evaluating the effect of changing smoking status on asthma symptom control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To Teresa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking has been associated with accelerated decline in lung function, increased health services use and asthma severity in patients with asthma. Previous studies have provided insight into how smoking cessation improves lung function among asthma patients, however, fail to provide measurable asthma symptom-specific outcomes after smoking cessation. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of changing smoking status on asthma symptom control and health services use in adults with asthma. Methods The study was conducted in eight primary care practices across Ontario, Canada participating in a community-based, participatory, and evidence-based Asthma Care Program. Patients aged 18 to 55 identified with physician-diagnosed mild to moderate asthma were recruited. In addition to receiving clinical asthma care, participants were administered a questionnaire at baseline and 12-month follow-up visits to collect information on demographics, smoking status, asthma symptoms and routine health services use. The effect of changing smoking status on asthma symptom control was compared between smoking groups using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests where appropriate. Mixed effect models were used to measure the impact of the change in smoking status on asthma symptom and health services use while adjusting for covariates. Results This study included 519 patients with asthma; 11% of baseline smokers quit smoking while 4% of baseline non-smokers started smoking by follow-up. Individuals who quit smoking had 80% lower odds of having tightness in the chest (Odds ratio (OR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.82 and 76% lower odds of night-time symptoms (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.85 compared to smokers who continued to smoke. Compared to those who remained non-smokers, those who had not been smoking at baseline but self-reported as current smoker at follow-up had significantly higher odds of chest tightness (OR = 1

  1. Racial/ethnic disparity in the associations of smoking status with uncontrolled hypertension subtypes among hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Zhu, Tinghui; Manojlovich, Milisa; Cohen, Hillel W; Tsilimingras, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of smoking with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) and its subtypes (isolated uncontrolled systolic BP (SBP), uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP, and isolated uncontrolled diastolic BP (DBP)) have not been investigated among diagnosed hypertensive subjects. A sample of 7,586 hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Race/ethnicity was classified into Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black. Smoking was categorized as never smoking, ex-smoking, and current smoking. Uncontrolled BP was determined as SBP≥140 or DBP≥90 mm Hg. Isolated uncontrolled SBP was defined as SBP≥140 and DBPsmokers, current smokers were 29% less likely to have uncontrolled BP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56-0.90), although the likelihood for uncontrolled BP is the same for smokers and never smokers in Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Current smokers were 26% less likely than never smokers to have isolated uncontrolled SBP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95). However, current smoking is associated with an increased likelihood of uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP in non-Hispanic blacks, and current smokers in this group were 70% more likely to have uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP than never smokers (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.10-2.65). The associations between current smoking and uncontrolled BP differed over race/ethnicity. Health practitioners may need to be especially vigilant with non-Hispanic black smokers with diagnosed hypertension.

  2. Towards a smoke-free hospital: how the smoking status of health professionals influences their knowledge, attitude and clinical activity. Results from a hospital in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, E; Marani, A; Salvati, O; Mangiaracina, G; Prestigiacomo, C; Osborn, J F; Cattaruzza, M S

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the prevalence of smoking among health professionals is higher than in the general population and this might hamper their role in the promotion of health. This study aimed to investigate how the smoking status of healthcare professionals might influence knowledge, attitudes and clinical practice in a hospital in central Italy in order to enforce effective tobacco control measures. Physicians and professionals of the hospital were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire which yielded epidemiological and environmental information on knowledge, attitude, clinical practice and quality of the hospital environments, in relation to smoking. Overall, among the employees of the hospital, the smoking prevalence was 47%, (42% among physicians and 43% among nurses); 30% admitted smoking in the hospital and three quarters of the smokers would like to quit. Some knowledge, opinions and attitudes differ statistically among the smoking categories. For example, only 35% of the smokers admitted that smoking is more dangerous to health than atmospheric and car pollution compared with 60% of the ex or never smokers (p=0.04). Fewer smokers realize that their behavior is seen as a role model by patients. A greater percentage of smokers state that patients (34%) and visitors (43%) often smoke in hospital and these percentages are significantly higher than those reported by ex or never smokers (p≤0.05). All smokers claim that they never smoke in patient rooms, infirmaries and clinics, whereas over 20% of ex or never smokers report that smoking sometimes occurs in these places (p=0.015). The mean concentration of PM 2.5 in the 25 rooms was 2.4 μg/m3 with a range from 1 to 7 μg/m3. This study implies that the prevalence of smoking among health professionals may be very high, and might be twice the rate observed in the general population. Generally, smokers report less knowledge compared with ex and never-smokers and it seems that they systematically underestimate the

  3. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  4. Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guitérrez-Bedmar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36 at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000-2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health.

  5. Surgery for Otitis Media in a Universal Health Care Model: Socioeconomic Status and Race/Ethnicity Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Art; Brigger, Matthew T

    2014-07-01

    (1) To determine the association between socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and other demographic risk factors in surgically managed otitis media within a model of universal health care. 2) To determine quality of life (QOL) outcomes of surgically managed otitis media in this model. Tertiary academic medical center. Prospective cohort study. A prospective study was conducted between June 2011 and December 2012 with dependent children of military families. TRICARE provides equal access to care among all beneficiaries regardless of a wide range of annual incomes. Caretakers of children scheduled for bilateral myringotomy and tympanostomy tube (BMT) placement were administered a demographic survey, as well as OM-6 QOL instrument preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively. A control group who did not undergo BMT was also administered both the survey and OM-6 for comparison. Two hundred forty patients were enrolled (120 surgical patients and 120 controls). Logistic regression demonstrated age younger than 6 years old (P otitis media-6 (OM-6) scores after surgical management from 3.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.79-3.20) to 1.35 (95% CI, 1.22-1.47). In a universal health care model serving more than 2 million children, previously reported proxies of low SES as well as minority race/ethnicity were not associated with surgically managed otitis media contrary to reported literature. Caucasian race, young age, and day care attendance were associated with surgery. Surgery improved QOL outcomes 6 weeks postoperatively. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  6. Epidemiology and Disparities in Care: The Impact of Socioeconomic Status, Gender, and Race on the Presentation, Management, and Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Ventral Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Poulose, Benjamin; Prabhu, Ajita S

    2018-06-01

    More research is needed with regards to gender, race, and socioeconomic status on ventral hernia presentation, management, and outcomes. The role of culture and geography in hernia-related health care remains unknown. Currently existing nationwide registries have thus far yielded at best a modest overview of disparities in hernia care. The significant variation in care relative to gender, race, and socioeconomic status suggests that there is room for improvement in providing consistent care for patients with hernias. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Racial/ethnic disparity in the associations of smoking status with uncontrolled hypertension subtypes among hypertensive subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Liu

    Full Text Available Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of smoking with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP and its subtypes (isolated uncontrolled systolic BP (SBP, uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP, and isolated uncontrolled diastolic BP (DBP have not been investigated among diagnosed hypertensive subjects.A sample of 7,586 hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Race/ethnicity was classified into Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black. Smoking was categorized as never smoking, ex-smoking, and current smoking. Uncontrolled BP was determined as SBP≥140 or DBP≥90 mm Hg. Isolated uncontrolled SBP was defined as SBP≥140 and DBP<90 mm Hg, uncontrolled SDBP as SBP≥140 and DBP≥90 mm Hg, and isolated uncontrolled DBP as SBP<140 and DBP≥90 mm Hg. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs of uncontrolled BP and its subtypes were calculated using weighted logistic regression models.The interaction effect of race and smoking was significant after adjustment for the full potential confounding covariates (Adjusted p = 0.0412. Compared to never smokers, current smokers were 29% less likely to have uncontrolled BP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56-0.90, although the likelihood for uncontrolled BP is the same for smokers and never smokers in Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Current smokers were 26% less likely than never smokers to have isolated uncontrolled SBP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95. However, current smoking is associated with an increased likelihood of uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP in non-Hispanic blacks, and current smokers in this group were 70% more likely to have uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP than never smokers (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.10-2.65.The associations between current smoking and uncontrolled BP differed over race/ethnicity. Health practitioners may need to be especially

  8. Toward an Intersectional Approach in Developmental Science: The Role of Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Immigrant Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Negin; Katsiaficas, Dalal; Rogers, Leoandra Onnie

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theory and research have often focused on a single social identity category, for example, race or sexual orientation, and examined the consequences of that category on life outcomes. Yet intersectional models of social disadvantage (eg, Cole, 2009; Crenshaw, 1995; King, 1988) suggest that social categories combine to shape the experiences and life outcomes of individuals across life domains. In this chapter, we review empirical research that offers insight into the intersectionality of social identities across three critical developmental periods, namely, middle childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. We also consider the consequences of intersecting identities across several life domains, including intergroup relations and political and civic engagement. Recognizing that the body of work on social identities is expansive, we focus our review on race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and immigrant status. In each developmental stage, we discuss what we know, drawing from the limited empirical literature, and offer suggestions on where we need to go moving forward. We conclude that research that focuses on as a single category and ignores the specific domain of development provides an incomplete and inaccurate picture that will hinder efforts to develop culturally appropriate and clinically effective prevention and intervention programs to meet the needs of our diverse children and youth living in the United States. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco Smoking Status and Perception of Health among a Sample of Jordanian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaina Alzyoud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11–18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%. Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings.

  10. Ethnicity, smoking status, and preterm birth as predictors of maternal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin B; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-04-01

    A woman's psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth (PTB) in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. In all, 210 participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (Internal Control, Chance, Powerful Others). Women who experienced preterm delivery and those who smoked during pregnancy scored the Chance category significantly higher than those who delivered term infants (p = .05; p = .004, respectively). This suggests those who smoked during pregnancy had a greater degree of belief that Chance influenced their infant's health status. Cultural differences also emerged specific to the impact of health care providers on PTB; with Hispanic women scoring Powerful Others the highest among the groups (p = .02). Nurses can plan a critical role in identifying at-risk women (smoking, strong Chance beliefs) while providing a clear message that taking action and modifying high-risk behaviors can reduce risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Effect of Race and Marital Status on Mothers’ Observed Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mackenzie T.; Gruhn, Meredith A.; Grey, Margaret; Delamater, Alan M.; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine demographic differences in parenting behaviors and adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment was assessed via self-reports and parent reports, and clinical data were obtained from adolescents’ medical records. Mother–adolescent dyads (N = 93) engaged in a videotaped discussion task, which was coded for observed parenting behaviors. Results Single and non-White mothers exhibited significantly more overinvolved and less collaborative parenting behaviors. Higher levels of overinvolved parenting and lower levels of collaborative parenting were associated with poorer adolescent adjustment (i.e., higher levels of externalizing problems). Observed parenting was not significantly associated with glycemic control. There was an indirect effect of marital status and race/ethnicity on externalizing behaviors through parenting. Conclusions The current study highlights parenting as a potential target for interventions, especially in single and minority mothers, to improve adjustment in this population. PMID:25248850

  12. The prognostic importance of smoking status at the time of acute myocardial infarction in 6676 patients. TRACE Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen; Køber, L; Ottesen, M M

    1999-01-01

    with an infarction in order to further study the prognostic importance of smoking status at the time of myocardial infarction. The study cohort comprised 6676 patients with an enzyme-confirmed myocardial infarction admitted to 27 Danish hospitals over a 26-month period between 1990 and 1992. Smoking status......Smoking is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic heart disease, but several studies have shown smoking to be associated with a favourable prognosis in patients who have suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We studied a large group of consecutive patients admitted alive to hospital...... was determined at the time of hospitalisation and complete follow-up was obtained in October 1996. Smokers were on average 10 years younger, had fewer concomitant cardiac risk factors, and were more likely to be male and to receive thrombolytic therapy more frequently than non-smokers. In univariate analysis...

  13. [The relationship between smoking status and epidermiology of asthma in people aged over 14 years in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Y; Lin, J T; Chen, P; Zhou, X; Wan, H Y; Yin, K S; Ma, L J; Wu, C G; Li, J; Liu, C T; Su, N; Liu, G L; Xie, H; Tang, W; Huang, M; Chen, Y H; Liu, L J; Song, Y; Chen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Wang, W Y; Li, W; Sun, L C

    2017-07-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between bronchial asthma and smoking status in Chinese people. Methods: Asthma epidemiological survey and stratified-cluster-random method survey were performed in residents over 14 years in 8 provinces (cities) of China from February 2010 to August 2012. Asthma was diagnosed based upon case history, clinical signs and lung function test. Smoking status was investigated by questionnaire. Results: Sampling population was 180 099 and 164 215 were valid. A total of 2 034 subjects were diagnosed as asthma including 79 692 men and 84 523 women. The overall prevalence rate of asthma was 1.24% (2 034/164 215). Smokers were 23.8% (39 137/164 215) in the whole population. Smokers were 34.5% (702/2 034) in asthmatic patients, compared with 23.7% (38 435/162 181) in no-asthmatic population. The incidence of asthma was 1.79% and 1.06% in smokers and non-smokers respectively ( P smoking was 1.70 (95% CI 1.55-1.86, P smoking group was higher than that in smoking group(43.2% vs 35.3%). The times of hospitalization due to acute exacerbations(0.51 vs 0.41 events/person/year), total hospitalization rate(27.35% vs 20.12%), annual emergency room visits (0.80 vs 0.60 events/person/year) and emergency room visit rate (31.77% vs 24.47%) were all much higher in smoking asthmatic patients than those in non smoking asthmatic patients, indicating that the level of asthma control in smoking patients was significantly worse than in non smoking patients. Conclusions: The smoking rate in Chinese people over 14 years is still high. The prevalence rate of asthma in smokers is significantly higher than that of non-smokers. The level of asthma control in smokers is significantly worse than that in non smokers.

  14. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  15. Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrick Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders. Methods We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6 scores and duration of mental illness. Results The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking. Conclusions The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco

  16. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors-including genetics, personality, and environment-affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process. : In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers' scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers' activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers' dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals' needs.

  17. Escaping Poverty and Securing Middle Class Status: How Race and Socioeconomic Status Shape Mobility Prospects for African Americans During the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; Mcloyd, Vonnie C.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility through where African Americans live, whom they associate with, and how they are impacted by racial and class-related stigma. Of particular interest is social mobility as accomplished through academic achievement, educational attainment, employment, economic independence, and homeownership. Research on five issues is reviewed and discussed: (a) the unique vulnerabilities of newly upwardly mobile African Americans, (b) wealth as a source of inequality, (c) racism and discrimination, (d) the stigma associated with lower-class status, and (e) social and cultural capital. The article concludes with a summary and directions for future research. PMID:19636721

  18. Cross-sectional relations of race and poverty status to cardiovascular risk factors in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Lifespan (HANDLS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Shari R; Moody, Danielle L Beatty; McNeely, Jessica M; Allen, Allyssa J; Sprung, Mollie R; Shah, Mauli T; Al'Najjar, Elias; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-03-14

    Examine interactive relations of race and poverty status with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a socioeconomically diverse sample of urban-dwelling African American (AA) and White adults. Participants were 2,270 AAs and Whites (57% AA; 57% female; ages 30-64 years) who completed the first wave of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. CVD risk factors assessed included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), and systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure (SBP, DBP, PP). Interactive and independent relations of race, poverty status, and sex were examined for each outcome via ordinary least squares regression adjusted for age, education, literacy, substance use, depressive symptoms, perceived health care barriers, medical co-morbidities, and medications. Significant interactions of race and poverty status (p's poverty had lower BMI and WC and higher HDL-C than non-poverty AAs, whereas Whites living in poverty had higher BMI and WC and lower HDL-C than non-poverty Whites. Main effects of race revealed that AAs had higher levels of HbA1c, SBP, and PP, and Whites had higher levels of TC, LDL-C and TG (p's Poverty status moderated race differences for BMI, WC, and HDL-C, conveying increased risk among Whites living in poverty, but reduced risk in their AA counterparts. Race differences for six additional risk factors withstood extensive statistical adjustments including SES indicators.

  19. Disparities in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Other Beverages by Race/Ethnicity and Obesity Status among United States Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Allison Hedley; Briefel, Ronette; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Crepinsek, Mary Kay

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify disparities by race/ethnicity and obesity status in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverages among United States schoolchildren to help tailor interventions to reduce childhood obesity. Design: Secondary data analysis using beverage intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls and measured height and…

  20. Association of Education and Smoking Status on Risk of Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hyeong; Noh, Juhwan; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-06-19

    Background: Exposure to smoke, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is a well-known risk factor for diabetes. Low socioeconomic status, especially lack of education, is also a risk factor for diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association of demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and behavior risk factor-related variables and smoking status, including ETS exposure, with the prevalence of diabetes. Methods: Data were from the 2007-2013 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES). Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between various lifestyle and health factors and the prevalence of diabetes while controlling for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analysis was performed according to smoking status to determine factors associated with diabetes. Results: Of 19,303 individuals analyzed, 1325 (11.4%) had diabetes. Greater average age, male sex, lower educational level, unemployment, and coexisting health problems were significantly associated with diabetes. Individuals with only elementary, middle, or high school level education had significantly greater odds ratios ( p education, urban residence, National Health Insurance (NHI), hypertension, a lack of alcohol intake, and a lack of moderate physical activity. For diabetic smokers, there were significant associations ( p education, urban residence, a lack of moderate physical activity, a lack of alcohol intake, and NHI. Conclusions: The results suggested that smoking status, as well as ETS exposure, was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, especially in populations with less education. Thus, we should direct efforts for controlling diabetes toward individuals with lower levels of education and those who are smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS.

  1. Seasonal Dynamics of Academic Achievement Inequality by Socioeconomic Status and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North; McIntyre, Joe; Gomez, Celia J.

    2016-01-01

    Early studies examining seasonal variation in academic achievement inequality generally concluded that socioeconomic test score gaps grew more over the summer than the school year, suggesting schools served as "equalizers." In this study, we analyze seasonal trends in socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic test score gaps using…

  2. The Influence of Race and Socioeconomic Status on Routine Screening Practices of Physician Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, DeShana Ann

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in minorities and those of low socioeconomic status persist despite efforts to eliminate potential causes. Differences in the delivery of services can result in different healthcare outcomes and therefore, a health disparity. Some of this difference in care may attribute to discrimination resulting from clinical biases and…

  3. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  4. Parsing the Relations of Race and Socioeconomic Status in Special Education Disproportionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Aleksis P.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how student and school-level socioeconomic status (SES) measures predict students' odds of being identified for special education, particularly high-incidence disabilities. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten cohort, hierarchical models were used to determine the relations of student and school SES to…

  5. [The ban on smoking in public places (Decree No. 2006-1386 of 15th November 2006): Impact over 12 months on smoking status of hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel-Donnarel, E; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Barlesi, F; Lehucher-Michel, M-P

    2010-03-01

    In France, the decree No. 2006-1386 banned smoking in public places such as hospitals. The aim of our study was to describe the impact of the legislation on the smoking status of hospital nurses. A descriptive study was undertaken in a university hospital of Marseilles, under the responsibility of the occupational medicine service. Between April and June 2008, a questionnaire was distributed to the nurses who had been working for more than one year. The following data were collected: demographic information, smoking status, behaviour and attitudes regarding smoking addiction, knowledge regarding existing preventive measures. Sixty-four percent of 715 eligible subjects responded; thirty percents reported themselves as current smokers, 25 % as ex-smokers and 45 % as non-smokers. Among the smokers, 68 % said that they had decreased their tobacco consumption during their working hours and 28 % their overall daily consumption. Among ex-smokers, 20 % declared that they were in the process of quitting. The nurses had decreased their tobacco consumption at work and these positive results should be confirmed over a long-term perspective. The preventive role of the occupational physician could be reinforced. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Smoking Status on Successful Arthrodesis, Clinical Outcome, and Complications After Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Fadhil, Matthew; Chang, Nicholas; Giang, Gloria; Gragnaniello, Cristian; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2018-02-01

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a surgical technique indicated for the treatment of several lumbar pathologies. Smoking has been suggested as a possible cause of reduced fusion rates after ALIF, although the literature regarding the impact of smoking status on lumbar spine surgery is not well established. This study aims to assess the impact of perioperative smoking status on the rates of perioperative complications, fusion, and adverse clinical outcomes in patients undergoing ALIF surgery. A retrospective analysis was performed on a prospectively maintained database of 137 patients, all of whom underwent ALIF surgery by the same primary spine surgeon. Smoking status was defined by the presence of active smoking in the 2 weeks before the procedure. Outcome measures included fusion rates, surgical complications, Short-Form 12, and Oswestry Disability Index. Patients were separated into nonsmokers (n = 114) and smokers (n = 23). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the percentage of patients with successful fusion differed significantly between the groups (69.6% vs. 85.1%, P = 0.006). Pseudarthrosis rates were shown to be significantly associated with perioperative smoking. Results for other postoperative complications and clinical outcomes were similar for both groups. On multivariate analysis, the rate of failed fusion was significantly greater for smokers than nonsmokers (odds ratio 37.10, P = 0.002). The rate of successful fusion after ALIF surgery was found to be significantly lower for smokers compared with nonsmokers. No significant association was found between smoking status and other perioperative complications or adverse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Health risk behaviors of black male college students: seat belt use, smoking, and obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Phoebe Butler

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.

  8. Associations Between Pain, Current Tobacco Smoking, Depression, and Fibromyalgia Status Among Treatment-Seeking Chronic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goesling, Jenna; Brummett, Chad M; Meraj, Taha S; Moser, Stephanie E; Hassett, Afton L; Ditre, Joseph W

    2015-07-01

    As smoking impacts physiological pathways in the central nervous system, it is important to consider the association between smoking and fibromyalgia, a pain condition caused predominantly by central nervous system dysfunction. The objectives were to assess the prevalence of current smoking among treatment-seeking chronic pain patients with (FM+) and without (FM-) a fibromyalgia-like phenotype; test the individual and combined influence of smoking and fibromyalgia on pain severity and interference; and examine depression as a mediator of these processes. Questionnaire data from 1566 patients evaluated for a range of conditions at an outpatient pain clinic were used. The 2011 Survey Criteria for Fibromyalgia were used to assess the presence of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. Current smoking was reported by 38.7% of FM+ patients compared to 24.7% of FM- patients. FM+ smokers reported higher pain and greater interference compared to FM+ nonsmokers, FM- smokers, and FM- nonsmokers. There was no interaction between smoking and fibromyalgia. Significant indirect effects of fibromyalgia and smoking via greater depression were observed for pain severity and interference. Current smoking and positive fibromyalgia status were associated with greater pain and impairment among chronic pain patients, possibly as a function of depression. Although FM+ smokers report the most negative clinical symptomatology (i.e., high pain, greater interference) smoking does not appear to have a unique association with pain or functioning in FM+ patients, rather the effect is additive. The 38.7% smoking rate in FM+ patients is high, suggesting FM+ smokers present a significant clinical challenge. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  9. Diet quality, physical activity, smoking status, and weight fluctuation are associated with weight change in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Jasuja, Guneet K; Pencina, Michael J; McKeon-O'Malley, Catherine; Fox, Caroline S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-07-01

    The effect of diet quality on weight change, relative to other body weight determinants, is insufficiently understood. Furthermore, research on long-term weight change in U.S. adults is limited. We evaluated prospectively patterns and predictors of weight change in Framingham Offspring/Spouse (FOS) women and men (n = 1515) aged > or =30 y with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m2 and without cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline over a 16-y period. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score. In women, older age (P Diet quality interacted with former smoking status (P-interaction = 0.02); former smokers with lower diet quality gained an additional 5.2 kg compared with those with higher diet quality (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.06). Among men, older age (P smoking (P smoking status (P smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors.

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNET ADDICTION AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IS INFLUENCED BY THE SMOKING STATUS IN MALE ONLINE VIDEO GAMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Müller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mounting evidence suggests a putative link between overuse of digital media and easily accessible drugs such as alcohol and nicotine. Method: We assessed Internet addiction tendencies in a sample of N=1,362 male players of online first-person-shooter-video games. We used Young’s 20-item Internet addiction test (IAT. We also asked participants about their smoking status and alcohol consumption. Results: No significant differences were observed on the IAT between smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers. However, in line with the majority of the literature, the results yielded support for a link between Internet addiction and alcohol consumption. Of importance, this correlation was influenced by the current smoking status. This relationship was especially pronounced for the group of ex-smokers. Conclusions: It is possible that after quitting smoking, drinking habits and online activities may be used to compensate for nicotine abstinence.

  11. Impact of seasonal variation, age and smoking status on human semen parameters: The Massachusetts General Hospital experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuying; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Schiff, Isaac; Hauser, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study. PMID:15507127

  12. A social–contextual investigation of smoking among rural women: multi-level factors associated with smoking status and considerations for cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Thomson, Tiffany L; Lu, Bo; Peng, Juan; Krebs, Valdis; Doogan, Nathan J; Ferketich, Amy K; Post, Douglas M; Browning, Christopher R; Paskett, Electra D; Wewers, Mary E

    2018-03-01

    The social-contextual model of tobacco control and the potential mechanisms of the maintenance or cessation of smoking behavior among disadvantaged women, including rural residents, have yet to be comprehensively studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between selected individual, interpersonal, workplace, and neighborhood characteristics and smoking status among women in Appalachia, a US region whose residents experience a disproportionate prevalence of tobacco-related health disparities. These findings may assist in efforts to design and test scientifically valid tobacco control interventions for this and other disadvantaged populations. Women, 18 years of age and older, residing in three rural Ohio Appalachian counties, were recruited using a two-phase address-based sampling methodology for a cross-sectional interview-administered survey between August 2012 and October 2013 (N=408). Multinomial logistic regression was employed to determine associations between select multilevel factors (independent variables) and smoking status (dependent variable). The sample included 82 (20.1%) current smokers, 92 (22.5%) former smokers, and 234 (57.4%) women reporting never smoking (mean age 51.7 years). In the final multivariable multinomial logistic regression model, controlling for all other significant associations, constructs at multiple social-contextual levels were associated with current versus either former or never smoking. At the individual level, for every additional year in age, the odds of being a former or never smoker increased by 7% and 6% (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval(CI)): 1.07 (1.0-1.11) and 1.06 (1.02-1.09)), respectively, as compared to the odds of being a current smoker. With regard to depression, for each one unit increase in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score, the odds of being a former or never smoker were 5% and 7% lower (OR(95%CI): 0.95(0.91-0.999) and 0.93(0.88-0.98)), respectively

  13. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

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    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. OBJECTIVE This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. METHODS Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). RESULTS The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. CONTRIBUTION This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and

  14. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Mollborn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. Objective: This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Methods: Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529. Results: The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. Contribution: This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship

  15. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G

    2018-01-01

    Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking.

  16. Cigarette smoking, health status, socio-economic status and access to health care in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedgwick JEC

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and microvascular complications. We evaluated cigarette smoking in people with diabetes mellitus in a socio-economically deprived area. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of people registered with diabetes mellitus at 29 general practices in inner London. Responses were analysed for 1,899 (64% respondents out of 2,983 eligible. Results There were 1,899 respondents of whom 968 (51% had never smoked, 296 (16% were current smokers and 582 (31% were ex-smokers. Smoking was more frequent in white Europeans (men 22%, women 20%, than in African Caribbeans (men 15%, women 10% or Africans (men 8%, women 2%. Smoking prevalence decreased with age. Smokers were more likely to be living in rented accommodation (odds ratio, OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 2.74. After adjusting for confounding, current smokers had lower SF-36 scores than subjects who had never smoked (mean difference in physical functioning score -5.6, 95% confidence interval -10.0 to -1.2; general health -6.1, -9.7 to -2.5. Current smokers were less likely to have attended a hospital diabetic clinic in the last year (OR 0.59, 0.44 to 0.79, and their hypertension was less likely to be treated (OR 0.47, 0.30 to 0.74. Conclusions Compared with non-smokers, smokers had lower socio-economic status and worse health status, but were less likely to be referred to hospital or treated for their hypertension. People with diabetes who smoke can be regarded as a vulnerable group who need more intensive support and treatment.

  17. Parental smoking status, stress, anxiety, and depression are associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking school adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Chong, Zhuolin; Khoo, Yi Yi; Kaur, Jasvindar

    2014-09-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is a reliable predictor of smoking initiation. This article describes its prevalence and associated factors among Malaysian school adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012, a nationwide representative sample of school adolescents. The overall prevalence of susceptibility to smoking was 6.0% and significantly higher among males (9.5%) compared with females (3.6%). Multivariable analyses revealed that males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-4.18) and school adolescents of indigenous Sabahan or Sarawakian descents (aOR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.18) were significantly more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Susceptible school adolescents had a slightly higher likelihood to have symptoms of stress (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), anxiety (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40), depression (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.96), including those whose one or both parents/guardians were smokers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.82; aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.22-4.44, respectively). The findings from this study point out the need for proactive measures to reduce smoking initiation among Malaysian adolescents with particular attention toward factors associated with susceptibility to smoking. © 2014 APJPH.

  18. Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Smoking Status and Food Habits in Greek Adolescents. Vascular Implications for the Future.

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    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Hassapidou, Maria N; Katsiki, Niki; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Fachantidou, Anna I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Deligiannis, Asterios P

    2017-01-01

    Addictive behaviours in adolescents such as alcohol consumption and smoking are rapidly increasing worldwide. No previous study has examined smoking status and alcohol consumption in adolescents of Northern Greece in relation to their food habits. Therefore, we assessed the smoking status and alcohol consumption, as well the food habits, of this population. Adolescents (495 boys and 508 girls) aged 15±1 years old and 15±2 years old respectively, completed questionnaires regarding smoking, alcohol and food habits. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were reported by 9.2% and 48.1% of them, respectively. Of those that drank alcohol, 13.9% were also smokers. Older adolescents were more likely to consume foods high in fat and sugar, low in vitamins and minerals as well as foods, considered by them to be less healthy and prepared in a less healthy way. Moreover, smoker adolescents were less likely to choose foods considered to be healthy and prepared in a healthy way, whereas they were more likely to choose foods high in fat content. Both smoking and alcohol consumption may affect cardiovascular risk and the vasculature. Poor lifestyle (and risk of vascular events) can start at an early age. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. IL1RN and KRT13 Expression in Bladder Cancer: Association with Pathologic Characteristics and Smoking Status

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    Thomas S. Worst

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To validate microarray data on cytokeratin 13 (KRT13 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN expression in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCB and to correlate our findings with pathologic characteristics and tobacco smoking. Methods. UCB tissue samples (n=109 and control samples (n=14 were obtained from transurethral resection and radical cystectomy specimens. Immunohistochemical staining of KRT13 and IL1RN was performed and semiquantitative expression scores were assessed. Smoking status was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. Expression scores were correlated with pathologic characteristics (tumor stage and grade and with smoking status. Results. Loss of KRT13 and IL1RN expression was observed in UCB tissue samples when compared to controls (P=0.007, P=0.008 in which KRT13 and IL1RN expression were high. IL1RN expression was significantly reduced in muscle-invasive tumors (P=0.003. In tissue samples of current smokers, a significant downregulation of IL1RN was found when compared to never smokers (P=0.013. Conclusion. Decreased expressions of KRT13 and IL1RN are common features of UCB and are associated with aggressive disease. Tobacco smoking may enhance the loss of IL1RN, indicating an overweight of proinflammatory mediators involved in UCB progression. Further validation of the influence of smoking on IL1RN expression is warranted.

  20. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Residential Segregation, and Spatial Variation in Noise Exposure in the Contiguous United States.

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    Casey, Joan A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Mennitt, Daniel J; Fristrup, Kurt; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; James, Peter

    2017-07-25

    Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. We aimed to a ) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b ) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L 50 ) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L 10 ) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75% vs. 0% black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44.3–47.8 dBA] and 42.3 dBA (IQR: 40.4–45.5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50% vs. 0% of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46.9 dBA (IQR: 44.7–48.5 dBA) and 44.0 dBA (IQR: 42.2–45.5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor

  2. Do smoking and fruit and vegetable intake mediate the association between socio-economic status and plasma carotenoids?

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    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Totland, Torunn H; Bastani, Nasser; Kjøllesdal, Marte K; Tell, Grethe S; Andersen, Lene F

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to study whether the association between educational attainment and antioxidant status is mediated by smoking and fruit and vegetable intake. Cross-sectional analyses of the Oslo Youth Study 2006 wave were carried out. Information about education, smoking habits and diet was collected by questionnaire for 261 subjects (142 women and 119 men aged 38-42 years). Blood samples, height and weight measurements were taken by the participants' General Practitioner. Blood were analysed for plasma carotenoids. Linear regression analyses were used to examine whether smoking and fruit and vegetable intake mediate the association between education and plasma carotenoids. Educational level was positively associated with β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not with total carotenoids, β-carotene or lycopene. Education was negatively associated with smoking and positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Smoking was negatively associated with β-cryptoxanthin, and fruit and vegetable intake was positively associated with β-cryptoxanthin (adjusted for educational level). Moreover, cigarette consumption mediated the association between education and β-cryptoxanthin by 37%, while fruit and vegetable intake mediated this association by 18%. The total mediation effect was 55%. Smoking seemed to be more important as a mediator between education and plasma levels of β-cryptoxanthin than the intake of fruit and vegetables, but more studies are needed to establish the relative importance of smoking and diet as mediators of the association between education and antioxidant status. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking From Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Burke, Lindsay; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This longitudinal study examined the association between trajectories of cigarette smoking and unemployment across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Methods: Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in 2 upstate New York counties. Data were collected at 7 timepoints. Results: Using growth mixture modeling, 5 trajectory groups of cigarette smokers were identified. The trajectory groups were as follows: heavy/continuous smokers, occasional smokers, late-starting smokers, quitters/decreasers, and nonsmokers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s trajectory group membership and unemployment in the fifth decade of life. The association was determined with controls for age, gender, current cigarette use, current alcohol use, current marijuana use, physical diseases, occupation, educational level, past unemployment experience, socioeconomic status measures of family of origin, depressive mood, and self-control from adolescence through the early 40s. The findings indicate that patterns of adolescent and young adult cigarette smoking have implications for later unemployment. Overall, the results showed that people who fell into the categories of heavy/continuous smokers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.84) and occasional smokers (AOR = 4.03) were more likely to be unemployed at mean age 43 when compared with nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between the quitters/decreasers and the nonsmokers with respect to unemployment. Conclusions: Intervention programs designed to deal with unemployment should consider focusing on heavy/continuous and occasional cigarette smokers as risk factors for unemployment. PMID:24997307

  4. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

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    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  5. The role of tobacco-specific media exposure, knowledge, and smoking status on selected attitudes toward tobacco control.

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    Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, K; Blendon, Robert J; Vallone, Donna

    2010-02-01

    In August 2007, the President's Cancer Panel urged the leadership of the nation to "summon the political will to address the public health crisis caused by tobacco use" (President's Cancer Panel, N, 2007, Promoting healthy lifestyles: Policy, program, and personal recommendations for reducing cancer risk. http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/advisory/pcp/pcp07rpt/pcp07rpt.pdf). While some research has examined predictors of public support for tobacco control measures, little research has examined modifiable factors that may influence public attitudes toward tobacco control. We used the American Legacy Foundation's 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey 2 to examine the contribution of smoking status, knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco, and tobacco-specific media exposure (antitobacco messages, news coverage of tobacco issues, and protobacco advertising) on U.S. adults' attitudes toward tobacco control. In addition, we assessed whether smoking status moderates the relationship between tobacco-specific media exposure and policy attitudes. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were employed. Results suggest that knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco and smoking status are associated with attitudes toward tobacco control and that exposure to tobacco-specific information in the media plays a role only in some instances. We found no evidence of effect modification by smoking status on the impact of exposure to tobacco-specific media on attitudes toward tobacco control. Understanding the impact of readily modifiable factors that shape policy attitudes is essential if we are to target outreach and education in a way that is likely to sway public support for tobacco control.

  6. Prognostic impact of body mass index stratified by smoking status in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Sun P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peng Sun,1,2,* Fei Zhang,1,2,* Cui Chen,3,* Chao Ren,1,2 Xi-Wen Bi,1,2 Hang Yang,1,2 Xin An,1,2 Feng-Hua Wang,1,2 Wen-Qi Jiang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 3Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: As smoking affects the body mass index (BMI and causes the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, the prognostic impact of BMI in ESCC could be stratified by smoking status. We investigated the true prognostic effect of BMI and its potential modification by smoking status in ESCC. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 459 patients who underwent curative treatment at a single institution between January 2007 and December 2010. BMI was calculated using the measured height and weight before surgery. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationships between smoking status and other clinicopathological variables. The Cox proportional hazard models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses of variables related to overall survival. Results: BMI <18.5 kg/m2 was a significantly independent predictor of poor survival in the overall population and never smokers after adjusting for covariates, but not in ever smokers. Among never smokers, underweight patients (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a 2.218 times greater risk of mortality than non-underweight (BMI =18.5 kg/m2 patients (P=0.015. Among ever smokers, BMI <18 kg/m2 increased the risk of mortality to 1.656 (P=0.019, compared to those having BMI =18 kg/m2. Conclusion: Our study is likely the first to show that the prognostic effect of BMI was substantial in ESCC, even after stratifying by smoking status. Furthermore, the risk of death due to low BMI would be significantly increased in never smokers. We believe that

  7. Support for smoke-free restaurants among Massachusetts adults, 1992-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D R; Mucci, L A

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined trends and predictors of public support for smoke-free restaurants in Massachusetts. Since 1992, the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System has asked survey respondents about their attitudes toward smoking in restaurants. Analyses using data from 1992 to 1999 characterized changes over time in support for smoke-free restaurants and the role of demographic and smoking-related factors in predicting support. During 1992 to 1999, the rate of support for smoke-free restaurants increased from 37.5% to 59.8%, with similar increases among current, former, and never smokers. After adjustment for smoking status, support was associated with socioeconomic characteristics, race/ethnicity, and household smoking rules. Among current smokers, lighter smokers and those who were trying to quit were more likely to endorse smoke-free restaurants. There has been a substantial increase in support for smoke-free restaurants among both smokers and nonsmokers in Massachusetts.

  8. CELL DAMAGE, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS, AND CORTISOL LEVELS RELATED TO NUTRITION IN SKI MOUNTAINEERING DURING A TWO-DAY RACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nutrition on cell damage, antioxidant enzymes, and cortisol during a two-day ski mountaineering competition. Twenty-one male skiers participated in the study. Creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (AP, cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reductase activities (GR and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, total antioxidant status, and cortisol levels were measured in serum the day before and immediately after the race. Their diet was also analysed during the competition. Enzymes and cortisol levels significantly increased after the competition. CK and LDH and cortisol levels were negatively correlated to total energy, protein, and fat intake. Intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and niacin was negatively correlated to LDH and AP. A negative correlation was also found between CK activity and Na, Fe, and Zn intake. Cortisol levels were negatively correlated to the intake of vitamins C, B1 and B2, and niacin. A positive correlation was found between serum GPx and intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, A and B vitamins, and folic acid. Skiers with the lowest nutrient intake during the competition were the ones who showed greater cell damage and lower antioxidant enzyme activity and cortisol levels, which may impair performance and also cause injuries and accidents. Particularly, skiers should have high intakes of total energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and B, Na, Zn, and Fe in order to decrease the deleterious effect of strenuous exercise

  9. Adolescent work intensity, school performance, and substance use: links vary by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jerald G; Staff, Jeremy; O'Malley, Patrick M; Freedman-Doan, Peter

    2013-11-01

    High school students who spend long hours in paid employment during the school year are at increased risk of lower grades and higher substance use, although questions remain about whether these linkages reflect causation or prior differences (selection effects). Questions also remain about whether such associations vary by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. This study examines those questions using nationally representative data from two decades (1991-2010) of annual Monitoring the Future surveys involving about 600,000 students in 10th and 12th grades. White students are consistently more likely than minority students to hold paid employment during the school year. Among White and Asian American students, paid work intensity is negatively related to parental education and grade point averages (GPA) and is positively related to substance use. Also among Whites and Asian Americans, students with the most highly educated parents show the strongest negative relations between work intensity and GPA, whereas the links are weaker for those with less educated parents (i.e., lower SES levels). All of these relations are less evident for Hispanic students and still less evident for African American students. It thus appears that any costs possibly attributable to long hours of student work are most severe for those who are most advantaged--White or Asian American students with highly educated parents. Working long hours is linked with fewer disadvantages among Hispanic students and especially among African American students. Youth employment dropped in 2008-2010, but the relations described above have shown little change over two decades.

  10. A prescription for health: a primary care based intervention to maintain the non-smoking status of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, W; Lambert, T W

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of primary health care teams in maintaining a group of young people aged 10--15 years as non-smokers. Randomised controlled trial using postal questionnaires. Oxfordshire, UK. 2942 young people who were initially self declared non-smokers. Information about smoking, sent under signature of the subject's general practitioner, certificates and posters intended to reinforce non-smoking behaviour. Changes in smoking behaviour, attitudes measured after one year. After a year, smoking uptake was 7.8% in the control group compared with 5.1% in the intervention group (odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 2.2). Among boys the corresponding results were 5.2% and 2.4% (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.6), and among girls 10.0% and 7.5% (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.1). Among boys aged 14-15 the uptake rate was 12.8% in the control group compared with 5.4% in the intervention group. However, among girls of the same age the intervention was less effective, with smoking uptake of 15.1% in the control group and 12.8% in the intervention group. The intervention was more effective among young people whose initial attitudes identified them as definite non-smokers than those who were potential smokers. The intervention substantially reduced smoking uptake among the young people, particularly boys. Primary health care teams can play an important role in maintaining the non-smoking status of their young patients. Confidential postal contact from the doctor direct to the young person at home is influential and cost-effective.

  11. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Racial and non-racial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults 10 years after apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-11-01

    Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. This analysis examined chronic (day-to-day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and non-racial (eg, age, gender or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health study. Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.85) and chronic non-racial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and non-racial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Racial and non-racial discrimination may be related to South African adults' smoking behaviour, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalisability and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Association between Smoking Status and Food and Nutrient Consumption in Japanese: a Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Kaori; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, in comparison with the rest of the world the death rate of lung cancer is low although the smoking rate is relatively high. This is the so-called "Japanese smoking paradox". A healthy diet is proposed to attenuate the risk without quitting smoking. We here examined the relationships between smoking status (SS) and the consumption of food and nutrient in Japan. Totals of 5,587 men and 2,718 women were divided into three (non-smokers, smokers and heavy smokers) and two (non-smokers and smokers) groups, respectively, according to pack-year, which represents the amount of smoking over a long period. Food and nutrient consumption was estimated with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using general linear models, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each group in men and women, separately. In men, SS was positively related to consumption of rice, 3 alcoholic beverages, carbohydrate, alcohol and other 8 foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all) and negatively to those of protein animal, fat, fatty acids, dietary fiber, isoflavones and 36 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). In women, SS was positively associated with intake of 13 foods/nutrients, while being negatively associated with those of rice, energy, dietary fiber, and 14 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). Our results support lower intake of vegetables and fruits rich in antioxidants, which are thought as preventive factors for many diseases, in smokers.

  14. High intensity smoking cessation interventions: Cardiac patients of low socioeconomic status and low intention to quit profit most.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, N; de Vries, H; Lechner, L; Van Acker, F; Froelicher, E S; Verheugt, F; Mudde, A; Bolman, C

    2017-01-01

    Without assistance, smokers being admitted to the hospital for coronary heart disease often return to regular smoking within a year. This study assessed the 12-month effectiveness of a telephone and a face-to-face counselling intervention on smoking abstinence among cardiac patients. Differential effects for subgroups varying in their socioeconomic status and intention to quit smoking were also studied. A randomised controlled trial was used. During hospital stay, smokers hospitalised for coronary heart disease were assigned to usual care (n = 245), telephone counselling (n = 223) or face-to-face counselling (n = 157). Eligible patients were allocated to an intervention counselling group and received nicotine patches. After 12 months, self-reported continued abstinence was assessed and biochemically verified in quitters. Effects on smoking abstinence were tested using multilevel logistic regression analyses applying the intention-to-treat approach. Compared with usual care, differential effects of telephone and face-to-face counselling on continued abstinence were found in patients with a low socioeconomic status and in patients with a low quit intention. For these patients, telephone counselling increased the likelihood of abstinence threefold (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI 1.32-7.31, p = 0.01), whereas face-to-face counselling increased this likelihood fivefold (OR = 5.30, 95 % CI 2.13-13.17, p socioeconomic status and low quit intentions. The present study indicates that patients of high socioeconomic status and high quit motivation require different cessation approaches.

  15. Addressing the Puzzle of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…

  16. [Current status and issues of anti-smoking measures in the workplace in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mayumi Saito

    2014-02-01

    Compared with developed foreign countries, anti-smoking measures in Japan is lagging behind. As a country that has signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), it should be run the appropriate tobacco control. For example, in many stores of the service industry that smoking is allowed, employees are working while being exposed to second-hand smoke. Even in workplace air polluted environment, employees will not be able to leave there. Such a harsh environment to ignore health and safety, it must be eliminated as soon as possible. In order to protect the health of workers, the workplace should be smoke free.

  17. Cigarette smoking, pocket money and socioeconomic status: results from a national survey of 4th form students in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scragg, Robert; Laugesen, Murray; Robinson, Elizabeth

    2002-07-26

    To investigate whether pocket money amount and socio-economic status are risk factors for smoking in 14 and 15 year old children. This was a national cross-sectional survey of 4th form students who answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in November 2000. Socio-economic status was determined from the Ministry of Education school socio-economic deciles. Questionnaires from 14793 girls and 14577 boys were analysed. Socioeconomic status (SES) was inversely associated with smoking prevalence in girls only (ppocket money than those in high SES decile schools (ppocket money >$30, $21-30, or $11-20, the adjusted relative risks for smoking > or = monthly were 1.73 (95% CI 1.61, 1.85), 1.48 (1.35, 1.62), and 1.15 (1.03, 1.28) in girls, and 1.57 (1.46, 1.70), 1.32 (1.19, 1.46), and 1.11 (1.00, 1.23) in boys, respectively. The proportion of smokers purchasing cigarettes increased with amount of pocket money received in the last 30 days (ppocket money amount in adolescents. This finding has important public health significance, but further research is required to determine if the association is causal.

  18. The influence of radiographic phenotype and smoking status on peripheral blood biomarker patterns in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Bon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by both airway remodeling and parenchymal destruction. The identification of unique biomarker patterns associated with airway dominant versus parenchymal dominant patterns would support the existence of unique phenotypes representing independent biologic processes. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association of serum biomarkers with radiographic airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD.Serum from 234 subjects enrolled in a CT screening cohort was analyzed for 33 cytokines and growth factors using a multiplex protein array. The association of serum markers with forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted (FEV1% and quantitative CT measurements of airway thickening and emphysema was assessed with and without stratification for current smoking status. Significant associations were found with several serum inflammatory proteins and measurements of FEV1%, airway thickening, and parenchymal emphysema independent of smoking status. The association of select analytes with airway thickening and emphysema was independent of FEV1%. Furthermore, the relationship between other inflammatory markers and measurements of physiologic obstruction or airway thickening was dependent on current smoking status.Airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD are associated with unique systemic serum biomarker profiles. Serum biomarker patterns may provide a more precise classification of the COPD syndrome, provide insights into disease pathogenesis and identify targets for novel patient-specific biological therapies.

  19. Five-way smoking status classification using text hot-spot identification and error-correcting output codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron M

    2008-01-01

    We participated in the i2b2 smoking status classification challenge task. The purpose of this task was to evaluate the ability of systems to automatically identify patient smoking status from discharge summaries. Our submission included several techniques that we compared and studied, including hot-spot identification, zero-vector filtering, inverse class frequency weighting, error-correcting output codes, and post-processing rules. We evaluated our approaches using the same methods as the i2b2 task organizers, using micro- and macro-averaged F1 as the primary performance metric. Our best performing system achieved a micro-F1 of 0.9000 on the test collection, equivalent to the best performing system submitted to the i2b2 challenge. Hot-spot identification, zero-vector filtering, classifier weighting, and error correcting output coding contributed additively to increased performance, with hot-spot identification having by far the largest positive effect. High performance on automatic identification of patient smoking status from discharge summaries is achievable with the efficient and straightforward machine learning techniques studied here.

  20. Sex, smoking, and socioeconomic status are associated with body composition among tuberculosis patients in a Deuterium Dilution Cross-Sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    /m(2) [(95% CI = 0.02, 1.5); P= 0.045] lower fat mass index, but smoking did not affect fat-free mass. High socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with higher fat as well as fat-free mass. HIV infection, cluster of differentiation 4 count, and antiretroviral therapy were not correlates. Sex, smoking...

  1. A prescription for health: a primary care based intervention to maintain the non-smoking status of young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, W.; Lambert, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the effectiveness of primary health care teams in maintaining a group of young people aged 10-15 years as non-smokers.
DESIGN—Randomised controlled trial using postal questionnaires.
SETTING—Oxfordshire, UK.
SUBJECTS—2942 young people who were initially self declared non-smokers.
INTERVENTION—Information about smoking, sent under signature of the subject's general practitioner, certificates and posters intended to reinforce non-smoking behaviour.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Changes in smoking behaviour, attitudes measured after one year.
RESULTS—After a year, smoking uptake was 7.8% in the control group compared with 5.1% in the intervention group (odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 2.2). Among boys the corresponding results were 5.2% and 2.4% (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.6), and among girls 10.0% and 7.5% (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.1). Among boys aged 14-15 the uptake rate was 12.8% in the control group compared with 5.4% in the intervention group. However, among girls of the same age the intervention was less effective, with smoking uptake of 15.1% in the control group and 12.8% in the intervention group. The intervention was more effective among young people whose initial attitudes identified them as definite non-smokers than those who were potential smokers.
CONCLUSIONS—The intervention substantially reduced smoking uptake among the young people, particularly boys. Primary health care teams can play an important role in maintaining the non-smoking status of their young patients. Confidential postal contact from the doctor direct to the young person at home is influential and cost-effective.


Keywords: smoking initiation; smoking prevention; young people; primary care PMID:11226356

  2. Decomposing race and gender differences in underweight and obesity in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Stacey, Nicholas; Wang, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we document differentials in both underweight and obesity across race and gender in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using a nonlinear decomposition method, we decompose these differences across gender within race and then across race within gender. Less than one third of the differences in obesity and underweight across gender are explained by differences in covariates. In contrast, at least 70% of the obesity differences across race are explained by differences in covariates. Behavioral variables such as smoking and exercise explain the largest part of the bodyweight differentials across gender. For bodyweight differentials across race within gender, however, socioeconomic status and background variables have the largest explanatory power for obesity differentials, while background variables play the key role in explaining the underweight differentials. These results indicate that eradicating obesity and underweight differentials will require targeting policies to specific groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (pConclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  4. Lung Microbiota Is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Critically Ill Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Ariane R; Lynch, Susan V; Langelier, Chaz; Christie, Jason D; McCauley, Kathryn; Nelson, Mary; Cheung, Christopher K; Benowitz, Neal L; Cohen, Mitchell J; Calfee, Carolyn S

    2018-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients after severe trauma; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. To determine whether cigarette smoking contributes to ARDS development after trauma by altering community composition of the lung microbiota. We studied the lung microbiota of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the ICU after severe blunt trauma. To do so, we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing of endotracheal aspirate samples obtained on ICU admission (n = 74) and at 48 hours after admission (n = 30). Cigarette smoke exposure (quantified using plasma cotinine), ARDS development, and other clinical parameters were correlated with lung microbiota composition. Smoking status was significantly associated with lung bacterial community composition at ICU admission (P = 0.007 by permutational multivariate ANOVA [PERMANOVA]) and at 48 hours (P = 0.03 by PERMANOVA), as well as with significant enrichment of potential pathogens, including Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Haemophilus, and Treponema. ARDS development was associated with lung community composition at 48 hours (P = 0.04 by PERMANOVA) and was characterized by relative enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae and of specific taxa enriched at baseline in smokers, including Prevotella and Fusobacterium. After severe blunt trauma, a history of smoking is related to lung microbiota composition, both at the time of ICU admission and at 48 hours. ARDS development is also correlated with respiratory microbial community structure at 48 hours and with taxa that are relatively enriched in smokers at ICU admission. The data derived from this pilot study suggest that smoking-related changes in the lung microbiota could be related to ARDS development after severe trauma.

  5. Smoking and Breast Cancer Recurrence after Breast Conservation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Bishop

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies have shown earlier recurrence and decreased survival in patients with head and neck cancer who smoked while undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether smoking status at the time of partial mastectomy and radiation therapy for breast cancer affected recurrence or survival. Method. A single institution retrospective chart review was performed to correlate smoking status with patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and outcomes for patients undergoing partial mastectomy and radiation therapy. Results. There were 624 patients who underwent breast conservation surgery between 2002 and 2010 for whom smoking history and follow-up data were available. Smoking status was associated with race, patient age, and tumor stage, but not with grade, histology, or receptor status. African American women were more likely to be current smokers (22% versus 7%, P<0.001. With a mean follow-up of 45 months, recurrence was significantly higher in current smokers compared to former or never smokers (P=0.039. In a multivariate model adjusted for race and tumor stage, recurrence among current smokers was 6.7 times that of never smokers (CI 2.0–22.4. Conclusions. Although the numbers are small, this study suggests that smoking may negatively influence recurrence rates after partial mastectomy and radiation therapy. A larger study is needed to confirm these observations.

  6. Does the association between early life growth and later obesity differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea, Sarah B; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Messer, Lynne C; Tandy, Thomas; Boone-Heinonen, Janne

    2017-09-01

    Rapid growth during infancy predicts higher risk of obesity later in childhood. The association between patterns of early life growth and later obesity may differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status (SES), but prior evidence syntheses do not consider vulnerable subpopulations. We systemically reviewed published studies that explored patterns of early life growth (0-24 months of age) as predictors of later obesity (>24 months) that were either conducted in racial/ethnic minority or low-SES study populations or assessed effect modification of this association by race/ethnicity or SES. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed and SocINDEX. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Faster growth during the first 2 years of life was consistently associated with later obesity irrespective of definition and timing of exposure and outcome measures. Associations were strongest in populations composed of greater proportions of racial/ethnic minority and/or low-SES children. For example, ORs ranged from 1.17 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.24) in a heterogeneous population to 9.24 (95% CI: 3.73, 22.9) in an entirely low-SES nonwhite population. The impact of rapid growth in infancy on later obesity may differ by social stratification factors such as race/ethnicity and family income. More robust and inclusive studies examining these associations are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Is there an association between home-tobacco outlet proximity and smoking status in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; K Seid, Abdu; Stock, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    and/or tobacco outlets on smoking habits for the first time in a population based survey in Denmark. Method: Data came from the 2011 Danish national alcohol and drug survey of the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research of Aarhus University (response rate 64%) and registries of Statistics Denmark were...... between residing close to a tobacco outlet and the prevalence of current and previous smoking. However, no significant association was found between distance from residence to tobacco outlets and smoking habits. Discussion: The prevalence of current smokers (24%) is in accordance with the 2011 annual......Abstract It is well established that exposure to point-of-sale tobacco promotion or impulse purchases and access to and distance to tobacco outlets are related to youth and adult smoking. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of distance from residence to the nearest alcohol...

  8. Discrepancy between Self-Reported and Urine-Cotinine Verified Smoking Status among Korean Male Adults: Analysis of Health Check-Up Data from a Single Private Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngju; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Oh, Seung-Won; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kwon, Hyuktae; Um, Yoo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Cheol Min

    2016-05-01

    Enquiry into smoking status and recommendations for smoking cessation is an essential preventive service. However, there are few studies comparing self-reported (SR) and cotinine-verified (CV) smoking statuses, using medical check-up data. The rates of discrepancy and under-reporting are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study using health examination data from Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital in 2013. We analyzed SR and CV smoking statuses and discrepancies between the two in relation to sociodemographic variables. We also attempted to ascertain the factors associated with a discrepant smoking status among current smokers. In the sample of 3,477 men, CV smoking rate was 11.1% higher than the SR rate. About 1 in 3 participants either omitted the smoking questionnaire or gave a false reply. The ratio of CV to SR smoking rates was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-1.61). After adjusting for confounding factors, older adults (≥60 years) showed an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for discrepancy between SR and CV when compared to those in their twenties and thirties (aOR, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.69-10.96). Educational levels of high school graduation or lower (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.36-4.01), repeated health check-ups (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.06), and low cotinine levels of pay attention to participants with greater discrepancy between SR and CV smoking status, and formulate interventions to improve response rates.

  9. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (p<0.005. One third of women (27.8%, mainly non-smokers, states that the work environment supports employees smoking (p=0.003.Conclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  10. Changes in Transportation-Related Air Pollution Exposures by Race-Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status: Outdoor Nitrogen Dioxide in the United States in 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-09-14

    Disparities in exposure to air pollution by race-ethnicity and by socioeconomic status have been documented in the United States, but the impacts of declining transportation-related air pollutant emissions on disparities in exposure have not been studied in detail. This study was designed to estimate changes over time (2000 to 2010) in disparities in exposure to outdoor concentrations of a transportation-related air pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in the United States. We combined annual average NO2 concentration estimates from a temporal land use regression model with Census demographic data to estimate outdoor exposures by race-ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics (income, age, education), and by location (region, state, county, urban area) for the contiguous United States in 2000 and 2010. Estimated annual average NO2 concentrations decreased from 2000 to 2010 for all of the race-ethnicity and socioeconomic status groups, including a decrease from 17.6 ppb to 10.7 ppb (-6.9 ppb) in nonwhite [non-(white alone, non-Hispanic)] populations, and 12.6 ppb to 7.8 ppb (-4.7 ppb) in white (white alone, non-Hispanic) populations. In 2000 and 2010, disparities in NO2 concentrations were larger by race-ethnicity than by income. Although the national nonwhite-white mean NO2 concentration disparity decreased from a difference of 5.0 ppb in 2000 to 2.9 ppb in 2010, estimated mean NO2 concentrations remained 37% higher for nonwhites than whites in 2010 (40% higher in 2000), and nonwhites were 2.5 times more likely than whites to live in a block group with an average NO2 concentration above the WHO annual guideline in 2010 (3.0 times more likely in 2000). Findings suggest that absolute NO2 exposure disparities by race-ethnicity decreased from 2000 to 2010, but relative NO2 exposure disparities persisted, with higher NO2 concentrations for nonwhites than whites in 2010. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP959.

  11. Smoking Status and Incidence of Cancer After Myocardial Infarction: A Follow-Up Study of over 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Katrin; Goldbourt, Uri; Gerber, Yariv

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated long-term incidence of cancer after myocardial infarction among current, former, and never smokers, and assessed whether reducing cigarette consumption is associated with decreased cancer risk. Consecutive patients aged ≤65 years discharged from 8 hospitals in central Israel after first myocardial infarction in 1992-1993 were followed for cancer and death. Extensive data including smoking habits were obtained at the index hospitalization and 4 time points during follow-up. Survival methods were applied to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer associated with smoking categories. Included in the study were 1486 cancer-free participants (mean age, 54 years; 81% men), among whom 787 were current smokers at baseline (average daily cigarette consumption = 29). Smokers were younger than nonsmokers and more likely to be male and of lower socioeconomic status. Over a median follow-up of 21.4 years, 273 (18.4%) patients developed cancer. Baseline smoking was associated with a ∼40% excess adjusted risk of cancer; ∼25% after accounting for death as a competing event. Considering changes in smoking during follow-up, the excess risk was confined to persistent smokers (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.50), whereas post- (HR 1.14; 95% CI, 0.80-1.62) and pre-myocardial infarction quitters (HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.71-1.47) were comparable with never smokers. Among persistent smokers, each reduction of 10 cigarettes relative to pre-myocardial infarction consumption was associated with a ∼10% reduced adjusted risk. Among young survivors of first myocardial infarction followed-up longitudinally, smoking cessation is associated with lower risk of cancer. Reducing consumption among smokers may also be beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  13. Escaping Poverty and Securing Middle Class Status: How Race and Socioeconomic Status Shape Mobility Prospects for African Americans during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility…

  14. Feasibility and Quit Rates of the Tobacco Status Project: A Facebook Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Thrul, Johannes; Chavez, Kathryn; Delucchi, Kevin L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-12-31

    Young adult smokers are a challenging group to engage in smoking cessation interventions. With wide reach and engagement among users, Facebook offers opportunity to engage young people in socially supportive communities for quitting smoking and sustaining abstinence. We developed and tested initial efficacy, engagement, and acceptability of the Tobacco Status Project, a smoking cessation intervention for young adults delivered within Facebook. The intervention was based on the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Transtheoretical Model and enrolled participants into study-run 3-month secret Facebook groups matched on readiness to quit smoking. Cigarette smokers (N=79) aged 18-25, who used Facebook on most days, were recruited via Facebook. All participants received the intervention and were randomized to one of three monetary incentive groups tied to engagement (commenting in groups). Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Analyses examined retention, smoking outcomes over 12 months (7-day point prevalence abstinence, ≥50% reduction in cigarettes smoked, quit attempts and strategies used, readiness to quit), engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Retention was 82% (65/79) at 6 months and 72% (57/79) at 12 months. From baseline to 12-months follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion prepared to quit (10/79, 13%; 36/79, 46%, Pused a nicotine replacement therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration, while 18% (14/79) used an electronic nicotine delivery system to quit (eg, electronic cigarette). A majority (48/79, 61%) commented on at least one Facebook post, with more commenting among those with biochemically verified abstinence at 3 months (P=.036) and those randomized to receive a personal monetary incentive (P=.015). Over a third of participants (28/79, 35%) reported reading most or all of the Facebook posts. Highest acceptability ratings of the intervention were

  15. The association between parent-reported provider communication quality and child obesity status: Variation by parent obesity and child race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle S; Showell, Nakiya N; Bleich, Sara N; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Chan, Kitty S

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between healthcare provider communication quality and child obesity status, and the role of parent obesity and child race/ethnicity regarding this association. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis with the 2011-2013 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey of parents with children ages 6-12 (n=5390). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of parent-reported healthcare provider communication quality (explaining well, listening carefully, showing respect, and spending enough time) with child obesity status, and effect modification by parent obesity and child race/ethnicity. Parents of obese children were more likely to report that their child's healthcare provider listened carefully (OR=1.41, p=0.002) and spent enough time (OR=1.33, p=0.022) than parents of non-obese children. Non-obese parents of obese children experienced better communication in the domains of listening carefully (pobese non-Hispanic Asian children and non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to report that providers explained things well (p=0.043) and listened carefully (p=0.012), respectively. Parents of obese children experienced better communication if parents were non-obese or children were non-Hispanic Black or Asian. Healthcare providers should ensure effective communication with obese parents of obese children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health during Childhood: A Longitudinal Examination of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Parental Socioeconomic Timing and Child Obesity Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antwan Jones

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior research suggests that socioeconomic standing during the early years of life, particularly in utero, is associated with child health. However, it is unclear whether socioeconomic benefits are only maximized at very young ages. Moreover, given the link between socioeconomic status (SES and race, research is inconclusive whether any SES benefits during those younger ages would uniformly benefit all racial and ethnic groups. Using 1986–2014 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79, this study examines the impact of socioeconomic timing on child weight outcomes by race. Specifically, this research investigates whether specific points exist where socioeconomic investment would have higher returns on child health. Findings suggest that both the timing and the type of socioeconomic exposure is important to understanding child weight status. SES, particularly mother’s employment and father’s education, is important in determining child health, and each measure is linked to weight gain differently for White, Black, and Hispanic children at specific ages. Policies such as granting more educational access for men and work-family balance for women are discussed.

  17. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health during Childhood: A Longitudinal Examination of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Parental Socioeconomic Timing and Child Obesity Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Antwan

    2018-04-11

    Prior research suggests that socioeconomic standing during the early years of life, particularly in utero, is associated with child health. However, it is unclear whether socioeconomic benefits are only maximized at very young ages. Moreover, given the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and race, research is inconclusive whether any SES benefits during those younger ages would uniformly benefit all racial and ethnic groups. Using 1986-2014 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79), this study examines the impact of socioeconomic timing on child weight outcomes by race. Specifically, this research investigates whether specific points exist where socioeconomic investment would have higher returns on child health. Findings suggest that both the timing and the type of socioeconomic exposure is important to understanding child weight status. SES, particularly mother's employment and father's education, is important in determining child health, and each measure is linked to weight gain differently for White, Black, and Hispanic children at specific ages. Policies such as granting more educational access for men and work-family balance for women are discussed.

  18. State-level prevalence of cigarette smoking and treatment advice, by disability status, United States, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A; Crews, John E; Malarcher, Ann; Maurice, Emmanuel; Richard, Roland A

    2007-10-01

    To our knowledge, no study has determined whether smoking prevalence is higher among people with disabilities than among people without disabilities across all U.S. states. Neither do we know whether people with disabilities and people without disabilities receive the same quality of advice about tobacco-cessation treatment from medical providers. We analyzed data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate differences between people with and people without disabilities in smoking prevalence and the receipt of tobacco-cessation treatment advice from medical providers. We found that smoking prevalence for people with disabilities was approximately 50% higher than for people without disabilities. Smokers with disabilities were more likely than smokers without disabilities to have visited a medical provider at least once in the previous 12 months and to have received medical advice to quit. More than 40% of smokers with disabilities who were advised to quit, however, reported not being told about the types of tobacco-cessation treatment available. Ensuring that people with disabilities are included in state-based smoking cessation programs gives states an opportunity to eliminate health disparities and to improve the health and wellness of this group. Ways to reduce unmet preventive health care needs of people with disabilities include provider adoption of the Public Health Service's clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence and the provision of smoking cessation services that include counseling and effective pharmaceutical treatment.

  19. Differences in food intake and exercise by smoking status in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Diane B; Smith, Brian N; Speizer, Ilene S; Bean, Melanie K; Mitchell, Karen S; Uguy, L Samy; Fries, Elizabeth A

    2005-06-01

    Smoking, diet, and lack of exercise are the top preventable causes of death in the United States. Some 23% of high school students currently smoke and many teens do not meet Healthy People 2010 standards for healthy eating or physical activity. This study examined the relationship between smoking and the consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk/dairy products and the frequency of exercise in 10,635 Virginia youth. Survey data were collected from middle school (MS; n = 8022) and high school (HS; n = 2613) adolescents participating in youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs. Data were analyzed using chi-square bivariate tests and multivariate regression models. Smokers were significantly less likely than nonsmokers to exercise > or = 3x week and to consume > or = 1 serving/day of vegetables or milk/dairy products. This was more evident in high school than middle school students and in females compared to males. In both HS and MS, a dose-response relationship was detected with higher level smoking associated with lower frequency of eating specified food and exercise. Smoking is associated with compromised intake of healthy food and exercise. To decrease incident cases of chronic disease later in life, new tailored, innovative interventions are needed that address multiple health behaviors in youth.

  20. Relation of smoking status to a panel of inflammatory markers: the framingham offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Yamini S; Guo, Chao-Yu; Rong, Jian; Larson, Martin G; Walter, Robert E; Keaney, John F; Sutherland, Patrice A; Vasan, Aditi; Lipinska, Izabella; Evans, Jane C; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2008-11-01

    We sought to investigate the hypothesis that smoking is accompanied by systemic inflammation. We examined the relation of smoking to 11 systemic inflammatory markers in Framingham Study participants (n=2944, mean age 60 years, 55% women, 12% ethnic minorities) examined from 1998-2001. The cohort was divided into never (n=1149), former (n=1424), and current smokers with last cigarette >6h (n=134) or < or =6h (n=237) prior to phlebotomy. In multivariable-adjusted models there were significant overall between-smoking group differences (defined as p<0.0045 to account for multiple testing) for every inflammatory marker tested, except for serum CD40 ligand (CD40L), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (TNFR2). With multivariable-adjustment, pair-wise comparisons with never smokers revealed that former smokers had significantly lower concentrations of plasma CD40L (p<0.0001) and higher concentrations of (CRP) C-reactive protein (p=0.002). As opposed to never smokers, those with acute cigarette smoke exposure (< or =6h) had significantly higher concentrations of all markers (p<0.0001) except serum CD40L, MPO, and TNFR2; plasma CD40L were significantly lower. Compared with never smokers, cigarette smokers have significantly elevated concentrations of most circulating inflammatory markers, consistent with the hypothesis that smoking is associated with a systemic inflammatory state.

  1. Predictors of marijuana relapse in the human laboratory: robust impact of tobacco cigarette smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2013-02-01

    Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal, and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n = 51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Study 2: to isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal, and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n = 15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU), and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Study 1: 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (odds ratio: 19, p marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p 87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse, and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A cross-sectional exploration of smoking status and social interaction in a large population-based Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, May; Weber, Marianne F; Egger, Sam; Sitas, Freddy

    2012-07-01

    We used cross-sectional data to investigate whether current, past and never smokers report different levels of social interaction and whether the level of social interaction varied according to the type of interaction being measured. Self-reported questionnaire data were obtained from 239,043 men and women aged 45 years or older living in Australia between February 2006 and February 2010. The study participation rate was 18%. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the percentage differences in the mean values of four social interaction outcomes according to smoking status after adjusting for age, place of residence, income, education, health insurance status, physical limitation, psychological distress and exposure to passive smoke: number of times 1) spent with friends/family, 2) spoken on the telephone, 3) attended social meetings in the past week, and 4) number of people outside of home that can be depended upon. 7.6% of males and 6.9% of females were current smokers, 43.6% of males and 28.6% of females were ex-smokers and 48.8% of males and 64.5% of females had never smoked. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported significantly fewer social interactions in the past week and had fewer people outside the home that they could depend on. Men and women current smokers attended 24.0% (95% CI, 20.3, 27.5) and 31.1% (95% CI, 28.1, 34.1) fewer social group meetings on average than never smokers. Smokers exposed to passive smoke reported higher levels of social interaction than those not exposed. Past smokers reported levels of social interaction that were intermediate to those of current and never smokers and the more years they had abstained from smoking, the more social interaction they reported on average. Our data are in line with previous research showing that smokers are not only worse off economically, physically and mentally, but are also less likely to be socially connected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enabling parents who smoke to prevent their children from initiating smoking: results from a 3-year intervention evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine; Dickinson, Denise

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate effects of a home-based antismoking socialization program on the initiation of smoking among children whose parents smoke. Three-year randomized controlled trial. Parents who were current smokers and had a child in the third grade who had not tried smoking were eligible; 873 parents-offspring pairs met these criteria, completed baseline interviews, and were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition; 776 children (89%) completed an interview 3 years after baseline and were included in the study. During 3 months, the intervention group (n = 371) received 5 printed activity guides, parenting tip sheets, child newsletters, and incentives; this group also received a booster activity guide 1 year later. The control group (n = 405) received fact sheets about smoking. Initiation of smoking (first instance of puffing on a cigarette) was reported by 12% vs 19% of children in the intervention vs control groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that children in the control condition had twice the odds of reporting initiation of smoking as children in the intervention condition (adjusted odds ratio, 2.16; Pparent sex, parent race, parent educational achievement, child's best friends' smoking, parent smoking rate at baseline, and parent cessation status. Children in the pre-initiation phase of smoking who receive antismoking socialization from their parents are less likely to initiate smoking, even if their parents smoke.

  4. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  5. Do dietary and supplementary intakes of antioxidants differ with smoking status?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, K.T.; Ocké, M C; Smit, H A; Seidell, J C

    BACKGROUND: Differences in dietary and supplementary intake of antioxidants were determine between different categories of smokers and never-smokers. METHODS: Data from a large, cross-sectional, population-based study were used. Subjects (n = 4244) were divided into five smoking categories according

  6. Microbial status of smoked fish, scombia scombia sold in Owerri, Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were analyzed microbiologically for viable heterotrophic bacteria and fungi count on Nutrient and Potato dextrose agar respectively, using pour plate method and coliform count in MacConkey broth by multiple tube method (MPN). The mean value ... Key words: Bacteria, Yeast, Mould, Smoked fish, Contamination.

  7. [Interventions for smoking cessation among low socioeconomic status smokers: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Romain; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt; Delmer, Olivier; Lenormand, Marie-Camille; Blanchoz, Jean-Marie; Arwidson, Pierre

    In most western countries, smoking appears to be highly differentiated according to socio-economic level. Two systematic reviews published in 2014 showed that most of the recommended interventions for smoking cessation, particularly individual interventions, tend to increase social inequalities in health. An analysis of the most recent literature was carried out in order to provide policy makers and stakeholders with a set of evidence on the modalities of interventions to encourage and help disadvantaged smokers quit smoking. This review was based on articles published between January 2013 and April 2016. Only studies conducted in European countries or countries in stage 4 of the tobacco epidemic (USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand) were included. Selected articles were double-screened. Twenty-three studies were identified, including evaluation of media campaigns, face-to-face behavioural support, phone- and web-based support or awareness of passive smoking among children. Some interventions adapted to precarious populations have been shown to be effective. Some characteristics would facilitate access and improve the support of disadvantaged groups, including a local intervention, a proactive approach and co-construction with targeted smokers.

  8. Does smoking status affect the likelihood of consulting a doctor about respiratory symptoms? A pilot survey in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Moira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokers attribute respiratory symptoms, even when severe, to everyday causes and not as indicative of ill-health warranting medical attention. The aim of this pilot study was to conduct a structured vignette survey of people attending general practice to determine when they would advise a person with respiratory symptoms to consult a medical practitioner. Particular reference was made to smoking status and lung cancer. Methods Participants were recruited from two general practices in Western Australia. Respondents were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires containing nine vignettes chosen at random from a pool of sixty four vignettes, based on six clinical variables. Twenty eight vignettes described cases with at least 5% risk of cancer. For analysis these were dubbed 'cancer vignettes'. Respondents were asked if they would advise a significant other to consult a doctor with their respiratory symptoms. Logistic regression and non-parametric tests were used to analyse the data. Results Three hundred questionnaires were distributed and one hundred and forty completed responses were collected over six weeks. The majority (70.3% of respondents were female aged forty and older. A history of six weeks' of symptoms, weight loss, cough and breathlessness independently increased the odds of recommending a consultation with a medical practitioner by a factor of 11.8, 2.11, 1.40 and 4.77 respectively. A history of smoking independently increased the odds of the person being thought 'likely' or 'very likely' to have cancer by a factor of 2.46. However only 32% of cancer vignettes with a history of cigarette smoking were recognised as presentations of possible cancer. Conclusion Even though a history of cigarette smoking was more likely to lead to the suggestion that a symptomatic person may have cancer we did not confirm that smokers would be more likely to be advised to consult a doctor, even when presenting with common

  9. Socio-economic status in relation to smoking: The role of (expected and desired) social support and quitter identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Van Laar, Colette; Kawous, Ramin; Beijk, Sarah C A M

    2016-08-01

    Smoking behavior differs substantially between lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Previous research shows that social support for quitting may be more available to higher-SES smokers, and higher-SES smokers may have stronger nonsmoker self-identities (i.e., can see themselves more as nonsmokers). To investigate how SES influences smoking behavior, taking the role of identity processes and social support into account. A cross-sectional online survey study was conducted among 387 daily smokers from lower, middle and higher-SES groups in the Netherlands in 2014. Educational level was used as an indicator of SES. Expected and desired social support for quitting smoking, expected exclusion from the social network when quitting, identity factors and intention to quit were measured. Smokers from all SES backgrounds desired to receive positive social support if they would quit smoking. Lower-SES smokers expected to receive more negative and practical support than middle or higher-SES smokers. There were no significant differences between SES groups for almost all identity measures, nor on intention to quit. Above and beyond other important influences such as nicotine-dependence, results showed that smokers regardless of SES who expected to receive more positive support tended to have stronger intentions to quit. Moreover, smokers who could see themselves more as being quitters (quitter self-identity) and perceived themselves less as smokers (smoker self-identity), as well as smokers who felt more positive about nonsmokers (nonsmoker group-identity) had stronger intentions to quit. No significant interactions with SES were found. The results suggest that developing ways to stimulate the social environment to provide adequate support for smokers who intend to quit, and developing ways to strengthen identification with quitting in smokers may help smokers to quit successfully. Findings further suggest that the possible-self as a quitter is more important than

  10. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Courtney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1 and 2008–2012 (TP2. Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research; and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ² = 73.13, p < 0.001, however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33% or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%. The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%. Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy.

  11. Body weight, perceived weight stigma and mental health among women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status: insights from the modified labelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Perry, Brea L

    2018-01-01

    With increasing rates of obesity in the United States, attention to life chances and psychological consequences associated with weight stigma and weight-based discrimination has also intensified. While research has demonstrated the negative effects of weight-based discrimination on mental health, little is known about whether different social groups are disproportionately vulnerable to these experiences. Drawing on the modified labelling theory, the focus of this paper is to investigate the psychological correlates of body weight and self-perceived weight-based discrimination among American women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Analyses use data from the National Health Measurement Study (NHMS), a national multi-stage probability sample of non-institutional, English-speaking adults, ages 35 to 89 in 2005-2006. Our findings demonstrate that the effect of weight-based discrimination on psychological well-being is highly contingent on social status. Specifically, the psychological consequences of discrimination on Hispanic women and women in the lowest household income group is significantly greater relative to White women and women with higher household income, controlling for obesity status and self-rated health. These results suggest that higher social status has a buffering effect of weight stigma on psychological well-being. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  12. Health outcomes in US children with abdominal pain at major emergency departments associated with race and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K T

    2015-01-01

    Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US children's hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 - 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 - 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery.

  13. Interrelationships of added sugars intake, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity in adults in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frances E; McNeel, Timothy S; Dowling, Emily C; Midthune, Douglas; Morrissette, Meredith; Zeruto, Christopher A

    2009-08-01

    The consumption of added sugars (eg, white sugar, brown sugar, and high-fructose corn syrup) displaces nutrient-dense foods in the diet. The intake of added sugars in the United States is excessive. Little is known about the predictors of added sugar intake. To examine the independent relationships of socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity with added sugar intake, and to evaluate the consistency of relationships using a short instrument to those from a different survey using more precise dietary assessment. Cross-sectional, nationally representative, interviewer-administered survey. Adults (aged > or = 18 years) participating in the 2005 US National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement responding to four added sugars questions (n=28,948). The intake of added sugars was estimated using validated scoring algorithms. Multivariate analysis incorporating sample weights and design effects was conducted. Least squares means and confidence intervals, and significance tests using Wald F statistics are presented. Analyses were stratified by sex and controlled for potential confounders. The intake of added sugars was higher among men than women and inversely related to age, educational status, and family income. Asian Americans had the lowest intake and Hispanics the next lowest intake. Among men, African Americans had the highest intake, although whites and American Indians/Alaskan Natives also had high intakes. Among women, African Americans and American Indians/Alaskan Natives had the highest intakes. Intake of added sugars was inversely related to educational attainment in whites, African Americans, Hispanic men, and American Indians/Alaskan Native men, but was unrelated in Asian Americans. These findings were generally consistent with relationships in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 (using one or two 24-hour dietary recalls). Race/ethnicity, family income, and educational status are independently associated with intake of added

  14. Race, Age, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status in Low Birth Weight Disparities Among Adolescent Mothers: An Intersectional Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sheryl L; Nichols, Tracy R

    2016-01-01

    Few studies examined socioeconomic contributors to racial disparities in low birth weight outcomes between African-American and Caucasian adolescent mothers. This cross-sectional study examined the intersections of maternal racial status, age, and neighborhood socioeconomic status in explaining these disparities in low birth weight outcomes across a statewide sample of adolescent mothers. Using data from the North Carolina State Center of Health Statistics for 2010-2011, birth cases for 16,472 adolescents were geocoded by street address and linked to census-tract information from the 2010 United States Census. Multilevel models with interaction terms were used to identify significant associations between maternal racial status, age, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income) and low birth weight outcomes across census tracts. Significant racial differences were identified in which African-American adolescents had greater odds of low birth weight outcomes than Caucasian adolescents (OR=1.88, 95% CI 1.64, 2.15). Although racial disparities in low birth weight outcomes remained significant in context of maternal age and neighborhood socioeconomic status, the greatest disparities were found between African-American and Caucasian adolescents that lived in areas of higher socioeconomic status (psocioeconomic status. Further investigations using intersectional frameworks are needed for examining the relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status and birth outcome disparities among infants born to adolescent mothers.

  15. Never, non-daily, and daily smoking status and progression to daily cigarette smoking as correlates of major depressive episode in a national sample of youth: Results from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M

    2018-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with depression, and new initiates who progress more quickly to daily smoking may be at enhanced risk. In a nationally representative sample of youth, this study examined the association between daily, non-daily, and never smoking with past-year and lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) and, among daily smokers, whether faster progression to daily smoking was associated with increased MDE risk. Data were from n = 44,921 youth aged 12-17 in the 2013-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Weighted adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status (daily, non-daily, never) with lifetime and past-year MDE, and the association between progression from cigarette trial to daily smoking with MDE outcomes among daily smokers. Daily and non-daily smokers had similar rates of lifetime and past-year MDE; rates of MDE were approximately 50% lower among never smokers. Compared to never smokers, adjusted models showed that non-daily smokers had a higher risk of past-year and lifetime MDE, while daily smokers had a higher risk of past-year but not lifetime MDE. Daily smoking youth who progressed more quickly from cigarette trial to daily use had an increased risk of both lifetime and past-year MDE. Prevention programs should target factors associated with the shift from cigarette experimentation to regular use to curb deleterious consequences of use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Metal status in human endometrium: Relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Jakubowski, Karol; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Opala, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. - Highlights: • Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are detectable in human endometrium. • Mean metal content in human endometrium decreases in Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd order. • Cigarettes smoking increases endometrial content of Cd and Pb. • Lesioned endometrial tissue was characterized by higher metal contents

  17. Metal status in human endometrium: Relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzymski, Piotr, E-mail: rzymskipiotr@ump.edu.pl [Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań (Poland); Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna [Department of Mother' s and Child' s Health, Gynecologic and Obstetrical University Hospital, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań (Poland); Niedzielski, Przemysław; Jakubowski, Karol [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Poniedziałek, Barbara [Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań (Poland); Opala, Tomasz [Department of Mother' s and Child' s Health, Gynecologic and Obstetrical University Hospital, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań (Poland)

    2014-07-15

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. - Highlights: • Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are detectable in human endometrium. • Mean metal content in human endometrium decreases in Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd order. • Cigarettes smoking increases endometrial content of Cd and Pb. • Lesioned endometrial tissue was characterized by higher metal contents.

  18. Acute vascular effects of waterpipe smoking: Importance of physical activity and fitness status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Khabour, Omar F; Alzoubi, Karem H; Shqair, Dana M; Stoner, Lee

    2015-06-01

    While new forms of tobacco, including waterpipe (WP) smoking, continue to gain popularity, limited literature has examined the vascular health consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine: (i) the acute WP-induced changes in vascular function; (ii) whether acute changes in vascular function are modified by lifestyle behaviors (habitual physical activity, physical fitness). Fifty three (22.7 y, 36% F, 23.4 kg/m(2)) otherwise healthy WP smokers were recruited. Strain-gauge plethysmography was used to measure forearm blood flow, vascular resistance, venous capacitance, and venous outflow at rest and following occlusion. Habitual physical activity was determined using the Arabic version of short-form international physical activity questionnaire, while physical fitness was assessed using the 6 min walk test and handgrip strength. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationships between post-smoking vascular function and lifestyle behaviors, controlling for pre-smoking vascular measures. (i) WP had a small effect on forearm post-occlusion blood flow (d = -0.19), a moderate effect on venous outflow (d = 0.30), and a moderate effect on post-occlusion vascular resistance (d = 0.32). (ii) Total habitual physical activity strongly correlated with resting blood flow (r = 0.50) and moderately with vascular resistance (r = -0.40). Handgrip strength moderately correlated with venous capacitance (r = 0.30) and post-occlusion blood flow (r = 0.30), while 6 min walked distance moderately correlated with resting venous capacitance (r = 0.30). Waterpipe smoking is associated with immediate changes in vascular function, which are exacerbated in individuals with low habitual physical activity and physical fitness levels in young otherwise healthy individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Green and lean: Is neighborhood park and playground availability associated with youth obesity? Variations by gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Hughey, S; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Justin B; Porter, Dwayne; Hibbert, James

    2017-02-01

    Parks and park features are important for promoting physical activity and healthy weight, especially for low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth who have disproportionately high obesity rates. This study 1) examined associations between neighborhood park and playground availability and youth obesity, and 2) assessed whether these associations were moderated by youth race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In 2013, objectively measured height and weight were collected for all 3rd-5th grade youth (n=13.469) in a southeastern US county to determine body mass index (BMI) percentiles. Enumeration and audits of the county's parks (n=103) were concurrently conducted. Neighborhood park and playground availability were calculated as the number of each facility within or intersecting each youth's Census block group. Multilevel linear regression models were utilized to examine study objectives. For boys, no main effects were detected; however, SES moderated associations such that higher park availability was associated with lower BMI percentile for low-SES youth but higher BMI percentile for high-SES youth. For girls, the number of parks and playgrounds were significantly associated with lower BMI (b=-2.2, b=-1.1, pyouth obesity by SES and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of studying the intersection of these characteristics when exploring associations between built environment features and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of smoking status on platelet function and clinical outcomes with prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes managed without revascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornel, Jan H; Ohman, E Magnus; Neely, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    managed medically without revascularization. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 7062 patients aged ..., or stroke in current smokers was significantly lower with prasugrel (11.7%) vs. clopidogrel (18.6%), but there was no difference in non-smokers (13.8% vs. 13.7%), with significant interaction between treatment and baseline smoking status (P = .0002). Bleeding events occurred more frequently in prasugrel......-treated patients with no significant interaction between treatment and baseline smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Among medically managed ACS patients

  1. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Huikari, Ville; Christie, Jennifer T

    2012-01-01

    the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed...

  3. Night/day ratios of ambulatory blood pressure among healthy adolescents: roles of race, socioeconomic status, and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Tanisha I; Low, Carissa A; Matthews, Karen A

    2013-10-01

    Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) predicts hypertension and its complications in adulthood. This study aimed to assess the independent effects of race and family income on night/day BP among adolescents and to examine whether negative emotions, low positive resources, and unpleasant interactions during the day are also related. Healthy African American and Caucasian high school students (N = 239) wore an ambulatory BP monitor for 48 h, recorded quality of ongoing interpersonal interactions, and completed questionnaires. African Americans and those with lower family income had higher night/day BP ratios. African Americans reporting greater negative emotions, lower positive resources, and more unpleasant interactions had higher night/day BP ratios. Racial differences in night BP emerge by adolescence, independent of family income. African Americans, especially those high in negative emotions and low in positive resources, may be at higher relative risk for hypertension later in life in part due to elevated night BP.

  4. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatkowski Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.

  5. Initial Smoking Experiences and Current Smoking Behaviors and Perceptions among Current Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We examine early-onset cigarette smoking and how, if at all, it is related to subsequent smoking practices. Methods. From 2004 to 2007, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 485 adult cigarette smokers residing in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Data analysis involved a multivariate analysis to determine whether age of smoking onset was related to current smoking practices when the effects of gender, age, race, marital/relationship status, income, and educational attainment were taken into account. Results. The mean age for smoking onset was 14.8, and more than one-half of all smokers had their first cigarette between the ages of 12 and 16. Most people reported an interval of less than one month between their first and second time using tobacco. Earlier onset cigarette smoking was related to more cigarette use and worse tobacco-related health outcomes in adulthood. Conclusions. Early prevention and intervention are needed to avoid early-onset smoking behaviors. Intervening after initial experimentation but before patterned smoking practices are established will be challenging, as the interval between initial and subsequent use tends to be short.

  6. Longitudinal study of diet quality and change in asthma symptoms in adults, according to smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Dumas, Orianne; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Pison, Christophe; Le Moual, Nicole; Romieu, Isabelle; Siroux, Valérie; Camargo, Carlos A; Nadif, Rachel; Varraso, Raphaëlle

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that increased asthma prevalence in westernised countries is associated with changes in lifestyle factors, including a poorer diet. However, little is known regarding the association between diet quality and asthma. In the diet-asthma association, the role of BMI as a potential mediator needs clarification; moreover, potential effect modification by non-diet sources of oxidants, such as smoking, merits investigation. We investigated the association between diet quality and change in asthma symptoms, as well as assessed effect modification by smoking, while accounting for BMI as a potential mediator. Using data from the French prospective Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma study, we assessed diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) at baseline and change in asthma symptoms (stable (reference), worsening, improved; mean follow-up time: 7 years). Mediation analysis was used to disentangle total and direct effects and the indirect effect mediated by BMI. The analyses included 969 adults (mean age 43 years; 49 % men; 42 % ever asthma). We observed a significant interaction between smoking and AHEI-2010 on change in asthma symptoms (P for interaction=0·04). Among never smokers (n 499), we observed a positive total effect (multivariable OR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·80) and a positive direct effect (OR 1·41; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·80) of the AHEI-2010 (per ten-point increment) on improved symptoms. No indirect effect mediated through BMI was observed (OR 0·99; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·07). Among former and current smokers, all effects were statistically non-significant. Better diet quality was associated with improved asthma symptoms over time in never smokers, independently of BMI.

  7. Validation of self-reported smoking status by measuring serum cotinine levels: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeemon, P; Agarwal, S; Ramakrishnan, L; Gupta, R; Snehi, U; Chaturvedi, V; Reddy, K S; Prabhakaran, D

    2010-01-01

    Serum cotinine levels are a reliable marker of tobacco use. Few studies have validated questionnaires assessing smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) against serum levels. We undertook such a study in industrial workers in India. We chose 426 individuals by stratified random sampling from a database of 3397 individuals surveyed at New Delhi for the cardiovascular disease surveillance programme in a large industrial setting. Questionnaires assessing details of smoking practices and duration of exposure to ETS (if any) were administered. Cotinine levels were measured in the blood samples of these individuals. The study population comprised 142 nonsmokers not exposed to ETS, 142 non-smokers exposed to ETS and 142 active smokers. Cotinine levels among nonsmokers not exposed to ETS were non-detectable; and for non-smokers exposed to ETS and active smokers, the median (interquartile range) levels were non-detectable (non-detectable to 46.1 ng/ml) and 336 ng/ml (204-500 ng/ml), respectively. The best combined sensitivity (91%) and specificity (87.2%) yielded a cotinine cut-off level of 40.35 ng/ml to differentiate active smokers from non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS (area under the curve 0.902). The cut-off cotinine level was estimated at 10.95 ng/ml using a similar analysis (sensitivity 43%, specificity 82%; area under the curve 0.64) to distinguish non-smokers not exposed to ETS from those exposed to ETS. The misclassification rate was estimated at 19% and 57.1% among self-reported non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS, respectively. Obtaining a history of tobacco use is an accurate method of detecting smokers in epidemiological studies whereas serum cotinine levels accurately differentiate smokers from non-smokers. However, a brief questionnaire assessing passive exposure to smoke has poor sensitivity in distinguishing non-smokers exposed to ETS from those not exposed to ETS.

  8. Does the association between different dimension of social capital and adolescent smoking vary by socioeconomic status? a pooled cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; De Clercq, Bart; Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Hublet, Anne; Molcho, Michal; Kunst, Anton E; Richter, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    To analyze how dimensions of social capital at the individual level are associated with adolescent smoking and whether associations differ by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study 2005/2006 including 6511 15-year-old adolescents from Flemish Belgium, Canada, Romania and England. Socioeconomic status was measured using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Social capital was indicated by friend-related social capital, participation in school and voluntary organizations, trust and reciprocity in family, neighborhood and school. We conducted pooled logistic regression models with interaction terms and tested for cross-national differences. Almost all dimensions of social capital were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking, except for friend-related social capital and school participation. The association of family-related social capital with smoking was significantly stronger for low FAS adolescents, whereas the association of vertical trust and reciprocity in school with smoking was significantly stronger for high FAS adolescents. Social capital may act both as a protective and a risk factor for adolescent smoking. Achieving higher levels of family-related social capital might reduce socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking.

  9. Effect of gender, age, diet and smoking status on chronomics of circulating plasma lipid components in healthy Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjana; Sharma, Sumita; Singh, Rajesh K; Mahdi, Abbas A; Singh, Raj K; Lee Gierke, Cathy; Cornelissen, Germaine

    2016-08-01

    Circulating lipid components were studied under near-normal tropical conditions (around Lucknow) in 162 healthy volunteers - mostly medical students, staff members and members of their families (103 males and 59 females; 7 to 75y), subdivided into 4 age groups: A (7-20y; N=42), B (21-40y; N=60), C (41-60y; N=35) and D (61-75y; N=25). Blood samples were collected from each subject every 6h for 24h (4 samples). Plasma was separated and total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, phospholipids and total lipids were measured spectrophotometrically. Data from each subject were analyzed by cosinor. We examined by multiple-analysis of variance how the MESOR (Midline Estimating Statistic Of Rhythm, a rhythm-adjusted mean) and the circadian amplitude of these variables is affected by gender, age, diet (vegetarian vs. omnivore), and smoking status. In addition to effects of gender and age, diet and smoking were found to affect the MESOR of circulating plasma lipid components in healthy Indians residing in northern India. Age also affected the circadian amplitude of these variables. These results indicate the possibility of using non-pharmacological interventions to improve a patient's metabolic profile before prescribing medication under near normal tropical conditions. They also add information that may help refine cut-off values in the light of factors shown here to affect blood lipids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Family socioeconomic status, household tobacco smoke, and asthma attack among children below 12 years of age: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carol; Chang, Ly-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated the negative impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or parental cigarette smoking on pediatric asthma. Little is known, however, regarding whether there is a gender difference in the effect of household ETS on pediatric asthma. Using a nationwide survey in Taiwan, we examined the relationship between asthma prevalence in the past year and household ETS among children below 12 years of age (N = 3761). We used multivariate regression models to assess odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of household ETS and asthma attacks by gender. In about 3% of the sample, parents reported that their children had an asthma attack in the past year, confirmed by physicians. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that household ETS predicted asthma attacks for girls (OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.24-7.76) but not for boys. Father's education was significantly associated with asthma attack for both girls (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.04-1.47) and boys (OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.05-1.26). Girls with lower family income were more likely to have had an asthma attack in the last year (OR = .48, 95%CI = .27-.87). The impact of household ETS and family socioeconomic status on asthma attacks differs by gender among children below 12 years. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Risk of community-acquired pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stratified by smoking status: a population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeken DCW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dionne CW Braeken,1–3 Gernot GU Rohde,2 Frits ME Franssen,1,2 Johanna HM Driessen,3–5 Tjeerd P van Staa,3,6 Patrick C Souverein,3 Emiel FM Wouters,1,2 Frank de Vries3,4,7 1Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+, Maastricht, 3Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+, Maastricht, 5Department of Epidemiology, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 6Department of Health eResearch, University of Manchester, Manchester, 7MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK Background: Smoking increases the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and is associated with the development of COPD. Until now, it is unclear whether CAP in COPD is due to smoking-related effects, or due to COPD pathophysiology itself. Objective: To evaluate the association between COPD and CAP by smoking status. Methods: In total, 62,621 COPD and 191,654 control subjects, matched by year of birth, gender and primary care practice, were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2005–2014. Incidence rates (IRs were estimated by dividing the total number of CAP cases by the cumulative person-time at risk. Time-varying Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs for CAP in COPD patients versus controls. HRs of CAP by smoking status were calculated by stratified analyses in COPD patients versus controls and within both subgroups with never smoking as reference. Results: IRs of CAP in COPD patients (32.00/1,000 person-years and controls (6.75/1,000 person-years increased with age and female gender. The risk of CAP in COPD patients was higher than in controls (HR 4.51, 95% CI: 4.27–4.77. Current smoking

  12. Salivary Thiobarbituric Acid Reacting Substances and Malondialdehyde – Their Relationship to Reported Smoking and to Parodontal Status Described by the Papillary bleeding index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Celec

    2005-01-01

    of epithelial cells in saliva (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Salivary TBARS are a simple parameter that partially reflects the parodontal status with a potential usefulness in the clinical stomatology. We show herein that salivary MDA is dependent on age and smoking, but there is no correlation between MDA and PBI. Further studies should uncover the main salivary TBARS compound in patients with altered parodontal status and trace the origin of these salivary lipoperoxidation markers.

  13. Race, socioeconomic status, and obesity in 9- to 10 year-old girls : The NHLBI Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimm, SYS; Obarzanek, E; Barton, BA; Aston, CE; Similo, SL; Morrison, JA; Sabry, ZI; Schreiber, GB; McMahon, RP

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether measures of socioeconomic status (SES) are inversely associated with obesity in 9- to 10-year-old black and white girls and their parents. Subjects were participants in the Growth and Health Study (NGHS) of the National Heart, Lung, and

  14. Biochemical verification of the self-reported smoking status of screened male smokers of the Dutch-Belgian randomized controlled lung cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aalst, Carlijn M; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, so data linked to smoking behaviour are important in lung cancer screening trials. However, self-reporting data concerning smoking behaviour are mainly used. The aim of this study was to biochemically determine the validity and reliability of self-reported smoking status among smokers at high risk for developing lung cancer participating in the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening (NELSON) trial. For this sub study, a random sample of 475 men was selected who were scheduled for the fourth screening round in the NELSON trial. They were asked to complete a short questionnaire to verify the smoking behaviour for the previous seven days and a blood sample was collected to measure the cotinine level. The validity (sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV)) and reliability (Kappa) of the self-reported smoking status compared to the cotinine level (as golden standard) were determined. Both a completed questionnaire as well as a cotinine level were available for 199 (41.9%) participants. Based on these data, Se and Sp were respectively 98% (95%-Confidence Interval (CI): 91-99) and 98% (95%-CI: 93-100). PPV and NPV were 98% and 96% and Kappa was 0.96. In conclusion, the validity of the self-reported smoking status turned out to be reliable amongst men at high risk for developing lung cancer who participate in the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The differential effect of foreign-born status on low birth weight by race/ethnicity and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Soobader, Mah-J; Berkman, Lisa F

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates whether foreign-born status confers a protective effect against low birth weight (LBW) and whether this protective effect varies across racial/ethnic groups and by socioeconomic status (ie, education) within various racial/ethnic groups. Logistic regression analyses of the Detail Natality Data, 1998 (n = 2,436,890), were used to examine differentials in LBW by nativity across racial/ethnic groups and by education level. Although foreign-born status does not protect against LBW among white women (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96, 1.03) and it increases the risk among Asian women by 24% (95% CI: 1.13, 1.36), it reduces the risk by approximately 25% among black women (95% CI: 0.72, 0.78) and by approximately 19% among Hispanic women (95% CI: 0.78, 0.84). By educational attainment, for whites, blacks, and Hispanics the protective effect of foreign-born status is stronger among women with low education (ie, 0-11 years) than among women with more education. The educational gradient in LBW is less pronounced among foreign-born white, black, and Hispanic women than among their US-born counterparts. Foreign-born status is associated with LBW. The direction and strength of this association varies across racial/ethnic groups, and within those groups it varies by educational level. Future research may test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these variations in LBW, including health selection of immigrants, cultural factors, social support, and social environment.

  16. Smoking status and the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Smoking, with a prevalence ranging from 42% to 91%, and secondhand smoke (SHS), with a high exposure level of 3 to 11 μg/m, are frequently seen in prisons. We aimed at investigating the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among inmates and prison staff. This study included prisoners and prison staff in Bolvadin Closed and Open Prison in Turkey. All volunteers went through a standard spirometry and completed the Fagerstrom Test for nicotine dependence. A total of 179 volunteers, 109 of whom were prisoners and 70 prison staff, were involved in the study. Average age was 35.6 ± 11.9 years. There were 123 smokers (68.7%), 26 ex-smokers (14.5%), and 30 nonsmokers (16.8%). Up to 89.4% of participants reported that they were exposed to SHS. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) value was found to be 3.68 ± 0.80 (93.9 ± 15.1%), forced vital capacity (FVC) value to be 3.87 ± 0.83 (83.1 ± 14.3%), and FEV1/FVC to be 98.4 ± 19.6. Eighteen inmates and 2 prison staff members had the diagnosis of COPD; 22 prisoners (20.2%) and 4 prison staff members (5.7%) had COPD. There were pulmonary symptoms in 49.2% of the volunteers; the symptoms were statistically higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers (P = 0.000). There was a statistically significant relationship between exposure to SHS and presence of COPD (P = 0.043), and pulmonary symptoms (P = 0.008). The frequency of smoking in this prison was considerably high (68.7%, compared against 22%-31% in non-incarcerated populations). The prevalence of COPD was also found high among inmates (20.2% vs 4.2%-23% in non-incarcerated populations). Therefore, pulmonary symptoms should be examined carefully when screening prisoners, including consideration for the use of lung spirometry and screening for tobacco use disorder.

  17. The effect of omega-3 supplementation on pregnancy outcomes by smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Spencer G; Abramovici, Adi R; Jauk, Victoria C; Harper, Lorie M; Biggio, Joseph R; Tita, Alan T

    2017-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes such as preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, stillbirth, and low birth weight. Because smoking causes oxidative stress, some have suggested using antioxidants to counteract the effects of oxidative stress. Smokers have lower serum levels of omega-3 fatty acids, an important antioxidant, and thus, investigating whether omega-3 supplementation in smokers reduces adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes represents an important area of research. To investigate whether the antioxidant effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes differs between smokers and nonsmokers. Secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of omega-3 supplementation for preterm delivery prevention in women with a singleton pregnancy and a history of a previous singleton spontaneous preterm delivery. Subjects were randomized to begin omega-3 or placebo before 22 weeks, which was continued until delivery. All women received 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate intramuscularly weekly beginning between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation and continued until 36 weeks of gestation or delivery, whichever occurred first. The primary outcome was spontaneous preterm delivery. Secondary outcomes were indicated preterm delivery, any preterm delivery (spontaneous and indicated), pregnancy-associated hypertension (gestational hypertension and preeclampsia), a neonatal composite (retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III or IV, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, respiratory morbidity, or perinatal death), low birth weight (omega-3 supplementation versus placebo in each subgroup. Zelen tests were performed to test for homogeneity of effect in smokers and nonsmokers. Of 851 subjects included in the analysis, 136 (16%) smoked. Baseline characteristics between omega-3 and placebo groups did not differ in smokers or

  18. Cigarette Smoking, N-Acetyltransferase 2 Acetylation Status, and Bladder Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcus, P.M.; Hayes, R.B.; Vineis, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tobacco use is an established cause of bladder cancer. The ability to detoxify aromatic amines, which are present in tobacco and are potent bladder carcinogens, is compromised in persons with the N-acetyltransferase 2 slow acetylation polymorphism. The relationship of cigarette smoking with bladder...... cancer risk therefore has been hypothesized to be stronger among slow acetylators. The few studies to formally explore such a possibility have produced inconsistent results, however. To assess this potential gene-environment interaction in as many bladder cancer studies as possible and to summarize...... results, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from 16 bladder cancer studies conducted in the general population (n = 1999 cases), Most had been conducted in European countries. Because control subjects were unavailable for a number of these studies, we used a case-series design, which can be used...

  19. Concurrent relations among cigarette smoking status, resting heart rate variability, and erectile response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Christopher B

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of sympathovagal balance; it has been implicated in erectile function and is also altered by tobacco use. Furthermore, smoking and erectile health are strongly related, given that smokers are at increased risk for erectile dysfunction. Few studies have explored the interrelationships between smoking, HRV, and erectile function concurrently. The aim of this study was to examine potential mechanisms underlying tobacco's effects on penile hemodynamics by exploring the mediating role of HRV. The sample comprised 119 men (smokers = 64; nonsmokers = 55) (mean age 28.90 years; standard deviation (SD) 11.68; range 18-58) selected from the control conditions of three previously published experiments. Participants were free from a history of cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarct, and/or cardiac/cardiovascular medication use. During a laboratory visit, self-report, anthropometric, cardiovascular, and electrocardiographic data were assessed, as well as sexual arousal responses elicited from viewing an erotic film. Objective sexual arousal indices (circumferential change via penile plethysmography), self-reported erectile function (per the erectile function domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-EF]), and time- (SD of beat-to-beat intervals) and frequency-domain parameters of HRV (ratio of low-frequency [LF] power to high-frequency [HF] power [LF/HF ratio]) were assessed. Being a current long-term cigarette smoker was associated with dysregulated sympathovagal balance (higher LF/HF ratios, indicative of sympathetic nervous system dominance), which in turn showed inverse relations with magnitude of erectile tumescence. HRV did not mediate relations between tobacco use and either IIEF-EF scores or resting penile circumference. Findings suggest that dysfunctional cardiac autonomic tone may be an underlying mechanism by which tobacco exerts its deleterious effects on erectile health. Further research

  20. Energy and Nutrient Intakes from Processed Foods Differ by Sex, Income Status, and Race/Ethnicity of US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends nutrients to increase and to decrease for US adults. The contributions processed foods make to the US intake of nutrients to increase and decrease may vary by the level of processing and by population subgroup. The hypotheses that the intakes of nutrients to increase or decrease, as specified by the DGA, are contributed exclusively from certain processed food categories and consumed differentially by population subgroups by sex, poverty-income ratio (ratio of household income to poverty threshold), and race/ethnicity was tested along with the hypothesis that specific processed food categories are responsible for nutrient intake differences between the population subgroups. The 24-hour dietary recall data from the cross-sectional 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to determine population subgroup energy and nutrient intake differences among processed food categories defined by the International Food Information Council Foundation Continuum of Processed Foods. Fifteen thousand fifty-three US adults aged ≥19 years. The mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed food categories reported by population subgroups were compared using regression analysis to determine covariate-adjusted least square means. Processed food categories that contributed to energy and nutrient intake differences within subgroups did not uniformly or exclusively contribute nutrients to increase or decrease per DGA recommendations. The between-group differences in mean daily intake of both nutrients to increase and decrease contributed by the various processed food categories were diverse and were not contributed exclusively from specific processed food categories. Recommendations for a diet adhering to the DGA should continue to focus on the energy and nutrient content, frequency of consumption, and serving size of individual foods rather than the level of processing. Copyright © 2015

  1. Prostate cancer risk profiles of Asian-American men: disentangling the effects of immigration status and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Sieh, Weiva; Chung, Benjamin I; Cheng, Iona; Brooks, James D

    2014-04-01

    Asian-American men with prostate cancer have been reported to present with higher grade and later stage disease than white American men. However, Asian-American men comprise a heterogeneous population with distinct health outcomes. We compared prostate cancer risk profiles among the diverse racial and ethnic groups in California. We used data from the California Cancer Registry on 90,845 nonHispanic white, nonHispanic black and Asian-American men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2010. Patients were categorized into low, intermediate and high risk groups based on clinical stage, Gleason score and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Using polytomous logistic regression we estimated adjusted ORs for the association of race/ethnicity and nativity with risk group. In addition to the nonHispanic black population, 6 Asian-American groups (United States born Chinese, foreign born Chinese, United States born Japanese, foreign born Japanese, foreign born Filipino and foreign born Vietnamese) were more likely to have an unfavorable risk profile compared to nonHispanic white men. The OR for high vs intermediate risk disease ranged from 1.23 (95% CI 1.02-1.49) for United States born Japanese men to 1.45 (95% CI 1.31-1.60) for foreign born Filipino men. These associations appeared to be driven by higher grade and prostate specific antigen rather than by advanced clinical stage at diagnosis. In this large, ethnically diverse, population based cohort Asian-American men were more likely to have an unfavorable risk profile at diagnosis. This association varied by racial/ethnic group and nativity, and was not attributable to later stage at diagnosis. This suggests that Asian men may have biological differences that predispose to more severe disease. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking and intention to quit among a large sample of black sexual and gender minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jenna N; Everett, Kevin D; Ge, Bin; McElroy, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to more completely quantify smoking and intention to quit from a sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) Black individuals (N = 639) through analysis of data collected at Pride festivals and online. Frequencies described demographic characteristics; chi-square analyses were used to compare tobacco-related variables. Black SGM smokers were more likely to be trying to quit smoking than White SGM smokers. However, Black SGM individuals were less likely than White SGM individuals to become former smokers. The results of this study indicate that smoking behaviors may be heavily influenced by race after accounting for SGM status.

  3. Continued Importance of Family Factors in Youth Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although it is known that levels of family factors (FF) such as parental monitoring and parent–adolescent connectedness vary during adolescence, it is unknown which factors remain protective, preventing smoking initiation, in youth of differing racial/ethnic groups. Using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, we examined which FF protect against smoking initiation in White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Methods: A total of 3,473 parent-nonsmoking youth dyads from Round 1 (T1) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were followed to Round 3 (T2). Youth smoking status at T2 was assessed as the primary outcome. We examined changes in FF (T2 – T1) and the protection afforded by these factors at T1 and T2 for smoking initiation, both by race/ethnicity and overall. Results: There were statistically significant decreases in levels of protective FF from T1 to T2 across all racial/ethnic groups; however, FF levels were higher in never-smokers compared with smoking initiators at both T1 and T2 (p parental monitoring in Black and Hispanic youth. Overall, higher parental monitoring at T1 was associated with decreased odds of smoking initiation (33%); decreased parental monitoring and perceived punishment from T1 to T2 were associated with increased odds of smoking initiation (55% and 17%, respectively). Conclusions: Smoking prevention interventions should encourage parents to both enforce consistent consequences of smoking behavior, and continue monitoring, especially in minority groups. PMID:22454285

  4. Night eating syndrome and its association with weight status, physical activity, eating habits, smoking status, and sleep patterns among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie; Potter, Stacey; Szymanski, Hailey; Smith, Karen; Pringle, Lindsay; Herman, Christine; Uribe, Manuela; Fu, Zhuxuan; Chung, Mei; Geliebter, Allan

    2017-09-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal ingestion. The main objective of this study was to assess the percentage of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with the diagnostic criteria for NES, and explore its association with body mass index (BMI), dietary habits, physical activity, smoking status, and sleep patterns, among a sample of college students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 413 undergraduate students, mean age of 20.6 ± 1.68 SD, at Central Michigan University. Students completed an online survey including demographic information and the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI). Participants were grouped based on self-reporting of the presence and frequency of night eating-related symptoms and behaviors related to the diagnostic criteria for NES as follows: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full-syndrome night eater. Pearson's Chi-squared, Student's t test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to test the association between students with and without any night eating behavior in relation to BMI, lifestyle variables, and sleep duration/quality. Results showed that the proportion of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with full-syndrome of NES was 1.2%. There were no significant differences between students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with any level of NES and those without any night eating behavior regarding BMI, eating habits, physical activity, and smoking status. NES was significantly related to sleep duration (P = 0.023). Students complying with symptoms consistent with any level of NES reported shorter sleep time and had higher total PSQI score (6.73 ± 4.06) than students without the syndrome (5.61 ± 2.61) (P = 0.007). Although the percentage of students complying with full-syndrome NES was relatively low in our student sample

  5. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  6. Time perspective as a predictor of smoking status: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Genevieve; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hall, Peter A; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Mons, Ute; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Yong, Hua-Hie; Thompson, Mary E; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Prior studies have demonstrated that time perspective-the propensity to consider short-versus long-term consequences of one's actions-is a potentially important predictor of health-related behaviors, including smoking. However, most prior studies have been conducted within single high-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine whether time perspective was associated with the likelihood of being a smoker or non-smoker across five countries that vary in smoking behavior and strength of tobacco control policies. The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in five countries with large probability samples of both smokers (N=10,341) and non-smokers (N=4,955): Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia. The surveys were conducted between 2005-2008. Survey respondents indicated their smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker) and time perspective (future oriented vs. not future-oriented) and provided demographic information. Across all five countries, non-smokers were significantly more likely to be future-oriented (66%) than were smokers (57%), χ(2)(1, N = 15,244) = 120.64, p perspective and smoking status held in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for country, age, sex, income, education, and ethnicity (language in France), those who were future-oriented had 36% greater odds of being a non-smoker than a smoker (95% CI: 1.22 to 1.51, pperspective as an important predictor of smoking status across multiple countries and suggest the potential value of incorporating material to enhance future orientation in smoking cessation interventions.

  7. Influence of smoking status at time of surgery for herniated lumbar disk on postoperative pain and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Schaller, Karl; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2014-07-01

    It is well established that smoking has a myriad of negative effects on varies aspects of bodily health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the smoking status at time of surgery on the postoperative subjective pain course and health related quality of life (HRQoL) until 1 year after surgery for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). This prospective cohort study included patients ≥18 and ≤90 years of age with a symptomatic and radiological verified LDH. The current smoking patient collective (smoking 1 or more cigarettes a day) was compared with the nonsmoking collective (previous smokers without cigarette consumption for >2 months and never smokers) in respect of subjective pain sensation (measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS)) and HRQoL using the short-form (SF-12) questionnaire preoperatively, before discharge, as well as after 4 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. The primary outcome measures were the 1-year SF-12 scores (MCS and PCS) categorized into responders and non-responders. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-eight patients were current smokers (37.2%), whereas 43 (42.2%) and 21 (20.6%) patients were never-smokers and previous smokers, respectively. Four weeks and one year after surgery, both smokers and nonsmokers reported increase in the HRQoL as compared to preoperative values - the MCS increased more than the PCS. From a univariate and multivariate perspective, smoking status at time of surgery did not predict responder status. The present study results could not confirm the hypothesis that smoking at time of surgery was associated with worse outcome after surgery for LDH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic variation at CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 interacts with smoking status to influence body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freathy, Rachel M; Kazeem, Gbenga R; Morris, Richard W

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with lower body mass index (BMI), and a commonly cited reason for unwillingness to quit smoking is a concern about weight gain. Common variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region (chromosome 15q25) is robustly associated with smoking quantity in smokers, but ......, but its association with BMI is unknown. We hypothesized that genotype would accurately reflect smoking exposure and that, if smoking were causally related to weight, it would be associated with BMI in smokers, but not in never smokers.......Cigarette smoking is associated with lower body mass index (BMI), and a commonly cited reason for unwillingness to quit smoking is a concern about weight gain. Common variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region (chromosome 15q25) is robustly associated with smoking quantity in smokers...

  9. Acute Immune-Inflammatory Responses to a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise in Smokers; The Effect of Smoking History and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Tegan Emma; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the acute immune and inflammatory responses to exercise in smokers compared to non-smokers, and further, the effect of smoking history on these immune-inflammatory responses. Fifty-four recreationally active males who were either smokers (SM; n = 27) or non-smokers (NS; n = 27) were allocated into either young (YSM, YNS) or middle-aged groups (MSM, MNS) based on smoking status. Participants were matched for fitness and smoking habits and following familiarization and baseline testing, undertook an exercise protocol that involved 40 min of cycle ergometry at 50% of VO2peak. Venous blood was obtained pre- and post- (0 min, 1, and 4 h) exercise to measure circulating leukocytes and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Compared to MNS, MSM showed elevated basal concentrations of MCP-1, which were increased with a longer smoking history (P exercise, YSM demonstrated an amplified IL-6 response from immediately- to 1 h-post compared to YNS. Furthermore, IL-1ra in YSM was elevated above that of YNS across all time points (P exercise leukocyte response was greater in MSM compared to YSM and non-smokers (P smoking history (~15 years). Furthermore, the differences in exercise-induced inflammatory responses noted in YSM may be indicative tobacco smoke exposure priming circulating leukocytes to amplify inflammatory responses. PMID:26779179

  10. A longitudinal study of risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation among college students: Interactions with smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Case, Kathleen R; Marti, C Nathan; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-05-01

    Recent data suggest that lower perceived risks of e-cigarettes are associated with e-cigarette use in young adults; however, the temporality of this relationship is not well-understood. We explore how perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness of e-cigarettes influence e-cigarette initiation, and specifically whether this association varies by cigarette smoking status, in a longitudinal study of tobacco use on college campuses. Data are from a 5-wave 24-college study in Texas. Only students who reported never using e-cigarettes at wave 1 were included (n = 2565). Multilevel discrete-time hazard models, accounting for school clustering, were used. The dependent variable, ever e-cigarette use, was assessed at each wave. Both time-varying (e-cigarette perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness, age, use of cigarettes, use of other tobacco products, and use of other substances) and time-invariant demographic covariates were included. Two-way interactions between each e-cigarette perception variable and current conventional cigarette use were tested to determine if the hypothesized relationship differed among smokers and non-smokers. 21% of all never e-cigarette users at baseline had initiated e-cigarette ever use by wave 5. Significant two-way interactions qualified the relationship between risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation. Specifically, perceptions of a lower degree of harmfulness (OR = 1.13, p = .047) and addictiveness (OR = 1.34, p risk of e-cigarettes contributes to subsequent e-cigarette initiation among non-smokers, but not among current smokers. have implications for prevention campaigns focusing on the potential harm of e-cigarettes for non-smoking college students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A National Study of Social Media, Television, Radio, and Internet Usage of Adults by Sexual Orientation and Smoking Status: Implications for Campaign Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Jo, Catherine L.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Kim, Yoonsang; Emery, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people’s media use. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 12,900 U.S. adults completed an online questionnaire assessing media use, smoking status, and demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between media use with sexual orientation and smoking status. Results: A total of 590 (4.6%) respondents identified as LGB, of which 29% were smokers. Regardless of sexual orientation and smoking status, the Internet was the most popular media channel used, followed by television and radio. LGB respondents had significantly greater odds of having accounts on social media websites, accessing Facebook daily, and being a frequent Internet user, compared to heterosexual respondents. Similar media use was found between smokers and non-smokers, but smokers had greater odds of being frequent television viewers and frequent Internet users, compared to non-smokers. Conclusions: Compared to heterosexuals, LGB respondents reported greater use of the Internet, especially social media. Media campaigns targeting LGB populations can maximize reach by utilizing social media alongside traditional media channels. PMID:28430161

  12. A National Study of Social Media, Television, Radio, and Internet Usage of Adults by Sexual Orientation and Smoking Status: Implications for Campaign Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Seidenberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people’s media use. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 12,900 U.S. adults completed an online questionnaire assessing media use, smoking status, and demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between media use with sexual orientation and smoking status. Results: A total of 590 (4.6% respondents identified as LGB, of which 29% were smokers. Regardless of sexual orientation and smoking status, the Internet was the most popular media channel used, followed by television and radio. LGB respondents had significantly greater odds of having accounts on social media websites, accessing Facebook daily, and being a frequent Internet user, compared to heterosexual respondents. Similar media use was found between smokers and non-smokers, but smokers had greater odds of being frequent television viewers and frequent Internet users, compared to non-smokers. Conclusions: Compared to heterosexuals, LGB respondents reported greater use of the Internet, especially social media. Media campaigns targeting LGB populations can maximize reach by utilizing social media alongside traditional media channels.

  13. A National Study of Social Media, Television, Radio, and Internet Usage of Adults by Sexual Orientation and Smoking Status: Implications for Campaign Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Jo, Catherine L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Lee, Joseph G L; Buchting, Francisco O; Kim, Yoonsang; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-04-21

    Background : Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people's media use. Methods : A nationally representative sample of 12,900 U.S. adults completed an online questionnaire assessing media use, smoking status, and demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between media use with sexual orientation and smoking status. Results : A total of 590 (4.6%) respondents identified as LGB, of which 29% were smokers. Regardless of sexual orientation and smoking status, the Internet was the most popular media channel used, followed by television and radio. LGB respondents had significantly greater odds of having accounts on social media websites, accessing Facebook daily, and being a frequent Internet user, compared to heterosexual respondents. Similar media use was found between smokers and non-smokers, but smokers had greater odds of being frequent television viewers and frequent Internet users, compared to non-smokers. Conclusions : Compared to heterosexuals, LGB respondents reported greater use of the Internet, especially social media. Media campaigns targeting LGB populations can maximize reach by utilizing social media alongside traditional media channels.

  14. The association between self-reported versus nicotine metabolite-confirmed smoking status and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2018-05-01

    There are no data comparing the relationship between coronary artery calcification and self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking. This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status in Korean adults. Study participants included 22 797 individuals (19 181 men; mean age±SD 39.2±7.1 years) who were enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study between 2011 and 2013, and who had urinary cotinine and CAC measurements. Cotinine-verified current smokers were defined as having a urinary cotinine level of above 50 ng/ml. The prevalence of never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers according to the self-reported questionnaires was 44.6, 24.2, and 31.2%, respectively, and that of cotinine-verified current smokers was 30.2%. The prevalence of the presence of CAC in self-reported current smokers was higher than that in self-reported never/former smokers (13.7 vs. 10.2%, P<0.001), and that in cotinine-verified current smokers was higher than that in cotinine-verified never smokers (14.0 vs. 10.2%, P<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for the variables with univariate relationships showed that self-reported former smokers and current smokers had significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for the presence of CAC compared with self-reported never smokers [OR (95% confidence interval): 1.20 (1.03-1.40) in former smokers and 1.29 (1.11-1.50) in current smokers]. Cotinine-verified current smokers also showed a significant association with the presence of CAC [1.23 (1.12-1.35)]. Furthermore, log-transformed cotinine levels increased the OR for the presence of CAC [1.03 (1.01-1.05)]. This study is the first large cohort study to show that both self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking is associated independently with the presence of CAC in Korean adults.

  15. Are diet and physical activity patterns related to cigarette smoking in adolescents? Findings from Project EAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-07-01

    An inadequate diet and physical inactivity may compound the many deleterious effects of smoking on health. Some research indicates that smoking behavior is related to other health behaviors, but little research has examined how smoking may be related to dietary intake of key nutrients, consumption of fast food, sedentary lifestyle, or weight status. The purpose of this study was to describe smoking frequency among adolescents and its relationship to physical activity and dietary patterns. The research study employed a cross-sectional, population-based design. Adolescents self-reported cigarette smoking, physical activity, and eating behaviors on the Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey and reported dietary intake on a food frequency questionnaire completed in school classrooms. The sample included 4746 middle school and high school students from Minneapolis-St. Paul public schools. Mixed-model regression, which was controlled for sex, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, grade level (middle school or high school), and school, was used to examine the association of smoking with diet and physical activity patterns. Overall, reported smoking frequency was inversely related to participating in team sports, eating regular meals, and consuming healthful foods and nutrients. Smoking frequency was directly related to frequency of fast-food and soft drink consumption. Adolescents who smoke cigarettes may be less likely to engage in health-promoting lifestyle behaviors. Interventions are needed to prevent smoking and the unhealthy dietary practices and physical activity behaviors that may be associated with it.

  16. PROFIL KONSUMSI SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN ALAMI, STATUS GIZI, KEBIASAAN MEROKOK DAN SANITASI LINGKUNGAN PADA DAERAH DENGAN TB-PARU TINGGI DI INDONESIA (PROFILE OF NATURAL SOURCE ANTIOXIDANTS CONSUMPTION, NUTRITIONAL STATUS, SMOKING HABIT AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setyawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Indonesia is at third rank as country having a large number of people with pulmonary-tuberculosis disease after India and China. Low nutritional status, unhealthy lifestyle, poor living condition, and low consumption of natural sources of antioxidant (fruits, vegetables and herbs can decrease immunity sistem and increase the risk of pulmonary-tuberculosis (pulmonary-TB infection. The study aimed to discribe the profile of nutritional status, consumption of antioxidant sources, smoking habit, house condition and environmental sanitation in areas with high cases of pulmonary-TB in Indonesia. Analitic observational study with cross sectional design. The sample is Riskesdas 2010 sample, age of sample is 15 years old and above and living in the area with high cases of pulmonary-TB in Indonesia. Variable being studied are the profile of pulmonary-TB status, sample characteristics (age, sex, occupation and education; nutritional status; the consumption of antioxidant sources (fruits, vegetables and herbs; smoking habit (status, first started smoking, dan smoking duration and practices related to prevention of pulmonary-TB disease; house and environmental sanitation conditions. The large proportion of pulmonary-TB are found in male, low education, productive age dan low nutritional status samples. The large proportion of pulmonary-TB are also found in smokers that have started smoking in early age (<10 years old and have smoked in long duration (31-40 years. A slight larger proportion of pulmonary-TB is found in samples that consume fruit-vegetable less than 5 servings/day. The higher proportion of behaviour that prevent pulmonary-TB, healthy house and environment is found in non pulmonary-TB samples. To cut down the number of pulmonary-TB suferer, efforts should be focused to the improving nutritional status, house condition and environtment sanitation, reducing the number of early ages smokers and increasing the consumption of 5 servings of

  17. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Vehicles among U.S. Adults-National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Baker Holmes, Carissa; Hu, Sean; King, Brian

    2016-10-26

    In the United States (U.S.), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes more than 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults annually. Adoption of smoke-free laws in public areas has increased, but private settings such as vehicles remain a source of SHS exposure. This study assessed change in voluntary smoke-free vehicle rules and SHS exposure in personal vehicles among U.S. adults between two periods, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014, using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). NATS is a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. We assessed percentage change in the prevalence of smoke-free vehicle rules among all adults and SHS exposure in vehicles among nonsmoking adults, overall, by sociodemographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, annual household income, U.S. region), and by cigarette smoking status. During 2009-2010 to 2013-2014, the percentage of adults with a 100% smoke-free vehicle rule increased from 73.6% to 79.5% (% change = +8.0%; p exposure in vehicles in the previous 7 days decreased from 9.2% to 8.2% (% change = -10.9%; p Smoke-free rules in private settings such as vehicles, in coordination with comprehensive smoke-free policies in indoor public settings, can help reduce SHS exposure and promote smoke-free norms.

  18. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Vehicles among U.S. Adults—National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2010 and 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Baker Holmes, Carissa; Hu, Sean; King, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (U.S.), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes more than 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults annually. Adoption of smoke-free laws in public areas has increased, but private settings such as vehicles remain a source of SHS exposure. This study assessed change in voluntary smoke-free vehicle rules and SHS exposure in personal vehicles among U.S. adults between two periods, 2009–2010 and 2013–2014, using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). NATS is a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. We assessed percentage change in the prevalence of smoke-free vehicle rules among all adults and SHS exposure in vehicles among nonsmoking adults, overall, by sociodemographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, annual household income, U.S. region), and by cigarette smoking status. During 2009–2010 to 2013–2014, the percentage of adults with a 100% smoke-free vehicle rule increased from 73.6% to 79.5% (% change = +8.0%; p exposure in vehicles in the previous 7 days decreased from 9.2% to 8.2% (% change = −10.9%; p Smoke-free rules in private settings such as vehicles, in coordination with comprehensive smoke-free policies in indoor public settings, can help reduce SHS exposure and promote smoke-free norms. PMID:27792208

  19. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Marie T; Allen, Allyssa; Beydoun, Hind A; Popkin, Barry M; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day) with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30-64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), (two 24-hr recalls). A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status. Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively), whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100), reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1) to $6.62/d (Q4)) was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components. Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010) requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people's decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices.

  20. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors.This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30-64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010 and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR, (two 24-hr recalls. A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status.Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively, whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100, reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1 to $6.62/d (Q4 was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components.Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010 requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people's decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices.

  1. Verbal working memory in schizophrenia from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) study: the moderating role of smoking status and antipsychotic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Green, Michael F; Calkins, Monica E; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L

    2015-04-01

    Working memory impairment has been extensively studied in schizophrenia, but less is known about moderators of the impairment. Using the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia case-control study (COGS-2), we examined smoking status, types of antipsychotic medication, and history of substance as moderators for working memory impairment in schizophrenia. From 5 sites, 1377 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective, depressed type and 1037 healthy controls completed the letter-number span (LNS) task. The LNS uses intermixed letter and digit stimuli that increase from 2 up to 8 stimuli. In the forward condition, participants repeated the letters and numbers in the order they were presented. In the reorder condition, participants repeated the digits in ascending order followed by letters in alphabetical order. Schizophrenia patients performed more poorly than controls, with a larger difference on reorder than forward conditions. Deficits were associated with symptoms, functional capacity, and functional outcome. Patients who smoked showed larger impairment than nonsmoking patients, primarily due to deficits on the reorder condition. The impairing association of smoking was more pronounced among patients taking first-generation than those taking second-generation antipsychotic medications. Correlations between working memory and community functioning were stronger for nonsmokers. History of substance use did not moderate working memory impairment. Results confirm the working memory impairment in schizophrenia, and indicate smoking status as an important moderator for these deficits. The greater impairment in smokers may reflect added burden of smoking on general health or that patients with greater deficits are more likely to smoke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Continued importance of family factors in youth smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda; Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S; Khoury, Jane C

    2012-12-01

    Although it is known that levels of family factors (FF) such as parental monitoring and parent-adolescent connectedness vary during adolescence, it is unknown which factors remain protective, preventing smoking initiation, in youth of differing racial/ethnic groups. Using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, we examined which FF protect against smoking initiation in White, Black, and Hispanic youth. A total of 3,473 parent-nonsmoking youth dyads from Round 1 (T1) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were followed to Round 3 (T2). Youth smoking status at T2 was assessed as the primary outcome. We examined changes in FF (T2 - T1) and the protection afforded by these factors at T1 and T2 for smoking initiation, both by race/ethnicity and overall. There were statistically significant decreases in levels of protective FF from T1 to T2 across all racial/ethnic groups; however, FF levels were higher in never-smokers compared with smoking initiators at both T1 and T2 (p < .05). Separate models by race/ethnicity showed the protective effect of increased perceived punishment in all racial/ethnic groups and protection against initiation by increased parental monitoring in Black and Hispanic youth. Overall, higher parental monitoring at T1 was associated with decreased odds of smoking initiation (33%); decreased parental monitoring and perceived punishment from T1 to T2 were associated with increased odds of smoking initiation (55% and 17%, respectively). Smoking prevention interventions should encourage parents to both enforce consistent consequences of smoking behavior, and continue monitoring, especially in minority groups.

  3. Demographic and geographic differences in exposure to secondhand smoke in Missouri workplaces, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Geremakis, Caroline; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J; Kariuki, Barbara; Shelton, Sarah C; Kuhlenbeck, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    African Americans, Hispanics, service and blue-collar workers, and residents of rural areas are among those facing higher rates of workplace secondhand smoke exposure in states without smokefree workplace laws. Consequently, these groups also experience more negative health effects resulting from secondhand smoke exposure. The objective of this study was to examine disparities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure in a state without a comprehensive statewide smokefree workplace law and to use this information in considering a statewide law. We developed a logistic multilevel model by using data from a 2007-2008 county-level study to account for individual and county-level differences in workplace secondhand smoke exposure. We included sex, age, race, annual income, education level, smoking status, and rural or urban residence as predictors of workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Factors significantly associated with increased exposure to workplace secondhand smoke were male sex, lower education levels, lower income, living in a small rural or isolated area, and current smoking. For example, although the overall rate of workplace exposure in Missouri is 11.5%, our model predicts that among young white men with low incomes and limited education living in small rural areas, 40% of nonsmokers and 56% of smokers may be exposed to secondhand smoke at work. Significant disparities exist in workplace secondhand smoke exposure across Missouri. A statewide smokefree workplace law would protect all citizens from workplace secondhand smoke exposure.

  4. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  5. Race/Ethnic Differences in Adult Mortality: The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Behaviors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Patrick M.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Chang, Virginia W.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the role of perceived stress and health behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, sleep duration) in shaping differential mortality among whites, blacks, and Hispanics. We use data from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey (N=38,891), a nationally representative sample of United States adults, to model prospective mortality through 2006. Our first aim examines whether unhealthy behaviors and perceived stress mediate race/ethnic disparities in mortality. The black disadvantage in mortality, relative to whites, closes after adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES), but re-emerges after adjusting for the lower smoking levels among blacks. After adjusting for SES, Hispanics have slightly lower mortality than whites; that advantage increases after adjusting for the greater physical inactivity among Hispanics, but closes after adjusting for their lower smoking levels. Perceived stress, sleep duration, and alcohol consumption do not mediate race/ethnic disparities in mortality. Our second aim tests competing hypotheses about race/ethnic differences in the relationships among unhealthy behaviors, perceived stress, and mortality. The social vulnerability hypothesis predicts that unhealthy behaviors and high stress levels will be more harmful for race/ethnic minorities. In contrast, the Blaxter (1990) hypothesis predicts that unhealthy lifestyles will be less harmful for disadvantaged groups. Consistent with the social vulnerability perspective, smoking is more harmful for blacks than for whites. But consistent with the Blaxter hypothesis, compared to whites, current smoking has a weaker relationship with mortality for Hispanics, and low or high levels of alcohol consumption, high levels of physical inactivity, and short or long sleep hours have weaker relationships with mortality for blacks. PMID:21920655

  6. Attitudes toward smoking restrictions in work sites, restaurants, and bars among North Carolinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Rachel Loflin; Brinkley, Jason; Mansfield, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Public support for smoking restrictions has increased in recent years, but support varies among groups and according to where restrictions should apply. National studies show that Americans are less likely to favor smoking restrictions in restaurants and bars than at other work sites but that the support varies across segments of the population. A full examination of the changes and status of attitudes toward smoking restrictions by site and across subgroups in North Carolina has not been undertaken. Data from US Census Bureau Current Population Surveys conducted during 2001-2002 and 2006-2007 were analyzed. Trends in attitudes toward smoke-free policies at indoor work sites, restaurants, and bars are presented overall and by occupation, smoking status, income, race/ethnicity, workplace smoking policy, age, sex, and education. Logistic regression was used to identify key factors predicting support for smoke-free policies at work sites. Support for smoke-free policies increased by at least 7.4 percentage points at each venue between 2001-2002 and 2006-2007. In 2006-2007, the strongest public support for smoking restrictions was reported for work sites (69.6%), followed by restaurants (52.3%) and bars (36.1%). Whether a person smokes is the strongest predictor of their attitude about smoking restrictions in indoor work sites. Data are self-reported, from independent samples, and lack county identifiers. There is substantial and increasing public support for smoke-free policies in North Carolina. These findings show extensive support for extending smoking bans to all indoor work sites, with nearly 70% of respondents in 2006-2007 favoring smoke-free work sites.

  7. Lung function and blood markers of nutritional status in non-COPD aging men with smoking history: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Shiozawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nobuyoshi Shiozawa1, Kanae Hayashimoto2, Etsuji Suzuki5, Hiroshi Kikuchi3, Shingo Takata3, Kozo Ashida3, Masutaka Watanabe4, Yasuhiro Hosaki6, Fumihiro Mitsunobu1,31Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori, Japan; 2Nutrition Support Service and Divisions of 3Internal Medicine and 4Rehabilitation, Okayama University Hospital Misasa Medical Center, Misasa, Tottori, Japan; 5Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan; 6Division of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima Teishin Hospital, Hiroshima, JapanPurpose: Cigarette smoking and advanced age are well known as risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and nutritional abnormalities are important in patients with COPD. However, little is known about the nutritional status in non-COPD aging men with smoking history. We therefore investigated whether reduced lung function is associated with lower blood markers of nutritional status in those men.Subjects and methods: This association was examined in a cross-sectional study of 65 Japanese male current or former smokers aged 50 to 80 years: 48 without COPD (non-COPD group, divided into tertiles according to forced expiratory volume in one second as percent of forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC, and 17 with COPD (COPD group.Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, lower FEV1/FVC was significantly associated with lower red blood cell count (RBCc, hemoglobin, and total protein (TP; not with total energy intake. The difference in adjusted RBCc and TP among the non-COPD group tertiles was greater than that between the bottom tertile in the non-COPD group and the COPD group.Conclusion: In non-COPD aging men with smoking history, trends toward reduced nutritional status and anemia may independently emerge in blood components along with decreased lung function

  8. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  9. Relay race

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  10. Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation (StopAdvisor) in people with low and high socioeconomic status: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; Michie, Susan; Geraghty, Adam W A; Yardley, Lucy; Gardner, Benjamin; Shahab, Lion; Stapleton, John A; West, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation could help millions of people stop smoking at very low unit costs; however, long-term biochemically verified evidence is scarce and such interventions might be less effective for smokers with low socioeconomic status than for those with high status because of lower online literacy to engage with websites. We aimed to assess a new interactive internet-based intervention (StopAdvisor) for smoking cessation that was designed with particular attention directed to people with low socioeconomic status. We did this online randomised controlled trial between Dec 6, 2011, and Oct 11, 2013, in the UK. Participants aged 18 years and older who smoked every day were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive treatment with StopAdvisor or an information-only website. Randomisation was automated with an unseen random number function embedded in the website to establish which treatment was revealed after the online baseline assessment. Recruitment continued until the required sample size had been achieved from both high and low socioeconomic status subpopulations. Participants, and researchers who obtained data and did laboratory analyses, were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was 6 month sustained, biochemically verified abstinence. The main secondary outcome was 6 month, 7 day biochemically verified point prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Homogeneity of intervention effect across the socioeconomic subsamples was first assessed to establish whether overall or separate subsample analyses were appropriate. The study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN99820519. We randomly assigned 4613 participants to the StopAdvisor group (n=2321) or the control group (n=2292); 2142 participants were of low socioeconomic status and 2471 participants were of high status. The overall rate of smoking cessation was similar between participants in the StopAdvisor and control

  11. The effects of social structure and social capital on changes in smoking status from 8th to 9th grade: results of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chi-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2014-05-01

    Social structure and social capital are important variables for public health strategies seeking to prevent smoking among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between social structure, social capital and changes in smoking status from the 8th to 9th grade in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) project. The study analyzed a final sample of 1937 students (50.7% female). Each layer of social structure was associated with a particular form of social capital. Students whose parents were married and living together had higher family social capital. After controlling for background variables, the social structure variable of friends who smoke was significantly associated with changes in smoking status. Students reporting more school attachment were less likely to start smoking. Students with higher parental supervision was associated with less chance of being a consistent smoker, whereas participation of social organization outside of school was associated with continued smoking. Attending school club was associated with higher probability of smoking cessation. Smoking prevention and intervention strategies aimed at junior high school students should be tailored to the particular form of social capital important for each type of smoking status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBon, M; Klesges, R C

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; tips for quitting smoking; and responsible decision making. 172 seventh-grade students (mean age = 12.3 years) from six parochial schools in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Student ratings of the perceived effectiveness of the ALA and TI approaches (in helping to stop teens from smoking) within each strategy vignette, and students' choice between these two approaches as to which was the better smoking prevention technique. Although there were some moderating effects of gender and race, participants overall strongly favoured the ALA programme over that of the TI. Of the seven programme components, the ALA's approach was rated more effective on six (peer pressure, parents as role models, the health consequences of smoking, the cost of smoking, tips for quitting smoking, responsible decision making) and the TI's was rated more effective on one (not smoking because it is illegal). The ALA's programme was perceived to be much more effective than the TI's programme by those whom these programmes are ultimately intended to influence-young people. Future research in this area should pursue longitudinal designs to determine if programme endorsement is predictive of smoking status.

  13. Disparities in eating disorder diagnosis and treatment according to weight status, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic background, and sex among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, K R; Lipson, S K

    2018-03-02

    Eating disorders (EDs) present a significant threat to the health of adolescents and young adults, yet remain under-diagnosed and under-treated at a population-level. EDs have historically been thought to afflict "skinny, white, affluent girls" (the SWAG stereotype). As such, higher-weight individuals, racial/ethnic minorities, those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, and males may not recognize their need for treatment, may not be properly screened for EDs, and/or may not be referred to treatment. Using large-scale survey data from the healthy bodies study, we examined variations in prevalence of perceived need for ED treatment, ED diagnosis, past-year ED treatment, and treatment barriers according to weight status, race, socioeconomic background, and sex among undergraduate and graduate students with symptoms of an ED (N = 1,747). Among students with symptoms of an ED, 30.7% perceived a need for treatment, 10.5% had received a diagnosis, and 13.6% had received treatment in the past year. Individual characteristics were highly associated with perceived need, diagnosis, and past-year treatment. Females were more likely than males to perceive a need for treatment (OR = 1.97), to be diagnosed (OR = 4.66), and to be treated (OR = 1.64) for their ED symptoms. Socioeconomic background was associated with perceived need for treatment and past-year treatment, with students from affluent backgrounds having higher odds of perceiving need (OR = 1.52) and of receiving treatment (OR = 1.89) compared with their non-affluent peers. At a population-level, the unmet need for ED treatment disproportionately affects certain groups. Stereotypes about who develops EDs could contribute to disparities in ED treatment and outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. How participants report their health status: cognitive interviews of self-rated health across race/ethnicity, gender, age, and educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Dykema, Jennifer; Croes, Kenneth D; Edwards, Dorothy F

    2017-10-04

    Self-rated health (SRH) is widely used to measure subjective health. Yet it is unclear what underlies health ratings, with implications for understanding the validity of SRH overall and across sociodemographic characteristics. We analyze participants' explanations of how they formulated their SRH answer in addition to which health factors they considered and examine group differences in these processes. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 64 participants in a convenience quota sample crossing dimensions of race/ethnicity (white, Latino, black, American Indian), gender, age, and education. Participants rated their health then described their thoughts when answering SRH. We coded participants' answers in an inductive, iterative, and systematic process from interview transcripts, developing analytic categories (i.e., themes) and subdimensions within. We examined whether the presence of each dimension of an analytic category varied across sociodemographic groups. Our qualitative analysis led to the identification and classification of various subdimensions of the following analytic categories: types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, temporality of health factors, conditional health statements, and descriptions and definitions of health. We found differences across groups in some types of health factors mentioned-corresponding, conflicting, or novel with respect to prior research. Furthermore, we also documented various processes through which respondents integrate seemingly disparate health factors to formulate an answer through valence and conditional health statements. Finally, we found some evidence of sociodemographic group differences with respect to types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, and conditional health statements, highlighting avenues for future research. This study provides a description of how participants rate their general health status and highlights potential differences in these processes across

  15. How participants report their health status: cognitive interviews of self-rated health across race/ethnicity, gender, age, and educational attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Garbarski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH is widely used to measure subjective health. Yet it is unclear what underlies health ratings, with implications for understanding the validity of SRH overall and across sociodemographic characteristics. We analyze participants’ explanations of how they formulated their SRH answer in addition to which health factors they considered and examine group differences in these processes. Methods Cognitive interviews were conducted with 64 participants in a convenience quota sample crossing dimensions of race/ethnicity (white, Latino, black, American Indian, gender, age, and education. Participants rated their health then described their thoughts when answering SRH. We coded participants’ answers in an inductive, iterative, and systematic process from interview transcripts, developing analytic categories (i.e., themes and subdimensions within. We examined whether the presence of each dimension of an analytic category varied across sociodemographic groups. Results Our qualitative analysis led to the identification and classification of various subdimensions of the following analytic categories: types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, temporality of health factors, conditional health statements, and descriptions and definitions of health. We found differences across groups in some types of health factors mentioned—corresponding, conflicting, or novel with respect to prior research. Furthermore, we also documented various processes through which respondents integrate seemingly disparate health factors to formulate an answer through valence and conditional health statements. Finally, we found some evidence of sociodemographic group differences with respect to types of health factors mentioned, valence of health factors, and conditional health statements, highlighting avenues for future research. Conclusion This study provides a description of how participants rate their general health

  16. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist...

  17. RELAY RACE

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  18. Smoking in Australian University Students and Its Association with Socio-Demographic Factors, Stress, Health Status, Coping Strategies, and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David; Farquhar, Lynette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of smoking amongst university students in Brisbane, Australia and associated risk factors. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional design was used for the study. A sample of 2,414 university students aged 18-30 was examined to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use. Smoking was measured by…

  19. Influence of smoking status on treatment outcomes after post-operative radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Sonia K.A.; Masson-Cote, Laurence; Fortin, Andre; Dagnault, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The role of post-operative radiotherapy in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. Modifiable factors, like smoking, may help guide therapy. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of smoking on control in patients undergoing post-operative radiation therapy (PORT) for NSCLC. Materials and methods: Between 1995 and 2007, 152 patients who underwent surgery for NSCLC were analyzed (median follow-up 26 months). Non-smokers were defined as patients who never smoked or who had stopped smoking at the time of initial consultation. Sixty seven percent were non-smokers; 5% never smoked, 40% of the non-smokers had ceased smoking for a year or less, while 55% had stopped for more than a year. Results: On univariate analysis, smokers had worse 5-year local control than non-smokers (70% versus 90%, p = 0.001) and locoregional control (52% versus 77%, p = 0.002). The 5 -year survival rate was 21% for smokers and 31% for non-smokers (p = 0.2). On multivariate analysis, smokers maintained a detrimental effect on locoregional control (HR 3.6, p = 0.0006). Conclusions: Smokers at initial consultation have poorer local and locoregional control after PORT than non-smokers. In patients being considered for PORT for NSCLC, quitting smoking before treatment confers additional treatment advantage.

  20. Effect of socio-economic status, family smoking and mental health through social network on the substance use potential in adolescents: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, H; Jorjoran Shushtari, Z; Mahboubi, S; Rafiey, H; Salimi, Y

    2018-04-01

    Understanding pathways that influence substance use potential (SUP) can help with effective substance use prevention interventions among adolescents. The aim of the present study is to contribute to a better understanding of the SUP of adolescents by examining the mediating role of social network quality in the SUP of Iranian adolescents. A cross-sectional study. Structural equation modeling was conducted to assess the hypothesized model that social network quality would mediate the association of family socio-economic status, a mental health disorder, and family smoking with addiction potential. The model shows a good fit to the data. Social network quality mediated the effect of family smoking on the SUP for boys. A mental health disorder had a positive significant direct effect on addiction potential for both girls and boys. Social network quality mediates the effect of family smoking on boys' addiction potential in the context of Iran. Educational programs based on local societal ways and cultural norms are recommended to change tobacco smoking behavior among family members. In addition, to prevent subsequent substance use among adolescents, more effort is needed to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking status and its relationship with exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and quality of life in physically independent, elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R; Gonçalves, C G; Hayashi, D; Costa, V de S P; Teixeira, D de C; de Freitas, E R F S; Felcar, J M; Pitta, F; Molari, M; Probst, V S

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking status and exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and health-related quality of life in physically independent, elderly (≥60 years) individuals. Cross-sectional, observational study. Community-dwelling, elderly individuals. One hundred and fifty-four elderly individuals were categorised into four groups according to their smoking status: never smokers (n=57), passive smokers (n=30), ex-smokers (n=45) and current smokers (n=22). Exercise capacity [6-minute walk test (6MWT)], physical activity in daily life (step counting) and health-related quality of life [36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire] were assessed. Current and ex-smokers had lower mean exercise capacity compared with never smokers: 90 [standard deviation (SD) 10] % predicted, 91 (SD 12) % predicted and 100 (SD 13) % predicted distance on 6MWT, respectively [mean differences -9.8%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -17.8 to -1.8 and -9.1%, 95% CI -15.4 to -2.7, respectively; Pexercise capacity than never smokers. Although the level of physical activity did not differ between the groups, an association was found with smoking. Tobacco exposure was associated with worse scores for the mental health dimension of SF-36 in physically independent, elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prognostic impact of HPV-associated p16-expression and smoking status on outcomes following radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer: The MARCH-HPV project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Lacas, Benjamin; Pignon, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    -Analysis of Radiotherapy in Carcinomas of Head and neck (MARCH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with OPC, known tumor p16-status and smoking history were identified from the MARCH update, resulting in a dataset of 815 patients from four randomized trials (RTOG9003, DAHANCA6&7, RTOG0129, ARTSCAN). Analysis was performed......; in the p16-positive subgroup, never smokers had significantly better PFS than former/current smokers (HR = 0.49 [0.33-0.75], 24.2% survival benefit at 10 years). CONCLUSIONS: No predictive impact of p16-status on response to AFRT could be detected but the strong prognostic impact of p16-status...

  3. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  4. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Itani, Yuri; Kawamura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Yuko

    2010-04-28

    The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8): general health perception (GH), role functioning-physical (RP), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), mental health (MH), and role functioning-emotional (RE). The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers), and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers). Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5) and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3) in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7), SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0.7-2.9), VT (1.4, 95% CI, 0.3-2.5), SF (2

  5. Nursing research in community-based approaches to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Ashford, Kristin B; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Ridner, S Lee; York, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is the third leading cause of preventable death in the United States and a major source of indoor air pollution, accounting for an estimated 53,000 deaths per year among nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke exposure varies by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The most effective public health intervention to reduce SHS exposure is to implement and enforce smoke-free workplace policies that protect entire populations including all workers regardless of occupation, race/ethnicity, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. This chapter summarizes community and population-based nursing research to reduce SHS exposure. Most of the nursing research in this area has been policy outcome studies, documenting improvement in indoor air quality, worker's health, public opinion, and reduction in Emergency Department visits for asthma, acute myocardial infarction among women, and adult smoking prevalence. These findings suggest a differential health effect by strength of law. Further, smoke-free laws do not harm business or employee turnover, nor are revenues from charitable gaming affected. Additionally, smoke-free laws may eventually have a positive effect on cessation among adults. There is emerging nursing science exploring the link between SHS exposure to nicotine and tobacco dependence, suggesting one reason that SHS reduction is a quit smoking strategy. Other nursing research studies address community readiness for smoke-free policy, and examine factors that build capacity for smoke-free policy. Emerging trends in the field include tobacco free health care and college campuses. A growing body of nursing research provides an excellent opportunity to conduct and participate in community and population-based research to reduce SHS exposure for both vulnerable populations and society at large.

  6. Associations between cigarette smoking status and colon cancer prognosis among participants in North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Newcomb, Polly A; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Alberts, Steven R; Limburg, Paul J

    2013-06-01

    By using data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147, a randomized adjuvant trial of patients with stage III colon cancer, we assessed the relationship between smoking and cancer outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS), and time to recurrence (TTR), accounting for heterogeneity by patient and tumor characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS Before random assignment to infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or FOLFOX plus cetuximab, 1,968 participants completed a questionnaire on smoking history and other risk factors. Cox models assessed the association between smoking history and the primary trial outcome of DFS (ie, time to recurrence or death), as well as TTR, adjusting for other clinical and patient factors. The median follow-up was 3.5 years among patients who did not experience events. Compared with never-smokers, ever smokers experienced significantly shorter DFS (3-year DFS proportion: 70% v 74%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.42). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.49). There was significant interaction in this association by BRAF mutation status (P = .03): smoking was associated with shorter DFS in patients with BRAF wild-type (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.66) but not BRAF mutated (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.29) colon cancer. Smoking was more strongly associated with poorer DFS in those with KRAS mutated versus KRAS wild-type colon cancer (HR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.12 to 2.00] v HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.39]), although interaction by KRAS mutation status was not statistically significant (P = .07). Associations were comparable in analyses of TTR. Overall, smoking was significantly associated with shorter DFS and TTR in patients with colon cancer. These adverse relationships were most evident in patients with BRAF wild-type or KRAS mutated colon cancer.

  7. The spectre of race in American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Mariam O

    2013-12-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race-the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful-has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalisation of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient's risk of certain conditions (eg, sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful, and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today's physicians will be better armed to discern-and correct-the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices.

  8. Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Dysfunctions Induced by Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Sater Khaled A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known to adversely affect many organs and systems in human, where the cardiovascular system is one of the important targets. However, the exact mechanisms by which cigarette smoke alters myocardial and endothelial cells function and induces cardiovascular pathology are not clear. There are no reports especially with nitric oxide (NO•, uric acid and hemodynamics after acute exercise in smokers up to date. This study is designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress, NO• and uric acid in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking- induced cardiovascular diseases.40 apparently healthy subjects were studied. Depending on their previous physical conditioning status subjects were divided into equal four groups (n=10, physically active nonsmokers, physically active smokers, sedentary nonsmokers and sedentary smokers. Exercise tolerance was evaluated for each subject by using a running race (3 kilometers after a worming up period of 5 minutes.The obtained data revealed that regular exercise significantly decreased the plasma malonaldehyde, total cholesterol, LDL and uric acid levels below sedentary levels. Pre and post race plasma level of malonaldehyde and uric acid levels were significantly increased, while, plasma glutathione and NO• were decreased in sedentary smokers than the sedentary non smokers, physically active smokers and physically active non smokers.These findings point to the role of NO•, uric acid and lipid peroxide in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking induced cardiovascular diseases. Sedentary smokers may be at an even greater risk of oxidative stress-related cardiovascular diseases. Finally, every body should include in a regular exercise.

  9. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  10. Logical empiricists on race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Liam Kofi

    2017-10-01

    The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A prescription for health: a primary care based intervention to maintain the non-smoking status of young people

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, W.; Lambert, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the effectiveness of primary health care teams in maintaining a group of young people aged 10-15 years as non-smokers.
DESIGN—Randomised controlled trial using postal questionnaires.
SETTING—Oxfordshire, UK.
SUBJECTS—2942 young people who were initially self declared non-smokers.
INTERVENTION—Information about smoking, sent under signature of the subject's general practitioner, certificates and posters intended to reinforce non-smoking behaviour.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—C...

  12. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  13. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsbaugh, Mark J; Yusuf, Mehran; Cash, Elizabeth; Silverman, Craig; Wilson, Elizabeth; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Potts, Kevin; Perez, Cesar; Bert, Robert; Redman, Rebecca; Dunlap, Neal

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ(2), Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (Phigh-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC remain clinically relevant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsbaugh, Mark J.; Yusuf, Mehran; Cash, Elizabeth; Silverman, Craig; Wilson, Elizabeth; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Potts, Kevin; Perez, Cesar; Bert, Robert; Redman, Rebecca; Dunlap, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. Methods and Materials: All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ"2, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. Results: The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (P<.001), never-smoking (P=.016), and cervical lymph node metastases (P=.023) were significantly higher for patients with OPSCC of the tonsil, base of tongue (BOT), or vallecula subsites when compared with pharyngeal wall or palate subsites. Low-risk patients with tonsil, base of tongue, or vallecula primary tumors presented with nodal stage N2a at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.007), and high-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. Conclusions: For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC remain

  15. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsbaugh, Mark J., E-mail: mjamsb01@louisville.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Yusuf, Mehran [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Cash, Elizabeth [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Silverman, Craig [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Potts, Kevin [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Perez, Cesar [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Bert, Robert [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Redman, Rebecca [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dunlap, Neal [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. Methods and Materials: All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ{sup 2}, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. Results: The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (P<.001), never-smoking (P=.016), and cervical lymph node metastases (P=.023) were significantly higher for patients with OPSCC of the tonsil, base of tongue (BOT), or vallecula subsites when compared with pharyngeal wall or palate subsites. Low-risk patients with tonsil, base of tongue, or vallecula primary tumors presented with nodal stage N2a at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.007), and high-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. Conclusions: For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC remain

  16. Close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking: reevaluating their influence on children's smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Robyn Andersen, M; Leroux, Brian G; Bharat Rajan, K; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-04-01

    A number of longitudinal studies have explored the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking acquisition. A reasonable implication of this previous research is that intervention efforts could be beneficially directed toward countering the potential influence of friends' and possibly older siblings' smoking but not parents' smoking. However, methodological limitations of this previous research motivated our reevaluation of the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking. Close friends' smoking status was assessed when children were in 5th grade, whereas parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade. The outcome, children's daily smoking status, was assessed in 12th grade. The setting was 40 Washington state school districts that participated in the long-term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project. Participants were the 4,576 families for whom close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking status as well as children's smoking status were available. The probability that each close friend's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 9% (95% CI = 6%-12%), the probability that each parent's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 11% (95% CI = 9%-14%), and the probability that each older sibling's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 7% (95% CI = 1%-13%). These results suggest that close friends', parents', and siblings' smoking were similarly important influences on children's smoking. Family-focused interventions could be a valuable future direction of prevention research.

  17. The puzzling association between smoking and hypertension during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Klebanoff, M A; Levine, R J; Puri, M; Moyer, P

    1999-12-01

    The object of this study was to examine the association between maternal smoking and hypertension during pregnancy. We used data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a large prospective cohort study that collected detailed information on blood pressure, proteinuria, smoking, and placental morphologic and histologic characteristics. A total of 9651 healthy primigravid women without chronic hypertension who had been enrolled in the study at the first or second trimester (average 18 weeks' gestation) and had had >/=3 prenatal visits were included. Gestational hypertension was defined as diastolic blood pressure >/=90 mm Hg on 2 occasions from 24 weeks' gestation to 2 weeks post partum. Preeclampsia was defined as gestational hypertension plus >/=2 urine samples containing >/=1+ protein according to dipstick measurement during the same gestational period. After we controlled for prepregnancy body mass, age, socioeconomic status, and race, both past smoking and smoking during pregnancy were associated in a dose-response pattern with reduced risks of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. For women who smoked >/=10 cigarettes/d the relative risks with respect to women who had never smoked were 0.6 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.9) for gestational hypertension and 0.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.7) for preeclampsia. This protective effect was observed both for mild and severe gestational hypertension and for preeclampsia. The more and the longer a woman had smoked previously, the lower was her risk of development of hypertension during pregnancy. This association could not be explained by confounding factors, by changes in placental morphologic or histopathologic characteristics, by maternal net weight gain, or by elevated liver enzyme bioactivity. Smoking is associated with a reduced risk of hypertension during pregnancy. The protective effect appears to continue even after cessation of smoking. Further basic research on this issue is warranted.

  18. Health literacy and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  19. Indirectly estimated absolute lung cancer mortality rates by smoking status and histological type based on a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Peter N; Forey, Barbara A

    2013-01-01

    National smoking-specific lung cancer mortality rates are unavailable, and studies presenting estimates are limited, particularly by histology. This hinders interpretation. We attempted to rectify this by deriving estimates indirectly, combining data from national rates and epidemiological studies. We estimated study-specific absolute mortality rates and variances by histology and smoking habit (never/ever/current/former) based on relative risk estimates derived from studies published in the 20 th century, coupled with WHO mortality data for age 70–74 for the relevant country and period. Studies with populations grossly unrepresentative nationally were excluded. 70–74 was chosen based on analyses of large cohort studies presenting rates by smoking and age. Variations by sex, period and region were assessed by meta-analysis and meta-regression. 148 studies provided estimates (Europe 59, America 54, China 22, other Asia 13), 54 providing estimates by histology (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma). For all smoking habits and lung cancer types, mortality rates were higher in males, the excess less evident for never smokers. Never smoker rates were clearly highest in China, and showed some increasing time trend, particularly for adenocarcinoma. Ever smoker rates were higher in parts of Europe and America than in China, with the time trend very clear, especially for adenocarcinoma. Variations by time trend and continent were clear for current smokers (rates being higher in Europe and America than Asia), but less clear for former smokers. Models involving continent and trend explained much variability, but non-linearity was sometimes seen (with rates lower in 1991–99 than 1981–90), and there was regional variation within continent (with rates in Europe often high in UK and low in Scandinavia, and higher in North than South America). The indirect method may be questioned, because of variations in definition of smoking and lung cancer type in the

  20. Indirectly estimated absolute lung cancer mortality rates by smoking status and histological type based on a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background National smoking-specific lung cancer mortality rates are unavailable, and studies presenting estimates are limited, particularly by histology. This hinders interpretation. We attempted to rectify this by deriving estimates indirectly, combining data from national rates and epidemiological studies. Methods We estimated study-specific absolute mortality rates and variances by histology and smoking habit (never/ever/current/former) based on relative risk estimates derived from studies published in the 20th century, coupled with WHO mortality data for age 70–74 for the relevant country and period. Studies with populations grossly unrepresentative nationally were excluded. 70–74 was chosen based on analyses of large cohort studies presenting rates by smoking and age. Variations by sex, period and region were assessed by meta-analysis and meta-regression. Results 148 studies provided estimates (Europe 59, America 54, China 22, other Asia 13), 54 providing estimates by histology (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma). For all smoking habits and lung cancer types, mortality rates were higher in males, the excess less evident for never smokers. Never smoker rates were clearly highest in China, and showed some increasing time trend, particularly for adenocarcinoma. Ever smoker rates were higher in parts of Europe and America than in China, with the time trend very clear, especially for adenocarcinoma. Variations by time trend and continent were clear for current smokers (rates being higher in Europe and America than Asia), but less clear for former smokers. Models involving continent and trend explained much variability, but non-linearity was sometimes seen (with rates lower in 1991–99 than 1981–90), and there was regional variation within continent (with rates in Europe often high in UK and low in Scandinavia, and higher in North than South America). Conclusions The indirect method may be questioned, because of variations in definition of smoking and

  1. Smoking During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low Socioeconomic Status Tobacco Use Among Adults with Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders Tobacco Use by Geographic ... Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report ...

  2. Association analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope and smoking status in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alexandre Yazbek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epstein-Barr virus exposure appears to be an environmental trigger for rheumatoid arthritis that interacts with other risk factors. Relationships among anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status have been observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from different populations. OBJECTIVE: To perform an association analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: In a case-control study, 140 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 143 healthy volunteers who were matched for age, sex, and ethnicity were recruited. Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and shared epitope alleles were identified by genotyping. Smoking information was collected from all subjects. A comparative analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status was performed in the patient group. Logistic regression analysis models were used to analyze the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS: Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies were not associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, shared epitope alleles, or smoking status. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity was significantly higher in smoking patients with shared epitope alleles (OR = 3.82. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis using stepwise selection, only anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were found to be independently associated with rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 247.9. CONCLUSION: Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies did not increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and were not associated with the rheumatoid arthritis risk factors studied. Smoking

  3. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  4. Secondhand smoke risk in infants discharged from an NICU: potential for significant health disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L; Evans, Patricia W; Green, Charles E; Northrup, Thomas F; Dodrill, Carrie L; Fox, Jeffery M; Tyson, Jon E; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2011-11-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) threatens fragile infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Smoking practices were examined in families with a high respiratory risk infant (born at very low birth weight; ventilated > 12 hr) in a Houston, Texas, NICU. Socioeconomic status, race, and mental health status were hypothesized to be related to SHSe and household smoking bans. Data were collected as part of The Baby's Breath Project, a hospital-based SHSe intervention trial targeting parents with a high-risk infant in the NICU who reported a smoker in the household (N = 99). Measures of sociodemographics, smoking, home and car smoking bans, and depression were collected. Overall, 26% of all families with a high-risk infant in the NICU reported a household smoker. Almost half of the families with a smoker reported an annual income of less than $25,000. 46.2% of families reported having a total smoking ban in place in both their homes and cars. Only 27.8% families earning less than $25,000 reported having a total smoking ban in place relative to almost 60% of families earning more (p < .01). African American and Caucasian families were less likely to have a smoking ban compared with Hispanics (p < .05). Mothers who reported no smoking ban were more depressed than those who had a household smoking ban (p < .02). The most disadvantaged families were least likely to have protective health behaviors in place to reduce SHSe and, consequently, are most at-risk for tobacco exposure and subsequent tobacco-related health disparities. Innovative SHSe interventions for this vulnerable population are sorely needed.

  5. Injection and Non-Injection Drug Use and Infectious Disease in Baltimore City: Differences by Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Larry; Khan, Maria; Clifford, Lisa; Harrell, Paul T.; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study examines differences in the prevalence of biologically-confirmed hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, and coinfection between Black and White adult cocaine/heroin users across three drug use subgroups identified in previous research (Harrell et al, 2012): non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users, heroin injectors, and polydrug injectors. Results 59% of the 482 participants in the study were male. Significant race differences emerged between drug use subgroup memberships. Non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users were predominantly Black (75%), while heroin injectors and polydrug injectors were predominantly White (69% and 72%, respectively). Polydrug injectors accounted for nearly three quarters of the HCV positive diagnoses in Whites. Though HIV disease status, stratified by race, did not differ significantly between drug use subgroups, the non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin subgroup contained over half of the HIV positive diagnoses in the sample and was predominantly Black. Despite much lower rates of injection, Blacks (8%) had a higher prevalence of coinfection than Whites (3%; X2 (2) = 6.18, p = .015). Conclusions The current findings are consistent with trends in recent HIV transmission statistics where sexual activity has overtaken injection drug use as a HIV risk factor. The current findings also provide further support to the notion of injection drug use as an exceedingly high-risk behavior for HCV and coinfection, specifically those who are polysubstance injectors. PMID:24837755

  6. Influence of experiences of racial discrimination and ethnic identity on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Hanh; Subramanian, S V; Sorensen, Glorian; Tsang, Kathy; Wright, Rosalind J

    2012-04-01

    Although the prevalence of prenatal smoking among minority women exceeds the projected 2010 national objective, data on the determinants of prenatal smoking among minorities remain sparse. We examined associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women aged 18-44 years (n=677). Our main independent variable was created from the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between EOD (moderate EOD as the referent group) and smoking for the entire sample and then separately by race/ethnicity adjusted for sociodemographic variables. We also examined the role of ethnic identity (EI) as a buffer to racial discrimination (n=405). The prevalence of smoking was 18.1% versus 10% for black and Hispanic women, respectively (p=0.002). There were no significant differences in the level of EOD based on race. In multivariate regressions, compared to those reporting moderate EOD, women reporting high discrimination (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.60) had higher odds of smoking. In stratified analyses, this relationship remained significant only in black women. Results suggest that foreign-born Hispanic women with higher EI were less likely to smoke compared to their low-EI counterparts (3.5 vs 10.1%; p=0.08). These are the first data in pregnant minority women showing an association between discrimination and increased risk of smoking particularly among black women. Ethnic identity and nativity status were also associated with smoking risk. Smoking cessation programmes should consider such factors among childbearing minority women.

  7. Financial strain and smoking cessation among racially/ethnically diverse smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Costello, Tracy J; Castro, Yessenia; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Li, Yisheng; Mazas, Carlos A; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Wetter, David W

    2010-04-01

    We evaluated the influence of financial strain on smoking cessation among Latino, African American, and Caucasian smokers of predominantly low socioeconomic status. Smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation study (N = 424) were followed from 1 week prequit through 26 weeks postquit. We conducted a logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between baseline financial strain and smoking abstinence at 26 weeks postquit after control for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational level, annual household income, marital status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and time to first cigarette of the day. Greater financial strain at baseline was significantly associated with reduced odds of abstinence at 26 weeks postquit among those who completed the study (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62, 0.94; P = .01). There was a significant association as well in analyses that included those who completed the study in addition to those lost to follow-up who were categorized as smokers (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64, 0.96; P = .02). Greater financial strain predicted lower cessation rates among racially/ethnically diverse smokers. Our findings highlight the impact of economic concerns on smoking cessation and the need to address financial strain in smoking cessation interventions.

  8. No influence of smoking status on the performance of urine markers for the detection of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Susanne; Hennenlotter, J; Rausch, S; Docktor, K; Neumann, E; da Costa, I A; Bedke, J; Stenzl, A; Todenhöfer, T

    2018-04-19

    The performance of urinary markers for detecting bladder cancer (BC) is influenced by various factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of smoking habits on the performance of four commonly used urine markers. Urine samples of 723 patients with suspected BC were analysed using urine cytology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunocytology (uCyt+ test), and quantitative nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) immunoassay. The smoking habits of all patients were recorded and a cystoscopy performed within 2 weeks after urinary marker testing. Rates of false negative and false positive results were compared between non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers by contingency analyses. We included 723 patients in this study, 431 (59.6%) of which were non-smokers, 215 former smokers (29.7%), and 77 (10.7%) current smokers. 148 patients (20.5%) had a tumour at the time of urinary marker testing. Respective rates of false positive test results among non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers were: 16.3, 19.1, and 11.5% (p = 0.81) for urine cytology; 36.8, 42.0, and 32.7% for the uCyt+ test (p = 0.88); 18.0, 19.1, and 13.5% for FISH (p = 0.66); and 69.5, 71.6, and 71.2% for NMP22 (p = 0.67). Respective rates of false negatives among non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers were: 31.4, 15.1, and 28.0% for cytology (p = 0.34); 21.4, 22.6, and 16.0% for uCyt+ test (p = 0.67); 24.3, 13.2, and 28.0% for FISH (p = 0.88); and 10.0, 18.9, and 8.0% for NMP22 (p = 0.80). Our results strongly suggest that smoking habits do not affect performance characteristics of urinary markers in the diagnostics of BC.

  9. Sleep duration partially accounts for race differences in diurnal cortisol dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurel M; Miller, Karissa G; Wong, Patricia M; Anderson, Barbara P; Kamarck, Thomas W; Matthews, Karen A; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Manuck, Stephen B

    2017-05-01

    Emerging research demonstrates race differences in diurnal cortisol slope, an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis functioning associated with morbidity and mortality, with African Americans showing flatter diurnal slopes than their White counterparts. Sleep characteristics are associated with both race and with HPA-axis functioning. The present report examines whether sleep duration may account for race differences in cortisol dynamics. Participants were 424 employed African American and White adults (mean age = 42.8 years, 84.2% White, 53.6% female) with no cardiovascular disease (Adult Health and Behavior Project-Phase 2 [AHAB-II] cohort, University of Pittsburgh). Cortisol slope was calculated using 4 salivary cortisol readings, averaged over each of 4 days. Demographic (age, sex), psychosocial (socioeconomic status [SES], affect, discrimination), and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity) variables were used as covariates, and sleep (self-report and accelerometry) was also assessed. African Americans had flatter slopes than Whites (F(1, 411) = 10.45, B = .02, p = .001) in models adjusting for demographic, psychosocial, and health behavior covariates. Shorter actigraphy-assessed total sleep time was a second significant predictor of flatter cortisol slopes (F(1, 411) = 25.27, B = -.0002, p race and diurnal slope [confidence interval = .05 (lower = .014, upper .04)]. African Americans have flatter diurnal cortisol slopes than their White counterparts, an effect that may be partially attributable to race differences in nightly sleep duration. Sleep parameters should be considered in further research on race and cortisol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Brent J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all studies reporting smoking status collect self-reported data. The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic characteristics and selected, common smoking-related diseases as predictors of invalid reporting of non-smoking. Valid self-reported smoking may be related to the degree to which smoking is a behavior that is not tolerated by the smoker's social group. Methods True smoking was defined as having serum cotinine of 15+ng/ml. 1483 "true" smokers 45+ years of age with self-reported smoking and serum cotinine data from the Mobile Examination Center were identified in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Invalid non-smoking was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting non-smoking. To assess predictors of invalid self-reported non-smoking, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for age, race/ethnicity-gender categories, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Multiple logistic regression modeling took into account the complex survey design and sample weights. Results Among smokers with diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 15%, ranging from 0% for Mexican-American (MA males to 22%–25% for Non-Hispanic White (NHW males and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB females. Among smokers without diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 5%, ranging from 3% for MA females to 10% for NHB females. After simultaneously taking into account diabetes, education, race/ethnicity and gender, smokers with diabetes (ORAdj = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.35–7.34, who did not graduate from high school (ORAdj = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30–3.22 and who were NHB females (ORAdj = 5.12; 95% CI: 1.41–18.58 were more likely to self-report as non-smokers than smokers without diabetes, who were high school graduates, and MA females, respectively. Having a history of myocardial infarction or hypertension did not predict invalid reporting of non-smoking. Conclusion Validity of self

  11. Inadequate Vitamin C Status in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Associations with Glycaemic Control, Obesity, and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Renée; Willis, Jinny; Gearry, Richard; Skidmore, Paula; Fleming, Elizabeth; Frampton, Chris; Carr, Anitra

    2017-09-09

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) is an essential micronutrient in humans, being required for a number of important biological functions via acting as an enzymatic cofactor and reducing agent. There is some evidence to suggest that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have lower plasma vitamin C concentrations compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The aim of this study was to investigate plasma vitamin C concentrations across the glycaemic spectrum and to explore correlations with indices of metabolic health. This is a cross-sectional observational pilot study in adults across the glycaemic spectrum from NGT to T2DM. Demographic and anthropometric data along with information on physical activity were collected and participants were asked to complete a four-day weighed food diary. Venous blood samples were collected and glycaemic indices, plasma vitamin C concentrations, hormone tests, lipid profiles, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were analysed. A total of 89 participants completed the study, including individuals with NGT ( n = 35), prediabetes ( n = 25), and T2DM managed by diet alone or on a regimen of Metformin only ( n = 29). Plasma vitamin C concentrations were significantly lower in individuals with T2DM compared to those with NGT (41.2 µmol/L versus 57.4 µmol/L, p prediabetes and T2DM groups. The results showed fasting glucose ( p = 0.001), BMI ( p = 0.001), smoking history ( p = 0.003), and dietary vitamin C intake ( p = 0.032) to be significant independent predictors of plasma vitamin C concentrations. In conclusion, these results suggest that adults with a history of smoking, prediabetes or T2DM, and/or obesity, have greater vitamin C requirements. Future research is required to investigate whether eating more vitamin C rich foods and/or taking vitamin C supplements may reduce the risk of progression to, and/or complications associated with, T2DM.

  12. Nurses' smoking habits and their professional smoking cessation practices. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaso, Maria J; Bakhshi, Savita; Mujika, Agurtzane; Purssell, Edward; While, Alison E

    2017-02-01

    A better understanding of whether nurses' own smoking behaviours influence their engagement with smoking cessation interventions is needed. To establish whether the smoking status of nurses is associated with their professional smoking cessation practices. Twelve electronic databases covering English and Spanish language publications from 01 Jan, 1996 to 25 Mar, 2015 were systematically searched. Studies were included if they reported nurses' smoking cessation practices in relation to their personal smoking habits. Proportions of nurses' smoking status and smoking cessation practices were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Fifteen studies were included in this systematic review. Levels of reportedsmoking cessation interventions were generally low across the studies. The meta-analyses suggested that nurses' personal smoking status was not associated significantly with nurses always asking patients about their smoking, but nurses who smoked were 13% less likely to advise their patients to quit and 25% less likely to arrange smoking cessation follow-up. More intense interventions (assessing motivation and assisting) were not significantly associated with the smoking status of the nurse. The smoking status of nurses appears to have a negative impact in the delivery of smoking cessation practices. The overall level of nurses' engagement with the delivery of smoking cessation interventions requires attention if nurses are to be effective agents of smoking cessation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Race, socioeconomic status, health-related quality of life, and self-care of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adults in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Crystal N; Chalakalal, Shilpa; Sebastian, Neethu; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Thompson, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations among race, education, income, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in self-care of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adults in North Carolina. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS), a large population-based survey (N = 432,607) conducted in the United States. The data were analyzed to account for the weighted complex multistage sampling design of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. Parametric testing using univariate/bivariate/multivariate analysis was performed. The majority of participants reported taking a class/course on diabetes mellitus management and having checked their blood glucose levels at least once per day. The majority (61.26%) of the participants did not have good self-management skills, based on the education and blood glucose-monitoring criteria established for this study. Participants with poor HRQoL had significantly increased odds of good diabetes mellitus self-care practices. Individuals with poor HRQoL had significantly increased odds of good diabetes mellitus self-care practices. Although findings on race, education, and income were not statistically significant, they were consistent with previous research. In the future, individuals who are nonwhite, have less than a high school level of education, and have no health insurance should be targeted to improve diabetes mellitus self-care practices through educational and informational materials. Further investigation using more comprehensive measures of diabetes mellitus self-care is warranted.

  14. Race modulates neural activity during imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losin, Elizabeth A. Reynolds; Iacoboni, Marco; Martin, Alia; Cross, Katy A.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    Imitation plays a central role in the acquisition of culture. People preferentially imitate others who are self-similar, prestigious or successful. Because race can indicate a person's self-similarity or status, race influences whom people imitate. Prior studies of the neural underpinnings of imitation have not considered the effects of race. Here we measured neural activity with fMRI while European American participants imitated meaningless gestures performed by actors of their own race, and two racial outgroups, African American, and Chinese American. Participants also passively observed the actions of these actors and their portraits. Frontal, parietal and occipital areas were differentially activated while participants imitated actors of different races. More activity was present when imitating African Americans than the other racial groups, perhaps reflecting participants' reported lack of experience with and negative attitudes towards this group, or the group's lower perceived social status. This pattern of neural activity was not found when participants passively observed the gestures of the actors or simply looked at their faces. Instead, during face-viewing neural responses were overall greater for own-race individuals, consistent with prior race perception studies not involving imitation. Our findings represent a first step in elucidating neural mechanisms involved in cultural learning, a process that influences almost every aspect of our lives but has thus far received little neuroscientific study. PMID:22062193

  15. Effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, B E; Paul, D A; Hoffman, M; Locke, R

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Retrospective cohort study of maternal deliveries at a single regional center from 2009 to 2010 time period (n = 11,711). Generalized linear models were used for the analysis to estimate an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Analysis controlled for diabetes, chronic hypertension, previous preterm birth, smoking and insurance status. The demographics of the study population were as follows, race/ethnicity had predominance in the White/Non-Hispanic population with 60.1%, followed by the Black/Non-Hispanic population 24.2%, the Hispanic population with 10.3% and the Asian population with 5.4%. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight showed that the population with a normal body mass index (BMI) was 49.4%, followed by the population being overweight with 26.2%, and last, the population which was obese with 24.4%. Maternal obesity increased the odds of prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian population (aOR 1.40, CI 1.12-1.75; aOR 2.20, CI 1.23-3.95; aOR 3.07, CI 1.16-8.13, respectively). Although the Black/Non-Hispanic population prematurity rate remains higher than the other race/ethnicity populations, the Black/Non-Hispanic population did not have an increased odds of prematurity in obese mothers (OR 0.87; CI 0.68-1.19). Unlike White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic mothers, normal pre-pregnancy BMI in Black/Non-Hispanic mothers was not associated with lower odds for prematurity. The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese. Analysis controlled for chronic hypertension, diabetes, insurance status, prior preterm birth and smoking. Obesity is a risk factor for prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic population, but not for the

  16. Social influences on smoking in American workers: the role of the presence of smokers in the workplace and in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Carole K; Holahan, Charles J; Li, Xiaoyin; Jung, Sooin

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between the presence of smokers in the workplace and smokers in the home and current smoking status among employed men and women. Analysis of data from the second wave of the nationally representative Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (2004-2006). Sample of 627 currently employed men and women, aged 34 to 82 (M = 51), who had been regular cigarette smokers at some time. Survey items indexing presence of smokers in the respondents' immediate work area and home and their current smoking status. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, gender, education, race, and job type. Examined together, smokers in the workplace (OR = 2.83) and smokers in the home (OR = 6.09) were uniquely associated with current smoking status. Moreover, smokers in the home reduced the association between smokers in the workplace and current smoking. The presence of smokers in the workplace was associated with a more than fourfold increase in current smoking among respondents with no smokers in the home, but was unrelated to current smoking among respondents with smokers in the home. Failure to consider the presence of smokers in the home significantly limits the potential impact of workplace smoking interventions.

  17. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  18. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  19. Yacht Race Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  20. Effect of smoking status and nicotine dependence on pain intensity and outcome of treatment in Indian patients with temporomandibular disorders: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyayan, Preeti Agarwal; Katyayan, Manish Khan

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the association of smoking with various forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain is vast, but that with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is scarce. The aims of this study are to evaluate the effect of smoking status (SS) and nicotine dependence (ND) on TMD pain intensity and treatment outcome in an Indian population with TMD. Nine hundred and sixty-two patients with TMD were selected for this longitudinal cohort study. Lifetime SS was evaluated and patients were classified as current smokers (YS), former smokers (FS), or nonsmokers (NS). The Fagerstrom test was used to evaluate the ND of YS. Pain intensity was evaluated using visual analog scale scores. Six months posttreatment, the pain intensity was again recorded. The effect of treatment was evaluated using a global transition outcome measure and categorized as treatment success or failure. A minimum 30% reduction in pain was used as a criterion for categorizing patients as those who had gotten "better." Data obtained from the study were compared using Chi-square tests, paired samples t -tests, and one-way ANOVA tests. The criterion for statistical significance for all analyses was set at P = 0.05. Among groups of SS, YS showed the maximum pain intensity at baseline and posttreatment. The outcome of treatment was most successful in NS and least in FS. The number of patients who had gotten "better" after treatment was significantly highest in NS. There was no significant difference between groups of ND with respect to pain intensity, treatment outcome, or "better" patients. Among Indian patients with TMD, smokers reported significantly greater pain intensity and poorer response to treatment than NS. Pain intensity or treatment outcome was independent of ND.

  1. Foodborne illness incidence rates and food safety risks for populations of low socioeconomic status and minority race/ethnicity: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2013-08-15

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.

  2. Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Quinlan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.

  3. Disparities in the use of screening magnetic resonance imaging of the breast in community practice by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jennifer S; Hill, Deirdre A; Wellman, Robert D; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Lee, Christoph I; Wernli, Karen J; Stout, Natasha K; Tosteson, Anna N A; Henderson, Louise M; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer A; Onega, Tracy L

    2016-02-15

    Uptake of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coupled with breast cancer risk assessment offers the opportunity to tailor the benefits and harms of screening strategies for women with differing cancer risks. Despite the potential benefits, there is also concern for worsening population-based health disparities. Among 316,172 women aged 35 to 69 years from 5 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries (2007-2012), the authors examined 617,723 negative screening mammograms and 1047 screening MRIs. They examined the relative risks (RRs) of MRI use by women with a college or technical school were 43% more likely and those who had at least a college degree were 132% more likely to receive an MRI compared with those with a high school education or less. Among women with a ≥20% lifetime risk, there was no statistically significant difference noted with regard to the use of screening MRI by race or ethnicity, but high-risk women with a high school education or less were less likely to undergo screening MRI than women who had graduated from college (RR, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.63). Uptake of screening MRI of the breast into clinical practice has the potential to worsen population-based health disparities. Policies beyond health insurance coverage should ensure that the use of this screening modality reflects evidence-based guidelines. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  4. Vegetation fire smoke, indigenous status and cardio-respiratory hospital admissions in Darwin, Australia, 1996–2005: a time-series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanigan Ivan C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution in Darwin, Northern Australia, is dominated by smoke from seasonal fires in the surrounding savanna that burn during the dry season from April to November. Our aim was to study the association between particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns diameter (PM10 and daily emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases for each fire season from 1996 to 2005. We also investigated whether the relationship differed in indigenous Australians; a disadvantaged population sub-group. Methods Daily PM10 exposure levels were estimated for the population of the city from visibility data using a previously validated model. We used over-dispersed Poisson generalized linear models with parametric smoothing functions for time and meteorology to examine the association between admissions and PM10 up to three days prior. An interaction between indigenous status and PM10 was included to examine differences in the impact on indigenous people. Results We found both positive and negative associations and our estimates had wide confidence intervals. There were generally positive associations between respiratory disease and PM10 but not with cardiovascular disease. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in same-day estimated ambient PM10 was associated with a 4.81% (95%CI: -1.04%, 11.01% increase in total respiratory admissions. When the interaction between indigenous status and PM10 was assessed a statistically different association was found between PM10 and admissions three days later for respiratory infections of indigenous people (15.02%; 95%CI: 3.73%, 27.54% than for non-indigenous people (0.67%; 95%CI: -7.55%, 9.61%. There were generally negative estimates for cardiovascular conditions. For non-indigenous admissions the estimated association with total cardiovascular admissions for same day ambient PM10 and admissions was -3.43% (95%CI: -9.00%, 2.49% and the estimate for indigenous admissions was -3.78% (95%CI: -13.4%, 6

  5. Smoking and attitudes toward smoking policy at a University in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Carie L; Carrillo, Amy M

    2016-01-01

    To assess smoking behavior, knowledge of smoking harm, and attitudes toward campus smoking policy at an Egyptian university, an online survey of students, staff, and faculty was conducted (N = 992). The smoking prevalence of 38% among men was in line with Egypt's national average, but the smoking prevalence among women of 20% was much higher than the national average. Smoking status influenced beliefs about smoking harm and attitudes toward smoking policy, with nonsmokers having stronger beliefs about the harm of smoking and showing stronger support for smoking regulations than smokers. Smokers were more knowledgeable about smoking policy than were nonsmokers and differed slightly in their preferences for smoking policy enforcement strategies. These findings contribute to our understanding of how to tailor college smoking policy and programs to an Egyptian context.

  6. Support for smoke-free cars when children are present: a secondary analysis of 164,819 U.S. adults in 2010/2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Olufajo, Olubode; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2014-11-01

    Comprehensive smoke-free legislations prohibiting smoking in indoor areas of workplaces, bars, and restaurants have been adopted in most of the USA; however, limited efforts have focused on regulating secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the family car. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants and national/state-specific population support for smoke-free cars, in the presence of any occupant in general, but particularly when children are present. National data of US adults aged ≥18 years (n = 164,819) were obtained from the 2010/2011 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey. Among all US adults, a significantly greater proportion supported smoke-free cars when it was specified that the occupant was a child compared to when not specified (93.4 vs. 73.7 %, p race/ethnicity, gender, current tobacco use, marital status, and the existence of household smoke-free regulations all mediated population support for smoke-free cars. While differences within the US population were noted, this study however showed overwhelming support for smoke-free car policies, particularly when children are present. Policies which prohibit smoking in indoor or confined areas such as cars may benefit public health by protecting nonsmoking children and adults from involuntary SHS exposure.

  7. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Mariam O.

    2014-01-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalization of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient’s risk of certain conditions (e.g., sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today’s physicians will be better armed to discern—and correct—the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices. PMID:23988563

  8. [Knowledge and attitudes toward smoke-free law among smoking and non-smoking medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Goniewicz, Maciej Ł; Koszowski, Bartosz; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Czogała, Jan; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Antosiewicz, Beata; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is common among various social groups. There is still high prevalence of smoking among health care professionals. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge about smoke-free law in public places in Poland among smoking and nonsmoking students of selected medical university. We surveyed 50 students of one medical university aged 23 +/- 2 years. Control group consisted with 61 students of other universities located in the same region aged 23 +/- 3 years. We developed a new survey to assess students knowledge about smoke-free regulations and their implementations in various public places. Smoking status was verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (COex). 57% off all surveyed students declared being familiar with smoke-free law. However, we detected a significant difference between the knowledge of medical vs. nonmedical students (76% vs. 41%, p < 0.05). The knowledge about smoke-free law in Poland among students is not sufficient, especially among nonmedical students.

  9. Prospective prediction of children's smoking transitions: role of parents' and older siblings' smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Leroux, Brian G; Andersen, M Robyn; Rajan, K Bharat; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-01-01

    To use a novel social epidemic probability model to investigate longitudinally the extent to which parents' and older siblings' smoking predict children's smoking transitions. Parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade (baseline). Three smoking transitions were assessed over the period of child/adolescent smoking acquisition (up to 12th grade): (1) transition from never smoking to trying smoking, (2) transition from trying to monthly smoking and (3) transition from monthly to daily smoking. Forty Washington State school districts participating in the long term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSPP). Participants were the 5520 families for whom data on both parents' and older siblings' baseline smoking status, as well as on children's smoking transitions, were available. The probability that a smoking parent influenced their child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 32% (95% CI: 27%, 36%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 15% (95% CI: 10%, 19%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 28% (95% CI: 21%, 34%). The probability that an older sibling influenced a child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 29% (95% CI: 17%, 39%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 0% (95% CI: 0%, 8%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 20% (95% CI: 4%, 33%). In contrast to previous research, the results provide new evidence suggesting that family smoking influences both initiation and escalation of children's smoking. Results also quantify, in terms of probabilities, the importance of parents' and older siblings' smoking on children's three major smoking transitions. Parents' smoking, as well as older siblings' smoking, are important behaviors to target in preventing adolescents from making smoking transitions.

  10. Gambling with our health: smoke-free policy would not reduce tribal casino patronage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokenleg, Isaiah Shaneequa; Barber, Teresa K; Bennett, Nancy L; Peart Boyce, Simone; Blue Bird Jernigan, Valarie

    2014-09-01

    Tribal sovereignty exempts tribal casinos from statewide smoking bans. To conduct a tribally-led assessment to identify the characteristics of casino patrons at Lake of the Torches Resort Casino in Lac du Flambeau WI and their preferences for a smoke-free casino. A survey was administered from April to August 2011 to a stratified random sample of 957 members of the casino players club to assess their preferences for a smoke-free casino. These members were categorized into three groups: those who reported being likely to (1) visit more; (2) visit less; or (3) visit the same if the casino prohibited smoking. They were characterized by age, education, sex, race/ethnicity, annual income, players club level, and reasons for visiting the casino. Statistical analyses were conducted on weighted data in October to December 2011. Weighted logistic regression was calculated to control for potential confounding of patron characteristics. Of the 957 surveyed patrons, 520 (54%) patrons were likely to visit more; 173 (18%) patrons to visit less; and 264 (28%) patrons were indifferent to the smoke-free status. Patrons more likely to prefer a smoke-free casino tended to be white, elderly, middle class and above, and visit the casino restaurants. Patrons within the lower tiers of the players club, almost half of the players club members, also showed a higher preference for a smoke-free casino. This tribal casino would likely realize increased patronage associated with smoke-free status while also contributing to improved health for casino workers and patrons. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011, Featuring Incidence of Breast Cancer Subtypes by Race/Ethnicity, Poverty, and State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Betsy A; Sherman, Recinda L; Howlader, Nadia; Jemal, Ahmedin; Ryerson, A Blythe; Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P; Cronin, Kathleen A; Lake, Andrew; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Henley, S Jane; Eheman, Christie R; Anderson, Robert N; Penberthy, Lynne

    2015-06-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Cancer Institute (NCI), and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to produce updated, national cancer statistics. This Annual Report includes a focus on breast cancer incidence by subtype using new, national-level data. Population-based cancer trends and breast cancer incidence by molecular subtype were calculated. Breast cancer subtypes were classified using tumor biomarkers for hormone receptor (HR) and human growth factor-neu receptor (HER2) expression. Overall cancer incidence decreased for men by 1.8% annually from 2007 to 2011 [corrected]. Rates for women were stable from 1998 to 2011. Within these trends there was racial/ethnic variation, and some sites have increasing rates. Among children, incidence rates continued to increase by 0.8% per year over the past decade while, like adults, mortality declined. HR+/HER2- breast cancers, the subtype with the best prognosis, were the most common for all races/ethnicities with highest rates among non-Hispanic white women, local stage cases, and low poverty areas (92.7, 63.51, and 98.69 per 100000 non-Hispanic white women, respectively). HR+/HER2- breast cancer incidence rates were strongly, positively correlated with mammography use, particularly for non-Hispanic white women (Pearson 0.57, two-sided P < .001). Triple-negative breast cancers, the subtype with the worst prognosis, were highest among non-Hispanic black women (27.2 per 100000 non-Hispanic black women), which is reflected in high rates in southeastern states. Progress continues in reducing the burden of cancer in the United States. There are unique racial/ethnic-specific incidence patterns for breast cancer subtypes; likely because of both biologic and social risk factors, including variation in mammography use. Breast cancer subtype analysis confirms the capacity of cancer registries to adjust national collection

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Two Stages of Cigarette Smoking in African-American and European-American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Calvert, Wilma J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to determine whether the higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) but lower rates of cigarette smoking in African-American vs. European-American women can be explained in part by a lower magnitude of association between CSA and smoking in African-American women. Methods Data were drawn from a same-sex female twin study of substance use (n=3,521; 14.3% African-American). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using CSA to predict smoking initiation and progression to regular smoking were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Co-twin status on the smoking outcome was used to adjust for familial influences on smoking (which may overlap with family-level influences on CSA exposure). Results After adjusting for co-twin status, CSA was associated with smoking initiation in European Americans (hazards ratio (HR)=1.43, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.26–1.62) and with smoking initiation ≤16 in African Americans (HR=1.70, CI: 1.26–2.29). CSA was associated with regular smoking onset ≤15 in European Americans (HR=1.63, CI:1.21–2.18), with no change in HR after adjusting for co-twin status. In the African-American subsample, the HR for CSA was reduced to non-significance after adjusting for co-twin status (from HR=3.30, CI:1.23–8.89 to HR=1.16, CI:0.71–1.92 for regular smoking ≤15). Conclusions CSA is associated with moderate elevation in risk for initiating smoking among African-American and European-American women. By contrast, CSA is associated with elevated risk for (adolescent onset) regular smoking only in European-American women. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between risk conferred by CSA and familial influences on regular smoking in African-American but not European-American women. PMID:27131220

  13. Body mass index and depressive symptoms in primary care settings: examining the moderating roles of smoking status, alcohol consumption and vigorous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, S A; MacGregor, K L; Funderburk, J S; Maisto, S A

    2014-02-01

    Depressive symptoms and obesity are highly prevalent in primary care settings. Depressive symptoms and obesity are positively related; as body weight increases, individuals are more likely to display depressive symptoms. This study examines the moderating roles of health behaviours (alcohol use, smoking status and vigorous exercise) on the relationship between body mass index and depressive symptoms. Exercise attenuates the relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity. Primary care patients often report multiple health risk behaviours and symptoms, including obesity and depressive symptomatology. This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptomatology among primary care patients and tested its moderation by health behaviours. Primary care patients (n = 497) completed self-report questionnaires. Using three multilevel models, we tested the moderation of health behaviours on the BMI-depressive symptoms relationship. After controlling for relevant covariates, BMI was positively related to depressive symptoms. Smokers reported more depressive symptoms (P exercisers reported fewer (P  0.05). Only vigorous exercise significantly moderated the BMI-depression relationship (P < 0.05). BMI is positively related to depressive symptoms among patients who do not participate in vigorous activity, suggesting that vigorous activity reduces the risk for depressive symptoms among patients with higher BMI. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  15. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  16. Trends in smoking and obesity among US adults before, during, and after the great recession and Affordable Care Act roll-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernenkil, Vikash; Wyatt, Taylor; Akinyemiju, Tomi

    2017-09-01

    This study examined trends in smoking and overweight/obesity rates among United States (US) adults ages 40years and older by race and socio-economic status (SES) across three study periods; pre-recession (2003-2005), recession (2007-2009), and post-recession/Affordable Care Act (2010-2012). Data was obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and multivariable regression analysis was used to examine changes in overweight/obesity, smoking, physical activity and smoking cessation rates over the study periods. There were 2,805,957 adults included in the analysis; 65.5% of the study population was overweight/obese, and 33.3% were current smokers. Smoking prevalence increased marginally among those with lower SES (incomesmoking overall decreased in the post-recession (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94) and recession (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.94-0.97) periods. Overweight/obesity increased over the study periods, regardless of race, SES or healthcare access, while smoking rates showed significant declines post-recession compared with pre-recession, except in low SES groups. These findings suggest that strategies focused on reducing overweight/obesity and increasing access to smoking cessation services, especially among low-income adults, are needed. Prospective studies are needed to better evaluate the influence of the economic recession and Affordable Care Act on behavioral risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Adenocarcinoma In Situ/Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Xie, Dong; Wampfler, Jason A; Cote, Michele L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Le Marchand, Loic; Schwartz, Ann G; Morgenstern, Hal; Christiani, David C; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA). Data from seven case-control studies participating in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) were pooled, resulting in 625 cases of AIS/MIA and 7,403 controls, of whom 170 cases and 3,035 controls were never smokers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted ORs (ORadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status (ever/never), and pack-years of smoking. Study center was included in the models as a random-effects intercept term. Ever versus never exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was positively associated with AIS/MIA incidence in all subjects (ORadj = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93) and in never smokers (ORadj = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00-2.12). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of ORadj across studies (P = 0.01), and the pooled estimates were largely influenced by one large study (40% of all cases and 30% of all controls). These findings provide weak evidence for an effect of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on AIS/MIA incidence. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using the newly recommended classification of subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Park-Use Behavior and Perceptions by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Immigrant Status in Minneapolis, MN: Implications on Park Strategies for Addressing Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kirti V; Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A

    2017-04-01

    The study examines the connections between minority status, park use behavior, and park-related perceptions using recent survey data from three low-income neighborhoods in Minneapolis, MN. Blacks and foreign-born residents are found to underutilize parks. Blacks, Asians, and American Indians perceive fewer health benefits of parks than whites, including the benefits of parks for providing exercise/relaxation opportunities and family gathering spaces. Foreign-born residents, blacks, and Hispanics perceive greater and unique barriers to park use in terms of not feeling welcome, cultural and language restrictions, program schedule and pricing concerns, and/or facility maintenance and mismatch concerns. When designing park strategies for addressing health disparities, we recommend to focus the efforts on increasing awareness of park-related health benefits and removing specific park use barriers among minority and foreign-born communities.

  19. Tobacco advertising, environmental smoking bans, and smoking in Chinese urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R H; Li, Mu; Xu, Xiaochao; Gu, Yaming

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate whether cigarette smoking in Chinese urban areas was respectively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising and smoking bans in households, workplaces, and public places. Participants were 4735 urban residents aged 15 years and older, who were identified through multi-stage quota-sampling conducted in six Chinese cities. Data were collected on individual sociodemographics and smoking status, and regional tobacco control measures. The sample was characterized in terms of smoking prevalence, and multilevel logistic models were employed to analyze the association between smoking and tobacco advertising and environmental smoking restrictions, respectively. Smoking prevalence was 30%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that smoking was positively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising, and negatively associated with workplace and household smoking bans. The association of smoking with both tobacco advertising and environmental smoking bans further justifies implementation of comprehensive smoking interventions and tobacco control programs in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and risk of glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braganza, M Z; Rajaraman, P; Park, Y; Inskip, P D; Freedman, N D; Hollenbeck, A R; de González, A Berrington; Kitahara, C M

    2014-01-07

    Although cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking increase the risk of several cancers and certain components of cigarette smoke and alcohol can penetrate the blood-brain barrier, it remains unclear whether these exposures influence the risk of glioma. We examined the associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and risk of glioma in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective study of 477,095 US men and women ages 50-71 years at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using models with age as the time metric and adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. During a median 10.5 person-years of follow-up, 492 men and 212 women were diagnosed with first primary glioma. Among men, current, heavier smoking was associated with a reduced risk of glioma compared with never smoking, but this was based on only nine cases. No associations were observed between smoking behaviours and glioma risk in women. Greater alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of glioma, particularly among men (>2 drinks per day vs Smoking and alcohol drinking do not appear to increase the risk of glioma.

  1. Examining the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sport participation with e-cigarette use and smoking status in a large sample of Canadian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicic, Sandra; Piérard, Emma; DeCicca, Philip; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-11-01

    Youth e-cigarette use is common worldwide, but the profile of e-cigarette users compared with tobacco users is unclear. This study examines how sport participation and activity levels among youth differ between e-cigarette users and smokers. Using Canadian data from 38,977 grade 9 to 12 students who participated in Year 3 (2014-15) of the COMPASS study, logistic regression models were used to examine the likelihood of sport participation and activity level based on e-cigarette use and smoking status. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine subgroup differences by gender. E-cigarette users are more likely to participate in intramural, competitive, and team sports compared to non-users. Current and former smokers are less likely to participate in those sports than non-smokers. Youth e-cigarette users are more likely than non-users to meet the physical activity guidelines. Current smokers are more likely than non-smokers to undertake physical activity at least 60 minutes daily but less likely than non-smokers to tone at least 3 times per week. Youth e-cigarette users are less likely than non-users to be sedentary less than 2 hours daily. Gender differences among males and females show that male e-cigarettes users drive the general relationship. Results suggest that e-cigarette users are more likely to engage in physical activity compared to non e-cigarette users. Youth e-cigarette users are more likely to be physically active while the opposite is true for smokers. Although e-cigarettes may be less harmful to health compared to cigarette smoking, the increased uptake among youth of differing profiles should be considered in prevention efforts. These results highlight the importance of addressing e-cigarette use in youth who undertake health promoting behaviours. Prevention efforts should not focus only on youth who may undertake riskier health habits; e-cigarette prevention programs should go beyond the domain of tobacco control. © The Author 2017. Published

  2. Current cigarette smoking among in-school American youth: results from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter

    2009-04-03

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60]), Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58]), Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92]), and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]). American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]). Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked). Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or two years were more likely to smoke than those who

  3. The Second Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  4. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  5. Exposure to Peers who Smoke Moderates the Association between Sports Participation and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Non-White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports part...

  6. Smoking beliefs and behavior among youth in Malaysia and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Carla M; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Awang, Rahmat; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary

    2009-01-01

    To characterize smoking beliefs among Thai and Malaysian youth and to examine associations with gender, antismoking media exposure, and smoking status. Nationally representative samples of youth completed self-administered questionnaires. A substantial proportion of youth reported positive beliefs about smoking. Those reporting positive beliefs were more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Youth who noticed antismoking media were less likely to report positive beliefs about smoking. As in Western countries, beliefs about smoking held by youth in Southeast Asia are associated with smoking status. Antismoking media may be an important means of targeting beliefs about smoking among youth.

  7. Race: Deflate or pop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism-the view that race is a valid biological category-in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies 'races' as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky's notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to 'race'-according to which all genetic difference between populations is 'racial' and 'the races' are simply the populations we choose to call races-survived its early critiques. As it is being mobilised to support racial naturalism once more, we need to continue the debate about whether we should weaken the concept of race to mean 'population', or abandon it as a failed biological category. I argue that Sesardic's case for racial naturalism is only supported by his continued mischaracterisation of anti-realism about biological race and his appeal to Dobzhansky's authority. Rather than deflating the meaning of 'race', it should be eliminated from our biological ontology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does breast-feeding reduce offspring junk food consumption during childhood? Examinations by socio-economic status and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Johnson, Kecia R

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether breast-feeding duration and socio-economic status (SES) interact to predict junk food consumption among offspring and whether the interaction differs across racial/ethnic groups. Survey research using a longitudinal panel design. Hierarchical linear regression was used to analyse the data. In-home interviews with the child's parents over a 5-year period across the USA. Approximately 10 000 American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). The findings revealed that longer breast-feeding durations correspond to lower levels of junk food consumption, but that this relationship emerges consistently only among low-SES blacks. Efforts to promote breast-feeding among low-SES black women may have the added benefit of reducing their children's junk food intake, and may thereby promote their general health and well-being. Future research should seek to explore the mechanisms by which breast-feeding might benefit the dietary habits of low-SES black children.

  9. Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, A.E.; Morris, R.W.; Fluharty, M.E.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Asvold, B.O.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Campbell, A.; Marioni, R.; Kumari, M.; Hällfors, J.; Männistö, S.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Kaakinen, M.; Cavadino, A.; Postmus, I.; Husemoen, L.L.N.; Skaaby, T.; Ahluwalia, T.S.; Treur, J.L.; Willemsen, G.; Dale, C.; Wannamethee, S.G.; Lahti, J.; Palotie, A.; Räikkönen, K.; Kisialiou, A.; McConnachie, A.; Padmanabhan, S.; Wong, A.; Dalgard, C.; Paternoster, L.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Tyrrell, J.; Horwood, L.J.; Fergusson, D.; Kennedy, M.A.; Frayling, T.M.; Nohr, E.A.; Christiansen, L.; Ohm Kyvik, K.; Kuh, D; Watt, G.; Eriksson, J.; Whincup, P.H.; Vink, J.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Davey Smith, G.; Lawlor, D.; Linneberg, A.; Ford, I.; Jukema, J.W.; Power, C.; Hyppönen, E.; Järvelin, M.R.; Preisig, M.; Borodulin, K.; Kaprio, J.; Kivimaki, M.; Smith, B.H.; Hayward, C.; Romundstad, P.R.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Munafo, M.R.; Sattar, N.

    2014-01-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a

  10. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, A.E.; Morris, R.W.; Fluharty, M.E.; Björngaard, J.H.; Asvold, B.A.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Campbell, A.; Marioni, R.E.; Kumari, M.; Hallfors, J.; Mannisto, S.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Kaakinen, M.; Cavadino, A.; Postmus, I.; Husemoen, L.L.N.; Skaaby, T.; Ahluwalia, T.V.S.; Treur, J.L.; Willemsen, G.; Dale, C.E.; Wannamethee, S.G.; Lahti, J.; Palotie, A.; Raikkonen, K.; Kisialiou, A.; McConnachie, A.; Padmanabhan, S.; Wong, A.; Dalgard, C.; Paternoster, L.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Tyrrell, J.; Horwood, J.; Fergusson, D.M.; Kennedy, M.A.; Frayling, T.; Nohr, E.A.; Christiansen, L.; Kyvik, K.O.; Kuh, D.; Watt, G.; Eriksson, J.; Whincup, P.H.; Vink, J.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Smith, G.D.; Lawlor, D.A.; Linneberg, A.; Ford, I.; Jukema, J.W.; Power, C.; Hypponen, E.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Preisig, M.; Borodulin, K.; Kaprio, J.; Kivimaki, M.; Smith, B.H.; Hayward, C.; Romundstad, P.R.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Munafò, M.R.; Sattar, N.

    2014-01-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a

  11. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  12. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  13. The effect of cigarette smoking on cancer treatment-related side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J; Mustian, Karen M; Morrow, Gary R; Dozier, Ann M; Ossip, Deborah J; Janelsins, Michelle C; Sprod, Lisa K; McIntosh, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been implicated in cancer development and survival. However, few studies have investigated the impact of smoking on symptom burden in cancer survivors during treatment and at survivorship stage. This study examines the influence of cigarette smoking on side effects among 947 cancer patients during and 6 months following treatment. Patients diagnosed with cancer and scheduled to receive chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy reported on current smoking status (yes, no) and total symptom burden [the sum of 12 common symptoms (fatigue, hair loss, memory, nausea, depression, sleep, pain, concentration, hot flashes, weight loss, skin problems, and dyspnea) scored on an 11-point scale ranging from 0 = "not present" to 10 = "as bad as you can imagine"] during treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The adjusted mean total symptom burden by smoking status was determined by analysis of covariance controlling for age, gender, race, education, occupation, treatment, cancer site, and Karnofsky performance score. During treatment, smokers (S) had a significantly higher total symptom burden than nonsmokers (NS) (S = 46.3 vs. NS = 41.2; p < 0.05). At 6-month follow-up, smokers continued to report a higher total symptom burden than nonsmokers (S = 27.7 vs. NS = 21.9; p < 0.05). Participants who quit smoking before treatment levels had a total symptom burden similar to nonsmokers. Smoking was associated with an increased symptom burden during and following treatments for cancer. Targeted cessation efforts for smokers to decrease symptom burden may limit the likelihood of treatment interruptions and increase quality of life following treatment.

  14. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  15. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  16. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...

  17. Smoking behavior in Vietnam: demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    OpenAIRE

    cuong, nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause for diseases and death. Information on factors affecting the smoking status is useful for policies on smoking reduction, especially in developing countries. This paper examines to what extent individuals’ characteristics can affect the smoking status using a household survey in Vietnam. It is found that gender and age are the most crucial determinants of smoking. Middle-aged men is the main users of tobacco. Other important factors associated with the decision on s...

  18. Race, Disability, and Grade: Social Relationships in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi F.; Locke, Jill; Kasari, Connie; Mandell, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Race is associated with social relationships among typically developing children; however, studies rarely examine the impact of race on social outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined how race (African American, Latino, Asian, or White) in conjunction with disability status (autism spectrum disorders or typically…

  19. Changes in smoking status among a longitudinal cohort of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Helia; Armstrong, Heather L; Cui, Zishan; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Zhu, Julia; Anand, Praney; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Oudman, Greg; Tonella, Christina; Moore, David M

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and most of the mortality gap between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals is attributable to smoking. We recruited sexually active HIV-positive and HIV-negative GBMSM age ≥16 years using respondent-driven sampling. Study visits occurred every six months for up to four years and included a computer-assisted self-interview and clinical assessment. We conducted bivariate analyses to compare factors associated with "never", "former", "daily", or "non-daily" smoking at baseline and longitudinal mixed effects models to examine factors associated with cessation and (re)initiation. 774 participants completed a baseline visit and 525 enrolled in the cohort and completed at least one follow-up visit. At baseline, the median age was 34 years and 31.5% were daily smokers. In follow-up (median=2.5years), 116 daily or non-daily smokers (41%) quit at least once and of these, 101 (87%) remained former smokers at their last visit. Smoking cessation was positively associated with incomes ≥$60,000 and self-reported excellent health. Alcohol use, ecstasy use, and having a partner who smokes were associated with decreased odds of cessation. Substance use (cannabis, GHB, and crystal methamphetamine) and having a partner who smokes were positively associated with increasing to/resuming daily smoking. HIV-positive GBMSM were more likely to smoke but not more likely to quit. Targeted, culturally relevant smoking cessation resources are needed, especially for HIV-positive GBMSM. Engaging couples in cessation interventions may be useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Financial strain and smoking cessation among men and women within a self-guided quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Langdon, Kirsten J; Nguyen, Nga T; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Financial strain, defined as an unfavorable asset-to-needs ratio, has been associated with reduced odds of smoking cessation in the context of a structured clinical study providing cessation assistance. This study reports on a secondary data analysis that assessed the association of financial strain and biochemically-verified smoking abstinence within a structured clinical study of smokers making a self-guided cessation attempt. Participants (N=58; 65.5% men) were enrolled in a study about anxiety sensitivity and smoking cessation whereby they were instructed to initiate a self-guided quit attempt. Relations between financial strain and biochemically-verified smoking abstinence on the quit day and at Days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 90 post-quit were assessed using generalized estimating equations controlling for age, sex, race, education, partner status, pre-quit cigarettes smoked per day, and time. Associations between financial strain and abstinence in the whole sample were marginal (aOR=.94, 95% CI=.87-1.01, observations=293; p=.07). However, sex was a significant moderator: greater financial strain was associated with lower odds of abstinence for men (aOR=.90, 95% CI=.80-1.00, observations=201; p=.05), but not women (aOR=1.05, 95% CI=.91-1.21, observations=92; p=.48). Results indicated that financial strain was associated with lower odds of cessation among men undergoing a self-guided quit attempt in the context of a structured clinical study. These data suggest that financial strain may be an important socioeconomic determinant of smoking cessation and support its relevance for better understanding socioeconomic-based smoking-related health disparities. Future work may benefit by exploring sex-specific models of financial strain in the context of smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Parents smoking in their cars with children present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi-Burza, Emara; Regan, Susan; Drehmer, Jeremy; Ossip, Deborah; Rigotti, Nancy; Hipple, Bethany; Dempsey, Janelle; Hall, Nicole; Friebely, Joan; Weiley, Victoria; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2012-12-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with strictly enforced smoke-free car policies among smoking parents. As part of a cluster, randomized controlled trial addressing parental smoking, exit interviews were conducted with parents whose children were seen in 10 control pediatric practices. Parents who smoked were asked about smoking behaviors in their car and receipt of smoke-free car advice at the visit. Parents were considered to have a "strictly enforced smoke-free car policy" if they reported having a smoke-free car policy and nobody had smoked in their car within the past 3 months. Of 981 smoking parents, 817 (83%) had a car; of these, 795 parents answered questions about their car smoking policy. Of these 795 parents, 29% reported having a smoke-free car policy, and 24% had a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. Of the 562 parents without a smoke-free car policy, 48% reported that smoking occurred with children present. Few parents who smoke (12%) were advised to have a smoke-free car. Multivariable logistic regression controlling for parent age, gender, education, and race showed that having a younger child and smoking ≤10 cigarettes per day were associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. The majority of smoking parents exposed their children to tobacco smoke in cars. Coupled with the finding of low rates of pediatricians addressing smoking in cars, this study highlights the need for improved pediatric interventions, public health campaigns, and policies regarding smoke-free car laws to protect children from tobacco smoke.

  2. Role of Stress and Smoking as Modifiable Risk Factors for Nonpersistent and Persistent Back Pain in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Amy C; Salt, Elizabeth; Wiggins, Amanda; Crofford, Leslie J; Bush, Heather; Mannino, David M

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between smoking and stress with nonpersistent and persistent back pain. Participants included 3703 women who took part in the Kentucky Women's Health Registry in 2008 and 2011. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine whether smoking status and stress levels were predictive of nonpersistent and persistent back pain, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Stress level was associated with both nonpersistent and persistent back pain, whereas smoking was associated with only persistent back pain. Current smokers were 1.5 times more likely to report persistent back pain compared with never smokers, controlling for age, race, body mass index, educational attainment, and employment status. Women experiencing large or overwhelming amounts of stress were 1.8 times more likely to have nonpersistent back pain and 1.6 times more likely to report persistent back pain, compared with women experiencing small amounts of stress. This study further substantiates the findings of prior research that describes a significant relationship between back pain, stress, and smoking. Understanding the role of modifiable risk factors (ie, smoking and stress) and their impact on back pain provides an opportunity to offer a comprehensive and tailored treatment plan.

  3. Documentation of e-cigarette use and associations with smoking from 2012 to 2015 in an integrated healthcare delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Klebaner, Daniella; Folck, Bruce; Tan, Andy S L; Fogelberg, Renee; Sarovar, Varada; Prochaska, Judith J

    2018-04-01

    It is unclear whether use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) precedes cigarette smoking initiation, relapse, and/or quitting. Healthcare systems with electronic health records (EHRs) provide unique data to examine ENDS use and changes in smoking. We examined the incidence of ENDS use (2012-2015) based on clinician documentation and tested whether EHR documented ENDS use is associated with twelve-month changes in patient smoking status using a matched retrospective cohort design. The sample was Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) patients aged ≥12 with documented ENDS use (N = 7926); 57% were current smokers, 35% former smokers, and 8% never-smokers. ENDS documentation incidence peaked in 2014 for current and former smokers and in 2015 for never-smokers. We matched patients with documented ENDS use to KPNC patients without documented ENDS use (N = 7926) on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Documented ENDS use predicted the likelihood of smoking in the following year. Among current smokers, ENDS use was associated with greater odds of quitting smoking (OR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.05-1.31). Among former smokers, ENDS use was associated with greater odds of smoking relapse (OR = 1.53, 95%CI = 1.22-1.92). Among never-smokers, ENDS use was associated with greater odds of initiating smoking (OR = 7.41, 95%CI = 3.14-17.5). The overall number of current smokers at 12 months was slightly higher among patients with (N = 3931) versus without (N = 3850) documented ENDS use. Results support both potential harm reduction of ENDS use (quitting combustibles among current smokers) and potential for harm (relapse to combustibles among former smokers, initiation for never-smokers). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Nonsmokers in New York City in the Context of Recent Tobacco Control Policies: Current Status, Changes Over the Past Decade, and National Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Sharon E; Chernov, Claudia; Farley, Shannon M; Greene, Carolyn M; Aldous, Kenneth M; Freeman, Amy; Rodriguez-Lopez, Jesica; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is hazardous and can cause cancer, coronary heart disease, and birth defects. New York City (NYC) and other jurisdictions have established smoke-free air laws in the past 10-15 years. NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) 2013-2014 was a population-based survey of NYC residents, aged 20 years and older, in which biospecimens were collected and cotinine levels were measured. Secondhand smoke exposure was assessed by demographics and risk factors and compared with that from NYC HANES 2004 and national HANES. More than a third (37.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 33.3%-41.2%) of nonsmoking adult New Yorkers were exposed to secondhand smoke, defined as a cotinine level of 0.05-10ng/mL. This was significantly lower than in 2004 NYC HANES, when 56.7% (95% CI = 53.6%-59.7%) of nonsmokers were exposed to secondhand smoke, but was greater than the proportion of adults exposed nationwide, as measured by national HANES (24.4%, 95% CI = 22.0%-26.9% in 2011-2012). Men, non-Hispanic blacks, adults aged 20-39, those with less education, and those living in high-poverty neighborhoods were more likely to be exposed. There has been a large decrease in secondhand smoke exposure in NYC, although disparities persist. The decrease may be the result of successful policies to limit exposure to secondhand smoke in public places and of smokers smoking fewer cigarettes per day. Yet NYC residents still experience more secondhand smoke exposure than US residents overall. Possible explanations include multiunit housing, greater population density, and pedestrian exposure. Measuring exposure to secondhand smoke can be difficult, and few studies have monitored changes over time. This study uses serum cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, from a local population-based examination survey, the NYC HANES 2013-2014, to examine exposure to secondhand smoke in an urban area that has implemented stringent antismoking laws. Comparison with NYC HANES conducted 10

  5. Fetal-juvenile origins of point mutations in the adult human tracheal-bronchial epithelium: Absence of detectable effects of age, gender or smoking status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Hiroko [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories 10-1, Tebiro 6-chome, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan); Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agencourt Bioscience Corp., 500 Cummings Center, Suite 2450, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Marcelino, Luisa A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, 633 Clark Street, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gruhl, Amanda N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); SLC Ontario, 690 Dorval Drive, Suite 200, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3W7 Canada (Canada); Zarbl, Helmut [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, 170 Freylinghuysen Road, Room 426, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Willey, James C. [Medical College of Ohio, 3120 Glendale Avenue, Room 12, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Furth, Emma E. [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 3400 Spruce Street, 6 Founders Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Morgenthaler, Stephan [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), SB/IMA, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2008-11-10

    Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations in six smokers have yielded quantitatively similar results. One hundred and eighty four micro-anatomical sectors of 0.5-6 x 10{sup 6} tracheal-bronchial epithelial cells represented en toto the equivalent of approximately 1.7 human smokers' bronchial trees to the fifth bifurcation. Statistically significant mutant copy numbers above the 95% upper confidence limits of historical background controls were found in 198 of 425 sector assays. No significant differences (P = 0.1) for negative sector fractions, mutant fractions, distributions of mutant cluster size or anatomical positions were observed for smoking status, gender or age (38-76 year). Based on the modal cluster size of mitochondrial point mutants, the size of the adult bronchial epithelial maintenance turnover unit was estimated to be about 32 cells. When data from all 15 lungs were combined the log 2 of nuclear mutant cluster size plotted against log 2 of the number of clusters of a given cluster size displayed a slope of {approx}1.1 over a range of cluster sizes from {approx}2{sup 6} to 2{sup 15} mutant copies. A parsimonious interpretation of these nuclear and previously reported data for lung epithelial mitochondrial point mutant clusters is that they arose from mutations in stem cells at a high but constant rate per stem cell doubling during at least ten stem cell doublings of the later fetal-juvenile period. The upper and lower decile range of summed point mutant fractions among lungs was about 7.5-fold, suggesting an important source of stratification in the population with regard to risk of tumor initiation.

  6. Minority Stress, Smoking Patterns, and Cessation Attempts: Findings From a Community-Sample of Transgender Women in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Mereish, Ethan H; Manning, David; Iwamoto, Mariko; Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru

    2016-03-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between reports of minority stressors and smoking behaviors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations; however, little is known about how minority stressors are related to smoking behaviors and cessation attempts among transgender women. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the associations between transgender-based discrimination and smoking patterns among a sample of transgender women; and (2) to identify barriers to smoking cessation in a sample of transgender women with a history of smoking. A community sample of 241 transgender women completed a one-time survey. Binary and multinomial logistic regression models examined associations between minority stressors and (1) smoking behaviors and (2) cessation attempts. Both models adjusted for income, education, race/ethnicity, recent sex work, HIV status, depression, alcohol use, and current hormone use. Overall, 83% of participants indicated that they had smoked a cigarette in the last month. Of these women, 62.3% reported daily smoking and 51.7% reported an unsuccessful quit attempt. Discrimination was positively associated with currently smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.08). Discrimination was positively associated with unsuccessful cessation (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.18) and never attempting (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.11) compared to successful cessation. Discrimination was also positively associated with never attempting compared to unsuccessful cessation (AOR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.03). Smoking cessation may be driven by unique transgender-related minority stressors, such as discrimination. Future research is warranted to address unique stigmatizing contexts when understanding and providing tailored intervention addressing smoking among transgender women. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government

  7. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  8. Smoking of parents and best friend--independent and combined effects on adolescent smoking and intention to initiate and quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Day, Jeffrey R

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the independent and combined effects of smoking of parents and best friend on smoking and the intention to initiate or quit smoking in adolescents. In this school-based survey, 6,553 Hong Kong students aged 13-18 reported their demographic characteristics, smoking status of themselves, parents, and best friend; and intention to smoke (initiation among never-smokers and reinitiation among ex-smokers) or quit smoking among current smokers. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of student smoking (current/ever) and intention to smoke or quit smoking for parental (paternal/maternal/both parents vs. none) and best friend (yes vs. no) smoking. Parental smoking and having a smoking best friend were associated with adolescent current smoking, ever smoking, and intention to initiate smoking. Having a smoking best friend was also associated with reinitiating and quitting smoking. The AORs (95% CI) of current smoking for having a smoking best friend, in addition to smoking father, mother, or both were 19.14 (14.36-25.51), 20.38 (12.42-33.43), and 24.18 (15.89-36.77). The respective AORs of ever smoking were 8.30 (6.74-10.22), 8.92 (5.63-14.12), and 11.99 (8.05-17.87). Parental smoking and best friend smoking have independent effects on adolescent smoking behaviors. Their combined effects on current and ever smoking were particularly large. Smoking prevention programs should pay special attention to adolescents with both best friend and parents who smoke.

  9. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Land

    Full Text Available The United States Public Health Service (USPHS Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data.Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, p<.01. On average, the likelihood of quitting increased by 2.6% (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.1%-4.6% per occurrence of brief intervention. For patients with a recent history of current smoking whose home site experienced systems change, the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses decreased by 4.3% on an annualized basis after systems change occurred (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.5%-8.1%. There was no change in the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses following systems change among non-smokers.The clinical practice data from HVMA suggest that a systems approach can lead to significant reductions in smoking prevalence and the rate of office visits for smoking-related diseases. Most comprehensive tobacco intervention strategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core tobacco measures are widely adopted.

  10. CERN Relay Race 2009

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 14th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. More details on how to register your team for the relay race

  11. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20 May, starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the route, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay

  12. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 17 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site.

  13. Smoking inequalities and tobacco control policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the worlds’ leading avoidable cause of mortality and kills 6 million people each year. Individuals of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to initiate smoking and less likely to quit smoking. Tobacco control policies have been implemented in the last decades, but although smoking

  14. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  15. Race, money and medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.

  16. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankai Araya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Methods Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly. Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO, blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC], beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. Results In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05. In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p 0.05. All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%, 1(59.52%, 3 (53.57% and 4(14.04%, whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%, 3 (42.30%, 2 (40% and 4 (9.2%. Conclusion Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stres